WorldWideScience

Sample records for thermionic systems final

  1. Development of a thermionic-reactor space-power system. Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-06-30

    Initial experimental work led to the award of the first AEC thermionic contract on May 1, 1962, for the development of fission heated thermionic cells with an operating life of 10,000 hours or more. Two types of converters were fabricated: (1) electrically heated, and (2) fission heated where the fuel was either uranium carbide or uranium oxide. Competition between GGA and GE was climaxed on July 1, 1970 by the award to GGA of a contract to develop an in-core thermionic reactor. This report is divided into the following: thermionic research, materials technology, thermionic fuel element development, reactor technology, and systems technology.

  2. Control system studies for thermionic reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, R. J.; Gronroos, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    In core thermionic reactor concepts are of interest for space missions that require electrical power in the range of a few tens of kilowatts up to several megawatts. The physical principle involved--thermionic direct conversion of heat to electricity at net efficiencies up to 15 percent--offers potential advantages when compared to other nuclear powerplant concepts. However, the integration of the thermionic diode electrode structure with high-temperature nuclear fuel materials presents new design problems and new reactor physical constraints. Among the topics that must be investigated are those associated with the control system. The results of analytical and simulation studies of thermionic reactor control performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are discussed.

  3. An improved thermionic power conversion system for space propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, T. M.; Phillips, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    A concept of an out-of-core thermionic nuclear electric power conversion system for 400 Kwe power level is being investigated for space propulsion applications. Two key features distinguish the power system design from previous thermionic power conversion concepts. First, the thermionic converters are located outside a nuclear reactor with a neutron shield inserted to reduce the radiation level on the thermionic converter matrix. Second, multiple liquid-metal heat pipes are used exclusively for both thermal power transport (from the nuclear reactor to the thermionic converters) and waste heat removal (from the thermionic converters to the space radiator); no mechanical or electromagnetic pumps are involved. The system characteristics are are compared to those of the in-core thermionic reactor system concept. In many aspects, the system characteristics, including specific weight, lifetime, dynamics control and safety features are found to be more desirable than those of the in-core system concept.

  4. Advanced thermionic reactor systems design code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.R.; Pawlowski, R.A.; Greek, K.J.; Klein, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    An overall systems design code is under development to model an advanced in-core thermionic nuclear reactor system for space applications at power levels of 10 to 50 kWe. The design code is written in an object-oriented programming environment that allows the use of a series of design modules, each of which is responsible for the determination of specific system parameters. The code modules include a neutronics and core criticality module, a core thermal hydraulics module, a thermionic fuel element performance module, a radiation shielding module, a module for waste heat transfer and rejection, and modules for power conditioning and control. The neutronics and core criticality module determines critical core size, core lifetime, and shutdown margins using the criticality calculation capability of the Monte Carlo Neutron and Photon Transport Code System (MCNP). The remaining modules utilize results of the MCNP analysis along with FORTRAN programming to predict the overall system performance

  5. Advanced Thermionic Technology Program: summary report. Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress made by the Advanced Thermionic Technology Program during the past several years. This Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, has had as its goal adapting thermionic devices to generate electricity in a terrestrial (i.e., combustion) environment. The technology has previously been developed for astronautical applications. Volume 2 (Part C) concentrates on the progress made in developing and fabricating the ''current generation'' of chemical vapor deposited hot shell thermionic converters and is addressed to those primarily concerned with today's capabilities in terrestrial thermionic technology. 30 refs., 83 figs.

  6. Advanced Thermionic Technology Program: summary report. Volume 4. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress made by the Advanced Thermionic Technology Program during the past several years. This Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, has had as its goal adapting thermionic devices to generate electricity in a terrestrial (i.e., combustion) environment. Volume 4 (Part E) is a highly technical discussion of the attempts made by the Program to push the state-of-the-art beyond the current generation of converters and is directed toward potential researchers engaged in this same task. These technical discussions are complemented with Appendices where appropriate.

  7. Power Management and Distribution System Developed for Thermionic Power Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Anastacio N.

    1998-01-01

    A spacecraft solar, bimodal system combines propulsion and power generation into a single integrated system. An Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) provides orbital transfer capabilities, power generation for payloads, and onboard propulsion to the spacecraft. A key benefit of a bimodal system is a greater payload-to-spacecraft mass ratio resulting in lower launch vehicle requirements. Scaling down to smaller launch vehicles increases space access by reducing overall mission cost. NASA has joined efforts with the Air Force Phillips Laboratory to develop enabling technologies for such a system. The NASA/Air Force bimodal concept uses solar concentrators to focus energy into an integrated power plant. This power plant consists of a graphite core that stores thermal energy within a cavity. An array of thermionic converters encircles the graphite cavity and provides electrical energy conversion functions. During the power generation phase of the bimodal system, the thermionic converters are exposed to the heated cavity and convert the thermal energy to electricity. Near-term efforts of the ISUS bimodal program are focused on a ground demonstration of key technologies in order to proceed to a full space flight test. Thermionic power generation is one key technology of the bimodal concept. Thermionic power converters impose unique operating requirements upon a power management and distribution (PMAD) system design. Single thermionic converters supply large currents at very low voltages. Operating voltages can vary over a range of up to 3 to 1 as a function of operating temperature. Most spacecraft loads require regulated 28-volts direct-current (Vdc) power. A combination of series-connected converters and powerprocessing boosters is required to deliver power to the spacecraft's payloads at this level.

  8. Completely modular Thermionic Reactor Ion Propulsion System (TRIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelgren, M. L.; Kikin, G. M.; Sawyer, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    The nuclear reactor powered ion propulsion system described is an advanced completely modularized system which lends itself to development of prototype and/or flight type components without the need for complete system tests until late in the development program. This modularity is achieved in all of the subsystems and components of the electric propulsion system including (1) the thermionic fuel elements, (2) the heat rejection subsystem (heat pipes), (3) the power conditioning modules, and (4) the ion thrusters. Both flashlight and external fuel type in-core thermionic reactors are considered as the power source. The thermionic fuel elements would be useful over a range of reactor power levels. Electrical heated acceptance testing in their flight configuration is possible for the external fuel case. Nuclear heated testing by sampling methods could be used for acceptance testing of flashlight fuel elements. The use of heat pipes for cooling the collectors and as a means of heat transport to the radiator allows early prototype or flight configuration testing of a small module of the heat rejection subsystem as opposed to full scale liquid metal pumps and radiators in a large vacuum chamber. The power conditioner (p/c) is arranged in modules with passive cooling.

  9. High Efficiency Thermionics (HET-IV) and Converter Advancement (CAP) programs. Final reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, C.B.; Murray, C.S.; Riley, D.R. [Bettis Atomic Power Lab., West Mifflin, PA (United States); Desplat, J.L.; Hansen, L.K.; Hatch, G.L.; McVey, J.B.; Rasor, N.S. [Rasor Associates, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This report contains the final report of the High Efficiency Thermionics (HET-IV) Program, Attachment A, performed at Rasor Associates, Inc. (RAI); and the final report of the Converter Advancement Program (CAP), performed at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Attachment B. The phenomenology of cesium-oxygen thermionic converters was elucidated in these programs, and the factors that had prevented the achievement of stable, enhanced cesium-oxygen converter performance for the previous thirty years were identified. Based on these discoveries, cesium-oxygen vapor sources were developed that achieved stable performance with factor-of-two improvements in power density and thermal efficiency, relative to conventional, cesium-only ignited mode thermionic converters. Key achievements of the HET-IV/CAP programs are as follows: a new technique for measuring minute traces of oxygen in cesium atmospheres; the determination of the proper range of oxygen partial pressures for optimum converter performance--10{sup {minus}7} to 10{sup {minus}9} torr; the discovery, and analysis of the cesium-oxygen liquid migration and compositional segregation phenomena; the successful use of capillary forces to contain the migration phenomenon; the use of differential heating to control compositional segregation, and induce vapor circulation; the development of mechanically and chemically stable, porous reservoir structures; the development of precise, in situ oxygen charging methods; stable improvements in emitter performance, up to effective emitter bare work functions of 5.4 eV; stable improvements in barrier index, to value below 1.8 Volts; the development of detailed microscopic models for cesium-oxygen reservoir dynamics and collector work function behavior; and the discovery of new relationships between electrode geometry and Schock Instability.

  10. Thermionic system evaluation test (TSET) facility construction: A United States and Russian effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wold, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET) is a ground test of an unfueled Russian TOPAZ-II in-core thermionic space reactor powered by electric heaters. The facility that will be used for testing of the TOPAZ-II systems is located at the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute (NMERI) complex in Albuquerque, NM. The reassembly of the Russian test equipment is the responsibility of International Scientific Products (ISP), a San Jose, CA, company and Inertek, a Russian corporation, with support provided by engineers and technicians from Phillips Laboratory (PL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the University of New Mexico (UNM). This test is the first test to be performed under the New Mexico Strategic Alliance agreement. This alliance consists of the PL, SNL, LANL, and UNM. The testing is being funded by the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) with the PL responsible for project execution

  11. Thermionic detection of the ionic fragments of continiuum-state pair absorption systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotop, R.; Niemax, K.; Richter, J.; Weber, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    Using a thermionic diode we have detected the ionic fragments formed by associative ionization and dissociation after continuum-state pair absorption processes in Cs-Cs and Cs-K systems. Assuming an ionization probability of unity of the excited species and calibrating the pair absorption bands by taking into account the known photoionization cross section of the atoms we found excellent agreement with data from classical absorption measurements. (orig.)

  12. Technology Status of Thermionic Fuel Elements for Space Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. W.; Yang, L.

    1984-01-01

    Thermionic reactor power systems are discussed with respect to their suitability for space missions. The technology status of thermionic emitters and sheath insulator assemblies is described along with testing of the thermionic fuel elements.

  13. The Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET): Descriptions, limitations, and the involvement of the space nuclear power community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    Project and test planning for the Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET) Project began in August 1990. Since the formalization of the contract agreement two years ago, the TOPAZ-II testing hardware was delivered in May 1992. In the months since the delivery of the test hardware, Russians and Americans working side-by-side installed the equipment and are preparing to begin testing in early 1993. The procurement of the Russian TOPAZ-II unfueled thermionic space nuclear power system (SNP) provides a unique opportunity to understand a complete thermionic system and enhances the possibility for further study of this type of power conversion for space applications. This paper will describe the program and test article, facility and test article limitations, and how the government and industry are encouraged to be involved in the program

  14. Comparative assessment of out-of-core nuclear thermionic power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estabrook, W.C.; Koenig, D.R.; Prickett, W.Z.

    1975-01-01

    The hardware selections available for fabrication of a nuclear electric propulsion stage for planetary exploration were explored. The investigation was centered around a heat-pipe-cooled, fast-spectrum nuclear reactor for an out-of-core power conversion system with sufficient detail for comparison with the in-core system studies completed previously. A survey of competing power conversion systems still indicated that the modular reliability of thermionic converters makes them the desirable choice to provide the 240-kWe end-of-life power for at least 20,000 full power hours. The electrical energy will be used to operate a number of mercury ion bombardment thrusters with a specific impulse in the range of about 4,000-5,000 seconds. (Author)

  15. Heat-pipe thermionic reactor concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm Pedersen, E.

    1967-01-01

    Main components are reactor core, heat pipe, thermionic converter, secondary cooling system, and waste heat radiator; thermal power generated in reactor core is transported by heat pipes to thermionic converters located outside reactor core behind radiation shield; thermionic emitters are in direct...... contact with outside envelope of heat pipes and collectors are in contact with liquid metal secondary cooling system that transfers waste heat to radiator....

  16. Design of a power management and distribution system for a thermionic-diode powered spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.

    1996-01-01

    The Electrical Systems Development Branch of the Power Technology Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio is designing a Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System for the Air Force's Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Engine Ground Test Demonstration (EGD). The ISUS program uses solar-thermal propulsion to perform orbit transfers from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) and from LEO to Molnya. The ISUS uses the same energy conversion receiver to perform the LEO to High Earth Orbit (HEO) transfer and to generate on-orbit electric power for the payloads. On-orbit power generation is accomplished via two solar concentrators heating a dual-cavity graphite-core which has Thermionic Diodes (TMD's) encircling each cavity. The graphite core and concentrators together are called the Receiver and Concentrator (RAC). The TDM-emitters reach peak temperatures of approximately 2200K, and the TID-collectors are run at approximately 1000K. Because of the high Specific Impulse (I(sup sp)) of solar thermal propulsion relative to chemical propulsion, and because a common bus is used for communications, GN&C, power, etc., a substantial increase in payload weight is possible. This potentially allows for a stepdown in the required launch vehicle size or class for similar payload weight using conventional chemical propulsion and a separate spacecraft bus. The ISUS power system is to provide 1000W(sub e) at 28+/-6V(sub dc) to the payload/spacecraft from a maximum TID generation capability of 1070W(sub e) at 2200K. Producing power with this quality, protecting the spacecraft from electrical faults and accommodating operational constraints of the TID's are the responsibilities of the PMAD system. The design strategy and system options examined along with the proposed designs for the Flight and EGD configurations are discussed herein.

  17. Fuel elements of thermionic converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Work on thermionic nuclear power systems has been performed in Russia within the framework of the TOPAZ reactor program since the early 1960s. In the TOPAZ in-core thermionic convertor reactor design, the fuel element's cladding is also the thermionic convertor's emitter. Deformation of the emitter can lead to short-circuiting and is the primary cause of premature TRC failure. Such deformation can be the result of fuel swelling, thermocycling, or increased unilateral pressure on the emitter due to the release of gaseous fission products. Much of the work on TRCs has concentrated on preventing or mitigating emitter deformation by improving the following materials and structures: nuclear fuel; emitter materials; electrical insulators; moderator and reflector materials; and gas-exhaust device. In addition, considerable effort has been directed toward the development of experimental techniques that accurately mimic operational conditions and toward the creation of analytical and numerical models that allow operational conditions and behavior to be predicted without the expense and time demands of in-pile tests. New and modified materials and structures for the cores of thermionic NPSs and new fabrication processes for the materials have ensured the possibility of creating thermionic NPSs for a wide range of powers, from tens to several hundreds of kilowatts, with life spans of 5 to 10 years

  18. Thermionic fuel element technology status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. W.; Horner, M. W.; Yang, L.

    1985-01-01

    The results of research, conducted between the mid-1960s and 1973, on the multiconverter thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) that comprise the reactor core of an SP-100 thermionic reactor system are presented. Fueled-emitter technology, insulator technology and cell and TFE assembly technology of the prototypical TFEs which were tested in-pile and out-of-pile during these years are described. The proto-TFEs have demonstrated reproducible performance within 5 percent and no premature failures within the 1.5 yr of operation (with projected 3-yr lifetimes). The two primary life-limiting factors had been identified as thermionic emitter dimensional increase due to interactions with the fuel and electrical insulator structural damage from fast neutrons. Multiple options for extending TFE lifetimes to 7 yr or longer are available and will be investigated in the 1984-1985 SP-100 program for resolution of critical technology issues. Design diagrams and test graphs are included.

  19. Isotopic Thermionic Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemot, M.; Devin, B.; Durand, J.P.

    1967-01-01

    This report describes the general design of a thermionic direct conversion space generator. The power source used is a radioisotope. Two radioisotopes are considered: Pu 238 and Cm 244. The system is made up of a heat pipe concentrating the thermal flux from the isotope to the emitter, and of a second heat pipe evacuating the waste heat from the collector to the outer wall used as radiating panel. Calculations are given in the particular case of a 100 electrical watts output power. (authors) [fr

  20. HEAT Sensor: Harsh Environment Adaptable Thermionic Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limb, Scott J. [Palo Alto Research Center, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-05-31

    This document is the final report for the “HARSH ENVIRONMENT ADAPTABLE THERMIONIC SENSOR” project under NETL’s Crosscutting contract DE-FE0013062. This report addresses sensors that can be made with thermionic thin films along with the required high temperature hermetic packaging process. These sensors can be placed in harsh high temperature environments and potentially be wireless and self-powered.

  1. Thermionic photovoltaic energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, D. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A thermionic photovoltaic energy conversion device comprises a thermionic diode mounted within a hollow tubular photovoltaic converter. The thermionic diode maintains a cesium discharge for producing excited atoms that emit line radiation in the wavelength region of 850 nm to 890 nm. The photovoltaic converter is a silicon or gallium arsenide photovoltaic cell having bandgap energies in this same wavelength region for optimum cell efficiency.

  2. Radioisotope thermionic converters for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskolczy, G.; Lieb, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The recent history of radioisotope thermionics is reviewed, with emphasis on the U.S. programs, and the prospects for the future are assessed. In radioisotope thermionic converters the emitter heat is generated by the decay of a radioactive isotope. The thermionic converter emitter is mounted directly on a capsule containing the isotope. The rest of the capsule is generally insulated to reduce thermal loss. The development of isotope-fueled thermionic power systems for space application has been pursued since the late 1950's. The U.S. effort was concentrated on modular systems with alpha emitters as the isotope heat source. In the SNAP-13 program, the heat sources were Cerium isotopes and each module produced about 100 watts. The converters were planar diodes and the capsule was insulated with multi-foil insulation

  3. Development of a high temperature solar receiver for high-efficient thermionic conversion systems; Fukugo netsuden henkan system yo chokoon taiyo junetsuki no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeoka, T.; Naito, H.; Yugami, H.; Arashi, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    For thermionic conversion systems (TIC) using concentrated sunlight as heat source, the newly developed solar receiver was tested. Concentrated sunlight aims at the inner surface of the cavity type solar receiver. The emitter of TIC installed in the rear of the solar receiver is uniformly heated over 1700K by thermal radiation from the rear of the solar receiver, emitting thermion. Electric power is generated by collecting the thermion by collector. Mo is used as emitter material, however, because of poor heat absorption of Mo, high-absorptive TiC is used for heat absorption surface to heat Mo by thermal conduction from high-temperature TiC. Functionally gradient material (FGM) with an intermediate layer of gradient TiC/Mo ratios between TiC and Mo is used as emitter material. The emitter is thus uniformly heated at high temperatures of 1723{plus_minus}12K. As a result, the developed solar receiver is applicable to heat the emitter of TIC. Heat flux measurement at the graphite cavity clarified that cavity temperature of as high as 1780K and heat flow of 50W/cm{sup 2} are obtained at 4.7kW in input. 6 figs.

  4. Thermionic cooling in semiconductor multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Lewis, R.A.; Lough, B.; Zhang, C.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: A solid-state refrigerator in which electrons transport heat has advantages over the conventional vapour-cycle, compressor-based domestic refrigerator since it has no moving parts, it is low-maintenance, silent, vibration-free and does not require the use of refrigerant gases. The usual approach to making an all-electrical refrigerator is by thermoelectric refrigeration. After a period of intense research in the 1950s and 60s it was realised that the efficiency of thermoelectric devices was less than, and unlikely to exceed, that of conventional compressor units. While thermoelectric cooling has found specialised applications in cases where reliability, compactness and weight are important considerations, it does not appear that thermo-electrics will ever successfully compete in the domestic market, in spite of recent advances in the design and fabrication of thermoelectric materials. A new approach to an all-electric refrigerator is to employ thermionic emission over potential barriers. A key difference between a thermoelectric device and a thermionic device is that in the former the electrons are scattered in their motion and in the latter they are not. Thus thermionic cooling, in principle, can be much more efficient than thermoelectric cooling. A radical new realisation of the thermionic refrigerator was suggested recently in which a multilayer semiconductor structure would be used. We discuss the optimisation of such a multilayer semiconductor cooling system by considering (1) electron-phonon interactions in the barriers and electrodes; (2) the detailed treatment of thermal conductivity; (3) an exact numerical solution of the heat and energy currents (in contrast to the previous approximate analytic solutions); (4) the effect of varying layer thickness across the device; and (5) the effect of varying current density across the device

  5. Advanced Thermionic Converter Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, James R.

    2003-01-01

    A thermionic energy converter (TEC) is a direct energy conversion device, which converts heat to electricity with no moving parts. Thermionic converters are well suited to space nuclear power systems because of their high power density, high heat rejection temperature, and immunity to radiation. Several recent advances in thermionic energy conversion technology have greatly improved the efficiency of these devices. A research program was undertaken to independently confirm these advances, and to extend them to converters with practical geometry. The recent development of a stable cesium/oxygen vapor source has led to a significant improvement in performance. The addition of a small amount of oxygen to the cesium vapor can increase the emission current by a factor of three or more. The beneficial effects of oxygen are stable and reproducible. A TEC with a cold seal has been invented, which greatly simplifies construction, operation, and maintenance of the TEC. Electron reflection from the collector has been shown to reduce the performance of TEC's. Reflection suppressing materials were produced and tested. One sample showed evidence of reflection suppression, increasing the average output voltage by 0.16 V. Another sample did not. Research in this area is ongoing.

  6. Experimental correlation of the thermionic conversion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitrilakis, S.S.

    1965-01-01

    The work reported here constitutes an approach to the thermionic conversion process usually associated with the engineer rather than the physicist. This approach recognises a certain number of significant variables and then proceeds to generate, in a systematic fashion, the experimental data necessary to define the dependence of each of these variables on all others. Finally, correlations of these dependencies are presented in a graphical form suitable to the practical user of thermionic conversion as well as the theoretician involved in the basic physics of the process. (author)

  7. Design of RF chopper system for improving beam quality in FEL injector with thermionic gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.; Qin, B.; Tan, P.; Hu, T.; Pei, Y.; Zhang, F.

    2014-01-01

    For a linac-based Free Electron Laser (FEL), good beam quality largely contributes to the success of the final radiation. An imperfection confronted with the HUST THz-FEL facility is the long beam tail that emerges in the electron gun and exists through the whole beam line. This paper proposes to deploy a chopper system after the electron gun to truncate the beam tails before they enter into the linac. Physical dimensions of the chopper cavity are discussed in detail and we have developed and derived new analytical expressions applying to all frequencies for the optimal design. Also, technical issues of the cavity are considered. Beam dynamic simulation is performed to examine the truncation effect and the results show that more than 78% of the beam tail can be removed effectively, while preserving the emittance and energy spread in acceptable level

  8. Effect of Cesium Pressure on Thermionic Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1969-08-01

    It is shown that under certain conditions of heat input, reservoir temperature, and load voltage or resistance a thermionic converter can equilibrate at two radically different operation points, corresponding to conditions of high and low cesium coverage. Moreover, abrupt transitions between these operating regimes, accompanied by a temperature rise of hundreds of degrees, can occur whenever the critical heat generation rate for a given reservoir temperature is exceeded. To provide an adequate safety margin against such an occurrence, thermionic systems must be operated at relatively high cesium pressures, even though this may cause some performance degradation. This paper consists of two parts. The first explains the above effect with reference to a single converter. The second part illustrates the effect of cesium reservoir temperatures on the dynamic behavior of an open-loop thermionic reactor following a small reactivity perturbation.

  9. Thermionic gun control system for the CEBAF [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility] injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pico, R.; Diamond, B.; Fugitt, J.; Bork, R.

    1989-01-01

    The injector for the CEBAF accelerator must produce a high-quality electron beam to meet the overall accelerator specifications. A Hermosa electron gun with a 2 mm-diameter cathode and a control aperture has been chosen as the electron source. This must be controlled over a wide range of operating conditions to meet the beam specifications and to provide flexibility for accelerator commissioning. The gun is controlled using Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC IEEE-583) technology. The system employs the CAMAC-based control architecture developed at CEBAF. The control system has been tested, and early operating data on the electron gun and the injector beam transport system has been obtained. This system also allows gun parameters to be stored at the operator location, without paralyzing operation. This paper describes the use of this computer system in the control of the CEBAF electron gun. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Multilayer Thermionic Refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1999-08-30

    A review is presented of our program to construct an efficient solid state refrigerator based on thermionic emission of electrons over periodic barriers in the solid. The experimental program is to construct a simple device with one barrier layer using a three layers: metal-semiconductor-metal. The theoretical program is doing calculations to determine: (i) the optimal layer thickness, and (ii) the thermal conductivity.

  11. SPACE-R Thermionic Space Nuclear Power System: Design and Technology Demonstration Program. Semiannual technical progress report for period ending March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This Semiannual Technical Progress Report summarizes the technical progress and accomplishments for the Thermionic Space Nuclear Power System (TI-SNPS) Design and Technology Demonstration Program of the Prime Contractor, Space Power Incorporated (SPI), its subcontractors and supporting National Laboratories during the first half of the Government Fiscal Year (GFY) 1993. SPI`s subcontractors and supporting National Laboratories include: Babcock & Wilcox for the reactor core and externals; Space Systems/Loral for the spacecraft integration; Thermocore for the radiator heat pipes and the heat exchanger; INERTEK of CIS for the TFE, core elements and nuclear tests; Argonne National Laboratories for nuclear safety, physics and control verification; and Oak Ridge National laboratories for materials testing. Parametric trade studies are near completion. However, technical input from INERTEK has yet to be provided to determine some of the baseline design configurations. The INERTEK subcontract is expected to be initiated soon. The Point Design task has been initiated. The thermionic fuel element (TFE) is undergoing several design iterations. The reactor core vessel analysis and design has also been started.

  12. Modelling thermionic emission by using a two-level mechanical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, O.R.

    2008-01-01

    The Boltzmann factor is at the basis of a great amount of thermodynamic and statistical physics, both classical and quantum. It describes the behaviour of natural systems that exchange energy with the environment. However, why does the expression have that specific form? The Feynman Lectures on Physics justifies it heuristically by referencing to the exponential atmosphere example. Thermodynamics textbooks usually give a more or less complete explanation that mainly involves a mathematical analysis, where it is hard to see the logic flow. Moreover, the necessary mathematics is not at the level of high school or college students' preparation. Here we present an experiment and a simulation at deriving the Boltzmann factor expression and illustrating the fundamental concepts and principles of statistical mechanics. Experiments and simulations are used in order to visualise the mechanism involved; the experiments use easily available laboratory equipment, and simulations are developed in Net Logo, a software environment that, besides having a really friendly interface, allows the user to easily interact with the algorithm, as well as to modify it.

  13. Thermionic integrated circuit technology for high power space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadavalli, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    Thermionic triode and integrated circuit technology is in its infancy and it is emerging. The Thermionic triode can operate at relatively high voltages (up to 2000V) and at least tens of amperes. These devices, including their use in integrated circuitry, operate at high temperatures (800 0 C) and are very tolerant to nuclear and other radiations. These properties can be very useful in large space power applications such as that represented by the SP-100 system which uses a nuclear reactor. This paper presents an assessment of the application of thermionic integrated circuitry with space nuclear power system technology. A comparison is made with conventional semiconductor circuitry considering a dissipative shunt regulator for SP-100 type nuclear power system rated at 100 kW. The particular advantages of thermionic circuitry are significant reductions in size and mass of heat dissipation and radiation shield subsystems

  14. Thermionics basic principles of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J; Ashhurst, W

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I : Thermionics serves as a textbook for students in physics. It focuses on thermionic devices. The book covers topics on electron dynamics, electron emission, and the themionic vacuum diode and triode. Power amplifiers, oscillators, and electronic measuring equipment are studied as well. The text will be of great use to physics and electronics students, and inventors.

  15. Sizing an external-fueled in-core thermionic reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, A. M.; Sawyer, C. D.

    1971-01-01

    Parametric studies on sizing of external-fueled in-core thermionic reactors are presented. Reactor physics results obtained for a variety of fuel element designs are used as a basis for nuclear criticality, power distribution, and control worth design. Thermionic performance results for a single fuel element for several sets of operating conditions are presented. An algorithm combining the electrical and reactor physics results in a form amenable to preliminary systems analysis is presented.

  16. Near-field enhanced thermionic energy conversion for renewable energy recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghashami, Mohammad; Cho, Sung Kwon; Park, Keunhan

    2017-09-01

    This article proposes a new energy harvesting concept that greatly enhances thermionic power generation with high efficiency by exploiting the near-field enhancement of thermal radiation. The proposed near-field enhanced thermionic energy conversion (NETEC) system is uniquely configured with a low-bandgap semiconductor cathode separated from a thermal emitter with a subwavelength gap distance, such that a significant amount of electrons can be photoexcited by near-field thermal radiation to contribute to the enhancement of thermionic current density. We theoretically demonstrate that the NETEC system can generate electric power at a significantly lower temperature than the standard thermionic generator, and the energy conversion efficiency can exceed 40%. The obtained results reveal that near-field photoexcitation can enhance the thermionic power output by more than 10 times, making this hybrid system attractive for renewable energy recycling.

  17. A NEW THERMIONIC RF ELECTRON GUN FOR SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutsaev, Sergey; Agustsson, R.; Hartzell, J; Murokh, A.; Nassiri, A.; Savin, E.; Smirnov, A.V.; Smirnov, A. Yu; Sun, Y.; Verma, A; Waldschmidt, Geoff; Zholents, A.

    2017-06-02

    A thermionic RF gun is a compact and efficient source of electrons used in many practical applications. RadiaBeam Systems and the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory collaborate in developing of a reliable and robust thermionic RF gun for synchrotron light sources which would offer substantial improvements over existing thermionic RF guns and allow stable operation with up to 1A of beam peak current at a 100 Hz pulse repetition rate and a 1.5 μs RF pulse length. In this paper, we discuss the electromagnetic and engineering design of the cavity and report the progress towards high power tests of the cathode assembly of the new gun.

  18. Analysis of output performance characteristics of cesium diode thermionic energy converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Sadaaki (Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1989-12-01

    Thermionic Energy Conversion (TEC) is a method for converting heat directly into electrical work through use of the phenomenon of thermionic emission. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the effectiveness of computer code SIMCON, and to understand the output current-voltage characteristics of thermionic energy converter. Chapter 1: Thermionic energy converter is attractive in making use of the heat produced as a topping system in the steam power plant or gas and steam turbine power plant. It describes also the nuclear reactor application for thermionic converter as a power sources in future satellite and space station systems. Chapter 2: The principle and the application of thermionic energy converter operation and its nuclear and fossil application are described. Chapter 3: An operating characteristics of either unignited or ignited mode and with physical phenomena on the arc discharge of ignited mode. Theoretical expression of thermionic energy converter operation and the structure of SIMCON program is outlined. Chapter 4: The comparison between the output current-voltage curves experimentally obtained and those calculated by SIMCON. Comparison is made also for several cases on the electron temperature and ion density profiles across the inter electrode plasma. The results of the comparison are discussed concerning to the converter operating characteristics. From those comparison the usefulness, the limitation of the application, and the data input problems of the SIMCON code are evaluated. Chapter 5: summarizes the preceding chapters. (J.P.N.) 119 refs.

  19. Electronic Temperature-Flattening of Thermionic Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1972-06-01

    A method for electronically temperature-flattening a "flashlight-type" thermionic reactor with both axial and radial heat generation nonuniformities is described. The method, which makes use of compensating electron cooling variation while satisfying the voltage- and current-matching constraints on the in-core series-parallel diode network, results in substantially uniform emitter temperatures throughout the reactor. Novel analytical techniques for temperature-flattening a nonuniform reactor are described and used to generate specific illustrative designs. It is shown that, even with severe nonuniformities, the temperature-flattened reactor exhibits almost as high a power density and conversion efficiency as a reactor using fuel-zoning for full power flattening. By eliminating the need for fuel-zoning, the concept described here reduces the critical size and system weight, and permits the use of thicker emitter walls for enhanced reliability.

  20. A preliminary feasibility study of passive in-core thermionic reactors for highly compact space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlos, A.G.; Khan, E.U.; Frymire, R.; Negron, S.; Thomas, J.K.; Peddicord, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    Results of a preliminary feasibility study on a new concept for a highly compact space reactor power systems are presented. Notwithstanding the preliminary nature of the present study, the results which include a new space reactor configuration and its associated technologies indicate promising avenues for the devleopment of highly compact space reactors. The calculations reported in this study include a neutronic design trade-off study using a two-dimensioinal neutron transport model, as well as a simplified one-dimensional thermal analysis of the reactor core. In arriving at the most desirable configuration, various options have been considered and analyzed, and their advantages/disadvantages have been compared. However, because of space limitation, only the most favorable reactor configuration is presented in this summary

  1. Hybrid thermionic-photovoltaic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datas, A. [Instituto de Energía Solar, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-04-04

    A conceptual device for the direct conversion of heat into electricity is presented. This concept hybridizes thermionic (TI) and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion in a single thermionic-photovoltaic (TIPV) solid-state device. This device transforms into electricity both the electron and photon fluxes emitted by an incandescent surface. This letter presents an idealized analysis of this device in order to determine its theoretical potential. According to this analysis, the key advantage of this converter, with respect to either TPV or TI, is the higher power density in an extended temperature range. For low temperatures, TIPV performs like TPV due to the negligible electron flux. On the contrary, for high temperatures, TIPV performs like TI due to the great enhancement of the electron flux, which overshadows the photon flux contribution. At the intermediate temperatures, ∼1650 K in the case of this particular study, I show that the power density potential of TIPV converter is twice as great as that of TPV and TI. The greatest impact concerns applications in which the temperature varies in a relatively wide range, for which averaged power density enhancement above 500% is attainable.

  2. A summary of USSR thermionic energy conversion activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasor, N. S.

    1978-01-01

    The paper surveys the research and development associated with thermionic energy conversion in the USSR. Consideration is given to the basic physics of the thermionic converter, the development of thermionic nuclear reactors including the three TOPAZ models, radioisotope-heated generators, and the thermionic topping of fossil-fueled electric-power plants. Comparisons are made between U.S. and USSR capabilities in thermionic energy conversion and potential cooperative programs are noted.

  3. Final focus system for TLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oide, K.

    1988-11-01

    A limit of the chromaticity correction for the final focus system of a TeV Linear Collider (TLC) is investigated. As the result, it becomes possible to increase the aperture of the final doublet with a small increase of the horizontal β function. The new optics design uses a final doublet of 0.5 mm half-aperture and 1.4 T pole-tip field. The length of the system is reduced from 400 m to 200 m by several optics changes. Tolerances for various machine errors with this optics are also studied. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Thermionic integrated circuits: electronics for hostile environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, D.K.; McCormick, J.B.; MacRoberts, M.D.J.; Wilde, D.K.; Dooley, G.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Thermionic integrated circuits combine vacuum tube technology with integrated circuit techniques to form integrated vacuum triode circuits. These circuits are capable of extended operation in both high-temperature and high-radiation environments

  5. Progress in radiation immune thermionic integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, D.K.; McCormick, J.B.

    1985-08-01

    This report describes the results of a program directed at evaluating the thermionic integrated circuit (TIC) technology for applicability to military systems. Previous programs under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, have developed an initial TIC technology base and demonstrated operation in high-temperature and high-radiation environments. The program described in this report has two parts: (1) a technical portion in which experiments and analyses were conducted to refine perceptions of near-term as well as ultimate performance levels of the TIC technology and (2) an applications portion in which the technical conclusions were to be evaluated against potential military applications. This report draws several conclusions that strongly suggest that (1) useful radiation-hard/high-temperature operable integrated circuits can be developed using the TIC technology; (2) because of their ability to survive and operate in hostile environments, a variety of potential military applications have been projected for this technology; and (3) based on the above two conclusions, an aggressive TIC development program should be initiated to provide the designers of future systems with integrated circuits and devices with the unique features of the TICs

  6. Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) for dual mode applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, John; Jacox, Michael; Zubrin, Robert

    1992-07-01

    The Small Externally Fueled Heat-Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) is described in the context of applications as a dual-mode nuclear power source for satellites. The SEHPTR is a thermionic power system based on a reactor with modular fuel elements around cylindrical thermionic heat-pipe modules with diodes for heat rejection. The SEHPTR concept is theorized to be suitable for directly heating hydrogen gas in the core to increase propulsion and reduce orbit-transfer times. The advantages of dual-mode operation of the SEHPTR are listed including enhanced mission safety and performance at relatively low costs. The SEHPTR could provide direct thermal thrust and an integrated stage that symbiotically utilizes electric power, direct thrust, and hydrogen arcjets. The system is argued to be more effective than a nuclear power system designed solely for electrical power production.

  7. Gridded thermionic gun and integral superconducting ballistic bunch compression cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultheiss, Thomas [Advanced Energy Systems, Inc., Medford, NY (United States)

    2015-11-16

    Electron-Ion colliders such as the Medium energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC) being developed by JLAB require high current electrons with low energy spread for electron cooling of the collider ring. Accelerator techniques for improving bunch charge, average current, emittance, and energy spread are required for Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) and Circulator Rings (CR) for next generation colliders for nuclear physics experiments. Example candidates include thermionic-cathode electron guns with RF accelerating structures. Thermionic cathodes are known to produce high currents and have excellent lifetime. The success of the IR and THz Free-Electron Laser (FEL) designed and installed by Advanced Energy Systems at the Fritz Haber Institute (FHI) of the Max Planck Society in Berlin [1,2] demonstrates that gridded thermionic cathodes and rf systems be considered for next generation collider technology. In Phase 1 Advanced Energy Systems (AES) developed and analyzed a design concept using a superconducting cavity pair and gridded thermionic cathode. Analysis included Beam Dynamics and thermal analysis to show that a design of this type is feasible. The latest design goals for the MEIC electron cooler were for electron bunches of 420 pC at a frequency of 952.6 MHz with a magnetic field on the cathode of 2kG. This field magnetizes the beam imparting angular momentum that provides for helical motion of the electrons in the cooling solenoid. The helical motion increases the interaction time and improves the cooling efficiency. A coil positioned around the cathode providing 2kG field was developed. Beam dynamics simulations were run to develop the particle dynamics near the cathode and grid. Lloyd Young added capability to Tstep to include space charge effects between two plates and include image charge effects from the grid. He also added new pepper-pot geometry capability to account for honeycomb grids. These additions were used to develop the beam dynamics for this gun. The

  8. High temperature cogeneration with thermionic burners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, G. O.; Britt, E. J.; Dick, R. S.

    The thermionic cogeneration combustor was conceived to meet industrial requirements for high-temperature direct heat, typically in the form of gas at temperatures from 800 to 1900 K, while at the same time supplying electricity. The thermionic combustor is entirely self-contained, with heat from the combustion region absorbed by the emitters of thermionic converters to be converted to electric power and the high-temperature reject heat from the converters used to preheat the air used for combustion. Depending on the temperature of the process gas produced, energy savings of around 10% with respect to that used to produce the same amount of electricity and heat without cogeneration are possible with present technology, and savings of up to 20% may be possible with advanced converters. Possible thermionic combustor designs currently under investigation include a configuration in which heat is collected by heat pipes lining the periphery of the combustion region, and a fire-tube converter in which combustion occurs within the cylindrical emitter of each converter. Preliminary component tests of these designs have been encouraging.

  9. Solar electron source and thermionic solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parham Yaghoobi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Common solar technologies are either photovoltaic/thermophotovoltaic, or use indirect methods of electricity generation such as boiling water for a steam turbine. Thermionic energy conversion based on the emission of electrons from a hot cathode into vacuum and their collection by an anode is also a promising route. However, thermionic solar conversion is extremely challenging as the sunlight intensity is too low for heating a conventional cathode to thermionic emission temperatures in a practical manner. Therefore, compared to other technologies, little has been done in this area, and the devices have been mainly limited to large experimental apparatus investigated for space power applications. Based on a recently observed “Heat Trap” effect in carbon nanotube arrays, allowing their efficient heating with low-power light, we report the first compact thermionic solar cell. Even using a simple off-the-shelf focusing lens, the device delivered over 1 V across a load. The device also shows intrinsic storage capacity.

  10. Arizona State University research related to thermionic energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, D.L.; Morris, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a series of executive summaries on the organization and progress of the ongoing US TEC program. Current and proposed ASU research related to TEC for space and terrestrial power applications are given, and include: Thermionic Electrode Materials Evaluation, Investigation of Lanthanum-Hexaboride High-Index Planes at High Temperatures, and Direct Thermal Lasers, among others. An analysis of space-nuclear reactor power system design is included, and provides and accepts inputs to and from other related studies of high-level space power

  11. Design and operation of a thermionic converter in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, M.H.; Begg, L.L.; Smith, J.N. Jr.; Geller, C.B.; Kallnowski, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    An electrically heated thermionic converter has been designed, built and successfully tested in air. Several unique features were incorporated in this converter: an integral cesium reservoir, innovative ceramic-to-metal seals, a heat rejection system coupling the collector to a low temperature heat sink and an innovative cylindrical heater filament. The converter was operated for extended periods of time with the emitter at about 1900 K. the collector at about 700 K, and a power density of over 2 w(e)/sq. cm. Input power transients were run between 50% and 100% thermal power, at up to 1% per second, without instabilities in performance

  12. Thermionic cogeneration burner assessment study. Third quarterly technical progress report, April-June, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The specific tasks of this study are to mathematically model the thermionic cogeneration burner, experimentally confirm the projected energy flows in a thermal mock-up, make a cost estimate of the burner, including manufacturing, installation and maintenance, review industries in general and determine what groups of industries would be able to use the electrical power generated in the process, select one or more industries out of those for an in-depth study, including determination of the performance required for a thermionic cogeneration system to be competitive in that industry. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  13. Shielding design aspects of thermionic space nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    It has been well documented that nuclear power sources will be required for the future exploration of space. Higher power levels [>10 kW (electric)] will be enabling, if not absolutely necessary, for the continued expansion of a human presence in the solar system and beyond. Space missions that will directly benefit continued life on Earth, including the monitoring for climate change and global warming, high-capacity communication satellites, and large, space-based radar systems to monitor the flow of airline traffic, will require progressively larger amounts of electrical power. Military applications, even with the ending of the Cold War, will continue to be needed for treaty verification activities. A thermionic energy conversion-based nuclear reactor system is one of the many different technologies proposed for the utilization of nuclear energy in space. How the energy conversion is accomplished and the equipment requiring shielding have a profound effect on the overall shielding requirements for the system. There exist two configurations of this technology that can be exploited and will have a significant effect on shielding needs. The paper discusses in-core thermionic conversion and out-of-core conversion concepts

  14. Photocathode operation of a thermionic RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorin, S.; Cutic, N.; Lindau, F.; Werin, S.; Curbis, F.

    2009-01-01

    The thermionic RF gun using a BaO cathode at the MAX-lab linac injector has been successfully commissioned for additional operation as a photocathode gun. By retaining the BaO cathode, lowering the temperature below thermal emission and illuminating it with a UV (263 nm) 9 ps laser pulse a reduced emittance and enhanced emission control has been achieved. Measurements show a normalised emittance of 5.5 mm mrad at 200 pC charge and a maximum quantum efficiency of 1.1x10 -4 . The gun is now routinely switched between storage ring injections in thermionic mode and providing a beam for the MAX-lab test FEL in photocathode mode.

  15. Plasmadynamics and ionization kinetics of thermionic energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawless, J.L. Jr.; Lam, S.H.

    1982-02-01

    To reduce the plasma arc-drop, thermionic energy conversion is studied with both analytical and numerical tools. Simplifications are made in both the plasmadynamic and ionization-recombination theories. These are applied to a scheme proposed presently using laser irradiation to enhance the ionization kinetics of the thermionic plasma and thereby reduce the arc-drop. It is also predicted that it is possible to generate the required laser light from a thermionic-type cesium plasma. The analysis takes advantage of theoretical simplifications derived for the ionization-recombination kinetics. It is shown that large laser ionization enhancements can occur and that collisional cesium recombination lasing is expected. To complement the kinetic theory, a numerical method is developed to solve the thermionic plasma dynamics. To combine the analysis of ionization-recombination kinetics with the plasma dynamics of thermionic conversion, a finite difference computer program is constructed. It is capable of solving for both unsteady and steady thermionic converter behavior including possible laser ionization enhancement or atomic recombination lasing. A proposal to improve thermionic converter performance using laser radiation is considered. In this proposed scheme, laser radiation impinging on a thermionic plasma enhances the ionization process thereby raising the plasma density and reducing the plasma arc-drop. A source for such radiation may possibly be a cesium recombination laser operating in a different thermionic converter. The possibility of this being an energy efficient process is discussed. (WHK)

  16. Thermionics. A bibliography with abstracts. Search period covered: 1970--Apr 1975. [190 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grooms, D.W.

    1975-04-01

    Research on thermionic power generation, power plant design, converter design, and basic research on thermionic materials are cited in the bibliography. Spacecraft applications are included. (Contains 190 abstracts).

  17. NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Holmes

    2005-12-31

    This document is the final report on the work completed on DE-FG02-95ER25238 since the start of the second renewal period: Jan 1, 2001. It supplements the annual reports submitted in 2001 and 2002. In the renewal proposal I envisaged work in three main areas: Analytical and topological tools for studying flows and maps Low dimensional models of fluid flow Models of animal locomotion and I describe the progess made on each project.

  18. Solid-State Thermionic Nuclear Power for Megawatt Propulsion, Planetary Surface and Commercial Power Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Thermionic (TI) power conversion is a promising technology first investigated for power conversion in the 1960's, and of renewed interest due to modern advances in nanotechnology, MEMS, materials and manufacturing. Benefits include high conversion efficiency (20%), static operation with no moving parts and potential for high reliability, greatly reduced plant complexity, and the potential for reduced development costs. Thermionic emission, credited to Edison in 1880, forms the basis of vacuum tubes and much of 20th century electronics. Heat can be converted into electricity when electrons emitted from a hot surface are collected across a small gap. For example, two "small" (6 kWe) Thermionic Space Reactors were flown by the USSR in 1987-88 for ocean radar reconnaissance. Higher powered Nuclear-Thermionic power systems driving Electric Propulsion (Q-thruster, VASIMR, etc.) may offer the breakthrough necessary for human Mars missions of Power generation on Earth could benefit from simpler, moe economical nuclear plants, and "topping" of more fuel and emission efficient fossil-fuel plants.

  19. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m 3 lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion

  20. maximum conversion efficiency of thermionic heat to electricity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    electron flow is called thermionic emission (Houston,. 1959 ; Baragiola and Bringa, 2006). The process of converting thermal energy (heat) to a useful electrical work by the phenomenon of thermionic emission is the fundamental concept applied to a cylindrical version of the planner converter, considered as the building ...

  1. Ultrafast Multiphoton Thermionic Photoemission from Graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijing Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic heating of cold crystal lattices in nonlinear multiphoton excitation can transiently alter their physical and chemical properties. In metals where free electron densities are high and the relative fraction of photoexcited hot electrons is low, the effects are small, but in semimetals, where the free electron densities are low and the photoexcited densities can overwhelm them, the intense femtosecond laser excitation can induce profound changes. In semimetal graphite and its derivatives, strong optical absorption, weak screening of the Coulomb potential, and high cohesive energy enable extreme hot electron generation and thermalization to be realized under femtosecond laser excitation. We investigate the nonlinear interactions within a hot electron gas in graphite through multiphoton-induced thermionic emission. Unlike the conventional photoelectric effect, within about 25 fs, the memory of the excitation process, where resonant dipole transitions absorb up to eight quanta of light, is erased to produce statistical Boltzmann electron distributions with temperatures exceeding 5000 K; this ultrafast electronic heating causes thermionic emission to occur from the interlayer band of graphite. The nearly instantaneous thermalization of the photoexcited carriers through Coulomb scattering to extreme electronic temperatures characterized by separate electron and hole chemical potentials can enhance hot electron surface femtochemistry, photovoltaic energy conversion, and incandescence, and drive graphite-to-diamond electronic phase transition.

  2. Thermionic phenomena the collected works of Irving Langmuir

    CERN Document Server

    Suits, C Guy

    1961-01-01

    Thermionic Phenomena is the third volume of the series entitled The Collected Works of Irving Langmuir. This volume compiles articles written during the 1920's and early 1930's, the period when the science of thermionics is beginning to be of importance. This text is divided into two parts. The first part discusses vacuum pumps, specifically examining the effect of space charge and residual gases on thermionic currents in high vacuum. This part also explains fundamental phenomena in electron tubes having tungsten cathodes and the use of high-power vacuum tubes. The second part of this text loo

  3. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, R.; Irwing, J.

    1992-01-01

    Final focus systems for linear colliders present many exacting challenges in beam optics, component design, and beam quality. Efforts to resolve these problems as they relate to a new generation of linear colliders are under way at several laboratories around the world. We outline criteria for final focus systems and discuss the current state of understanding and resolution of the outstanding problems. We discuss tolerances on alignment, field quality and stability for optical elements, and the implications for beam parameters such as emittance, energy spread , bunch length, and stability in position and energy. Beam-based correction procedures, which in principle can alleviate many of the tolerances, are described. Preliminary results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) under construction at SLAC are given. Finally, we mention conclusions from operating experience at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). (Author) 16 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  4. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, R.; Irwin, J.

    1992-08-01

    Final focus systems for linear colliders present many exacting challenges in beam optics, component design, and beam quality. Efforts to resolve these problems as they relate to a new generation of linear colliders are under way at several laboratories around the world. We will outline criteria for final focus systems and discuss the current state of understanding and resolution of the outstanding problems. We will discuss tolerances on alignment, field quality and stability for optical elements, and the implications for beam parameters such as emittance, energy spread, bunch length, and stability in position and energy. Beam-based correction procedures, which in principle can alleviate many of the tolerances, will be described. Preliminary results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) under construction at SLAC will be given. Finally, we mention conclusions from operating experience at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC)

  5. The ERDA thermionic program. [for nuclear propulsion and utility power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    A rationale for increased Federal support of thermionic research is considered and the objectives and milestones of the thermionic program of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) are examined. The ERDA program is to provide very high specific power systems needed for planned future NASA nuclear electric propulsion missions. Another objective is the enhancement of the overall thermal conversion efficiency of the present utility power plants from approximately 35% to 50% or more. Attention is given to key problem areas, taking into account inadequate analytical tools, the reduction of the plasma arc-drop losses, aspects of hot shell materials development, and the coordination of the participating groups programmatic activities.

  6. Thermionic Power Cell To Harness Heat Energies for Geothermal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohara, Harish; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Greer, Harold F.

    2011-01-01

    A unit thermionic power cell (TPC) concept has been developed that converts natural heat found in high-temperature environments (460 to 700 C) into electrical power for in situ instruments and electronics. Thermionic emission of electrons occurs when an emitter filament is heated to gwhite hot h temperatures (>1,000 C) allowing electrons to overcome the potential barrier and emit into the vacuum. These electrons are then collected by an anode, and transported to the external circuit for energy storage.

  7. Prediction of the start-up characteristics of thermionic converter in a STAR-C reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, David P.; Witt, Carl A.; Miskolczy, Garbor; Lee, Celia C. M.; McVey, John

    1992-01-01

    The design for a Space Thermionic Advanced Reactor-Compact (STAR-C) power system with a baseline power of 40 kW(e) consisted of 1230 parallel planar thermionic converters surrounding a space reactor system. The converters were similar to the Solar Energy Thermionic (SET) converters. The collectors were coupled to sodium-filled heat pipes which rejected heat to heat pipe radiators. A cesium intercalated graphite reservior in each converter supplied cesium vapor. A computer thermal model was used to predict the start-up characteristics of a converter in the STAR-C system. During start-up, the reactor heat was radiated to the emitter. Heat was radiated across the cesium gap to the collector and conducted to the cesium-graphite reservoir located in the niobium of the collector heat pipe. Waste heat was removed by the heat pipe to the radiators. A transient, finite-element computer-model of the thermionic converter was developed to simulate the behavior of the STAR-C converter. The subject of this paper is the use of a computer thermal model Thermal Analysis Code-2 Dimensional, TAC-2D to predict the start-up characteristics of a SET type converter with a cesium-graphite reservoir in the collector heat pipe. When the reactor is started, electron cooling of the emitter will not occur until sufficient cesium vapor is introduced into the interelectrode gap. A transient finite element model of the thermionic converter, fuel, and the cesium-graphite reservior simulated the operating conditions. The model utilized special boundary conditions at the collector to simulate the behavior of a heat pipe. The heat loss from the radiator is stimulated by heat transfer proportional to the fourth power of the temperature. The start-up time of the TFE is limited by the availability of cesium pressure during heating. The model showed that the converter can be started up in less than 60 minutes without overheating the emitter. The calculation shows there is almost sufficient direct heating

  8. Final focus system for high intensity beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Henestroza

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The neutralized transport experiment (NTX at the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is exploring the performance of neutralized final-focus systems for high perveance heavy ion beams. The final-focus scenario in a heavy ion fusion driver consists of several large aperture quadrupole magnets followed by a drift section in which the beam space charge is neutralized by a plasma. This beam is required to hit a millimeter-sized target spot at the end of the drift section. The objective of the NTX experiments and associated theory and simulations is to study the various physical mechanisms that determine the final spot size (radius r_{s} at a given distance (f from the end of the last quadrupole. In a fusion driver, f is the standoff distance required to keep the chamber wall and superconducting magnets properly protected. The NTX final quadrupole focusing system produces a converging beam at the entrance to the neutralized drift section where it focuses to a small spot. The final spot is determined by the conditions of the beam entering the quadrupole section, the beam dynamics in the magnetic lattice, and the plasma neutralization dynamics in the drift section. The main issues are the control of emittance growth due to high order fields from magnetic multipoles and image fields. In this paper, we will describe the theoretical and experimental aspects of the beam dynamics in the quadrupole lattice, and how these physical effects influence the final beam size. In particular, we present theoretical and experimental results on the dependence of final spot size on geometric aberrations and perveance.

  9. Thermionic nuclear reactor with internal heat distribution and multiple duct cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, C.R.; Perry, L.W. Jr.

    1975-11-01

    A Thermionic Nuclear Reactor is described having multiple ribbon-like coolant ducts passing through the core, intertwined among the thermionic fuel elements to provide independent cooling paths. Heat pipes are disposed in the core between and adjacent to the thermionic fuel elements and the ribbon ducting, for the purpose of more uniformly distributing the heat of fission among the thermionic fuel elements and the ducts.

  10. Thermodynamics of photon-enhanced thermionic emission solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reck, Kasper; Hansen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Photon-enhanced thermionic emission (PETE) cells in which direct photon energy as well as thermal energy can be harvested have recently been suggested as a new candidate for high efficiency solar cells. Here, we present an analytic thermodynamical model for evaluation of the efficiency of PETE solar cells including an analysis of the entropy production due to thermionic emission of general validity. The model is applied to find the maximum efficiency of a PETE cell for given cathode and anode work functions and temperatures

  11. Thermodynamics of photon-enhanced thermionic emission solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Hansen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Photon-enhanced thermionic emission (PETE) cells in which direct photon energy as well as thermal energy can be harvested have recently been suggested as a new candidate for high efficiency solar cells. Here, we present an analytic thermodynamical model for evaluation of the efficiency of PETE...... solar cells including an analysis of the entropy production due to thermionic emission of general validity. The model is applied to find the maximum efficiency of a PETE cell for given cathode and anode work functions and temperatures. ©...

  12. Experimental detailed power distribution in a fast spectrum thermionic reactor fuel element at the core/BeO reflector interface region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, P. G.; Lantz, E.

    1973-01-01

    A zero-power critical assembly was designed, constructed, and operated for the prupose of conducting a series of benchmark experiments dealing with the physics characteristics of a UN-fueled, Li-7-cooled, Mo-reflected, drum-controlled compact fast reactor for use with a space-power conversion system. The critical assembly was modified to simulate a fast spectrum advanced thermionics reactor by: (1) using BeO as a reflector in place of some of the existing molybdenum, (2) substituting Nb-1Zr tubing for some of the existing Ta tubing, and (3) inserting four full-scale mockups of thermionic type fuel elements near the core and BeO reflector boundary. These mockups were surrounded with a buffer zone having the equivalent thermionic core composition. In addition to measuring the critical mass of this thermionic configuration, a detailed power distribution in one of the thermionic element stages in the mixed spectrum region was measured. A power peak to average ratio of two was observed for this fuel stage at the midplane of the core and adjacent to the reflector. Also, the power on the outer surface adjacent to the BeO was slightly more than a factor of two larger than the power on the inside surface of a 5.08 cm (2.0 in.) high annular fuel segment with a 2.52 cm (0.993 in. ) o.d. and a 1.86 cm (0.731 in.) i.d.

  13. Final Report - Regulatory Considerations for Adaptive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Chris; Lynch, Jonathan; Bharadwaj, Raj

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the findings of a preliminary research study into new approaches to the software design assurance of adaptive systems. We suggest a methodology to overcome the software validation and verification difficulties posed by the underlying assumption of non-adaptive software in the requirementsbased- testing verification methods in RTCA/DO-178B and C. An analysis of the relevant RTCA/DO-178B and C objectives is presented showing the reasons for the difficulties that arise in showing satisfaction of the objectives and suggested additional means by which they could be satisfied. We suggest that the software design assurance problem for adaptive systems is principally one of developing correct and complete high level requirements and system level constraints that define the necessary system functional and safety properties to assure the safe use of adaptive systems. We show how analytical techniques such as model based design, mathematical modeling and formal or formal-like methods can be used to both validate the high level functional and safety requirements, establish necessary constraints and provide the verification evidence for the satisfaction of requirements and constraints that supplements conventional testing. Finally the report identifies the follow-on research topics needed to implement this methodology.

  14. Megawatt class nuclear space power systems (MCNSPS) conceptual design and evaluation report. Volume 3, technologies 2: Power conversion. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetch, J.R.

    1988-09-01

    The major power conversion concepts considered for the Megawatt Class Nuclear Space Power System (MCNSPS) are discussed. These concepts include: (1) Rankine alkali-metal-vapor turbine alternators; (2) in-core thermionic conversion; (3) Brayton gas turbine alternators; and (4) free piston Stirling engine linear alternators. Considerations important to the coupling of these four conversion alternatives to an appropriate nuclear reactor heat source are examined along with the comparative performance characteristics of the combined systems meeting MCNSPS requirements

  15. Final Report: Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Huya-Kouadio, Jennie Moton [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel A. [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) has identified hydrogen storage as a key enabling technology for advancing hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. Consequently, FCTO has established targets to chart the progress of developing and demonstrating viable hydrogen storage technologies for transportation and stationary applications. This cost assessment project supports the overall FCTO goals by identifying the current technology system components, performance levels, and manufacturing/assembly techniques most likely to lead to the lowest system storage cost. Furthermore, the project forecasts the cost of these systems at a variety of annual manufacturing rates to allow comparison to the overall 2017 and “Ultimate” DOE cost targets. The cost breakdown of the system components and manufacturing steps can then be used to guide future research and development (R&D) decisions. The project was led by Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA) and aided by Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Lin Simpson at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Since SA coordinated the project activities of all three organizations, this report includes a technical description of all project activity. This report represents a summary of contract activities and findings under SA’s five year contract to the US Department of Energy (Award No. DE-EE0005253) and constitutes the “Final Scientific Report” deliverable. Project publications and presentations are listed in the Appendix.

  16. Multiloop integral system test (MIST): Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloudemans, J.R.

    1991-04-01

    The Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST) is part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock and Wilcox designed plants. MIST is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock ampersand Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock and Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock and Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST was specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility -- the Once Through Integral System (OTIS) -- was also used. Data from MIST and OTIS are used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The MIST program is reported in 11 volumes. Volumes 2 through 8 pertain to groups of Phase 3 tests by type; Volume 9 presents inter-group comparisons; Volume 10 provides comparisons between the RELAP5/MOD2 calculations and MIST observations, and Volume 11 (with addendum) presents the later Phase 4 tests. This is Volume 1 of the MIST final report, a summary of the entire MIST program. Major topics include, Test Advisory Group (TAG) issues, facility scaling and design, test matrix, observations, comparison of RELAP5 calculations to MIST observations, and MIST versus the TAG issues. MIST generated consistent integral-system data covering a wide range of transient interactions. MIST provided insight into integral system behavior and assisted the code effort. The MIST observations addressed each of the TAG issues. 11 refs., 29 figs., 9 tabs

  17. Beta Radiation Enhanced Thermionic Emission from Diamond Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Croot

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-based thermionic emission devices could provide a means to produce clean and renewable energy through direct heat-to-electrical energy conversion. Hindering progress of the technology are the thermionic output current and threshold temperature of the emitter cathode. In this report, we study the effects on thermionic emission caused by in situ exposure of the diamond cathode to beta radiation. Nitrogen-doped diamond thin films were grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition on molybdenum substrates. The hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond was studied using a vacuum diode setup with a 63Ni beta radiation source-embedded anode, which produced a 2.7-fold increase in emission current compared to a 59Ni-embedded control. The emission threshold temperature was also examined to further assess the enhancement of thermionic emission, with 63Ni lowering the threshold temperature by an average of 58 ± 11 °C compared to the 59Ni control. Various mechanisms for the enhancement are discussed, with a satisfactory explanation remaining elusive. Nevertheless, one possibility is discussed involving excitation of preexisting conduction band electrons that may skew their energy distribution toward higher energies.

  18. Properties of carbon thin films deposited by thermionic vacuum arc

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vladoiu, R.; Ciupina, V.; Surdu-Bob, C.; Lungu, C.P.; Janík, J.; Skalný, J. D.; Buršíková, V.; Buršík, Jiří; Musa, G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2007), s. 862-866 ISSN 1454-4164 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : DLC * mechanical properties * thermionic vacuum arc Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2007

  19. Processes of preparation, deposition and analysis of thermionic emissive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romao, B.M. Verdelli; Muraro Junior, A.; Tessaroto, L.A.B.; Takahashi, J.

    1992-09-01

    This paper shows the results of the optimization of the process of preparation and deposition of thermionic emissive substances that are used in the oxide-cathodes which are utilized in the gun of the IEAv linear electron accelerator. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs

  20. Analysis of output-current characteristics of thermionic converters, 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Sadaaki; Kasuga, Yasuhiro

    1988-12-01

    This paper describes the results of comparison between the experimental Output Current-Voltage characteristics which two parallel plane thermionic Converters-So called G3 and G5-were tested by General Electric Research Laboratory and the calculated ones by the use of the computer code SIMCON. The results of the comparison show good agreement between the two.

  1. BWR consolidation system final design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, G.L.; Kelly, M.J.; Larsen, W.R.

    1993-05-01

    Because of delays in the opening of a permanent geologic repository to accept spent fuel from nuclear reactor plants, several utilities are seeking additional off-site storage to avert premature shutdown. Fuel rod consolidation is a proven, viable option for pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants, but until now, no consolidation system addressed boiling water reactor (BWR) spent-fuel assemblies.The purpose of this project, jointly funded by the Empire State Electric Energy Research Company (ESEERCO) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is to develop a system for consolidating BWR spent fuel assemblies. This design will provide more efficient storage in reactor spent-fuel pools. The design goal is a 2:1 consolidation of the fuel rods and a minimum 10:1 compaction of the non-fuel bearing components. in addition, the consolidation system must be operationally compatible with BWR reactor plants and be economically viable with other forms of supplementary on-site storage. The work began in Lynchburg, Virginia on May 6, 1991 and concluded on September 30, 1992 with the delivery of the final report. The design achieves all of the project goals. Furthermore, consolidation of BWR spent-fuel assemblies is feasible, compatible with reactor plant operations and potentially the lowest cost option for a utility seeking to add oil-site storage capacity

  2. Transient and steady-state analyses of an electrically heated Topaz-II Thermionic Fuel Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Xue, H.

    1992-01-01

    Transient and steady-state analyses of electrically heated, Thermionic Fuel Elements (TFEs) for Topaz-II space power system are performed. The calculated emitter and collector temperatures, load electric power and conversion efficiency are in good agreement with reported data. In this paper the effects or Cs pressure, thermal power input, and load resistance on the steady-state performance of the TFE are also investigated. In addition, the thermal response of the ZrH moderator during a startup transient and following a change in the thermal power input is examined

  3. Thermal conductivity of the electrode gap of a thermionic converter, filled with inert gases, at low pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, V. A.; Nikolaev, Iu. V.

    1986-05-01

    Experimental data are presented on the thermal conductivity of the electrode gap of a thermionic converter filled with He, Ar, and Xe in the pressure range 40-550 Pa. The need to account for the coefficients of thermal accommodation of the emitter - inert-gas - collector system in this range is shown. The accommodation coefficients for different temperature regimes are measured and expressions are obtained for calculating the heat flux transported by the inert gases into the electrode gap.

  4. Thermal conductivity of the electrode gap of a thermionic converter, filled with inert gases, at low pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modin, V.A.; Nikolaev, Y.V.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental data is presented on the thermal conductivity of the electrode gap of a thermionic converter filled with He, Ar, and Xe in the pressure range 40--550 Pa. The need to account for the coefficients of thermal accommodation of the emitter-inert-gas-collector system in this range is shown. The accommodation coefficients for different temperature regimes are measured and expressions are obtained to calculate the heat flux transported by the inert gases in the electrode gap

  5. Response mechanisms of thermionic detectors with enhanced nitrogen selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, H; Robertsson, G; Colmsjö, A

    2001-12-01

    The response mechanisms of a thermionic detector with enhanced nitrogen selectivity operating in an inert gas environment were investigated. According to accepted theory, the analyte has to contain electronegative functional groups in order for negative ions to be formed by the extraction of electrons from the thermionic source. This leads to a selective detector response for compounds containing nitro groups or multiple halogens. However, in the tests described here, polycyclic aromatic nitrogen hydrocarbons (PANHs), acridines, and carbazoles were used as reference substances. These compounds contain no electronegative functional groups. None of the investigated acridines exhibited any response from the detector, but carbazoles generated a strong structure-related detector response. By examining partial charges for all hydrogens of all individual carbazoles and acridine, it was demonstrated that the acidic hydrogen atom attached to the nitrogen heteroatom of the carbazoles has a strong influence on the detector response. Ionization of carbazoles may occur by dissociation of the nitrogen-hydrogen bond during contact with the thermionic surface. Support for this theory was provided by the linear relationship between the relative detector response and the deprotonization energy of the carbazoles (coefficients of determination of 0.90 and 0.98 for linear and quadratic models, respectively, were obtained). Further, there appeared to be no linear relationship between the detector response and electron affinity of the carbazoles, (R2 value, 0.32). Thus, the mechanism involved in ionization of the carbazoles is probably not direct electron transfer from the thermionic surface to the carbazoles. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the thermal conductivity of chemically inert detector gases also has an influence on the detector response. The investigated gases were helium, neon, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and argon. It was found that thermal conductivity can be

  6. Thermionic Energy Conversion Based on Graphene van der Waals Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shi-Jun; Liu, Bo; Hu, Wei; Zhou, Kun; Ang, L. K.

    2017-04-01

    Seeking for thermoelectric (TE) materials with high figure of merit (or ZT), which can directly converts low-grade wasted heat (400 to 500 K) into electricity, has been a big challenge. Inspired by the concept of multilayer thermionic devices, we propose and design a solid-state thermionic devices (as a power generator or a refrigerator) in using van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure sandwiched between two graphene electrodes, to achieve high energy conversion efficiency in the temperature range of 400 to 500 K. The vdW heterostructure is composed of suitable multiple layers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2. From our calculations, WSe2 and MoSe2 are identified as two ideal TMDs (using the reported experimental material’s properties), which can harvest waste heat at 400 K with efficiencies about 7% to 8%. To our best knowledge, this design is the first in combining the advantages of graphene electrodes and TMDs to function as a thermionic-based device.

  7. Thermionic cooling devices based on resonant-tunneling AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bescond, M.; Logoteta, D.; Michelini, F.; Cavassilas, N.; Yan, T.; Yangui, A.; Lannoo, M.; Hirakawa, K.

    2018-02-01

    We study by means of full quantum simulations the operating principle and performance of a semiconductor heterostructure refrigerator combining resonant tunneling filtering and thermionic emission. Our model takes into account the coupling between the electric and thermal currents by self-consistently solving the transport equations within the non-equilibrium Green’s function framework and the heat equation. We show that the device can achieve relatively high cooling power values, while in the considered implementation, the maximum lattice temperature drop is severely limited by the thermal conductivity of the constituting materials. In such an out-of-equilibrium structure, we then emphasize the significant deviation of the phonon temperature from its electronic counterpart which can vary over several hundred Kelvin. The interplay between those two temperatures and the impact on the electrochemical potential is also discussed. Finally, viable options toward an optimization of the device are proposed.

  8. LANL environmental restoration site ranking system: System description. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkhofer, L.; Kann, A.; Voth, M.

    1992-01-01

    The basic structure of the LANL Environmental Restoration (ER) Site Ranking System and its use are described in this document. A related document, Instructions for Generating Inputs for the LANL ER Site Ranking System, contains detailed descriptions of the methods by which necessary inputs for the system will be generated. LANL has long recognized the need to provide a consistent basis for comparing the risks and other adverse consequences associated with the various waste problems at the Lab. The LANL ER Site Ranking System is being developed to help address this need. The specific purpose of the system is to help improve, defend, and explain prioritization decisions at the Potential Release Site (PRS) and Operable Unit (OU) level. The precise relationship of the Site Ranking System to the planning and overall budget processes is yet to be determined, as the system is still evolving. Generally speaking, the Site Ranking System will be used as a decision aid. That is, the system will be used to aid in the planning and budgetary decision-making process. It will never be used alone to make decisions. Like all models, the system can provide only a partial and approximate accounting of the factors important to budget and planning decisions. Decision makers at LANL will have to consider factors outside of the formal system when making final choices. Some of these other factors are regulatory requirements, DOE policy, and public concern. The main value of the site ranking system, therefore, is not the precise numbers it generates, but rather the general insights it provides

  9. LANL environmental restoration site ranking system: System description. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkhofer, L.; Kann, A.; Voth, M. [Applied Decision Analysis, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1992-10-13

    The basic structure of the LANL Environmental Restoration (ER) Site Ranking System and its use are described in this document. A related document, Instructions for Generating Inputs for the LANL ER Site Ranking System, contains detailed descriptions of the methods by which necessary inputs for the system will be generated. LANL has long recognized the need to provide a consistent basis for comparing the risks and other adverse consequences associated with the various waste problems at the Lab. The LANL ER Site Ranking System is being developed to help address this need. The specific purpose of the system is to help improve, defend, and explain prioritization decisions at the Potential Release Site (PRS) and Operable Unit (OU) level. The precise relationship of the Site Ranking System to the planning and overall budget processes is yet to be determined, as the system is still evolving. Generally speaking, the Site Ranking System will be used as a decision aid. That is, the system will be used to aid in the planning and budgetary decision-making process. It will never be used alone to make decisions. Like all models, the system can provide only a partial and approximate accounting of the factors important to budget and planning decisions. Decision makers at LANL will have to consider factors outside of the formal system when making final choices. Some of these other factors are regulatory requirements, DOE policy, and public concern. The main value of the site ranking system, therefore, is not the precise numbers it generates, but rather the general insights it provides.

  10. Liquid waste treatment system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Pretreatment of high-level liquid radioactive waste (HLW) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) involved three distinct processing operations: decontamination of liquid HLW in the Supernatant Treatment System (STS); volume reduction of decontaminated liquid in the Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS); and encapsulation of resulting concentrates into an approved cement waste form in the Cement Solidification System (CSS). Together, these systems and operations made up the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS)

  11. Chromatic correction for the final transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Peterson, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The final transport and focusing of the heavy-ion beam onto the fusion pellet in vacuum is complicated by several non-linear effects - namely, chromatic (momentum dependent) effects, geometric aberrations, and space-charge forces. This paper gives an example of how the chromatic effects can be nullified, at least to second order. Whether third- or higher-order terms are important is not yet clear. Space-charge effects are important but are not considered here

  12. Solar thermal repowering systems integration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubberly, L. J.; Gormely, J. E.; McKenzie, A. W.

    1979-08-01

    This report is a solar repowering integration analysis which defines the balance-of-plant characteristics and costs associated with the solar thermal repowering of existing gas/oil-fired electric generating plants. Solar repowering interface requirements for water/steam and salt or sodium-cooled central receivers are defined for unit sizes ranging from 50 MWe non-reheat to 350 MWe reheat. Finally balance-of-plant cost estimates are presented for each of six combinations of plant type, receiver type and percent solar repowering.

  13. Solar heating system final design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The system is composed of a warm air collector, a logic control unit and a universal switching and transport unit. The collector was originally conceived and designed as an integrated roof/wall system and therefore provides a dual function in the structure. The collector serves both as a solar energy conversion system and as a structural weather resistant skin. The control unit provides totally automatic control over the operation of the system. It receives input data from sensor probes in collectors, storage and living space. The logic was designed so as to make maximum use of solar energy and minimize use of conventional energy. The transport and switching unit is a high-efficiency air-handling system equipped with gear motor valves that respond to outputs from the control system. The fan unit was designed for maximum durability and efficiency in operation, and has permanently lubricated ball bearings and excellent air-handling efficiency.

  14. The stabilisation of final focus system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [8] software package. 3. Demonstration system. A single laser system has been set up, which will allow testing of distance meters, for frequency scanning interferometry (FSI) and fixed frequency interferometry (FFI). So far only FSI tests have been performed. Figure 1. Arrangement of a proposed ATF network, for monitoring ...

  15. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  16. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haley, D.C.; Pigoski, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors

  17. Water-storage-tube systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemker, P.

    1981-12-24

    Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

  18. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schindelholz, Eric John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorensen, Neil R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yang, Benjamin Bing-Yeh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The continued exponential growth of photovoltaic technologies paves a path to a solar-powered world, but requires continued progress toward low-cost, high-reliability, high-performance photovoltaic (PV) systems. High reliability is an essential element in achieving low-cost solar electricity by reducing operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and extending system lifetime and availability, but these attributes are difficult to verify at the time of installation. Utilities, financiers, homeowners, and planners are demanding this information in order to evaluate their financial risk as a prerequisite to large investments. Reliability research and development (R&D) is needed to build market confidence by improving product reliability and by improving predictions of system availability, O&M cost, and lifetime. This project is focused on understanding, predicting, and improving the reliability of PV systems. The two areas being pursued include PV arc-fault and ground fault issues, and inverter reliability.

  19. Solar radiation alert system : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The Solar Radiation Alert (SRA) system continuously evaluates measurements of high-energy protons made by instruments on GOES satellites. If the measurements indicate a substantial elevation of effective dose rates at aircraft flight altitudes, the C...

  20. Analysis of Hybrid Hydrogen Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Braun, R.; Munoz, D.; Penev, M.; Kinchin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Report on biomass pathways for hydrogen production and how they can be hybridized to support renewable electricity generation. Two hybrid systems were studied in detail for process feasibility and economic performance. The best-performing system was estimated to produce hydrogen at costs ($1.67/kg) within Department of Energy targets ($2.10/kg) for central biomass-derived hydrogen production while also providing value-added energy services to the electric grid.

  1. Final report on the FMIT Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The computer control system for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT) prototype accelerator was designed using distributed intelligence driven by a distributed database. The system consists of two minicomputers in the central control room and four microcomputers residing in CAMAC crates located near appropriate subsystems of the accelerator. The system uses single vendor hardware as much as practical in an attempt to minimize the maintenance problems. Local control consoles are an integral part of each node computer to provide subsystem check-out. The main console is located in the central control room and permits one-point operation of the complete control system. Automatic surveillance is provided for each data channel by the node computer with out-of-bounds alarms sent to the main console. Report by exception is used for data logging. This control system has been operational for two years. The computers are too heavily loaded and the operator response is slower than desired. A system upgrade to a faster local-area network has been undertaken and is scheduled to be operational by conference time

  2. National Geoscience Data Repository System. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffries, C.M.; Milling, M.E.

    1994-03-01

    The American Geological Institute (AGI) has completed the first phase of a study to assess the feasibility of establishing a National Geoscience Data Repository System to capture and preserve valuable geoscientific data. The study was initiated in response to the fact that billions of dollars worth of domestic geological and geophysical data are in jeopardy of being irrevocably lost or destroyed as a consequence of the ongoing downsizing of the US energy and minerals industry. This report focuses on two major issues. First, it documents the types and quantity of data available for contribution to a National Geoscience Data Repository System. Second, it documents the data needs and priorities of potential users of the system. A National Geoscience Data Repository System would serve as an important and valuable source of information for the entire geoscience community for a variety of applications, including environmental protection, water resource management, global change studies, and basic and applied research. The repository system would also contain critical data that would enable domestic energy and minerals companies to expand their exploration and production programs in the United States for improved recovery of domestic oil, gas, and mineral resources.

  3. Advanced Quasioptical Launcher System. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This program developed an analytical design tool for designing antenna and mirror systems to convert whispering gallery RF modes to Gaussian or HE11 modes. Whispering gallery modes are generated by gyrotrons used for electron cyclotron heating of fusion plasmas in tokamaks. These modes cannot be easily transmitted and must be converted to free space or waveguide modes compatible with transmission line systems.This program improved the capability of SURF3D/LOT, which was initially developed in a previous SBIR program. This suite of codes revolutionized quasi-optical launcher design, and this code, or equivalent codes, are now used worldwide. This program added functionality to SURF3D/LOT to allow creating of more compact launcher and mirror systems and provide direct coupling to corrugated waveguide within the vacuum envelope of the gyrotron. Analysis was also extended to include full-wave analysis of mirror transmission line systems. The code includes a graphical user interface and is available for advanced design of launcher systems.

  4. NKS MOMS. Final report. [Mobile Measurement Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilssen, J. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) (Norway); Aage, H.K. [Danish Emergency Management Agency (DEMA) (Denmark); Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (IRSA) (Iceland)

    2013-02-15

    Mobile car-borne measurement systems are an important asset in early phase emergency response in all Nordic countries. However, through the development of the systems in the different countries, there are considerable differences between the systems developed. This complicates Nordic cooperation and mutual assistance in emergency situations. This project aimed to facilitate harmonization of mobile measurement systems between the Nordic countries. The project focused on harmonizing data formats, information exchange and measurement strategies. Although the work done was funded by each member, the project established a good platform for cooperation which will hopefully continue beyond the scope of the project. A two-day seminar was held in May 2012, where all participants presented the current status (equipment, methods used etc.), in addition to invited speakers presenting development within the field of mobile detection and in situ measurements. Exchange of experiences and information on different measurement systems and practises in use was an important part of the seminar. The seminar was followed up by a small workshop during the REFOX exercise in Lund, Sweden, September 2012. Exchange of measurement data from the exercise was facilitated through a workspace proveded by NRPA as part of the MOMS project. The work done in this project will be presented at the NordEx12 seminar in March 2013. (Author)

  5. Sequencing Information Management System (SIMS). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, C.

    1996-02-15

    A feasibility study to develop a requirements analysis and functional specification for a data management system for large-scale DNA sequencing laboratories resulted in a functional specification for a Sequencing Information Management System (SIMS). This document reports the results of this feasibility study, and includes a functional specification for a SIMS relational schema. The SIMS is an integrated information management system that supports data acquisition, management, analysis, and distribution for DNA sequencing laboratories. The SIMS provides ad hoc query access to information on the sequencing process and its results, and partially automates the transfer of data between laboratory instruments, analysis programs, technical personnel, and managers. The SIMS user interfaces are designed for use by laboratory technicians, laboratory managers, and scientists. The SIMS is designed to run in a heterogeneous, multiplatform environment in a client/server mode. The SIMS communicates with external computational and data resources via the internet.

  6. Laser fusion system design study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The following studies were completed: (1) The synthesis of a pointing/control system compatible with existing and advanced laser opto-mechanical configurations. (2) Attainment of the required pointing angle, longitudinal focus, and differential pathlength accuracies. (3) Maximum modularization of the sensor and gimbal assemblies to provide the required accuracies at minimum cost. Detailed information is given on each. (MOW)

  7. DISCUS Interactive System Users' Manual. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Steven S.; Meredith, Joseph C.

    The results of the second 18 months (December 15, 1968-June 30, 1970) of effort toward developing an Information Processing Laboratory for research and education in library science is reported in six volumes. This volume contains: the basic on-line interchange, DISCUS operations, programming in DISCUS, concise DISCUS specifications, system author…

  8. Multimodal Trip Planner System final evaluation report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This evaluation of the Multimodal Trip Planning System (MMTPS) is the culmination of a multi-year project evaluating the development and deployment of a multimodal trip planner in the Chicagoland area between 2004 and 2010. The report includes an ove...

  9. Nuclear radiation problems, unmanned thermionic reactor ion propulsion spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Sawyer, C. D.; Nakashima, A.

    1972-01-01

    A nuclear thermionic reactor as the electric power source for an electric propulsion spacecraft introduces a nuclear radiation environment that affects the spacecraft configuration, the use and location of electrical insulators and the science experiments. The spacecraft is conceptually configured to minimize the nuclear shield weight by: (1) a large length to diameter spacecraft; (2) eliminating piping penetrations through the shield; and (3) using the mercury propellant as gamma shield. Since the alumina material is damaged by the high nuclear radiation environment in the reactor it is desirable to locate the alumina insulator outside the reflector or develop a more radiation resistant insulator.

  10. Multi-channel pulser for the SLC thermionic electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, M.J.; Clendenin, J.E.; Corredoura, P.L.; Jobe, R.K.; Koontz, R.F.; Sodja, J.

    1985-01-01

    A new pulser developed for the SLC thermionic gun has been operational since September 1984. It consists of two planar triode amplifiers with a common output triode driving the gun cathode to produce two independent pulses of up to 9A with a 3 nsec FWHM pulse width. Three long-pulse amplifiers are also connected to the cathode to produce pulses with widths controllable between 100 nsec and 1.6 μsec. Each amplifier has independent timing and amplitude control through a fiber optic link to the high voltage plane of the gun cathode-grid structure. The pulser and its operating characteristics are described. 15 refs., 3 figs

  11. Power system EMP protection. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marable, J.H.; Barnes, P.R.; Nelson, D.B.

    1975-05-01

    Voltage transients induced in electric power lines and control circuits by the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from high-altitude nuclear detonations may cause widespread power failure and damage in electric power systems. This report contains a parametric study of EMP power line surges and discusses protective measures to minimize their effects. Since EMP surges have considerably greater rates of rise than lightning surges, recommended standards and test procedures are given to assure that surge arresters protect equipment from damage by EMP. Expected disturbances and damage to power systems are reviewed, and actions are presented which distribution companies can take to counter them. These include backup communications methods, stockpiling of vulnerable parts, repair procedures, and dispatcher actions to prevent blackout from EMP-caused instabilities. A long-range program is presented for improving distributors' protection against EMP. This involves employee training, hardware protection for power and control circuits, and improvement of plans for emergency action. (U.S.)

  12. Photovoltaic systems concept study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    The following appendices are included: economic theory, electric utilities, and peak load pricing; evaluating the total cost of an on-site solar energy system; derivation of PEPS cost model; PEPS economic analysis model; scenarios; the effect of governmental ''subsidies'' on the nuclear power industry; discussion of energy industry subsidies; extension of the Hottel-Whillier-Bliss model to the analysis of combined photovoltaic/thermal flat plate collectors; analysis of solar-augmented rock-bed/heat pump system; TRNSYS results for Washington, D.C. residence with air collectors, rock-bed storage, and parallel Airesearch heat pump; tabulation of electrical loads for Phoenix, Riverside, and Cleveland using a simplified hourly method; evaporative air coolers; cooling efficiency and electrical consumption; and Hoover Dam operation. (MHR)

  13. Integrated radwaste treatment system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1997-10-01

    In May 1988, the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) began pretreating liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This HLW was produced during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations that took place at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center from 1966 to 1972. Original reprocessing operations used plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) and thorium extraction (THOREX) processes to recover usable isotopes from spent nuclear fuel. The PUREX process produced a nitric acid-based waste stream, which was neutralized by adding sodium hydroxide to it. About two million liters of alkaline liquid HLW produced from PUREX neutralization were stored in an underground carbon steel tank identified as Tank 8D-2. The THOREX process, which was used to reprocess one core of mixed uranium-thorium fuel, resulted in about 31,000 liters of acidic waste. This acidic HLW was stored in an underground stainless steel tank identified as Tank 8D-4. Pretreatment of the HLW was carried out using the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS), from May 1988 until May 1995. This system was designed to decontaminate the liquid HLW, remove salts from it, and encapsulate the resulting waste into a cement waste form that achieved US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) criteria for low-level waste (LLW) storage and disposal. A thorough discussion of IRTS operations, including all systems, subsystems, and components, is presented in US Department of Energy (DOE) Topical Report (DOE/NE/44139-68), Integrated Radwaste Treatment System Lessons Learned from 2 1/2 Years of Operation. This document also presents a detailed discussion of lessons learned during the first 2 1/2 years of IRTS operation. This report provides a general discussion of all phases of IRTS operation, and presents additional lessons learned during seven years of IRTS operation.

  14. FY2008 Calibration Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Bret D.; Myers, Tanya L.; Broocks, Bryan T.

    2009-01-01

    The Calibrations project has been exploring alternative technologies for calibration of passive sensors in the infrared (IR) spectral region. In particular, we have investigated using quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) because these devices offer several advantages over conventional blackbodies such as reductions in size and weight while providing a spectral source in the IR with high output power. These devices can provide a rapid, multi-level radiance scheme to fit any nonlinear behavior as well as a spectral calibration that includes the fore-optics, which is currently not available for on-board calibration systems.

  15. Final Report of Strongly Interacting Fermion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, J. W.

    2001-01-01

    There has been significant progress in three broad areas: (A) Optical properties, (B) Large-scale computations, and (C) Many-body systems. In this summary the emphasis is primarily on those papers that point to the research plans. At the same time, some important analytic work is not neglected, some of it even appearing in the description of large-scale Computations. Indeed one of the aims of such computations is to give new insights which lead to development of models capable of simple analytic or nearly analytic analysis

  16. Imaging systems for biomedical applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radparvar, M.

    1995-06-06

    Many of the activities of the human body manifest themselves by the presence of a very weak magnetic field outside the body, a field that is so weak that an ultra-sensitive magnetic sensor is needed for specific biomagnetic measurements. Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) are extremely sensitive detectors of magnetic flux and have been used extensively to detect the human magnetocardiogram, and magnetoencephalogram. and other biomagnetic signals. In order to utilize a SQUID as a magnetometer, its transfer characteristics should be linearized. This linearization requires extensive peripheral electronics, thus limiting the number of SQUID magnetometer channels in a practical system. The proposed digital SQUID integrates the processing circuitry on the same cryogenic chip as the SQUID magnetometer and eliminates the sophisticated peripheral electronics. Such a system is compact and cost effective, and requires minimal support electronics. Under a DOE-sponsored SBIR program, we designed, simulated, laid out, fabricated, evaluated, and demonstrated a digital SQUID magnetometer. This report summarizes the accomplishments under this program and clearly demonstrates that all of the tasks proposed in the phase II application were successfully completed with confirmed experimental results.

  17. Thermionic RF Gun and Linac Pre-Injector for SPEAR3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.

    2003-08-11

    Preparations are underway to upgrade the Spear2 to the third generation light source. Installation of all the subsystems will start in April 2003. Although the Spear3 RF system is entirely different from the present form, the pre-injector gun/linac and booster synchrotron will remain the same even after the upgrade. The thermionic rf gun reliability and stability are to be improved to inject 500 mA of stored current in shortest possible time. When a top-up mode is enforced, where the stored beam decay is replenished to maintain the constant current and thus constant light intensity, the Spear3 will take injection every few minutes. In that case the gun, linac, and booster must stay on at all times. In this report we will describe some improvements made on the gun and linac in the recent past, as well as their present performance and future upgrade to be made.

  18. Characterization of Pb-Doped GaN Thin Films Grown by Thermionic Vacuum Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, Soner; Pat, Suat; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2018-03-01

    Undoped and lead (Pb)-doped gallium nitride (GaN) thin films have been deposited by a thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) method. Glass and polyethylene terephthalate were selected as optically transparent substrates. The structural, optical, morphological, and electrical properties of the deposited thin films were investigated. These physical properties were interpreted by comparison with related analysis methods. The crystalline structure of the deposited GaN thin films was hexagonal wurtzite. The optical bandgap energy of the GaN and Pb-doped GaN thin films was found to be 3.45 eV and 3.47 eV, respectively. The surface properties of the deposited thin films were imaged using atomic force microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy, revealing a nanostructured, homogeneous, and granular surface structure. These results confirm that the TVA method is an alternative layer deposition system for Pb-doped GaN thin films.

  19. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF SODIUM SYSTEMS FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, W. O.; Yunker, W. H.; Scott, F. A.

    1970-06-01

    BNWL-1407 summarizes information gained from the Chemical Analyses of Sodium Systems Program pursued by Battelle- Northwest over the period from July 1967 through June 1969. Tasks included feasibility studies for performing coulometric titration and polarographic determinations of oxygen in sodium, and the development of new separation techniques for sodium impurities and their subsequent analyses. The program was terminated ahead of schedule so firm conclusions were not obtained in all areas of the work. At least 40 coulometric titrations were carried out and special test cells were developed for coulometric application. Data indicated that polarographic measurements are theoretically feasible, but practical application of the method was not verified. An emission spectrographic procedure for trace metal impurities was developed and published. Trace metal analysis by a neutron activation technique was shown to be feasible; key to the success of the activation technique was the application of a new ion exchange resin which provided a sodium separation factor of 10{sup 11}. Preliminary studies on direct scavenging of trace metals produced no conclusive results.

  20. Condenser inleakage monitoring system development. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassen, W.R.; Putkey, T.A.; Sawochka, S.G.; Pearl, W.L.; Clouse, M.E.

    1982-09-01

    An instrument/hardware package for air and condenser cooling water inleakage location employing the helium and freon techniques was designed and fabricated. The package consists of design details for tracer gas distribution hardware, injection plenums, and a sample preconditioner and instrument module. Design of the package was based on an evaluation of helium and freon leak detectors and a survey of utility user's experience with the helium and freon techniques. The applicability of the instrument/hardware package to air and cooling water inleakage location was demonstrated at Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Moss Landing Station. The use of calibrated leaks indicated that cooling water leaks down to 1.5 x 10 -4 gpm (0.56 ml/min) and air leaks down to 0.05 cfm were readily detectable with the helium technique, whereas a 4 x 10 -4 gpm (1.5 ml/min) liquid leak was the readily detectable minimum via the freon technique. The field demonstration and in-house detector testing showed the helium technique to be preferable to the freon technique for inleakage location at PWRs, BWRs, and fossil-fueled systems

  1. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  2. Transactive Campus Energy Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haack, Jereme N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hao, He [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Woohyun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, Donna J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Akyol, Bora A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Allwardt, Craig H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carpenter, Brandon J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Sen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Guopeng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lutes, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makhmalbaf, Atefe [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ngo, Hung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somasundaram, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Underhill, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-26

    Transactive energy refers to the combination of economic and control techniques to improve grid reliability and efficiency. The fundamental purpose of transactive energy management is to seamlessly coordinate the operation of large numbers of new intelligent assets—such as distributed solar, energy storage and responsive building loads—to provide the flexibility needed to operate the power grid reliably and at minimum cost, particularly one filled with intermittent renewable generation such as the Pacific Northwest. It addresses the key challenge of providing smooth, stable, and predictable “control” of these assets, despite the fact that most are neither owned nor directly controlled by the power grid. The Clean Energy and Transactive Campus (CETC) work described in this report was done as part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Washington State Department of Commerce (Commerce) through the Clean Energy Fund (CEF). The project team consisted of PNNL, the University of Washington (UW) and Washington State University (WSU), to connect the PNNL, UW, and WSU campuses to form a multi-campus testbed for transaction-based energy management—transactive—solutions. Building on the foundational transactive system established by the Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration (PNWSGD), the purpose of the project was to construct the testbed as both a regional flexibility resource and as a platform for research and development (R&D) on buildings/grid integration and information-based energy efficiency. This report provides a summary of the various tasks performed under the CRADA.

  3. The completed design of the SLC Final Focus System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.J.; Brown, K.L.; Fieguth, T.

    1987-02-01

    The design of the SLC Final Focus System has evolved from its initial conceptual design into its final form. This final design is described including a review of the critical decisions influencing the adoption of particular features. The creation of a feasible design has required that these decisions be tempered by practical considerations such as site constraints, correction of optical errors caused by imperfections, and accommodations requested by engineers and particle detector physicists. As this is the first such system to be built, it is hoped that the experience gained will be useful for the design of future systems

  4. X-Band Thermionic Cathode RF Gun at UTNL

    CERN Document Server

    Fukasawa, Atsushi; Dobashi, Katsuhiro; Ebina, Futaro; Hayano, Hitoshi; Higo, Toshiyasu; Kaneyasu, Tatsuo; Matsuo, Kennichi; Ogino, Haruyuki; Sakae, Hisaharu; Sakamoto, Fumito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Urakawa, Junji

    2005-01-01

    The X-band (11.424 GHz) linac for compact Compton scattering hard X-ray source are under construction at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo. This linac designed to accelerate up to 35 MeV, and this electron beam will be used to produce hard X-ray by colliding with laser. It consists of a thermionic cathode RF gun, an alpha magnet, and a traveling wave tube. The gun has 3.5 cells (unloaded Q is 8250) and will be operated at pi-mode. A dispenser cathode is introduced. Since the energy spread of the beam from the gun is predicted to be broad due to the continuous emission from the thermionic cathode, a slit is placed in the alpha magnet to eliminate low energy electrons. The simulation on the injector shows the beam energy 2.9 MeV, the charge 23 pC/bunch, and the emittance less than 10 mm.mrad. The experiment on the gun is planed in the beginning of 2005, and the details will be discussed on the spot.

  5. Laser fusion systems design study. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    This document is an addendum to Perkin-Elmer Report No. 12486, Final Technical Report, Laser Fusion System Analysis. Contained herein are the budgetary cost estimates prepared for the baseline design described in the Final Technical Report. Cost tradeoffs performed during the study are covered. (U.S.)

  6. Thermionic and Photo-excited Electron Emission for Energy Conversion Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick T. McCarthy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes advances in thermionic and photoemission materials and applications dating back to the work on thermionic emission by Guthrie in 1873 and the photoelectric effect by Hertz in 1887. Thermionic emission has been employed for electron beam generation from Edison’s work with the light bulb to modern day technologies such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The photoelectric effect has been utilized in common devices such as cameras and photocopiers while photovoltaic cells continue to be widely successful and further researched. Limitations in device efficiency and materials have thus far restricted large-scale energy generation sources based on thermionic and photoemission. However, recent advances in the fabrication of nanoscale emitters suggest promising routes for improving both thermionic and photo-enhanced electron emission along with newly developed research concepts, e.g., photonically enhanced thermionic emission. However, the abundance of new emitter materials and reduced dimensions of some nanoscale emitters increases the complexity of electron emission theory and engender new questions related to the dimensionality of the emitter. This work presents derivations of basic two and three-dimensional thermionic and photoemission theory along with comparisons to experimentally acquired data. The resulting theory can be applied to many different material types regardless of composition, bulk and surface structure.

  7. ANALYTICAL MODELING OF ELECTRON BACK-BOMBARDMENT INDUCED CURRENT INCREASE IN UN-GATED THERMIONIC CATHODE RF GUNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelen, J. P. [Fermilab; Sun, Y. [Argonne; Harris, J. R. [AFRL, NM; Lewellen, J. W. [Los Alamos Natl. Lab.

    2016-09-28

    In this paper we derive analytical expressions for the output current of an un-gated thermionic cathode RF gun in the presence of back-bombardment heating. We provide a brief overview of back-bombardment theory and discuss comparisons between the analytical back-bombardment predictions and simulation models. We then derive an expression for the output current as a function of the RF repetition rate and discuss relationships between back-bombardment, fieldenhancement, and output current. We discuss in detail the relevant approximations and then provide predictions about how the output current should vary as a function of repetition rate for some given system configurations.

  8. General method for final focus system design for circular colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo de Maria

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Colliders use final focus systems to reduce the transverse beam sizes at the interaction point in order to increase collision event rates. The maximum focal strength (gradient of the quadrupoles, and the maximum beam size in them, together limit the beam size reduction that is possible. The goal of a final focus system design is to find the best compromise between quadrupole aperture and quadrupole gradient, for the magnet technology that is used. This paper develops a design method that identifies the intrinsic limitations of a final focus system, validates the results of the method against realistic designs, and reports its application to the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider final focus.

  9. Simulations of thermionic suppression during tungsten transient melting experiments.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komm, Michael; Tolias, P.; Ratynskaia, S.; Dejarnac, Renaud; Gunn, J. P.; Krieger, K.; Podolník, Aleš; Pitts, R.A.; Pánek, Radomír

    T170, December (2017), č. článku 014069. ISSN 0031-8949. [PFMC 2017: 16th International Conference on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications. Düsseldorf, 16.05.2017-19.05.2017] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14228S; GA MŠk(CZ) 8D15001 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * thermionic emission * tungsten * melt * plasma-facing component Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: 1.3 Physical sciences Impact factor: 1.280, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1402-4896/aa9209

  10. Surface properties of ceramic/metal composite materials for thermionic converter applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.R.; Bozack, M.J.; Swanson, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    Ceramic/metal composite electrode materials are of interest for thermionic energy conversion (TEC) applications for several reasons. These materials consist of submicron metal fibers or islands in an oxide matrix and therefore provide a basis for fabricating finely structured electrodes, with projecting or recessed metallic regions for more efficient electron emission or collection. Furthermore, evaporation and surface diffusion of matrix oxides may provide oxygen enhancement of cesium adsorption and work function lowering at both the collecting and emitting electrode surfaces of the TEC. Finally, the high work function oxide matrix or oxide-metal interfaces may provide efficient surface ionization of cesium for space-charge reduction in the device. The authors are investigating two types of ceramic/metal composite materials. One type is a directionally solidified eutectic consisting of a bulk oxide matrix such as UO 2 or stabilized ZrO 2 with parallel metal fibers (W) running through the oxide being exposed at the surface by cutting perpendicular to the fiber direction. The second type of material, called a surface eutectic, consists of a refractory substrate (Mo) with a thin layer of deposited and segregated material (Mo-Cr 2 O 3 -A1 2 O 3 ) on the surface. The final configuration of this layer is an oxide matrix with metallic islands scattered throughout

  11. Model validation studies of solar systems, Phase III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.; Winn, C.B.

    1978-12-01

    Results obtained from a validation study of the TRNSYS, SIMSHAC, and SOLCOST solar system simulation and design are presented. Also included are comparisons between the FCHART and SOLCOST solar system design programs and some changes that were made to the SOLCOST program. Finally, results obtained from the analysis of several solar radiation models are presented. Separate abstracts were prepared for ten papers.

  12. Solid-State Thermionic Nuclear Power for Megawatt Propulsion, Planetary Surface and Commercial Power Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermionic (TI) power conversion is a promising technology first investigated for power conversion in the 1960’s, and of renewed interest due to modern...

  13. Using Carbon-Based Nanomaterials and Microscale Geometry for Enhanced Thermionic Energy Conversion in Space Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The hypothesis of this research is that using carbon-based nanomaterials (CBN) electrodes in a microscale thermionic energy conversion (TEC) device operated at...

  14. Development of Kabila rocket: A radioisotope heated thermionic plasma rocket engine

    OpenAIRE

    Mboyi, Kalomba; Ren, Junxue; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    A new type of plasma rocket engine, the Kabila rocket, using a radioisotope heated thermionic heating chamber instead of a conventional combustion chamber or catalyst bed is introduced and it achieves specific impulses similar to the ones of conventional solid and bipropellant rockets. Curium-244 is chosen as a radioisotope heat source and a thermal reductive layer is also used to obtain precise thermionic emissions. The self-sufficiency principle is applied by simultaneously heating up the e...

  15. Analysis of output performance characteristics of cesium diode thermionic energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Sadaaki

    1989-12-01

    The thermionic energy converter (TEC) is a device which can convert heat directly into electric work by thermionic emission. Here, the principle and application of the TEC are described, including a nuclear reactor application. The operating characteristics of the cesium diode TEC are examined, and comparison is made between the output current-voltage curves obtained experimentally and those calculated by the SIMCON computer code. Comparisons are also made for the electron temperature and ion density profiles across the interelectrode plasma.

  16. Plant systems/components modularization study. Final report. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-01

    The final results are summarized of a Plant Systems/Components Modularization Study based on Stone and Webster's Pressurized Water Reactor Reference Design. The program has been modified to include evaluation of the most promising areas for modular consideration based on the level of the Sundesert Project engineering design completion and the feasibility of their incorporation into the plant construction effort.

  17. A conceptual design of Final Focus Systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.

    1987-06-01

    Linear colliders are a relatively recent development in the evolution of particle accelerators. This report discusses some of the approaches that have been considered for the design of Final Focus Systems to demagnify the beam exiting from a linac to the small size suitable for collisions at the interaction point. The system receiving the most attention is the one adopted for the SLAC Linear Collider. However, the theory and optical techniques discussed should be applicable to the design efforts for future machines

  18. A RECIPE FOR LINEAR COLLIDER FINAL FOCUS SYSTEM DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seryi, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    The design of Final Focus systems for linear colliders is challenging because of the large demagnifications needed to produce nanometer-sized beams at the interaction point. Simple first- and second-order matrix matching have proven insufficient for this task, and minimization of third- and higher-order aberrations is essential. An appropriate strategy is required for the latter to be successful. A recipe for Final Focus design, and a set of computational tools used to implement this approach, are described herein. An example of the use of this procedure is given

  19. Plutonium Protection System (PPS). Volume 2. Hardware description. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, D.S.

    1979-05-01

    The Plutonium Protection System (PPS) is an integrated safeguards system developed by Sandia Laboratories for the Department of Energy, Office of Safeguards and Security. The system is designed to demonstrate and test concepts for the improved safeguarding of plutonium. Volume 2 of the PPS final report describes the hardware elements of the system. The major areas containing hardware elements are the vault, where plutonium is stored, the packaging room, where plutonium is packaged into Container Modules, the Security Operations Center, which controls movement of personnel, the Material Accountability Center, which maintains the system data base, and the Material Operations Center, which monitors the operating procedures in the system. References are made to documents in which details of the hardware items can be found

  20. Measuring current emission and work functions of large thermionic cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortgang, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    As one component of the nations Stockpile Stewardship program, Los Alamos National Laboratory is constructing a 20 MeV, 2 kA (with a 4 kA upgrade capability), 3ps induction linac for doing x-ray radiography of explosive devices. The linac is one leg of a facility called the Dual-Axis Radiography Hydrodynamic Test Facility (DARHT). The electron gun is designed to operate at 3.2 MV. The gun is a Pierce type design and uses a 6.5' cathode for 2 kA operation and an 8' cathode for 4 kA operation. We have constructed a small facility called the Cathode Test Stand (CTS) to investigate engineering and physics issues regarding large thermionic dispenser-cathodes. In particular, we have looked at the issues of temperature uniformity on the cathode surface and cathode quality as measured by its work function. We have done thermal imaging of both 8' and 6.5' cathodes. Here we report on measurements of the cathode work function, both the average value and how it vanes across the face of the cathode.

  1. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-30

    The objective of the main project is to identify the current developmental status of MCFC systems and address those technical issues that need to be resolved to move the technology from its current status to the demonstration stage in the shortest possible time. The specific objectives are separated into five major tasks as follows: Stack research; Power plant development; Test facilities development; Manufacturing facilities development; and Commercialization. This Final Report discusses the M-C power Corporation effort which is part of a general program for the development of commercial MCFC systems. This final report covers the entire subject of the Unocal 250-cell stack. Certain project activities have been funded by organizations other than DOE and are included in this report to provide a comprehensive overview of the work accomplished.

  2. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings

  3. Final report for TMX-U systems support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This final report is for the TMX-U RF systems development subcontract with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This program was initiated on July 1, 1983 and extended through September 30, 1985. This program was concerned with the development of RF systems to meet the objectives of the TMX-U mirror program at LLNL. To accomplish this the following areas were studied during the course of this contract: (1) Ion Cyclotron Heating, (2) Electron Cyclotron Heating, (3) Drift Pumping, (4) Plasma Modeling, (5) Neutral Beam Heating, and (6) Neutral Gas transport and fueling. The key results of these activities are reported

  4. Adherence of diamond films on refractory metal substrates for thermionic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, B.H.; Ramalingam, M.L.; Adams, S.F.; Cloyd, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Diamond films are currently being considered as electrical insulation material for application in the thermionic fuel element of a power producing nuclear reactor system. The function of the diamond insulator in this application is to electrically isolate the collector of each cell in the TFE from the coolant and outer sheath. Deposition of diamond films on plane surfaces of Si/SiO 2 have already been demonstrated to be quite effective. However, the diamond films on refractory metal surfaces tend to spall off in the process of deposition revealing an inefficient adherence characteristic between the film and the substrate. This paper is geared towards explaining this deficiency by way of selected experimentation and the use of analytical tools to predict uncertainties such as the mismatch in coefficient of expansion, micrographic study of the interface between the film and the substrate and X-ray diffraction spectra. The investigation of the adherence characteristics of several diamond films on Mo and Nb substrates revealed that there was an allowable stress that resulted in the formation of the critical thickness for the diamond film

  5. Development of a novel thermionic RF electron gun applied on a compact THz-FEL facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, T. N.; Pei, Y. J.; Qin, B.; Liu, K. F.; Feng, G. Y.

    2018-04-01

    The current requirements from civil and commercial applications lead to the development of compact free-electron laser (FEL)-based terahertz (THz) radiation sources. A picosecond electron gun plays an important role in an FEL-THz facility and attracts significant attention, as machine performance is very sensitive to initial conditions. A novel thermionic gun with an external cathode (EC) and two independently tunable cavities (ITCs) has been found to be a promising alternative to conventional electron sources due to its remarkable characteristics, and correspondingly an FEL injector can achieve a balance between a compact layout and high brightness benefitting from the velocity bunching properties and RF focusing effects in the EC-ITC gun. Nevertheless, the EC-ITC gun has not been extensively examined as part of the FEL injector in the past years. In this regard, to fill this gap, a development focusing on the experimental setup of an FEL injector based on an EC-ITC gun is described in detail. Before assembly, dynamic beam simulations were performed to investigate the optimal mounting position for the Linac associated with the focusing coils, and a suitable radio-frequency (RF) system was established based on a power coupling design and allocation. The testing bench proved to be fully functional through basic experiments using typical diagnostic approaches for estimating primary parameters. Associated with dynamic beam calculations, a performance evaluation for an EC-ITC gun was established while providing indirect testing results for an FEL injector.

  6. Development of a thermionic magnicon amplifier at 11.4 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, S.H.; Hafizi, B.; Fliflet, A.W.; Kinkead, A.K.; True, R.

    1997-01-01

    The magnicon is a scanning-beam microwave amplifier tube that is being developed as an rf source for the proposed TeV Next Linear Collider. In it, a solid electron beam is spun up to high transverse momentum in a series of deflection cavities containing synchronously rotating TM modes, and then spun down again in an output cavity whose mode is synchronous with that of the deflection cavities. A recent magnicon experiment at NRL, using a ∼ 650 kV, 225 A, 5.5-mm-diam. electron beam produced from a cold cathode driven by a single-shot Marx generator, demonstrated 14 MW (±3 dB) at 11.12 GHz with 105 efficiency in the synchronous magnicon mode, but was limited by plasma loading in the deflection cavities to a regime in which the last cavity of the deflection system (the penultimate cavity) was unstable. A new 11.4 GHz rep-rated thermionic magnicon experiment is being assembled, using an advanced ultra-high-convergence electron gun driven by a 10 Hz, 1.5 microsecond modulator top produce a 500 kV, 210 A, 2-mm diameter electron beam. The magnicon circuit has been optimized for minimum surface rf fields and maximum efficiency, and will be engineered for high temperature bakeout and high vacuum operation. This experiment should begin operation in the Summer of 1997. The predicted power is 60 MW at ∼ 60% efficiency

  7. Modeling transient thermal hydraulic behavior of a thermionic fuel element for nuclear space reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kheliewi, A.S.; Klein, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    A transient code (TFETC) for determining the temperature distribution throughout the radial and axial positions of a thermionic fuel element (TFE) during changes in operating conditions has been successfully developed and tested. A fully implicit method is used to solve the system of equations for temperatures at each time step. Presently, TFETC has the ability to handle the following transients: startup, loss of flow accidents, and shutdown. The code has been applied to the startup of the ATI single cell configuration which appears to start up and shut down in an orderly and reasonable fashion. No unexpected transient features were observed. The TFE also appears to function robustly under loss of flow accident conditions. It appears hat sufficient time is available to shut the reactor down safely without melting point the fuel. The model shows that during a complete loss of flow accident (without shutdown) the coolant reaches its boiling point in approximately 35 seconds. The fuel may exceed its melting point after this time as the NaK coolant will boil if the reactor is not shut down. For 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 pump failures, the fuel temperatures never exceed the fuel melting point even if the reactor is not shut down

  8. A sub-thermionic MoS2 FET with tunable transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Shubhadeep; Ganapathi, Kolla Lakshmi; Mohan, Sangeneni; Bhat, Navakanta

    2017-10-01

    The inability to scale supply voltage and hence reduce power consumption remains a serious challenge in modern nanotransistors. This arises primarily because the Sub-threshold Swing (SS) of the thermionic MOSFET, a measure of its switching efficiency, is restricted by the Boltzmann limit (kBT/q = 60 mV/dec at 300 K). Tunneling FETs, the most promising candidates to circumvent this limit, employ band-to-band tunneling, yielding very low OFF currents and steep SS but at the expense of severely degraded ON currents. In a completely different approach, by introducing concurrent tuning of thermionic and tunneling components through metal/semiconductor Schottky junctions, we achieve an amalgamation of steep SS and high ON currents in the same device. We demonstrate sub-thermionic transport sustained up to 4 decades with SSmin ˜ 8.3 mV/dec and SSavg ˜ 37.5(25) mV/dec for 4(3) dec in few layer MoS2 dual gated FETs (planar and CMOS compatible) using tunnel injected Schottky contacts for a highly scaled drain voltage of 10 mV, the lowest for any sub-thermionic devices. Furthermore, the same devices can be tuned to operate in the thermionic regime with a field effect mobility of ˜84.3 cm2 V-1 s-1. A detailed mechanism involving the independent control of the Schottky barrier height and width through efficient device architecture and material processing elucidates the functioning of these devices. The Gate Tunable Thermionic Tunnel FET can function at a supply voltage of as low as 0.5 V, reducing power consumption dramatically.

  9. On thermionic emission from plasma-facing components in tokamak-relevant conditions.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komm, Michael; Ratynskaia, S.; Tolias, P.; Cavalier, Jordan; Dejarnac, Renaud; Gunn, J. P.; Podolník, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 9 (2017), č. článku 094002. ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14228S; GA MŠk(CZ) 8D15001 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : thermionic * PIC * tungsten * tokamak * thermionic emission * plasma facing components * particle-in-cell Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.392, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6587/aa78c4/pdf

  10. Reducing Back-Bombardment Effect Using Thermionic Cathode in IAE RF Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Kii, Toshiteru; Masuda, Kai; Murakami, Shio; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Tetsuo; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Zen, Heishun

    2004-01-01

    We have numerically studied on improvement of electron beam macro-pulse properties from thermionic RF gun [1,2]. Beam properties, such as energy spectrum, macro-pulse duration and emittance were measured with a 2 mm diameter slim thermionic dispenser cathode. Effect of the transverse magnetic field to reduce back-streaming electrons to these properties was studied experimentally. Comparison with measured and numerical results will be discussed. Effect of a non-flat RF input to compensate a decreasing beam energy during macropulse due to a back-bombardment effect will be also presented.

  11. Particle emission measurement campaign for biomass heating systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    This study aims at assessing the energetic and environmental performance of operating biomass heating systems, more particularly with respect to regulatory and required limit values of particle emissions. The measurement campaign concerned 14 biomass heating installations of less than 4 MW equipped with either a cyclone-type de-duster, or a sleeve filter, or electro-filters. The report discusses the measured parameters (wood and ash analysis, atmospheric releases) and the applied methodology (sampling and measurements). It describes the methodology used to compute energetic and environmental performance (efficiency, load rate, emission factors), and finally discusses the obtained results

  12. Manipulator-deployed laser decontamination system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littwin, Rene; Hurtado, Antonio; Lippmann, Wolfgang

    2011-09-01

    system can be used for the type of concrete commonly used in reactors. The functionality of the combined system (manipulator unit created by KIT and laser unit created by TU Dresden) was finally demonstrated under realistic conditions at TU Dresden in collaboration with KIT. The system could freely be moved and operated via remote control on a vertical test wall, which was specifically designed for purpose of this experiment. The laser ablation on a concrete surface could be successfully demonstrated in several experiments of laboratory scale under conditions typical for nu-clear power plants. Given these results, it can be concluded that the system is technologically applicable in upcoming decommissioning projects and that the project aim has been achieved.

  13. SOFC/TEG hybrid mCHP system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-15

    The starting point for this project have been the challenge has been to develop a cost effective solution with long term stability. This is where a focused effort in a strong consortium covering material research, module development and manufacture as well as device design and optimization can make a real difference. In March 2010 the SOFTEG phase II project was initiated and a cooperation organization was established to implement the project as a development and demonstration project involving the staff from all project partners. The project is now completed with excellent and documented outcome. The final results by Alpcon have been demonstration as a TEG-based mCHP system calls CHP Dual Engine Power System, which will be applicable as both a standalone TEG-CHP hybrid system, but also as an auxiliary power unit and power booster for the SOFC system. However the SOFC system cannot cover the household's heat demand alone so it is necessary to combine a SOFC system together with a water heater/boiler system to cover the peak heat demand of a residential house or a complex building. The SOFTEG project partners achieved significant results that mainly can be outlined as following: 1) University of Aarhus has improved the thermal stability of ZnSb by optimizing the concentration of Nano composite material. 2) The grain size and its influence on the sintering process by spark plasma method are investigated by Aarhus University, but further work seems to be necessary. 3) The TE material is going to commercialization by Aarhus University. 4) Aalborg University has prepared simulation tools for complex thermoelectric simulation in non-steady state condition. 5) The new type DCDC interleaved converter using the MPPT system for optimal power tracing is designed, build and tested by Aalborg University in cooperation with Alpcon. This task is included overall system design, control system implementation and power electronic control design. 6) Full scale practical

  14. Simple model for the description of a thermionic Cs diode in operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschersich, K.G.

    1975-01-01

    Because of the small voltage loss in the space between the electrodes, Cs is the most common work medium in thermionic diodes. With the model calculations of the processes in the space between the electrodes, the author aims to explain the formation of Cs ions and the current transport through the electrode gap at these low voltages. (RW/AK) [de

  15. Measures to alleviate the back bombardment effect of thermionic rf electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.; Xie, J.

    1991-01-01

    Thermionic rf electron gun finds application as a high brightness electron source for rf linacs. However, cathode heating from back-bombardment effect causes a ramp in the macro-pulse beam current and limit the usable pulse width. Three methods: ring cathode, magnetic deflection and laser assisted heating are studied in theory and in experiment. The results of these studies are reported

  16. Numerical simulations of the thermionic electron gun for electron-beam welding and micromachining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jánský, Pavel; Zlámal, J.; Lencová, Bohumila; Zobač, Martin; Vlček, Ivan; Radlička, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 2 (2009), s. 357-362 ISSN 0042-207X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100650805 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : Numerical simulation * Thermionic emission * Electron gun Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2009

  17. BUBBLES: an Automated Decision Support System for Final Approach Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Zhizang

    1990-01-01

    With the assumptions that an explicit schedule exists for landings (and takeoffs) at each runway, that each aircraft has declared an IAS for final approach and will be obligated to fly it as accurately as possible, and that there is a continuous estimate of average windspeed on approach, the objective was to provide automated cues to assist controllers in the spacing of landing aircraft. The cues have two characteristics. First, they are adaptive to estimation errors in position and speed by the radar tracking process and piloting errors in the execution of turns and commanded speed reductions. Second, the cues are responsive to the desires of the human controller. Several diagrams are used to help explain the system.

  18. Health Resources Priority and Allocations System (HRPAS). Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-17

    This interim final rule establishes standards and procedures by which the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) may require that certain contracts or orders that promote the national defense be given priority over other contracts or orders. This rule also sets new standards and procedures by which HHS may allocate materials, services, and facilities to promote the national defense. This rule will implement HHS's administration of priorities and allocations actions, and establish the Health Resources Priorities and Allocation System (HRPAS). The HRPAS will cover health resources pursuant to the authority under Section 101(c) of the Defense Production Act as delegated to HHS by Executive Order 13603. Priorities authorities (and other authorities delegated to the Secretary in E.O. 13603, but not covered by this regulation) may be re-delegated by the Secretary. The Secretary retains the authority for allocations.

  19. Final design of thermal diagnostic system in SPIDER ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brombin, M., E-mail: matteo.brombin@igi.cnr.it; Dalla Palma, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pomaro, N. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The prototype radio frequency source of the ITER heating neutral beams will be first tested in SPIDER test facility to optimize H{sup −} production, cesium dynamics, and overall plasma characteristics. Several diagnostics will allow to fully characterise the beam in terms of uniformity and divergence and the source, besides supporting a safe and controlled operation. In particular, thermal measurements will be used for beam monitoring and system protection. SPIDER will be instrumented with mineral insulated cable thermocouples, both on the grids, on other components of the beam source, and on the rear side of the beam dump water cooled elements. This paper deals with the final design and the technical specification of the thermal sensor diagnostic for SPIDER. In particular the layout of the diagnostic, together with the sensors distribution in the different components, the cables routing and the conditioning and acquisition cubicles are described.

  20. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  1. Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) Munition Classification System enhancements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, O.A.; Huggard, J.C.

    1997-09-18

    Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) is a non-destructive evaluation technology developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This technology has resulted in three generations of instrumentation, funded by the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), specifically designed for field identification of chemical weapon (CW) munitions. Each generation of ARS instrumentation was developed with a specific user in mind. The ARS1OO was built for use by the U.N. Inspection Teams going into Iraq immediately after the Persian Gulf War. The ARS200 was built for use in the US-Russia Bilateral Chemical Weapons Treaty (the primary users for this system are the US Onsite Inspection Agency (OSIA) and their Russian counterparts). The ARS300 was built with the requirements of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in mind. Each successive system is an improved version of the previous system based on learning the weaknesses of each and, coincidentally, on the fact that more time was available to do a requirements analysis and the necessary engineering development. The ARS300 is at a level of development that warrants transferring the technology to a commercial vendor. Since LANL will supply the computer software to the selected vendor, it is possible for LANL to continue to improve the decision algorithms, add features where necessary, and adjust the user interface before the final transfer occurs. This paper describes the current system, ARS system enhancements, and software enhancements. Appendices contain the Operations Manual (software Version 3.01), and two earlier reports on enhancements.

  2. Commercial thermal distribution systems, Final report for CIEE/CEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang; Bechu, Olivier; Carrie, Remi; Dickerhoff, Darryl; Fisk, William; Franconi, Ellen; Kristiansen, Oyvind; Levinson, Ronnen; McWilliams, Jennifer; Wang, Duo; Modera, Mark; Webster, Tom; Ring, Erik; Zhang, Qiang; Huizenga, Charlie; Bauman, Fred; Arens, Ed

    1999-12-01

    According to the California Energy Commission (CEC 1998a), California commercial buildings account for 35% of statewide electricity consumption, and 16% of statewide gas consumption. Space conditioning accounts for roughly 16,000 GWh of electricity and 800 million therms of natural gas annually, and the vast majority of this space conditioning energy passes through thermal distribution systems in these buildings. In addition, 8600 GWh per year is consumed by fans and pumps in commercial buildings, most of which is used to move the thermal energy through these systems. Research work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been ongoing over the past five years to investigate the energy efficiency of these thermal distribution systems, and to explore possibilities for improving that energy efficiency. Based upon that work, annual savings estimates of 1 kWh/ft{sup 2} for light commercial buildings, and 1-2 kWh/ft{sup 2} in large commercial buildings have been developed for the particular aspects of thermal distribution system performance being addressed by this project. Those savings estimates, combined with a distribution of the building stock based upon an extensive stock characterization study (Modera et al. 1999a), and technical penetration estimates, translate into statewide saving potentials of 2000 GWh/year and 75 million thermal/year, as well as an electricity peak reduction potential of 0.7 GW. The overall goal of this research program is to provide new technology and application knowledge that will allow the design, construction, and energy services industries to reduce the energy waste associated with thermal distribution systems in California commercial buildings. The specific goals of the LBNL efforts over the past year were: (1) to advance the state of knowledge about system performance and energy losses in commercial-building thermal distribution systems; (2) to evaluate the potential of reducing thermal losses through duct sealing, duct

  3. Research and Development of a New Field Enhanced Low Temperature Thermionic Cathode that Enables Fluorescent Dimming and Loan Shedding without Auxiliary Cathode Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jin

    2009-01-07

    This is the final report for project entitled 'Research and development of a new field enhanced low temperature thermionic cathode that enables fluorescent dimming and load shedding without auxiliary cathode heating', under Agreement Number: DE-FC26-04NT-42329. Under this project, a highly efficient CNT based thermionic cathode was demonstrated. This cathode is capable of emitting electron at a current density two order of magnitude stronger then a typical fluorescent cathode at same temperatures, or capable of emitting at same current density but at temperature about 300 C lower than that of a fluorescent cathode. Detailed fabrication techniques were developed including CVD growth of CNTs and sputter deposition of oxide thin films on CNTs. These are mature technologies that have been widely used in industry for large scale materials processing and device fabrications, thus, with further development work, the techniques developed in this project can be scaled-up in manufacturing environment. The prototype cathodes developed in this project were tested in lighting plasma discharge environment. In many cases, they not only lit and sustain the plasma, but also out perform the fluorescent cathodes in key parameters such like cathode fall voltages. More work will be needed to further evaluate more detailed and longer term performance of the prototype cathode in lighting plasma.

  4. Final focus system tuning studies towards Compact Linear Collider feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Marin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the latest results regarding the tuning study of the baseline design of the final focus system of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC-FFS. CLIC aims to provide collisions to the experiments at a luminosity above 10^{34}  cm^{-2} s^{-1}. In order to deliver such luminosity in a single pass machine, the vertical beam size at the interaction point (IP is reduced to about 1 nm, which imposes unprecedented tuning difficulties to the system. In previous studies, 90% of the machines reached 90% of the nominal luminosity at the expense of 18 000 luminosity measurements, when considering beam position monitor errors and transverse misalignments of magnets for a single beam case. In the present study, additional static imperfections such as roll misalignments and strength errors are included. Moreover both e^{-} and e^{+} beamlines are properly simulated. A new tuning procedure based on linear and nonlinear knobs is implemented to effectively cure the most relevant beam size aberrations at the IP. The obtained results for single and double beam studies under solely static imperfections are presented.

  5. Electron Beam Final Focus System For Thomson Scattering At Elbe

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, J.M.; Bødkera, F.; Irman, A.; Jochmann, A.; Kristensena, J.P.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Schramm, U.; 10.1016/j.nima.2015.10.067

    2016-01-01

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and diverg...

  6. Electron beam final focus system for Thomson scattering at ELBE

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, J.M.; Bødker, F.; Irman, A.; .Jochmann A.; Kristensen, J.P.; Lehnert U., HZDR; Michel, P.; Schrammb, U.; 10.1016/j.nima.2015.10.067

    2016-01-01

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and diverg...

  7. Final focus system tuning studies towards Compact Linear Collider feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, E.; Latina, A.; Tomás, R.; Schulte, D.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present the latest results regarding the tuning study of the baseline design of the final focus system of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC-FFS). CLIC aims to provide collisions to the experiments at a luminosity above 1034 c m-2 s-1 . In order to deliver such luminosity in a single pass machine, the vertical beam size at the interaction point (IP) is reduced to about 1 nm, which imposes unprecedented tuning difficulties to the system. In previous studies, 90% of the machines reached 90% of the nominal luminosity at the expense of 18 000 luminosity measurements, when considering beam position monitor errors and transverse misalignments of magnets for a single beam case. In the present study, additional static imperfections as, roll misalignments, strength v2.epss are included. Moreover both e- and e+ beamlines are properly simulated. A new tuning procedure based on linear and nonlinear knobs is implemented to effectively cure the most relevant beam size aberrations at the IP. The obtained results for single and double beam studies under solely static imperfections are presented.

  8. Expanded studies of linear collider final focus systems at the Final Focus Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenenbaum, Peter Gregory [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    In order to meet their luminosity goals, linear colliders operating in the center-of-mass energy range from 3,50 to 1,500 GeV will need to deliver beams which are as small as a few Manometers tall, with x:y aspect ratios as large as 100. The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a prototype for the final focus demanded by these colliders: its purpose is to provide demagnification equivalent to those in the future linear collider, which corresponds to a focused spot size in the FFTB of 1.7 microns (horizontal) by 60 manometers (vertical). In order to achieve the desired spot sizes, the FFTB beam optics must be tuned to eliminate aberrations and other errors, and to ensure that the optics conform to the desired final conditions and the measured initial conditions of the beam. Using a combination of incoming-beam diagnostics. beam-based local diagnostics, and global tuning algorithms, the FFTB beam size has been reduced to a stable final size of 1.7 microns by 70 manometers. In addition, the chromatic properties of the FFTB have been studied using two techniques and found to be acceptable. Descriptions of the hardware and techniques used in these studies are presented, along with results and suggestions for future research.

  9. Expanded studies of linear collider final focus systems at the Final Focus Test Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenenbaum, P.G.

    1995-12-01

    In order to meet their luminosity goals, linear colliders operating in the center-of-mass energy range from 3,50 to 1,500 GeV will need to deliver beams which are as small as a few Manometers tall, with x:y aspect ratios as large as 100. The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a prototype for the final focus demanded by these colliders: its purpose is to provide demagnification equivalent to those in the future linear collider, which corresponds to a focused spot size in the FFTB of 1.7 microns (horizontal) by 60 manometers (vertical). In order to achieve the desired spot sizes, the FFTB beam optics must be tuned to eliminate aberrations and other errors, and to ensure that the optics conform to the desired final conditions and the measured initial conditions of the beam. Using a combination of incoming-beam diagnostics. beam-based local diagnostics, and global tuning algorithms, the FFTB beam size has been reduced to a stable final size of 1.7 microns by 70 manometers. In addition, the chromatic properties of the FFTB have been studied using two techniques and found to be acceptable. Descriptions of the hardware and techniques used in these studies are presented, along with results and suggestions for future research

  10. Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Undergoes Communications Systems Final Check

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Dunned in his space suit, Lunar Module pilot Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr. does a final check of his communications system before the boarding of the Apollo 11 mission. Launched via a Saturn V launch vehicle, the first manned lunar mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Aldrin; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Neil Armstrong, mission commander. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. Meanwhile, astronaut Collins piloted the CM in a parking orbit around the Moon. During a 2½ hour surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  11. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong Undergoes Communications Systems Final Check

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Dunned in his space suit, mission commander Neil A. Armstrong does a final check of his communications system before before the boarding of the Apollo 11 mission. Launched via a Saturn V launch vehicle, the first manned lunar mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Armstrong; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) Pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. Meanwhile, astronaut Collins piloted the CM in a parking orbit around the Moon. During a 2½ hour surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  12. Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant-Based Outdoor Air Preconditioning Systems, Final Report: Phase 3; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation of the performance of two active desiccant cooling systems that were installed as pilot systems in two locations-a college dormitory and a research laboratory-during the fall of 1999. The laboratory system was assembled in the field from commercially available Trane air-handling modules combined with a standard total energy recovery module and a customized active desiccant wheel, both produced by SEMCO. The dormitory system was a factory-built, integrated system produced by SEMCO that included both active desiccant and sensible-only recovery wheels, a direct-fired gas regeneration section, and a pre-piped Trane heat pump condensing section. Both systems were equipped with direct digital control systems, complete with full instrumentation and remote monitoring capabilities. This report includes detailed descriptions of these two systems, installation details, samples of actual performance, and estimations of the energy savings realized. These pi lot sites represent a continuation of previous active desiccant product development research (Fischer, Hallstrom, and Sand 2000; Fischer 2000). Both systems performed as anticipated, were reliable, and required minimal maintenance. The dehumidification/total-energy-recovery hybrid approach was particularly effective in all respects. System performance showed remarkable improvement in latent load handling capability and operating efficiency compared with the original conventional cooling system and with the conventional system that remained in another, identical wing of the facility. The dehumidification capacity of the pilot systems was very high, the cost of operation was very low, and the system was cost-effective, offering a simple payback for these retrofit installations of approximately 5 to 6 years. Most important, the dormitory system resolved numerous indoor air quality problems in the dormitory by providing effective humidity control and increased, continuous ventilation air

  13. Parametric performance analysis of steam-injected gas turbine with a thermionic-energy-converter-lined combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Y. K.; Burns, R. K.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of steam-injected gas turbines having combustors lined with thermionic energy converters (STIG/TEC systems) was analyzed and compared with that of two baseline systems; a steam-injected gas turbine (without a TEC-lined combustor) and a conventional combined gas turbine/steam turbine cycle. Common gas turbine parameters were assumed for all of the systems. Two configurations of the STIG/TEC system were investigated. In both cases, steam produced in an exhaust-heat-recovery boiler cools the TEC collectors. It is then injected into the gas combustion stream and expanded through the gas turbine. The STIG/TEC system combines the advantage of gas turbine steam injection with the conversion of high-temperature combustion heat by TEC's. The addition of TEC's to the baseline steam-injected gas turbine improves both its efficiency and specific power. Depending on system configuration and design parameters, the STIG/TEC system can also achieve higher efficiency and specific power than the baseline combined cycle.

  14. Development of advanced electromagnetic exploration system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    The electronics system design for both the transmitting system and the receiving system, the laboratory test results obtained on the system completed thus far, and the effort needed to complete the system are detailed. (MHR)

  15. A final focus system for the Next Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, F.; Brown, K.; Emma, P.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Tenenbaum, P.; Wilson, P.

    1995-06-01

    The final focus of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) demagnifies electron and positron beams of 250--750 GeV energy down to a transverse size of about 2.5 x 350 nm 2 at the interaction point (IP). The basic layout, momentum bandwidth, vibration tolerances, wakefield effects, and the tunability of the proposed final focus design are discussed. Also a perspective is given on the crab cavity and on effects of the solenoid field in the interaction region

  16. Measurement of back-bombardment temperature rise in microwave thermionic electron guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Jeremy M D; Hadmack, Michael R; Madey, John M J

    2013-08-01

    We describe a simple method to measure the back-bombardment heating temperature rise as a function of time in pulsed microwave thermionic guns using a fast rise-time InGaAs detector and optical pyrometer. Gaining knowledge of the nature of that temperature rise and the corresponding current out of the gun are the first steps in devising a scheme to counteract the back-bombardment heating which lengthens the micropulses, limits the macropulse length, and increases the energy spread of the emitted electron beam. We measured a temperature rise of 59 K in our LaB6 cathode which delivered a peak of 600 mA over a 5 μs RF pulse in our 0.33 MV/cm peak field, 2.856 GHz thermionic electron gun.

  17. LOFT integral test system final safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-03-01

    Safety analyses are presented for the following LOFT Reactor systems: engineering safety features; support buildings and facilities; instrumentation and controls; electrical systems; and auxiliary systems. (JWR)

  18. Evaluation of precision in measurements of uranium isotope ratio by thermionic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, N.M.P. de; Rodrigues, C.

    1977-01-01

    The parameters which affect the precision and accuracy of uranium isotopic ratios measurements by thermionic mass spectrometry are discussed. A statistical designed program for the analysis of the internal and external variances are presented. It was done an application of this statistical methods, in order to get mass discrimination factor, and its standard mean deviation, by using some results already published for 235 U/ 238 U ratio in NBS uranium samples, and natural uranium [pt

  19. Theory of photoexcited and thermionic emission across a two-dimensional graphene-semiconductor Schottky junction

    OpenAIRE

    Trushin, Maxim

    2017-01-01

    We find that intrinsic graphene provides efficient photocarrier transport across a two-dimensional graphene-semiconductor Schottky junction as a linear response to monochromatic light with excitation energy well below the semiconductor bandgap. The operation mechanism relies both on zero-bias photoexcited and thermionic emission contributing to photoresponsivity, enabled by the extended photocarrier thermalization time in intrinsic graphene. The photoresponsivity rapidly increases with excita...

  20. Simulation Study of a Thermionic RF Gun for High Brightness and Short Pulse Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Takumi; Hinode, Fujio; Kawai, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Shinto, Katsuhiro

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of thermionic RF guns are not understood completely. In particular, measured intense beam emittances extracted from thermionic RF guns do not agree well with simulated values so far. Most of simulation codes solve the equation of electron motion in an intrinsic mode of the RF field calculated by a separated code. The way of such simulation codes is not self-consistent completely. That is probably a major reason for the discrepancy between the experiments and the simulations. One of the other way for a self-consistent simulation codes is to use an FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method. Since the FDTD method can take into account the microwave propagation including the space charge effect and the beam loading self-consistently, we have developed an FDTD code as 3-D Maxwell's equation solver and applied for a study of beam dynamics in a thermionic RF gun. The main purpose of simulaiton study is to obtain overall properties of the beam dynamics at the time. The goal of this simulation study ...

  1. Thermionic combustor application to combined gas and steam turbine power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskolczy, G.; Wang, C. C.; Lieb, D. P.; Margulies, A. E.; Fusegni, L. J.; Lovell, B. J.

    A design for the insertion of thermionic converters into the wall of a conventional combustor to produce electricity in a topping cycle is described, and a study for applications in gas and steam generators of 70 and 30 MW is evaluated for engineering and economic feasibility. Waste heat from the thermionic elements is used to preheat the combustor air; the heat absorbed by the elements plus further quenching of the exhaust gases with ammonia is projected to reduce NO(x) emissions to acceptable levels. Schematics, flow diagrams, and components of a computer model for cost projections are provided. It was found that temperatures around the emitters must be maintained above 1,600 K, with maximum efficiency and allowable temperature at 1,800 K, while collectors generate maximally at 950 K, with a corresponding work function of 1.5 eV. Cost sensitive studies indicate an installed price of $475/kW for the topping cycle, with improvements in thermionic converter characteristics bringing the cost to $375/kW at a busbar figure of 500 mills/kWh.

  2. Study of beam transverse properties of a thermionic electron gun for application to a compact THz free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Tongning; Qin, Bin; Tan, Ping; Chen, Qushan; Yang, Lei; Pei, Yuanji; Li, Ji

    2014-01-01

    A novel thermionic electron gun adopted for use in a high power THz free electron laser (FEL) is proposed in this paper. By optimization of the structural and radiofrequency (RF) parameters, the physical design of the gun is performed using dynamic calculations. Velocity bunching is used to minimize the bunch's energy spread, and the dynamic calculation results indicate that high quality beams can be provided. The transverse properties of the beams generated by the gun are also analyzed. The novel RF focusing effects of the resonance cavity are investigated precisely and are used to establish emittance compensation, which enables the injector length to be reduced. In addition, the causes of the extrema of the beam radius and the normalized transverse emittance are analyzed and interpreted, respectively, and slice simulations are performed to illustrate how the RF focusing varies along the bunch length and to determine the effects of that variation on the emittance compensation. Finally, by observation of the variations of the beam properties in the drift tube behind the electron gun, prospective assembly scenarios for the complete THz-FEL injector are discussed, and a joint-debugging process for the injector is implemented

  3. Telephone Enrollment in the VA Healthcare System. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-12

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as final, without change, an interim final rule amending its medical regulations. Specifically, this rule allows veterans to complete applications for health care enrollment by providing application information, agreeing to VA's provisions regarding copayment liability and assignment of third-party insurance benefits, and attesting to the accuracy and authenticity of the information provided to a VA employee over the phone. This action makes it easier for veterans to apply to enroll and speeds VA processing of applications.

  4. Final Report. Novel Behavior of Ferromagnet/Superconductor Hybrid Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birge, Norman [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-09-26

    Final report for grant DE-FG02-06ER46341. This work has produced a most convincing experimental demonstration that spin-triplet supercurrent can appear in Josephson junctions containing ferromagnetic materials, even when the superconducting electrodes are conventional, spin-singlet superconductors.

  5. NNWSI project information management system concepts evaluation report. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This report is intended as a first step in developing detailed information management system specifications for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. The current state of information management at the NNWSI Project level is investigated and an information management system (IMS) is proposed. The IMS as it relates to aspects of Project and records management is discussed. Information management concepts and prospective IMS system components are investigated. Concepts and system components include: indexing, searching, retrieval, data base management system technology, computers, storage media, computer-assisted retrieval (CAR) of microfilm, electronic imaging-based systems, optical character recognition, and communications. Performance criteria and desirable system attributes applicable to the IMS are discussed. Six conceptual system approaches capable of satisfying the performance criteria are defined. System approaches include: fully centralized microfilm system based on CAR retrieval (Approach 1), partially distributed microfilm system based on CAR retrieval (Approach 2), fully distributed microfilm system based on CAR retrieval (Approach 3), fully centralized optical disk system based on electronic image and full-text retrieval (Approach 4), partially distributed optical system based on electron image and full-text retrieval (Approach 5), and fully distributed optical disk system based on electronic image and full-text retrieval (Approach 6). Technical and cost considerations associated with the six conceptual approaches are evaluated. Technical evaluation results indicate Approach 4 is the best conceptual approach, and cost evaluation results show no significant differences among approaches. On the basis of the evaluation, Approach 4 is recommended

  6. KNOBS (Knowledge-Based System) - The Final Report (1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    Patterns............................ 52 page v. :~ * ; ~ ~ - ~ > . W~ \\’W KNOBS The Final Report Fiscal Year 1982 The Need for Ellipsis and Anaphora ...English phrasing of these rules starts with "If there exists a • .. " or "In the presence of a ... " Pragmatically , the "there exists" interpretation of a...for Ellipsis and Anaphora - Two airbases in the KNOBS data base are "Hahn" and "Ramstein." The user could ask (again, in this hypothetical command

  7. Final state multiplicity and particle correlation in small systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mariani, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Final state variables and particle correlation will be discussed under a Multiple Parton Interaction (MPI) interpretation. The state of the art about the latest results on such variables will be provided. Furthermore the role played by event multiplicity in the deep understanding of particle correlation, in particular concerning the new results on the Long-Range Near Side two particle correlations by the CMS Collaboration, will bediscussed.

  8. Drainage facility management system : final report, June 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This research project identified requirements for a drainage facility management system for the Oregon Department of Transportation. It also estimated the personnel resources needed to collect the inventory to populate such a system with data. A tota...

  9. Power plant system assessment. Final report. SP-100 Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.V.; Atkins, D.F.; Bost, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment was to provide system-level insights into 100-kWe-class space reactor electric systems. Using these insights, Rockwell was to select and perform conceptual design studies on a ''most attractive'' system that met the preliminary design goals and requirements of the SP-100 Program. About 4 of the 6 months were used in the selection process. The remaining 2 months were used for the system conceptual design studies. Rockwell completed these studies at the end of FY 1983. This report summarizes the results of the power plant system assessment and describes our choice for the most attractive system - the Rockwell SR-100G System (Space Reactor, 100 kWe, Growth) - a lithium-cooled UN-fueled fast reactor/Brayton turboelectric converter system

  10. Organic Rankine Kilowatt Isotope Power System. Final phase I report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    On 1 August 1975 under Department of Energy Contract EN-77-C-02-4299, Sundstrand Energy Systems commenced development of a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) directed toward satisfying the higher power requirements of satellites of the 1980s and beyond. The KIPS is a 238 PuO 2 fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system which will provide design output power in the range of 500 to 2000 W/sub (e)/ with a minimum of system changes. The principal objectives of the Phase 1 development effort were to: conceptually design a flight system; design a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) that is prototypic of the flight system in order to prove the feasibility of the flight system design; fabricate and assemble the GDS; and performance and endurance test the GDS using electric heaters in lieu of the isotope heat source. Results of the work performed under the Phase 1 contract to 1 July 1978 are presented

  11. Power plant system assessment. Final report. SP-100 Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.V.; Atkins, D.F.; Bost, D.S.; Berman, B.; Clinger, D.A.; Determan, W.R.; Drucker, G.S.; Glasgow, L.E.; Hartung, J.A.; Harty, R.B.

    1983-10-31

    The purpose of this assessment was to provide system-level insights into 100-kWe-class space reactor electric systems. Using these insights, Rockwell was to select and perform conceptual design studies on a ''most attractive'' system that met the preliminary design goals and requirements of the SP-100 Program. About 4 of the 6 months were used in the selection process. The remaining 2 months were used for the system conceptual design studies. Rockwell completed these studies at the end of FY 1983. This report summarizes the results of the power plant system assessment and describes our choice for the most attractive system - the Rockwell SR-100G System (Space Reactor, 100 kWe, Growth) - a lithium-cooled UN-fueled fast reactor/Brayton turboelectric converter system.

  12. Solar system installation at Louisville, Kentucky (final report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-07

    A contract was awarded in June 1976 for the installation of a solar space heating and domestic hot water system at 2400 Watteroon Trail, Louisville, Kentucky. The overall philosophy used was to install both a liquid and a hot air system retrofitted to the existing office and combined warehouse building. The 1080 sq ft office space is heated first and excess heat is dumped into the warehouse. The two systems offered a unique opportunity to measure the performance and compare results of both air and liquid at one site. The two systems are described in detail and information on the data acquisition system is included.

  13. Technology verification phase. Dynamic isotope power system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Phase I requirements of the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) program were to make a detailed Flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD) for an isotope fueled organic Rankine cycle power system and to build and test a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) which simulated as closely as possible the operational characteristics of the FSCD. The activities and results of Phase II, the Technology Verification Phase, of the program are reported. The objectives of this phase were to increase system efficiency to 18.1% by component development, to demonstrate system reliability by a 5000 h endurance test and to update the flight system design. During Phase II, system performance was improved from 15.1% to 16.6%, an endurance test of 2000 h was performed while the flight design analysis was limited to a study of the General Purpose Heat Source, a study of the regenerator manufacturing technique and analysis of the hardness of the system to a laser threat. It was concluded from these tests that the GDS is basically prototypic of a flight design; all components necessary for satisfactory operation were demonstrated successfully at the system level; over 11,000 total h of operation without any component failure attested to the inherent reliability of this type of system; and some further development is required, specifically in the area of performance

  14. Technology verification phase. Dynamic isotope power system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, D.G.

    1982-03-10

    The Phase I requirements of the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) program were to make a detailed Flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD) for an isotope fueled organic Rankine cycle power system and to build and test a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) which simulated as closely as possible the operational characteristics of the FSCD. The activities and results of Phase II, the Technology Verification Phase, of the program are reported. The objectives of this phase were to increase system efficiency to 18.1% by component development, to demonstrate system reliability by a 5000 h endurance test and to update the flight system design. During Phase II, system performance was improved from 15.1% to 16.6%, an endurance test of 2000 h was performed while the flight design analysis was limited to a study of the General Purpose Heat Source, a study of the regenerator manufacturing technique and analysis of the hardness of the system to a laser threat. It was concluded from these tests that the GDS is basically prototypic of a flight design; all components necessary for satisfactory operation were demonstrated successfully at the system level; over 11,000 total h of operation without any component failure attested to the inherent reliability of this type of system; and some further development is required, specifically in the area of performance. (LCL)

  15. Photovoltaic-system costing-methodology development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    Presented are the results of a study to expand the use of standardized costing methodologies in the National Photovoltaics Program. The costing standards, which include SAMIS for manufacturing costs and M and D for marketing and distribution costs, have been applied to concentrator collectors and power-conditioning units. The M and D model was also computerized. Finally, a uniform construction cost-accounting structure was developed for use in photovoltaic test and application projects. The appendices contain example cases which demonstrate the use of the models.

  16. GO evaluation of a PWR spray system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, W.T.

    1975-08-01

    GO is a reliability analysis methodology developed over the years from 1960 to the present by Kaman Sciences Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado. In this report the GO methodology is presented and its application demonstrated by performing a reliability analysis of a conceptual PWR Containment Spray System. Certain numerical results obtained are compared with those of a prior fault tree analysis of the same system as documented in the 11 January 1973 draft report, A Fault Tree Evaluation of a PWR Spray System

  17. TAP II Processing System Final Report. Hardware Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    system operating instructions. Separate operacion and maintenance manuals are available for the HDDR elec- tronics and the recorders, the Analogic A...has been used on prior shipboard systems in conjunc- tion with the Lambda array. Emphasis is given in this manual to the new equipment and processing...S.E./8 Channel Diffetential t• Multiplexer FLOATING POINT SYSTEMS, DOCUMENTATION . jFPS-7309. AP-120B Internal Interface Manual FPS-7322 AP-120B

  18. New York integrated incident management system evaluation project final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-23

    The Integrated Incident Management System (IIMS) enables incident response personnel to transmit data about an incident to other responders and dispatchers on a real-time basis. When an incident is entered into IIMS, the system uses GPS to identify t...

  19. Mirror fusion test facility magnet system. Final design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Hodges, A.J.; VanSant, J.H.; Dalder, E.N.; Hinkle, R.E.; Horvath, J.A.; Scanlan, R.M.; Shimer, D.W.; Baldi, R.W.; Tatro, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Information is given on each of the following topics: (1) magnet description, (2) superconducting manufacture, (3) mechanical behavior of conductor winding, (4) coil winding, (5) thermal analysis, (6) cryogenic system, (7) power supply system, (8) structural analysis, (9) structural finite element analysis refinement, (10) structural case fault analysis, and (11) structural metallurgy

  20. Economic incentives to wind systems commercialization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotker, M.; Shaw, Jr, R. W.; Adolfson, W. F.; Bernardi, R. P.; Davidoff, P. H.; Eckhart, M. T.; Gunwaldsen, D. S.; Mettam, P. J.; Narayanan, P.; Sillin, J. O.

    1978-08-01

    This assessment of Economic Incentives to Wind Systems Commercialization is an analysis of the quantitative and qualitative impacts of a variety of Government funded economic incentives on Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS). The purpose of this study is to achieve better understanding of the relationship between implementation of specific economic incentives for WECS, and the factors surrounding WECS commercial introduction.

  1. Mirror fusion test facility magnet system. Final design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, C.D.; Hodges, A.J.; VanSant, J.H.; Dalder, E.N.; Hinkle, R.E.; Horvath, J.A.; Scanlan, R.M.; Shimer, D.W.; Baldi, R.W.; Tatro, R.E.

    1980-09-03

    Information is given on each of the following topics: (1) magnet description, (2) superconducting manufacture, (3) mechanical behavior of conductor winding, (4) coil winding, (5) thermal analysis, (6) cryogenic system, (7) power supply system, (8) structural analysis, (9) structural finite element analysis refinement, (10) structural case fault analysis, and (11) structural metallurgy. (MOW)

  2. OLAP: A Fast, Easy, Affordable Executive Information System--Finally!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Henry M.

    1995-01-01

    The University of Rochester's experience with online analytical processing (OLAP), part of its executive information system, is reported. The server, a multiuser, local area network (LAN)-based database loaded from legacy systems or a data warehouse, can rapidly manipulate and display data, and allows quick creation and changing of analytical…

  3. Advanced Caution and Warning System, Final Report - 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Aaseng, Gordon; Iverson, David; McCann, Robert S.; Robinson, Peter; Dittemore, Gary; Liolios, Sotirios; Baskaran, Vijay; Johnson, Jeremy; Lee, Charles; hide

    2013-01-01

    The work described in this report is a continuation of the ACAWS work funded in fiscal year (FY) 2010 under the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP), Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) project. In FY 2010, we developed requirements for an ACAWS system and vetted the requirements with potential users via a concept demonstration system. In FY 2011, we developed a working prototype of aspects of that concept, with placeholders for technologies to be fully developed in future phases of the project. The objective is to develop general capability to assist operators with system health monitoring and failure diagnosis. Moreover, ACAWS was integrated with the Discrete Controls (DC) task of the Autonomous Systems and Avionics (ASA) project. The primary objective of DC is to demonstrate an electronic and interactive procedure display environment and multiple levels of automation (automatic execution by computer, execution by computer if the operator consents, and manual execution by the operator).

  4. Developing maintainability for fusion power systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, H.S.; Mantz, H.C.; Curtis, C.T.; Buchheit, R.J.; Green, W.M.; Zuckerman, D.S.

    1979-11-01

    The overall purpose of the study is to identify design features of fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. Previous phases evaluated several commercial tokamak reactor design concepts. This final phase compares the maintainability of a tandem mirror reactor (TMR) commercial conceptual design with the most maintainable tokamak concept selected from earlier work. A series of maintainability design guidelines and desirable TMR design features are defined. The effects of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance for most of the reactor subsystems are defined. The comparison of the TMR and tokamak reactor maintenance costs and availabilities show that both reactors have similar costs for scheduled maintenance at 19.4 and 20.8 million dollars annually and similar scheduled downtime availability impacts, achieving approximate availabilities of 79% at optimized maintenance intervals and cost of electricity.

  5. Developing maintainability for fusion power systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, H.S.; Mantz, H.C.; Curtis, C.T.; Buchheit, R.J.; Green, W.M.; Zuckerman, D.S.

    1979-11-01

    The overall purpose of the study is to identify design features of fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. Previous phases evaluated several commercial tokamak reactor design concepts. This final phase compares the maintainability of a tandem mirror reactor (TMR) commercial conceptual design with the most maintainable tokamak concept selected from earlier work. A series of maintainability design guidelines and desirable TMR design features are defined. The effects of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance for most of the reactor subsystems are defined. The comparison of the TMR and tokamak reactor maintenance costs and availabilities show that both reactors have similar costs for scheduled maintenance at 19.4 and 20.8 million dollars annually and similar scheduled downtime availability impacts, achieving approximate availabilities of 79% at optimized maintenance intervals and cost of electricity

  6. System study of alternative waste management techniques: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes the important results achieved in conjunction with the Research and Development Priority ''Alternative Waste Management Techniques'' sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology from 1981 to 1984. The subject of these studies was solely ''direct disposal'' of spent fuel elements. For this purpose a reference concept was selected from a variety of possible processes and engineered in detailed form by firms in the nuclear industry. Those who worked on the engineering concepts consider this waste management method technically feasible. Several disposal casks have been fabricated. The basic licensability of direct disposal can be evaluated on the basis of the documentation developed by the companies. The direct disposal method was compared with the ''integrated waste management concept'' using reference fuel cycles with respect to the following criteria: radiological safety and nuclear material safeguards and, in addition, economic and energy-policy aspects. It was found that with respect to radiological safety, including the long-term safety of the final repository, there are no significant differences between the two fuel cycles with and without reprocessing. With respect to the nuclear material safeguards of a final repository containing spent fuel elements, there are still a number of unanswered questions. From an economic standpoint, direct disposal will be more economical in the foreseeable future than integrated waste management. Quantification of the effects of one or the other waste management method on the national economy is not necessarily possible. Reprocessing is supported primarily by technological and energy-policy considerations. On the basis of the results, the conclusion is reached that reprocessing should be pursued further, but that at the same time direct disposal should be developed to the point of practical maturity

  7. Nuclear Power Safety Reporting System. Final evaluation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finlayson, F.C.; Newton, R.D.

    1986-02-01

    This document presents the results of a study conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission of an unobtrusive, voluntary, anonymous third-party managed, nonpunitive human factors data gathering system (the Nuclear power Safety Reporting System - NPSRS) for the nuclear electric power production industry. The data to be gathered by the NPSRS are intended for use in identifying and quantifying the factors that contribute to the occurrence of significant safety incidents involving humans in nuclear power plants. The NPSRS has been designed to encourage participation in the System through guarantees of reporter anonymity provided by a third-party organization that would be responsible for NPSRS management. As additional motivation to reporters for contributing data to the NPSRS, conditional waivers of NRC disciplinary action would be provided to individuals. These conditional waivers of immunity would apply to potential violations of NRC regulations that might be disclosed through reports submitted to the System about inadvertent, noncriminal incidents in nuclear plants. This document summarizes the overall results of the study of the NPSRS concept. In it, a functional description of the NPSRS is presented together with a review and assessment of potential problem areas that might be met if the System were implemented. Conclusions and recommendations resulting from the study are also presented. A companion volume (NUREG/CR-4133, Nuclear Power Safety Reporting System: Implementation and Operational Specifications'') presented in detail the elements, requirements, forms, and procedures for implementing and operating the System. 13 refs

  8. Intergovernmental Advanced Stationary PEM Fuel Cell System Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich Chartrand

    2011-08-31

    A program to complete the design, construction and demonstration of a PEMFC system fuelled by Ethanol, LPG or NG for telecom applications was initiated in October 2007. Early in the program the economics for Ethanol were shown to be unfeasible and permission was given by DOE to focus on LPG only. The design and construction of a prototype unit was completed in Jun 2009 using commercially available PEM FC stack from Ballard Power Systems. During the course of testing, the high pressure drop of the stack was shown to be problematic in terms of control and stability of the reformer. Also, due to the power requirements for air compression the overall efficiency of the system was shown to be lower than a similar system using internally developed low pressure drop FC stack. In Q3 2009, the decision was made to change to the Plug power stack and a second prototype was built and tested. Overall net efficiency was shown to be 31.5% at 3 kW output. Total output of the system is 6 kW. Using the new stack hardware, material cost reduction of 63% was achieved over the previous Alpha design. During a November 2009 review meeting Plug Power proposed and was granted permission, to demonstrate the new, commercial version of Plug Power's telecom system at CERL. As this product was also being tested as part of a DOE Topic 7A program, this part of the program was transferred to the Topic 7A program. In Q32008, the scope of work of this program was expanded to include a National Grid demonstration project of a micro-CHP system using hightemperature PEM technology. The Gensys Blue system was cleared for unattended operation, grid connection, and power generation in Aug 2009 at Union College in NY state. The system continues to operate providing power and heat to Beuth House. The system is being continually evaluated and improvements to hardware and controls will be implemented as more is learned about the system's operation. The program is instrumental in improving the

  9. Automated personnel data base system specifications, Task V. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartley, H.J.; Bocast, A.K.; Deppner, F.O.; Harrison, O.J.; Kraas, I.W.

    1978-11-01

    The full title of this study is 'Development of Qualification Requirements, Training Programs, Career Plans, and Methodologies for Effective Management and Training of Inspection and Enforcement Personnel.' Task V required the development of an automated personnel data base system for NRC/IE. This system is identified as the NRC/IE Personnel, Assignment, Qualifications, and Training System (PAQTS). This Task V report provides the documentation for PAQTS including the Functional Requirements Document (FRD), the Data Requirements Document (DRD), the Hardware and Software Capabilities Assessment, and the Detailed Implementation Schedule. Specific recommendations to facilitate implementation of PAQTS are also included

  10. Retrospective (in-process) project evaluation system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-12-20

    The retrospective evaluation methodology, designed to measure the accomplishments of the Buildings and Community Systems projects that are either on-going or completed, is described. The Threshold Screening system and risk analysis methodologies are briefly described. The result of the addition of the retrospective (in-process) evaluation methodology to the threshold/risk analysis and resource allocation methodology is one system by which a project can be screened when it is proposed, monitored in its development, and evaluated at its completion. This report describes the methodology at this early point in its development.

  11. Laser fusion systems design study. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    This study investigated: (1) the formulation and evaluation of an alignment system to accomplish pointing, focusing, centering and translation for the 20-arm SHIVA laser, (2) the formulation and evaluation of concepts for the correction of static phase distortions introduced by the accumulated optical elements in the laser chains, (3) the formulation and evaluation of concepts for the correction of optical path length differences between the arms of the SHIVA system, and (4) the conceptual design of appropriate control system hardware. (U.S.)

  12. Intelligent transportation systems business plan for Kentucky : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This report presents a Business Plan for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) in Kentucky. The purpose of the Business Plan is to define ITS projects that are planned for implementation from 2002 through 2007. The list of projects contained withi...

  13. Final report bridge design system analysis and modernization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-27

    The Bridge Design System (BDS) is an in-house software program developed by the Michigan Department of Transportations : (MDOT) Bridge Design Unit. The BDS designs bridges according to the required specifications, and outputs corresponding design ...

  14. HARNESS: Heterogeneous Adaptable Reconfigurable Networked Systems. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagg, G. E.

    2004-01-20

    HARNESS was proposed as a system that combined the best of emerging technologies found in current distributed computing research and commercial products into a very flexible, dynamically adaptable framework that could be used by applications to allow them to evolve and better handle their execution environment. The HARNESS system was designed using the considerable experience from previous projects such as PVM, MPI, IceT and Cumulvs. As such, the system was designed to avoid any of the common problems found with using these current systems, such as no single point of failure, ability to survive machine, node and software failures. Additional features included improved intercomponent connectivity, with full support for dynamic down loading of addition components at run-time thus reducing the stress on application developers to build in all the libraries they need in advance.

  15. Safety evaluation of the SCATS control system, final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Since 1992, traffic signals in Oakland County and a portion of Macomb and Wayne Counties of Michigan have been : converted to the Sydney Coordinated Adaptive Traffic System (SCATS). County traffic engineers have been : adjusting various SCATS paramet...

  16. Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS) Operational Test, Final Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dellmyer, Dan

    2000-01-01

    ...) was to verify the Critical Operational Issues (COT). The AMASS is a runway collision alert system that provides tower air traffic controllers with automated conflict warnings and alerts to reduce the risks of runway collisions...

  17. Improved Controls for Fusion RF Systems. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    We have addressed the specific requirements for the integrated systems controlling an array of klystrons used for Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD). The immediate goal for our design was to modernize the transmitter protection system (TPS) for LHCD on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center (MIT-PSFC). Working with the Alcator C-Mod team, we have upgraded the design of these controls to retrofit for improvements in performance and safety, as well as to facilitate the upcoming expansion from 12 to 16 klystrons. The longer range goals to generalize the designs in such a way that they will be of benefit to other programs within the international fusion effort was met by designing a system which was flexible enough to address all the MIT system requirements, and modular enough to adapt to a large variety of other requirements with minimal reconfiguration

  18. Culvert information management system : demonstration project, final report, August 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The overall objective of the research was to develop a pilot scale Culvert Information Management System (CIMS) that will : comply with both requirements stipulated by the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB-34) and new federal : storm wate...

  19. Static Scale Conversion Weigh-In-Motion System; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshears, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    In support of the Air Mobility Battle Lab (AMBL), the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Advanced Logistics Program and the U. S. Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM), the ultimate objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a full-scale prototype static scale conversion weigh-in-motion/Profilometry (SSC-WIM/P) system to measure and record dimensional and weight information for the Department of Defense (DoD) equipment and cargo. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), along with the AMBL, and Intercomp, Inc. have developed a long-range plan for developing a dual-use system which can be used as a standard static scale or an accurate weigh-in-motion system. AMBL will work to define requirements for additional activities with U.S. Transportation Command, Air Mobility Command, and the Joint Warfighting Battle Lab for both the SSC-WIM/P and a portable Weigh-in-Motion System for individual units. The funding goal is to fully fund the development of two prototype test articles (a SSC-WIM kit, and a laser profilometer) and have at least one fully operational system by the early 2002 timeframe. The objective of this portion of the project will be to develop a SSC-WIM system, which at a later date can be fully integrated with a profilometry system; to fully characterize DOD wheeled vehicles and cargo (individual axle weights, total vehicle weight, center of balance, height, width and length measurements). The program will be completed in phases with the initial AMBL/DARPA funding being used to initiate the efforts while AMBL/USTC obtains funding to complete the first generation system effort. At the completion of an initial effort, the interface hardware and the data acquisition/analysis hardware will be developed, fabricated, and system principles and basic functionality evaluated, tested, and demonstrated. Additional funding, when made available, will allow the successful completion of a first generation prototype system. This effort will be

  20. Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchan, Toni M. [Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-12-02

    One of the great challenges facing current and future generations is how to meet growing energy demands in an environmentally sustainable manner. Renewable energy sources, including wind, geothermal, solar, hydroelectric, and biofuel energy systems, are rapidly being developed as sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels are particularly attractive to the U.S., given its vast agricultural resources. The first generation of biofuel systems was based on fermentation of sugars to produce ethanol, typically from food crops. Subsequent generations of biofuel systems, including those included in the CABS project, will build upon the experiences learned from those early research results and will have improved production efficiencies, reduced environmental impacts and decreased reliance on food crops. Thermodynamic models predict that the next generations of biofuel systems will yield three- to five-fold more recoverable energy products. To address the technological challenges necessary to develop enhanced biofuel systems, greater understanding of the non-equilibrium processes involved in solar energy conversion and the channeling of reduced carbon into biofuel products must be developed. The objective of the proposed Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) was to increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiency of select plant- and algal-based fuel production systems using rational metabolic engineering approaches grounded in modern systems biology. The overall strategy was to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion into oils and other specialty biofuel components by channeling metabolic flux toward products using advanced catalysts and sensible design:1) employing novel protein catalysts that increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiencies of photosynthesis and oil biosynthesis; 2) engineering metabolic networks to enhance acetyl-CoA production and its channeling towards lipid synthesis; and 3) engineering new metabolic networks for the

  1. Solar heating system installed at Jackson, Tennessee. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    The solar energy heating system installed at the Coca-Cola Bottling Works in Jackson, Tennessee is described. The system consists of 9480 square feet of Owens-Illinois evacuated tubular solar collectors with attached specular cylindrical reflectors and will provide space heating for the 70,000 square foot production building in the winter, and hot water for the bottle washing equipment the remainder of the year. Component specifications and engineering drawings are included. (WHK)

  2. Final Report for the Virtual Reliability Realization System LDRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DELLIN, THEODORE A.; HENDERSON, CHRISTOPHER L.; O' TOOLE, EDWARD J.

    2000-12-01

    Current approaches to reliability are not adequate to keep pace with the need for faster, better and cheaper products and systems. This is especially true in high consequence of failure applications. The original proposal for the LDRD was to look at this challenge and see if there was a new paradigm that could make reliability predictions, along with a quantitative estimate of the risk in that prediction, in a way that was faster, better and cheaper. Such an approach would be based on the underlying science models that are the backbone of reliability predictions. The new paradigm would be implemented in two software tools: the Virtual Reliability Realization System (VRRS) and the Reliability Expert System (REX). The three-year LDRD was funded at a reduced level for the first year ($120K vs. $250K) and not renewed. Because of the reduced funding, we concentrated on the initial development of the expertise system. We developed an interactive semiconductor calculation tool needed for reliability analyses. We also were able to generate a basic functional system using Microsoft Siteserver Commerce Edition and Microsoft Sequel Server. The base system has the capability to store Office documents from multiple authors, and has the ability to track and charge for usage. The full outline of the knowledge model has been incorporated as well as examples of various types of content.

  3. Project on Alternative Systems Study - PASS. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    Alternative repository systems for deep disposal of spent fuel and different types of canisters are studied regarding technical aspects in Project on Alternative System Study (PASS). The objective is to present a ranking of repository systems as well as of canister types for each system. The studies and compared systems are: KBS-3, Medium Long Tunnels (MLH), Long tunnels (VLH) and Deep Boreholes (VDH). For KBS-3 and MLH five canister types are compared (copper/steel, copper/lead, copper (HIP), steel/lead and steel), for VLH two types (copper/steel and steel), and for VDH three types (titanium/concrete with non-consolidated fuel assemblies, titanium/concrete with consolidated assemblies and copper (HIP) with non-consolidated assemblies). The comparison is separated into three sub-comparisons (Technology, Long-term performance and safety, and Costs), which eventually are merged into one ranking. With respect to canister alternatives the result is that the copper/steel canister is ranked first for KBS-3, MLH and VLH, while the titanium/concrete canister is ranked first for VDH (non-consolidated as well as consolidated assemblies. With these canister alternatives the merged ranking of repository systems results in placing KBS-3 slightly in front of MLH. VLH comes thereafter and VDH last. (32 refs.)

  4. THz and Sub-THz Capabilities of a Table-Top Radiation Source Driven by an RF Thermionic Electron Gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, Alexei V.; Agustsson, R.; Boucher, S.; Campese, Tara; Chen, Y.C.; Hartzell, Josiah J.; Jocobson, B.T.; Murokh, A.; O' Shea, F.H.; Spranza, E.; Berg, W.; Borland, M.; Dooling, J. C.; Erwin, L.; Lindberg, R. R.; Pasky, S.J.; Sereno, N.; Sun, Y.; Zholents, A.

    2017-06-01

    Design features and experimental results are presented for a sub-mm wave source [1] based on APS RF thermionic electron gun. The setup includes compact alpha-magnet, quadrupoles, sub-mm-wave radiators, and THz optics. The sub-THz radiator is a planar, oversized structure with gratings. Source upgrade for generation frequencies above 1 THz is discussed. The THz radiator will use a short-period undulator having 1 T field amplitude, ~20 cm length, and integrated with a low-loss oversized waveguide. Both radiators are integrated with a miniature horn antenna and a small ~90°-degree in-vacuum bending magnet. The electron beamline is designed to operate different modes including conversion to a flat beam interacting efficiently with the radiator. The source can be used for cancer diagnostics, surface defectoscopy, and non-destructive testing. Sub-THz experiment demonstrated a good potential of a robust, table-top system for generation of a narrow bandwidth THz radiation. This setup can be considered as a prototype of a compact, laser-free, flexible source capable of generation of long trains of Sub-THz and THz pulses with repetition rates not available with laser-driven sources.

  5. Smart Infrared Inspection System Field Operational Test Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    The Smart InfraRed Inspection System (SIRIS) is a tool designed to assist inspectors in determining which vehicles passing through the SIRIS system are in need of further inspection by measuring the thermal data from the wheel components. As a vehicle enters the system, infrared cameras on the road measure temperatures of the brakes, tires, and wheel bearings on both wheel ends of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in motion. This thermal data is then presented to enforcement personal inside of the inspection station on a user friendly interface. Vehicles that are suspected to have a violation are automatically alerted to the enforcement staff. The main goal of the SIRIS field operational test (FOT) was to collect data to evaluate the performance of the prototype system and determine the viability of such a system being used for commercial motor vehicle enforcement. From March 2010 to September 2010, ORNL facilitated the SIRIS FOT at the Greene County Inspection Station (IS) in Greeneville, Tennessee. During the course of the FOT, 413 CMVs were given a North American Standard (NAS) Level-1 inspection. Of those 413 CMVs, 384 were subjected to a SIRIS screening. A total of 36 (9.38%) of the vehicles were flagged by SIRIS as having one or more thermal issues; with brakes issues making up 33 (91.67%) of those. Of the 36 vehicles flagged as having thermal issues, 31 (86.11%) were found to have a violation and 30 (83.33%) of those vehicles were placed out-of-service (OOS). Overall the enforcement personnel who have used SIRIS for screening purposes have had positive feedback on the potential of SIRIS. With improvements in detection algorithms and stability, the system will be beneficial to the CMV enforcement community and increase overall trooper productivity by accurately identifying a higher percentage of CMVs to be placed OOS with minimal error. No future evaluation of SIRIS has been deemed necessary and specifications for a production system will soon be drafted.

  6. Operations-oriented performance measures for freeway management systems : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    This report describes the second and final year activities of the project titled Using Operations-Oriented Performance Measures to Support Freeway Management Systems. Work activities included developing a prototype system architecture for testi...

  7. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Final Earth Rotation Product from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Final Earth Rotation Product (ERP) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data Information System...

  8. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Final Clock Product Summary from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Final Clock Product Summary from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS)....

  9. Green Lighting. Energy-efficient integrated lighting systems - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhart, F.; Scartezzini, J.-L.

    2009-10-15

    The objective of the Green Lighting project was to develop a High Performance Integrated Lighting System, based on advanced technologies for day- and electric lighting, achieving a Lighting Power Density (LPD) that does not exceed 3 W/m{sup 2}. The project has revealed that Anidolic Daylighting Systems (ADS) are an ideal basis for High Performance Integrated Lighting Systems. Not only are they able to provide adequate illumination (i.e. sufficiently high illuminance) in office rooms during large fractions of normal office hours, under various sky conditions and over the entire year, but they are also highly appreciated by office occupants at the condition that glare control mechanisms are available. Complementary electric lighting is, however, still necessary to back up the ADS at times when there is insufficient daylight flux available. It was shown during this project, that the most interesting trade-offs between energy-efficiency and visual comfort are obtained by using a combination of ceiling-mounted directly emitting luminaires with very high optical efficiencies for ambient lighting and portable desk lamps for temporary task lighting. The most appropriate lamps for the ceiling-mounted luminaires are currently highly efficient fluorescent tubes, but white LED tubes can be considered a realistic option for the future. The most suitable light sources for desk lamps for temporary task lighting are Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) and white LED light bulbs. Based on the above-mentioned technologies, a High Performance Integrated Lighting System with a very low LPD has been developed over the last three years. The system has been set up in an office room of the LESO solar experimental building located on the EPFL campus; it has been tested intensively during a Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) study involving twenty human subjects. This study has revealed that the subjects' performance and subjective visual comfort was improved by the new system, compared to

  10. Technical assessment of maglev system concepts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lever, J.H.

    1998-10-01

    The Government Maglev System Assessment Team operated from 1991 to 1993 as part of the National Maglev Initiative. They assessed the technical viability of four US Maglev system concepts, using the French TGV high speed train and the German TR07 Maglev system as assessment baselines. Maglev in general offers advantages that include high speed potential, excellent system control, high capacity, low energy consumption, low maintenance, modest land requirements, low operating costs, and ability to meet a variety of transportation missions. Further, the US Maglev concepts could provide superior performance to TR07 for similar cost or similar performance for less cost. They also could achieve both lower trip times and lower energy consumption along typical US routes. These advantages result generally from the use of large gap magnetic suspensions, more powerful linear synchronous motors and tilting vehicles. Innovative concepts for motors, guideways, suspension, and superconducting magnets all contribute to a potential for superior long term performance of US Maglev systems compared with TGV and TR07.

  11. Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness. [Geothermally heated]. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogleman, S.F.; Fisher, L.A.; Black, A.R.; Singh, D.P.

    1977-05-01

    An engineering and economic study was made to determine a practical balance of selected agribusiness subsystems resulting in realistic estimated produce yields for a geothermally heated system known as the Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness. The subsystem cycles for an average application at an unspecified hydrothermal resources site in the western United States utilize waste and by-products from their companion cycles insofar as practicable. Based on conservative estimates of current controlled environment yields, produce wholesale market prices, production costs, and capital investment required, it appears that the family-operation-sized TERSA module presents the potential for marginal recovery of all capital investment costs. In addition to family- or small-cooperative-farming groups, TERSA has potential users in food-oriented corporations and large-cooperative-agribusiness operations. The following topics are considered in detail: greenhouse tomatoes and cucumbers; fish farming; mushroom culture; biogas generation; integration methodology; hydrothermal fluids and heat exchanger selection; and the system. 133 references. (MHR)

  12. Occupancy-counter-based control system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, G.; Hoagland, L. C.; Bowman, J. K.

    1979-07-01

    Excessive mechanical ventilation of commercial and institutional buildings can result in significant waste of energy required for space heating and cooling. Ventilation rates are typically set to satisfy building design occupancy levels, in accordance with local codes, even though the building may seldom or never experience design occupancy. A method of eliminating this waste to utilize an occupancy-based ventilation control system wherein a counting device records people entering and leaving the building, to maintain a continuous record of people inventory, and to regulate mechanical ventilation control dampers to supply only that amount of ventilation air required for current occupancy levels is described. A device of this type was installed and tested in a department store in Framingham, Massachusetts and fully instrumented and operated over a 14 month period. Test results on energy usage were correlated with weather severity in order to determine the savings resulting from use of the control system. This system provided a savings of 33% in gas usage during the winter period and a savings of 23% in electricity usage during the summer period. These savings would return the installed cost of the control system in about 1 1/2 years. Projections of the performance of this system in other climatic regions (Chicago, Los Angeles, Kansas City, Miami, Minneapolis) are also presented illustrating payback periods ranging from 1/3 year in Miami to 2 2/3 years in Los Angeles. Complete details of the occupancy based ventilation control system, the test site instrumentation and data gathering procedure, the test results and their interpretation are given. (MCW)

  13. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracey, T. R.

    1978-09-01

    The design of a 300 MWe tower focus power plant which uses molten salt heat transfer fluids and sensible heat storage is described in detail. The system consists of nine heliostat fields with 7711 heliostats in each. Four cavity receivers are located at the top of a 155-meter tower. Tasks include: (1) review and analysis of preliminary specification; (2) parametric analysis; (3) selection of preferred configuration; (4) commercial plant conceptual design; (5) assessment of commercial-sized advanced central power system; (6) development plan; (7) program plan; (8) reports and data; (9) program management; (10) safety analysis; and (11) material study and test program. (WHK)

  14. Design and synthesis of reactive separation systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, M.F.

    1992-12-31

    During the last decade there has been a rapid upturn in interest in reactive distillation. The chemical process industry recognizes the favorable economics of carrying out reaction simultaneously with distillation for certain classes of reacting systems, and many new processes have been built based on this technology. Interest is also increasing by academics and software vendors. Systematic design methods for reactive distillation systems have only recently begun to emerge. In this report we survey the available design techniques and point out the contributions made by our group at the University of Massachusetts.

  15. OBSERVATION OF REPETITION-RATE DEPENDANT EMISSION FROM AN UN-GATED THERMIONIC CATHODE RF GUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelen, J. P. [Fermilab; Sun, Y. [Argonne; Harris, J. R. [AFRL, NM; Lewellen, J. W. [Los Alamos Natl. Lab.

    2016-09-28

    Recent work at Fermilab in collaboration with the Advanced Photon Source and members of other national labs, designed an experiment to study the relationship between the RF repetition rate and the average current per RF pulse. While existing models anticipate a direct relationship between these two parameters we observed an inverse relationship. We believe this is a result of damage to the barium coating on the cathode surface caused by a change in back-bombardment power that is unaccounted for in the existing theories. These observations shed new light on the challenges and fundamental limitations associated with scaling an ungated thermionic cathode RF gun to high average current machines.

  16. Photon-Enhanced Thermionic Emission in Cesiated p-Type and n-Type Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Dionigi, Fabio; Hansen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Photon-enhanced thermionic emission (PETE) is a relatively new concept for high efficiency solar cells that utilize not only the energy of electrons excited across the band gap by photons, as in conventional photovoltaic solar cells, but also the energy usual lost to thermalization of the excited...... to ideal band gap. The work function of silicon is, however, too high for practical PETE implementations. A well-known method for lowering the work function of silicon (and other materials) is to apply approximately a monolayer of cesium to the silicon surface. We present the first measurements of PETE...

  17. Observation of Repetition-Rate Dependent Emission From an Un-Gated Thermionic Cathode Rf Gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelen, J. P.; Sun, Y.; Harris, J.R.; Lewellen, J.W.

    2017-06-02

    Recent work at Fermilab in collaboration with the Advanced Photon Source and members of other national labs, designed an experiment to study the relationship between the RF repetition rate and the average current per RF pulse. While existing models anticipate a direct relationship between these two parameters we observed an inverse relationship. We believe this is a result of damage to the barium coating on the cathode surface caused by a change in back-bombardment power that is unaccounted for in the existing theories. These observations shed new light on the challenges and fundamental limitations associated with scaling an ungated thermionic cathode RF gun to high average current.

  18. Safe Active Scanning for Energy Delivery Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Salazar, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scheibel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Engels, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reiger, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Department of Energy’s Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems Program has funded Safe(r) Active Scanning for Energy Delivery Systems, led by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate and analyze the impacts of active scanning in the operational environment of energy delivery systems. In collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Idaho National Laboratory, active scans across three testbeds including 38 devices were performed. This report gives a summary of the initial literature survey performed on the SASEDS project as well as industry partner interview summaries and main findings from Phase 1 of the project. Additionally, the report goes into the details of scanning techniques, methodologies for testing, testbed descriptions, and scanning results, with appendices to elaborate on the specific scans that were performed. As a result of testing, a single device out of 38 exhibited problems when actively scanned, and a reboot was required to fix it. This single failure indicates that active scanning is not likely to have a detrimental effect on the safety and resilience of energy delivery systems. We provide a path forward for future research that could enable wide adoption of active scanning and lead utilities to incorporate active scanning as part of their default network security plans to discover and rectify rogue devices, adversaries, and services that may be on the network. This increased network visibility will allow operational technology cybersecurity practitioners to improve their situational awareness of networks and their vulnerabilities.

  19. Vocational Rehabilitation Services in a State Penitentiary System. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Penitentiary, Oklahoma City.

    The purpose of this project was to provide total rehabilitation services to a group of handicapped inmates of the State Penitentiary System in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of returning them to society as productive citizens. This was to be accomplished by evaluating the rehabilitation potential of inmates, providing psychological and…

  20. FY 2005 Quantum Cascade Laser Alignment System Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Wojcik, Michael D.; Broocks, Bryan T.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Hatchell, Brian K.

    2006-01-11

    The Alignment Lasers Task of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) Remote Spectroscopy Project (Project PL211I) is a co-funded project between DOE NA-22 and a Classified Client. This project, which began in the second half of FY03, involved building and delivering a Quantum Cascade (QC) Laser Alignment System to be used for testing the pupil alignment of an infrared sensor by measuring the response from four pairs of diametrically opposed QC lasers. PNNL delivered the system in FY04 and provided technical assistance in FY05 culminating into a successful demonstration of the system. This project evolved from the Laser Development Task of PL211I, which is involved in developing novel laser technology to support development of advanced chemical sensors for detecting the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The laser systems are based on quantum cascade (QC) lasers, a new semiconductor source in the infrared. QC lasers can be tailored to emit light throughout the infrared region (3.5 ? 17 ?m) and have high output power and stability. Thus, these lasers provide an infrared source with superb power and spectral stability enabling them to be used for applications such as alignment and calibration in addition to chemical sensing.

  1. BIOCONAID System (Bionic Control of Acceleration Induced Dimming). Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Dana B.; And Others

    The system described represents a new technique for enhancing the fidelity of flight simulators during high acceleration maneuvers. This technique forces the simulator pilot into active participation and energy expenditure similar to the aircraft pilot undergoing actual accelerations. The Bionic Control of Acceleration Induced Dimming (BIOCONAID)…

  2. Glass markets information system; application summary reports. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Glass Markets Information System Summary Reports is a compilation of over 70 possible applications for post-consumer recycled glass. The database includes descriptions of the applications, literature references, processing and quality requirements, and economic data as available. The database is intended for use by groups seeking ideas for economic development with recycled glass.

  3. Artificial intelligence technologies for power system operations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, S.N.; Cardozo, E.

    1986-01-01

    Researchers in this study examined the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies for improving problem-solving strategies in 16 power system operations. To demonstrate the use of AI in the area they considered most promising, contingency selection-security assessment, they also developed two programs - one to simulate network protection schemes, the other to diagnose faults.

  4. Safeguards systems concepts for nuclear material transportation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldonado, O.C.; Kevany, M.; Rodney, D.; Pitts, D.; Mazur, M.

    1977-09-01

    The report describes the development of system concepts for the safeguarding of special strategic nuclear materials (SNM) against malevolent adversary action during the interfacility transport of the SNM. The methodology used includes techniques for defining, classifying, and analyzing adversary action sequences; defining safeguards system components; assessing the vulnerability of various safeguards systems and their component parts to the potential adversary action sequences, and conceptualizing system design requirements. The method of analysis is based primarily on a comparison of adversary actions with safeguards measures, to estimate vulnerability. Because of the paucity of the data available for assessing vulnerability, the Delphi approach was used to generate data: values were estimated in a structured exercise by a panel of experts in the safeguards and terrorist fields. It is concluded that the probability of successful attack against a truck/escort convoy manned by well-trained, well-armed personnel is low enough to discourage all but the strongest adversaries. Secrecy of operations and careful screening of personnel are very important. No reliance should be placed on current capabilities of local law enforcement agencies. The recommendation of the study is the use of road transport in the near future and air transport at a later time when the number of shipments reaches a level to justify it, and when present safety problems are resolved

  5. Schedule for Rating Disabilities; the Endocrine System. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-02

    This document amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Schedule for Rating Disabilities (VASRD) by revising the portion of the Schedule that addresses endocrine conditions and disorders of the endocrine system. The effect of this action is to ensure that the VASRD uses current medical terminology and to provide detailed and updated criteria for evaluation of endocrine disorders.

  6. Survey of system responsibility in the Nordic countries. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    In September 2004 the Nordic Council of Ministers asked Nordel to perform some tasks and present the results to the Council on 1 March 2005. One of the tasks is to survey how system responsibility is defined and executed in the different Nordic countries. According to the Nordic Council of Ministers, the survey shall illuminate similarities and differences between the countries and assess the reasons for the differences. Nordel is asked to present a joint view system responsibility in the Nordic countries. Among other things, the responsibility for the system operators and the participants in the market shall be defined. The definition shall also include the distribution of costs between costs for network business and costs for business in competition. This shall be done in a way that creates a common platform for the further harmonisation work and continuous positive development of the Nordic electricity market. It is also important to identify the need for changes in e.g. legislation and guidelines in the different countries as a consequence of an implementation of a common definition in the Nordic countries. Areas to be included in the task are among others, balance settlement, security of supply, congestion management and system services. (BA)

  7. Solar heating system installed at Stamford, CT. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    Information is provided on the solar heating system installed at the Lutz-Sotire Partnership Executive East Office Building, Stamford, Connecticut. The information consists of description of system and components, operation and maintenance manual, as-built drawings and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the heating requirements. The solar facility has 2,561 sq. ft. of liquid flat plate collectors and a 6000 gallon, stone lined, well-insulated storage tank. Freeze protection is provided by a 50 percent glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. From the storage tank, solar heated water is fed into the building's distributed heat pump loop via a modulating three-way valve. If the storage tank temperature drops below 80/sup 0/F, the building loop may be supplied from the existing electrical hot water boilers. The Executive East Office Building is of moderate size, 25,000 sq. ft. of heated space in 2 1/2 stories. The solar system makes available for other users up to 150 KVA of existing electrical generating capacity.

  8. Communications and control for electric power systems: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, H.

    1998-04-01

    This report is a summary of some of the work done on the Communications and Control project, with particular emphasis on the achievements during the years 1986--1996. During those years, the project moved away from concern with dispersed storage and generation and its impact on power system operation (the team was responsible for studies in this area, and for making a power system simulator that included DSG), and became involved in more concrete work aimed at applying high-tech solutions to problems of power system communications and control. This report covers work done at JPL on the following topics: (1) the measurement of electric and magnetic fields, both ac and dc; (2) the use of optical power to supply low-power electronics; (3) the design of a fault-tolerant communication system designed for distribution automation; and (4) a digital phase locked loop that allows the use of low-power transmitting electronics to recreate a good-quality signal at the receiver. In a report of this kind, only the results and highlights of the work are described.

  9. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System (AEDR): Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buche, D. L.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects.

  10. Standard review plan for dry cask storage systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) For Dry Cask Storage Systems provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in the Spent Fuel Project Office for performing safety reviews of dry cask storage systems. The SRP is intended to ensure the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews, present a basis for the review scope, and clarification of the regulatory requirements. Part 72, Subpart B generally specifies the information needed in a license application for the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste. Regulatory Guide 3.61 {open_quotes}Standard Format and Content for a Topical Safety Analysis Report for a Spent Fuel Dry Storage Cask{close_quotes} contains an outline of the specific information required by the staff. The SRP is divided into 14 sections which reflect the standard application format. Regulatory requirements, staff positions, industry codes and standards, acceptance criteria, and other information are discussed.

  11. Standard review plan for dry cask storage systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) For Dry Cask Storage Systems provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in the Spent Fuel Project Office for performing safety reviews of dry cask storage systems. The SRP is intended to ensure the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews, present a basis for the review scope, and clarification of the regulatory requirements. Part 72, Subpart B generally specifies the information needed in a license application for the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste. Regulatory Guide 3.61 open-quotes Standard Format and Content for a Topical Safety Analysis Report for a Spent Fuel Dry Storage Caskclose quotes contains an outline of the specific information required by the staff. The SRP is divided into 14 sections which reflect the standard application format. Regulatory requirements, staff positions, industry codes and standards, acceptance criteria, and other information are discussed

  12. Fundamental research of decision support systems: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurstedt, H.A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Through an iterative application of Decision Support Systems (DSS) apparatus and evolution of DSS concepts, we redefined DSS from a systems perspective. By focusing on successful DSS and the definition of success for the newly-defined DSS, we generated a paradigm for understanding, applying, and improving DSS. The significance of the research is that we now: (1) understand the various roles management tools play within the new DSS concept; (2) recognize the need for characterizing the domain of responsibility of a manager to obtain a successful DSS; and (3) have learned special characteristics of government agencies like Nuclear Materials (NM) to identify what features of the new DSS concept can be expected to improve performance

  13. Behavior-aware decision support systems : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Gary B.; Homer, Jack (Homer Consulting); Chenoweth, Brooke N.; Backus, George A.; Strip, David R.

    2007-11-01

    As Sandia National Laboratories serves its mission to provide support for the security-related interests of the United States, it is faced with considering the behavioral responses that drive problems, mitigate interventions, or lead to unintended consequences. The effort described here expands earlier works in using healthcare simulation to develop behavior-aware decision support systems. This report focuses on using qualitative choice techniques and enhancing two analysis models developed in a sister project.

  14. Final Technical Report "Multiscale Simulation Algorithms for Biochemical Systems"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, Linda R.

    2012-10-25

    Biochemical systems are inherently multiscale and stochastic. In microscopic systems formed by living cells, the small numbers of reactant molecules can result in dynamical behavior that is discrete and stochastic rather than continuous and deterministic. An analysis tool that respects these dynamical characteristics is the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA, Gillespie, 1976), a numerical simulation procedure that is essentially exact for chemical systems that are spatially homogeneous or well stirred. Despite recent improvements, as a procedure that simulates every reaction event, the SSA is necessarily inefficient for most realistic problems. There are two main reasons for this, both arising from the multiscale nature of the underlying problem: (1) stiffness, i.e. the presence of multiple timescales, the fastest of which are stable; and (2) the need to include in the simulation both species that are present in relatively small quantities and should be modeled by a discrete stochastic process, and species that are present in larger quantities and are more efficiently modeled by a deterministic differential equation (or at some scale in between). This project has focused on the development of fast and adaptive algorithms, and the fun- damental theory upon which they must be based, for the multiscale simulation of biochemical systems. Areas addressed by this project include: (1) Theoretical and practical foundations for ac- celerated discrete stochastic simulation (tau-leaping); (2) Dealing with stiffness (fast reactions) in an efficient and well-justified manner in discrete stochastic simulation; (3) Development of adaptive multiscale algorithms for spatially homogeneous discrete stochastic simulation; (4) Development of high-performance SSA algorithms.

  15. Distributed Energy Neural Network Integration System: Year One Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regan, T.; Sinnock, H.; Davis, A.

    2003-06-01

    This report describes the work of Orion Engineering Corp. to develop a DER household controller module and demonstrate the ability of a group of these controllers to operate through an intelligent, neighborhood controller. The controllers will provide a smart, technologically advanced, simple, efficient, and economic solution for aggregating a community of small distributed generators into a larger single, virtual generator capable of selling power or other services to a utility, independent system operator (ISO), or other entity in a coordinated manner.

  16. Energy implications of integrated solid waste management systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, R.E.; McClain, G.; Becker, M.; Ligon, P.; Shapiro, K.

    1994-07-01

    This study develops estimates of energy use and recovery from managing municipal solid waste (MSW) under various collection, processing, and disposal scenarios. We estimate use and recovery -- or energy balance -- resulting from MSW management activities such as waste collection, transport, processing, and disposal, as well as indirect use and recovery linked to secondary materials manufacturing using recycled materials. In our analysis, secondary materials manufacturing displaces virgin materials manufacturing for 13 representative products. Energy implications are expressed as coefficients that measure the net energy saving (or use) of displacing products made from virgin versus recycled materials. Using data developed for the 1992 New York City Master Plan as a starting point, we apply our method to an analysis of various collection systems and 30 types of facilities to illustrate bow energy balances shift as management systems are modified. In sum, all four scenarios show a positive energy balance indicating the energy and advantage of integrated systems versus reliance on one or few technology options. That is, energy produced or saved exceeds the energy used to operate the solid waste system. The largest energy use impacts are attributable to processing, including materials separation and composting. Collection and transportation energy are relatively minor contributors. The largest two contributors to net energy savings are waste combustion and energy saved by processing recycled versus virgin materials. An accompanying spatial analysis methodology allocates energy use and recovery to New York City, New York State outside the city, the U.S., and outside the U.S. Our analytical approach is embodied in a spreadsheet model that can be used by energy and solid waste analysts to estimate impacts of management scenarios at the state and substate level.

  17. Shale-oil-recovery systems incorporating ore beneficiation. Final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, M.A.; Klumpar, I.V.; Peterson, C.R.; Ring, T.A.

    1982-10-01

    This study analyzed the recovery of oil from oil shale by use of proposed systems which incorporate beneficiation of the shale ore (that is concentration of the kerogen before the oil-recovery step). The objective was to identify systems which could be more attractive than conventional surface retorting of ore. No experimental work was carried out. The systems analyzed consisted of beneficiation methods which could increase kerogen concentrations by at least four-fold. Potentially attractive low-enrichment methods such as density separation were not examined. The technical alternatives considered were bounded by the secondary crusher as input and raw shale oil as output. A sequence of ball milling, froth flotation, and retorting concentrate is not attractive for Western shales compared to conventional ore retorting; transporting the concentrate to another location for retorting reduces air emissions in the ore region but cost reduction is questionable. The high capital and energy cost s results largely from the ball milling step which is very inefficient. Major improvements in comminution seem achievable through research and such improvements, plus confirmation of other assumptions, could make high-enrichment beneficiation competitive with conventional processing. 27 figures, 23 tables.

  18. Active system area networks for data intensive computations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-04-01

    The goal of the Active System Area Networks (ASAN) project is to develop hardware and software technologies for the implementation of active system area networks (ASANs). The use of the term ''active'' refers to the ability of the network interfaces to perform application-specific as well as system level computations in addition to their traditional role of data transfer. This project adopts the view that the network infrastructure should be an active computational entity capable of supporting certain classes of computations that would otherwise be performed on the host CPUs. The result is a unique network-wide programming model where computations are dynamically placed within the host CPUs or the NIs depending upon the quality of service demands and network/CPU resource availability. The projects seeks to demonstrate that such an approach is a better match for data intensive network-based applications and that the advent of low-cost powerful embedded processors and configurable hardware makes such an approach economically viable and desirable.

  19. New vision solar system mission study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondt, J.F.; Zubrin, R.M.

    1996-03-01

    The vision for the future of the planetary exploration program includes the capability to deliver {open_quotes}constellations{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}fleets{close_quotes} of microspacecraft to a planetary destination. These fleets will act in a coordinated manner to gather science data from a variety of locations on or around the target body, thus providing detailed, global coverage without requiring development of a single large, complex and costly spacecraft. Such constellations of spacecraft, coupled with advanced information processing and visualization techniques and high-rate communications, could provide the basis for development of a {open_quotes}virtual{close_quotes} {open_quotes}presence{close_quotes} in the solar system. A goal could be the near real-time delivery of planetary images and video to a wide variety of users in the general public and the science community. This will be a major step in making the solar system accessible to the public and will help make solar system exploration a part of the human experience on Earth.

  20. Accelerating Acceptance of Fuel Cell Backup Power Systems - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher

    2014-07-21

    Since 2001, Plug Power has installed more than 800 stationary fuel cell systems worldwide. Plug Power’s prime power systems have produced approximately 6.5 million kilowatt hours of electricity and have accumulated more than 2.5 million operating hours. Intermittent, or backup, power products have been deployed with telecommunications carriers and government and utility customers in North and South America, Europe, the United Kingdom, Japan and South Africa. Some of the largest material handling operations in North America are currently using the company’s motive power units in fuel cell-powered forklifts for their warehouses, distribution centers and manufacturing facilities. The low-temperature GenSys fuel cell system provides remote, off-grid and primary power where grid power is unreliable or nonexistent. Built reliable and designed rugged, low- temperature GenSys delivers continuous or backup power through even the most extreme conditions. Coupled with high-efficiency ratings, low-temperature GenSys reduces operating costs making it an economical solution for prime power requirements. Currently, field trials at telecommunication and industrial sites across the globe are proving the advantages of fuel cells—lower maintenance, fuel costs and emissions, as well as longer life—compared with traditional internal combustion engines.

  1. Once-through integral system (OTIS): Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloudemans, J.R.

    1986-09-01

    A scaled experimental facility, designated the once-through integral system (OTIS), was used to acquire post-small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) data for benchmarking system codes. OTIS was also used to investigate the application of the Abnormal Transient Operating Guidelines (ATOG) used in the Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) designed nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) during the course of an SBLOCA. OTIS was a single-loop facility with a plant to model power scale factor of 1686. OTIS maintained the key elevations, approximate component volumes, and loop flow resistances, and simulated the major component phenomena of a B and W raised-loop nuclear plant. A test matrix consisting of 15 tests divided into four categories was performed. The largest group contained 10 tests and was defined to parametrically obtain an extensive set of plant-typical experimental data for code benchmarking. Parameters such as leak size, leak location, and high-pressure injection (HPI) shut-off head were individually varied. The remaining categories were specified to study the impact of the ATOGs (2 tests), to note the effect of guard heater operation on observed phenomena (2 tests), and to provide a data set for comparison with previous test experience (1 test). A summary of the test results and a detailed discussion of Test 220100 is presented. Test 220100 was the nominal or reference test for the parametric studies. This test was performed with a scaled 10-cm 2 leak located in the cold leg suction piping

  2. Evaluation of integrated wall systems incorporating electrochromic windows [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbar, Neil L.

    2001-03-30

    Billions of dollars are spent annually in the U.S. on energy lost through the use of inefficient windows. Even wall systems with advanced static glazings and moveable shading devices are not optimal because they can't effectively respond to changing solar conditions. Electrochromic (EC) smart windows can dynamically control the amount of solar light and heat entering a building. The energy saving performance of fully dynamic wall systems containing EC windows was compared with that of static systems using the DOE 2.1E building simulation program. Total costs for different scenarios were computed. SAGE demonstrated the capability to produce double pane EC windows in which the transmittance repeatedly varied between 2-58%. Relative impact of EC glazings in buildings compared to static is 10-20% energy savings across all climatic regions investigated. Significant life cycle cost savings are predicted for SAGE's EC windows when compared to conventional solar control windows over an estimated product lifetime of 20 years.

  3. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE (NGGT) SYSTEMS STUDY; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    Building upon the 1999 AD Little Study, an expanded market analysis was performed by GE Power Systems in 2001 to quantify the potential demand for an NGGT product. This analysis concluded that improvements to the US energy situation might be best served in the near/mid term (2002-2009) by a ''Technology-Focused'' program rather than a specific ''Product-Focused'' program. Within this new program focus, GEPS performed a parametric screening study of options in the three broad candidate categories of gas turbines: aero-derivative, heavy duty, and a potential hybrid combining components of the other two categories. GEPS's goal was to determine the best candidate systems that could achieve the DOE PRDA expectations and GEPS's internal design criteria in the period specified for initial product introduction, circa 2005. Performance feasibility studies were conducted on candidate systems selected in the screening task, and critical technology areas were identified where further development would be required to meet the program goals. DOE PRDA operating parameters were found to be achievable by 2005 through evolutionary technology. As a result, the study was re-directed toward technology enhancements for interim product introductions and advanced/revolutionary technology for potential NGGT product configurations. Candidate technologies were identified, both evolutionary and revolutionary, with a potential for possible development products via growth step improvements. Benefits were analyzed from two perspectives: (1) What would be the attributes of the top candidate system assuming the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity in 2009/2010; and (2) What would be the expected level of public benefit, assuming relevant technologies were incorporated into existing new and current field products as they became available. Candidate systems incorporating these technologies were assessed as to how they could serve multiple applications

  4. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  5. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930's, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river uses. This volume, Appendix D: Cultural resources appendix, Technical imput includes the following: Development of geomorphology based framework for cultural resources management, Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho; Impact profiles for SOR reservoirs; comments from the following Native American tribes: Burns Paiute Tribe; Coville Confederated Tribes; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Confederated Tribes and bands of the Yakama Indian Nation (comments); Nez Perce Tribe; Coeur D'Alene Tribe; Spokane Tribe of Indians; The confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

  6. Optimization of storage in passive solar heating systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahm, R.J.

    1980-05-01

    The search for a simple method of estimating the optimum amount of storage for passive solar space heating system designs and the results of that search are described. The project goals, and why the project is important are described. The major project results are presented in the order of their importance with respect to meeting the project goal. A narrative description of the project is given. Here the various approaches attempted are described, giving the reasons for failure in those areas that were not successful. The Appendices contain the bulk of data generated by this project. Most of the data is presented in graphical form. (MHR)

  7. User effects on the transient system code calculations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksan, S.N.; D'Auria, F.

    1995-01-01

    Large thermal-hydraulic system codes are widely used to perform safety and licensing analyses of nuclear power plants to optimize operational procedures and the plant design itself. Evaluation of the capabilities of these codes are accomplished by comparing the code predictions with the measured experimental data obtained from various types of separate effects and integral test facilities. In recent years, some attempts have been made to establish methodologies to evaluate the accuracy and the uncertainty of the code predictions and consequently judgement on the acceptability of the codes. In none of the methodologies has the influence of the code user on the calculated results been directly addressed. In this paper, the results of the investigations on the user effects for the thermal-hydraulic transient system codes is presented and discussed on the basis of some case studies. The general findings of the investigations show that in addition to user effects, there are other reasons that affect the results of the calculations and which are hidden under user effects. Both the hidden factors and the direct user effects are discussed in detail and general recommendations and conclusions are presented to control and limit them

  8. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System Operation Review (SOR) is being conducted jointly by the US Army Corps of Engineers, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the Bonneville Power Administration. This summary of the SOR story begins where the Draft EIS summary left off. It is divided into seven parts, each of which reports some aspect of the study's outcome: Part 1 is a history. The SOR was not a simple study on any level, and to understand the EIS alternatives, some background is necessary. Part 2 reports the major findings of the technical analysis of alternative system operating strategies, and presents the agencies' Preferred Alternative. Part 3 explains actions the agencies may take with respect to the Columbia River Regional Forum, the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement, and the Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements. Part 4 presents the Purpose and Need, elements at the core of any Federal EIS. It includes a map showing the Columbia River Basin and information on the affected Federal projects. Part 5 describes the substantial public participation and outreach that occurred during the SOR, and Part 6 summarizes efforts to incorporate the Tribal perspective into the study. Part 7 describes other activities that will be taking place in the next few years, which are related to and build upon the SOR

  9. Community Earth System Model (CESM) Tutorial 2016 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamarque, Jean-Francois [Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and Climate and Global Dynamics Laboratory (CGD), Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-05-09

    For the 2016 tutorial, NCAR/CGD requested a total budget of $70,000 split equally between DOE and NSF. The funds were used to support student participation (travel, lodging, per diem, etc.). Lectures and practical session support was primarily provided by local participants at no additional cost (see list below). The seventh annual Community Earth System Model (CESM) tutorial (2016) for students and early career scientists was held 8 – 12 August 2016. As has been the case over the last few years, this event was extremely successful and there was greater demand than could be met. There was continued interest in support of the NSF’s EaSM Infrastructure awards, to train these awardees in the application of the CESM. Based on suggestions from previous tutorial participants, the 2016 tutorial experience again provided direct connection to Yellowstone for each individual participant (rather than pairs), and used the NCAR Mesa Library. The 2016 tutorial included lectures on simulating the climate system and practical sessions on running CESM, modifying components, and analyzing data. These were targeted to the graduate student level. In addition, specific talks (“Application” talks) were introduced this year to provide participants with some in-depth knowledge of some specific aspects of CESM.

  10. Community-Level Impacts Projection System (CLIPS). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monts, J.K.; Bareiss, E.R.

    1979-02-01

    The Community-Level Impacts Projection System includes a set of techniques for providing detailed advance information required for rational planning. The computerized system generates reports which enable the user: to describe the energy development activity in terms of its employment demands and spatial location; to estimate how many in-migrating workers will be required; to estimate the demographic characteristics of the in-migrating workers (e.g., how many elementary school children they will bring); to estimate how many additional secondary employment opportunities (e.g., employment in eating and drinking establishments and grocery stores) will be generated; to estimate what the local area's population levels in various age groups would be both with the project and without it; to estimate community population levels for both the impact case and the baseline case; and to estimate the approximate resource requirements and costs for providing additional municipal facilities and services (e.g., water treatment and distribution, wastewater treatment and collection, gas and electric distribution, police and fire protection, etc.)

  11. Photovoltaic systems technology. Final report; Untersuchungen zur photovoltaischen Anlagentechnik. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, A.; Hoenes, H.P.; Honstetter, K.O.; Jossen, A.; Lehner, G.; Karl, H.; Saupe, G.; Zahir, A.

    1994-07-01

    Different types of batteries as vented, valve regulated (gel typ and adsorbed) lead acid and NiCd ones are investigated. The batteries are operated according to typical solar condition. Development of a block oriented simulation software for simulation and optimization of photovoltaic systems. Both projects are passed on to the ZSW (Zentrum fuer Solar- und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Stuttgart-Ulm). The storage batteries are the weak points in a photovoltaic system. To obtain comparable results we operate all batteries under the same conditions. One aim among others was to qualify ageing effects and maintenance requirements. All batteries are connected to a computer controlled battery test stand. The behaviour of the batteries under investigation is very different. The valve regulated gel typ battery shows a good performance. All NiCd batteries under test show large capacity losses during the test. To optimize the life expectance a specific battery management is necessary for each typ. To satisfy all requirements of the batteries advanced battery control units are necessary. To determine the state of the batteries a battery model or special sensors have to be included in the system. In the report directions are given to solve some of these problems. (orig.) [Deutsch] Verschiedene Batterietypen (verschlossene, geschlossene Bleibatterien, Nickel-Kadmium-Batterien) wurden untersucht und einem solartypischen Dauertest unterzogen. Die Auswertung der Messdaten wurde durchgefuehrt. Ein Simulationsprogramm fuer photovoltaische Anlagen wurde entwickelt. Beide Projekte wurden von ZSW (Zentrum fuer Solarenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Stuttgart-Ulm) uebernommen. Das Verhalten von Batteriespeichern im solartypischen Betrieb soll charakterisiert und Betriebsstrategien abgeleitet werden, die eine moeglichst lange Lebensdauer der Batteriespeicher gewaehrleisten. Durch ausfuehrliche Simulationsrechnungen sollen photovoltaische Anlagen optimiert werden. Das Verhalten unter den

  12. Equilibrium system analysis in a tokamak ignition experiment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera, R.; Weldon, W.F.; Woodson, H.H.

    1989-10-01

    The objective of the IGNITEX Project is to produce and control ignited plasmas for scientific study in the simplest and least expensive way possible. The original concept was proposed by both physics and engineering researchers along the following line of thought. Question: Is there any theoretically simple, compact and reliable way of achieving fusion ignition according to the results of the fusion research program for the last decades? Answer: Yes. An experiment to be carried out in an ohmically heated compact tokamak device with 20 T field on plasma axis. Question: Is there any practical way to carry out that experiment at low cost in the near term? Answer: Yes. Using a single-turn coil magnet system with homopolar power supplies.

  13. Development of an automated foam processing system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallaher, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Processing variables in the polyurethane foam encapsulation procedure on an electronic assembly timer occasionally yielded foam which was dimensionally unstable. This change in size was large enough that the affected timers would not meet gage requirements and had to be reworked. This instability was indicative of a marginal process. A thorough investigation of the problem determined that inadequate mixing of the two constituents of the foam was the cause. To eliminate the cause of the marginal process, requirements were defined which were used as guidelines in specifying the necessary equipment. This specification was then issued to suppliers for quotes. Once the quotes were received, the capabilities of the different foam processing systems were reviewed to assure conformity to the specification.

  14. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This study attempts to identify and analyze the impacts of the System Operating Strategy (SOS) alternatives on cultural resources. The impacts include effects on Native American traditional cultural values, properties and practices. They also include effects on archeological or historic properties meeting the criteria of the National Register of Historic Places. In addition to responding to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), this analysis addresses the requirements of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), the Archeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA), the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), the Native American Religious Freedom Act (NARFA), and other relevant legislation. To meet their legally mandated cultural resources requirements, the SOR agencies will develop agreements and Implementation Plans with the appropriate State Historic Preservation Officers (SHPOs), Tribes, and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) detailing the measures necessary to best manage the resource. The planning and implementation activities will be staged over a number of years in consultation with affected Tribes

  15. Rooftop PV system. Final technical progress report, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Under this four-year PV:BONUS Program, ECD and United Solar are developing and demonstrating two new lightweight flexible building integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) modules specifically designed as exact replacements for conventional asphalt shingles and standing seam metal roofing. These modules can be economically and aesthetically integrated into new residential and commercial buildings, and address the even larger roofing replacement market. The modules are designed to be installed by roofing contractors without special training which minimizes the installation and balance of system costs. The modules will be fabricated from high-efficiency, multiple-junction a-Si alloy solar cells developed by ECD and United Solar. Under the Phase I Program, which ended in March 1994, we developed two different concept designs for rooftop PV modules: (1) the United Solar overlapping (asphalt shingle replacement) shingle-type modules and (2) the ECD metal roof-type modules. We also developed a plan for fabricating, testing and demonstrating these modules. Candidate demonstration sites for our rooftop PV modules were identified and preliminary engineering designs for these demonstrations were developed; a marketing study plan was also developed. The major objectives of the Phase II Program, which started in June 1994 was (1) to develop, test, and qualify these new rooftop modules; (2) to develop mechanical and electrical engineering specifications for the demonstration projects; and (3) to develop a marketing/commercialization plan.

  16. Development of an automated encapsulation system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gllaher, J.B.

    1977-07-01

    Early development failures in two types of high voltage electronic assemblies pointed out the inadequacies of the current encapsulation process. Voids in the mass encapsulant resulted in the destruction of the units during electrical testing in vacuum. An automated material processing system was conceived after a literature search and after new equipment with increased capabilities was observed in operation at GE's Neutron Devices Department in Florida. A prototype machine was designed and fabricated at Bendix implementing this concept. Environmental controls and new capabilities were incorporated to provide the complete process control necessary to assure void-free encapsulation of densely packaged electronic products. Machine performance was extensively evaluated to assure that all existing material specifications and quality control provisions would be met. Measurements of various material and machine characteristics showed that the operation not only is superior to the one presently being used but also provides the required additional capabilities. Material processing was also simplified which in turn made the encapsulation process more economical. In most cases, a 25 percent decrease in encapsulation costs can be anticipated.

  17. Design study on an independently-tunable-cells thermionic RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, H.; Tanaka, T.; Hinode, F.; Kawai, M.

    2006-01-01

    Characteristics of a thermionic RF gun have been studied by a 3-D simulation code developed using an FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method as a Maxwell's equations solver. The gun is consists of two independent power feeding cavities, so that we call it independently-tunable-cells (ITC)'-RF gun. The first cell is the cathode cell and the second one is an accelerating cell. The ITC gun can be operated at various modes of different RF-power ratio and phase between two cavities. Simulation study shows a velocity-bunching like effect may be occurred in the gun, so that the short pulse beam from the thermionic RF gun is a better candidate to produce the coherent THz synchrotron radiation. Expected bunch length with a total charge of ∼20 pC (1% energy width from the top energy) is around 200 fs (fwhm). Even the beam energy extracted from the gun is varied by which the input powers are changed, almost same shape of the longitudinal phase space can be produced by tuning the phase. (author)

  18. Analysis of instability growth and collisionless relaxation in thermionic converters using 1-D PIC simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreh, B.B.

    1994-12-01

    This work investigates the role that the beam-plasma instability may play in a thermionic converter. The traditional assumption of collisionally dominated relaxation is questioned, and the beam-plasma instability is proposed as a possible dominant relaxation mechanism. Theory is developed to describe the beam-plasma instability in the cold-plasma approximation, and the theory is tested with two common Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. The theory is first confirmed using an unbounded plasma PIC simulation employing periodic boundary conditions, ES1. The theoretically predicted growth rates are on the order of the plasma frequencies, and ES1 simulations verify these predictions within the order of 1%. For typical conditions encountered in thermionic converters, the resulting growth period is on the order of 7 x 10 -11 seconds. The bounded plasma simulation PDP1 was used to evaluate the influence of finite geometry and the electrode boundaries. For this bounded plasma, a two-stream interaction was supported and resulting in nearly complete thermalization in approximately 5 x 10 -10 seconds. Since the electron-electron collision rate of 10 9 Hz and the electron atom collision rate of 10 7 Hz are significantly slower than the rate of development of these instabilities, the instabilities appear to be an important relaxation mechanism

  19. Thermionic Properties of Carbon Based Nanomaterials Produced by Microhollow Cathode PECVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, John R.; Wolinksy, Jason J.; Bailey, Paul S.; George, Jeffrey A.; Go, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Thermionic emission is the process in which materials at sufficiently high temperature spontaneously emit electrons. This process occurs when electrons in a material gain sufficient thermal energy from heating to overcome the material's potential barrier, referred to as the work function. For most bulk materials very high temperatures (greater than 1500 K) are needed to produce appreciable emission. Carbon-based nanomaterials have shown significant promise as emission materials because of their low work functions, nanoscale geometry, and negative electron affinity. One method of producing these materials is through the process known as microhollow cathode PECVD. In a microhollow cathode plasma, high energy electrons oscillate at very high energies through the Pendel effect. These high energy electrons create numerous radical species and the technique has been shown to be an effective method of growing carbon based nanomaterials. In this work, we explore the thermionic emission properties of carbon based nanomaterials produced by microhollow cathode PECVD under a variety of synthesis conditions. Initial studies demonstrate measureable current at low temperatures (approximately 800 K) and work functions (approximately 3.3 eV) for these materials.

  20. Development of Kabila rocket: A radioisotope heated thermionic plasma rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalomba Mboyi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new type of plasma rocket engine, the Kabila rocket, using a radioisotope heated thermionic heating chamber instead of a conventional combustion chamber or catalyst bed is introduced and it achieves specific impulses similar to the ones of conventional solid and bipropellant rockets. Curium-244 is chosen as a radioisotope heat source and a thermal reductive layer is also used to obtain precise thermionic emissions. The self-sufficiency principle is applied by simultaneously heating up the emitting material with the radioisotope decay heat and by powering the different valves of the plasma rocket engine with the same radioisotope decay heat using a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. This rocket engine is then benchmarked against a 1 N hydrazine thruster configuration operated on one of the Pleiades-HR-1 constellation spacecraft. A maximal specific impulse and power saving of respectively 529 s and 32% are achieved with helium as propellant. Its advantages are its power saving capability, high specific impulses and simultaneous ease of storage and restart. It can however be extremely voluminous and potentially hazardous. The Kabila rocket is found to bring great benefits to the existing spacecraft and further research should optimize its geometric characteristics and investigate the physical principals of its operation.

  1. System composition and operation of exposure dose registration and control system (Final report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Since November, 1976, the committee concerning the investigation of exposure dose registration and control system for employees in nuclear industries has discussed on the exposure dose registration and control system, issued the interim report (outline) in April, 1977, and continued to investigate the details organizing the working group. Here, the final report is presented. It describes first on the definition of the terms used and the basic concept of the exposure dose registration and control system, in which the name of that organization is decided as ''Central Registration Office for Radiation Works'', Radiation Influence Association, the foundational juridical person. Next, the works to be performed in the Center and nuclear energy enterprises are explained. The items concerning the business management at the time of practical execution are the major part of the report, and are over 22 items. These include the registration business, the official reporting business, inquiry and answer business about career, change and revision, and computer processing system. As the temporary measures for transfer ring to the new system, 10 items are also provided. Supplementary explanation of 9 important items is given in the appendix. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  2. Molten-Caustic-Leaching (Gravimelt) system integration project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    The objectives of this program were to design, construct, shakedown and operate an integrated MCL test circuit to demonstrate the technical capability of the process for producing a demineralized and desulfurized coal that meets New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), to test process conditions aimed at lower costs, and to deliver product coal. These objectives were met by the procurement, construction, and operation of the integrated test circuit. Shakedown and a 63-test process matrix resulted in the production of about 3,700 pounds of treated coal. Product MCL coal may be used to displace oil in some turbine and diesel engines and may be used in the retrofit of oil-fired boilers. Two high sulfur, high ash coals and one medium sulfur, high ash coal representative of the Eastern United States coal production were processed: Pittsburgh No. 8 (Powhatan No. 6 mine), Kentucky No. 9, and Pittsburgh No. 8 (Blacksville No. 2 mine). Although mild kiln operating conditions (325 to 415{degree}C and 1 to 2.3 hours residence time) and low caustic to coal ratios (1:1 to 3:1) were used, the combination of continuous operation and rigorous exclusion of air from the system allowed the production of MCL coal that had product sulfur content was well below NSPS standards, very low carbonate production, very little volatile losses, and low alkali retention by the product MCL coal. Optimization testing resulted in a product coal containing 0.2 to 0.4 percent sulfur (0.26 to 0.6 lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu) and 0.15 to 0.5 percent ash with more than 90 percent organic sulfur removal, {approximately}95 percent SO{sub 2} reduction from run-of-mine coal, {approximately}91 percent SO{sub 2} reduction from precleaned process feed coal, and with heat content of about 14,000 Btu per pound.

  3. National Geoscience Data Repository System: Phase 2 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The American Geological Institute (AGI) has completed Phase 2 of a project to establish a National Geoscience Data Repository System (NGDRS). The project`s primary objectives are to preserve geoscience data in jeopardy of being destroyed and to make that data available to those who have a need to use it in future investigations. These data are available for donation to the public as a result of the downsizing that has occurred in the major petroleum and mining companies in the US for the past decade. In recent years, these companies have consolidated domestic operations, sold many of their domestic properties and relinquished many of their leases. The scientific data associated with those properties are no longer considered to be useful assets and are consequently in danger of being lost forever. The national repository project will make many of these data available to the geoscience community for the first time. Phase 2 encompasses the establishment of standards for indexing and cataloging of geoscience data and determination of the costs of transferring data from the private sector to public-sector data repositories. Pilot projects evaluated the feasibility of the project for transfer of different data types and creation of a Web-based metadata supercatalog and browser. Also as part of the project, a national directory of geoscience data repositories was compiled to assess what data are currently available in existing facilities. The next step, Phase 3, will focus on the initiation of transfer of geoscience data from the private sector to the public domain and development of the web-based Geotrek metadata supercatalog.

  4. Blade System Design Study. Part II, final project report (GEC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Dayton A. (DNV Global Energy Concepts Inc., Seattle, WA)

    2009-05-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Wind Speed Turbine program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC)1 has studied alternative composite materials for wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt size range. This work in one of the Blade System Design Studies (BSDS) funded through Sandia National Laboratories. The BSDS program was conducted in two phases. In the Part I BSDS, GEC assessed candidate innovations in composite materials, manufacturing processes, and structural configurations. GEC also made recommendations for testing composite coupons, details, assemblies, and blade substructures to be carried out in the Part II study (BSDS-II). The BSDS-II contract period began in May 2003, and testing was initiated in June 2004. The current report summarizes the results from the BSDS-II test program. Composite materials evaluated include carbon fiber in both pre-impregnated and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) forms. Initial thin-coupon static testing included a wide range of parameters, including variation in manufacturer, fiber tow size, fabric architecture, and resin type. A smaller set of these materials and process types was also evaluated in thin-coupon fatigue testing, and in ply-drop and ply-transition panels. The majority of materials used epoxy resin, with vinyl ester (VE) resin also used for selected cases. Late in the project, testing of unidirectional fiberglass was added to provide an updated baseline against which to evaluate the carbon material performance. Numerous unidirectional carbon fabrics were considered for evaluation with VARTM infusion. All but one fabric style considered suffered either from poor infusibility or waviness of fibers combined with poor compaction. The exception was a triaxial carbon-fiberglass fabric produced by SAERTEX. This fabric became the primary choice for infused articles throughout the test program. The generally positive results obtained in this program for the SAERTEX material have led to its

  5. 75 FR 11002 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Rule AGENCY: Environmental... and specific types of management of the petitioned waste, the quantities of waste generated, and waste... wastes. This final rule responds to a petition submitted by Valero to delist F037 waste. The F037 waste...

  6. Systems analysis for the development of small resource recovery systems: system performance data. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crnkovich, P G; Helmstetter, A J

    1980-10-01

    The technologies that should be developed to make small-scale solid waste processing facilities attractive and viable for small municipalities with solid waste between 50 and 250 tons per day are identified. The resource recovery systems investigated were divided into three categories: thermal processng, mechanical separation, and biological processing. Thermal processing systems investigated are: excess-air incineration; starved-air incineration/gasification; and pyrolysis (indirect heating). Mechanical processing systems investigated are: coarse refuse derived fuel; materials separation; dust refuse derived fuel; densified refuse derived fuel; and fine refuse derived fuel. Mechanical processing components investigated include: receiving module; primary size reduction module; combustible separation module; refuse derived fuel preparation module; fuel densification; fuel storage module; ferrous separation; and building and facilities. Pretreatment processes and principle methods of bioconversion of MSW dealing with biological processing are investigated. (MCW)

  7. 76 FR 16534 - Hazardous Waste Management System Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Waste Management System Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion AGENCY...) on a one-time basis from the lists of hazardous waste, a certain solid waste generated at its Mt... waste is [[Page 16535

  8. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Final Orbit/Reference Frame Product Summary from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Final Orbit/Reference Frame Product Summary from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data Information...

  9. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Final Orbit Product (daily files, generated weekly) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Final Orbit Product (daily files, generated weekly) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data...

  10. Freight Advanced Traveler Information System (FRATIS) - Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) prototype : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the Final Report for the FRATIS Dallas-Fort Worth DFW prototype system. The FRATIS prototype in : DFW consisted of the following components: optimization algorithm, terminal wait time, route specific : navigation/traffic/weather, and advanced...

  11. Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology. This report describes new approaches that are faster, less resource intensive, and more robust that can help ...

  12. UAS C2 Radio System - Final Phase 1 Development and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert; Shalkhauser, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Phase 1 of the Command and Control Communications (C2) Subproject of NASA's UAS Integration in the National Airspace System Project included the development and testing of prototype C2 radio systems. This information paper provides an overview of the functionality and testing of the fifth and final Phase 1 generation of the prototype radio system.

  13. Los Angeles-Gateway Freight Advanced Traveler Information System : final system design and architecture for FRATIS prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This Final Architecture and Design report has been prepared to describe the structure and design of all the system : components for the LA-Gateway FRATIS Demonstration Project. More specifically, this document provides: : Detailed descriptions of...

  14. Comparison-Bot: an Automated Preliminary-Final Report Comparison System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaria, Amit D; Filice, Ross W

    2016-06-01

    Regular comparison of preliminary to final reports is a critical part of radiology resident and fellow education as prior research has documented substantial preliminary to final discrepancies. Unfortunately, there are many barriers to this comparison: high study volume; overnight rotations without an attending; the ability to finalize reports remotely; the subtle nature of many changes; and lack of easy access to the preliminary report after finalization. We developed a system that automatically compiles and emails a weekly summary of report differences for all residents and fellows. Trainees can also create a custom report using a date range of their choice and can view this data on a resident dashboard. Differences between preliminary and final reports are clearly highlighted with links to the associated study in Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) for efficient review and learning. Reports with more changes, particularly changes made in the impression, are highlighted to focus attention on those exams with substantive edits. Our system provides an easy way for trainees to review changes to preliminary reports with immediate access to the associated images, thereby improving their educational experience. Departmental surveys showed that our report difference summary is easy to understand and improves the educational experience of our trainees. Additionally, interesting descriptive statistics help us understand how reports are changed by trainee level, by attending, and by exam type. Finally, this system can be easily ported to other departments who have access to their Health Level 7 (HL7) data.

  15. Modeling a short dc discharge with thermionic cathode and auxiliary anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, E. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); University ITMO, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Demidov, V. I. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kaganovich, I. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Koepke, M. E. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kudryavtsev, A. A. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15

    A short dc discharge with a thermionic cathode can be used as a current and voltage stabilizer, but is subject to current oscillation. If instead of one anode two anodes are used, the current oscillations can be reduced. We have developed a kinetic model of such a discharge with two anodes, where the primary anode has a small opening for passing a fraction of the discharge current to an auxiliary anode. The model demonstrates that the current-voltage relationship of the discharge with two anodes is characterized everywhere by positive slope, i.e., positive differential resistance. Therefore, the discharge with two anodes is expected to be stable to the spontaneous oscillation in current that is induced by negative differential resistance. As a result, such a discharge can be used in an engineering application that requires stable plasma, such as a current and voltage stabilizer.

  16. Generation of multi-branch beam with thermionic gun for the Japan linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, T.; Akemoto, M.; Matsumonto, H.; Urakawa, J.; Yoshioka, M.; Akiyama, H.

    1992-01-01

    We report on the development of a thermionic gun that is capable of producing multi-bunch beam to be used at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility for the Japan Linear Collider project. Two types of grid pulse generators have been developed. One is an avalanche pulse generator. A Y-646E cathode was successfully operated to generate double-bunch beam with a pulse width shorter than 700 ps, bunch spacing 1.4 ns, and a peak current 4.3 A. The other grid pulse generator is a fast ECL circuit with an RF power amplifier. Generation of 20-pulse trains with 2.1 ns time spacing has been demonstrated. (Author) 4 refs., 6 figs

  17. Current transmission and nonlinear effects in un-gated thermionic cathode RF guns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelen, J. P. [Fermilab; Harris, J. R. [Air Force Weapons Lab

    2017-05-03

    Un-gated thermionic cathode RF guns are well known as a robust source of electrons for many accelerator applications. These sources are in principle scalable to high currents without degradation of the transverse emittance due to control grids but they are also known for being limited by back-bombardment. While back-bombardment presents a significant limitation, there is still a lack of general understanding on how emission over the whole RF period will affect the nature of the beams produced from these guns. In order to improve our understanding of how these guns can be used in general we develop analytical models that predict the transmission efficiency as a function of the design parameters, study how bunch compression and emission enhancement caused by Schottky barrier lowering affect the output current profile in the gun, and study the onset of space-charge limited effects and the resultant virtual cathode formation leading to a modulation in the output current distribution.

  18. Design study of a low-emittance high-repetition rate thermionic rf gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opanasenko, A.; Mytrochenko, V.; Zhaunerchyk, V.; Goryashko, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    We propose a novel gridless continuous-wave radiofrequency (rf) thermionic gun capable of generating nC ns electron bunches with a rms normalized slice emittance close to the thermal level of 0.3 mm mrad. In order to gate the electron emission, an externally heated thermionic cathode is installed into a stripline-loop conductor. Two high-voltage pulses propagating towards each other in the stripline-loop overlap in the cathode region and create a quasielectrostatic field gating the electron emission. The repetition rate of pulses is variable and can reach up to one MHz with modern solid-state pulsers. The stripline attached to a rf gun cavity wall has with the wall a common aperture that allows the electrons to be injected into the rf cavity for further acceleration. Thanks to this innovative gridless design, simulations suggest that the bunch emittance is approximately at the thermal level after the bunch injection into the cavity provided that the geometry of the cathode and aperture are properly designed. Specifically, a concave cathode is adopted to imprint an Ƨ-shaped distribution onto the beam transverse phase-space to compensate for an S-shaped beam distribution created by the spherical aberration of the aperture-cavity region. In order to compensate for the energy spread caused by rf fields of the rf gun cavity, a 3rd harmonic cavity is used. A detailed study of the electrodynamics of the stripline and rf gun cavity as well as the beam optics and bunch dynamics are presented.

  19. Flame exposure time on Langmuir probe degradation, ion density, and thermionic emission for flame temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, S. J.; Salvador, P. R.; Xu, K. G.

    2017-11-01

    The paper examines the effect of exposure time of Langmuir probes in an atmospheric premixed methane-air flame. The effects of probe size and material composition on current measurements were investigated, with molybdenum and tungsten probe tips ranging in diameter from 0.0508 to 0.1651 mm. Repeated prolonged exposures to the flame, with five runs of 60 s, resulted in gradual probe degradations (-6% to -62% area loss) which affected the measurements. Due to long flame exposures, two ion saturation currents were observed, resulting in significantly different ion densities ranging from 1.16 × 1016 to 2.71 × 1019 m-3. The difference between the saturation currents is caused by thermionic emissions from the probe tip. As thermionic emission is temperature dependent, the flame temperature could thus be estimated from the change in current. The flame temperatures calculated from the difference in saturation currents (1734-1887 K) were compared to those from a conventional thermocouple (1580-1908 K). Temperature measurements obtained from tungsten probes placed in rich flames yielded the highest percent error (9.66%-18.70%) due to smaller emission current densities at lower temperatures. The molybdenum probe yielded an accurate temperature value with only 1.29% error. Molybdenum also demonstrated very low probe degradation in comparison to the tungsten probe tips (area reductions of 6% vs. 58%, respectively). The results also show that very little exposure time (<5 s) is needed to obtain a valid ion density measurement and that prolonged flame exposures can yield the flame temperature but also risks damage to the Langmuir probe tip.

  20. Beam-based alignment and tuning procedures for e+e- collider final focus systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, F.; Burke, D.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Odian, A.; Roy, G.; Ruth, R.; Yamamoto

    1991-01-01

    For future linear colliders, with very small emittances and beam sizes and demanding tolerances on final focus system alignment and magnet errors, it becomes increasingly important to use the beam as a diagnostic tool. The authors report here procedures they have identified and will be implemented in the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC incorporating (1) quadrupole strength changes, (2) central orbit modifications, (3) spot size measurements, and (4) beam stability monitoring

  1. Beam-based alignment and tuning procedures for e+e- collider final focus systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, F.; Burke, D.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Odian, A.; Roy, G.; Ruth, R.; Yamamoto, N.

    1991-05-01

    For future linear colliders, with very small emittances and beam sizes and demanding tolerances on final focus system alignment and magnet errors, it becomes increasingly important to use the beam as a diagnostic tool. We report here procedures we have identified and will be implemented in the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC incorporating (1) quadrupole strength changes, (2) central orbit modifications, (3) spot size measurements, and (4) beam stability monitoring. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  2. MgB{sub 2} superconducting thin films sequentially fabricated using DC magnetron sputtering and thermionic vacuum arc method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okur, S. [Physics Department, Izmir Institute of Technology (Turkey)], E-mail: salihokur@iyte.edu.tr; Kalkanci, M. [Material Science Program, Izmir Institute of Technology (Turkey); Pat, S.; Ekem, N.; Akan, T. [Physics Department, Osmangazi University (Turkey); Balbag, Z. [Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Osmangazi University (Turkey); Musa, G. [Plasma and Radiation, National Institute for Physics of Laser (Romania); Tanoglu, M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Izmir Institute of Technology (Turkey)

    2007-11-01

    In this work, we discuss fabrication and characterization of MgB{sub 2} thin films obtained by sequential deposition and annealing of sandwich like Mg/B/Mg thin films on glass substrates. Mg and B films were prepared using DC magnetron sputtering and thermionic vacuum arc techniques, respectively. The MgB{sub 2} thin films showed superconducting critical transition at 33 K after annealing at 650 deg. C.

  3. Comparative efficiency of final endodontic cleansing procedures in removing a radioactive albumin from root canal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecic, P.A.; Peters, D.D.; Grower, M.F.

    1984-09-01

    Fifty-six teeth were initially instrumented, with the use of seven irrigants or irrigant combinations, and filled with radioactive albumin. The study then showed the relative ability of three final endodontic procedures (copious reirrigation with saline solution, drying with paper points, and reassuring patency of the canal with the final instrument) to remove the albumin. Even after copious irrigation, each additional procedure removed statistically significant amounts of albumin. Alternating an organic solvent and an inorganic solvent did appear to leave the canal system in the optimal condition for final cleansing procedures. The study then correlated the relative efficiency of irrigation alone versus instrumentation plus irrigation in removing the remaining albumin from the canal systems. Reinstrumentation plus copious irrigation removed significantly more albumin than copious irrigation alone.

  4. An Independently Tunable Cells Thermionic RF Gun (ITC-RF GUN) for Sub-Picosecond Short Pulse

    CERN Document Server

    Hama, H; Kawai, M; Tanaka, T

    2005-01-01

    As a result of simulation study so far, a specific feature has been found in the longitudinal dynamics in thermionic RF guns. At the beginning of beam extraction, the head of the electrons from a cathode is followed immediately by the electrons just behind, which is extracted by the higher electric field than that at the head of the beam train. Thus later electrons would get velocity faster than the head of the electrons, so that the electrons are expected to concentrates onto the head of the beam under certain conditions such as the gun geometry and the strength of the RF field. In order to investigate this velocity-bunching like effect, a prototype thermionic RF gun was designed and its characteristics have been studied by a 3-D simulation code based on a FDTD (finite difference time demain) method. The gun is consists of two independentlly power feeding S-band RF cavities, and can be operated at modes with different power ratio and phase between two RFs. This paper report the thermionic RF gun is expected ...

  5. 76 FR 72311 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion AGENCY...? C. What are the limits of this exclusion? D. How will Eastman Chemical manage the waste if it is... persistence in the environment once released from the waste, plausible and specific types of management of the...

  6. 75 FR 51678 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion AGENCY... once released from the waste, plausible and specific types of management of the petitioned waste, the... wastewater treatment biosludge generated by its Ingleside, Texas facility from the lists of hazardous wastes...

  7. 75 FR 51671 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion AGENCY... released from the waste, plausible and specific types of management of the petitioned waste, the quantities... Tokusen will be disposed at a RCRA Subtitle D landfill: The Waste Management Industrial Landfill, North...

  8. 77 FR 58315 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion AGENCY..., plausible and specific types of management of the petitioned waste, the quantities of waste generated, and...) Historical information on waste generation and management practices; and (2) Analytical results from five...

  9. 77 FR 56558 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Rule AGENCY: Environmental... INFORMATION CONTACT: Sharon Leitch, RCRA Waste Management and UST Section, Office of Site Remediation and... persistence in the environment once released from the waste, plausible and specific types of management of the...

  10. 76 FR 74709 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion AGENCY... hazardous waste. The centrifuge solids are derived from the management and treatment of several F- and K... management of the petitioned waste, the quantities of waste generated, and waste variability. EPA believes...

  11. 75 FR 60632 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Direct Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Direct Final Rule AGENCY... management and treatment of several F- and K-waste codes. These waste codes are F037, F038, K048, K049, K051... released from the waste, plausible and specific types of management of the petitioned waste, the quantities...

  12. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement. Appendix J, recreation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts

  13. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix J: Recreation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts.

  14. Final focusing system for the second axis of the dual-axis radiographic hydrodynamic test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-J.; McCarrick, James F.; Paul, Arthur C.; Westenskow, Glen A.

    2002-01-01

    The DARHT-II final focusing system consists of a solenoid and a foil, which is used to confine backstreaming ions. The separation between the converter target and the foil needs to be small to minimize the ion focusing effects. The beam spot size on the foil has to be large enough to ensure survivability of the foil while it is being struck by four high current pulses over 2 microsecond period. We have investigated several final focusing lens and focusing schemes. The simulation results of the beam spot size on the target are presented

  15. Global numerical model for the assessment of the effect of geometry and operation conditions on insert and orifice region plasmas of a thermionic hollow cathode electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, O.; Celik, M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermionic hollow cathodes have been widely used in wide variety of areas such as spacecraft electric propulsion systems, material processing and lasers for more than half a century as efficient electron sources. Especially in electric propulsion systems, hollow cathodes are being used as electron sources for propellant ionization and ion beam neutralization. Moreover, it is also a promising candidate for utilization as a stand-alone propulsion system in microsatellites or nanosatellites due to its small physical size, low power consumption and ease of operation. On the other hand, the small geometry of the typical orificed hollow cathodes makes the plasma diagnostics difficult which is why numerical studies become important for understanding the driving physical processes behind their operation, and the effects of the geometry and the operation parameters on cathode performance. In this paper, a global numerical model for the insert and orifice plasma of a hollow cathode is presented where volume averaged plasma parameters are considered for both regions. The results of this study show that the developed model can be used for designing and sizing orificed hollow cathodes as comparisons with the results of experimental and other numerical studies are in good agreement with the ones obtained from the developed model. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Global numerical model for the assessment of the effect of geometry and operation conditions on insert and orifice region plasmas of a thermionic hollow cathode electron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkmaz, O.; Celik, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bogazici University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2014-11-15

    Thermionic hollow cathodes have been widely used in wide variety of areas such as spacecraft electric propulsion systems, material processing and lasers for more than half a century as efficient electron sources. Especially in electric propulsion systems, hollow cathodes are being used as electron sources for propellant ionization and ion beam neutralization. Moreover, it is also a promising candidate for utilization as a stand-alone propulsion system in microsatellites or nanosatellites due to its small physical size, low power consumption and ease of operation. On the other hand, the small geometry of the typical orificed hollow cathodes makes the plasma diagnostics difficult which is why numerical studies become important for understanding the driving physical processes behind their operation, and the effects of the geometry and the operation parameters on cathode performance. In this paper, a global numerical model for the insert and orifice plasma of a hollow cathode is presented where volume averaged plasma parameters are considered for both regions. The results of this study show that the developed model can be used for designing and sizing orificed hollow cathodes as comparisons with the results of experimental and other numerical studies are in good agreement with the ones obtained from the developed model. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Radiation damage and waste management options for the sombrero final focus system and neutron dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J.F.; Meier, W.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Reyes, S. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia and Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Dept. Ingenieria Energetica, Bilbao (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental aspects of the SOMBRERO inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design did not completely address the issues associated with the final focus system. While past work calculated neutron fluences for a grazing incidence metal mirror (GIMM) and a final focus mirror, scattering off of the final optical component was not included, and thus, fluences in the final focus mirror were significantly underestimated. In addition, past work did not consider neutron-induced gamma-rays. Finally, power plant lifetime waste volumes may have been underestimated as neutron activation of the neutron dumps and building structure were not addressed. In the present work, a modified version of the SOMBRERO target building is presented where a significantly larger open solid-angle fraction (5%) is used to enhance beam smoothing of a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL). The GIMMs are replaced with transmissive fused silica wedges and have been included in three-dimensional neutron and photon transport calculations. This work shows that a power plant with a large open solid-angle fraction, needed for beam smoothing with a DPSSL, is acceptable from tritium breeding, and neutron activation points-of-view. (authors)

  18. Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, L.W.; Hunt, S.T.; Savage, S.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); McLaughlin, P.D.; Shepdard, A.P.; Worl, J.C. (Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States))

    1992-04-01

    The United State Marine Corps (USMC) is continuing the development and fielding of the Marine Corps Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), a system which exists in varying states of development, fielding, or modernization. MTACCS is currently composed of the following components: Tactical Combat Operations System (TCO) for ground command and control (C2), Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) with a Genser terminal connected to a TCO workstation for intelligence C2, Marine Integrated Personnel System (MIPS) and a TCO workstation using the Marine Combat Personnel System (MCPERS) software for personnel C2, Marine Integrated Logistics System (MILOGS) which is composed of the Landing Force Asset Distribution System (LFADS), the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) II, and a TCO terminal using the Marine Combat Logistics System (MCLOG) for logistics C2, Marine Corps Fire Support System (MCFSS) for fire support C2, and Advanced Tactical Air Command Central (ATACC) and the Improved Direct Air Support Central for aviation C2.

  19. Radiation Hardened Telerobotic Dismantling System Development Final Report CRADA No. TC-1340-96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lightman, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-27

    This project was a collaborative effort between the University of California, LLNL and RedZone Robotics, Inc. for the development of radiation-hardened telerobotic dismantling systems for use in applications such as nuclear facility remediation, nuclear accident response, and Chemobyltype remediation. The project supported the design, development, fabrication and testing of a Ukrainian robotic systems. The project was completed on time and within budget. All deliverables were completed. The final project deliverables were consistent with the plans developed in the original project with the exception that the fabricated systems remained in Ukraine.

  20. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Main report exhibits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Volume is a part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Columbia River System. This volume contains technical exhibits of cultural resources and commentary on the (System Operation Review) SOR process. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation comment is the majority of the material in the volume, in the Consultation Plan, Identification of trust resources; Criteria for the selection of a System Operating Strategy; comment on rights protection and implementation of Federal Trust responsibility; analysis of the draft EIS. Comment by other Native American Tribes and groups is also included: Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho; Spokane Tribe of Indians; Coeur d' Alene tribe

  1. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Main Report Exhibits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Volume is a part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Columbia River System. This volume contains technical exhibits of cultural resources and commentary on the (System Operation Review) SOR process. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation comment is the majority of the material in the volume, in the Consultation Plan, Identification of trust resources; Criteria for the selection of a System Operating Strategy; comment on rights protection and implementation of Federal Trust responsibility; analysis of the draft EIS. Comment by other Native American Tribes and groups is also included: Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho; Spokane Tribe of Indians; Coeur d` Alene tribe.

  2. Cross-plane Thermoelectric and Thermionic Transport across Au/h-BN/Graphene Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Nirakar; Liang, Shi-Jun; Choi, David; Hou, Bingya; Shen, Lang; Shi, Haotian; Ang, Lay Kee; Shi, Li; Cronin, Stephen

    2017-10-26

    The thermoelectric voltage generated at an atomically abrupt interface has not been studied exclusively because of the lack of established measurement tools and techniques. Atomically thin 2D materials provide an excellent platform for studying the thermoelectric transport at these interfaces. Here, we report a novel technique and device structure to probe the thermoelectric transport across Au/h-BN/graphene heterostructures. An indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrical heater is patterned on top of this heterostructure, enabling Raman spectroscopy and thermometry to be obtained from the graphene top electrode in situ under device operating conditions. Here, an AC voltage V(ω) is applied to the ITO heater and the thermoelectric voltage across the Au/h-BN/graphene heterostructure is measured at 2ω using a lock-in amplifier. We report the Seebeck coefficient for our thermoelectric structure to be -215 μV/K. The Au/graphene/h-BN heterostructures enable us to explore thermoelectric and thermal transport on nanometer length scales in a regime of extremely short length scales. The thermoelectric voltage generated at the graphene/h-BN interface is due to thermionic emission rather than bulk diffusive transport. As such, this should be thought of as an interfacial Seebeck coefficient rather than a Seebeck coefficient of the constituent materials.

  3. RF study and 3-D simulations of a side-coupling thermionic RF-gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimjaem, S.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Thongbai, C.

    2014-01-01

    A thermionic RF-gun for generating ultra-short electron bunches was optimized, developed and used as a source at a linac-based THz radiation research laboratory of the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The RF-gun is a π/2-mode standing wave structure, which consists of two S-band accelerating cells and a side-coupling cavity. The 2856 MHz RF wave is supplied from an S-band klystron to the gun through the waveguide input-port at the cylindrical wall of the second cell. A fraction of the RF power is coupled from the second cell to the first one via a side-coupling cavity. Both the waveguide input-port and the side-coupling cavity lead to an asymmetric geometry of the gun. RF properties and electromagnetic field distributions inside the RF-gun were studied and numerically simulated by using computer codes SUPERFISH 7.19 and CST Microwave Studio 2012 © . RF characterizations and tunings of the RF-gun were performed to ensure the reliability of the gun operation. The results from 3D simulations and measurements are compared and discussed in this paper. The influence of asymmetric field distributions inside the RF-gun on the electron beam properties was investigated via 3D beam dynamics simulations. A change in the coupling-plane of the side-coupling cavity is suggested to improve the gun performance

  4. A flat-cathode thermionic injector for the PHERMEX Radiographic Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauppila, T.; Builta, L.; Burns, M.; Gregory, W.; Honaberger, D.; Watson, S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Hughes, T. (Mission Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The PHERMEX (Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays) standing-wave linear accelerator is a high-current electron beam generator used for flash-radiography. An improved electron gun has been designed employing a flat-thermionic cathode to replace the existing Pierce-geometry gun. The flat cathode yields increased current with the same applied voltage and cathode area as the Pierce gun. The ISIS code simulations indicate a beam current of 1.5 kA at 600 kV. The new geometry also reduces the probability for high voltage breakdown in the A-K gap. A reentrant magnet captures the expanding electron beam and a bucking coil nulls cathode-tinge field. A third coil is used to optimize the extraction field profile and reduce the effect of nonlinear space charge on the beam emittance. Time-resolved measurements of beam current and voltage have been made. In addition, a streak camera was used to measure beam emittance and spatial profile. Comparisons of measurements with simulations are presented.

  5. A flat-cathode thermionic injector for the PHERMEX Radiographic Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauppila, T.; Builta, L.; Burns, M.; Gregory, W.; Honaberger, D.; Watson, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hughes, T. [Mission Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The PHERMEX (Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays) standing-wave linear accelerator is a high-current electron beam generator used for flash-radiography. An improved electron gun has been designed employing a flat-thermionic cathode to replace the existing Pierce-geometry gun. The flat cathode yields increased current with the same applied voltage and cathode area as the Pierce gun. The ISIS code simulations indicate a beam current of 1.5 kA at 600 kV. The new geometry also reduces the probability for high voltage breakdown in the A-K gap. A reentrant magnet captures the expanding electron beam and a bucking coil nulls cathode-tinge field. A third coil is used to optimize the extraction field profile and reduce the effect of nonlinear space charge on the beam emittance. Time-resolved measurements of beam current and voltage have been made. In addition, a streak camera was used to measure beam emittance and spatial profile. Comparisons of measurements with simulations are presented.

  6. Fabrication and testing of full-length single-cell externally fueled converters for thermionic reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, A.

    1994-01-01

    The preceding paper described designs and analyses of thermionic reactors employing full-core-length single-cell converters with their heated emitters located on the outside of their internally cooled collectors, and it presented results of detailed parametric analyses which illustrate the benefits of this unconventional design. The present paper describes the fabrication and testing of full-length prototypical converters, both unfueled and fueled, and presents parametric results of electrically heated tests. The unfueled converter tests demonstrated the practicality of operating such long converters without shorting across a 0.3-mm interelectrode gap. They produced a measured peak output of 751 watts(e) from a single diode and a peak efficiency of 15.4%. The fueled converter tests measured the parametric performance of prototypic UO 2 -fueled converters designed for subsequent in-pile testing. They employed revolver-shaped tungsten elements with a central emitter hole surrounded by six fuel chambers. The full-length converters were heated by a water-cooled RF-induction coil inside an ion-pumped vacuum chamber. This required development of high-vacuum coaxial RF feedthroughs. In-pile test rules required multiple containment of the UO 2 -fuel, which complicated the fabrication of the test article and required successful development of techniques for welding tungsten and other refractory components. The tests measured a peak power output of 530 watts(e) or 7.1 watts/cm 2 at an efficiency of 11.5%

  7. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of an External-Fuel [UO2] Full-Length Thermionic Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred; Raab, B; Giorgio, F.

    1971-09-01

    The development of a double-ended full-core-length external-fuel converter, a prototypical fuel module for a 200- to 300-ekw thermionic reactor, is described. The converter design is based on a revolver-shaped tungsten emitter body, with six peripheral fuel chambers loaded with enriched UO2 pellets. The columbium collector is water-cooled through a sub-atmospheric adjustable-pressure helium gap. The converter employs graded metal-ceramic seals, and its double-ended construction is made possible by bellows to compensate for differential axial expansion. Fission gases are vented from the fuel chambers and collected in an accumulator designed for continuous monitoring of the pressure buildup. Component fabrication, assembly sequence, and joining methods are described; also the test procedures, and the converter load control. All tests are performed in vacuum. During inpile testing, the fuel is triply contained, with thermal insulation between the secondary and tertiary containers. Before insertion inpile, the fully fueled converter is qualification-tested by rf-induction heating using a specially developed high vacuum rf-feedthrough.

  8. Research and development on super heat pump energy accumulation system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    This is the final report on research and development of super heat pump energy accumulation system, which has been carried out from FY 1985 to 1992. It describes outline of the research and development program, R and D results, final evaluation methodology, evaluation of the R and D, proposals for the commercialization, and so on. The super high performance compression heat pumps are technically evaluated for highly efficient type (for heating, and cooling and heating), high temperature type (utilizing high temperature heat source, and low temperature heat source), working fluids (alcohol-based and nonalcohol-based), stainless steel plate fin type heat exchanger, EHD heat exchanger, and so on. The other techniques evaluated include those for chemical heat storage, combined systems, plant simulation, and systemization. The evaluation works are also directed to the economic and environmental aspects. Finally, the R and D themes are proposed to leap over various hurdles, e.g., reliability and economic viability, for the eventual commercialization of the energy accumulation system. (NEDO)

  9. Conceptual design and systems analysis of photovoltaic systems. Volume II. Study results. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirpich, A.

    1977-03-19

    This investigation of terrestrial PV systems considered the technical and economic feasibility for systems in three size categories: a small system of about 12 kW peak output for on-site residential use; a large 1500 MW central power plant contributing to the bulk energy of a utility system power grid; and an intermediate size system of about 250 kW for use on public or commercial buildings. In each category, conceptual designs were developed, performance was analyzed for a range of climatic regions, economic analyses were performed, and assessments were made of pertinent institutional issues. The report consists of three volumes. Volume I contains a Study Summary of the major study results. This volume contains the detailed results pertaining to on-site residential photovoltaic systems, central power plant photovoltaic systems, and intermediate size systems applied to commercial and public buildings. Volume III contains supporting appendix material. (WHK)

  10. Hybrid FRP-concrete bridge deck system final report I : development and system performance validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    In this study, the concept of the hybrid FRP-concrete structural systems was applied to both bridge : superstructure and deck systems. Results from the both experimental and computational analysis for : both the hybrid bridge superstructure and deck ...

  11. Heat pump centered integrated community energy systems: system development. Georgia Institute of Technology final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, D.W.; Trammell, B.C.; Dixit, B.S.; McCurry, D.C.; Rindt, B.A.

    1979-12-01

    Heat Pump Centered-Integrated Community Energy Systems (HP-ICES) show the promise of utilizing low-grade thermal energy for low-quality energy requirements such as space heating and cooling. The Heat Pump - Wastewater Heat Recovery (HP-WHR) scheme is one approach to an HP-ICES that proposes to reclaim low-grade thermal energy from a community's wastewater effluent. This report develops the concept of an HP-WHR system, evaluates the potential performance and economics of such a system, and examines the potential for application. A thermodynamic performance analysis of a hypothetical system projects an overall system Coefficient of Performance (C.O.P.) of from 2.181 to 2.264 for waste-water temperatures varying from 50/sup 0/F to 80/sup 0/F. Primary energy source savings from the nationwide implementation of this system is projected to be 6.0 QUADS-fuel oil, or 8.5 QUADS - natural gas, or 29.7 QUADS - coal for the period 1980 to 2000, depending upon the type and mix of conventional space conditioning systems which could be displaced with the HP-WHR system. Site-specific HP-WHR system designs are presented for two application communities in Georgia. Performance analyses for these systems project annual cycle system C.O.P.'s of 2.049 and 2.519. Economic analysis on the basis of a life cycle cost comparison shows one site-specific system design to be cost competitive in the immediate market with conventional residential and light commercial HVAC systems. The second site-specific system design is shown through a similar economic analysis to be more costly than conventional systems due mainly to the current low energy costs for natural gas. It is anticipated that, as energy costs escalate, this HP-WHR system will also approach the threshold of economic viability.

  12. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Final Clock Product (30 second resolution, daily files, generated weekly) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Final Satellite and Receiver Clock Product (30-second granularity, daily files, generated...

  13. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Final Clock Product (5 minute resolution, daily files, generated weekly) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Final Satellite and Receiver Clock Product (5-minute granularity, daily files, generated...

  14. Medicare program; prospective payment system and consolidated billing for skilled nursing facilities--update. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-04

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system (PPS) for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), for fiscal year (FY) 2004. Annual updates to the PPS rates are required by section 1888(e) of the Social Security Act (the Act), as amended by the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Balanced Budget Refinement Act of 1999 (BBRA), and the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000 (BIPA), relating to Medicare payments and consolidated billing for SNFs.

  15. Basic optics of the SLC [Stanford Linear Collider] Final Focus System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.

    1988-12-01

    In this report we discuss some general optics principles and scaling laws that have been useful in guiding the design and operation of the Final Focus System for the Stanford Linear Collider. Included are expressions for the minimum Β x * and Β y * that can be expected for the present SLC design at the interaction point as a function of beam emittance. 6 refs., 13 figs

  16. Solar heating system installed at Telex Communications, Inc. , Blue Earth, Minnesota. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEver, William S.

    1979-10-26

    The final results are summarized of a contract for space heating a 97,000 square foot building which houses administrative offices, assembly areas and warehouse space. Information is also provided on system description, test data, major problems and resolutions, performance, operation and maintenance manual, manufacturer's literature, and as-built drawings. The system began delivering space heating in February 1978. The Telex solar system is composed of four main subsystems; they are the solar collectors, controls, thermal storage and heat distribution. The ITC/Solar Mark III collector was used. The collector array consists of 10 rows of 36 collectors each. The control subsystem controls the operation of the system pumps and control valves. Thermal storage for the system is provided by a 20,000 gallon water storage tank located inside the building. Heating is accomplished by water-to-air heat exchangers and controlled by thermostats.

  17. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix T: Comments and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix documents the public and agency review of the SOR Draft EIS and how the SOR agencies used the review to formulate the FINAL EIS. The appendix includes a summary of the review process, a discussion of the nature of the comments, a list of all commentors, reproductions of comment letters, and responses to all comments. Changes in the EIS text in response to comments are noted in the responses

  18. Commercialization of PV-powered pumping systems for use in utility PV service programs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The project described in this report was a commercialization effort focused on cost-effective remote water pumping systems for use in utility-based photovoltaic (PV) service programs. The project combined a commercialization strategy tailored specifically for electric utilities with the development of a PV-powered pumping system that operates conventional ac pumps rather than relying on the more expensive and less reliable PV pumps on the market. By combining these two attributes, a project goal was established of creating sustained utility purchases of 250 PV-powered water pumping systems per year. The results of each of these tasks are presented in two parts contained in this Final Summary Report. The first part summarizes the results of the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN) as a new business venture, while the second part summarizes the results of the Golden Photon system installations. Specifically, results and photographs from each of the system installations are presented in this latter part.

  19. Quantitative adaptation analytics for assessing dynamic systems of systems: LDRD Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, John H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). System Readiness & Sustainment Technologies (6133, M/S 1188); Miner, Nadine E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Military & Energy Systems Analysis (6114, M/S 1188); Wilson, Michael L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Resilience and Regulatory Effects (6921, M/S 1138); Le, Hai D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). System Readiness & Sustainment Technologies (6133, M/S 1188); Kao, Gio K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Networked System Survivability & Assurance (5629, M/S 0671); Melander, Darryl J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Software Systems R& D (9525, M/S 1188); Longsine, Dennis Earl [Sandia National Laboratories, Unknown, Unknown; Vander Meer, Jr., Robert C. [SAIC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Our society is increasingly reliant on systems and interoperating collections of systems, known as systems of systems (SoS). These SoS are often subject to changing missions (e.g., nation- building, arms-control treaties), threats (e.g., asymmetric warfare, terrorism), natural environments (e.g., climate, weather, natural disasters) and budgets. How well can SoS adapt to these types of dynamic conditions? This report details the results of a three year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project aimed at developing metrics and methodologies for quantifying the adaptability of systems and SoS. Work products include: derivation of a set of adaptability metrics, a method for combining the metrics into a system of systems adaptability index (SoSAI) used to compare adaptability of SoS designs, development of a prototype dynamic SoS (proto-dSoS) simulation environment which provides the ability to investigate the validity of the adaptability metric set, and two test cases that evaluate the usefulness of a subset of the adaptability metrics and SoSAI for distinguishing good from poor adaptability in a SoS. Intellectual property results include three patents pending: A Method For Quantifying Relative System Adaptability, Method for Evaluating System Performance, and A Method for Determining Systems Re-Tasking.

  20. The proposed alignment system for the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.; Fischer, G.E.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes the current state of work in progress with respect to the geometry, alignment requirements, scenarios, and hardware for meeting the tolerances of the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) at SLAC. The methods and systems proposed acknowledge that component motion at the micron level, from whatever cause (ground motion, thermal effects, etc.) must be measured on-line and compensated for on relatively short time scales. To provide an integrated alignment/positioning package, some unique designs for reference systems, calibration of effect electric and magnetic centers, and component movers are introduced. 24 refs., 28 figs

  1. Electrodril system field test program. Phase II, task B: deep drilling system demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-15

    The effort included the design, fabrication and Systems Verification Testing of the Deep Drilling System. The Systems Verification Test was conducted during October 1978 in a test well located on the premises of Brown Oil Tools Inc., Houston, Texas. In general, the Systems Verification test program was an unqualified success. All of the system elements of the Deep Drilling System were exercised and evaluated and in every instance the system can be declared ready for operational well demonstration. The motor/bit shaft combination operated very well and seal performance exceeds the design goals. The rig floor system performed better than expected. The power cable flexural characteristics are much better than anticipated and longitudinal stability is excellent. The prototype production connectors have functioned without failure. The cable reels and drive skid have also worked very well during the test program. The redesigned and expanded instrumentation subsystem also functioned very well. Some electronic component malfunctions were experienced during the early test stages, but they were isolated quickly and repaired. Subsequent downhole instrumentation deployments were successfully executed and downhole data was displayed both in the Electrodril instrumentation trailer and on the remote control and display unit.

  2. The classical Pierce diode: Using particle simulations on linear and nonlinear behavior and final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal, T.L.; Kuhn, S.; Birdsall, C.K.

    1984-01-01

    The classical Pierce diode is a simple 1-d system of two shorted metal plates, a cold beam of electrons injected from one side and a neutralizing background of rigid ions. While the plasma medium is technically stable, the finiteness of the Pierce system allows stable and unstable operation. It is usefully studied as an archetypical bounded plasma system, related e.g., to Q-machines, particle accelerators, thermionic converters. New particle simulations of the Pierce diode have successfully recovered many novel linear phenomena including the dominant linear eigenmodes (seen in the internal electrostatic fields), and the dominant and subdominant eigenfrequencies, (seen both in the internal electrostatics and in the external circuit current, J/sub ext/(t)). These simulation results conform very well to detailed predictions of a new linear analysis. The final (nonlinear) state recovered can show critical dependence on initial (linear perturbation) conditions, and can be made steady-state (d.c.) or periodic-oscillatory by simply changing the initial conditions by a factor of 10/sup -4/ or less. A third class of final state is also possible which has oscillations which seem to be nonperiodic

  3. Final Report for File System Support for Burst Buffers on HPC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mohror, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Distributed burst buffers are a promising storage architecture for handling I/O workloads for exascale computing. As they are being deployed on more supercomputers, a file system that efficiently manages these burst buffers for fast I/O operations carries great consequence. Over the past year, FSU team has undertaken several efforts to design, prototype and evaluate distributed file systems for burst buffers on HPC systems. These include MetaKV: a Key-Value Store for Metadata Management of Distributed Burst Buffers, a user-level file system with multiple backends, and a specialized file system for large datasets of deep neural networks. Our progress for these respective efforts are elaborated further in this report.

  4. Basic concept of common reactor physics code systems. Final report of working party on common reactor physics code systems (CCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    A working party was organized for two years (2001-2002) on common reactor physics code systems under the Research Committee on Reactor Physics of JAERI. This final report is compilation of activity of the working party on common reactor physics code systems during two years. Objectives of the working party is to clarify basic concept of common reactor physics code systems to improve convenience of reactor physics code systems for reactor physics researchers in Japan on their various field of research and development activities. We have held four meetings during 2 years, investigated status of reactor physics code systems and innovative software technologies, and discussed basic concept of common reactor physics code systems. (author)

  5. Rapid analysis of hay attributes using NIRS. Final report, Task II alfalfa supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-24

    This final report provides technical information on the development of a near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) system for the analysis of alfalfa hay. The purpose of the system is to provide consistent quality for processing alfalfa stems for fuel and alfalfa leaf meal products for livestock feed. Project tasks were to: (1) develop an NIRS driven analytical system for analysis of alfalfa hay and processed alfalfa products; (2) assist in hiring a qualified NIRS technician and recommend changes in testing equipment necessary to provide accurate analysis; (3) calibrate the NIRS instrument for accurate analyses; and (4) develop prototype equipment and sampling procedures as a first step towards development of a totally automated sampling system that would rapidly sample and record incoming feedstock and outbound product. An accurate hay testing program was developed, along with calibration equations for analyzing alfalfa hay and sun-cured alfalfa pellets. A preliminary leaf steam calibration protocol was also developed. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Final design of a free-piston hydraulic advanced Stirling conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, D. A.; Noble, J. E.; Emigh, S. G.; Ross, B. A.; Lehmann, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    Under the US Department of Energy's (DOEs) Solar Thermal Technology Program, Sandia National Laboratories is evaluating heat engines for solar distributed receiver systems. The final design is described of an engineering prototype advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) with a free-piston hydraulic engine output capable of delivering about 25 kW of electric power to a utility grid. The free-piston Stirling engine has the potential for a highly reliable engine with long life because it has only a few moving parts, has noncontacting bearings, and can be hermetically sealed. The ASCS is designed to deliver maximum power per year over a range of solar input with a design life of 30 years (60,000 h). The system includes a liquid Nak pool boiler heat transport system and a free-piston Stirling engine with high-pressure hydraulic output, coupled with a bent axis variable displacement hydraulic motor and a rotary induction generator.

  7. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project Subcommittee Final

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chuck; Griner, James H.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Shively, Robert J.; Consiglio, Maria; Muller, Eric; Murphy, James; Kim, Sam

    2012-01-01

    UAS Integration in the NAS Project overview with details from each of the subprojects. Subprojects include: Communications, Certification, Integrated Test and Evaluation, Human Systems Integration, and Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability.

  8. Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) 2.0 Precursor System: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) have experienced significant growth since their initial inception in the 1990s. Technologies have continued to evolve at a rapid pace, enabling the integration of advanced solutions for traveler informatio...

  9. Analytical approach to chromatic correction in the final focus system of circular colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhai Cai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A conventional final focus system in particle accelerators is systematically analyzed. We find simple relations between the parameters of two focus modules in the final telescope. Using the relations, we derive the chromatic Courant-Snyder parameters for the telescope. The parameters are scaled approximately according to (L^{*}/β_{y}^{*}δ, where L^{*} is the distance from the interaction point to the first quadrupole, β_{y}^{*} the vertical beta function at the interaction point, and δ the relative momentum deviation. Most importantly, we show how to compensate its chromaticity order by order in δ by a traditional correction module flanked by an asymmetric pair of harmonic multipoles. The method enables a circular Higgs collider with 2% momentum aperture and illuminates a path forward to 4% in the future.

  10. Laser sampling system for an inductively-coupled atomic emission spectrometer. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-15

    A laser sampling system was attached to a Perkin Elmer Optima 3000 inductively-coupled plasma, atomic emission spectrometer that was already installed and operating in the Chemistry and Geochemistry Department at the Colorado School of Mines. The use of the spectrometer has been highly successful. Graduate students and faculty from at least four different departments across the CSM campus have used the instrument. The final report to NSF is appended to this final report. Appendices are included which summarize several projects utilizing this instrument: acquisition of an inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer for the geochemistry program; hydrogen damage susceptibility assessment for high strength steel weldments through advanced hydrogen content analysis, 1996 and 1997 annual reports; and methods for determination of hydrogen distribution in high strength steel welds.

  11. Enhanced Thermionic Emission and Low 1/f Noise in Exfoliated Graphene/GaN Schottky Barrier Diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Kashid, Ranjit; Ghosh, Arindam; Kumar, Vikram; Singh, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    Temperature-dependent electrical transport characteristics of exfoliated graphene/GaN Schottky diodes are investigated and compared with conventional Ni/GaN Schottky diodes. The ideality factor of graphene/GaN and Ni/GaN diodes are measured to be 1.33 and 1.51, respectively, which is suggestive of comparatively higher thermionic emission current in graphene/GaN diode. The barrier height values for graphene/GaN diode obtained using thermionic emission model and Richardson plots are found to be 0.60 and 0.72 eV, respectively, which are higher than predicted barrier height ∼0.40 eV as per the Schottky-Mott model. The higher barrier height is attributed to hole doping of graphene due to graphene-Au interaction which shifts the Fermi level in graphene by ∼0.3 eV. The magnitude of flicker noise of graphene/GaN Schottky diode increases up to 175 K followed by its decrease at higher temperatures. This indicates that diffusion currents and barrier inhomogeneities dominate the electronic transport at lower and higher temperatures, respectively. The exfoliated graphene/GaN diode is found to have lower level of barrier inhomogeneities than conventional Ni/GaN diode, as well as earlier reported graphene/GaN diode fabricated using chemical vapor deposited graphene. The lesser barrier inhomogeneities in graphene/GaN diode results in lower flicker noise by 2 orders of magnitude as compared to Ni/GaN diode. Enhanced thermionic emission current, lower level of inhomogeneities, and reduced flicker noise suggests that graphene-GaN Schottky diodes may have the underlying trend for replacing metal-GaN Schottky diodes.

  12. Inertial confinement fusion driver enhancements: Final focusing systems and compact heavy-ion driver designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Required elements of an inertial confinement fusion power plant are modeled and discussed. A detailed analysis of two critical elements of candidate drivers is done, and new component designs are proposed to increase the credibility and feasibility of each driver system. An analysis of neutron damage to the final elements of a laser focusing system is presented, and multilayer -- dielectric mirrors are shown to have damage lifetimes which axe too short to be useful in a commercial power plant. A new final-focusing system using grazing incidence metal mirrors to protect sensitive laser optics is designed and shown to be effective in extending the lifetime of the final focusing system. The reflectivities and damage limits of grazing incidence metal mirrors are examined in detail, and the required mirror sizes are shown to be compatible with the beam sizes and illumination geometries currently envisioned for laser drivers. A detailed design and analysis is also done for compact arrays of superconducting magnetic quadrupoles, which are needed in a multi-beam heavy-ion driver. The new array model is developed in more detail than some previous conceptual designs and models arrays which are more compact than arrays scaled from existing single -- quadrupole designs. The improved integrated model for compact arrays is used to compare the effects of various quadrupole array design choices on the size and cost of a heavy-ion driver. Array design choices which significantly affect the cost of a heavy-ion driver include the choice of superconducting material and the thickness of the collar used to support the winding stresses. The effect of these array design choices on driver size and cost is examined and the array model is used to estimate driver cost savings and performance improvements attainable with aggressive quadrupole array designs with high-performance superconductors

  13. Heat-Pump-Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems: system development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubin, F S; Halfon, A; Herzog, P

    1979-08-01

    The ice-generating HP-ICES uses the heat of fusion of water as a heat source for the heat pump, thus converting the water into ice. The ice will be stored in a bin and used the following summer for cooling which, therefore, could be considered a by-product of heating. The annual overall Coefficient of Performance is expected to reach a value of 4.85 and related to source energy a value of 4.85 x 0.31 = 1.5. In a detailed case study on the Market Square project in Washington, D.C., it was found that for the HP-ICES the annual source energy input is about 60% and the life cycle annual average cost is 40% of the corresponding quantities for a conventional central system with equal heating and cooling capacity. The annual average operating and administration cost for the HP-ICES is less than 70% of the corresponding costs for the conventional system, while the first cost of the HP-ICES is about 70% larger than the first cost of the conventional system. With the values assumed for the discount rate, interest rate, etc., the return on investment was found to be about 15%, which gives a discounted payback period of about 6.7 years. For the Park Plaza in Boston, the annual source energy input for the HP-ICES is 35% and the energy cost is about 30% of the corresponding quantities for the conventional system. The annual average operating and administration cost for the HP-ICES is 4.5 times as great as the first cost for the conventional system. The return on investment is 13% and the payback is 8 years. These results show that the HP-ICES can be better both in energy usage and in life cycle cost than a conventional system of the same heating and cooling capacity, and holds great promise as an energy saving system.

  14. GaN thin film deposition on glass and PET substrates by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pat, Suat, E-mail: suatpat@ogu.edu.tr [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Physics Department, 26480 (Turkey); Korkmaz, Şadan; Özen, Soner [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Physics Department, 26480 (Turkey); Şenay, Volkan [Bayburt University, Primary Science Education Department, 69000 (Turkey)

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, GaN thin film production was realized by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA), a plasma deposition technique, for the first time. We present a new deposition mechanism for GaN thin films with a very short production time. Microstructure properties of samples were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry. The peak at 2θ = 72.88° corresponding to GaN (0004) was detected in XRD spectra. The surface morphology of the deposited GaN films was analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The surface properties of the produced samples are quite different. The average roughness values were determined to be 0.48 nm for GaN/PET and 1.17 nm for GaN/glass. The optical properties (i.e., refractive index and reflection) were determined using an interferometer. Moreover, the obtained optical data were compared with bulk GaN materials. The refractive indexes were measured as 2.2, 3,0 and 2,5 for the GaN/glass, GaN/PET and bulk GaN, respectively. The transparencies of the different GaN-coated substrates are nearly the same. The obtained band gap values were measured in the energy range of 3.3–3.5 eV. TVA is a novel non-reactive plasma technique for the generation of metal organic thin films. The main advantage of this method is its fast deposition rate without any loss in the quality of the films. - Highlights: • A new GaN thin film growth method is introduced. • Microstructure, surface and optical properties were characterized. • GaN/glass and GaN/PET were produced by a different plasma deposition method.

  15. GaN thin film deposition on glass and PET substrates by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pat, Suat; Korkmaz, Şadan; Özen, Soner; Şenay, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, GaN thin film production was realized by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA), a plasma deposition technique, for the first time. We present a new deposition mechanism for GaN thin films with a very short production time. Microstructure properties of samples were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry. The peak at 2θ = 72.88° corresponding to GaN (0004) was detected in XRD spectra. The surface morphology of the deposited GaN films was analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The surface properties of the produced samples are quite different. The average roughness values were determined to be 0.48 nm for GaN/PET and 1.17 nm for GaN/glass. The optical properties (i.e., refractive index and reflection) were determined using an interferometer. Moreover, the obtained optical data were compared with bulk GaN materials. The refractive indexes were measured as 2.2, 3,0 and 2,5 for the GaN/glass, GaN/PET and bulk GaN, respectively. The transparencies of the different GaN-coated substrates are nearly the same. The obtained band gap values were measured in the energy range of 3.3–3.5 eV. TVA is a novel non-reactive plasma technique for the generation of metal organic thin films. The main advantage of this method is its fast deposition rate without any loss in the quality of the films. - Highlights: • A new GaN thin film growth method is introduced. • Microstructure, surface and optical properties were characterized. • GaN/glass and GaN/PET were produced by a different plasma deposition method

  16. Fabrication and Testing of Full-Length Single-Cell Externally Fueled Converters for Thermionic Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-06-01

    The preceding paper described designs and analyses of thermionic reactors employing full-core-length single-cell converters with their heated emitters located on the outside of their internally cooled collectors, and it presented results of detailed parametric analyses which illustrate the benefits of this unconventional design. The present paper describes the fabrication and testing of full-length prototypical converters, both unfueled and fueled, and presents parametric results of electrically heated tests. The unfueled converter tests demonstrated the practicality of operating such long converters without shorting across a 0.3-mm interelectrode gap. They produced a measured peak output of 751 watts(e) from a single diode and a peak efficiency of 15.4%. The fueled converter tests measured the parametric performance of prototypic UO(subscript 2)-fueled converters designed for subsequent in-pile testing. They employed revolver-shaped tungsten elements with a central emitter hole surrounded by six fuel chambers. The full-length converters were heated by a water-cooled RF-induction coil inside an ion-pumped vacuum chamber. This required development of high-vacuum coaxial RF feedthroughs. In-pile test rules required multiple containment of the UO (subscript 2)-fuel, which complicated the fabrication of the test article and required successful development of techniques for welding tungsten and other refractory components. The test measured a peak power output of 530 watts(e) or 7.1 watts/cm (superscript 2) at an efficiency of 11.5%. There are three copies in the file. Cross-Reference a copy FSC-ESD-217-94-529 in the ESD files with a CID #8574.

  17. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix I: Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix discusses the work performed by the SOR Power Work Group. The Power Work Group (PWG) had several major responsibilities: first, to determine the effects of each of the various system operating strategies (SOS) on the Northwest regional power system; second, given these effects, to determine what, if any, actions are required to meet forecasted regional energy consumption; and finally, to estimate the cost for serving the forecasted regional energy consumption. The Northwest regional power system consists of Federal and non-Federal hydroelectric power projects (hydropower or hydro projects) on the main stem of the Columbia and Snake Rivers, numerous smaller hydro projects on other river reaches, and a number of thermal plants (coal, nuclear and combustion turbines)

  18. A program-management plan with critical-path definition for Combustion Augmentation with Thermionic Energy Conversion (CATEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J. F.; Merrill, O. S.; Reddy, H. K.

    1981-01-01

    Thermionic energy conversion (TEC) is discussed. In recent TEC-topping analyses, overall plant efficiency (OPE) and cost of electricity (COE) improved slightly with current capabilities and substantially with fully matured technologies. Enhanced credibility derives from proven hot-corrosion protection for TEC by silicon-carbide clads in fossil fuel combustion products. Combustion augmentation with TEC (CATEC) affords minimal cost and plant perturbation, but with smaller OPE and COE improvements than more conventional topping applications. Risk minimization as well as comparative simplicity and convenience, favor CATEC for early market penetration. A program-management plan is proposed. Inputs, characteristics, outputs and capabilities are discussed.

  19. Design, construction and measurements of an alpha magnet as a solution for compact bunch compressor for the electron beam from Thermionic RF Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, A.; Jazini, J.; Fathi, M.; Sharifian, M.; Shokri, B.

    2018-03-01

    The beam produced by a thermionic RF gun has wide energy spread that makes it unsuitable for direct usage in photon sources. Here in the present work, we optimize the extracted beam from a thermionic RF gun by a compact economical bunch compressor. A compact magnetic bunch compressor (Alpha magnet) is designed and constructed. A comparison between simulation results and experimental measurements shows acceptable conformity. The beam dynamics simulation results show a reduction of the energy spread as well as a compression of length less than 1 ps with 2.3 mm-mrad emittance.

  20. Final Report - Spent Nuclear Fuel Retrieval System Manipulator System Cold Validation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Jackson; G.R. Kiebel

    1999-08-24

    Manipulator system cold validation testing (CVT) was performed in support of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project, a subtask of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The FRS will be used to retrieve and repackage K-Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) currently stored in old K-Plant storage basins. The FRS is required to retrieve full fuel canisters from the basin; clean the fuel elements inside the canister to remove excessive uranium corrosion products (or sludge); remove the contents from the canisters; and sort the resulting debris, scrap, and fuel for repackaging. The fuel elements and scrap will be collected in fuel storage and scrap baskets in preparation for loading into a multi canister overpack (MCO), while the debris is loaded into a debris bin and disposed of as solid waste. The FRS is composed of three major subsystems. The Manipulator Subsystem provides remote handling of fuel, scrap, and debris; the In-Pool Equipment subsystem performs cleaning of fuel and provides a work surface for handling materials; and the Remote Viewing Subsystem provides for remote viewing of the work area by operators. There are two complete and identical FRS systems, one to be installed in the K-West basin and one to be installed in the K-East basin. Another partial system will be installed in a cold test facility to provide for operator training.

  1. Lunar electric power systems utilizing the SP-100 reactor coupled to dynamic conversion systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.B.; Durand, R.E.

    1993-03-01

    An integration study was performed by Rocketdyne under contract to NASA-LeRC. The study was concerned with coupling an SP-0100 reactor to either a Brayton or Stirling power conversion system. The application was for a surface power system to supply power requirements to a lunar base. A power level of 550 kWe was selected based on the NASA Space Exploration Initiative 90-day study. Reliability studies were initially performed to determine optimum power conversion redundancy. This study resulted in selecting three operating engines and one stand-by unit. Integration design studies indicated that either the Brayton or Stirling power conversion systems could be integrated with the PS-100 reactor. The Stirling system had an integration advantage because of smaller piping size and fewer components. The Stirling engine, however, is more complex and heavier than the Brayton rotating unit, which tends to off-set the Stirling integration advantage. From a performance consideration, the Brayton had a 9 percent mass advantage, and the Stirling had a 50 percent radiator advantage

  2. Final Report - Spent Nuclear Fuel Retrieval System Manipulator System Cold Validation Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.R. Jackson; G.R. Kiebel

    1999-01-01

    Manipulator system cold validation testing (CVT) was performed in support of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project, a subtask of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The FRS will be used to retrieve and repackage K-Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) currently stored in old K-Plant storage basins. The FRS is required to retrieve full fuel canisters from the basin; clean the fuel elements inside the canister to remove excessive uranium corrosion products (or sludge); remove the contents from the canisters; and sort the resulting debris, scrap, and fuel for repackaging. The fuel elements and scrap will be collected in fuel storage and scrap baskets in preparation for loading into a multi canister overpack (MCO), while the debris is loaded into a debris bin and disposed of as solid waste. The FRS is composed of three major subsystems. The Manipulator Subsystem provides remote handling of fuel, scrap, and debris; the In-Pool Equipment subsystem performs cleaning of fuel and provides a work surface for handling materials; and the Remote Viewing Subsystem provides for remote viewing of the work area by operators. There are two complete and identical FRS systems, one to be installed in the K-West basin and one to be installed in the K-East basin. Another partial system will be installed in a cold test facility to provide for operator training

  3. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  4. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix O, economic and social impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included

  5. Laser Shot Peening System Final Report CRADA No. TC-1369-96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, B. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Harris, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-27

    This CRADA project was established with a primary goal to develop a laser shot peening system which could operate at production throughput rates and produce the desired depth and intensity of induced shots. The first objective was to understand all parameters required for acceptable peening, including pulse energy, pulse temporal format, pulse spatial format, sample configuration and tamping mechanism. The next objective was to demonstrate the technique on representative samples and then on representative parts. The final objective was to implement the technology into a meaningful industrial peen.

  6. Advanced turbine systems study system scoping and feasibility study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    United Technologies Research Center, Pratt & Whitney Commercial Engine Business, And Pratt & Whitney Government Engine and Space Propulsion has performed a preliminary analysis of an Advanced Turbine System (ATS) under Contract DE-AC21-92MC29247 with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The natural gas-fired reference system identified by the UTC team is the Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle in which the gas turbine exhaust heat and heat rejected from the intercooler is used in a saturator to humidify the high pressure compressor discharge air. This results in a significant increase in flow through the turbine at no increase in compressor power. Using technology based on the PW FT4000, the industrial engine derivative of the PW4000, currently under development by PW, the system would have an output of approximately 209 MW and an efficiency of 55.3%. Through use of advanced cooling and materials technologies similar to those currently in the newest generation military aircraft engines, a growth version of this engine could attain approximately 295 MW output at an efficiency of 61.5%. There is the potential for even higher performance in the future as technology from aerospace R&D programs is adapted to aero-derivative industrial engines.

  7. Systems for apartment buildings heat pumps. Final report; System foer fastighetsvaermepumpar. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakervall, Daniel (WSP Environmental, Stockholm (Sweden)); Rogstam, Joergen; Grotherus, Maarten (Sveriges Energi- och Kylcentrum, Katrineholm (Sweden))

    2009-05-15

    A fast growing segment of the heat pump business is the apartment building applications. Historically the experience base related to such installations is limited. However, this application is more complex than the much more widely spread domestic applications. The core idea of the project was to generate and collect information to avoid mistakes and to encourage the heat pump technology. By interviewing the 'market' and compiling the information good recommendations has been achieved. It is of great importance to convey the best available recommendations to the installers on the market to avoid pit holes and highlight the opportunities for installers and end consumers. A website has been design and built, www.sfvp.se, which contains useful tools for installers and potential system customers. A number of calculation tools to estimate heat requirement, cost of different heating systems, primary energy need, LCC, etc. are all available. The core of the site is the database containing heat pump installations with related data of importance. The data available is such key data as performance figures, cost of installation, etc. Today 104 system installations are collected in the database and these are marked in a colour coding to indicate the quality of the input data. Installations verified with measurement are given higher significance. It has been an unexpected challenge to find documented systems, so one of the conclusions of the project is that there is a great need for further measurement on the field. More information should be directed to the customers to request such equipment when systems are installed. The database enables statistical analysis of the key figures and it can be seen that the average seasonal COP is 3.2 and there are small differences between exhaust air and ground source heat pumps. It should be emphasised that the number of installations do not give statistical confidence for all kinds of analysis yet. Field measurements in apartment

  8. Evaluation of Laser Stabilization and Imaging Systems for LCLS-II - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, Matthew [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2015-08-20

    By combining the top performing commercial laser beam stabilization system with the most ideal optical imaging configuration, the beamline for the Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) will deliver the highest quality and most stable beam to the cathode. To determine the optimal combination, LCLS-II beamline conditions were replicated and the systems tested with a He-Ne laser. The Guidestar-II and MRC active laser beam stabilization systems were evaluated for their ideal positioning and stability. Both a two and four lens optical imaging configuration was then evaluated for beam imaging quality, magnification properties, and natural stability. In their best performances when tested over fifteen hours, Guidestar-II kept the beam stable over approximately 70-110um while the MRC system kept it stable over approximately 90-100um. During short periods of time, Guidestar-II kept the beam stable between 10-20um, but was more susceptible to drift over time, while the MRC system maintained the beam between 30-50um with less overall drift. The best optical imaging configuration proved to be a four lens system that images to the iris located in the cathode room and from there, imaged to the cathode. The magnification from the iris to the cathode was 2:1, within an acceptable tolerance to the expected 2.1:1 magnification. The two lens configuration was slightly more stable in small periods of time (less than 10 minutes) without the assistance of a stability system, approximately 55um compared to approximately 70um, but the four lens configurations beam image had a significantly flatter intensity distribution compared to the two lens configuration which had a Gaussian distribution. A final test still needs to be run with both stability systems running at the same time through the four lens system. With this data, the optimal laser beam stabilization system can be determined for the beamline of LCLS-II.

  9. Design optimization of the International Linear Collider Final Focus System with a long L*

    CERN Document Server

    Plassard, Fabien

    This Master's Thesis work has been done in the Aerospace Engineering master's programme framework and carried out at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). It was conducted under the 500 GeV e-e+ International Linear Collider (ILC) study and focused on the design and performance optimization of the Final Focus System (FFS). The purpose of the final focus system of the future linear colliders (ILC and CLIC) is to demagnify the beam to the required transverse size at the interaction point (IP). The FFS is designed for a flat-beam in a compact way based on a local chromaticity correction which corrects both horizontal and vertical chromaticities simultaneously. An alternative FFS configuration based on the traditional scheme with two dedicated chromatic correction sections for horizontal and vertical chromaticities and a long L * option has been developed. A longer free space between the last quadrupole and the IP allows to place the last quadrupole on a stable ground, with fewer engineering ...

  10. Particle Simulations of a Thermionic RF Gun with Gridded Triode Structure for Reduction of Back-Bombardment

    CERN Document Server

    Kusukame, K; Kii, T; Masuda, K; Nakai, Y; Ohgaki, H; Yamazaki, T; Yoshikawa, K; Zen, H

    2005-01-01

    Thermionic RF guns show advantageous features compared with photocathode ones such as easy operation and much higher repetition rate of micropulses, both of which are suitable for their application to high average power FELs. They however suffer from the back-bombardment effect [1], i.e., in conventional RF guns, electrons are extracted from cathode also in the latter half of accelerating phase and tend to back-stream to hit the cathode, and as a result the macropulse duration is limited down to severalμsec Against this adverse effect in thermionic RF guns, introduction of the triode structure has been proposed [2], where the accelerating phase and amplitude nearby the cathode can be controlled regardless of the phase of the first accelerating cell in the conventional RF gun. Our one-dimensional particle simulation results predict that the back-bombardment power can be reduced by 99 % only with 30-40 kW RF power fed to the grid in the present triode structure with an optimal phase difference from th...

  11. Medicare program; prospective payment system and consolidated billing for skilled nursing facilities for FY 2009. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-08

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system (PPS) for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), for fiscal year (FY) 2009. It also discusses our ongoing analysis of nursing home staff time measurement data collected in the Staff Time and Resource Intensity Verification (STRIVE) project. Finally, this final rule makes technical corrections in the regulations text with respect to Medicare bad debt payments to SNFs and the reference to the definition of urban and rural as applied to SNFs.

  12. Medicare program; prospective payment system and consolidated billing for skilled nursing facilities for FY 2008. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-03

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system (PPS) for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for fiscal year (FY) 2008. In addition, this final rule revises and rebases the SNF market basket, and modifies the threshold for the adjustment to account for market basket forecast error. This final rule also responds to public comments submitted on the proposed rule and makes a technical correction in the regulations text.

  13. Final design of an air core, compulsator driven, 0.60 caliber railgun system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitzmiller, J.R.; Faidley, R.W.; Fuller, R.L.; Headifen, G.R.; Pratap, S.B.; Spann, M.L.; Thelen, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    The Center for Electromechanics at The University of Texas at Austin (CEM-UT), is currently in the manufacturing phase of a laboratory based small caliber electromagnetic (EM) launcher and compulsator power supply. The objective of the 29-month program is to develop a compact, lightweight test bed capable of accelerating 32-g masses to 2 km/s at a rate of 10 Hz. Both the power supply and launcher feature significant component design advances which will allow the system to operate at considerably higher energy and power densities than previously demonstrated. The 750-kg compulsator will generate 2.2 kV and the Silicon- controlled rectifier (SCR) switch will commutate 386-kA pulses into the 1.6-m long, 0.60 caliber augmented solid armature railgun. This paper describes the final design and predicted operating characteristics of the compulsator system. Overall system performance parameters are reported, including results from the optimization code used to aid in the design of the compulsator system. A system design overview is presented with emphasis on new materials and state-of-the-art machine components to be used for the first time in a compulsator

  14. Final Report: Natural State Models of The Geysers Geothermal System, Sonoma County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. H. Brikowski; D. L. Norton; D. D. Blackwell

    2001-12-31

    Final project report of natural state modeling effort for The Geysers geothermal field, California. Initial models examined the liquid-dominated state of the system, based on geologic constraints and calibrated to match observed whole rock delta-O18 isotope alteration. These models demonstrated that the early system was of generally low permeability (around 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}), with good hydraulic connectivity at depth (along the intrusive contact) and an intact caprock. Later effort in the project was directed at development of a two-phase, supercritical flow simulation package (EOS1sc) to accompany the Tough2 flow simulator. Geysers models made using this package show that ''simmering'', or the transient migration of vapor bubbles through the hydrothermal system, is the dominant transition state as the system progresses to vapor-dominated. Such a system is highly variable in space and time, making the rock record more difficult to interpret, since pressure-temperature indicators likely reflect only local, short duration conditions.

  15. Systems for arctic spill response. Volume I. Final report, August 1977--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, L.A.; Deslauriers, P.C.; DeBord, F.W.; Voelker, R.P.

    1978-03-01

    This final report summarizes the work accomplished under the program entitled 'Study to Define Arctic Pollution Response Systems and Develop Arctic Oil Pollution Response Project Plans.' The objective of the program was to determine the most cost effective, environmentally compatible, and technically feasible Coast Guard arctic pollution response system that can be used in projected oil spill scenarios to recover and dispose of spilled oil. The optimum arctic pollution response system was determined by establishing the cost and effectiveness of response for sixteen oil spill response situations, and developing six alternative Coast Guard arctic pollution response systems based on these situations. These six systems were developed with a recognition of three distinctly different types of operational requirements, those for thick stable ice, dynamic hummocky ice, and open water or light ice conditions. The optimum system was then identified as the result of a cost effectiveness analysis. The six arctic oil spill scenarios consisted of a gathering pipeline rupture in the nearshore Beaufort Sea, an oil well blowout from a very large reservoir in the nearshore Chukchi Sea, crude oil tanker casualties in Norton Sound and in the Navarin Basin region of the Bering Sea, an oil well blowout from an average sized reservoir in Bristol Bay, and a fuel oil spill resulting from the collision of a fuel oil barge in Unimak Pass. The optimum system provides for a 25% response level for the Norton Sound, Navarin Basin, Bristol Bay, and Unimak Pass scenarios, and a 50% response level for the Beaufort Sea and Chukchi Sea scenarios.

  16. Systems for arctic spill response. Volume II. Appendices. Final report, August 1977--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, L.A.; Deslauriers, P.C.; DeBord, F.W.; Voelker, R.P.

    1978-03-01

    This final report summarizes the work accomplished under Phase I of the program entitled 'Study to Define Arctic Pollution Response Systems and Develop Arctic Oil Pollution Response Project Plans.' The objective of Phase I of the program was to determine the most cost effective, environmentally compatible, and technically feasible Coast Guard arctic pollution response system that can be used in projected oil spill scenarios to recover and dispose of spilled oil. The optimum arctic pollution response system was determined by establishing the cost and effectiveness of response for sixteen oil spill response situations, and developing six alternative Coast Guard arctic pollution response systems based on these situations. The optimum system was then identified as the result of a cost effectiveness analysis. The six arctic oil spill scenarios consisted of a gathering pipeline rupture in the nearshore Beaufort Sea, an oil well blowout from a very large reservoir in the nearshore Chukchi Sea, crude oil tanker casualties in Norton Sound and in the Navarin Basin region of the Bering Sea, an oil well blowout from an average sized reservoir in Bristol Bay, and a fuel oil spill resulting from the collision of a fuel oil barge in Unimak Pass. The optimum system provides for a 25% response level for the Norton Sound, Navarin Basin, Bristol Bay, and Unimak Pass scenarios, and a 50% response level for the Beaufort Sea and Chukchi Sea scenarios. Modifications in the optimum system required to extend its capability to subarctic applications in the Great Lakes, the northern rivers, and the northern coastal region were also identified.

  17. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix Q: Regional forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The SOR is currently developing a System Operating Strategy (SOS) that will guide the physical operations of the Columbia River system. The SOR is also addressing the institutional arrangements that must be in place to make needed changes to the SOS in the future, or make interpretations of the strategy in the light of changing water conditions or river needs. For convenience, this future institutional arrangement is referred to as ''The Columbia River Regional Forum,'' or simply ''the Forum,'' even though the nature of this institution is still to be determined. This appendix and the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) identify the Forum as an administrative process that will not result in impacts to the environment and will not require analysis in a NEPA context. The composition of and procedures followed by a decision making body cannot--in and of themselves--be used to predict a particular decision with definable impacts on the environment. Nevertheless, because of the relationship to the other SOR actions, the SOR lead agencies have prepared this Technical Appendix to provide opportunities for review and comment on the Forum alternatives

  18. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

  19. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for high-level radioactive wastes: The system of safety barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Final disposal of radioactive waste involves preventing the waste from returning from the repository location into the biosphere by means of successively arranged containment measures known as safety barriers. In the present volume NGB 85-04 of the series of reports for Project 'Guarantee' 1985, the safety barrier system for the type C repository for high-level waste is described. The barrier parameters which are relevant for safety analysis are quantified and associated error limits and data scatter are given. The aim of the report is to give a summary documentation of the safety analysis input data and their scientific background. For secure containment of radioactive waste safety barriers are used which effectively limit the release of radioactive material from the repository (release barriers) and effectively retard the entry of the original radioactive material into the biosphere (time barriers). Safety barriers take the form of both technically constructed containment measures and the siting of the repository in suitable geological formations. The technical safety barrier system in the case of high-level waste comprises: the waste solidification matrix (borosilicate glass), massive steel canisters, encasement of the waste canisters, encasement of the waste canisters in highly compacted bentonite, sealing of vacant storage space and access routes on repository closure. The natural geological safety barriers - the host rock and overlying formations provide sufficiently long deep groundwater flow times from the repository location to the earth's surface and for additional lengthening of radionuclide migration times by means of various chemical and physical retardation mechanisms. The stability of the geological formations is so great that hydrogeological system is protected for a sufficient length of time from deterioration caused, in particular, by erosion. Observations in the final section of the report indicate that input data for the type C repository safety

  20. Processes of preparation, deposition and analysis of thermionic emissive substances; Processos de preparacao, deposicao e analise de substancias emissoras de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romao, B.M. Verdelli; Muraro Junior, A.; Tessaroto, L.A.B. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA-IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Estudos Avancados; Takahashi, J. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1992-09-01

    This paper shows the results of the optimization of the process of preparation and deposition of thermionic emissive substances that are used in the oxide-cathodes which are utilized in the gun of the IEAv linear electron accelerator. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, Executive Summary, Volume I, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, David; DosSantos, Joseph M.

    1988-06-01

    This Executive Summary, Volume I, of the lower Flathead System Fisheries Study Final Report, was prepared to provide a study overview for persons who are not fisheries scientists. The contents provide an introduction to the study and its objectives, a short description of the study area, a discussion of the major findings and conclusions of the study, and the description of fisheries management alternatives available to managers of the lower Flathead system. Technical reports were prepared for those portions of the study dealing with the lower Flathead River and its tributaries, Volume II, and the South Bay of Flathead Lake, Volume III. The annual hydrographic regime of the Flathead system, consisting of upper rivers, lake and lower river, has been modified by the construction and operation of two major hydroelectric facilities, Hungry Horse Dam on the south fork Flathead River and Kerr Dam at the outlet of Flathead Lake. The modified hydrographic regime has resulted in significant impacts to kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) and several species of trout. Kerr Dam, closed in 1938, controls Flathead Lake levels between 878.7 m (2883 ft) and 881.8 m (2893 ft) and discharges into the lower Flathead River. Kerr Dam is a 63.4 m (208 ft) high concrete arch structure located 7.2 km (4.5 miles) downstream from the outlet of Flathead Lake. The facility is used by Montana Power Company primarily for system frequency load control with some use for low level base load. 77 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Reliability of steam-turbine rotors. Task 1. Lifetime prediction analysis system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, P.K.; Pennick, H.G.; Peters, J.E.; Wells, C.H.

    1982-12-01

    Task 1 of RP 502, Reliability of Steam Turbine Rotors, resulted in the development of a computerized lifetime prediction analysis system (STRAP) for the automatic evaluation of rotor integrity based upon the results of a boresonic examination of near-bore defects. Concurrently an advanced boresonic examination system (TREES), designed to acquire data automatically for lifetime analysis, was developed and delivered to the maintenance shop of a major utility. This system and a semi-automated, state-of-the-art system (BUCS) were evaluated on two retired rotors as part of the Task 2 effort. A modified nonproprietary version of STRAP, called SAFER, is now available for rotor lifetime prediction analysis. STRAP and SAFER share a common fracture analysis postprocessor for rapid evaluation of either conventional boresonic amplitude data or TREES cell data. The final version of this postprocessor contains general stress intensity correlations for elliptical cracks in a radial stress gradient and provision for elastic-plastic instability of the ligament between an imbedded crack and the bore surface. Both linear elastic and ligament rupture models were developed for rapid analysis of linkup within three-dimensional clusters of defects. Bore stress-rupture criteria are included, but a creep-fatigue crack growth data base is not available. Physical and mechanical properties of air-melt 1CrMoV forgings are built into the program; however, only bounding values of fracture toughness versus temperature are available. Owing to the lack of data regarding the probability of flaw detection for the boresonic systems and of quantitative verification of the flaw linkup analysis, automatic evlauation of boresonic results is not recommended, and the lifetime prediction system is currently restricted to conservative, deterministic analysis of specified flaw geometries

  3. Tank Waste Remediation System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department Of Energy and the Washington State Department of Ecology added Appendix L (Volume 6), Response to Public Comments, to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, to fully address and respond to public comments on the Draft EIS. In addition, DOE considered public comments, along with other factors such as programmatic need, short- and long-term impacts, technical feasibility, and cost, in arriving at DOE's preferred alternative. During the public comment period for the Draft EIS, more than 350 individuals, agencies, Tribal Nations, and organizations provided comments. This volume represents a broad spectrum of private citizens; businesses; local, State, and Federal officials; Tribal Nations; and public interest groups

  4. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  5. Pierce-Wiggler electron beam system for 250 GHz GYRO-BWO: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirkle, D.R.; Alford, C.W.; Anderson, M.H.; Garcia, R.F.; Legarra, J.R.; Nordquist, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    This final report summarizes the design and performance of the VUW-8028 Pierce-Wiggler electron beam systems, which can be used to power high frequency gyro-BWO's. The operator's manual for this gyro-BWO beamstick is included as appendix A. Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are developing a gyro-BWO with a center frequency of 250 GHz, 6% bandwidth, and 10 kV peak output power. The gyro-BWO will be used to drive a free electron laser amplifier at LLNL. The electron beam requirements of the gyro-BWO application are: Small beam size, .100 inch at 2500 gauss axial magnetic field; a large fraction of the electron energy in rotational velocity; ability to vary the electrons' axial velocity easily, for electronic tuning; and low velocity spread i.e. little variation in the axial velocities of the electrons in the interaction region. 1 ref., 13 figs

  6. Grid-connected integrated community energy system. Phase II, Stage 2, final report. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    The University of Minnesota Grid-ICES was divided into four identifiable programs in order to study the feasibility of each of the parts of the ICES independently. The total program involves cogeneration, fuel conversion, fuel substitution, and energy conservation by system change. This Phase II report substantiates the theory that the Basic Grid ICES is not only energy-effective, but it will become cost effective as unit operating costs adjust to supply and demand in the 1980's. The Basic Program involves the cogeneration of steam and electricity. The University of Minnesota has been following an orderly process of converting its Central Heating Plant from gas-oil to 100% coal since 1973. The first step in the transition is complete. The University is presently 100% on coal, and will begin the second step, the test burning of low Btu Western coal during the spring, summer, and fall, and high Btu Eastern coal during the high thermal winter period. The final step to 100% Western coal is planned to be completed by 1980. In conjunction with the final step a retired Northern States Power generating plant has been purchased and is in the process of being retrofitted for topping the existing plant steam output during the winter months. The Basic Plan of ICES involves the add-on work and expense of installing additional boiler capacity at Southeast Steam and non-condensing electric generating capability. This will permit the simultaneous generation of electricity and heat dependent upon the thermal requirements of the heating and cooling system in University buildings. This volume presents an overview of the Community and the ICES. (MCW)

  7. Drift compression and final focus systems for heavy ion inertial fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Hoon, Michiel Jan Laurens [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Longitudinal compression of space-charge dominated beams can be achieved by imposing a head-to-tail velocity tilt on the beam. This tilt has to be carefully tailored, such that it is removed by the longitudinal space-charge repulsion by the time the beam reaches the end of the drift compression section. The transverse focusing lattice should be designed such that all parts of the beam stay approximately matched, while the beam smoothly expands transversely to the larger beam radius needed in the final focus system following drift compression. In this thesis, several drift compression systems were designed within these constraints, based on a given desired pulse shape at the end of drift compression systems were designed within these constraints, based on a given desired pulse shape at the end of drift compression. The occurrence of mismatches due to a rapidly increasing current was analyzed. In addition, the sensitivity of drift compression to errors in the initial velocity tilt and current profile was studied. These calculations were done using a new computer code that accurately calculates the longitudinal electric field in the space-charge dominated regime.

  8. Integrated emissions control system for residential CWS furnace. Final report, September 20, 1989--March 20, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W.; McLarnon, C.

    1993-03-01

    One of the major obstacles to the successful development and commercialization of a coal-fired residential furnace is the need for a reliable, cost-effective emission control system. Tecogen is developing a novel, integrated control system to control NO{sub x}SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. At the heart of this system is a unique emissions control reactor for the control of SO{sub 2}. This reactor provides high sorbent particle residence time within the reactor while doing so in a very compact geometry. Final cleanup of any fine particulates exiting the reactor including respirable-sized particulates, is completed with the use of high efficiency bag filters. Under a previous contract with PETC (Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79650), Tecogen developed a residential-scale Coal Water Slurry (CWS) combustor to control NO{sub x}emission. This combustor makes use of centrifugal forces, set up by a predominantly tangential flow field, to separate and confine larger unburned coal particles in the furnace upper chamber. Various partitions are used to retard the axial, downward flow of these particles, and thus maximize their residence time in the hottest section of the combustor. By operating this combustor under staged conditions, the local stoichiometry in the primary zone can be controlled in such a manner as to minimize NO{sub x} emission.

  9. Advanced turbine systems program -- Conceptual design and product development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-26

    This Final Technical Report presents the accomplishments on Phase 2 of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS). The ATS is an advanced, natural gas fired gas turbine system that will represent a major advance on currently available industrial gas turbines in the size range of 1--20 MW. This report covers a market-driven development. The Market Survey reported in Section 5 identified the customer`s performance needs. This market survey used analyses performed by Solar turbine Incorporated backed up by the analyses done by two consultants, Research Decision Consultants (RDC) and Onsite Energy Corporation (Onsite). This back-up was important because it is the belief of all parties that growth of the ATS will depend both on continued participation in Solar`s traditional oil and gas market but to a major extent on a new market. This new market is distributed electrical power generation. Difficult decisions have had to be made to meet the different demands of the two markets. Available resources, reasonable development schedules, avoidance of schedule or technology failures, probable acceptance by the marketplace, plus product cost, performance and environmental friendliness are a few of the complex factors influencing the selection of the Gas Fired Advanced Turbine System described in Section 3. Section 4 entitled ``Conversion to Coal`` was a task which addresses the possibility of a future interruption to an economic supply of natural gas. System definition and analysis is covered in Section 6. Two major objectives were met by this work. The first was identification of those critical technologies that can support overall attainment of the program goals. Separate technology or component programs were begun to identify and parameterize these technologies and are described in Section 7. The second objective was to prepare parametric analyses to assess performance sensitivity to operating variables and to select design approaches to meet the overall program goals.

  10. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix R, Pacific Northwest Coordination agreement (PNCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Currently, the Federal government coordinates the planning and operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) with projects owned and operated by the region's non-Federal hydrogenerating utilities pursuant to the Pacific North-west Coordination Agreement (PNCA). The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), the Corps of Engineers (Corps), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) are parties to the PNCA on behalf of the government of the United States. The PNCA is a complex agreement that provides an opportunity for the region's power producers to maximize the power system's reliability and economy while meeting their multiple-use objectives. The PNCA does not dictate the operation of the resources it coordinates. It is essentially an accounting mechanism that exchanges the power produced among the parties in order to improve the reliability of the system and reduce regional power costs. Project owners retain complete autonomy to operate as needed to meet their multiple-use requirements. The PNCA was executed in 1964 as an important component of regional plans to maximize the Northwest's hydro resource capability. Maximization also included the development of storage projects on the Columbia River in Canada pursuant to the terms of the 1964 Columbia River Treaty. Because of the link between power coordination and Treaty issues, the current parties to the PNCA, currently are contemplating entering into a replacement or renewed power coordination agreement. Because the power coordination agreement is a consensual arrangement, its ultimate provisions must be acceptable to all of its signatories. This Appendix R to the Final Environmental Impact Statement of the Columbia River System is a presentation of the Pacific North-west Coordination Agreement

  11. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Main Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.); United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. North Pacific Division; United States. Bureau of Reclamation. Pacific Northwest Region.

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) Final EIS addresses four actions: (a) need to develop coordinated strategy for managing the multiple uses of the Federal Columbia River system (System Operating Strategy [SOS]); (b) need to provide interested parties other than management agencies with a long-term role in system planning (Forum); (c) need to renew or change current Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements (CEAA); and (d) need to renegotiate and renew the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). SOS alternatives analyzed are: (1) operation prior to Endangered Species Act listings of salmon stocks; (2) current operations (no action); (3) stable storage project operation; (4) natural river operation; (5) fixed drawdown; (6) operating strategies proposed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, State fisheries agencies, Native American tribes, and Federal operating agencies; and (7) Preferred Alternative. The seven Forum alternatives analyzed are: (1) decisionmaking by the SOR lead agencies (preferred alternative); (2) decisionmaking by SOR lead agencies and recommendations by an existing regional entity; (3) decisionmaking by SOR lead agencies and recommendations by a new regional entity; (4) decisionmaking by a Federal consultation forum; (5) decisionmaking by a new entity; (6) decisionmaking by one Federal operating agency; (7) decisionmaking by a Federal agency other than an operating agency. PNCA alternatives analyzed are: (1) no replacement contract; (2) contract to maximize regional power benefits; (3) roll over existing PNCA; (4) current PNCA with modified operating procedures (preferred alternative); (5) current PNCA with nonpower modifications. CEAA alternatives include: (1) no action (no replacement of current allocation agreements); (2) entitlement allocation: 55 percent Federal; 45 percent non-Federal; (3) entitlement allocation: 70 percent Federal, 30 percent non-Federal (preferred alternative); (4) no agreement.

  12. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) Final EIS addresses four actions: (a) need to develop coordinated strategy for managing the multiple uses of the Federal Columbia River system (System Operating Strategy [SOS]); (b) need to provide interested parties other than management agencies with a long-term role in system planning (Forum); (c) need to renew or change current Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements (CEAA); and (d) need to renegotiate and renew the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). SOS alternatives analyzed are: (1) operation prior to Endangered Species Act listings of salmon stocks; (2) current operations (no action); (3) stable storage project operation; (4) natural river operation; (5) fixed drawdown; (6) operating strategies proposed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, State fisheries agencies, Native American tribes, and Federal operating agencies; and (7) Preferred Alternative. The seven Forum alternatives analyzed are: (1) decisionmaking by the SOR lead agencies (preferred alternative); (2) decisionmaking by SOR lead agencies and recommendations by an existing regional entity; (3) decisionmaking by SOR lead agencies and recommendations by a new regional entity; (4) decisionmaking by a Federal consultation forum; (5) decisionmaking by a new entity; (6) decisionmaking by one Federal operating agency; (7) decisionmaking by a Federal agency other than an operating agency. PNCA alternatives analyzed are: (1) no replacement contract; (2) contract to maximize regional power benefits; (3) roll over existing PNCA; (4) current PNCA with modified operating procedures (preferred alternative); (5) current PNCA with nonpower modifications. CEAA alternatives include: (1) no action (no replacement of current allocation agreements); (2) entitlement allocation: 55 percent Federal; 45 percent non-Federal; (3) entitlement allocation: 70 percent Federal, 30 percent non-Federal (preferred alternative); (4) no agreement

  13. Study of thermionic RF-gun phase-space dynamics and slice emittance under influence of external electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusoljariyakul, K.; Thongbai, C.

    2011-01-01

    A high brightness electron source of ultra-small emittance and high-average current is one of the most important components for future accelerators. In a RF-electron-gun, rapid acceleration can reduce emittance growth due to space charge effects. However, twisting or rotation of the transverse phase-space distribution as a function of time is observed in thermionic RF-electron-guns and may set a lower limit to the projected beam emittance. Such rotation being caused by the variation of the RF field with time may be compensated by fields from a specific cavity. In this work, we study RF-electron-gun phase-space dynamics and emittance under the influence of external fields to evaluate the compensation schemes.

  14. Optical and Surface Characteristics of Mg-Doped GaAs Nanocrystalline Thin Film Deposited by Thermionic Vacuum Arc Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat, Suat; Özen, Soner; Şenay, Volkan; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is the most promising p-type dopant for gallium arsenide (GaAs) semiconductor technology. Mg-doped GaAs nanocrystalline thin film has been deposited at room temperature by the thermionic vacuum arc technique, a rapid deposition method for production of doped GaAs material. The microstructure and surface and optical properties of the deposited sample were investigated by x-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, and interferometry. The crystalline direction of the deposited sample was determined to be (220) plane and (331) plane at 44.53° and 72.30°, respectively. The Mg-doped GaAs nanocrystalline sample showed high transmittance.

  15. The investigation of the Cr doped ZnO thin films deposited by thermionic vacuum arc technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadigharehbagh, Reza; Pat, Suat; Musaoglu, Caner; Korkmaz, Şadan; Özen, Soner

    2018-02-01

    Cr doped ZnO thin films were prepared onto glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using thermionic vacuum arc. XRD patterns show the polycrystalline nature of the films. Cr, Zn, ZnO and Cr2O3 were detected in the layers. The mean crystallite sizes of the films were calculated about 20 nm for the films onto glass and PET substrates. The maximum dislocation density and internal strain values of the films are calculated. According to the optical analysis, the average transmittance and reflectance of the films were found to be approximately 53% and 16% for glass and PET substrates, respectively. The mean refractive index of the layer decreased to 2.15 from 2.38 for the PET substrate. The band gap values of the Cr-doped ZnO thin films were determined as 3.10 and 3.13 eV for glass and PET substrates.

  16. FY98 final report for the expedited technology demonstration project: demonstration test results for the integrated MSO waste treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, M G; Hipple, D L; Hopper, R W; Hsu, P C.

    1998-01-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility in which an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system is being tested and demonstrated. The system consists of a MSO vessel with a dedicated off-gas treatment system, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and a ceramic final waste forms immobilization system. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on operational experience with an engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. The MSO/off-gas system has been operational since December 1997. The salt recycle system and the ceramic final forms immobilization became operational in May and August, 1998, respectively. We have tested the MSO facility with various organic feeds, including chlorinated solvents, tributyl phosphate/kerosene, PCB-contaminated waste oils ampersand solvents, booties, plastic pellets, ion exchanged resins, activated carbon, radioactive-spiked organics, and well-characterized low-level liquid mixed wastes. MSO is shown to be a versatile technology for hazardous waste treatment and may be a solution to many waste disposal problems in DOE sites. This report presents the results obtained from operation of the integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system through September 1998, and therefore represents a final report for fiscal year 1998 activities

  17. Medicare program; prospective payment system and consolidated billing for skilled nursing facilities for FY 2015. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-05

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system (PPS) for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for fiscal year (FY) 2015. In addition, it adopts the most recent Office of Management and Budget (OMB) statistical area delineations to identify a facility's urban or rural status for the purpose of determining which set of rate tables will apply to the facility, and to determine the SNF PPS wage index including a 1-year transition with a blended wage index for all providers for FY 2015. This final rule also contains a revision to policies related to the Change of Therapy (COT) Other Medicare Required Assessment (OMRA). This final rule includes a discussion of a provision related to the Affordable Care Act involving Civil Money Penalties. Finally, this final rule discusses the SNF therapy payment research currently underway within CMS, observed trends related to therapy utilization among SNF providers, and the agency's commitment to accelerating health information exchange in SNFs.

  18. Calibration, Projection, and Final Image Products of MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, Brett W.; Chabot, Nancy L.; Murchie, Scott L.; Becker, Kris J.; Blewett, David T.; Domingue, Deborah L.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Hash, Christopher D.; Hawkins, S. Edward; Keller, Mary R.; Laslo, Nori R.; Nair, Hari; Robinson, Mark S.; Seelos, Frank P.; Stephens, Grant K.; Turner, F. Scott; Solomon, Sean C.

    2018-02-01

    We present an overview of the operations, calibration, geodetic control, photometric standardization, and processing of images from the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) acquired during the orbital phase of the MESSENGER spacecraft's mission at Mercury (18 March 2011-30 April 2015). We also provide a summary of all of the MDIS products that are available in NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS). Updates to the radiometric calibration included slight modification of the frame-transfer smear correction, updates to the flat fields of some wide-angle camera (WAC) filters, a new model for the temperature dependence of narrow-angle camera (NAC) and WAC sensitivity, and an empirical correction for temporal changes in WAC responsivity. Further, efforts to characterize scattered light in the WAC system are described, along with a mosaic-dependent correction for scattered light that was derived for two regional mosaics. Updates to the geometric calibration focused on the focal lengths and distortions of the NAC and all WAC filters, NAC-WAC alignment, and calibration of the MDIS pivot angle and base. Additionally, two control networks were derived so that the majority of MDIS images can be co-registered with sub-pixel accuracy; the larger of the two control networks was also used to create a global digital elevation model. Finally, we describe the image processing and photometric standardization parameters used in the creation of the MDIS advanced products in the PDS, which include seven large-scale mosaics, numerous targeted local mosaics, and a set of digital elevation models ranging in scale from local to global.

  19. Medicare program; prospective payment system and consolidated billing for skilled nursing facilities for FY 2012. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for fiscal year 2012. In addition, it recalibrates the case-mix indexes so that they more accurately reflect parity in expenditures between RUG-IV and the previous case-mix classification system. It also includes a discussion of a Non-Therapy Ancillary component currently under development within CMS. In addition, this final rule discusses the impact of certain provisions of the Affordable Care Act, and reduces the SNF market basket percentage by the multi-factor productivity adjustment. This rule also implements certain changes relating to the payment of group therapy services and implements new resident assessment policies. Finally, this rule announces that the proposed provisions regarding the ownership disclosure requirements set forth in section 6101 of the Affordable Care Act will be finalized at a later date.

  20. Development of a Microcomputer/Videodisc Aided Math Instructional Management System for Mildly Handicapped Children. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Alan M.

    This final report describes activities and accomplishments of a project which developed, implemented, and evaluated the effectiveness of a microcomputer/videodisc math instructional management system for grades K-4. The system was designed to operate on an APPLE II microcomputer, videodisc player, and input-output devices. It included three…

  1. Tank Waste Remediation System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document, Volume 1 of the Final Environmental Impact Statement, analyzes the potential environmental consequences related to the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) alternatives for management and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste, and the management and disposal of approximately 1,930 cesium and strontium capsules located at the Hanford Site. This waste is currently or projected to be stored in 177 underground storage tanks and approximately 60 miscellaneous underground storage tanks. This document analyzes the following alternatives for remediating the tank waste: No Action, Long-Term Management, In Situ Fill and Cap, In Situ Vitrification, Ex Situ Intermediate Separations, Ex Situ No Separations, Ex Situ Extensive Separations, Ex Situ/In Situ Combination 1, and Ex Situ/In Situ Combination 2. This document also addresses a Phased Implementation alternative (the DOE and Ecology preferred alternative for remediation of tank waste). Alternatives analyzed for the cesium and strontium capsules include: No Action, Onsite Disposal, Overpack and Ship, and Vitrify with Tank Waste. The DOE and Ecology preferred alternative for the cesium and strontium capsules is the No Action alternative

  2. Advanced turbine systems sensors and controls needs assessment study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.L.; Fry, D.N.; McEvers, J.A.

    1997-02-01

    The Instrumentation and Controls Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory performed an assessment of the sensors and controls needs for land-based advanced gas turbines being designed as a part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program for both utility and industrial applications. The assessment included visits to five turbine manufacturers. During these visits, in-depth discussions were held with design and manufacturing staff to obtain their views regarding the need for new sensors and controls for their advanced turbine designs. The Unsteady Combustion Facilities at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center was visited to assess the need for new sensors for gas turbine combustion research. Finally, a workshop was conducted at the South Carolina Energy Research and Development Center which provided a forum for industry, laboratory, and university engineers to discuss and prioritize sensor and control needs. The assessment identified more than 50 different measurement, control, and monitoring needs for advanced turbines that cannot currently be met from commercial sources. While all the identified needs are important, some are absolutely critical to the success of the ATS Program.

  3. New imaging systems in nuclear medicine. Final report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The aim of this program has been to improve the performance of positron emission tomography (PET) to achieve high resolution with high sensitivity. Towards this aim, the authors have carried out the following studies: (1) explored new techniques for detection of annihilation radiation including new detector materials and system geometries, specific areas that they have studied include--exploration of factors related to resolution and sensitivity of PET instrumentation including geometry, detection materials and coding, and the exploration of technique to improve the image quality by use of depth of interaction and increased sampling; (2) complete much of the final testing of PCR-II, an analog-coded cylindrical positron tomograph, developed and constructed during the current funding period; (3) developed the design of a positron microtomograph with mm resolution for quantitative studies in small animals, a single slice version of this device has been designed and studied by use of computer simulation; (4) continued and expanded the program of biological studies in animal models. Current studies have included imaging of animal models of Parkinson`s and Huntington`s disease and cancer. These studies have included new radiopharmaceuticals and techniques involving molecular biology.

  4. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, T.; Fredriksen, Rune; Thunem, A.P.J. [Inst. for Energy Technology, Halden (Norway); Holmberg, J.E.; Valkonen, J.; Ventae, O. [VTT (Finland); Andersson, J.O. [Ringhals AB (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    The overall objective of the TACO project has been to improve the knowledge on principles and best practices related to the traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. On the basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the project has aimed at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to these activities. The report provides a summary of the project activities and deliverables, discusses possible application areas, and provides a link to its utilization in the project 'Management of Requirements in NPP Modernization Projects' (NKS-R-2005-47). In the preparation of the final report, a number of application areas have been identified where the TACO deliverables, first of all the TACO Shell and the TACO Traceability Model, can be utilized. The report aims at facilitating such utilization, by defining the context and main issues, explaining the main aspects of the deliverables, discussing the challenges experienced in the different application domains with respect requirements management, traceability and communication and how can the TACO results contribute to solving these challenges. (au)

  5. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, T.; Fredriksen, Rune; Thunem, A.P.J.; Holmberg, J.E.; Valkonen, J.; Ventae, O.; Andersson, J.O.

    2005-10-01

    The overall objective of the TACO project has been to improve the knowledge on principles and best practices related to the traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. On the basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the project has aimed at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to these activities. The report provides a summary of the project activities and deliverables, discusses possible application areas, and provides a link to its utilization in the project 'Management of Requirements in NPP Modernization Projects' (NKS-R-2005-47). In the preparation of the final report, a number of application areas have been identified where the TACO deliverables, first of all the TACO Shell and the TACO Traceability Model, can be utilized. The report aims at facilitating such utilization, by defining the context and main issues, explaining the main aspects of the deliverables, discussing the challenges experienced in the different application domains with respect requirements management, traceability and communication and how can the TACO results contribute to solving these challenges. (au)

  6. Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) system. Final report, October 1995 - May 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the results of Phase 2 efforts to develop a Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System for the detection of semivolatile organic contaminants on concrete, transite, and metal surfaces. The characterization of equipment and building surfaces for the presence of contaminants as part of building decontamination and decommissioning activities is an immensely large task of concern to both government and industry. Because of the high cost of hazardous waste disposal, old, contaminated buildings cannot simply be demolished and scrapped. Contaminated and clean materials must be clearly identified and segregated so that the clean material can be recycled or reused, if possible, or disposed of more cheaply as nonhazardous waste. DOE has a number of sites requiring surface characterization. These sites are large, contain very heterogeneous patterns of contamination (requiring high sampling density), and will thus necessitate an enormous number of samples to be taken and analyzed. Characterization of building and equipment surfaces will be needed during initial investigations, during cleanup operations, and during the final confirmation process, increasing the total number of samples well beyond that needed for initial characterization. This multiplicity of information places a premium on the ability to handle and track data as efficiently as possible

  7. Tank Waste Remediation System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document, Volume 2, provides the inventory of waste addressed in this Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Tank Waste Remediation System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The inventories consist of waste from the following four groups: (1) Tank waste; (2) Cesium (Cs) and Strontium (Sr) capsules; (3) Inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs); and (4) Anticipated future tank waste additions. The major component by volume of the overall waste is the tank waste inventory (including future tank waste additions). This component accounts for more than 99 percent of the total waste volume and approximately 70 percent of the radiological activity of the four waste groups identified previously. Tank waste data are available on a tank-by-tank basis, but the accuracy of these data is suspect because they primarily are based on historical records of transfers between tanks rather than statistically based sampling and analyses programs. However, while the inventory of any specific tank may be suspect, the overall inventory for all of the tanks combined is considered more accurate. The tank waste inventory data are provided as the estimated overall chemical masses and radioactivity levels for the single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs). The tank waste inventory data are broken down into tank groupings or source areas that were developed for analyzing groundwater impacts

  8. New imaging systems in nuclear medicine. Final report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this program has been to improve the performance of positron emission tomography (PET) to achieve high resolution with high sensitivity. Towards this aim, the authors have carried out the following studies: (1) explored new techniques for detection of annihilation radiation including new detector materials and system geometries, specific areas that they have studied include--exploration of factors related to resolution and sensitivity of PET instrumentation including geometry, detection materials and coding, and the exploration of technique to improve the image quality by use of depth of interaction and increased sampling; (2) complete much of the final testing of PCR-II, an analog-coded cylindrical positron tomograph, developed and constructed during the current funding period; (3) developed the design of a positron microtomograph with mm resolution for quantitative studies in small animals, a single slice version of this device has been designed and studied by use of computer simulation; (4) continued and expanded the program of biological studies in animal models. Current studies have included imaging of animal models of Parkinson's and Huntington's disease and cancer. These studies have included new radiopharmaceuticals and techniques involving molecular biology

  9. Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) system. Final report, October 1995--May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This report describes the results of Phase 2 efforts to develop a Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System for the detection of semivolatile organic contaminants on concrete, transite, and metal surfaces. The characterization of equipment and building surfaces for the presence of contaminants as part of building decontamination and decommissioning activities is an immensely large task of concern to both government and industry. Because of the high cost of hazardous waste disposal, old, contaminated buildings cannot simply be demolished and scrapped. Contaminated and clean materials must be clearly identified and segregated so that the clean material can be recycled or reused, if possible, or disposed of more cheaply as nonhazardous waste. DOE has a number of sites requiring surface characterization. These sites are large, contain very heterogeneous patterns of contamination (requiring high sampling density), and will thus necessitate an enormous number of samples to be taken and analyzed. Characterization of building and equipment surfaces will be needed during initial investigations, during cleanup operations, and during the final confirmation process, increasing the total number of samples well beyond that needed for initial characterization. This multiplicity of information places a premium on the ability to handle and track data as efficiently as possible.

  10. Developing validation strategies for the financial-reporting system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-06

    This report is the result of an 8-month project performed for the Office of Energy Information Validation (OEIV) in the Department of Energy. Its primary purpose has been to develop alternative techniques for validating the Financial Reporting System (FRS). In order to accomplish this objective, several activities were performed. First, the data needs of prospective FRS users were related to the information available from the FRS to determine how well the FRS data meet users' needs. The two most common desired changes in the FRS among the users were: more segmented data and more geographic detail. Two additional desired changes were: clarification or alteration in definitions of such terms as domestic, operating income, and funds (as in sources and use of statement), and require ARAMCO to submit FRS data or require the participating members to make necessary reconciliations on their income statements. Next, several key validation issues pertinent to the meaningfulness and usefulness of FRS data were examined. This task dealt directly with the problem of using accounting data for economic analyses. Finally, specific guidelines for validating the flow of data from a respondent to the FRS data base were developed. Utilizing the framework within which OEIV must operate, and based on their legislative mandate, empirical techniques were outlined in detail for the accomplishment of verification auditing, consistency/reasonableness auditing, and field auditing.

  11. Solar energy grid integration systems : final report of the Florida Solar Energy Center Team.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropp, Michael (Northern Plains Power Technologies, Brookings, SD); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Schaffer, Alan (Lakeland Electric Utilities, Lakeland, FL); Katz, Stanley (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Perkinson, Jim (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Bower, Ward Isaac; Prestero, Mark (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Casey, Leo (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Moaveni, Houtan (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Click, David (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Davis, Kristopher (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Reedy, Robert (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) program is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the program have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding utility-scale penetration and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), its partners, and Sandia National Laboratories have successfully collaborated to complete the work under the third and final stage of the SEGIS initiative. The SEGIS program was a three-year, three-stage project that include conceptual design and market analysis in Stage 1, prototype development and testing in Stage 2, and moving toward commercialization in Stage 3. Under this program, the FSEC SEGIS team developed a comprehensive vision that has guided technology development that sets one methodology for merging photovoltaic (PV) and smart-grid technologies. The FSEC team's objective in the SEGIS project is to remove barriers to large-scale general integration of PV and to enhance the value proposition of photovoltaic energy by enabling PV to act as much as possible as if it were at the very least equivalent to a conventional utility power plant. It was immediately apparent that the advanced power electronics of these advanced inverters will go far beyond conventional power plants, making high penetrations of PV not just acceptable, but desirable. This report summarizes a three-year effort to develop, validate and commercialize Grid-Smart Inverters for wider photovoltaic utilization, particularly in the utility sector.

  12. FY 93 thermal loading systems study final report: Volume 1. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saterlie, S.F.; Thomson, B.H.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to meet the overall performance requirements for the proposed Mined Geology Disposal System at Yucca Mountain, Nevada requires the two major subsystem (natural barriers and engineered barriers) to positively contribute to containment and radionuclide isolation. In addition to the postclosure performance the proposed repository must meet preclosure requirements of safety, retrievability, and operability. Cost and schedule were also considered. The thermal loading strategy chosen may significantly affect both the postclosure and preclosure performance of the proposed repository. Although the current Site Characterization Plan reference case is 57 kilowatts (kW)/acre, other thermal loading strategies (different areal mass loadings) have been proposed which possess both advantages and disadvantages. The objectives of the FY 1993 Thermal Loading Study were to (1) place bounds on the thermal loading which would establish the loading regime that is ''too hot'' and the loading regime that is ''too cold'', to (2) ''grade'' or evaluate the performance, as a function of thermal loading, of the repository to contain high level wastes against performance criteria and to (3) evaluate the performance of the various options with respect to cost, safety, and operability. Additionally, the effort was to (4) identify important uncertainties that need to be resolved by tests and/or analyses in order to complete a performance assessment on the effects of thermal loading. The FY 1993 Thermal Loading Study was conducted from December 1, 1992 to December 30, 1993 and this final report provides the findings of the study. Volume 1 contains the Introduction; Performance requirements; Input and assumptions; Near-field thermal analysis; Far-field thermal analysis; Cost analysis; Other considerations; System analysis; Additional thermal analysis; and Conclusions and recommendations. 71 refs., 54 figs

  13. Final design of the generic upper port plug structure for ITER diagnostic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pak, S.; Feder, R.; Giacomin, T.; Guirao, J.; Iglesias, S.; Josseaume, F.; Kalish, M.; Loesser, D.; Maquet, P.; Ronden, D.; Ordieres, J.; Panizo, M.; Pitcher, S.; M. Portalès,; Proust, M.; Serikov, A.; Suarez, A.; Tanchuk, V.; Udintsev, V.; Vacas, C.; Walsh, M.; Zhai, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The generic upper port plug (GUPP) structure in ITER is a 6 m long metal box which deploys diagnostic components into the vacuum vessel. This structure is commonly used for all the diagnostic upper ports. The final design of the GUPP structure, which has successfully passed the final design review

  14. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 2: Test Bed Performance Evaluation and Final AeroMACS Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Magner, James

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II (this document) describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  15. Proceedings of the COST 75 final seminar on advanced weather radar systems; Beitraege des Instituts zum COST 75 final seminar on advanced weather radar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, R.; Flender, F.; Hagen, M.; Hoeller, H.; Keil, C.; Meischner, P.

    1998-07-01

    Across Europe more than 110 weather radars are in operation. More than 60 of them are Doppler radars and this number is increasing steadily. Doppler systems are becoming an operational standard. Most systems operate in C-band, with the exception of the Spanish radar network which is composed of S-band Doppler radars. Radar product composites are available for Scandinavia and Central Europe. National networks exist for the UK, France and Spain. Europe further is fortunate to have 8 polarimetric Doppler radars used mainly for research. In Italy some of those systems are used also for operational nowcasting applications for dedicated customers. The Chilbolton multiparameter Doppler radar operates at S-band. (orig.)

  16. Final environmental statement. Final addendum to Part II: Manufacture of floating nuclear power plants by Offshore Power Systems. DOCKET-STN--50-437

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    This Addendum to Part II of the Final Environmental Statement related to manufacture of floating nuclear power plants by Offshore Power Systems (OPS), NUREG-0056, issued September 1976, was prepared by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. The staff's basic evaluation is presented in NUREG-0056. The current Addendum provides further consideration of a number of topics discussed in NUREG-0056, particularly additional consideration of shore zone siting at estuarine and ocean regions. This Summary and Conclusions recapitulates and is cumulative for Part II of the FES and the current Addendum. Augmentations to the Summary and Conclusions presented in Part II of the FES and arising from the evaluations contained in this Addendum are italicized

  17. Medicare program; prospective payment system and consolidated billing for skilled nursing facilities--HCFA. Interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-12

    This interim final rule implements provisions in section 4432 of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 related to Medicare payment for skilled nursing facility services. These include the implementation of a Medicare prospective payment system for skilled nursing facilities, consolidated billing, and a number of related changes. The prospective payment system described in this rule replaces the retrospective reasonable cost-based system currently utilized by Medicare for payment of skilled nursing facility services under Part A of the program.

  18. Medicare program; prospective payment system and consolidated billing for skilled nursing facilities for FY 2014. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for fiscal year (FY) 2014. In addition, it revises and rebases the SNF market basket, revises and updates the labor related share, and makes certain technical and conforming revisions in the regulations text. This final rule also includes a policy for reporting the SNF market basket forecast error in certain limited circumstances and adds a new item to the Minimum Data Set (MDS), Version 3.0 for reporting the number of distinct therapy days. Finally, this final rule adopts a change to the diagnosis code used to determine which residents will receive the AIDS add-on payment, effective for services provided on or after the October 1, 2014 implementation date for conversion to ICD-10-CM.

  19. Direct conversion nuclear reactor space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britt, E.J.; Fitzpatrick, G.O.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of space nuclear reactor power systems using either thermoelectric or thermionic energy converters. An in-core reactor design and two heat pipe cooled out-of-core reactor designs were considered. One of the out-of-core cases utilized, long heat pipes (LHP) directly coupled to the energy converter. The second utilized a larger number of smaller heat pipes (mini-pipe) radiatively coupled to the energy converter. In all cases the entire system, including power conditioning, was constrained to be launched in a single shuttle flight. Assuming presently available performance, both the LHP thermoelectric system and minipipe thermionic system, designed to produce 100 kWe for seven years, would have a specific mass near 22kg/kWe. The specific mass of the thermionic minipipe system designed for a one year mission is 165 kg/kWe due to less fuel swelling. Shuttle imposed growth limits are near 300 kWe and 1.2 MWe for the thermoelectric and thermionic systems, respectively. Converter performance improvements could double this potential, and over 10 MWe may be possible for very short missions

  20. Nuclear reactor based space systems - 100 kW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B.; Kurpanek, D.

    1987-01-01

    The 100-kW-output class nuclear space power reactors presently discussed are not only a cost-effective solution to energy requirements of that magnitude, but also viable in the near future. In the nuclear power systems envisioned, the reactor is used as a heat source for primary power; this thermal power output's conversion to electrical power can be accomplished by such means as the thermionic, thermoelectric, and thermodynamic (heat engine). Attention is presently given to in-reactor-core thermionic, out-of-reactor core thermoelectric, and Stirling cycle out-of-reactor heat engine systems. Each of the three approaches has inherent advantages and penalties

  1. South Florida freight advanced traveler information system : demonstration team final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This Demonstration Team Final Report has been prepared to provide an overview of the conduct and qualitative : findings of the South Florida FRATIS development and testing program. More specifically, this document provides: : A description of the...

  2. Los Angeles - Gateway Freight Advanced Traveler Information System : demonstration team final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This Demonstration Team Final Report has been prepared to provide an overview of the conduct and qualitative : findings of the LA-Gateway FRATIS development and testing program. More specifically, this document provides: : A description of the te...

  3. System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Charles [Delta Products, Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-05-15

    In the 2nd quarter of 2012, a program was formally initiated at Delta Products to develop smart-grid-enabled Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) product for residential use. The project was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under award DE-OE0000590. Delta products was the prime contractor to DOE during the three year duration of the project. In addition to Delta Products, several additional supplier-partners were engaged in this research and development (R&D) program, including Detroit Edison DTE, Mercedes Benz Research and Development North America, and kVA. This report summarizes the program and describes the key research outcomes of the program. A technical history of the project activities is provided, which describes the key steps taken in the research and the findings made at successive stages in the multi-stage work. The evolution of an EVSE prototype system is described in detail, culminating in prototypes shipped to Department of Energy Laboratories for final qualification. After the program history is reviewed, the key attributes of the resulting EVSE are described in terms of functionality, performance, and cost. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of this EVSE to meet or exceed DOE's targets for this program, including: construction of a working product-intent prototype of a smart-grid-enabled EVSE, with suitable connectivity to grid management and home-energy management systems, revenue-grade metering, and related technical functions; and cost reduction of 50% or more compared to typical market priced EVSEs at the time of DOE's funding opportunity announcement (FOA), which was released in mid 2011. In addition to meeting all the program goals, the program was completed within the original budget and timeline established at the time of the award. The summary program budget and timeline, comparing plan versus actual values, is provided for reference, along with several supporting explanatory notes. Technical

  4. The Bilingual Academic Services and Integrated Career Systems (Project BASICS). 1990-91 Final Evaluation Profile. OREA Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    This document contains the final evaluation profile for the Bilingual Academic Services and Integrated Career Systems (Project BASICS). A brief extract presents an overview of salient points of the project: funding cycle; enrollment figures; background of students served; admission criteria; and programming features, strengths, and limitations,…

  5. Value engineering and cost effectiveness of various fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) repair systems : final report, June 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    This report is an extension to the final report for NCDOT project 2004-15 Value Engineering and Cost-Effectiveness of : Various Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) Repair Systems, submitted in June 2005. In that report, seventeen 30-ft long : prest...

  6. Fault-tolerant adaptive control for load-following in static space nuclear power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Onbasioglu, Fetiye O.; Peddicord, Kenneth L.; Metzger, John D.

    1992-01-01

    The possible use of a dual-loop model-based adaptive control system for load following in static space nuclear power systems is investigated. The proposed approach has thus far been applied only to a thermoelectric space nuclear power system but is equally applicable to other static space nuclear power systems such as thermionic systems.

  7. Linking Biological Responses of Terrestrial N Eutrophication to the Final Ecosystem Goods and Services Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M. D.; Clark, C.; Blett, T.

    2015-12-01

    The response of a biological indicator to N deposition can indicate that an ecosystem has surpassed a critical load and is at risk of significant change. The importance of this exceedance is often difficult to digest by policy makers and public audiences if the change is not linked to a familiar ecosystem endpoint. A workshop was held to bring together scientists, resource managers, and policy makers with expertise in ecosystem functioning, critical loads, and economics in an effort to identify the ecosystem services impacted by air pollution. This was completed within the framework of the Final Ecosystem Goods and Services (FEGS) Classification System to produce a product that identified distinct interactions between society and the effects of nitrogen pollution. From each change in a biological indicator, we created multiple ecological production functions to identify the cascading effects of the change to a measureable ecosystem service that a user interacts with either by enjoying, consuming, or appreciating the good or service, or using it as an input in the human economy. This FEGS metric was then linked to a beneficiary group that interacts with the service. Chains detailing the links from the biological indicator to the beneficiary group were created for aquatic and terrestrial acidification and eutrophication at the workshop, and here we present a subset of the workshop results by highlighting for 9 different ecosystems affected by terrestrial eutrophication. A total of 213 chains that linked to 37 unique FEGS metrics and impacted 15 beneficiary groups were identified based on nitrogen deposition mediated changes to biological indicators. The chains within each ecosystem were combined in flow charts to show the complex, overlapping relationships among biological indicators, ecosystem services, and beneficiary groups. Strength of relationship values were calculated for each chain based on support for the link in the scientific literature. We produced the

  8. Integrated Surveillance for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Final Report of the Integrated Surveillance Study Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-31

    Charles A. Leader, JPDO Director November 21, 2008 i FINAL REPORT OF THE INTEGRATED SURVEILLANCE STUDY TEAM ii TABLE... eam stration ation S ding System e ittee on System EP ion Program RS tine Weather Reports formance Standards C D DO Domestic Outreach...Col John Anderson ODNI Mark Andrews DOC/NOAA and JPDO Weather Working Group (ISST L ad) es Ray r Division ric Operations Division

  9. Studies of spatial and temporal disorder in macroscopic systems. Final report, April 1, 1993--May 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, F.A.; Stein, D.L.

    1998-06-01

    This document constitutes the final report of research conducted under the DOE grant {open_quotes}Studies of Spatial and Temporal Disorder in Macroscopic Systems{close_quotes}. There are three sections to this report, each describing research in a different general area, and a bibliography consisting of published journal articles reporting that research. The three sections are: the weak-noise characteristic boundary exit problem; spin glasses and other systems with quenched disorder; and dynamical problems arising from protein biophysics.

  10. Universal real-time highway information system development program : final report phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The final phase of a two phase effort was undertaken to establish data forms and communication protocols to provide the New York State Department of Transportation access to the unique highway data resource, HIVIS developed in the initial phase of th...

  11. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS): Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, Gijs [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Lawrence, Dale [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Palo, Scott [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Argrow, Brian [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); LoDolce, Gabriel [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Curry, Nathan [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Weibel, Douglas [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Finamore, William [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); D' Amore, Phillip [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Borenstein, Steven [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Nichols, Tevis [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Elston, Jack [Blackswift Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States); Ivey, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bendure, Albert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schmid, Beat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Long, Charles [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Telg, Hagen [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Gao, Ru-Shan [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Hock, Terry [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Bland, Geoff [NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA (United States)

    2017-03-29

    This final technical report details activities undertaken as part of the referenced project. Included is information on the preparation of aircraft for deployment to Alaska, summaries of the three deployments covered under this project, and a brief description of the dataset and science directions pursued. Additionally, we provide information on lessons learned, publications, and presentations resulting from this work.

  12. The ITER ECH & CD Upper Launcher: Steps towards final design of the first confinement system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaeh, P.; Aiello, G.; Bertizzolo, R.; Chavan, R.; Gessner, R.; Goodman, T.; Grossetti, G.; Henderson, M.; Krause, A.; Landis, J. D.; Meier, A.; Ronden, D.; Saibene, G.; Scherer, T.; Schreck, S.; Serikov, A.; Strauss, D.; Vaccaro, A.; Weinhorst, B.

    2013-01-01

    The ITER Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) Upper Launcher, whose preliminary design was approved in 2009, is on its way towards the final design. The design work is being done by a consortium of several European research institutes in tight collaboration with F4E. The main

  13. DOE SciDAC's Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-09-27

    The mission of the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is to provide the worldwide climate-research community with access to the data, information, model codes, analysis tools, and intercomparison capabilities required to make sense of enormous climate data sets. Its specific goals are to (1) provide an easy-to-use and secure web-based data access environment for data sets; (2) add value to individual data sets by presenting them in the context of other data sets and tools for comparative analysis; (3) address the specific requirements of participating organizations with respect to bandwidth, access restrictions, and replication; (4) ensure that the data are readily accessible through the analysis and visualization tools used by the climate research community; and (5) transfer infrastructure advances to other domain areas. For the ESGF, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) team has led international development and delivered a production environment for managing and accessing ultra-scale climate data. This production environment includes multiple national and international climate projects (such as the Community Earth System Model and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project), ocean model data (such as the Parallel Ocean Program), observation data (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Best Estimate, Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center, Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, etc.), and analysis and visualization tools, all serving a diverse user community. These data holdings and services are distributed across multiple ESG-CET sites (such as ANL, LANL, LBNL/NERSC, LLNL/PCMDI, NCAR, and ORNL) and at unfunded partner sites, such as the Australian National University National Computational Infrastructure, the British Atmospheric Data Centre, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, the German Climate

  14. Advanced LED warning system for rural intersections : phase 2 (ALERT-2) : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report presents findings of the second phase of the Advanced LED Warning System for Rural : Intersections (ALERT) project. Since it is the next generation of the same system, the second phase : system is referred to as the ALERT-2 system while t...

  15. Development Of Nutrient And Water Recycling Capabilities In Algae Biofuels Production Systems. Final Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundquist, Tryg [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept.; Spierling, Ruth [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Poole, Kyle [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Blackwell, Shelley [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Crowe, Braden [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Hutton, Matt [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Lehr, Corinne [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2018-01-25

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate methods of recycling of water and nutrients for algal biofuels production. Recycling was accomplished both internal to the system and, in a broader sense, through import and reuse of municipal wastewater. Such an integrated system with wastewater input had not been demonstrated previously, and the performance was unknown, particularly in terms of influence of recycling on algal productivity and the practical extent of nutrient recovery from biomass residuals. Through long-term laboratory and pilot research, the project resulted in the following: 1. Bench-scale pretreatment of algal biomass did not sufficiently increase methane yield of nutrient solubilization during anaerobic digestion to warrant incorporation of pre-treatment into the pilot plant. The trial pretreatments were high-pressure orifice homogenization, sonication, and two types of heat treatment. 2. Solubilization of biomass particulate nutrients by lab anaerobic digesters ranged from 20% to nearly 60% for N and 40-65% for P. Subsequent aerobic degradation of the anaerobically digested biomass simulated raceways receiving whole digestate and resulted in an additional 20-55% N solubilization and additional 20% P solubilization. 3. Comparisons of laboratory and pilot digesters showed that laboratory units were reasonable proxies for pilot-scale. 4. Pilot-scale anaerobic digesters were designed, installed, and operated to digest algal biomass. Nutrient re-solubilization by the digesters was monitored and whole digestate was successfully used as a fertilizer in pilot algae raceways. 5. Unheated, unmixed digesters achieved greater methane yield and nutrient solubilization than heated, mixed digesters, presumably due to longer the solids residence times in unmixed digesters. The unmixed, unheated pilot digesters yielded 0.16 LCH4/g volatile solids (VS) introduced with 0.15 g VS/L-d organic loading and 16oC average temperature. A

  16. The gun control system of the IFUSP microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malafronte, A.A.; Takahashi, J.; Bonini, A.L.; Martins, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    A thermionic gun control system has been developed for the IFUSP microtron. The control system, which is composed of a dedicated microcomputer, A/D converter, grid pulser, filament and grid power supplies, is kept at a high voltage potential. The gun parameters are handled through a PC computer at ground potential via fiber-optic link. (orig.)

  17. Final Environmental Assessment for a Solar Power System at Davis-Monthan Air Force Tucson, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    southwestern boundary of the Base with the property line on the west and a dirt road on the east within the proposed West Airfield Parcel. The site...direct rail connection to the Base (Davis-Monthan AFB 2006a). There are officially designated bike paths on the Base, as FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL...permit a vacant lo~ or an urban or suburbm open area, to be driven over or used by motor vehicles, trucks, cars, cycles, . bikes , or buggies, or by

  18. Magnet alignment tolerances in the SLC final focus system determined by Lie algebra techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, F.

    1995-01-01

    Using Lie algebra techniques, static alignment tolerances are derived for all quadrupole and sextupole magnets in the 1994 SLC final focus. Three different effects are identified which limit the tolerable quadrupole misalignment. The largest amplitude of an offset-compensating closed orbit bump and the maximum allowed displacement between beam orbit and magnet center are evaluated for each sextupole. Multiparticle tracking supplements and confirms the analytical results. (orig.)

  19. AlGaAs film growth using thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) and determination of its physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, Soner; Şenay, Volkan; Pat, Suat; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2015-06-01

    In this research, an AlGaAs film was deposited on a microscope slide by means of the thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) technique which is a novel plasma production technique. AlGaAs structures were grown by this deposition technique for the first time and this process occurred in a very short period of time. In order to characterize the produced film, nano-structural, nano-mechanical, optical, and surface properties were determined by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and interferometer. According to the results of the measurements, the mean thickness value of the produced film was obtained as 1.8 μm. The band gap value was determined as 2eV from the Kubelka-Munk plot. The refractive index value was obtained as approximately 3.4. Hardness value was determined as 2 GPa from the Oliver-Pharr method. All these values are consistent with the reported values in the literature for the AlGaAs films produced by different methods. TVA technique appeared as a suitable and promising technique for the production of AlGaAs films.

  20. Surface, Nanomechanical, and Optical Properties of Mo-Doped GeGaAs Thin Film Deposited by Thermionic Vacuum Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat, Suat; Şenay, Volkan; Özen, Soner; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2016-01-01

    Mo-doped and undoped GeGaAs layers have been deposited by the thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) method, an alternative, fast plasma deposition technique. The thicknesses of the deposited layers were identical. The surface, mechanical, and optical properties of the deposited layers were studied to determine the influence of Mo doping on GeGaAs. The transparency of GeGaAs was shifted towards the near-infrared region by Mo doping. Bandgap values shifted by approximately 0.3 eV. In other words, the bandgap value of Mo-doped GeGaAs was nearly equal to that of GaAs materials. The average roughness and grain size of the Mo-doped material were smaller than for the GeGaAs layer. The particle distributions of the Mo-doped and undoped GeGaAs were almost perfect Gaussians. However, the mean height of the Mo-doped GeGaAs grains was six times that for undoped GeGaAs. The surface was homogeneous. The Mo-doped layer showed greater absorbance than the GeGaAs material. The produced Mo-doped sample showed hybrid properties.

  1. Investigation of barium-calcium aluminate process to manufacture and characterize impregnated thermionic cathode for power microwave devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Cristiane

    2006-01-01

    In the present work it is described the barium calcium aluminate manufacture processes employed to produce impregnated cathodes to be used in a traveling-wave tube (TWT). The cathodes were developed using a tungsten body impregnated with barium and calcium aluminate with a 5:3:2 proportion (molar). Three different processes were investigated to obtain this material: solid-state reaction, precipitation and crystallization. Thermal analysis, thermogravimetry specifically, supported to determine an adequate preparation procedure (taking into account temperature, time and pyrolysis atmosphere). It was verified that the crystallization showed a better result when compared to those investigated (solid-state reaction and precipitation techniques - formation temperature is about 1000 deg C in hydrogen atmosphere), whereas it presented the lower formation temperature (800 deg C) in oxidizing atmosphere (O 2 ). It was used the practical work function distribution theory (PWFD) of Miram to characterize thermionic impregnated cathode. The PWFD curves were used to characterize the barium-calcium aluminate cathode. PWFD curves shown that the aluminate cathode work function is about 2,00 eV. (author)

  2. Structural and Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured C-Ag Thin Films Synthesized by Thermionic Vacuum Arc Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Vladoiu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured C-Ag thin films of 200 nm thickness were successfully synthesized by the Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA method. The influence of different substrates (glass, silicon wafers, and stainless steel on the microstructure, morphology, and mechanical properties of nanostructured C-Ag thin films was characterized by High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, and TI 950 (Hysitron nanoindenter equipped with Berkovich indenter, respectively. The film’s hardness deposited on glass (HC-Ag/Gl = 1.8 GPa was slightly lower than in the case of the C-Ag film deposited on a silicon substrate (HC-Ag/Si = 2.2 GPa. Also the apparent elastic modulus Eeff was lower for C-Ag/Gl sample (Eeff = 100 GPa than for C-Ag/Si (Eeff = 170 GPa, while the values for average roughness are Ra=2.9 nm (C-Ag/Si and Ra=10.6 (C-Ag/Gl. Using the modulus mapping mode, spontaneous and indentation-induced aggregation of the silver nanoparticles was observed for both C-Ag/Gl and C-Ag/Si samples. The nanocomposite C-Ag film exhibited not only higher hardness and effective elastic modulus, but also a higher fracture resistance toughness to the silicon substrate compared to the glass substrate.

  3. Final design report for the sludge handling system SNF subproject A13B [SEC 1 THRU 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCSHANE, D.S.

    2003-01-01

    This Final Design Report (FDR) presents a review of the definitive design of the Sludge Handling System (SHS), Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Sub-project A. 13(b). The information presented in this document, and the Sludge Handling System Compliance Matrix (HNF 8767), demonstrates compliance with HNF-6579, Baseline Design Criteria for the Sludge Handling System. The SHS project provides the equipment necessary to receive, store, and maintain radioactive sludge at T Plant where the sludge will be stored until it can be treated to meet disposal site requirements. In keeping with the principles of ALARA, the systems supplied are designed to operate remotely. The sludge storage systems are designed to meet Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requirements. In addition to the new equipment necessary to safely receive and store sludge, other existing T Plant systems were modified

  4. Dynamic mobility applications open source application development portal : Task 4 : system requirements specifications : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    This document describes the System Requirements Specifications (SyRS) of the Dynamic Mobility Applications (DMA) Open Source Application Development Portal (OSADP) system in details according to IEEE-Std. 1233-1998. The requirement statements discuss...

  5. Quantitative X-ray diffraction and fluorescence analysis of paint pigment systems : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    This study attempted to correlate measured X-ray intensities with concentrations of each member of paint pigment systems, thereby establishing calibration curves for the quantitative analyses of such systems.

  6. Commercial Skills Test Information Management System final report and self-sustainability plan : [technology brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The Commercial Skills Test Information Management System (CSTIMS) was developed to address the fraudulent issuance of commercial drivers licenses (CDLs) across the United States. CSTIMS was developed as a Web-based, software-as-a-service system to...

  7. Innovative Distributed Power Grid Interconnection and Control Systems: Final Report, December 11, 2000 - August 30, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePodesta, K.; Birlingmair, D.; West, R.

    2006-03-01

    The contract goal was to further advance distributed generation in the marketplace by making installations more cost-effective and compatible with existing systems. This was achieved by developing innovative grid interconnection and control systems.

  8. Cold Vacuum Drying facility personnel monitoring system design description (SYS 12); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) instrument air (IA) system that provides instrument quality air to the CVDF. The IA system provides the instrument quality air used in the process, HVAC, and HVAC instruments. The IA system provides the process skids with air to aid in the purging of the annulus of the transport cask. The IA system provides air for the solenoid-operated valves and damper position controls for isolation, volume, and backdraft in the HVAC system. The IA system provides air for monitoring and control of the HVAC system, process instruments, gas-operated valves, and solenoid-operated instruments. The IA system also delivers air for operating hand tools in each of the process bays

  9. Dynamic isotope power system (DIPS) applications study. Volume I. Summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    The Nuclear Integrated Multimission Spacecraft (NIMS) is designed for communications, surveillance, navigation and meteorelogical missions. This study assesses th attributes of the Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) for this spacecraft. These attributes include cost, system and mission compatibility, and survivability

  10. A Framework for a General Purpose Intelligent Control System for Particle Accelerators. Phase II Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westervelt, Robert; Klein, William; Kroupa, Michael; Olsson, Eric; Rothrock, Rick

    1999-01-01

    Vista Control Systems, Inc. has developed a portable system for intelligent accelerator control. The design is general in scope and is thus configurable to a wide range of accelerator facilities and control problems. The control system employs a multi-layer organization in which knowledge-based decision making is used to dynamically configure lower level optimization and control algorithms

  11. 75 FR 61509 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Solar Photovoltaic Panel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Determination Concerning Solar Photovoltaic Panel Systems AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department... Procurement; Title III, Trade Agreements Act of 1979; Country of Origin of solar photovoltaic panel system... solar photovoltaic (``PV'') panel systems contain both U.S. and foreign-origin raw materials and...

  12. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Final report, September 25, 1992--July 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Buller, C.; McCool, S.; Vossoughi, S.; Michnick, M.

    1997-06-01

    The objectives of the research program were to (1) identify and develop polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) develop methods to predict their performance in field applications. The research focused on four types of gel systems--KUSP1 systems that contain an aqueous polysaccharide designated KUSP1, phenolic-aldehyde systems composed of resorcinol and formaldehyde, colloidal-dispersion systems composed of polyacrylamide and aluminum citrate, and a chromium-based system where polyacrylamide is crosslinked by chromium(III). Gelation behavior of the resorcinol-formaldehyde systems and the KUSP1-borate system was examined. Size distributions of aggregates that form in the polyacrylamide-aluminum colloidal-dispersion gel system were determined. Permeabilities to brine of several rock materials were significantly reduced by gel treatments using the KUSP1 polymer-ester (monoethyl phthalate) system, the KUSP1 polymer-boric acid system, and the sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde system were also shown to significantly reduce the permeability to supercritical carbon dioxide. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the behavior of a chromium redox-polyacrylamide gel system that is injected through a wellbore into a multi-layer reservoir in which crossflow between layers is allowed. The model describes gelation kinetics and filtration of pre-gel aggregates in the reservoir. Studies using the model demonstrated the effect filtration of gel aggregates has on the placement of gel systems in layered reservoirs.

  13. Static reactive power compensators for high-voltage power systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    A study conducted to summarize the role of static reactive power compensators for high voltage power system applications is described. This information should be useful to the utility system planning engineer in applying static var systems (SVS) to high voltage as (HVAC) systems. The static var system is defined as a form of reactive power compensator. The general need for reactive power compensation in HVAC systems is discussed, and the static var system is compared to other devices utilized to provide reactive power compensation. Examples are presented of applying SVS for specific functions, such as the prevention of voltage collapse. The operating principles of commercially available SVS's are discussed in detail. The perormance and active power loss characteristics of SVS types are compared.

  14. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix C: Anadromous Fish and Juvenile Fish Transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings.

  15. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-01-01

    Final report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Mockups applied to design review of AP600/1000, Construction planning for AP 600, and AP 1000 maintenance evaluation. Proof of concept study also performed for GenIV PBMR models

  16. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Final report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Mockups applied to design review of AP600/1000, Construction planning for AP 600, and AP 1000 maintenance evaluation. Proof of concept study also performed for GenIV PBMR models.

  17. Final environmental impact statement supplement for wastewater management systems, North Jefferson County, Kentucky wastewater facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement (FEISS) serves to update the wastewater treatment alternatives presented in the original EIS (The North County Area Environmental Impact Statement, Jefferson County, KY, July 1984), determine the best alternative, and compare that alternative to the Louisville and Jefferson County Metropolitan Sewer District's North County Action Plan (NCAP). The NCAP was determined to have the greatest cost effectiveness, lowest environmental impact, and best implementability and reliability and so is the preferred alternative in the FEISS. Significant environmental impacts of the alternative are described and mitigative measures discussed

  18. Effectiveness of Pavement Management System and its Effects to the Closing of Final Account in Construction Project in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Zarabizan; Ismail, Syuhaida; Yusof, Aminah Md

    2013-04-01

    Federal roads maintenance needs a systematic and effective mechanism to ensure that the roads are in good condition and provide comfort to the road user. In implementing effective maintenance, budget is main the factor limiting this endeavor. Thus Public Works Department (PWD) Malaysia used Highway Development and Management (HDM-4) System to help the management of PWD Malaysia in determining the location and length of the road to be repaired according to the priority based on its analysis. For that purpose, PWD Malaysia has applied Pavement Management System (PMS) which utilizes HDM-4 as the analysis engine to conduct technical and economic analysis in generating annual work programs for pavement maintenance. As a result, a lot of feedback and comment have been received from Supervisory and Roads Maintenance Unit (UPPJ) Zonal on the accuracy of the system output and problems that arise in the closing of final account. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to evaluate current system accuracy in terms of generating the annual work program for periodic pavement maintenance, to identify factors contributing to the system inaccuracy in selecting the location and length of roads that require for treatment and to propose improvement measures for the system accuracy. The factors affecting the closing of final account caused by result received from the pavement management system are also defined. The scope of this paper is on the existing HDM-4 System which cover four states specifically Perlis, Selangor, Kelantan and Johor which is analysed via the work program output data for the purpose of evaluating the system accuracy. The method used in this paper includes case study, interview, discussion and analysis of the HDM-4 System output data. This paper has identified work history not updated and the analysis is not using the current data as factors contributing to the system accuracy. From the result of this paper, it is found that HDM-4's system accuracy used by PWD

  19. Analytical selection of marketable SAHP systems. Final report, September 30, 1977-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahan, W.

    1980-01-01

    For the effective marketing of energy conserving heating systems which have high initial costs, such as the solar assisted heat pump (SAHP), it is imperative to identify those climatic regions, load profiles, and system characteristics for which such systems are economically promising. This report summarizes efforts to develop a quick and efficient means of performing this identification. These efforts were separated into two distinct studies, a marketing study and a technical study of five energy conserving systems; and stand-alone heat pump, a stand-alone solar energy system, and a series, a parallel, and a dual source SAHP system. One of the primary results of the marketing study was the identification of the portion of the HVAC market into which the initial marketing thrust of these systems should be concentrated. In addition, several factors which influence the sales of these systems were identified. The technical study concentrated on the development and use of an analytical model of each of the systems. This model was designed to quickly size, in a specific climatic region, the system components for an economic optimum; i.e., for a minimum life cycle cost. Then the one energy conserving system which has the lowest life cycle cost, and thus the best potential, can be identified. It was found that, at present costs of electricity, the air-to-air heat pump has the lowest life cycle cost and hence is considered most marketable. At significantly higher electricity costs, the series SAHP system is the most marketable one because it has the lowest life cycle cost of the five energy conserving systems studied.

  20. Review and evaluation of immobilized algae systems for the production of fuels from microalgae. Final subcontract report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the use of immobilized algae systems. It was the finding that commercial immobilized algae systems are not in operation at this time but, with research, could certainly become so. The use of immobilized algae will depend on, as in all commercial systems, the economic value of the product. This paper reviews the technical feasibility of immobilization as it applies to algae. Finally, the economics of possible immobilized algal systems that would produce liquid fuels were investigated. It was calculated that an immobilized system would have 8.5 times the capital costs of a conventional microalgae culture system. Operational costs would be about equal, although there would be substantial savings of water with the immobilized system. A major problem with immobilizing algae is the fact that sunlight drives the system. At present, an immobilized algal system to mass produce lipids for use as a liquid fuel does not appear to be economically feasible. The major drawback is developing a low-cost system that obtains the same amount of solar energy as provided to a shallow 3 square mile pond while increasing the culture density by an order of magnitude. R and D to increase light availability and to develop low cost transparent tanks could increase the competitiveness of immobilized algal systems. 44 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Active tensor magnetic gradiometer system final report for Project MM–1514

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David V.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hutton, S. Raymond

    2014-01-01

    An interactive computer simulation program, based on physical models of system sensors, platform geometry, Earth environment, and spheroidal magnetically-permeable targets, was developed to generate synthetic magnetic field data from a conceptual tensor magnetic gradiometer system equipped with an active primary field generator. The system sensors emulate the prototype tensor magnetic gradiometer system (TMGS) developed under a separate contract for unexploded ordnance (UXO) detection and classification. Time-series data from different simulation scenarios were analyzed to recover physical dimensions of the target source. Helbig-Euler simulations were run with rectangular and rod-like source bodies to determine whether such a system could separate the induced component of the magnetization from the remanent component for each target. This report concludes with an engineering assessment of a practical system design.

  2. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix L: Soils, geology and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix addresses the study of geology, soils, and groundwater concerns relative to the System Operation Review (SOR). Chapter 1 provides an overview of the study, scope, and process for this resource area. In order, the respective sections of this chapter discuss the relevant issues for the study, and the means by which the SOR team carried out the study

  3. Final results from the development of the diagnostic expert system DESYRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, K.P.; Eggert, H.; Sheleisiek, K.; Stille, P.; Schoeller, H.

    1997-01-01

    In the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK), a distributed knowledge based diagnostic system is developed to supervise the primary system including the core of the Kompakte Natriumgekuehlte Kernreaktoranlage (KNK II), a 20 MWe experimental fast reactor. The problem is to detect anomalies and disturbances in the beginning state before fault propagation - early diagnosis - and provide the scram analysis to detect the causality when a system shutdwon occurs. (author). 9 refs, 15 figs

  4. 10-decade wide-range neutron-monitoring system. Final test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, W.K.

    1970-10-01

    The objective of Project Agreement 49 was to design, fabricate, test, and evaluate under actual nuclear reactor operating conditions, one prototype counting-Campbelling wide-range type thermal neutron flux measurement channel. This report describes the basic system designed for PA 49, and describes and presents the results of tests conducted on the system. Individual module descriptions and schematics are contained in the instruction manual which was issued with the system.

  5. Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The solar hot water system installed at LaQuinta Motor Inn Inc., at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The Inn is a three-story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

  6. Photovoltaic power supply for appliances and small systems. Final report; Photovoltaik fuer Geraete und Kleinsysteme. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, W.; Anton, L.; Benz, J.; Kaiser, R.; Kuhmann, J.; Puls, H.G.; Pfanner, N.; Schmidt, H.; Schulz, W.; Steinhueser, A.

    2002-06-01

    The economic prospects of PV power supply to appliances and small systems were investigated. The research project was aimed at improving the conditions for efficient development of appliances and small systems with photovoltaic power supply and autonomous systems not connected to the grid. Innovative products were developed and tested in cooperation with industrial organizations. The project is to help small and medium-sized organizations with a technological orientation and enhance technology transfer between science and industry.

  7. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix G: Land use and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. The SOR began in early 1990, prior to the filing of petitions for endangered status for several salmon species under the Endangered Species Act. The comprehensive review of Columbia River operations encompassed by the SOR was prompted by the need for Federal decisions to (1) develop a coordinated system operating strategy (SOS) for managing the multiple uses of the system into the 21st century; (2) provide interested parties with a continuing and increased long-term role in system planning (Columbia River Regional Forum); (3) renegotiate and renew the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA), a contractual arrangement among the region's major hydroelectric-generating utilities and affected Federal agencies to provide for coordinated power generation on the Columbia River system; and (4) renew or develop new Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements. The review provides the environmental analysis required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR

  8. Detroit Lakes energy systems study: Phase I feasibility. Final report, February 1, 1978--July 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-31

    The objective of the Detroit Lakes Energy Systems Study is to determine the economic feasibility of alternative renewable energy system configurations in the northern latitudes. A forecast through both 1990 and the year 2000 is made of the demand for electrical energy in the Detroit Lakes area. An assessment of renewable energy resources including biomass, wind, and insolation is provided. A detailed analysis is made of system costs including biomass, wind, solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, selected hybrids, and conventional fuel systems. Lessons learned and recommendations for prototype fabrication are highlighted. (MHR)

  9. Impacts of dispersing storage and generation in electric distribution systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, F. S.; Isaksen, L.; Patton, R.

    1979-07-01

    Small-scale Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG) connected to the electric-distribution systems provide one alternative to large-scale additions to utility supply and delivery systems. In addition to being generating sources, DSG may also provide benefits to the distribution system by reducing capacity requirements, improving reliability, and lowering losses. This study offers a consistent, unifying methodology for evaluating the dispersion effect of DSG in distribution systems. The evaluation method and models developed compare the distribution systems expanded with and without DSG, using a consistent set of planning and operating criteria. The effects of DSG outages probabilities, diseconomies of scale, and loss savings are explicitly treated. The method also takes into account the effect on the bulk-supply system when DSG is planned and operated for distribution-system needs. To obtain the overall DSG impact on a utility system, the results derived from this methodology can readily be combined with the impact of the technologies assessed from a bulk-supply perspective undertaken in other studies. This assessment methodology would be suitable for use by most utilities since it is based on extant utility planning procedures and data bases, and practical assessment calculating. Application of this methodology for two utilities showed that the distribution capacity and reliability benefits are highly site-dependent, and that potentially higher production cost and DSG capital cost may be incurred. The study points to the importance of caution and comprehensive assessment before implementing DSG in the distribution system on a large scale.

  10. Precursor systems analyses of automated highway systems. Knowledge based systems and learning methods for AHS. Volume 10. Final report, September 1993-February 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmoltz, J.; Blumer, A.; Noonan, J.; Shedd, D.; Twarog, J.

    1995-06-01

    Managing each AHS vehicle and the AHS system as a whole is an extremely complex yndertaking. The authors have investigated and now report on Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches that can help. In particular, we focus on AI technologies known as Knowledge Based Systems (KBSs) and Learning Methods (LMs). Our primary purpose is to identify opportunities: we identify several problems in AHS and AI technologies that can solve them. Our secondary purpose is to examine in some detail a subset of these opportunities: we examine how KBSs and LMs can help in controlling the high level movements--e.g., keep in lane, change lanes, speed up, slow down--of an automated vehicle. This detailed examination includes the implementation of a prototype system having three primary components. The Tufts Automated Highway System Kit(TAHSK) discrete time micro-level traffic simulator is a generic AHS simulator. TAHSK interfaces with the Knowledge Based Controller (KBCon) knowledge based high level controller, which controls the high level actions of individual AHS vehicles. Finally, TAHSK also interfaces with a Reinforcement learning (RL) module that was used to explore the possibilities of RL techniques in an AHS environment.

  11. Study of efficiency indicators of urban public transportation systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomazinis, A.R.

    1977-01-01

    This report presents the efforts of a research project on efficiency problems of urban public transportation systems (UPTS). Three test regions were selected in an effort to discover, clarify, and understand the efficiency relationships within UPTS. The test regions vary from a small one-mode region to a large multi-mode region. The UPTS are first divided into three major system components, i.e., primary services, support functions, and the network. Then each system is divided by mode, and each component by each distinct function carried within the system component. The inputs to the system are also divided by type, i.e., labor, capital, and energy, and according to the contributor, i.e., the operator, the direct user, the society at large, and the government at all levels. Input units are also traced in terms of money costs (Fiscal Inputs Matrix) and physical units (Physical Inputs Matrix). System outputs are also separated by the receiver and the nature of the outputs. Efficiency analysis is then explored in a hierarchical manner exploring three types of relationships, i.e., system inputs vs. system outputs; component inputs vs. component inputs; and component outputs vs. component outputs. Efficiency indicators are then discussed as to the type of useful service they may offer in various types of efficiency analysis problems.

  12. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix A: River Operation Simulation (ROSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The River Operation Simulation Experts (ROSE) work group is comprised of representatives of the Corps, BPA, Reclamation, NMFS, Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC), and Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC). ROSE was responsible for using computer hydroregulation models to simulate the operation of the river system for all of the alternatives evaluated in screening and full scale analysis in SOR. These models are complex computer programs which sequentially route streamflows through each dam in the system, calculating the streamflows, reservoir elevations, spill, power generation and other information at each project and pertinent locations on the river system. ROSE first reviewed specifications of proposed alternatives to determine whether such alternatives were formulated adequately to be run on hydroregulation models

  13. Acoustic monitoring systems tests at Indian Point Unit 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; Rao, G.V.; Craig, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report describes the results of a program to test acoustic monitoring systems on Indian Point Unit No. 1 under actual plant operating conditions, less the reactor core. The two types of systems evaluated were the monitoring of acoustic emissions generated by growing flaws and the monitoring of acoustic signals from leaks

  14. 78 FR 21389 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Certain Ultrasound Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... experience in ``designing and building hardware.'' While replicating the program pattern from a ``master'' PROM may be a quick one-step process, the development of the pattern and the production of the ``master... enterprise resource planning system (SAP). You state that every feature and system type has a unique license...

  15. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Final technical report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    This study develops the conceptual design for a commercial-scale (nominal 100 MWe) central receiver solar/fossil fuel hybrid power system with combined cycle energy conversion. A near-term, metallic heat pipe receiver and an advanced ceramic tube receiver hybrid system are defined through parametric and market potential analyses. Comparative evaluations of the cost of power generation, the fuel displacement potential, and the technological readiness of these two systems indicate that the near-term hybrid system has better potential for commercialization by 1990. Based on the assessment of the conceptual design, major cost and performance improvements are projected for the near-term system. Constraints preventing wide-spread use were not identified. Energy storage is not required for this system and analyses show no economic advantages with energy storage provisions. It is concluded that the solar hybrid system is a cost effective alternative to conventional gas turbines and combined cycle generating plants, and has potential for intermediate-load market penetration at 15% annual fuel escalation rate. Due to their flexibility, simple solar/nonsolar interfacing, and short startup cycles, these hybrid plants have significant operating advantages. Utility company comments suggest that hybrid power systems will precede stand-alone solar plants.

  16. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1 -- issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2 -- issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study -- drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  17. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Volume III. Appendices. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    A design study for a 100 MW gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle solar/fossil-fuel hybrid power plant is presented. This volume contains the appendices: (a) preconceptual design data; (b) market potential analysis methodology; (c) parametric analysis methodology; (d) EPGS systems description; (e) commercial-scale solar hybrid power system assessment; and (f) conceptual design data lists. (WHK)

  18. VISA Final Report: Fully Integrated Power Electronic Systems in Automotive Electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waffenschmidt, E.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities related to the public funded project “Vollintegrierte leistungselektronische Systeme in der Automobilelektronik – VISA” (Fully Integrated Power Electronic Systems in Automotive Electronics). Aim of the project is to investigate the integration of components into

  19. Potential development of an intercity passenger transit system in Texas : final project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This report describes the findings of a research study of the potential for development of an intercity rail and : express bus system in the state of Texas. Rather than focus on regional commuter or light rail systems : radiating from urban areas, th...

  20. Fiber-optic data-transmission system for borehole logging. Final report. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, G.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the system is to provide signal transmission media for transmission of digital data from a borehole logging probe (and associated processor-electronics) to a borehole logging truck at the surface. This fiber optic transmission system is specifically designed for use on the Bendix Field Engineering Corp. (BFEC) R and D logging truck

  1. A Management Study of the MCPS Accounting System and Certain Related Financial Services Functions. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young (Arthur) and Co., Washington, DC.

    Several years ago, Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) began a Management Operations Review and Evaluation (MORE) of the entire school system, excluding school-based instruction. This MORE study is an evaluation of MCPS's current accounting system and certain related financial services functions within the Department of Financial Services. In…

  2. Closed loop chemical systems for energy storage and transmission (chemical heat pipe). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakil, H.B.; Flock, J.W.

    1978-02-01

    The work documents the anlaysis of closed loop chemical systems for energy storage and transmission, commonly referred to as the Chemical Heat Pipe (CHP). Among the various chemical reaction systems and sources investigated, the two best systems were determined to be the high temperature methane/steam reforming reaction (HTCHP) coupled to a Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (VHTR) and the lower temperature, cyclohexane dehydrogenation reaction (LTCHP) coupled to existing sources such as coal or light water reactors. Solar and other developing technologies can best be coupled to the LTCHP. The preliminary economic and technical analyses show that both systems could transport heat at an incremental cost of approximately $1.50/GJ/160 km (in excess of the primary heat cost of $2.50/GJ), at system efficiencies above 80%. Solar heat can be transported at an incremental cost of $3/GJ/160 km. The use of the mixed feed evaporator concept developed in this work contributes significantly to reducing the transportation cost and increasing the efficiency of the system. The LTCHP shows the most promise of the two systems if the technical feasibility of the cyclic closed loop chemical reaction system can be established. An experimental program for establishing this feasibility is recommended. Since the VHTR is several years away from commercial demonstration and the HTCHP chemical technology is well developed, future HTCHP programs should be aimed at VHTR and interface problems.

  3. Artificial Intelligence Measurement System, Overview and Lessons Learned. Final Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eva L.; Butler, Frances A.

    This report summarizes the work conducted for the Artificial Intelligence Measurement System (AIMS) Project which was undertaken as an exploration of methodology to consider how the effects of artificial intelligence systems could be compared to human performance. The research covered four areas of inquiry: (1) natural language processing and…

  4. Commercial Skills Test Information Management System (CSTIMS) final report and self-sustainability plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The Commercial Skills Test Information Management System (CSTIMS) was developed as a Web-based, software-as-a-service system to prevent and deter fraud perpetrated by third-party commercial drivers license (CDL) examiners in the portion of the CDL...

  5. Approaches for scalable modeling and emulation of cyber systems : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, Jackson R.; Minnich, Ronald G.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Rudish, Don W.

    2009-09-01

    The goal of this research was to combine theoretical and computational approaches to better understand the potential emergent behaviors of large-scale cyber systems, such as networks of {approx} 10{sup 6} computers. The scale and sophistication of modern computer software, hardware, and deployed networked systems have significantly exceeded the computational research community's ability to understand, model, and predict current and future behaviors. This predictive understanding, however, is critical to the development of new approaches for proactively designing new systems or enhancing existing systems with robustness to current and future cyber threats, including distributed malware such as botnets. We have developed preliminary theoretical and modeling capabilities that can ultimately answer questions such as: How would we reboot the Internet if it were taken down? Can we change network protocols to make them more secure without disrupting existing Internet connectivity and traffic flow? We have begun to address these issues by developing new capabilities for understanding and modeling Internet systems at scale. Specifically, we have addressed the need for scalable network simulation by carrying out emulations of a network with {approx} 10{sup 6} virtualized operating system instances on a high-performance computing cluster - a 'virtual Internet'. We have also explored mappings between previously studied emergent behaviors of complex systems and their potential cyber counterparts. Our results provide foundational capabilities for further research toward understanding the effects of complexity in cyber systems, to allow anticipating and thwarting hackers.

  6. 252Cf-based direct uranium logging system. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinman, D.K.; Stokes, J.; Adams, J.A.; Pepper, C.S.; Bryan, D.E.; Smith, W.J.; Atwell, T.; Friesenhahn, S.; Dittrich, T.R.; Houston, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    To reduce both the uncertainties and costs of current methods, a 252 Cf-based borehole logging system was developed for in situ assay of uranium. This system utilized Delayed Neutron Activation Analysis (DNAA) to identify uniquely and to quantify a uranium occurrence. Thermal neutrons emitted by the 252 Cf system penetrate 15 cm into the surrounding formation and, if uranium is present, will cause fission of 235 U. The resulting fission products emit various characteristic types of radiation, including delayed neutrons. Since the background interference from natural neutron sources is essentially zero, the delayed neutrons are used to identify and quantify uranium even at concentrations significantly less than 100 ppM. This uranium borehole logging system was demonstrated successfully in the field in 1976. The system was a prototype based on the shuttling of the 252 Cf source between two locations in the logging probe. This method produces a large increase in sensitivity over the stationary source 252 Cf DNAA probe

  7. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix M: Water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. Analysis of water quality begins with an account of the planning and evaluation process, and continues with a description of existing water quality conditions in the Columbia River Basin. This is followed by an explanation how the analysis was conducted. The analysis concludes with an assessment of the effects of SOR alternatives on water quality and a comparison of alternatives

  8. Design of a modular digital computer system, CDRL no. D001, final design plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The engineering breadboard implementation for the CDRL no. D001 modular digital computer system developed during design of the logic system was documented. This effort followed the architecture study completed and documented previously, and was intended to verify the concepts of a fault tolerant, automatically reconfigurable, modular version of the computer system conceived during the architecture study. The system has a microprogrammed 32 bit word length, general register architecture and an instruction set consisting of a subset of the IBM System 360 instruction set plus additional fault tolerance firmware. The following areas were covered: breadboard packaging, central control element, central processing element, memory, input/output processor, and maintenance/status panel and electronics.

  9. Institutional applications of solar total-energy systems. Draft final report. Volume 2. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    The appendices present the analytical basis for the analysis of solar total energy (STE) systems. A regional-climate model and a building-load requirements model are developed, along with fuel-price scenarios. Life-cycle costs are compared for conventional-utility, total energy, and STE systems. Thermal STE system design trade-offs are performed and thermal STE system performance is determined. The sensitivity of STE competitiveness to fuel prices is examined. The selection of the photovoltaic array is briefly discussed. The institutional-sector decision processes are analyzed. Hypothetical regional back-up rates and electrical-energy costs are calculated. The algorithms and equations used in operating the market model are given, and a general methodology is developed for projecting the size of the market for STE systems and applied to each of 8 institutional subsectors. (LEW)

  10. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix E: Flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The Corps of Engineers, Bonneville Power Administration, and Bureau of Reclamation conducted a scoping process consisting of a series of regionwide public meetings and solicitation of written comments in the summer of 1990. Comments on flood control issues were received from all parts of the Columbia river basin. This appendix includes issues raised in the public scoping process, as well as those brought for consideration by members of the Flood Control Work Group

  11. Solar space- and water-heating system at Stanford University. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    Application of an active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating solar system for the Central Food Services Building is discussed. The closed-loop drain-back system is described as offering dependability of gravity drain-back freeze protection, low maintenance, minimal costs, and simplicity. The system features an 840 square-foot collector and storage capacity of 1550 gallons. The acceptance testing and the predicted system performance data are briefly described. Solar performance calculations were performed using a computer design program (FCHART). Bidding, costs, and economics of the system are reviewed. Problems are discussed and solutions and recommendations given. An operation and maintenance manual is given in Appendix A, and Appendix B presents As-built Drawings. (MCW)

  12. Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS). Volume 1: Program user's guide. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaccio, D.G.; Scheil, C.M.; Petrosky, L.J.

    1993-03-01

    A Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design analysis tool is required to support current and future Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) propulsion and vehicle design studies. Currently available NTP engine design models are those developed during the NERVA program in the 1960's and early 1970's and are highly unique to that design or are modifications of current liquid propulsion system design models. To date, NTP engine-based liquid design models lack integrated design of key NTP engine design features in the areas of reactor, shielding, multi-propellant capability, and multi-redundant pump feed fuel systems. Additionally, since the SEI effort is in the initial development stage, a robust, verified NTP analysis design tool could be of great use to the community. This effort developed an NTP engine system design analysis program (tool), known as the Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) program, to support ongoing and future engine system and stage design study efforts. In this effort, Science Applications International Corporation's (SAIC) NTP version of the Expanded Liquid Engine Simulation (ELES) program was modified extensively to include Westinghouse Electric Corporation's near-term solid-core reactor design model. The ELES program has extensive capability to conduct preliminary system design analysis of liquid rocket systems and vehicles. The program is modular in nature and is versatile in terms of modeling state-of-the-art component and system options as discussed. The Westinghouse reactor design model, which was integrated in the NESS program, is based on the near-term solid-core ENABLER NTP reactor design concept. This program is now capable of accurately modeling (characterizing) a complete near-term solid-core NTP engine system in great detail, for a number of design options, in an efficient manner

  13. Development of a wet vapor homogeneous liquid metal MHD power system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branover, H.; Unger, Y.; El-Boher, A.; Schweitzer, H.

    1991-09-01

    A feasibility study for the approval of liquid metal seeds recovery from a liquid metal vapor-inert gas mixture was conducted and presented in this report. The research activity included background studies on processes relating to mixing stream condenser performance, parametric studies and its experimental validation. The condensation process under study includes mass transfer phenomena combined with heat transfer and phase change. Numerical methods were used in order to solve the dynamic equations and to carry out the parametric study as well as the experimental data reduction. The MSC performance is highly effected by droplet diameter, thus the possibility of atomizing liquid metals were experimentally investigated. The results are generalized and finally used for a set of recommendations by which the recovery of seeds is expected to be feasible.

  14. Minergie-P system verification - Final report; Systemnachweis MINERGIE-Eco - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenel, S.; Ruehle, T.; Schinabeck, J. [Intep - Integrale Planung GmbH, Zuerich(Switzerland); Foradini, F. [E4tech Sarl, Lausanne (Switzerland); Citherlet, S. [Haute Ecole d' Ingenierie et de Gestion du Canton de Vaud HEIG-VD, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the development of methods and software that has made it possible to collect data and evaluate operational energy consumption and the environmental impact connected with the materials used in 'Minergie-ECO' buildings. Such buildings meet the stringent 'Minergie' low energy consumption standards and also use ecologically compatible building materials. The standard is examined and its requirements are discussed, as are the appropriate SIA standards. The methods and tools used in the evaluation are introduced and discussed. Four work packages are defined which cover both energy and well-being/health aspects. Thirteen cases of various types of building are discussed. Also, aspects are noted with respect to refurbishment projects. The report is completed with a comprehensive appendix which, amongst other things, defines the questions posed during the project and the methods used for the evaluation of the results obtained.

  15. Auxiliary-Field Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations of Strongly-Correlated Systems, the Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-07

    In this final report, we present preliminary results of ground state phases of interacting spinless Dirac fermions. The name "Dirac fermion" originates from the fact that low-energy excitations of electrons hopping on the honeycomb lattice are described by a relativistic Dirac equation. Dirac fermions have received much attention particularly after the seminal work of Haldale1 which shows that the quantum Hall physics can be realized on the honeycomb lattice without magnetic fields. Haldane's work later becomes the foundation of topological insulators (TIs). While the physics of TIs is based largely on spin-orbit coupled non-interacting electrons, it was conjectured that topological insulators can be induced by strong correlations alone.

  16. Yucca Mountain Project Integrated Data System (IDS); Final report, October 1, 1989--December 31, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-05-23

    This final report for LANL Subcontract 9-XS8-2604-1 includes copies of all formal letters, memorandums, and reports provided by CAG to support the IDS effort in the LANL Test Managers Office, Las Vegas, Nevada from October 1, 1989 through the end of the contract on December 31, 1990. The material is divided into two sections; the Functional Requirements Document (FRD) and other reports, letters, and memorandums. All documents are arranged in chronological order with most recent last. Numerous draft copies of the FRD were prepared and cover sheets for all drafts are included. The complete text of only the last version supplied (July 27, 1990) is included in this document.

  17. Yucca Mountain Project Integrated Data System (IDS). Final report, October 1, 1989--December 31, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This final report for LANL Subcontract 9-XS8-2604-1 includes copies of all formal letters, memorandums, and reports provided by CAG to support the IDS effort in the LANL Test Managers Office, Las Vegas, Nevada from October 1, 1989 through the end of the contract on December 31, 1990. The material is divided into two sections; the Functional Requirements Document (FRD) and other reports, letters, and memorandums. All documents are arranged in chronological order with most recent last. Numerous draft copies of the FRD were prepared and cover sheets for all drafts are included. The complete text of only the last version supplied (July 27, 1990) is included in this document

  18. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix H: Navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The Navigation Technical Appendix presents the analysis of the various SOR alternatives in terms of their potential affects on the congressionally authorized navigation system within the Columbia and Snake river waterways. The focus of the study, impacts to the authorized navigation, improvements/developments, reflects on one of the continuing historical missions of the US Army Corps of Engineers: to promote safe commercial navigation of the nation's waterways benefiting the development of commerce within the US. The study and evaluation process involved Scoping, Screening and Full Scale Evaluation. During screening two models were developed; one was used to evaluate the effects of the various alternatives on navigation through the Snake River Projects and the other the effects on the Dworshak Pool. Full Scale Analysis was expanded to included a study of effects throughout the system

  19. Implementation considerations for digital control systems in power plants: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.C.; Lehman, L.L.; Sarchet, M.M.

    1988-09-01

    Conversion of nuclear power plants fron analog to digital control systems will require careful design, testing, and integration of the control algorithms, the software which implements the algorithms, the digital instrumentation, the digital communications network, and analog/digital device interfaces. Digital control systems are more flexible than their analog counterparts, and therefore greater attention must be paid by the customer to all stages of the control system design process. This flexibility also provides the framework for development of significant safety and reliability are inherant aspects of the chosen design processes. Digital control algorithms are capable of improving their performance by on-line self-tuning of the control parameters. It is therefore incumbant on system designers to choose self-tuning algorithms for power plant control. Implementation of these algorithms in software required a careful software design and development process to minimize errors in interpretation of the engineering design and prevent the inclusion of programming errors during software production. Digital control system and communications software must exhibit sufficient ''fault tolerance'' to maintain some level of safe plant operation or execute a safe plant shutdown in the event of both hard equipment failures and the appearance of software design faults. A number of standardized digital communications protocols are available to designers of digital control systems. These standardized digital communications protocols provide reliable fault tolerant communication between all digital elements of the plant control system and can be implemented redundantly to further enhance power plant operational safety. 5 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  20. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, C.D.; Kendrick, D.T.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E.

    1997-09-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently in the process of decommissioning and dismantling many of its nuclear materials processing facilities that have been in use for several decades. Site managers throughout the DOE complex must employ the safest and most cost effective means to characterize, remediate and recycle or dispose of hundreds of miles of potentially contaminated piping and duct work. The DOE discovered that standard characterization methods were inadequate for its pipes, drains, and ducts because many of the systems are buried or encased. In response to the DOE`s need for a more specialized characterization technique, Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) developed the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system through a DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) contract administered through the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC). The purpose of this report is to serve as a comprehensive overview of all phases of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} development project. The report is divided into 6 sections. Section 2 of the report provides an overview of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system, including the operating principles of using an inverting membrane to tow sensors into pipes. The basic components of the characterization system are also described. Descriptions of the various deployment systems are given in Section 3 along with descriptions of the capabilities of the deployment systems. During the course of the development project 7 types of survey instruments were demonstrated with the Pipe Explorer{trademark} and are a part of the basic toolbox of instruments available for use with the system. These survey tools are described in Section 4 along with their typical performance specifications. The 4 demonstrations of the system are described chronologically in Section 5. The report concludes with a summary of the history, status, and future of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system in Section 6.