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Sample records for thermally treated bentonitic

  1. Thermally modified bentonite clay for copper removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagnolli, C.; Kleinübing, S.J.; Silva, M.G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Bentonite clay coming from Pernambuco was thermally modified in order to increase its affinity and capacity in the copper removal in porous bed. The application of this procedure is justified by the low cost of clay, their abundance and affinity for various metal ions. Thermally treatment modifies the clay adsorption properties enables its use in porous bed system, with the increase in surface area and mechanical strength. The material was characterized by x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and N_2 physisorption. Then tests were carried out for adsorption of copper in various experimental conditions and evaluated the mass transfer zone, useful and total adsorbed removal amounts and total copper removal percentage. The results showed that the clay treated at higher temperature showed higher copper removal. (author)

  2. Thermal characteristics of highly compressed bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueoka, Tooru; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Imamura, S.; Ogawa, Terushige; Murata, Shigemi.

    1990-01-01

    In the disposal of high level radioactive wastes in strata, it is planned to protect the canisters enclosing wastes with buffer materials such as overpacks and clay, therefore, the examination of artificial barrier materials is an important problem. The concept of the disposal in strata and the soil mechanics characteristics of highly compressed bentonite as an artificial barrier material were already reported. In this study, the basic experiment on the thermal characteristics of highly compressed bentonite was carried out, therefore, it is reported. The thermal conductivity of buffer materials is important because the possibility that it determines the temperature of solidified bodies and canisters is high, and the buffer materials may cause the thermal degeneration due to high temperature. Thermophysical properties are roughly divided into thermodynamic property, transport property and optical property. The basic principle of measured thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity, the kinds of the measuring method and so on are explained. As for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of highly compressed bentonite, the experimental setup, the procedure, samples and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  3. STUDY OF THERMAL AND ACID STABILITY OF BENTONITE CLAY

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    Karna Wijaya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermal and acid stability of the bentonite clays (Na- and Ca-bentonite have been tested. The thermal stability testing has been carried out by heating 5 gram of the clays  for five hours at 200, 300 and 500 °C respectively, meanwhile acid stability testing was performed by immersing 5 gram clays into 100 mL sulphuric acid 1M, 2M and 3M for 24 hours. The tested clays, then were characterized by means of X-Ray difractometry and IR-spectroscopy methods. The characterization results showed that upon heating, both Ca- and Na-bentonites indicated same thermal stability. However, upon acid treatment, Na-bentonite was found relatively stabiler and more resistance then Ca-bentonite.   Keywords: bentonite, clay, thermal stability, acid stability.

  4. Thermal properties of bentonite under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasicek, R. [Czech Technical Univ., Centre of Experimental Geotechnics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    Centre of Experimental Geotechnics (CEG) deals with the research of the behaviour of bentonite and clays. The measurement of thermal properties is not so frequent test in geotechnical laboratory but in relation to deep repository it is a part which should not be overlooked. The reason is the heat generated by canister with spent nuclear fuel and possible influence of the heat on the materials of the engineered barrier. In the initial stages following the burial of canister with the waste the barrier materials will be exposed to elevated temperature. According to existing information, these temperatures should not exceed 90 C. That heat can induce a creation of cracks and opening of joint between highly compacted blocks. It will predispose the bentonite barrier to penetration of water from surrounding towards to canister. Therefore easy removal of heat through the barrier is required. It is essential that the tests aimed at determining the real values of measured parameters are carried out in conditions identical with those anticipated in a future disposal system. These relatively complicated thermophysical tests are logical continuation of the simple ones, carried out under laboratory temperature and on not fully saturated samples without possibility to measure the swelling pressure. Thermophysical properties and swelling pressure are dominantly influenced by water content (which is influenced by temperature). Therefore is important to realize the tests under different moisture and thermal conditions. These tests are running at the APT-PO1 Analyser, designed to fulfill mentioned requirements - it allows measurement of thermal properties under temperature up to 200 C and swelling pressure up to 20 MPa. The device is capable to register the evolution of temperature, swelling and vapor pressure. The measurement of thermal conductivity and volume heat capacity is realized by the dynamic impulse method with point source of heat. Four types of tests are possible: at

  5. Behaviour of bentonite accessory minerals during the thermal stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos, David; Bruno, Jordi; Benbow, Steven; Takase, Hiro

    2000-03-01

    This report discusses in a quantitative manner the evolution of the accessory minerals in the bentonite as a result of the thermal event exerted by the spent fuel in the near field. Three different modelling approaches have been used and the results compared between them. The three different approaches have been calculated using two Differential Algebraic Equation (DAE) solver: DYLAN (Model-1) and the Nag DAE solver, d02ngf (Model-2) and the third approach (Model-3) using the last version of PHREEQC. The results from these calculations indicate the feasibility of the modelling approach to model the migration of bentonite accessory minerals and relevant aqueous species throughout the thermal gradient. These calculations indicate that the migration of quartz and quartz polymorphs is a lesser problem. The aqueous speciation of Ca in the bentonite pore water is fundamental in order to define the potential migration of anhydrite during the thermal stage. If CaSO 4 (aq) is the predominant aqueous species, then anhydrite dissolves at the initial groundwater migration times through bentonite. However, if Ca 2+ is considered to be the dominant Ca species at the bentonite pore water, then anhydrite migrates towards the clay/granite interface. This is the main difference in the chemical systems considered in the three model approaches used in this work. The main process affecting the trace mineral behaviour in bentonite is cation exchange. This process controls the concentration of calcium, which results in a direct control of the calcite precipitation-dissolution

  6. Thermal conductivity tests on buffermasses of bentonite/silt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutsson, S.

    1977-09-01

    The investigation concerns the thermal conductivity of the bentonite/quartz buffer mass suggested as embedding substance for radioactive canisters. The first part presents the theoretical relationships associated with the various heat transfer mechanisms in moist granular materials. Chapter 3 describes the author's experimental determination of the thermal conductivity of the buffer mass. The tested mass consisted of 10 percent (by weight) bentonite and 90 percent natural silt. Four tests were made with different water content values and degree of water saturation. A comparison between the measured and calculated thermal conductivities is given. It is shown that the conductivity can be calculated with an accuracy of +-20 percent. (author)

  7. Thermal loading of bentonite. Impact on hydromechanics and permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zihms, Stephanie G.; Harrington, Jon [British Geological Survey, Nickerhill Keyworth (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    Due to its favorable properties, in particular, low permeability and swelling capacity, bentonite has been favored as an engineered barrier and backfill material for the geological storage of radioactive waste. To ensure safe long-term performance it is important to understand any changes in these properties when the material is subject to heat emitting waste. As such, this study will investigate the hydro-mechanical response of bentonite under multi-step thermal loading subject to a constant volume boundary condition. The experimental set up allows continuous measurements of hydraulic and mechanical response during each phase of the thermal cycle. The constant volume cell was placed inside an oven and connected to a hydraulic system with the water reservoir located externally. A pressure gradient of 4 MPa was placed across the sample for the duration of the test in order to map the evolution of permeability. After initial hydration of the bentonite, in this case signified by reaching the asymptote in total stress, the temperature was raised in 20 C increments from 20 to 80 C followed by a final 10 C step to reach 90 C. Each temperature was held constant for at least 7-10 days to allow the stresses and hydraulic transients to equilibrate. This data set will provide an insight into the hydromechanical behavior of the bentonite and the evolution of its permeability when exposed to elevated temperatures.

  8. High Temperature Thermal Properties of Bentonite Foundry Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewski P.K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of measuring thermal conductivity and heat capacity of bentonite foundry sand in temperature range ambient - 900­­°C. During the experiments a technical purity Cu plate was cast into the green-sand moulds. Basing on measurements of the mould temperature field during the solidification of the casting, the temperature relationships of the measured properties were evaluated. It was confirmed that water vaporization strongly influences thermal conductivity of the moulding sand in the first period of the mould heating by the poured casting.

  9. Sequential use of bentonites and solar photocatalysis to treat winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Eva; Márquez, Gracia; Carpintero, Juan Carlos; Beltrán, Fernando J; Alvarez, Pedro

    2008-12-24

    The sequential use of low-cost adsorbent bentonites and solar photocatalysis to treat winery wastewater has been studied. Three commercial sodium-bentonites (MB-M, MB-G, and MB-P) and one calcium-bentonite (Bengel) were characterized and used in this study. These clay materials were useful to totally remove turbidity (90-100%) and, to a lesser extent, color, polyphenols (PPh), and soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODS) from winery wastewater. Both surface area and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of bentonite had a positive impact on treatment efficiency. The effect of pH on turbidity removal by bentonites was studied in the 3.5-12 pH range. The bentonites were capable of greatly removing turbidity from winery wastewater at pH 3.5-5.5, but removal efficiency decreased with pH increase beyond this range. Settling characteristics (i.e., sludge volume index (SVI) and settling rate) of bentonites were also studied. Best settling properties were observed for bentonite doses around 0.5 g/L. The reuse of bentonite for winery wastewater treatment was found not to be advisable as the turbidity and PPh removal efficiencies decreased with successive uses. The resulting wastewater after bentonite treatment was exposed to solar radiation at oxic conditions in the presence of Fe(III) and Fe(III)/H2O2 catalysts. Significant reductions of COD, total organic carbon (TOC), and PPh were achieved by these solar photocatalytic processes.

  10. Theory and calculation of water distribution in bentonite in a thermal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1988-09-01

    Highly compacted bentonite is under consideration for use as a buffer material in geological repositories for high-level radioactive wastes. To assess the suitability of bentonite for this use, it is necessary to be able to predict the rate and spatial extent of water uptake and water distribution in highly compacted bentonite in the presence of thermal gradients. The ''Buffer Mass Test'' (BMT) was conducted by workers in Sweden as part of the Stripa Project. The BMT measured uptake and spatial distributions of water infiltrating annuli of compacted MX-80 sodium bentonite heated from within and surrounded by granite rock; the measurements provided a body of data very valuable for comparison to results of theoretical calculations. Results of experiments on adsorption of water by highly compacted MX-80 bentonite have been reported by workers in Switzerland. The experiments included measurements of heats of immersion and adsorption-desorption isotherms. These measurements provide the basis for prediction of water vapor pressures in equilibrium with bentonite having specified adsorbed water contents at various temperatures. The present work offers a phenomenological description of the processes influencing movement of water in compacted bentonite in the presence of a variable thermal field. The theory is applied to the bentonite buffer-water system in an assumed steady state of heat and mass transport, using critical data derived from the experimental work done in Switzerland. Results of the theory are compared to distributions of absorbed water in buffers observed in the Swedish BMT experiments. 9 refs., 2 figs

  11. Adsorption properties and porous structure of sulfuric acid treated bentonites determined - SHORT COMMUNICATION

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    SNEZANA BREZOVSKA

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper adsorption isotherms of benzene vapor on natural bentonite from Ginovci, Macedonia, and forms acid activated with 10 % and 15 % solutions of hydrochloric were interpreted by means of the Dubinin–Radushkevich–Stoeckli and Dubinin–Astakhov equations; the investigation has been continued with bentonites acid activated with 10 % and 15 % solutions of sulfuric acid where X-ray analysis indicates smaller structural changes. Using the above equations, the heterogeneity of the micropores and the energetic heterogeneity of the bentonites were determined from the differential distribution of the micropore volume with respect to the structural parameter of the equations characterizing the microporous structure and to the molar free energy of adsorption. Activated bentonites obtain bigger pores but also a certain quantity of new small pores appear during acid activation with the higher concentration of acid. The micropore volumes, determined from the adsorption of benzene vapor, of bentonites activated with 10 % and 15 % solution of hydrochloric acid (144.60 cm3 kg-1 and 110.06 cm3 kg-1, respectively, decrease in comparison with that of natural bentonite (162.55 cm3 kgv.1 In contrast, the values of the micropore volume for bentonities treated with 10 % and 15 % solutions of sulfuric acids increase (169.19 cm3 kg-1 and 227.74 cm3 kg-1. That is due to the difference in the structural changes occurring during activation with hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. The values of the free energy of adsorption of benzene vapor for natural bentonite are higher than those of the acid acitivated bentonities, what is in accordance with the structural and porosity changes.

  12. Thermal effect on water retention curve of bentonite: experiment and thermodynamic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Bing; Chen Zhenghai; Sun Faxin; Liu Yuemiao; Wang Ju

    2012-01-01

    The thermal effects on water retention curve of GMZ bentonite were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Water retention tests were conducted on GMZ bentonite at five temperatures ranging from 20℃ to 100℃. Test results showed that the water retention capacity and the hysteresis of the water retention curve decreased with increasing temperature, and that the water retention curves at different temperatures were almost parallel to each other. Based on the thermodynamics of sorption, a model was established to describe the temperature influence on the water retention curve. The model was validated by comparing the model predictions and the test results. (authors)

  13. Electrochemical activity of iron in acid treated bentonite and influence of added nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudrinić, T., E-mail: tihana@nanosys.ihtm.bg.ac.rs [University of Belgrade-Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Center for Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Mojović, Z.; Milutinović-Nikolić, A. [University of Belgrade-Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Center for Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Mojović, M. [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physical Chemistry, Studenski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Žunić, M. [University of Belgrade-Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Center for Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vukelić, N. [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physical Chemistry, Studenski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanović, D. [University of Belgrade-Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Center for Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Mild acid treatment followed by incorporation of nickel was performed on bentonite. • Modified bentonites based electrodes were tested in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by cyclic voltammetry. • Acid treatment increased current response of electroactive iron within smectite. • Incorporation of Ni improved reversibility of Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} oxidation/reduction process. - Abstract: Bentonite originated from Mečji Do, Serbia, was submitted to acid treatment at 70 °C for 30 min, while only the concentration of applied HCl varied. The obtained acid treated samples were used to modify glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The effect of applied acid treatment on the electrochemical behavior of GC electrodes modified with these materials was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of the introduction of nickel into acid treated samples was studied. The incorporation of nickel into acid treated bentonite was achieved by either ion exchange or impregnation/decomposition method. The obtained samples were characterized using the following methods: inductively coupled plasma (ICP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior of these samples was tested by cyclic voltammetry in 0.1 mol dm{sup −3} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. The ICP, FTIR and ESR results exhibited a slight decrease of iron content in the acid treated samples. XRD and FTIR results confirmed that the conditions applied for the acid treatment were mild enough for the smectite structure to be preserved. The electrocatalytic test showed that the current response of Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} oxidation/reduction process increased on the GC electrodes separately modified with each of the acid treated samples in comparison with current obtained on the GC electrode modified with untreated sample. These results indicated that applied acid treatment probably increased the accessibility of the electroactive iron within

  14. PHB/bentonite compounds: Effect of clay modification and thermal aging on properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Tatiara G.; Costa, Anna Raffaela M.; Canedo, Eduardo L.; Carvalho, Laura H. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Wellen, Renate M.R., E-mail: tatiaraalmeida@gmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) was compounded with three different Bentonite clays: natural, purified by ultrasound/sonicated and organically modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. PHB/Bentonite masterbatches with 30% clay were prepared in a laboratory internal mixer and letdown with pure matrix to 1% and 3% w/w clay. Test samples were injection molded and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Increase in Bentonite hydrophobic character was evinced by FTIR for organoclays. XRD of composites showed increase in clay interlayer distance and peak broadening, suggesting formation of intercalated nanocomposites. DSC showed increase in crystallinity and crystallization rate for compounds, especially for PHB/organoclay formulations. Thermal aging was conducted by exposing specimens at 115 deg C for up to 120 hours, and mechanical properties were measured according to ASTM standards. Elastic modulus increased and impact strength decreased with time and clay content; clay purification had little effect on the tensile properties. Tensile strength of thermal aged samples showed little variation, except for the organoclay nanocomposites, for which it significantly decreased with exposure time. SEM images displayed a whitened honeycomb structure and detachment of PHB/Bentonite layers which may be connected to cold crystallization and degradation processes taking place during thermal aging. (author)

  15. PHB/bentonite compounds: Effect of clay modification and thermal aging on properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Tatiara G.; Costa, Anna Raffaela M.; Canedo, Eduardo L.; Carvalho, Laura H.; Wellen, Renate M.R.

    2017-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) was compounded with three different Bentonite clays: natural, purified by ultrasound/sonicated and organically modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. PHB/Bentonite masterbatches with 30% clay were prepared in a laboratory internal mixer and letdown with pure matrix to 1% and 3% w/w clay. Test samples were injection molded and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Increase in Bentonite hydrophobic character was evinced by FTIR for organoclays. XRD of composites showed increase in clay interlayer distance and peak broadening, suggesting formation of intercalated nanocomposites. DSC showed increase in crystallinity and crystallization rate for compounds, especially for PHB/organoclay formulations. Thermal aging was conducted by exposing specimens at 115 deg C for up to 120 hours, and mechanical properties were measured according to ASTM standards. Elastic modulus increased and impact strength decreased with time and clay content; clay purification had little effect on the tensile properties. Tensile strength of thermal aged samples showed little variation, except for the organoclay nanocomposites, for which it significantly decreased with exposure time. SEM images displayed a whitened honeycomb structure and detachment of PHB/Bentonite layers which may be connected to cold crystallization and degradation processes taking place during thermal aging. (author)

  16. Influence of thermal treatment on bentonite used as adsorbent for Cd, Pb, Zn retention from mono-solute and poly-solute aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Yamila Martinez Stagnaro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The retentions of Zn, Cd and Pb cations by one treated bentonite up to 750 °C were analyzed. The retentions were evaluated by using mono-and poly-solute aqueous solutions of such cations. The adsorptions were carried out in batch system at room temperature. The solid/liquid ratio was 2% wt.v-1. The solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal and chemical analyses. The Zn cation from mono- or polysolute-solutions was retained in higher amount than Cd and Pb cations in similar solution types by bentonite. The retentions were effective up to 450 °C calcined bentonite, after that, the retention capacity decreased in concordance with dehydroxylation of the structure of clay minerals.

  17. A coupled THC model of the FEBEX in situ test with bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2011-01-01

    The performance assessment of a geological repository for radioactive waste requires quantifying the geochemical evolution of the bentonite engineered barrier. This barrier will be exposed to coupled thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes. This paper presents a coupled THC model of the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test which accounts for bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis. Model results attest the relevance of thermal osmosis and bentonite swelling for the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier while chemical osmosis is found to be almost irrelevant. The model has been tested with data collected after the dismantling of heater 1 of the in situ test. The model reproduces reasonably well the measured temperature, relative humidity, water content and inferred geochemical data. However, it fails to mimic the solute concentrations at the heater-bentonite and bentonite-granite interfaces because the model does not account for the volume change of bentonite, the CO 2 (g) degassing and the transport of vapor from the bentonite into the granite. The inferred HCO 3 - and pH data cannot be explained solely by solute transport, calcite dissolution and protonation/deprotonation by surface complexation, suggesting that such data may be affected also by other reactions.

  18. A coupled THC model of the FEBEX in situ test with bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2011-04-01

    The performance assessment of a geological repository for radioactive waste requires quantifying the geochemical evolution of the bentonite engineered barrier. This barrier will be exposed to coupled thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes. This paper presents a coupled THC model of the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test which accounts for bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis. Model results attest the relevance of thermal osmosis and bentonite swelling for the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier while chemical osmosis is found to be almost irrelevant. The model has been tested with data collected after the dismantling of heater 1 of the in situ test. The model reproduces reasonably well the measured temperature, relative humidity, water content and inferred geochemical data. However, it fails to mimic the solute concentrations at the heater-bentonite and bentonite-granite interfaces because the model does not account for the volume change of bentonite, the CO{sub 2}(g) degassing and the transport of vapor from the bentonite into the granite. The inferred HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and pH data cannot be explained solely by solute transport, calcite dissolution and protonation/deprotonation by surface complexation, suggesting that such data may be affected also by other reactions.

  19. Response of Compacted Bentonites to Thermal and Thermo-Hydraulic Loadings at High Temperatures

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    Snehasis Tripathy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The final disposal of high-level nuclear waste in many countries is preferred to be in deep geological repositories. Compacted bentonites are proposed for use as the buffer surrounding the waste canisters which may be subjected to both thermal and hydraulic loadings. A significant increase in the temperature is anticipated within the buffer, particularly during the early phase of the repository lifetime. In this study, several non-isothermal and non-isothermal hydraulic tests were carried on compacted MX80 bentonite. Compacted bentonite specimens (water content = 15.2%, dry density = 1.65 Mg/m3 were subjected to a temperature of either 85 or 150 °C at one end, whereas the temperature at the opposite end was maintained at 25 °C. During the non-isothermal hydraulic tests, water was supplied from the opposite end of the heat source. The temperature and relative humidity were monitored along predetermined depths of the specimens. The profiles of water content, dry density, and degree of saturation were established after termination of the tests. The test results showed that thermal gradients caused redistribution of the water content, whereas thermo-hydraulic gradients caused both redistribution and an increase in the water content within compacted bentonites, both leading to development of axial stress of various magnitudes. The applied water injection pressures (5 and 600 kPa and temperature gradients appeared to have very minimal impact on the magnitude of axial stress developed. The thickness of thermal insulation layer surrounding the testing devices was found to influence the temperature and relative humidity profiles thereby impacting the redistribution of water content within compacted bentonites. Under the influence of both the applied thermal and thermo-hydraulic gradients, the dry density of the bentonite specimens increased near the heat source, whereas it decreased at the opposite end. The test results emphasized the influence of

  20. Physical changes in MX-80 bentonite saturated under thermal gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, Maria Victoria; Gomez-Espina, Roberto; Gutierrez-Nebot, Luis; Campos, Rocio; Barrios, Iciar

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. This study was developed in the framework of the Temperature Buffer Test (TBT project), which was a full-scale test for HLW disposal that aimed at improving the understanding of the thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) behaviour of buffers with a temperature around and above 100 deg. C during the water saturation transient. The French organisation ANDRA run this test at the Aespoe HRL in cooperation with SKB (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB 2005). To simulate the conditions of the field test in the laboratory, 20-cm high columns of MX80 bentonite compacted at dry density 1.70 g/cm 3 with an initial water content of 16 percent were submitted in thermo-hydraulic cells to heating and hydration by opposite ends for different periods of time (TH test). The temperature at the bottom of the columns was set at 140 deg. C and on top at 30 C, and deionised water was injected on top at a pressure of 0.01 MPa. The tests were running for 337, 496 and 1510 days. Upon dismantling water content, dry density, specific surface area, porosity and basal spacings, among others, were determined in different positions along the bentonite columns. The strong gradients developed are remarkable. In the shorter tests the water content decreased below the initial value in the 7 cm closest to the heater, whereas in the longer test the decrease below the initial value took place only in the 5 cm closest to the heater. In the remaining part of the columns the water content increased with respect to the initial value, particularly so in the longest test. The dry density along the bentonite changed accordingly, decreasing in the hydrated areas below the initial value and increasing near the heater. The decrease in dry density is due to the swelling of the bentonite upon saturation, while the dry density increase results from the combination of two processes: the compression of the dry areas exerted by the hydrated bentonite, and the shrinkage due to the

  1. Thermal energy storage characteristics of bentonite-based composite PCMs with enhanced thermal conductivity as novel thermal storage building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarı, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this work, novel bentonite-based and form-stable composite phase change materials (Bb-FSPCMs) were produced for LHTES in buildings by impregnation of CA, PEG600, DD and HD with bentonite clay. The microstructures of the compatibility of the Bb-FSPCMs were by using SEM and FT-IR techniques. The DSC results indicated that the produced Bb-FSPCMs composites had suitable phase change temperature of 4–30 °C and good latent heat capacity between 38 and 74 J/g. The TG results demonstrated that all of the fabricated Bb-FSPCMs had good thermal resistance. The Bb-FSPCMs maintained their LHTES properties even after 1000 heating–cooling cycling. The total heating times of the prepared Bb-FSPCMs were reduced noticeably due to their enhanced thermal conductivity after EG (5 wt%) addition. - Highlights: • Bb-FSPCMs were produced by impregnation of CA, PEG600, DD and HD with bentonite. • DSC analysis indicated that Bb-FSPCMs had melting temperature in range of 4–30 °C. • DSC analysis also showed that Bb-FSPCMs had latent heat between 38 and 74 J/g. • The TG analysis demonstrated that Bb-FSPCMs had good thermal resistance. • Thermal conductivity of Bb-FSPCMs were enhanced noticeably with EG (5 wt%) addition. - Abstract: In this work, for latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) applications in buildings, bentonite-based form-stable composite phase change materials (Bb-FSPCMs) were produced by impregnation of capric acid (CA), polyethylene glycol (PEG600), dodecanol (DD) and heptadecane (HD) into bentonite clay. The morphological characterization results obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the bentonite acted as good structural barrier for the organic PCMs homogenously dispersed onto its surface and interlayers. The chemical investigations made by using fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) technique revealed that the attractions between the components of the composites was physical in nature and thus the PCMs were hold

  2. Thermal conductivity of compacted bentonite as a buffer material for a high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Owan; Choi, Heuijoo; Lee, Jong Youl

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermal conductivities were measured under various disposal conditions. • They were significantly influenced by the water content and dry density. • They were not sensitive to the temperature and the anisotropic structure. • A new model of thermal conductivity was proposed for the thermal analysis. - Abstract: Bentonite buffer is one of the major barrier components of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository, and the thermal conductivity of the bentonite buffer is a key parameter for the thermal performance assessment of the HLW repository. This study measured the thermal conductivity of compacted bentonite as a buffer material and investigated its dependence upon various disposal conditions: the dry density, water content, anisotropic structure of the compacted bentonite, and temperature. The measurement results showed that the thermal conductivity was significantly influenced by the water content and dry density of the compacted bentonite, while there was not a significant variation with respect to the temperature. The anisotropy of the thermal conductivity had a negligible variation for an increasing dry density. The present study also proposed a geometric mean model of thermal conductivity which best fits the experimental data.

  3. Conceptual modeling coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical processes in bentonite buffer for high-level nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byoung Young; Park, Jin Young [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji Hun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    In this study, thermal-hydrological-chemical modeling for the alteration of a bentonite buffer is carried out using a simulation code TOUGHREACT. The modeling results show that the water saturation of bentonite steadily increases and finally the bentonite is fully saturated after 10 years. In addition, the temperature rapidly increases and stabilizes after 0.5 year, exhibiting a constant thermal gradient as a function of distance from the copper tube. The change of thermal-hydrological conditions mainly results in the alteration of anhydrite and calcite. Anhydrite and calcite are dissolved along with the inflow of groundwater. They then tend to precipitate in the vicinity of the copper tube due to its high temperature. This behavior induces a slight decrease in porosity and permeability of bentonite near the copper tube. Furthermore, this study finds that the diffusion coefficient can significantly affect the alteration of anhydrite and calcite, which causes changes in the hydrological properties of bentonite such as porosity and permeability. This study may facilitate the safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste repositories.

  4. The study of thermal interaction and microstructure of sodium silicate/bentonite composite under microwave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subannajui, Kittitat, E-mail: kittitat.sub@mahidol.ac.th [Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, 272 Rama VI Road, Ratchathewi District, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Center of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Unit, Mahidol University, 272 Rama VI Road, Ratchathewi District, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2016-12-01

    The commercial heating oven usually consumes the power around 2500–3000 Watt and the temperature inside the oven is still below 350 °C. If we need to increase a temperature above 500 °C, a special heating setup with a higher power furnace is required. However, in this work, we propose a composite material that interacts with 2.45 GHz 500 Watt microwave and rapidly redeems the thermal energy with the temperature around 600–900 °C. The composite amorphous material easily forms liquid ceramics phase with a high temperature output and responds to the microwave radiation better than that of the solid phase. During the heating process, phase transformation occurs. This method is very effective and can be used to drastically reduce the power consumption of any heating process. - Highlights: • Amorphous phase transforms to liquid phase by microwave radiation. • Pure sodium silicate and pure bentonite cannot show temperature overshoot. • Silicate-bentonite composite shows a high temperature overshoot above 700 °C. • A rapid heating crucible for the annealing application is fabricated.

  5. Microwave-acid treated bentonite as adsorbent for removal of radiocobalt from liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egamediev, S.; Nurbaeva, D.; Saidova, Z.; Khujaev, S.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : Development of new sorbents and study of its sorption properties is an important task for nuclear waste management. In this study it was examined the ability of modified bentonite clays to sorb 60Co radionuclide with aim to evaluate the possibility of using them as sorbents for treatment of radioactively contaminated solutions. The radioactive tracer technique was used for determination of distribution coefficients and to monitor the modification processes of bentonite

  6. Investigations of the changes in the bentonite structure caused by the different treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The bentonite was treated in different ways and the changes in structure were monitored. Acid activation with sulphuric acid of investigated bentonite caused the increase in specific volume of micropore-mesopore. It was shown that activation by acid obtained at a constant temperature and constant period of time provides the possibility to obtain samples of bentonite of searched porosity only by changing the concentration of sulphuric and hydrochloric acid. By thermal activation of bentonite clay in the temperature range 100-1100 0C, samples of desired porosity were acquired. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 174007i br. TR 34020

  7. Thermal and Flame Retardant Properties of Shaped Polypropylene Fibers Containing Modified-Thai Bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prahsarn Chureerat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetraphenyl phosphonium-modified organoclay (TPP-Mt was prepared by modifying montmorillonite-rich Thai bentonite via ion exchange. TGA results revealed that TPP-Mt possessed high thermal stability, where degradation occurred at a temperature range of 418-576°C. The obtained TPP-Mt/PP nanocomposites exhibited degradation at higher temperatures than PP (410-420°C vs. 403°C. Fibers of different cross-sectional shapes (circular, circular hollow, and cross containing 1, 2 and 3%wt TPP-Mt were prepared and characterized. Nonwovens of 3%wt TPPMt/PP fibers were fabricated for flame retardant test. From results, nonwovens of TPP-Mt/PP fibers exhibited self-extinguishing characteristic and the areas of burning were less than that of PP nonwoven (14.5-31.6% vs. 95.6%. Nonwovens of cross-shaped fibers showed the best flame retardant property, followed by those of circular hollow and circular fibers. The flame retardant properties observed in nonwovens were explained due to the inter-fiber spaces between cross-shaped fibers and center hole in circular hollow fibers, which could trap initiating radicals inside, thus reducing flame propagation. In addition, large surface area in cross-shaped fibers could help in increasing the flame retardant effectiveness due to more exposure of TPP-Mt particles to the flame. Knowledge obtained in this study offered an approach to produce flame retardant nonwovens via a combination of modified organolcay and fiber shape.

  8. Immobilizing Bacillus subtilis on the carrier of poly (acrylic acid)/sodium bentonite for treating sludge from Pangasius fish ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thanh Duoc; Doan Binh; Pham Thi Thu Hong

    2016-01-01

    Sodium bentonite (NaBent) was modified by poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) to prepare the carriers for immobilization of Bacillus subtilis. Different mixtures of NaBent/AAc were regularly dispersed in distilled water and irradiated under gamma rays at an absorbed dose of 6.5 kGy with dose rate of 0.85 kGy/hr in air for polymerization of acrylic acid and formation of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium bentonite (PAAc-NaBent). The reaction yield was determined with the initial concentration of acrylic acid (AAc). The functional group properties of the resulting PAAc-NaBent were analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectra (FTIR). Bacillus subtilis cells were immobilized on both NaBent and PAAc-NaBent as carriers by adsorption method for treating the sludge contaminated by fish feces and residual feed from the Pangasius farming ponds. The results showed that immobilization capacity of Bacillus subtilis on the PAAc-NaBent was better than that on non-modified NaBent. Analysis of BOD for the farming pond water containing Bacillus subtilis and the bacteria immobilized carriers with time revealed the lower BOD values obtained with the samples containing PAAc-NaBent, suggested that degradation of organic pollutants by Bacillus subtilis immobilized on the PAAc-Na Bent was faster than that by free bacteria. (author)

  9. BENTONITE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Kutlić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite has vide variety of uses. Special use of bentonite, where its absorbing properties are employed to provide water-tight sealing is for an underground repository in granites In this paper, bentonite processing and beneficiation are described.

  10. 29Si solid state NMR investigation of pozzolanic reaction occurring in lime-treated Ca-bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomakhina, Elena; Deneele, Dimitri; Gaillot, Anne-Claire; Paris, Michael; Ouvrard, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Lime is widely used as additive to improve the mechanical properties of natural soil used in earthworks. However, the physico-chemical mechanisms involved are yet not well understood. In order to develop and optimize this treatment method, a better understanding of the interaction between lime and the minerals of the soils, in particular clay minerals, is required. In this study, Ca-bentonite was treated with 2, 5 and 10 wt.% of lime during 1 to 98 days. Modifications in the Si local environment were then monitored by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate the pozzolanic reaction. All the soil mineral phases contribute to the release of Si and to the pozzolanic reaction, with a rapid and total consumption of Si-polymorph and an exacerbated dissolution of montmorillonite. Mechanism of C–S–H formation, function of the Ca content in the system, was found to match the sorosilicate-tobermorite model described in cement systems.

  11. Study of mechanical, rheological and thermal properties of nanocomposite HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene) with Brazilian bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermino, Danilo Marin

    2011-01-01

    This work concerns to the study of the mechanical, thermal and rheological behavior of the nano composite HMSPP - Polypropylene High Melt Strength (obtained at a dose of 12.5 kGy) and a bentonite clay Brazilian Paraiba, known as 'Chocolate' in concentrations of 5 and 10% by weight, comparison of to one American Clay, Cloisite 20A nanocomposite was done. Agent compatibilizer polypropylene-graft, known as maleic anhydride (PP-g-AM) was addict 3% concentration thought technique melt intercalation using a twin-screw extruder and the specimens were prepared by injection process. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by strength, flexural strength and impact tests. The thermal behavior was evaluated by the techniques of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGM). The rheological behavior was evaluated in rheometer. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied by the technique of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The organophilic bentonite and the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (FTIR). (author)

  12. MX-80 Bentonite. Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Characterisation Performed at CIEMAT in the Context of the Prototype Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, M. V.

    2005-01-01

    This document details the results of the thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) characterisation of the commercial MX-80 bentonite performed by CIEMAT from 2001 to 2004 in the context of a project carried out at the AEspoe Hard Rock Laboratory (Sweden), the Prototype Repository. The swelling pressure and the permeability of the bentonite compacted to different dry densities has been determined, as well as the influence of the permeant salinity on hydraulic conductivity. The influence of salinity on the retention capacity of the compacted bentonite has been studied. For that, a new methodology has been designed. Water retention curves have been determined at temperatures of 20 and 60 0 C. Suction controlled odometer tests have been performed at 20oC. Finally, the behaviour of the MX-80 bentonite has been compared to that of the Spanish FEBEX bentonite. (Author) 13 refs

  13. MX-80 Bentonite. thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Characterisation Performed at CIEMAT in the Context of the Prototype Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.

    2005-07-01

    This document details the results of the thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) characterisation of the commercial MX-80 bentonite performed by CIEMAT from 2001 to 2004 in the context of a project carried out at the AEspoe Hard Rock Laboratory (Sweden), the Prototype Repository. The swelling pressure and the permeability of the bentonite compacted to different dry densities has been determined, as well as the influence of the permeant salinity on hydraulic conductivity. The influence of salinity on the retention capacity of the compacted bentonite has been studied. For that, a new methodology has been designed. Water retention curves have been determined at temperatures of 20 and 60oC. Suction controlled odometer tests have been performed at 20oC. Finally, the behaviour of the MX-80 bentonite has been compared to that of the Spanish FEBEX bentonite. (Author) 13 refs.

  14. A meta-analysis of water quality and aquatic macrophyte responses in 18 lakes treated with lanthanum modified bentonite (Phoslock(®)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Bryan M; Mackay, Eleanor B; Yasseri, Said; Gunn, Iain D M; Waters, Kate E; Andrews, Christopher; Cole, Stephanie; De Ville, Mitzi; Kelly, Andrea; Meis, Sebastian; Moore, Alanna L; Nürnberg, Gertrud K; van Oosterhout, Frank; Pitt, Jo-Anne; Madgwick, Genevieve; Woods, Helen J; Lürling, Miquel

    2016-06-15

    Lanthanum (La) modified bentonite is being increasingly used as a geo-engineering tool for the control of phosphorus (P) release from lake bed sediments to overlying waters. However, little is known about its effectiveness in controlling P across a wide range of lake conditions or of its potential to promote rapid ecological recovery. We combined data from 18 treated lakes to examine the lake population responses in the 24 months following La-bentonite application (range of La-bentonite loads: 1.4-6.7 tonnes ha(-1)) in concentrations of surface water total phosphorus (TP; data available from 15 lakes), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP; 14 lakes), and chlorophyll a (15 lakes), and in Secchi disk depths (15 lakes), aquatic macrophyte species numbers (6 lakes) and aquatic macrophyte maximum colonisation depths (4 lakes) across the treated lakes. Data availability varied across the lakes and variables, and in general monitoring was more frequent closer to the application dates. Median annual TP concentrations decreased significantly across the lakes, following the La-bentonite applications (from 0.08 mg L(-1) in the 24 months pre-application to 0.03 mg L(-1) in the 24 months post-application), particularly in autumn (0.08 mg L(-1) to 0.03 mg L(-1)) and winter (0.08 mg L(-1) to 0.02 mg L(-1)). Significant decreases in SRP concentrations over annual (0.019 mg L(-1) to 0.005 mg L(-1)), summer (0.018 mg L(-1) to 0.004 mg L(-1)), autumn (0.019 mg L(-1) to 0.005 mg L(-1)) and winter (0.033 mg L(-1) to 0.005 mg L(-1)) periods were also reported. P concentrations following La-bentonite application varied across the lakes and were correlated positively with dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Relatively weak, but significant responses were reported for summer chlorophyll a concentrations and Secchi disk depths following La-bentonite applications, the 75th percentile values decreasing from 119 μg L(-1) to 74 μg L(-1) and increasing from

  15. A meta-analysis of water quality and aquatic macrophyte responses in 18 lakes treated with lanthanum modified bentonite (PHOSLOCK®)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, B.M.; Mackay, E.; Yasseri, S.; Gunn, I.D.M.; Waters, K.E.; Andrews, C.; Cole, S.; Ville, de M.; Kelly, M.; Meis, S.; Moore, A.L.; Nurnberg, G.K.; Oosterhout, van Frank; Lurling, M.F.L.L.W.

    2016-01-01

    Lanthanum (La) modified bentonite is being increasingly used as a geo-engineering tool for the control of phosphorus (P) release from lake bed sediments to overlying waters. However, little is known about its effectiveness in controlling P across a wide range of lake conditions or of its potential

  16. Effect of wet-dry cycles on polymer treated bentonite in seawater : swelling ability, hydraulic conductivity and crack analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Camillis, Michela; Di Emidio, Gemmina; Bezuijen, Adam; Verastegui Flores, Daniel; Van Stappen, Jeroen; Cnudde, Veerle

    2017-01-01

    Waste disposal facilities are often isolated by clay liners in order to prevent pollutant migration into the ground. Bentonite is used as barrier material thanks to the low conductivity to water. However, the hydraulic performance may be impaired by contact with aggressive liquids due to cation

  17. The influence of organo-bentonite clay on the processing and mechanical properties of nylon 6 and polystyrene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, E.M.; Melo, T.J.A.; Santana, L.N.L.; Neves, G.A.; Ferreira, H.C.; Lira, H.L.; Carvalho, L.H.; A'vila, M.M.; Pontes, M.K.G.; Araujo, I.S.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of organoclay on the processing and mechanical properties of nylon 6 and polystyrene was investigated. A bentonite sample from Boa Vista/PB, Northeast of Brazil, was treated with alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride. After the treatment, the powder was characterized by thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Composites were prepared by using a Torque rheometer. The results show the intercalation of quaternary ammonium salt in the structure of bentonite and organo-bentonite produced significant changes on the processing of the nylon 6 and polystyrene with increase in the viscosity and rigidity. However, the mechanical properties of polystyrene/organoclay system did not show significant changes

  18. Mechanical thermal evaluation of polyamide 6 with bentonite organo clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, Rene Anisio da; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Melo, Tomas Jeferson Alves de; Leite, Amanda M.D.; Cavalcanti, Shirley Nobrega; Pessan, Luiz Antonio

    2009-01-01

    This work had for objective to obtain polymeric nanocomposites of polyamide 6 and a clay consisting of silicates layer from of Paraiba mines and to evaluate evaluation mechanical thermal in different processing conditions. The clay was organically modified using a quaternary ammonium salt (Cetremide), so that there is a larger interaction of the clay with the polymer. The obtained nanocomposites showed the morphological structure composed exfoliated/partially exfoliated, as shown XRD. The results of HDT it because the clay increases the dimensional stability of PA6 in high temperatures, making possible the use of the nanocomposites for making of pieces with good resistance to the heat distortion. (author)

  19. Cytocompatibility of Plasma and Thermally Treated Biopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Slepička

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the surface characterization of plasma and consequently thermally treated biocompatible polymers. PLLA (poly(L-lactide acid and PMP (poly-4-methyl-1-pentene are studied. The influence of Ar plasma treatment on the surface polarity of substrate measured immediately after treatment and during the polymer surface aging is studied. Surface roughness, morphology, wettability, and surface chemistry were determined. Plasma treatment leads to significant changes in PLLA surface morphology and chemistry, with the PMP being slightly affected. The higher resistance to plasma fluence results in smaller ablation of PMP than that of PLLA. The plasma treatment improves cell adhesion and proliferation on the PMP. Plasma treatment of PLLA influences mostly the homogeneity of adhered and proliferated VSMC.

  20. Preparation and thermal characterization of oxalic acid dihydrate/bentonite composite as shape-stabilized phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lipeng; Xie, Shaolei; Sun, Jinhe; Jia, Yongzhong

    2017-03-01

    Oxalic acid dihydrate (OAD) which has very high initial phase transition enthalpy is a promising phase change material (PCM). In this paper, shape-stabilized composite PCMs composed of OAD and bentonite were prepared by a facile blending method to overcome the problem of leakage. FT-IR results indicated the interactions between OAD and bentonite, such as the capillary force and the hydrogen bonding, resulting in the confined crystallization process. As a result, the OAD was confined to be amorphous. The thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscope results showed that sample had the best coating effect when the amount of bentonite was 17.7%. The differential scanning calorimetry analyses demonstrated that a decrease in the OAD content was accompanied by a continuous decrease in the melting point and phase change enthalpy of the composites.

  1. Bentonite erosion. Laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Mats (Div. of Nuclear Chemistry, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden), School of Chemical Science and Engineering)

    2009-11-15

    This report covers the laboratory studies that have been performed at Nuclear Chemistry, KTH in the project 'Bentonite Erosion'. Many of the experiments in this report were performed to support the work of the modelling group and were often relatively simple. One of the experiment series was performed to see the impact of gravity and concentration of mono- and di-valent cations. A clay suspension was prepared in a test tube. A net was placed in contact with the suspension, the test tube was filled with solutions of different concentrations and the system was left overnight to settle. The tube was then turned upside down and the behaviour was visually observed. Either the clay suspension fell through the net or stayed on top. By using this method surprisingly sharp determinations of the Critical Coagulation (Flocculation) Concentration (CCC/CFC) could be made. The CCC/CFC of Ca2+ was for sodium montmorillonite determined to be between 1 and 2 mM. An artificial fracture was manufactured in order to simulate the real case scenario. The set-up was two Plexiglas slabs separated by 1 mm thick spacers with a bentonite container at one side of the fracture. Water was pumped with a very low flow rate perpendicular to bentonite container and the water exiting the fracture was sampled and analyzed for colloid content. The bentonite used was treated in different ways. In the first experiment a relatively montmorillonite rich clay was used while in the second bentonite where only the readily soluble minerals had been removed was used. Since Plexiglas was used it was possible to visually observe the bentonite dispersing into the fracture. After the compacted bentonite (1,000 kg/m3) had been water saturated the clay had expanded some 12 mm out into the fracture. As the experiment progressed the clay expanded more out into the fracture and seemed to fractionate in two different phases with less material in the outmost phase. A dark rim which was later analyzed to contain

  2. Activation of wine bentonite with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranov, N.; Antonov, M.

    1997-01-01

    The action of gamma rays on wine bentonite as well as influence of its adsorption and technologic qualities on the composition and stability of wines against protein darkening and precipitation has been studied. The experiments were carried out with wine bentonite produced in the firm Bentonite and irradiated with doses of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 MR. White and red wines have been treated with irradiated bentonite under laboratory conditions at 1.0 g/dm 3 . All samples are treated at the same conditions. The flocculation rate of the sediment was determined visually. Samples have been taken 24 h later from the cleared wine layers. The following parameters have been determined: clarification, filtration rate, phenolic compounds, calcium, colour intensity, total extracted substances, etc. The volume of the sediment has been determined also. The control samples have been taken from the same unirradiated wines. The results showed better and faster clarification in on the third, the 20th and the 24th hours with using of gamma-irradiated at doses 0.8 and 1.0 MR. The sediment was the most compact and its volume - the smallest compared to the samples treated with bentonite irradiated with doses of 0.6 and 0.4 MR. This ensures a faster clarification and better filtration of treated wines. The bentonite activated with doses of 0.8 and 1.0 MR adsorbs the phenolic compounds and the complex protein-phenolic molecules better. In the same time it adsorbs less extracted substances compared to untreated bentonite and so preserves all organoleptic properties of wine. The irradiated bentonite adsorbs less the monomers of anthocyan compounds which ensures brighter natural colour of wine. The gamma-rays activation consolidates calcium in the crystal lattice of bentonite particles and in this way eliminates the formation of crystal precipitates

  3. Treating Fibrous Insulation to Reduce Thermal Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Alfred; Tarkanian, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    A chemical treatment reduces the convective and radiative contributions to the effective thermal conductivity of porous fibrous thermal-insulation tile. The net effect of the treatment is to coat the surfaces of fibers with a mixture of transition-metal oxides (TMOs) without filling the pores. The TMO coats reduce the cross-sectional areas available for convection while absorbing and scattering thermal radiation in the pores, thereby rendering the tile largely opaque to thermal radiation. The treatment involves a sol-gel process: A solution containing a mixture of transition-metal-oxide-precursor salts plus a gelling agent (e.g., tetraethylorthosilicate) is partially cured, then, before it visibly gels, is used to impregnate the tile. The solution in the tile is gelled, then dried, and then the tile is fired to convert the precursor salts to the desired mixed TMO phases. The amounts of the various TMOs ultimately incorporated into the tile can be tailored via the concentrations of salts in the solution, and the impregnation depth can be tailored via the viscosity of the solution and/or the volume of the solution relative to that of the tile. The amounts of the TMOs determine the absorption and scattering spectra.

  4. Bentonite Permeability at Elevated Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Daniels

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Repository designs frequently favour geological disposal of radioactive waste with a backfill material occupying void space around the waste. The backfill material must tolerate the high temperatures produced by decaying radioactive waste to prevent its failure or degradation, leading to increased hydraulic conductivity and reduced sealing performance. The results of four experiments investigating the effect of temperature on the permeability of a bentonite backfill are presented. Bentonite is a clay commonly proposed as the backfill in repository designs because of its high swelling capacity and very low permeability. The experiments were conducted in two sets of purpose-built, temperature controlled apparatus, designed to simulate isotropic pressure and constant volume conditions within the testing range of 4–6 MPa average effective stress. The response of bentonite during thermal loading at temperatures up to 200 °C was investigated, extending the previously considered temperature range. The results provide details of bentonite’s intrinsic permeability, total stress, swelling pressure and porewater pressure during thermal cycles. We find that bentonite’s hydraulic properties are sensitive to thermal loading and the type of imposed boundary condition. However, the permeability change is not large and can mostly be accounted for by water viscosity changes. Thus, under 150 °C, temperature has a minimal impact on bentonite’s hydraulic permeability.

  5. A meta-analysis of water quality and aquatic macrophyte responses in 18 lakes treated with lanthanum modified bentonite (Phoslock®)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, Bryan M.; Mackay, Eleanor B.; Yasseri, Said; Gunn, Iain D.M.; Waters, Kate E.; Andrews, Christopher; Cole, Stephanie; De Ville, Mitzi; Kelly, Andrea; Meis, Sebastian; Moore, Alanna L.; Nürnberg, Gertrud K.; van Oosterhout, Frank; Pitt, Jo-Anne; Madgwick, Genevieve; Woods, Helen J.; Lürling, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lanthanum (La) modified bentonite is being increasingly used as a geo-engineering tool for the control of phosphorus (P) release from lake bed sediments to overlying waters. However, little is known about its effectiveness in controlling P across a wide range of lake conditions or of its

  6. Leaching of arsenic, copper and chromium from thermally treated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Nordmark, Désirée; Hamberg, Roger; Carabante, Ivan; Simanavičienė, Rūta; Aksamitauskas, Vladislovas Česlovas

    2016-12-01

    Thermal treatment, if properly performed, is an effective way of destroying organic compounds in contaminated soil, while impact on co-present inorganic contaminants varies depending on the element. Leaching of trace elements in thermally treated soil can be altered by co-combusting different types of materials. This study aimed at assessing changes in mobility of As, Cr and Cu in thermally treated soil as affected by addition of industrial by-products prior to soil combustion. Contaminated soil was mixed with either waste of gypsum boards, a steel processing residue (Fe 3 O 4 ), fly ash from wood and coal combustion or a steel abrasive (96.5% Fe 0 ). The mixes and unamended soil were thermally treated at 800 °C and divided into a fine fraction 0.125 mm to simulate particle separation occurring in thermal treatment plants. The impact of the treatment on element behaviour was assessed by a batch leaching test, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The results suggest that thermal treatment is highly unfavourable for As contaminated soils as it increased both the As leaching in the fine particle size fraction and the mass of the fines (up to 92%). Soil amendment with Fe-containing compounds prior to the thermal treatment reduced As leaching to the levels acceptable for hazardous waste landfills, but only in the coarse fraction, which does not justify the usefulness of such treatment. Among the amendments used, gypsum most effectively reduced leaching of Cr and Cu in thermally treated soil and could be recommended for soils that do not contain As. Fly ash was the least effective amendment as it increased leaching of both Cr and As in majority of samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exchangeability of bentonite buffer and backfill materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, D. [Savage Earth Associates Ltd, Bournemouth (United Kingdom); Arthur, R. [Intera Inc, Ottawa, ON, (Canada); Luukkonen, A.

    2012-08-15

    whether these minerals are performance-critical or not. An assessment of this issue is desirable. Posiva's view that assessments of the exchangeability of different bentonite types as buffer materials should be based on performance requirements for this engineered barrier seems reasonable, but the level of understanding needed to adequately support such assessments is not clear and would seem to depend on the types of requirements being considered. Assessments addressing long-term safety requirements may be the most challenging because these requirements relate to a target state of the buffer that will not be attained until hundreds or thousands of years have elapsed since the initial state, and to subsequent interactions involving the buffer with continuously evolving near-field conditions. Should such assessments be based in whole or in part on experimental testing, then it is important to consider whether the experimental conditions are appropriate and defensibly bounding with respect to conditions expected in the near field over long periods of time. Assessments based on modelling should consider whether the models adequately represent thermal, mass-transport, chemical - mineralogical and mechanical processes controlling bentonite-water interactions, whether the reliability of the models has been verified to the extent possible in relation to relevant experimental and natural systems studied, and whether model results can be sensibly related to safety-relevant physical, thermal and rheological properties of the buffer. (orig.)

  8. The influence of montmorillonite and bentonite addition on thermal properties of polyurethanes based on aliphatic polycarbonate diols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavličević, J.; Špírková, Milena; Strachota, Adam; Meszaros Szecsenyi, K.; Lazić, N.; Budinski-Simendic, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 509, 1/2 (2010), s. 73-80 ISSN 0040-6031 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/0195 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : segmented polyurethanes * thermal stability * elastomers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.908, year: 2010

  9. Surface properties of thermally treated composite wood panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Catalin; Spirchez, Cosmin; Lunguleasa, Aurel; Cristea, Daniel; Roata, Ionut Claudiu; Pop, Mihai Alin; Bedo, Tibor; Stanciu, Elena Manuela; Pascu, Alexandru

    2018-04-01

    Composite finger-jointed spruce and oak wood panels have been thermally treated under standard pressure and oxygen content conditions at two different temperatures, 180 °C and respectively 200 °C for short time periods (3 and 5 h). Due to the thermally-aided chemical restructuration of the wood components, a decrease in water uptake and volumetric swelling values with up to 45% for spruce and 35% for oak have been registered, comparing to the reference samples. In relation to water resistance, a 15% increase of the dispersive component of the surface energy has been registered for the thermal-treated spruce panels, which impedes water spreading on the surface. The thermal-treated wood presents superior resistance to accelerated UV exposure and subsequently, with up to 10% higher Brinell hardness values than reference wood. The proposed thermal treatment improves the durability of the finger-jointed wood through a more economically and environmental friendly method than traditional impregnation, with minimal degradative impact on the structural components of wood.

  10. Study on the properties of Gaomiaozi bentonite as the buffer/backfilling materials for HLW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaodong; Luo Taian; Zhu Guoping; Chen Qingchun

    2007-12-01

    Systematic studies including mineral composition and structure, physico- chemical properties and thermal properties have been conducted on Gaomiaozi bentonite, Xinghe County, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The compaction characteristics of bentonite and the influence of additive to bentonite have been discussed. The analysis of mineral composition and structure show that the bentonite ores are dominated by montmorillonite. Preliminary studies of the characteristics of ores indicated that No-type bentonite from the deposit has good absorption, excellent swelling and high cation exchangeability. The compressibility of bentonite will be improved by adding the additives such as quartz sand. The studies indicated that the characteristics of Gaomiaozi bentonite can satisfy the requirement of buffer/backfilling materials for HLW repository and the ores can be selected as the preferential candidate to provide buffer/backfill- ing materials for HLW repository in China. (authors)

  11. Study on the properties of Gaomiaozi bentonite as the buffer/backfilling materials for HLW disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaodong, Liu [East China Inst. of Technology, Fuzhou (China); [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Resources and Environment of Ministry of Education, Fuzhou (China); Taian, Luo; Guoping, Zhu; Qingchun, Chen [East China Inst. of Technology, Fuzhou (China)

    2007-12-15

    Systematic studies including mineral composition and structure, physico- chemical properties and thermal properties have been conducted on Gaomiaozi bentonite, Xinghe County, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The compaction characteristics of bentonite and the influence of additive to bentonite have been discussed. The analysis of mineral composition and structure show that the bentonite ores are dominated by montmorillonite. Preliminary studies of the characteristics of ores indicated that No-type bentonite from the deposit has good absorption, excellent swelling and high cation exchangeability. The compressibility of bentonite will be improved by adding the additives such as quartz sand. The studies indicated that the characteristics of Gaomiaozi bentonite can satisfy the requirement of buffer/backfilling materials for HLW repository and the ores can be selected as the preferential candidate to provide buffer/backfill- ing materials for HLW repository in China. (authors)

  12. Influence factors of sand-bentonite mixtures on hydraulic conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yonggui; Ye Weimin; Chen Bao; Wan Min; Wang Qiong

    2008-01-01

    Buffer material is a very important part of the engineering barrier for geological disposal of high-level radioactive nuclear waste. Compacted bentonite is attracting greater attention as buffer and backfill material because it offer impermeability and swelling properties, but the pure compacted bentonite strength decreases with increasing hydration and these will reduce the buffer capability. To solve this problem, sand is often used to form compacted sand-bentonite mixtures (SBMs) providing high thermal conductivity, excellent compaction capacity, long-time stability, and low engineering cost. As to SBMs, hydraulic conductivity is a important index for evaluation barrier capability. Based on the review of research results, the factors affecting the hydraulic conductivity of SBMs were put forward including bentonite content, grain size distribution, moisture content, dry density, compacting method and energy, and bentonite type. The studies show that the hydraulic conductivity of SBMs is controlled by the hydraulic conductivity of the bentonite, it also decreases as dry density and bentonite content increase, but when the bentonite content reach a critical point, the influence of increasing bentonite to decrease the hydraulic conductivity is limited. A fine and well-graded SBMs is likely to have a lower hydraulic conductivity than a coarse and poorly graded material. The internal erosion or erodibility based on the grain size distribution of the SBMs has a negative effect on the final hydraulic conductivity. The lowest hydraulic conductivity is gained when the mixtures are compacted close to optimum moisture content. Also, the mixtures compacted at moisture contents slightly above optimum values give lower hydraulic conductivity than when compacted at slightly under the optimum moisture content. Finally, discussion was brought to importance of compaction method, compacting energy, and bentonite type to the hydraulic conductivity of SBMs. (authors)

  13. Study of mechanical, rheological and thermal properties of nanocomposite HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene) with Brazilian bentonite; Estudo das propriedades mecanicas, reologicas e termicas de nanocomposito de HMSPP (polipropileno com alta resistencia do fundido) com uma bentonita brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermino, Danilo Marin

    2011-07-01

    This work concerns to the study of the mechanical, thermal and rheological behavior of the nano composite HMSPP - Polypropylene High Melt Strength (obtained at a dose of 12.5 kGy) and a bentonite clay Brazilian Paraiba, known as 'Chocolate' in concentrations of 5 and 10% by weight, comparison of to one American Clay, Cloisite 20A nanocomposite was done. Agent compatibilizer polypropylene-graft, known as maleic anhydride (PP-g-AM) was addict 3% concentration thought technique melt intercalation using a twin-screw extruder and the specimens were prepared by injection process. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by strength, flexural strength and impact tests. The thermal behavior was evaluated by the techniques of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGM). The rheological behavior was evaluated in rheometer. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied by the technique of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The organophilic bentonite and the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (FTIR). (author)

  14. Study of mechanical, rheological and thermal properties of nanocomposite HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene) with Brazilian bentonite; Estudo das propriedades mecanicas, reologicas e termicas de nanocomposito de HMSPP (polipropileno com alta resistencia do fundido) com uma bentonita brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermino, Danilo Marin

    2011-07-01

    This work concerns to the study of the mechanical, thermal and rheological behavior of the nano composite HMSPP - Polypropylene High Melt Strength (obtained at a dose of 12.5 kGy) and a bentonite clay Brazilian Paraiba, known as 'Chocolate' in concentrations of 5 and 10% by weight, comparison of to one American Clay, Cloisite 20A nanocomposite was done. Agent compatibilizer polypropylene-graft, known as maleic anhydride (PP-g-AM) was addict 3% concentration thought technique melt intercalation using a twin-screw extruder and the specimens were prepared by injection process. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by strength, flexural strength and impact tests. The thermal behavior was evaluated by the techniques of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGM). The rheological behavior was evaluated in rheometer. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied by the technique of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The organophilic bentonite and the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (FTIR). (author)

  15. Estudo de suspensões de bentonitas sob diferentes condições térmicas Study of bentonit suspensions under different thermal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Leal

    2013-03-01

    envelhecimento tem influência direta no comportamento reológico das dispersões avaliadas.Clay suspensions are used as drilling fluids for the initial rock layers, usually constituted of unconsolidated sediments. For deeper layers oil based fluids are more commonly used due to their thermal resistance. Therefore, because of the environmental laws, these fluids are being replaced and the clay suspensions arise as an alternative, as they are environmentally correct and have lower cost. So, it becomes of great importance to study the properties of clay suspensions at moderate and high temperatures. This work has the aim to evaluate the properties of bentonit clay suspensions under different thermal conditions. For so, a type 2² factorial plan with three experiments in the centre + star configuration, was applied, totalizing 11 experimental runs to evaluate the influence of temperature and clay content (entrance variables over the rheological and filtration properties of the clay suspensions. The clay suspensions were prepared with bentonit concentrations between 8.75 g/350 mL and 22.4 g/350 mL and were submitted to temperatures between 38 ºC and 176 ºC during 16 h. Two types of thermal aging were studied, dynamic and static, in a Fann Roller Oven equipment. The rheological properties (apparent viscosity - AV and plastic viscosity - PV were determined in a Fann 35A viscometer and the filtered volume (FV in a API filter-press. Could be concluded that the entrance variables did influence statistically, at a 95% confidence level, on the dispersion properties, being observed that the combination of elevated temperatures and high clay concentrations leads to higher values of VA and VP, as for the higher values of VF were obtained from the suspensions prepared with lower clay concentrations and submitted to higher temperature. It became evident that the type of aging does have direct influence in the rheological behaviors of the evaluated dispersions.

  16. Bentonite erosion - Laboratory studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Bentonite clay is proposed as buffer material in the KBS-3 concept of storing spent nuclear fuel. Since the clay is plastic it will protect the canisters containing the spent fuel from movements in the rock. Furthermore, the clay will expand when taking up water, become very compact and hence limit the transport of solutes to and from the canister to only diffusion. The chemical stability of the bentonite barrier is of vital importance. If much material would be lost the barrier will lose its functions. As a side effect, lots of colloids will be released which may facilitate radionuclide transport in case of a breach in the canister. There are scenarios where during an ice age fresh melt water may penetrate down to repository depths with relatively high flow rates and not mix with older waters of high salinity. Under such conditions bentonite colloids will be more stable and there is a possibility that the bentonite buffer would start to disperse and bentonite colloids be carried away by the passing water. This work is a part of a larger project called Bentonite Erosion, initiated and supported by SKB. In this work several minor experiments have been performed in order to investigate the influence of for instance di-valent cations, gravity, etc. on the dispersion behaviour of bentonite and/or montmorillonite. A bigger experiment where the real situation was simulated using an artificial fracture was conducted. Two Plexiglas slabs were placed on top of each other, separated by plastic spacers. Bentonite was placed in a container in contact with a fracture. The bentonite was water saturated before deionized water was pumped through the fracture. The evolution of the bentonite profile in the fracture was followed visually. The eluate was collected in five different slots at the outlet side and analyzed for colloid concentration employing Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS) and a Single Particle Counter (SPC). Some

  17. Bentonite clay purification for development of polymeric nan composites using a single screw extruder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Ana C.M. de; Ito, Edson N.; Costa, Maria C.B.; Barbosa, Maria I.R.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a bentonite clay rich in montmorillonite was purified and chemical treat to be used in the development of poly (methyl methacrylate) /clay nanocomposites via melting processes. After the clay treatment and purification, a masterbatch with 25% clay and 75% PMMA was produced by solution technique, using acetone as solvent. For produce samples with 2.5% clay, the masterbatch along with pure polymer were added and mixed in single screw extruder with a diameter of 16 mm and W/D 26. X-rays diffractometry (XRD) and X-rays fluorescence (XRF). Tests were performed to evaluate and characterizing the bentonite clay used in the development of this work and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests were performed to evaluate changes in the thermal properties of the nanocomposites produced. (author)

  18. Pre-treating water with non-thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Rabinovich, Alexander; Cho, Daniel J.

    2017-07-04

    The present invention consists of a method of pre-treatment of adulterated water for distillation, including adulterated water produced during hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") of shale rock during natural gas drilling. In particular, the invention is directed to a method of treating adulterated water, said adulterated water having an initial level of bicarbonate ion in a range of about 250 ppm to about 5000 ppm and an initial level of calcium ion in a range of about 500 ppm to about 50,000 ppm, said method comprising contacting the adulterated water with a non-thermal arc discharge plasma to produce plasma treated water having a level of bicarbonate ion of less than about 100 ppm. Optionally, the plasma treated water may be further distilled.

  19. Parametric Thermal Models of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley K. Heath

    2014-03-01

    This work supports the restart of transient testing in the United States using the Department of Energy’s Transient Reactor Test Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory. It also supports the Global Threat Reduction Initiative by reducing proliferation risk of high enriched uranium fuel. The work involves the creation of a nuclear fuel assembly model using the fuel performance code known as BISON. The model simulates the thermal behavior of a nuclear fuel assembly during steady state and transient operational modes. Additional models of the same geometry but differing material properties are created to perform parametric studies. The results show that fuel and cladding thermal conductivity have the greatest effect on fuel temperature under the steady state operational mode. Fuel density and fuel specific heat have the greatest effect for transient operational model. When considering a new fuel type it is recommended to use materials that decrease the specific heat of the fuel and the thermal conductivity of the fuel’s cladding in order to deal with higher density fuels that accompany the LEU conversion process. Data on the latest operating conditions of TREAT need to be attained in order to validate BISON’s results. BISON’s models for TREAT (material models, boundary convection models) are modest and need additional work to ensure accuracy and confidence in results.

  20. Characterization of bentonite clay from Cubati, PB, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, A.P.; Marques, L.N.; Campos, L.A.; Neves, G.A.; Ferreira, H.C.; Menezes, R.R.

    2009-01-01

    The bentonite of the State of Paraiba are commercially used in numerous technological sectors, particularly in oil drilling muds. However, these bentonite deposits are becoming exhausted after decades of exploitation. Thus, the aim of this work was to characterize physically, mineralogically and technologically bentonite clays from Cubati city, PB. The samples were dried at 60 deg C and characterized through X-ray fluorescence, particle size distribution, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and gravimetric analyzes and scanning electronic microscopy. The natural bentonite clays were transformed into sodium bentonite by Na_2CO_3 solution treatment. It was estimated the rheological properties of the suspensions: apparent and plastic viscosities and water loss. The results showed that the samples are polycationic bentonite clays, containing amounts of MgO, CaO and K_2O similar to those of bentonite from Boa Vista, PB, and are composed of smectite, kaolinite and quartz. The samples presented fractions of particles size under 2 μm of 30 and 32%. The rheological properties showed that the samples presented technological potential to be used in drilling muds. (author)

  1. Fe-bentonite. Experiments and modelling of the interactions of bentonites with iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, Horst-Juergen; Xie, Mingliang [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Kasbohm, Joern; Lan, Nguyen T. [Greifswald Univ. (Germany); Hoang Thi Minh Thao [Hanoi Univ. of Science (Viet Nam)

    2011-11-15

    The main objectives of this study were to enhance the understanding of the interactions of bentonites with steel containers in the near field of a repository in salt formations and to determine missing experimental thermo-hydraulical-chemical and mineralogical data needed for the THC modelling of the interactions of bentonites with iron. At the beginning of this project a literature review helped to clarify the state of the art regarding the above mentioned objectives prior to the start of the experimental work. In the following experimental programme the hydraulic changes in the pore space of compacted MX80 bentonites containing metallic iron powder and in contact with three solutions of different ionic strength containing different concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} have been investigated. The alterations of MX80 and several other bentonites have been assessed in contact with the low ionic strength Opalinus Clay Pore Water (OCPW) and the saturated salt solutions NaCl solution and IP21 solution. Under repository relevant boundary conditions we determined on compacted MX80 samples with the raw density of 1.6 g/cm{sup 3} simultaneously interdependent properties like swelling pressures, hydraulic parameters (permeabilities and porosities), mineralogical data (changes of the smectite composition and iron corrosion products), transport parameters (diffusion coefficients) and thermal data (temperature dependent reaction progresses). The information and data resulting from the experiments have been used in geochemical modelling calculations and the existing possibilities and limitations to simulate these very complex near field processes were demonstrated. The main conclusion of this study is that the alteration of bentonites in contact with iron is accentuated and accelerated. Alterations in contact with solutions of different ionic strength identified by the authors in previous studies were found be much more intensive in contact with metallic iron and at elevated

  2. Porewater chemistry in compacted bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muurinen, A.; Lehikoinen, J. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    In this study, the porewater chemistry in compacted bentonite, considered as an engineered barrier in the repository of spent fuel, has been studied in interaction experiments. Many parameters, like the composition and density of bentonite, composition of the solution, bentonite-to-water ratio (B/W), surrounding conditions and experimental time have been varied in the experiments. At the end of the interaction the equilibrating solution, the porewaters squeezed out of the bentonite samples, and bentonites themselves were analyzed to give information for the interpretation and modelling of the interaction. Equilibrium modelling was performed with the HYDRAQL/CE computer code 33 refs.

  3. Bentonite-like material sealing to high-level radioactive wastes storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, J.; Linares Gonzalez, J.; Huertas Garcia, F.; Reyes Camacho.

    1993-01-01

    Among the most used materials for sealing of radioactive waste storage, bentonite shows a high number of advantages because of its plasticity, thermal and hydraulic conductivity, etc. The paper makes a review on different Spanish deposits of bentonite and their stability. Most of studies are focussed on the volcanic region at Cabo de Gata (Almeria). That area offers the most productive hydrothermal bentonite deposits in Spain

  4. The use of Syrian bentonite to remove organics and other ions from commercial Syrian phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorfan, S.; Abdulbaki, M.; Zein, A.

    2006-01-01

    Using of activated carbon to remove organic matter from phosphoric acid in uranium and P 2 O 5 extraction units has high cost. A new study was conducted to establish a new material instead of activated carbon. Experiments were carried out on removing organic matter by adsorption on Syrian bentonite. The experiments of the removal of humic acid by Syrian bentonite gave good results and showed that the chemical and thermal activation of bentonite increased the adsorption efficiency. (Authors)

  5. The use of Syrian bentonite to remove organics and other ions from commercial Syrian phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorfan, S.; Abdulbaki, M.; Zein, A.

    2005-03-01

    Using of activated carbon to remove organic matter from phosphoric acid in uranium and P 2 O 5 extraction units has high cost. A new study was conducted to establish a new material instead of activated carbon. Experiments were carried out on removing organic matter by adsorption on Syrian bentonite. The experiments of the removal of humic acid by Syrian bentonite gave good results and showed that the chemical and thermal activation of bentonite increased the adsorption efficiency. (Authors)

  6. Nutrients and heavy metal distribution in thermally treated pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.; Stoholm, Peder

    2008-01-01

    Ash from pig manure treated by combustion and thermal gasification was characterized and compared in terms of nutrient, i.e., potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and heavy metal, i.e., cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) contents. Total nutrient and metal concentrations...... that ash from gasified manure contained more water-extractable K in comparison with combusted manure whereas the opposite was the case with respect to P. Heavy metals Ni, Cr and Cd were present in higher concentrations in the fine particle size fractions (

  7. Possibilities of reducing radiocesium transfer to hen eggs. II. Using bentonite from Polish geological deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachubik, J.; Kowalski, B.

    2000-01-01

    The decontamination effectiveness of bentonite from Polish geological deposits in reducing the radiocesium transfer to hen eggs was examined. The egg white radiocesium concentration was higher than that in egg yolk. The highest decontamination efficacy in all egg components was noticed in animals treated with bentonite from the first day of radionuclide administration. Generally, the radioactivity concentration in hens treated simultaneously with 137CsCl and a cesium binder were lower by 50% than those in the controls. The decontamination efficiency lowered with the delayed bentonite treatment. In Poland bentonite seems to be an alternative to other decontamination agents. (author)

  8. Characteristics of residues from thermally treated anaerobic sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, A.A.; Smith, J.E.; De Santis, J.; Ptak, T.; Ganley, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Sludge management and disposal are probably the most difficult and expensive operations involved in wastewater treatment today. To minimize final disposal costs many waste treatment facilities practice some form of anaerobic digestion and dewatering to reduce the volume and offensiveness of their by-product sludges. One potential alternative for reducing sludge volumes consists of high temperature, partial oxidation of these previously digested sludges (PDS) and subsequent anaerobic biological conversion of resulting soluble organics to methane. This paper describes solids destruction, residue characteristics and biodegradability factors that should be considered in the design of liquid thermal treatment processes for the management of anaerobic sludges. To date only very limited information is available concerning the suitability of thermally treated PDS to serve as a substrate for the generation of methane. The primary objective of this research was to determine the feasibility of producing methane efficiently from the residual VSS in anaerobically digested sludges. Secondary goals were to establish the ''best'' conditions for thermal treatment for solubilizing PDS, to observe the effect of the soluble products on methanogenesis and to evaluate process sidestreams for dewaterability and anaerobic biodegradability

  9. Long-term stability of bentonite. A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, H.; Karttunen, P.

    2010-07-01

    The long-term thermodynamic stability of the bentonite buffer in the evolving chemical, thermal and hydrological conditions at Olkiluoto has been evaluated by reviewing the relevant experimental data and natural occurrences of bentonite that could serve as analogues for the long-term bentonite stability in the expected repository conditions, especially focussing on mineral transformations due, among others, to thermal effects including cementation. Natural occurrences with stable smectite have been reviewed and compared with Olkiluoto groundwater compositions at present and during the expected hydrogeochemical evolution of the repository. Alteration of the bentonite buffer is expected to be insignificant for natural groundwater conditions at present and for the evolving groundwater conditions at the expected thermal boundary conditions caused by the heat induced from the fuel canisters ( + and SiO 2 and elevated pH due to degradation and dissolution processes. These may alter the conditions in the repository that may favour alteration and cementation processes. The amounts of foreign materials to be used in the repository will be updated along with the progress of the construction. Also the information on their impact on the barriers needs to be evaluated in more detail, including the degradation rate, mobility or dilution of the foreign materials in the repository environment. The exchangeable cation composition of the buffer bentonite is expected to equilibrate with the surrounding groundwater during and after saturation. This process is expected to lead towards Ca-dominant exchangeable cation composition within the montmorillonite interlayer spaces in the buffer. In general it seems that the transformation towards Ca-dominated composition would favour the long-term stability of the buffer as Ca-dominated smectite (compared to Na-dominated type) has larger water retention capacity and anion incorporation to the interlayer space of montmorillonite is more

  10. Polyaniline (PANI) modified bentonite by plasma technique for U(VI) removal from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xinghao; Cheng, Cheng; Xiao, Chengjian; Shao, Dadong; Xu, Zimu; Wang, Jiaquan; Hu, Shuheng; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Weijuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • PANI/bentonie can be synthesized by simple plasma technique. • PANI/bentonie has an excellent adsorption capacity for trace uranium in solution. • U(VI) adsorption on PANI/bentonite is a spontaneous and endothermic process. - Abstract: Polyaniline (PANI) modified bentonite (PANI/bentonie) was synthesized by plasma induced polymerization of aniline on bentonite surface, and applied to uptake of uranium(VI) ions from aqueous solution. The as-synthesized PANI/bentonie was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Batch adsorption technique was utilized to investigate the adsorption of U(VI) on bentonite and PANI/bentonite. The adsorption of U(VI) (10 mg/L) on PANI/bentonite surface is fairly depend on solution pH, ionic strength, and temperature in solution. The modified PANI on PANI/bentonite surface significantly enhances its adsorption capability for U(VI). The presence of humic acid (HA) can sound enhance U(VI) adsorption on PANI/bentonite at pH 6.5. According to the thermodynamic parameters, the adsorption of U(VI) on PANI/bentonite surface is a spontaneous and endothermic process. The results highlight the application of PANI/bentonite composites as candidate material for the uptake of trace U(VI) from aqueous solution.

  11. Polyaniline (PANI) modified bentonite by plasma technique for U(VI) removal from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xinghao [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Intelligent Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230088 (China); Cheng, Cheng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Xiao, Chengjian, E-mail: xiaocj@caep.cn [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Shao, Dadong, E-mail: shaodadong@126.com [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Xu, Zimu, E-mail: xzm@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Intelligent Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230088 (China); Wang, Jiaquan; Hu, Shuheng [Intelligent Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230088 (China); Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Weijuan [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • PANI/bentonie can be synthesized by simple plasma technique. • PANI/bentonie has an excellent adsorption capacity for trace uranium in solution. • U(VI) adsorption on PANI/bentonite is a spontaneous and endothermic process. - Abstract: Polyaniline (PANI) modified bentonite (PANI/bentonie) was synthesized by plasma induced polymerization of aniline on bentonite surface, and applied to uptake of uranium(VI) ions from aqueous solution. The as-synthesized PANI/bentonie was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Batch adsorption technique was utilized to investigate the adsorption of U(VI) on bentonite and PANI/bentonite. The adsorption of U(VI) (10 mg/L) on PANI/bentonite surface is fairly depend on solution pH, ionic strength, and temperature in solution. The modified PANI on PANI/bentonite surface significantly enhances its adsorption capability for U(VI). The presence of humic acid (HA) can sound enhance U(VI) adsorption on PANI/bentonite at pH < 6.5 because of the strong complexation, and inhibits U(VI) adsorption at pH > 6.5. According to the thermodynamic parameters, the adsorption of U(VI) on PANI/bentonite surface is a spontaneous and endothermic process. The results highlight the application of PANI/bentonite composites as candidate material for the uptake of trace U(VI) from aqueous solution.

  12. Investigations of the changes in the bentonite structure caused by the different treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Stojiljković S.; Stamenković M.; Kostić D.; Miljković M.; Arsić B.; Savić I.; Savić I.

    2015-01-01

    The bentonite was treated in different ways and the changes in structure were monitored. Acid activation with sulphuric acid of investigated bentonite caused the increase in specific volume of micropore-mesopore. It was shown that activation by acid obtained at a constant temperature and constant period of time provides the possibility to obtain samples of bentonite of searched porosity only by changing the concentration of sulphuric and hydrochloric acid. ...

  13. Effect of temperature on the rheological properties with shear stress limit of iron oxide nanoparticle modified bentonite drilling muds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Mohammed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of temperature on the rheological properties and weight loss of a water based bentonite drilling mud modified with iron oxide nanoparticle (nanoFe2O3 was investigated. The bentonite contents in the drilling muds were varied up to 6% by the weight of water and temperature was varied from 25 °C to 85 °C. The nanoFe2O3 content was varied between 0 and 1% by the weight of the drilling mud to modify the rheological properties of the drilling mud. The nanoFe2O3 and bentonite clay were characterized using the X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. In the TGA study, the total weight loss at 800 °C for the bentonite decreased from 13% to 1.16%, a 91% reduction when the bentonite clay was mixed with 1% of nanoFe2O3. The results also showed that 1% of nanoFe2O3 increased the rheological properties of the drilling mud. The nanoFe2O3 modification increased the yield stress (τo and plastic viscosity (PV by 45–200% and 20–105% respectively based on the bentonite content and temperature of the drilling mud. The shear thinning behavior of the bentonite drilling mud with and without nanoFe2O3 has been quantified using the hyperbolic model and compared with three parameters Herschel–Bulkley model. The results showed that the hyperbolic model predicted the shear thinning relationship between the shear stress and shear strain rate of the nanoFe2O3 modified bentonite drilling mud very well. Also the hyperbolic model has a maximum shear stress limit whereas the Herschel–Bulkley model did not have a limit on the maximum shear stress. Based on the hyperbolic model the maximum shear stress for the 2%, 4% and 6% bentonite drilling muds without nanoFe2O3 at room temperature were 25 Pa, 35 Pa and 51 Pa respectively. The maximum shear stress for the 2%, 4% and 6% bentonite drilling muds modified with 1% nanoFe2O3 at 25 °C were 59 Pa, 84 Pa and 140 Pa respectively, hence an increase of 135–175

  14. Gas Transport in Bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.; Gutierre-Rodrigo, V.; Martin, P. I.; Romero, F. J.; Barcala, J. M.

    2013-07-01

    The gas permeability of the Spanish FEBEX bentonite compacted at dry densities of between 1.4 and 1.8 g/cm{sup 3} with high water contents was measured for different confining, injection and back pressures. The results were compared with results obtained in previous investigations for lower degrees of saturation. It was checked that gas permeability was greatly affected by dry density, decreasing about three orders of magnitude when it increased from 1.5 to 1.8 g/cm{sup 3} for similar water content. The increase of water content caused also a decrease in gas permeability. It was found that both gas permeability and the relative gas permeability were mainly related to the accessible porosity. These relationships could be fitted to potential expressions with exponents between 3 and 4, as well as the relationship between intrinsic permeability and void ratio. For gas pressures below 1.2 MPa no effect of the injection or confining pressures on the value of permeability was detected. For a given confining pressure the permeability value decreased as the effective pressure increased, especially if the increase in effective pressure was due to a decrease in gas back pressure. It was checked that the Klinkenberg effect was not significant for this material in the range of pressures applied in the tests. The gas breakthrough pressure values in FEBEX saturated bentonite were determined for different dry densities. They increased clearly with dry density and were always higher than the swelling pressure of the bentonite. In high density samples gas flow tended to stop abruptly after breakthrough, whereas in lower density samples gas flow decreased gradually until a given pressure gradient was reached. The permeabilities computed after breakthrough (which usually did not stabilise) were inversely related to dry density. This would indicate that, even if the flow took place predominantly through preferential pathways that sometimes closed quickly after breakthrough and others

  15. Gas Transport in Bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, M. V.; Gutierrez-Rodrigo, V.; Martin, P. L.; Romero, F. J.; Barcala, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The gas permeability of the Spanish FEBEX bentonite compacted at dry densities of between 1.4 and 1.8 g/cm 3 with high water contents was measured for different confining, injection and back pressures. The results were compared with results obtained in previous investigations for lower degrees of saturation. It was checked that gas permeability was greatly affected by dry density, decreasing about three orders of magnitude when it increased from 1.5 to 1.8 g/cm 3 for similar water content. The increase of water content caused also a decrease in gas permeability. It was found that both gas permeability and the relative gas permeability were mainly related to the accessible porosity. These relationships could be fitted to potential expressions with exponents between 3 and 4, as well as the relationship between intrinsic permeability and void ratio. For gas pressures below 1.2 MPa no effect of the injection or confining pressures on the value of permeability was detected. For a given confining pressure the permeability value decreased as the effective pressure increased, especially if the increase in effective pressure was due to a decrease in gas back pressure. It was checked that the Klinkenberg effect was not significant for this material in the range of pressures applied in the tests. The gas breakthrough pressure values in FEBEX saturated bentonite were determined for different dry densities. They increased clearly with dry density and were always higher than the swelling pressure of the bentonite. In high density samples gas flow tended to stop abruptly after breakthrough, whereas in lower density samples gas flow decreased gradually until a given pressure gradient was reached. The permeabilities computed after breakthrough (which usually did not stabilise) were inversely related to dry density. This would indicate that, even if the flow took place predominantly through preferential pathways that sometimes closed quickly after breakthrough and others remained

  16. Using bentonite for NPP liquid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui Dang Hanh

    2015-01-01

    During operation, nuclear power plants (NPPs) release a large quantity of water waste containing radionuclides required treatment for protection of the radiation workers and the environment. This paper introduces processes used to treat water waste from Paks NPP in Hungary and it also presents the results of a study on the use of Vietnamese bentonite to remove radioactive Caesium from a simulated water waste containing Cs. (author)

  17. Bentonite erosion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgersson, Martin; Boergesson, Lennart; Hedstroem, Magnus; Karnland, Ola; Nilsson, Ulf (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    Low saline water may reach KBS-3 repository depth, e.g. during periods of glaciation. Under such aqueous conditions, the montmorillonite part of the bentonite buffer might transform into a sol and thereby be transported away with flowing water in fractures. The primary aim with this report is to improve the understanding of the basic principles for this possible montmorillonite particle release. The report includes experimental and theoretical work performed at Clay Technology. Natural bentonite and ion-exchanged purified montmorillonite from three different geographical origins, Wyoming (U.S.), Milos (Greece) and Kutch (India) have been studied. Experimental and/or theoretical investigations have been performed with respect to: - Free swelling ability; - Rheological properties; - Rate of bentonite loss into fractures; - Filtering; - Ion exchange; - Sol formation ability; - Ion diffusion; - Mass loss due to erosion. The performed erosion experiments show that erosion does not occur in a mixed calcium/sodium montmorillonite with at least 20% calcium in exchange positions, when the external solution contains above 4 mM charge equivalents. This result is in agreement with the presented conceptual view of sol formation and measured equilibrium properties in mixed calcium/sodium montmorillonite. The findings imply that the buffer will be stable for non-glacial conditions. However, erosion due to sol formation cannot be ruled out for glacial conditions.

  18. Bentonite erosion. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, Martin; Boergesson, Lennart; Hedstroem, Magnus; Karnland, Ola; Nilsson, Ulf

    2009-12-01

    Low saline water may reach KBS-3 repository depth, e.g. during periods of glaciation. Under such aqueous conditions, the montmorillonite part of the bentonite buffer might transform into a sol and thereby be transported away with flowing water in fractures. The primary aim with this report is to improve the understanding of the basic principles for this possible montmorillonite particle release. The report includes experimental and theoretical work performed at Clay Technology. Natural bentonite and ion-exchanged purified montmorillonite from three different geographical origins, Wyoming (U.S.), Milos (Greece) and Kutch (India) have been studied. Experimental and/or theoretical investigations have been performed with respect to: - Free swelling ability; - Rheological properties; - Rate of bentonite loss into fractures; - Filtering; - Ion exchange; - Sol formation ability; - Ion diffusion; - Mass loss due to erosion. The performed erosion experiments show that erosion does not occur in a mixed calcium/sodium montmorillonite with at least 20% calcium in exchange positions, when the external solution contains above 4 mM charge equivalents. This result is in agreement with the presented conceptual view of sol formation and measured equilibrium properties in mixed calcium/sodium montmorillonite. The findings imply that the buffer will be stable for non-glacial conditions. However, erosion due to sol formation cannot be ruled out for glacial conditions.

  19. Mont Terri Project - Heater experiment : rock and bentonite thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in the near field of a thermal source for development of deep underground high level radioactive waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, I.; Alheid, H.-J.; Kaufhold, St.; Naumann, M.; Pletsch, Th.; Plischke, I.; Schnier, H.; Schuster, K.; Sprado, K. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Meyer, T.; Miehe, R.; Wieczorek, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Braunschweig (Germany); Mayor, J.C. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sineriz, J.; Rey, M. [Asociacion para la Investigacion y Desarollo Industrial de los Recursos Naturales (AITEMIN), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, E.; Lloret, A.; Munoz, J.J. [Centre Internacional de Metodos Numerics en Ingenyeria (CIMNE), Barcelona (Spain); Weber, H. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), Wettingen (Switzerland); Ploetze, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, Institut fuer Geotechnik, Zuerich (Switzerland); Klubertanz, G. [Colenco Power Engineering Ltd, Baden (Switzerland); Ammon, Ch. [Rothpletz Lienhard und Cie AG, Aarau (Switzerland); Graf, A.; Nussbaum, Ch.; Zingg, A. [Goetechnical Institute Ltd, Saint-Ursanne (Switzerland); Bossart, P. [Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo), Wabern (Switzerland); Buehler, Ch.; Kech, M.; Trick, Th. [Solexperts AG, Moenchaltorf (Switzerland); Emmerich, K. [ITC-WGT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Fernandez, A. M. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    humidity, and radial displacements) has generated a database that follows closely the sequence of the experiment from hydration to heating to cooling. Nevertheless, the monitoring part of the experiment was less successful than expected: The dismantling confirmed that sensors installed in the bentonite buffer and its vicinity were in most cases not resistant to the conditions during hydration. Although some manufacturing problems were solved previous to installation, many sensors corroded in the presence of Pearson water, in some cases helped by manufacturing or construction deficiencies (e. g. thermo couples, pore pressure and relative humidity sensors). Most sensors in the peripheral boreholes remained intact. The stainless steel 316L proved resistant to corrosion in situ. Geoelectrical measurements were another part of the continuous supervision programme. They showed no decrease of the water content in the vicinity of the heater during the heating phase. Decreasing energy input to the heater element over time suggests hence, that the bentonite dried leading to a decrease of its thermal conductivity. This was confirmed by laboratory results after dismantling. Gas release during heating showed a peak in the release of hydrogen sulphide close to the heater that might be another agent of corrosion. The monitoring programme was complemented by a substantial laboratory programme determining thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical properties of the host rock and providing input data for most of the parameters needed in the constitutive equations of the finite element codes. Moreover, a post-heating drilling campaign in the HE niche provided mechanical, hydraulic and seismic information on the host rock that supported the laboratory results. With regard to heat-induced changes in bentonite and Opalinus Clay, no conclusive answer could be found, because for both clays, the temperatures were too low. The monitoring database was used to validate and refine the finite element codes and

  20. Modelling the evolution of compacted bentonite clays in engineered barrier systems: process model development of the bentonite-water-air system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, A.E.; Wilson, J.C.; Maul, P.R.; Robinson, P.C.; Savage, D.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. An adequate understanding of the short- and long-term evolution of compacted bentonite clays in engineered barrier systems (EBS) for radioactive waste based on the KBS-3 disposal concept is an essential requirement for demonstrating the safe performance of the system. Uncertainties in the way that the re-saturation process occurs are intrinsically tied to the thermal and mechanical evolution of the bentonite buffer and its interaction with the disposal canister and host-rock. Furthermore, the evolution of bentonite in the presence of changing ambient saturation states, groundwater chemistry and stress states could cause the bentonite re-saturation and long-term stability (including the so-called 'buffer erosion scenario') to deviate from the behaviour required by the safety case; this has emphasised the need to consider adequately coupled thermal (T), hydraulic(H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes. Historically, there have been fundamental differences in the representation of porosity and water disposition between geochemical modelling and coupled THM modelling studies. In this paper, a model for the porosity and water disposition in bentonite is presented that is more detailed than models used to date in most THM modelling studies under variably saturated conditions. The new model moves away from the conventional THM soils approach which treats bentonite as an elasto-plastic porous medium with water or air occupying a notional porosity with the inclusion of additional process models to take into account the very high observed water suctions, intrinsic permeability variation and macroscopic swelling of partially saturated compacted bentonite. It replaces the empirical parameterisation usually employed in THM models with a direct representation of the water disposition, pore structure and relevant processes, albeit at an abstracted level. The new model differentiates between water which can be

  1. Use of Bentonite in residual waters of tanneries for the removal of Cr(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echavarria Isaza, Adriana; Moreno Casaf, Monica; Ramirez Ochoa, Claudia; Tamayo Martinez, Claudia; Saldarriaga Molina, Carlos

    1998-01-01

    An efficient procedure is reported for Cr(III) removal from tannery waste waters by means of natural and chemically treated bentonites. The best result was obtained using 20 mL of effluent with 7.5 grams of Bentonite. With this quantity it was removed the total amount of chromium III present in the sample

  2. Polyaniline (PANI) modified bentonite by plasma technique for U(VI) removal from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinghao; Cheng, Cheng; Xiao, Chengjian; Shao, Dadong; Xu, Zimu; Wang, Jiaquan; Hu, Shuheng; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Weijuan

    2017-07-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) modified bentonite (PANI/bentonie) was synthesized by plasma induced polymerization of aniline on bentonite surface, and applied to uptake of uranium(VI) ions from aqueous solution. The as-synthesized PANI/bentonie was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Batch adsorption technique was utilized to investigate the adsorption of U(VI) on bentonite and PANI/bentonite. The adsorption of U(VI) (10 mg/L) on PANI/bentonite surface is fairly depend on solution pH, ionic strength, and temperature in solution. The modified PANI on PANI/bentonite surface significantly enhances its adsorption capability for U(VI). The presence of humic acid (HA) can sound enhance U(VI) adsorption on PANI/bentonite at pH 6.5. According to the thermodynamic parameters, the adsorption of U(VI) on PANI/bentonite surface is a spontaneous and endothermic process. The results highlight the application of PANI/bentonite composites as candidate material for the uptake of trace U(VI) from aqueous solution.

  3. Investigation on the effect of seawater to hydraulic property and wetting process of bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Takuma

    2004-01-01

    On high-level waste disposal, bentonite is one of the most promising material for buffer and backfill material. The hydraulic properties and wetting process of bentonite are important not only for barrier performance assessment but also for prediction of waste disposal environment, such as resaturation time and thermal distribution. In Japan, we should consider the effect of seawater for bentonite, because radioactive waste will be disposed of in coastal area and in marine sediment where seawater remained. However, it is not enough to understand the effect of seawater. Therefore, experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of seawater on the hydraulic conductivity and wetting process of bentonite. The effect of seawater on hydraulic conductivity is significant for Na-bentonite, the hydraulic conductivity of Na-bentonite in seawater is one order to magnitude higher than that in distilled water. On the other hand, the hydraulic conductivity of Ca-bentonite is not influenced by seawater. The hydraulic conductivity of bentonite decreases as effective montmorillonite density increases. The effective montmorillonite density is ratio between the weight of montmorillonite and volume of porosity and montmorillonite. The hydraulic conductivity of bentonite is close related to swelling property since the hydraulic conductivity decrease as the swelling pressure increase. Wetting process of compacted bentonite could be evaluated by diffusion phenomena since infiltration rate and change of saturation rate and represented by diffusion equation. The effect of seawater on water diffusivity is significant for Na-type bentonite with low effective montmorillonite density. Except for that condition, the water diffusivity of bentonite is almost constant and is not influenced by effective montmorillonite density and seawater. (author)

  4. Customized bentonite pellets. Manufacturing, performance and gap filling properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjavaara, P.; Holt, E.; Sjoeblom, V. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2013-12-15

    The goal of this work was to provide knowledge about how to manufacture customized bentonite pellets and how customized bentonite pellets perform in practice during the nuclear repository construction process. The project was mainly focused on laboratory experimental tests to optimize the pellet filling by customizing the raw materials and pellet manufacturing. Bentonite pellets were made using both extrusion and roller compaction methods. The pellets were intended for use in gaps between compacted bentonite and the rock walls in both buffer deposition holes and tunnel backfilling. Performance of different types of custom-made pellets were evaluated with regard to their ease of manufacturing, density, crush strength, abrasion resistance, water holding capacity, free swelling and also their thermal conductivity. These evaluations were done in both Finland (by VTT) and Canada (by AECL). Over 50 different varieties of pellets were roller-compaction manufactured at AECL in Canada and 20 types of extrusion pellets at VTT in Finland. The parameters that were varied during manufacturing included: bentonite raw material type, water content, pellet sizes, bentonite compaction machine parameters, use of recycled pellets, and addition of two different types of filler (illite or granitic sand) at varying addition percentages. By examining the pellets produced with these methods and materials the performance and behaviour of the bentonite pellets were evaluated in laboratory with selected tests. The work done using extrusion pellets showed that it was possible to manufacture pellets with higher water contents, up to 21 % from MX-80. This water content value was higher than what was typically possible using roller-compaction method in this study. Higher water content values allow closer compatibility with the designed bentonite buffer water content. The extrusion tests also showed that the required production simulation runs could be made successfully with reference type of MX

  5. Hydrothermal alterations of Bentonites in Almeria (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares Gonzalez, J.; Barahona Fernandez, E.; Huertas Garcia, F.; Caballero Mesa, E.; Cuadros Ojeda, J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of bentonite as backfilling and sealing material in the high level radioactive waste disposals has been treated in previous studies accomplished by different authors. However, the use of this clayey barrier needs the resolution of different problems so that its efficiency will be enhanced. between those could be cited the study of the actual capacity of sealing the space around the canister and the accommodation to the pressure of the rocky environment; the possible variations in plasticity; the diffusion and reaction processes that can be produced through the barrier by groundwater, the capacity of radionuclides adsorption, etc. These studies, show that the bentonites with high content in smectite fulfill satisfactorily with the physical and chemical conditions to be used as sealing material, but it is known that the smectite can be unstable in diagenetic conditions similar to those are given in a deep repository of radioactive wastes, being transformed into illite. A conclusion of immediate interest is deduced from this last study. The bentonites used as sealing material in radioactive waste repositories must no contain Na as interlayer cation since it is very easily exchangeable by K. It is better to select those smectites with Ca and Mg that detain the entry of K in the interlayer and as a consequence the transformation process of smectite into illite is made more difficult. (Author)

  6. Characterization of bentonite clay from “Greda” deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadežda Stanković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on mineralogical and technological investigations of the deposit “Greda” important characteristics of bentonite clay were determined. Representative samples of the deposit were characterized with X-ray diffraction, low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, chemical analysis, differential thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. It was determined that the main mineral is montmorillonite and in subordinate quantities kaolinite, quartz and pyrite. The chemical composition generally shows high silica and alumina contents in all samples and small quantities of Fe3+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations. Based on technological and mineralogical research, bentonite from this deposit is a high-quality raw material for use in the ceramic industry.

  7. Organophilization process of Brazilian bentonite for preparation of polymeric nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Carlos I.R. de; Rocha, Marisa C.G.; Ferreira, Joao L.A.N.G.

    2015-01-01

    Bentonite clay from the municipality of Cubati, PB, was used for the preparation of an organophilic clay. First, the clay was treated with sodium chloride to obtain the homo-ionic sodium clay. The organoclay was, then, obtained from the reaction of homo-ionic clay with the quaternary ammonium salt, cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride. The natural clay and the modified clays were characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The chemical analysis showed a decrease in the concentration of the majority of the metallic oxides when the bentonite was organophilizated. This result is characteristic of the metal cation exchange process by organic salt molecules. The X-ray diffraction confirmed the intercalation among the layers of the clay. The results obtained by FTIR showed the presence of the characteristic groups of the salt in the clay, thus confirming the obtaining of organophilic bentonite. (author)

  8. The adsorption characteristics and porous structure of bentonite adsorbents as determined from the adsorption isotherms of benzene vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEPA STOJANOVSKA

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of benzene vapor on natural and acid activated bentonites was treated by the theory of volume filling of micropores. The micropore volume and characteristic values of the free energy of adsorption were determined from the adsorption isotherms. The Dubinin–Radushkevish–Stoeckli and Dubinin–Astakhov equations were used for this purpose. The results showed that natural bentonite has a more homogeneous micropore structure than the acid activated ones. The characteristic values of the free energy of adsorption for the natural bentonite were higher than those of the acid activated bentonite. This is due to differences in its structure and the pore size.

  9. Thermal treating of acrylic matrices as a tool for controlling drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Davood; Ghaffari, Solmaz; Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz; Al-Hallak, M H D-Kamal; Soltani, Ghazal; Azarmi, Shirzad

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of thermal-treating on the release of ibuprofen from the granules prepared using aqueous dispersions of Eudragit. To accomplish this goal, different formulations were prepared using wet granulation method containing two different types of Eudragit aqueous dispersions, RS30D, RL30D and Avicel as filler. Tablets were prepared using direct compression method. The prepared tablets were thermally treated at 50 and 70 degrees C for 24 h. The drug release from tablets was assessed before and after thermal-treating. The results of release study showed that, thermally-treating the tablets at the temperatures higher than glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer can decrease the drug release from matrices. For mechanistic evaluation of the effect of thermal-treating, powder X-ray diffraction (XPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and helium pycnometer have been employed. The SEM graphs showed that the tablets have smoother surface with less porosity after thermal-treating. FT-IR spectra showed no change in the spectrum of thermally-treated tablet compared to control. In DSC graphs, no crystalline change was seen in the heat-treated samples of ibuprofen tablets, but decreased and widened peak size were related to the probable formation of solid solution of ibuprofen in Eudragit matrix. The results of helium pycnometer showed a significant decrease in the total porosity of some heat-treated samples. This study revealed the importance of thermal treating on the drug release from sustained release tablets containing Eudragit polymer.

  10. Electrical resistivity and rheological properties of sensing bentonite drilling muds modified with lightweight polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Mohammed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the electrical resistivity and rheological properties of a water-based bentonite clay drilling mud modified with the lightweight polymer (guar gum under various temperature were investigated. Based on the experimental and analytical study, the electrical resistivity was identified as the sensing property of the bentonite drilling mud so that the changes in the properties can be monitored in real-time during the construction. The bentonite contents in the drilling muds were varied up to 8% by the weight of water and temperature was varied from 25 °C to 85 °C. The guar gum content (GG% was varied between 0% and 1% by the weight of the drilling mud to modify the rheological properties and enhance the sensing electrical resistivity of the drilling mud. The guar gum and bentonite clay were characterized using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. The total weight loss at 800 °C for the bentonite decreased from 12.96% to 0.7%, about 95% reduction, when the bentonite was mixed with 1% of guar gum. The results also showed that 1% guar gum decreased the electrical resistivity of the drilling mud from 50% to 90% based on the bentonite content and the temperature of the drilling mud. The guar gum modification increased the yield point (YP and plastic viscosity (PV by 58% to 230% and 44% to 77% respectively based on the bentonite content and temperature of the drilling mud. The rheological properties of the drilling muds have been correlated to the electrical resistivity of the drilling mud using nonlinear power and hyperbolic relationships. The model predictions agreed well with the experimental results. Hence the performance of the bentonite drilling muds with and without guar gum can be characterized based on the electrical resistivity which can be monitored real-time in the field. Keywords: Bentonite, Polymer (Guar gum, Electrical resistivity, Rheological properties, Temperature, Modeling

  11. Bentonite clay purification for development of polymeric nan composites using a single screw extruder; Purificacao de argila bentonita para desenvolvimento de nanocomposito polimerico utilizando uma extrusora rosca simples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In this work, a bentonite clay rich in montmorillonite was purified and chemical treat to be used in the development of poly (methyl methacrylate) /clay nanocomposites via melting processes. After the clay treatment and purification, a masterbatch with 25% clay and 75% PMMA was produced by solution technique, using acetone as solvent. For produce samples with 2.5% clay, the masterbatch along with pure polymer were added and mixed in single screw extruder with a diameter of 16 mm and W/D 26. X-rays diffractometry (XRD) and X-rays fluorescence (XRF). Tests were performed to evaluate and characterizing the bentonite clay used in the development of this work and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests were performed to evaluate changes in the thermal properties of the nanocomposites produced. (author)

  12. Swelling behavior of several bituminous coals and their thermally treated coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Heng-fu; Cao, Mei-xia; Wang, Zhi-cai [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The swelling behavior in different solvents of 4 bituminous coals with different ranks and their residues from extraction by CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent (l:1 in volume) were measured. The change in swelling property of the four coals thermally treated at different temperature was observed. The results show that the swelling ratio decreases with increasing rank of coal. For lower rank bituminous coals the swelling ratios in polar solvent are higher than those in non-polar solvent, and this difference decreases with increasing rank. The cross-linking densities of the four residues decrease, and the swelling ratios increase compared with those of raw coals. The swelling ratios of the four thermally treated coals under 150{sup o}C in CS{sub 2} increase, suggesting the decrease in crosslinking density of them. When the thermal treatment temperature increases to 240{sup o}C, the swelling rations of the other three coals in NMP and CS{sub 2} increase again except gas coal, demonstrating the further decrease in crosslinking density. This result is coincident with the extraction yield change in the mixed solvent of the thermally treated coal. For example, the extraction yield of lean coal treated at 240{sup o}C increases from 6.9% to 17.3%. FT-IR results show the removal of oxygen group of the thermally treated coals. This may explain the increase in swelling ratio and extraction yield in the mixed solvent of coal after thermal treatment. The cross-linking density of the thermally treated coal decreases because of the break of hydrogen bonds due to removal of C = 0 and -OH oxygen groups during the thermal treatment, resulting in the increases of swelling ratio and extraction yield in the mixed solvent of thermally treated coal compared with those of raw coal. 15 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Characterization of Physical and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated Neopentyl Glycol

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi , Mahendra Kumar; Tallapragada , Rama Mohan; Branton , Alice; Trivedi , Dahryn; Nayak , Gopal; Mishra , Rakesh; Jana , Snehasis

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Neopentyl glycol (NPG) has been extensively used as solid-solid phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage applications. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, spectral and thermal properties of NPG. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated NPG ...

  14. Characterization of Physical and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated Neopentyl Glycol

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Dahryn; Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar; Branton, Alice; Nayak, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    Neopentyl glycol (NPG) has been extensively used as solid-solid phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage applications. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, spectral and thermal properties of NPG. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated NPG were characterized by X-...

  15. Carbon Nanostructure of Kraft Lignin Thermally Treated at 500 to 1000 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Yan, Qiangu; Leng, Weiqi; Li, Jinghao; Zhang, Jilei; Cai, Zhiyong; Hassan, El Barbary

    2017-08-21

    Kraft lignin (KL) was thermally treated at 500 to 1000 °C in an inert atmosphere. Carbon nanostructure parameters of thermally treated KL in terms of amorphous carbon fraction, aromaticity, and carbon nanocrystallites lateral size ( L a ), thickness ( L c ), and interlayer space ( d 002 ) were analyzed quantitatively using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Experimental results indicated that increasing temperature reduced amorphous carbon but increased aromaticity in thermally treated KL materials. The L c value of thermally treated KL materials averaged 0.85 nm and did not change with temperature. The d 002 value decreased from 3.56 Å at 500 °C to 3.49 Å at 1000 °C. The L a value increased from 0.7 to 1.4 nm as temperature increased from 500 to 1000 °C. A nanostructure model was proposed to describe thermally treated KL under 1000 °C. The thermal stability of heat treated KL increased with temperature rising from 500 to 800 °C.

  16. {sup 99}Mo sorption by thermally treated hydrotalcites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, J.; Bertin, V.; Bulbulian, S.

    2000-04-04

    MoO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} ions were sorbed in calcined hydrotalcite contained in a column. It was found that 98% of {sup 99m}Tc formed by {sup 99}Mo decay was eluted through the column in the form of pertechnetate. The content of radionuclides was determined by {gamma}-spectrometry, and natural molybdenum was measured by neutron activation analysis. Solids were characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Through batch experiments, the hydrotalcite capacity toward molybdate ions (1.12 x 10{sup {minus}3} M) was found to be 3.2 mequiv g{sup {minus}1}. It was found that the high molybdate adsorbing capacity of calcined hydrotalcite could be utilized in designing a {sup 99m}Tc generator made with low specific activity {sup 99}Mo-molybdate samples.

  17. Sensitivity of thermally treated Bacillus subtilis spores to subsequent irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, S.A.; El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Awny, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    B. subtilis spores exposed to thermal treatment at 70 or 80 0 C for 1 hr were more sensitive to subsequent radiation exposure than non-heated spores. Deactivation of previously heated spores by increasing dose of 0-radiation followed an exponential function while, for non-heated spores a shoulder followed by exponential deactivation was noticed. Combined heat-radiation treatment exhibited a synergistic effect on spore deactivation at low irradiation doses, while at high irradiation doses, the effect was more or less additive. Added values of spore injury was higher for B. subtilis spores that received heat and radiation separately than the observed injury for spores that received combined treatment (heat followed by radiation). Results of spore deactivation and injury due to heat followed by radiation treatment are discussed in comparison to those of spores that received radiation-heat sequence

  18. Report on Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Laboratory Tests Performed by CIEMAT on Febex Bentonite 2004-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.; Gomez-Espina, R.

    2009-11-25

    The results of the laboratory studies performed by CIEMAT with the FEBEX bentonite in the context of WP3.2 of the NF-PRO Project and of the Agreement ENRESA-CIEMAT Anexo V are presented and analysed in this report. They refer to the effect of the hydraulic gradient on the permeability of bentonite, the effect of the thermal gradient on the hydration kinetics of bentonite, and the repercussion of temperature on the hydro-mechanical properties of bentonite (swelling, permeability and water retention capacity). In all the cases the bentonite has been used compacted to densities expected in the engineered barrier of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The existence of threshold and critical hydraulic gradients has been observed, both of them dependent on bentonite density and water pressures. After more than seven years of hydration, the 40-cm high bentonite columns are far from full saturation, the thermal gradient additionally delaying the process, which is very slow. Temperatures below 100 degree centigrade slightly decrease the swelling and the water retention capacity of the bentonite and increase its permeability. The information obtained improves the knowledge on the behaviour of expansive clay and will help the development of constitutive models and the interpretation of the results obtained in the mock-up and the in situ tests. (Author) 35 refs.

  19. Report on Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Laboratory Tests Performed by CIEMAT on Febex Bentonite 2004-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, M. V.; Gomez-Espina, R.

    2009-01-01

    The results of the laboratory studies performed by CIEMAT with the FEBEX bentonite in the context of WP3.2 of the NF-PRO Project and of the Agreement ENRESA-CIEMAT Anexo V are presented and analysed in this report. They refer to the effect of the hydraulic gradient on the permeability of bentonite, the effect of the thermal gradient on the hydration kinetics of bentonite, and the repercussion of temperature on the hydro-mechanical properties of bentonite (swelling, permeability and water retention capacity). In all the cases the bentonite has been used compacted to densities expected in the engineered barrier of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The existence of threshold and critical hydraulic gradients has been observed, both of them dependent on bentonite density and water pressures. After more than seven years of hydration, the 40-cm high bentonite columns are far from full saturation, the thermal gradient additionally delaying the process, which is very slow. Temperatures below 100 degree centigrade slightly decrease the swelling and the water retention capacity of the bentonite and increase its permeability. The information obtained improves the knowledge on the behaviour of expansive clay and will help the development of constitutive models and the interpretation of the results obtained in the mock-up and the in situ tests. (Author) 35 refs

  20. Prediction for swelling characteristics of compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, H.; Ogata, N.

    1996-01-01

    Compacted bentonites are attracting greater attention as back-filling (buffer) materials for high-level nuclear waste repositories. For this purpose, it is very important to quantitatively evaluate the swelling characteristics of compacted bentonite. New equations for evaluating the relationship between the swelling deformation of compacted bentonite and the distance between two montmorillonite layers are derived. New equations for evaluating the ion concentration of pore water and the specific surface of bentonite, which significantly influence the swelling characteristics of compacted bentonite, are proposed. Furthermore, a prediction method for the swelling characteristics of compacted bentonite is presented by combining the new equations with the well-known theoretical equations of repulsive and attractive forces between two montmorillonite layers. The applicability of this method was investigated by comparing the predicted results with laboratory test results on the swelling deformation and swelling pressure of compacted bentonites. (author) 31 refs., 8 tabs., 12 figs

  1. Thermal analysis of used and radiation treated polycarbonate (L-MW) biomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayabalan, M.; Sreenivasan, K.; Nair, P.D.; Jalajamani, K.V.

    1988-01-01

    γ-radiation treatment of radiation sterilized polycarbonate biomaterials has been carried out to ensure efficient disposal by incineration. Low molecular weight polycarbonate sterilized with 2.5 Mrad dose of γ-radiation was further treated with different doses of γ-radiation. The radiation-treated samples were subjected to thermogravimetry. The sterilized sample and the 7.5 Mrad-treated sample showed similar properties. These samples do not leave any residue during thermal decomposition. (author). 5 refs., 3 tables

  2. Thermal-treated soil for mercury removal: Soil and phytotoxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Y.; Edwards, N.T.; Lee, S.Y.; Stiles, C.A.; Armes, S.; Foss, J.E.

    2000-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of soils and sediments is one of many environmental problems at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, TN. Mercury-contaminated soil from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Reservation was treated thermally to reduce Hg concentration to a below target level (20 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) as a pilot scale thermal treatment demonstration. As a part of performance evaluation, the soil characteristics and plant growth response of the untreated and treated soil were examined. The soil treated at 350 C retained most of its original soil properties, but the soil treated at 600 C exhibited considerable changes in mineralogical composition and physicochemical characteristics. Growth and physiological response of the three plant species radish (Raphanus sativus L.), fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and oat (Avena sativa L.) indicated adverse effects of the thermal treatment. The addition of N fertilizer had beneficial effects in the 350 C treated soil, but had little beneficial effect in the 600 C treated soil. Some changes of soil characteristics induced by thermal treatment cannot be avoided. Soil characteristics and phytotoxicity test results strongly suggest that changes occurring following the 350 C treatment do not limit the use of the treated soil to refill the excavated site for full-scale remediation. The only problem with the 350 C treatment is that small amounts of Hg compounds (<15 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) remain in the soil and a processing cost of $45/Mg.

  3. Thermo-hydro-geochemical modelling of the bentonite buffer. LOT A2 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena, Clara; Salas, Joaquin; Arcos, David (Amphos 21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2010-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and waste management company (SKB) is conducting a series of long term buffer material (LOT) tests at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) to test the behaviour of the bentonite buffer under conditions similar to those expected in a KBS-3 deep geological repository for high level nuclear waste (HLNW). In the present work a numerical model is developed to simulate (i) the thermo-hydraulic, (ii) transport and (iii) geochemical processes that have been observed in the LOT A2 test parcel. The LOT A2 test lasted approximately 6 years, and consists of a 4 m long vertical borehole drilled in diorite rock, from the ground of the Aespoe HRL tunnel. The borehole is composed of a central heater, maintained at 130 deg C in the lower 2 m of the borehole, a copper tube surrounding the heater and a 100 mm thick ring of pre-compacted Wyoming MX-80 bentonite around the copper tube /Karnland et al. 2009/. The numerical model developed here is a 1D axis-symmetric model that simulates the water saturation of the bentonite under a constant thermal gradient; the transport of solutes; and, the geochemical reactions observed in the bentonite blocks. Two cases have been modelled, one considering the highest temperature reached by the bentonite (at 3 m depth in the borehole, where temperatures of 130 and 85 deg C have been recorded near the copper tube and near the granitic host rock, respectively) and the other case assuming a constant temperature of 25 deg C, representing the upper part of borehole, where the bentonite has not been heated. In the LOT A2 test, the initial partially saturated bentonite becomes progressively water saturated, due to the injection of Aespoe granitic groundwater at granite - bentonite interface. The transport of solutes during the bentonite water saturation stage is believed to be controlled by water uptake from the surrounding groundwater to the wetting front and, additionally, in the case of heated bentonite, by a cyclic evaporation

  4. Thermo-hydro-geochemical modelling of the bentonite buffer. LOT A2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, Clara; Salas, Joaquin; Arcos, David

    2010-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and waste management company (SKB) is conducting a series of long term buffer material (LOT) tests at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) to test the behaviour of the bentonite buffer under conditions similar to those expected in a KBS-3 deep geological repository for high level nuclear waste (HLNW). In the present work a numerical model is developed to simulate (i) the thermo-hydraulic, (ii) transport and (iii) geochemical processes that have been observed in the LOT A2 test parcel. The LOT A2 test lasted approximately 6 years, and consists of a 4 m long vertical borehole drilled in diorite rock, from the ground of the Aespoe HRL tunnel. The borehole is composed of a central heater, maintained at 130 deg C in the lower 2 m of the borehole, a copper tube surrounding the heater and a 100 mm thick ring of pre-compacted Wyoming MX-80 bentonite around the copper tube /Karnland et al. 2009/. The numerical model developed here is a 1D axis-symmetric model that simulates the water saturation of the bentonite under a constant thermal gradient; the transport of solutes; and, the geochemical reactions observed in the bentonite blocks. Two cases have been modelled, one considering the highest temperature reached by the bentonite (at 3 m depth in the borehole, where temperatures of 130 and 85 deg C have been recorded near the copper tube and near the granitic host rock, respectively) and the other case assuming a constant temperature of 25 deg C, representing the upper part of borehole, where the bentonite has not been heated. In the LOT A2 test, the initial partially saturated bentonite becomes progressively water saturated, due to the injection of Aespoe granitic groundwater at granite - bentonite interface. The transport of solutes during the bentonite water saturation stage is believed to be controlled by water uptake from the surrounding groundwater to the wetting front and, additionally, in the case of heated bentonite, by a cyclic evaporation

  5. Activation of a Ca-bentonite as buffer material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Hsing; Chen, Wen-Chuan

    2016-04-01

    -shaped time-swell curves of typical bentonites. That is, a greater part of swelling strain develops after the completion of primary swelling strain. At an optimal amount of 1% Na2CO3 in weight, the maximum swelling strain was found to be 3 times as much as that of untreated Zhisin clay. Furthermore, the Na2CO3-activated Zhisin clay exhibited improved resistance to thermal environments and behaved similar to Na-type bentonites under various hydrothermal temperatures.

  6. Na-smectite s in the Cala de Tomate bentonite deposit (Spain): a natural analogue of the salinity effect on the bentonite barrier of a rad waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez del Villar, L.; Pelayo, M.; Fernandez, A.M.; Cozar, J.S. [CIEMAT - Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT/DIRE/CEAGP), Madrid (Spain); Delgado, A.; Reyes, E. [Ciencias de la Tierra y Quimica Ambiental Estacion Experimental del Zaidin Dpt., Granada (Spain); Fernandez-Soler, J.M. [Granada Univ., Dpt. de Mineralogia y Petrologia (Spain); Tsige, M. [Facultad de Ciencias Geologicas, Dpt. de Geodinamica, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    Within the framework of the ENRESA programme for the assessment of the long-term behaviour of the bentonite-engineered barrier for a deep radwaste geological repository, analogue studies on several bentonite deposits are conducted at CIEMAT. Among these analogue studies, the thermal effect induced by volcanic intrusions on bentonite deposits is highlighted. In the Cabo de Gata volcanic region, there are several analogue scenarios where these studies have been performed, such as the Cala de Tomate bentonite deposit that was intruded by a pyroxene andesite volcanic dome. However, geological, mineralogical, physicochemical, geochemical and stable isotopic data obtained from the smectites do not allow to establish any analogy with the thermal effect expected on the bentonite-engineered barrier of a deep geological repository after burial. Thus, the bentonitisation processes took place after the intrusion of the dome, as a result of meteoric diagenesis intensively developed on faulting zone affecting the parent pyroclastic acid tuffs. This faulting process occurred after the dome intrusion. However, the physicochemical characteristics of these smectites, specially the exchangeable cations, allow to consider this bentonite deposit as a natural analogue of the saline effect on the clayey barrier. This analogy has been established because Na-smectites are present in this deposit and, up to our present knowledge, it is the first time that these smectites occur naturally in the Cabo de Gata-La Serrata de Nijar volcanic region. As a consequence, the main objectives of this work are: i) to characterise these smectites; ii) to establish their genesis and processes affecting them after their formation and iii) to identify the effects on the bentonite-engineered barrier should it were affected by a Na-rich saline waterfront. (authors)

  7. Thermally-treated Pt-coated silicon AFM tips for wear resistance in ferroelectric data storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Palacio, Manuel; Kwak, Kwang Joo

    2008-01-01

    In ferroelectric data storage, a conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe with a noble metal coating is placed in contact with a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film. The understanding and improvement of probe tip wear, particularly at high velocities, is needed for high data rate recording. A commercial Pt-coated silicon AFM probe was thermally treated in order to form platinum silicide at the near-surface. Nanoindentation, nanoscratch and wear experiments were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties and wear performance at high velocities. The thermally treated tip exhibited lower wear than the untreated tip. The tip wear mechanism is adhesive and abrasive wear with some evidence of impact wear. The enhancement in mechanical properties and wear resistance in the thermally treated film is attributed to silicide formation in the near-surface. Auger electron spectroscopy and electrical resistivity measurements confirm the formation of platinum silicide. This study advances the understanding of thin film nanoscale surface interactions

  8. Organophilic bentonites based on Argentinean and Brazilian bentonites: part 2: potential evaluation to obtain nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Paiva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the preparation of composites of polypropylene and organophilic bentonites based on Brazilian and Argentinean bentonites. During the processing of the samples in a twin screw microextruder, torque and pressures of the extruder were accompanied and the viscosity values were calculated. No significant changes in the torque, pressure and viscosity were found for composites prepared with different bentonites. The samples were characterized by XRD and TEM to evaluate the structure and dispersion of the organophilic bentonites. Composites with exfoliated, partially exfoliated and intercalated structures were obtained and correlations between the intrinsic properties of the sodium clays and organophilic bentonites and their influence on the composites were studied. The cation exchange capacity of the sodium bentonites and the swelling capacity of the organophilic bentonites were the most important properties to obtain exfoliated structures in composites. All bentonites showed the potential to obtain polymer nanocomposites, but the ones from Argentina displayed the best results.

  9. Adsorptioin performance of modified nkalagu bentonite in dye removal: kinetics, equilibrium, thermodynamics and structureal properties of the modified samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajemba, R.O.

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption performance of modified Nkalagu bentonite in removing Congo red (CR) from solution was investigated. The raw bentonite was modified by three different physicochemical methods: thermal activation (TA), acid activation (AA), and combined acid and thermal activation (ATA). The Congo red adsorption increased with increase in contact time, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, temperature, and pH change. The results of the kinetics analysis of the adsorption data revealed that adsorption follows pseudo second-order kinetics. Analysis of the equilibrium data showed that Langmuir isotherm provided a better fit to the data. Evaluation of the thermodynamic parameters revealed that adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. The results from this study suggest that a combination of thermal and acid activation is an effective modification method to improve adsorption capacity of bentonite and makes the bentonite as low-cost adsorbent for removal of water pollutants. (author)

  10. Practical and theoretical basis for performing redox-measurements in compacted bentonite. A literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, T.; Muurinen, A.

    2008-12-01

    This report reviews the state-of-the-art with regard to redox measurements, especially in compacted water saturated bentonite, but also in natural systems like sediments and ground waters. Both theoretical and practical aspects of redox measurements are discussed, as well as some basic concepts like terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs) and oxidative capacity (OXC). The problems associated with the interpretation of measured electrode potentials are treated. Despite many practical and theoretical difficulties, redox measurements continue to be carried out by researchers all over the world. The over-all conclusion from the literature survey is that fruitful redox-measurements can be performed in compacted bentonite. Irrespective of whether the measured redox potentials are absolute or not, the use of electrodes provide a valuable tool for studying, e.g., long-term changes in the pore water of compacted bentonite and/or the diffusion of oxygen into a bentonite. (orig.)

  11. Bentonite in the repository - Manufacture of bentonite blocks. A literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, Aa.

    1995-09-01

    Activities in nuclear power countries are reviewed, concerning developments in the use of bentonite for backfilling in nuclear waste repositories, in particular regarding manufacture of bentonite-blocks. Only one report was found which in detail describes the manufacture of highly compacted blocks of bentonite. Use of bentonite for sealing boreholes etc in the oil- and gas industry was also covered in the literature study. 19 refs, 3 tabs

  12. Roles of bentonite in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Keizo

    1995-01-01

    Bentonite is used in radioactive waste disposal from the following points; (1) properties (2) now utilization fields (3) how to use in radioactive waste disposal (4) how much consumption and deposits as source at the present time. Bentonite is produced as alteration products from pyroclastic rocks such as volcanic ash and ryolite, and is clay composed mainly smectite (montmorillonite in general). Therefore, special properties of bentonite such as swelling potential, rheological property, bonding ability, cation exchange capacity and absorption come mainly from properties of montmorillonite. Bentonite has numerous uses such as iron ore pelleizing, civil engineering, green sand molding, cat litter, agricultural chemicals and drilling mud. Consumption of bentonite is about 600-700 x 10 3 tons in Japan and about 10 x 10 6 tons in the world. Roles of bentonite to be expected in radioactive waste disposal are hydraulic conductivity, swelling potential, absorption, mechanical strength, ion diffusion capacity and long-term durability. These properties come from montmorillonite. (author)

  13. Polarized neutron reflectivity study of a thermally treated MnIr/CoFe exchange bias system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaji, Naoki; Miyajima, Toyoo; Doi, Shuuichi; Nomura, Kenji

    2010-12-01

    It has recently been found that the exchange bias of a MnIr/CoFe system can be increased significantly by adding a thermal treatment to the bilayer. To reveal the origin of the higher exchange bias, we performed polarized neutron reflectivity measurements at the JRR-3 neutron source. The magnetization vector near the MnIr/CoFe interface for thermally treated samples differed from that for samples without the treatment. We propose a model in which the pinned spin area at the interface is extended due to the increased roughness and atomic interdiffusion that result from the thermal treatment.

  14. Diffusion of uranium in compacted sodium bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Lehikoinen, J.

    1992-09-01

    In the study the diffusion of uranium dissolved from uranium oxide fuel was studied experimentally in compacted sodium bentonite (Wyoming bentonite MX-80). The experiments were carried out by the through-diffusion method. The parameters varied in the study were the density of bentonite, salt content of the solution and redox conditions. Uranium was dissolved under aerobic conditions in order to simulate oxic conditions possibly caused by radiolysis in the repository

  15. Thermodynamic modelling of bentonite-groundwater interaction and implications for near field chemistry in a repository for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanner, H.; Wersin, P.; Sierro, N.

    1992-11-01

    Predictions of near field geochemistry are made using a thermodynamic model for bentonite/ground interaction. This model is a refinement and extension of the model developed by the senior author. It is based on recent experiments performed at high solid/water ratio and adapted to the Swedish type of HLW repository design. Thus, from the obtained experimental results on solution composition, the model includes chemical reactions resulting from both the impurities and the main clay fraction within the bentonite. Ion exchange reactions are treated both with and without the contribution of edge sites. Due to its thermodynamic basis, the model exhibits prediction capability over a wide range of conditions in terms of solid/water ratio. The modelling of repository conditions implies, due to the lack of experimental information, simplifications with regard to thermodynamic properties of the bentonite. This mainly involves the non-consideration of the temperature effects and of the acid/base properties of the solid. Nevertheless, our results yield insight into important processes affecting porewater chemistry. Thus, the model suggests that proton exchange reactions may exert a strong control on calcite dissolution within highly compacted bentonite. Estimations of chemical changes over time in the bentonite were done in the basis of a mixing tank model. These results indicate transformation of Na-bentonite to Ca-bentonite over time. The extent of this process, however, critically depends on the amount of carbonate present in the bentonite. (authors) (34 refs.)

  16. Thermally treated grass fibers as colonizable substrate for beneficial bacterial inoculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifonova, R.D.; Postma, J.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how thermally treated (i.e., torrefied) grass, a new prospective ingredient of potting soils, is colonized by microorganisms. Torrefied grass fibers (TGF) represent a specific colonizable niche, which is potentially useful to establish a beneficial microbial community that

  17. Using kinetic models to predict thermal degradation of fire-retardant-treated plywood roof sheathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Lebow; Jerrold E. Winandy; Patricia K. Lebow

    2003-01-01

    Between 1985-1995 a substantial number of multifamily housing units in the Eastern and Southern U.S. experienced problems with thermally degraded fire-retardant-treated (FRT) plywood roof sheathing. A series of studies conducted at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), examined the materials, chemical mechanisms, and process implications and has...

  18. Use of residual hydrocarbons treated by Thermal Plasma (recovery of energy by-products)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreno B, J.A.; Pacheco S, J.O.; Ramos F, F.; Cruz A, A.; Duran G, M.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence of new technologies is getting greater importance for the control of pollution. One of them is the destruction of hazardous wastes treated by thermal plasma, which is of special interest for the efficient treatment of the hazardous wastes since the heat generated by thermal plasma is able to destroy the molecular bonds generating solids and gaseous products which do not represent danger for the human being and the environment. The thermal plasma is the suitable technology for treating a wide range of hazardous wastes, including the residual hydrocarbons from the refinement process of petroleum, plasma exceeds the barrier of 3000 Centigrade. The efficiency of the degradation of residues is greater than 99.99%. Toxic emissions are not generated to environment as SO 2 , NO x and CO 2 neither dioxins and furans by being a pyrolysis process. The use of hydrogen as fuel does not generate pollution to environment. (Author)

  19. Effect of acid treated carbon nanotubes on mechanical, rheological and thermal properties of polystyrene nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Amr, Issam Thaher

    2011-09-01

    In this work, multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNT) were functionalized by acid treatment and characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Polystyrene/CNT composites of both the untreated and acid treated carbon nanotubes were prepared by thermal bulk polymerization without any initiator at different loadings of CNT. The tensile tests showed that the addition of 0.5 wt.% of acid treated CNT results in 22% increase in Young\\'s modulus. The DSC measurements showed a decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg) of PS in the composites. The rheological studies at 190 °C showed that the addition of untreated CNT increases the viscoelastic behavior of the PS matrix, while the acid treated CNT acts as plasticizer. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the incorporation of CNT into PS enhanced the thermal properties of the matrix polymer. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of the addition of polymers on the physico-chemical properties of bentonite suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljkovic S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite clays have many applications in industries ranging from construction to cosmetics. Addition of polymers can profoundly influence the properties of bentonite suspensions and we now describe the influence of a range of different polymers. Whereas polyvinyl pyrolidone and soy isolate only slightly influenced the pH and the electrical conductivity of bentonite polymers in suspension, Carbopol solution caused decreases in both pH and electrical conductivity. As expected, strong electrolytes like sodium chloride caused big changes in the electrical conductivity of the suspensions. When the temperature of the bentonite suspensions was increased, the pH was almost unchanged, but the electrical conductivity increased. Bentonite treated with polymer suspensions can be used in purifying polluted water; for example, our results suggest that high pH caused by phosphorous salts can be addressed using bentonite modified with Carbopol. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Stanisa Stojiljkovic, Vojkan Miljkovic, Goran Nikolic, Ivana Savic and Ivan Savic, TR 34020, Danijela Kostic 172047 and Biljana Arsic 174007

  1. Rheological characterization of nanocomposites Nylon 6/bentonite clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.R.G.; Fernandes, P.C.; Oliveira, S.V.; Araujo, E.M.; Melo, T.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites are a class of materials that have been widely used in various applications. Among them, has been emphasizing the preparation of polymer films with barrier properties for applications in polymer membranes. In this work, nanocomposites of nylon 6/bentonite clay were obtained from a Homogenizer, in the ratios of 1, 3 and 5 wt% clay. The Brasgel PA bentonite clay was treated organically with Praepagen HY salt, to make it organophilic. By X-ray diffraction (XRD), it was showed that the efficiency of the incorporation of salt in the clay. The rheological curves showed that for the AST clay the torque did not change when compared with the pure nylon 6, while for the clay ACT, the torque increased gradually with the percentage of clay. (author)

  2. Bentonite erosion by dilute waters in initially saturated bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olin, Markus; Seppaelae, Anniina; Laurila, Teemu; Koskinen, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. One scenario of interest for the long-term safety assessment of a spent nuclear fuel repository involves the loss of bentonite buffer material through contact with dilute groundwater at a transmissive fracture interface (SKB 2011, Posiva 2012a). The scenario is based on the stable colloids at low ionic strength: - the cohesive forces of bentonite decrease in low-salinity conditions, and colloids start to dominate and are able to leave the gel-like bentonite on the groundwater bentonite boundary; - after colloid formation, groundwater may carry away the only just released clay colloids; - low-salinity events are most probable during post-glacial conditions, when also pressure gradients are high, causing elevated flow velocity, which may enhance colloidal transport. Therefore, it is very important from the point of view of repository safety assessment to be able to estimate how much bentonite may be lost during a post-glacial event, when the groundwater salinity and velocity, as well as the duration of the event are fixed. It is possible that more than one event will hit the same canister and buffer, and that several canisters and buffers may be jeopardized. The results in the issue so far may be divided into modelling attempts and experimental work. The modelling has been based on two main guidelines: external (Birgersson et al., 2009) and internal friction models (Neretnieks et al., 2009). However, these models have not been validated for erosion, probably due to lack of suitable laboratory data. The latter approach is more ambitious due to lack of fitting parameters, though the internal friction model itself may be varied. The internal friction model has proven to be time-consuming to solve numerically. This work indicates that experiments carried out by Schatz et al. (2012) differ significantly from the predictions obtained from Neretnieks' model. We present our numerical modelling results based on a set of

  3. Modeling of Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Processes for Bentonite in a Clay-rock Repository for Heat-generating Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Rutqvist, J.; Zheng, L.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) that include a bentonite-based buffer are designed to isolate the high-level radioactive waste emplaced in tunnels in deep geological formations. The heat emanated from the waste can drive the moisture flow transport and induce strongly coupled Thermal (T), Hydrological (H), Mechanical (M) and Chemical (C) processes within the bentonite buffer and may also impact the evolution of the excavation disturbed zone and the sealing between the buffer and walls of an emplacement tunnel The flow and contaminant transport potential along the disturbed zone can be minimized by backfilling the tunnels with bentonite, if it provides enough swelling stress when hydrated by the host rock. The swelling capability of clay minerals within the bentonite is important for sealing gaps between bentonite block, and between the EBS and the surrounding host rock. However, a high temperature could result in chemical alteration of bentonite-based buffer and backfill materials through illitization, which may compromise the function of these EBS components by reducing their plasticity and capability to swell under wetting. Therefore, an adequate THMC coupling scheme is required to understand and to predict the changes of bentonite for identifying whether EBS bentonite can sustain higher temperatures. More comprehensive links between chemistry and mechanics, taking advantage of the framework provided by a dual-structure model, named Barcelona Expansive Model (BExM), was implemented in TOUGHREACT-FLAC3D and is used to simulate the response of EBS bentonite in in clay formation for a generic case. The current work is to evaluate the chemical changes in EBS bentonite and the effects on the bentonite swelling stress under high temperature. This work sheds light on the interaction between THMC processes, evaluates the potential deterioration of EBS bentonite and supports the decision making in the design of a nuclear waste repository in light of the maximum allowance

  4. The bentonite industry in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.A.; Hnatiw, D.S.J.; Walker, B.T.

    1992-11-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is studying a concept for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste at a depth of 500 to 1000 m below the surface in stable crystalline rock of the Canadian Shield. The waste containers would be surrounded by a clay-based buffer material, composed of equal proportions of bentonite clay and silica sand. In the reference disposal concept, some 1.9 x 10 5 Mg of used fuel would be emplaced. This would require 2.5 x 10 6 Mg of bentonite. A review of the bentonite industry in North America was carried out to establish the availability of sufficient high-quality material. There are proven reserves of sodium bentonite clay in excess of 1.5 x 10 8 Mg, and vast supplies are known to exist but not yet proven. The Canadian conceptual disposal vault would require 6 x 10 4 Mg of sodium bentonite each year for 40 years. The bentonite industry of North America has an installed annual production capacity of 2 x 10 7 Mg. A disposal vault would therefore require approximately 2% of the industry capacity. A number of commercial products have been screened for potential suitability for use as a component of the buffer. Ten currently marketed bentonite products have been identified as meeting the initial quality standards for the buffer, and two non-commercial bentonites have been identified as having the potential for use in a disposal vault. (Author) (14 figs., 7 tabs., 18 refs.)

  5. Treating high-mercury-containing lamps using full-scale thermal desorption technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T C; You, S J; Yu, B S; Chen, C M; Chiu, Y C

    2009-03-15

    The mercury content in high-mercury-containing lamps are always between 400 mg/kg and 200,000 mg/kg. This concentration is much higher than the 260 mg/kg lower boundary recommended for the thermal desorption process suggested by the US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. According to a Taiwan EPA survey, about 4,833,000 cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs), 486,000 ultraviolet lamps and 25,000 super high pressure mercury lamps (SHPs) have been disposed of in the industrial waste treatment system, producing 80, 92 and 9 kg-mercury/year through domestic treatment, offshore treatment and air emissions, respectively. To deal with this problem we set up a full-scale thermal desorption process to treat and recover the mercury from SHPs, fluorescent tube tailpipes, fluorescent tubes containing mercury-fluorescent powder, and CCFLs containing mercury-fluorescent powder and monitor the use of different pre-heating temperatures and desorption times. The experimental results reveal that the average thermal desorption efficiency of SHPs and fluorescent tube tailpipe were both 99.95%, while the average thermal desorption efficiencies of fluorescent tubes containing mercury-fluorescent powder were between 97% and 99%. In addition, a thermal desorption efficiency of only 69.37-93.39% was obtained after treating the CCFLs containing mercury-fluorescent powder. These differences in thermal desorption efficiency might be due to the complexity of the mercury compounds contained in the lamps. In general, the thermal desorption efficiency of lamps containing mercury-complex compounds increased with higher temperatures.

  6. Advances on study of temperature effects on hydro-mechanical behaviour of densely compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Weimin; Wan Min; Chen Bao; Liu Yuemiao; Cui Yujun

    2008-01-01

    During the operation of a multiple-barrier geological repository, bentonite that works as a buffer/fill material of an artificial barrier will suffer complex coupling effects of thermal (T), hydrological (H), mechanical (M) process, which comes from heat of the nuclear waste radiation, mechanical stress from parent rock mass and seepage action of groundwater. The scientific results show that temperature has influence on the water retention, saturated permeability, swelling pressure, swelling strain and thermal strain of compacted bentonite. As a whole, the research about GMZ (Gao Miaozi) bentonite, which may potentially be chose as Chinese buffer/backfill material for high radioactive nuclear waste disposal, has a long way to go compare to developed contraries. Based on comprehensive laboratory tests and advanced theoretical framework, both of the study on behaviour of compacted GMZ bentonite under HTM coupling conditions, and the establishment of a constitutive relation for prediction of behaviour of compacted bentonite under multi-field coupling conditions are important in theoretic and practical way. (authors)

  7. Permeability of highly compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1980-12-01

    The object of the study was the water flow through the bentonite which is caused by hydraulic gradients. The study comprised laboratory tests and theoretical considerations. It was found that high bulk densities reduced the permeability to very low values. It was concluded that practically impervious conditions prevail when the gradients are low. Thus with a regional gradient of 10 -2 and a premeability of 10 -13 m/s the flow rate will not be higher than approximately 1 mm in 30 000 years. (G.B.)

  8. Technological and Thermal Properties of Thermoplastic Composites Filled with Heat-treated Alder Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mürşit Tufan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of heat-treated wood content on the water absorption, mechanical, and thermal properties of wood plastic composites (WPCs. The WPCs were produced from various loadings (30, 40, and 50 wt% of heat-treated and untreated alder wood flours (Alnus glutinosa L. using high-density polyethylene (HDPE with 3 wt% maleated polyethylene (MAPE coupling agent. All WPC formulations were compression molded into a hot press for 3 min at 170 ºC. The WPCs were evaluated using mechanical testing, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The mechanical property values of the WPC specimens decreased with increasing amounts of the heat-treated wood flour, except for the tensile modulus values. The heat treatment of alder wood slightly increased the thermal stability of the WPCs compared with the reference WPCs. The crystallization degree (Xc and the enthalpy of crystallization of the WPCs slightly decreased with increasing content of the heat-treated wood flour. However, all WPCs containing the heat-treated alder wood flour showed a higher crystallinity degree than that of the virgin HDPE.

  9. Development of a machine treating removed shells and others in thermal and nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daiho, Koichi; Iwao, Takenobu

    1981-01-01

    The living things removed form the cooling water systems in thermal and nuclear power stations, such as shells and jelly fish, have been disposed by burying in the premises, but it is the actual situation that the occurrence of bad smell and the securing of land for burying are the worries. Accordingly, a machine for deodorizing the removed living things was manufactured for trial, and the treatment experiment was carried out in Chita Power Station. This treating machine dries the removed living things around 200 deg C, and makes the deodorizing treatment. The treated products can be utilized effectively as fertilizer, and the prospect to put this machine in practical use as a waste treatment machine of resource re-utilization type was obtained. General Technical Research Institute, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., has developed a machine treating abandoned fish for making organic fertilizer, and its principle was applied to the development of this treating machine. The treating capacity of this machine is 1 t/day, and the power consumption is 9.3 kW. The waste oil from power stations of about 15 l/h is used as the fuel. A crusher, a constant feed screw conveyer and a rotary kiln for drying are used. In the treating experiment, about 30 t of shells and others were treated during 51 days. The results are reported. (Kako, I.)

  10. Assessment Criteria of Bentonite Binding Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Żymankowska-Kumon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The criteria, with which one should be guided at the assessment of the binding properties of bentonites used for moulding sands, areproposed in the paper. Apart from the standard parameter which is the active bentonite content, the unrestrained growth indicator should be taken into account since it seems to be more adequate in the estimation of the sand compression strength. The investigations performed for three kinds of bentonites, applied in the Polish foundry plants, subjected to a high temperature influences indicate, that the pathway of changes of the unrestrained growth indicator is very similar to the pathway of changes of the sand compression strength. Instead, the character of changes of the montmorillonite content in the sand in dependence of the temperature is quite different. The sand exhibits the significant active bentonite content, and the sand compression strength decreases rapidly. The montmorillonite content in bentonite samples was determined by the modern copper complex method of triethylenetetraamine (Cu(II-TET. Tests were performed for bentonites and for sands with those bentonites subjected to high temperatures influences in a range: 100-700ºC.

  11. Rheological Behavior of Bentonite-Polyester Dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Omari, Salah Addin

    2013-07-01

    The rheological behavior of a bentonite clay dispersed in unsaturated polyester was investigated. The effects of the solid content and particle size on the steady and transient rheological properties of the dispersions were studied. In addition, two types of bentonite with different Na+/Ca+2 ratio were used in this study. The Herschel-Bulkley and the Weltman models were used to describe the apparent viscosity of the bentonite-polyester composite in relation to the shear rate and shearing time. The bentonite-polyester dispersions were found to exhibit both Newtonian and non-Newtonian behavior. The transition from a Newtonian to a Bingham plastic and then to a shear-thinning material with a yield stress was found to depend on the solid concentration, the particle size, and the type of bentonite. At a low solid content, the apparent viscosity of the bentonite dispersion increased linearly with solid concentration. But a dramatic increase in the apparent viscosity beyond a solid content of 20 wt.% was observed. On the other hand, a thixotropic behavior was detected in bentonite-polyester dispersions with a high solid content and a low particle size. However, this behavior was more pronounced in dispersions with a high Na+/Ca+2 ratio.

  12. Quality assurance of the bentonite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, L.; Korkeakoski, P.; Tiljander, M.; Kivikoski, H.; Laaksonen, R.

    2008-05-01

    This report describes a quality assurance chain for the bentonite material acquisition for a nuclear waste disposal repository. Chemical, mineralogical and geotechnical methods, which may be applied in quality control of bentonite are shortly reviewed. As a case study, many of the presented control studies were performed for six different bentonite samples. Chemical analysis is a very reliable research method to control material homogeneity, because the accuracy and repeatability of the study method is extremely good. Accurate mineralogical study of bentonite is a complicated task. X-ray diffractometry is the best method to identify smectite minerals, but quantitative analysis of smectite content remains uncertain. To obtain a better quantitative analysis, development of techniques based on automatic image analysis of SEM images is proposed. General characteristics of bentonite can be obtained by rapid indicator tests, which can be done on the place of reception. These tests are methylene blue test giving information on the cation exchange capacity, swelling index and determination of water absorption. Different methods were used in the determination of cation exchange capacity (CEC) of bentonite. The results indicated differences both between methodologies and between replicate determinations for the same material and method. Additional work should be done to improve the reliability and reproducibility of the methodology. Bentonite contains water in different modes. Thus, different determination methods are used in bentonite studies and they give somewhat dissimilar results. Clay research use frequently the so-called consistency tests (liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index). This study method does, however, not seem to be very practical in quality control of bentonite. Therefore, only the determination of liquid limit with fall-cone method is recommended for quality control. (orig.)

  13. Solidification and Biotoxicity Assessment of Thermally Treated Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) Fly Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bing; Deng, Yi; Yang, Yuanyi; Tan, Swee Ngin; Liu, Qianni; Yang, Weizhong

    2017-06-10

    In the present work, thermal treatment was used to stabilize municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, which was considered hazardous waste. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results indicated that, after the thermal process, the leaching concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Zn decreased from 8.08 to 0.16 mg/L, 0.12 to 0.017 mg/L and 0.39 to 0.1 mg/L, respectively, which well met the limits in GB5085.3-2007 and GB16689-2008. Thermal treatment showed a negative effect on the leachability of Cr with concentrations increasing from 0.1 to 1.28 mg/L; nevertheless, it was still under the limitations. XRD analysis suggested that, after thermal treatments, CaO was newly generated. CaO was a main contribution to higher Cr leaching concentrations owing to the formation of Cr (VI)-compounds such as CaCrO₄. SEM/EDS tests revealed that particle adhesion, agglomeration, and grain growth happened during the thermal process and thus diminished the leachability of Pb, Cu, and Zn, but these processes had no significant influence on the leaching of Cr. A microbial assay demonstrated that all thermally treated samples yet possessed strong bactericidal activity according to optical density (OD) test results. Among all samples, the OD value of raw fly ash (RFA) was lowest followed by FA700-10, FA900-10, and FA1100-10 in an increasing order, which indicated that the sequence of the biotoxicity for these samples was RFA > FA700-10 > FA900-10 > FA1100-10. This preliminary study indicated that, apart from TCLP criteria, the biotoxicity assessment was indispensable for evaluating the effect of thermal treatment for MSWI fly ash.

  14. Development of polymer nanocomposites with regional bentonite clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Edcleide M.; Leite, Amanda M.D.; Paz, Rene A. da; Medeiros, Keila M. de; Melo, Tomas J.A.; Barbosa, Josiane D.V.; Barbosa, Renata

    2011-01-01

    nanocomposites with regional bentonite clay were prepared by melt intercalation technique. The clays were studied without modification and modified with four quaternary ammonium salts. It was evidenced by X-ray diffraction that salts were incorporated into the clay structure thus confirming its organophilization. The nanocomposites were evaluated by means of thermal mechanic and flammability tests where presented properties significantly improved their pure polymers. The process of biodegradation of obtained bio nanocomposites was accelerated by the presence of clay. The produced membranes from nanocomposites have potential in the oil-water separation. (author)

  15. Saturation of compacted bentonite under repository conditions: long-term experimental evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, M.V.; Martin, P.L.; Gomez-Espina, R.; Garcia-Sineriz, J.L.; Barcena, I.; Lloret, A.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A current design for engineered barriers in the context of high-level radioactive waste disposal includes bentonite compacted blocks initially unsaturated. The heat released by the waste will induce high temperatures in the bentonite barrier. It is expected that full saturation of the buffer be reached before the dissipation of the thermal gradient. However, it still remains unclear whether the high temperatures around the canister would hinder the full saturation of the inner part of the barrier or just delay it. This paper summarises the information gathered in the last 15 years on the saturation of compacted FEBEX bentonite by means of different scale laboratory tests, a big-scale mock-up test and a real-scale in situ test, that were performed in order to simulate the conditions of the clay barrier in the repository and better understand the hydration/heating processes and their consequences on bentonite performance. FEBEX is a Spanish bentonite composed mainly of montmorillonite (about 92%). In the tests it has been used compacted with its hygroscopic water content (14%) at dry densities between 1.6 and 1.7 g/cm 3 , which is the range expected in the repository. For these densities the saturated permeability of the bentonite is about 3.10 -14 m/s and its swelling pressure 8 MPa. The FEBEX in situ test is being performed under natural conditions and at full scale within a drift excavated in the underground laboratory managed by NAGRA at the Grimsel Test Site (Switzerland). The thickness of the bentonite barrier is of 65 cm, and the surface heater temperature is 100 C. After five years of heating, and according to the sensors measurements, the bentonite closer to the heater had water contents below the initial ones, although they were recovering after the intense initial drying. On the contrary, for the same period of time, the sensors located at the same distance from the gallery wall, but in an area not

  16. Investigation on compression behaviour of highly compacted GMZ01 bentonite with suction and temperature control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, W.M., E-mail: ye_tju@tongji.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Geotechnical and Underground Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); United Research Center for Urban Environment and Sustainable Development, The Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang, Y.W.; Chen, B.; Zheng, Z.J.; Chen, Y.G. [Key Laboratory of Geotechnical and Underground Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Cui, Y.J. [Key Laboratory of Geotechnical and Underground Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, UR Navier/CERMES 77455 (France)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating induced volumetric change of GMZ01 bentonite depends on suction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suction has significant influence on compressibility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature has slight influence on compressibility. - Abstract: In this paper, an oedometer with suction and temperature control was developed. Mechanical compaction tests have been performed on the highly compacted GMZ01 bentonite, which has been recognized as potential buffer/backfill material for construction of Chinese high-level radioactive waste (HLW) geological repository, under conditions of suction ranging from 0 to 110 MPa, temperature from 20 to 80 Degree-Sign C and vertical pressure from 0.1 to 80 MPa. Based on the test results, suction and temperature effects on compressibility parameters are investigated. Results reveal that: (1) at high suctions, heating induced an expansion, while contraction is induced by heating at low suctions. The thermal expansion coefficient of GMZ01 bentonite measured is 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} Degree-Sign C{sup -1}; (2) with increasing suction, the elastic compressibility {kappa} and the plastic compressibility {lambda}(s) of the highly compacted GMZ01 bentonite decrease, while the pre-consolidation pressure increases markedly; (3) with increasing temperature, the elastic compressibility of compacted GMZ01 bentonite changes insignificantly, while the plastic compressibility {lambda}(s) slightly decreases and the yield surface tends to shrink.

  17. Investigation on compression behaviour of highly compacted GMZ01 bentonite with suction and temperature control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, W.M.; Zhang, Y.W.; Chen, B.; Zheng, Z.J.; Chen, Y.G.; Cui, Y.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Heating induced volumetric change of GMZ01 bentonite depends on suction. ► Suction has significant influence on compressibility. ► Temperature has slight influence on compressibility. - Abstract: In this paper, an oedometer with suction and temperature control was developed. Mechanical compaction tests have been performed on the highly compacted GMZ01 bentonite, which has been recognized as potential buffer/backfill material for construction of Chinese high-level radioactive waste (HLW) geological repository, under conditions of suction ranging from 0 to 110 MPa, temperature from 20 to 80 °C and vertical pressure from 0.1 to 80 MPa. Based on the test results, suction and temperature effects on compressibility parameters are investigated. Results reveal that: (1) at high suctions, heating induced an expansion, while contraction is induced by heating at low suctions. The thermal expansion coefficient of GMZ01 bentonite measured is 1 × 10 −4 °C −1 ; (2) with increasing suction, the elastic compressibility κ and the plastic compressibility λ(s) of the highly compacted GMZ01 bentonite decrease, while the pre-consolidation pressure increases markedly; (3) with increasing temperature, the elastic compressibility of compacted GMZ01 bentonite changes insignificantly, while the plastic compressibility λ(s) slightly decreases and the yield surface tends to shrink.

  18. Improving the quality of biopolymer (poly lactic acid) with the addition of bentonite as filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani; Agusnar, Harry; Wirjosentono, Basuki; Rihayat, Teuku; Nurhanifa

    2017-07-01

    PLA (Poly Lactid Acid) - Bentonite polymer nanocomposite which is a combination of natural and nanometer-scale inorganic substances created through three processes, mixing using a melt blending, molding with a hot press using specimens Standard ASTM D 638 Type IV and drying. In this study, PLA combined with two types of natural bentonite obtained from different areas to find differences in the quality of the results of characterization. To optimize the performance of filler, before mixing, bentonite have to furificate first with (NaPO3)6 and also open the interlayer space with CTAB. D-spacing of bentonite imterlayer were analyze by X-Ray difraction (XRD). Characterization bionanocomposite resulting morphologic structure was tested using a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Mechanical analysis of PLA-bentonite nanocomposite in the form of tensile strength was tested using a tensile test specimens of standard American Standard for Testing Materials (ASTM) D 638 Type 4, and thermal resistance using Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA).

  19. Comparative study by TG and DSC Of membranes polyamide66/bentonite clay nanocomposite; Estudo comparativo por TG e DSC de membranas de nanocompositos poliamida66/argila bentonitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, K.M. de; Kojuch, L R; Araujo, E M; Lira, H.L., E-mail: keilamm@ig.com.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Lima, F [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba (UEPB), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    In this study, it was obtained membranes of nanocomposites polyamide66 with 3 and 5% bentonite clay consists of silicates in layers from the interior of Paraiba. The clay was treated with a quaternary ammonium salt in order to make it organophilic. The membranes were prepared by phase inversion technique from the nanocomposites in solution. The clays were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry (TG). Also the membranes were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and TG. The XRD and TG confirmed the presence of salt in the clay and thermal stability of the treated clay. For DSC, it was observed that there was no change in melting temperature of the membranes of nanocomposites compared to membrane pure polyamide66. By TG, it was found that the decomposition of the membranes of polyamide66 with treated clay were higher compared with the untreated clay. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the behavior of Brazilian bentonite clays with different quantity of quaternary ammonium salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Renata; Souza, Dayanne Diniz; Araujo, Edcleide Maria; Nobrega, Karine Castro; Melo, Tomas Jeferson Alves

    2009-01-01

    Paraiba is the main natural bentonite producing state of Brazil. Besides the advantage of abundance of bentonite clays, its transformation in organoclay is a simple method and there is only little study about the commercialization of Brazilian organoclays. In this work, Brazilian bentonite clay was organophilized with different quantity of a quaternary ammonium salt, such as 100, 125 and 150 wt.% in relation to Cationic Exchange Capacity (CEC) of the clay. The clays were characterized by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetry (TG) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). It was observed that with increasing amount of salt the degree of dispersion of the clay increased, leading in some cases to the delamination of the clay layers and its loss of thermal stability. (author)

  1. Structural characterization of bentonite clays for utilization as nanofillers in nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Carlos Ivan Ribeiro de; Rocha, Marisa Cristina Guimares; Vogas, Arthur Considera

    2014-01-01

    Clays of different composition have been used in the development of polymer nanocomposites. However, the utilization of bentonite clays has been emphasized in Brazil, mainly due to their availability.The best known and studied deposits of bentonite clays are located in the state of Paraiba. However, these deposits are becoming exhausted after decades of exploitation. In this context, the aim of this work is to proceed the physical-mineralogical characterization of bentonite clays recently discovered in Cubati, PB. In order to achieve this objective, the samples underwent a particle size classification step and were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Results of X-ray diffraction showed that the samples are composed of smectite, and kaolinite and quartz. The characterization of the samples by FTIR confirmed these results. Results of chemical analysis showed that the clays have predominantly different exchangeable cations. (author)

  2. Bentonite as a colloid source in groundwaters at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, U.; Hirvonen, H.

    2005-02-01

    In this work bentonite was studied as a potential source of colloids in Olkiluoto groundwaters. Samples were collected at two groundwater stations, PVA1 at 37.5 m dept and PVA3 at 95.6 m depth, in the VLJ-tunnel. The deeper groundwater at PVA3 was more saline (2.6g/L of Cl-) than the shallow at PVA1 (0.8g/L of Cl-). A bentonite source had been assembled at each groundwater station so that two sample lines were available for water samples; one for collecting a sample before and the other for collecting a sample after interaction with bentonite. Before starting the actual colloid sampling groundwaters from both sample lines at both stations were analysed. Only minor alterations, mostly within the uncertainty limits of the analysis methods, were brought about in the water chemistries after interaction with the bentonite sources. The only clear changes were seen in the concentration of iron which decreased after interaction with bentonite in the groundwaters at both stations. After groundwater sampling the actual colloid sampling was performed. The water samples were collected and treated inside a movable nitrogen filled glove-box. The samples could be collected from each sampling line directly in the glove-box via two quick-couplings that had been assembled on the front face of the box. The sample lines had been assembled with 0.45 μm filters before entering the glove-box, because only colloids smaller than 0.45 μm were of interest, as they are not prone to sedimentation in slow groundwater flows and therefore could act as potential radionuclide carriers. Colloid samples were collected and treated similarly from both sampling lines at both groundwater stations. For estimating the colloid content the groundwater samples were filtered with centrifugal ultrafiltration tubes of different cut-off values (0.3 μm, 300kD and 10kD). The ultrafiltrations produced the colloid-containing concentrate fractions and the soluble substances-containing filtrate fractions. In

  3. Organophilization and characterization of commercial bentonite clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, B.B. da; Lima, J.C.C.; Alves, A.M.; Araujo, E.M.; Melo, T.J.A. de

    2012-01-01

    Bentonite clay is a plastic changes resulting from volcanic ash, consisting mostly of montmorillonite. The state of Paraiba is a major source of bentonite clay from Brazil, where the main oil fields are located in Boa Vista and represents the largest national production of raw and beneficiated bentonite. Aimed at the commercial value of this type of clay and its high applicability in the polls, this article aims to make a comparison between two kinds of clay, a national (Brasgel) and other imported (Cloisite) from organophilization of two commercial bentonite, ionic surfactant with Praepagem WB, and characterize them by XRD, FTIR and TG / DTG. We observe that despite getting inferior properties, the clay presents national values very similar to those presented by imported clay. (author)

  4. Quality control and characterization of bentonite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiviranta, L.; Kumpulainen, S.

    2011-12-01

    Before bentonite material is taken into use in performance testing, the quality of the material needs to be checked. Three high grade bentonite materials: two natural Nabentonites from Wyoming, and one natural Ca-bentonite from Milos, were characterized. Each material was characterized using duplicate or triplicate samples in order to study variability in material quality in batches. The procedure consisted of basic acceptance testing (water ratio, CEC, swelling index, liquid limit, and granule size distribution), advanced acceptance testing (exchangeable cations, chemical and mineralogical composition, density, swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity) and complementary testing (herein surface area, water absorption capacity, montmorillonite composition, grain size distribution and plastic limit). All three materials qualified the requirements set for buffer bentonite for CEC, smectite content, swelling pressure, and hydraulic conductivity. Wyoming bentonites contained approximately 88 wt.% of smectite, and Milos bentonite 79 wt.% of smectite and 3 wt.% of illite. Precision of smectite analyses was ±2 %, and variances in composition of parallel samples within analytical errors, at least for Wyoming bentonites. Accuracy of quantitative analyses for trace minerals such as gypsum, pyrite or carbonates, was however low. As the concentrations of these trace minerals are important for Eh or pH buffering reactions or development of bentonite pore water composition, normative concentrations are recommended to be used instead of mineralogically determined concentrations. The swelling pressures and hydraulic conductivities of different materials were compared using EMDD. Swelling pressure was relatively higher for studied Cabentonite than for the studied Na-bentonites and the difference could not be explained with different smectite contents. Hydraulic conductivities seemed to be similar for all materials. The results of index tests correlated with the smectite content

  5. Calculation of saturated hydraulic conductivity of bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jun

    2006-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivity test has some defects such as weak repeatability, time-consuming. Taking bentonite as dual porous media, the calculation formula of the distance, d 2 , between montmorillonite in intraparticle pores is deduced. Improved calculated method of hydraulic conductivity is obtained using d 2 and Poiseuille law. The method is valid through the comparison with results of test and other methods. The method is very convenient to calculate hydraulic conductivity of bentonite of certain montmorillonite content and void ratio. (authors)

  6. Optimization of bentonite pellet properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanden, Torbjoern; Andersson, Linus; Jonsson, Esther; Fritzell, Anni

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. SKB in Sweden is developing and implementing concepts for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. A KBS-3V repository consists of a deposition tunnel with copper canisters containing spent fuel placed in vertical deposition holes. The canisters are embedded in highly compacted bentonite. After emplacement of canisters and bentonite blocks, the tunnels will be backfilled and sealed with an in-situ cast plug at the entrance. The main concept for backfilling the deposition tunnels imply pre compacted blocks of bentonite stacked on a bed of bentonite pellet. The remaining slot between blocks and rock will be filled with bentonite pellets. The work described in this abstract is a part of the ASKAR-project which main goal is to make a system design based on the selected concept for backfilling. Immediately after starting the backfill installation, inflowing water from the rock will come in contact with the pellet filling and thereby influence the characteristics of the pellet filling. The pellet filling helps to increase the average density of the backfill, but one of the most important properties beside this is the water storing capacity which will prevent water from reaching the backfill front where it would disturb and influence the quality of the installation. If water flows through the pellet filling out to the backfilling front, there will be erosion of material which also will affect the quality of the installed backfill. In order to optimize the properties regarding water storing capacity and sensitivity for erosion a number of tests have been made with different pellet types. The tests were made in different scales and with equipment specially designed for the purpose. The performed tests can be divided in four parts: 1. Standard tests (determining water content and density of pellet fillings and individual pellets, compressibility of the pellet fillings and strength of the individual pellets); 2. Erosion

  7. Removal of oil from water by bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moazed, H.; Viraraghavan, T.

    1999-01-01

    Many materials, included activated carbon, peat, coal, fiberglass, polypropylene, organoclay and bentonite have been used for removing oils and grease from water. However, bentonite has been used only rarely for this purpose. In this study Na-bentonite was used to remove oil from oil-in-water emulsions of various kinds such as standard mineral oil, cutting oils, refinery effluent and produced water from production wells at Estevan, Saskatchewan. Removal efficiencies obtained were 85 to 96 per cent for cutting oils, 84 to 86 per cent for produced water and 54 to 87 per cent for refinery effluent. Bentonite proved to be more effective in the removal of oil from oil-in-water emulsions than from actual waste waters; up to 96 percent from oil-in-water emulsions to only 87 per cent from actual waste water. The percentage of oil removed was found to be a function of the amount of bentonite added and the adsorption time up to the equilibrium time. Result also showed that the Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms are well suited to describe the adsorption of oil by bentonite from the various oily waters employed in this study. 15 refs

  8. Hydraulic conductivity of some bentonites in artificial seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, Hideo; Murakami, Satoshi; Yasuhara, Kazuya

    2011-01-01

    A high-level radioactive waste disposal facility might be built in a coastal area in Japan from the viewpoint of feasible transportation of waste. Therefore, it is important to investigate the effects of seawater on a bentonite-based buffer. This study investigated the influence of seawater on hydraulic conductivity of three common sodium-types of bentonite and one calcium-type bentonite by the laboratory experiments. >From the results of laboratory experiment, this study discussed the influence of seawater on hydraulic conductivity of bentonites from the viewpoints of kinds of bentonite such as exchangeable-cation type and montmorillonite content and dry density of bentonite-based buffer. (author)

  9. Review of the properties and uses of bentonite as a buffer and backfill material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, D.; Lind, A.; Arthur, R.C.

    1999-05-01

    Research carried out by SKB on the use and behaviour of bentonite as a buffer and backfill material in a radioactive waste repository has been reviewed. The following research areas have been evaluated: mechanical properties; hydraulic and other transport properties; geochemical properties; thermal properties and resaturation; gas migration; manufacturing and emplacement procedures. This review has shown that SKB has carried out much pioneering and world-leading research on bentonite, particularly with regard to analogue studies, microtextural work and practical manufacturing and emplacement procedures. However, there are a number of subject areas which appear less well addressed than others which require further attention: The extrapolation of experimental results of the mechanical properties of bentonite to repository timescales and repository conditions should be investigated further. There is a need for detailed microstructural analysis of materials as part of experimental programmes. This would enable SKB to build confidence in the interpretations of results and reveal whether the mechanical processes occurring during experimentation truly reflect expectations of the performance of the repository. The large amount of experimental, theoretical, empirical datasets and computer models of the mechanical properties of bentonite need to be collated to form a database which is assessable and relevant to those involved in performance assessment calculations. At present, the valuable results of many excellent research projects on mechanical properties of bentonite buffer are not readily available. There seems to be a relatively poor understanding of the mechanisms of radionuclide diffusion through compacted bentonite. Other international work suggests that diffusion coefficients are much lower than those applied by SKB in its PA work. The importance of surface diffusion to describe diffusion in bentonite for certain chemical species ascribed by SKB is not reflected in

  10. Review of the properties and uses of bentonite as a buffer and backfill material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, D.; Lind, A. [QuantiSci Ltd., Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Arthur, R.C. [QuantiSci lnc., Denver, CO (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Research carried out by SKB on the use and behaviour of bentonite as a buffer and backfill material in a radioactive waste repository has been reviewed. The following research areas have been evaluated: mechanical properties; hydraulic and other transport properties; geochemical properties; thermal properties and resaturation; gas migration; manufacturing and emplacement procedures. This review has shown that SKB has carried out much pioneering and world-leading research on bentonite, particularly with regard to analogue studies, microtextural work and practical manufacturing and emplacement procedures. However, there are a number of subject areas which appear less well addressed than others which require further attention: The extrapolation of experimental results of the mechanical properties of bentonite to repository timescales and repository conditions should be investigated further. There is a need for detailed microstructural analysis of materials as part of experimental programmes. This would enable SKB to build confidence in the interpretations of results and reveal whether the mechanical processes occurring during experimentation truly reflect expectations of the performance of the repository. The large amount of experimental, theoretical, empirical datasets and computer models of the mechanical properties of bentonite need to be collated to form a database which is assessable and relevant to those involved in performance assessment calculations. At present, the valuable results of many excellent research projects on mechanical properties of bentonite buffer are not readily available. There seems to be a relatively poor understanding of the mechanisms of radionuclide diffusion through compacted bentonite. Other international work suggests that diffusion coefficients are much lower than those applied by SKB in its PA work. The importance of surface diffusion to describe diffusion in bentonite for certain chemical species ascribed by SKB is not reflected in

  11. Physicochemical and Geotechnical Alterations to MX-80 Bentonite at the Waste Canister Interface in an Engineered Barrier System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. Davies

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the basic geomechanical and mineralogical evolution of the bentonite barrier under various experimental boundary conditions which replicated the near-field Thermo-Hydro-Chemico (THC conditions in a repository. The relationships between the physicochemical alterations and changes in the geotechnical properties have seldom been studied, especially on a consistent dataset. This paper attempts to link the physicochemical properties of Na-bentonite (MX-80 to the macro-scale engineering functionality of the bentonite post THC exposure. Experiments investigated the impact of THC variables on the engineering and physicochemical functionality of the bentonite with respect to its application within a High-Level Waste (HLW engineered barrier system. Intrinsic alterations to the MX-80 bentonite under relatively short-term exposure to hydrothermal and chemical conditions were measured. Additionally, two long-term tests were conducted under ambient conditions to consider the impact of exposure duration. The intrinsic measurements were then related to the overall performance of the bentonite as a candidate barrier material for application in a UK geological disposal facility. Findings indicate that exposure to thermo-saline-corrosion conditions (i.e., corrosion products derived from structural grade 275 carbon steel inhibits the free swell capacity and plasticity of the bentonite. However, the measured values remained above the design limits set out for the Swedish multi-barrier concept, from which the UK concept may take a lead. Corrosion alone does not appear to significantly affect the geotechnical measurements compared with the influence of thermal loading and high saline pore water after relatively short-term exposure. Thermal and corrosion exposure displayed no impact on the intrinsic swelling of the smectite component, indicating that no significant structural alteration had occurred. However, when exploring more complex saline

  12. Removal of Cd (II from Aqueous Media by Adsorption onto Chemically and Thermally Treated Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Camila Hoyos-Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemically and thermally treated rice husks were evaluated as a potential decontaminant of toxic Cd (II in aqueous media. Rice husk (RH, a by-product from rice milling, was chemically treated with HCl and NaOH. Then, thermal treatments to 300, 500, and 700°C were applied. The chemical composition and morphological characteristics of RH were evaluated by different techniques. The specific surface area analysis of RH samples by BET nitrogen adsorption method provided specific surface areas ranging from 6 to 14 m2/g. SEM, FTIR, and EDX analyses of RH were carried out to determine the surface morphology, functional groups involved in metal binding mechanism, and C/O and C/Si ratios, respectively. The maximum Cd (II adsorption capacity was 28.27 mg/g at an optimum pH, 6.0. The kinetic studies revealed that adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  13. [Gradient elevation of temperature startup experiment of thermophilic ASBR treating thermal-hydrolyzed sewage sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Er-Ming; Wang, Wei; Long, Neng; Li, Huai

    2009-04-15

    Startup experiment was conducted for thermophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) treating thermal-hydrolyzed sewage sludge using the strategy of the step-wise temperature increment: 35 degrees C-->40 degrees C-->47 degrees C-->53 degrees C. The results showed that the first step-increase (from 35 degrees C to 40 degrees C) and final step-increase (from 47 degrees C to 53 degrees C) had only a slight effect on the digestion process. The second step-increase (from 40 degrees C to 47 degrees C) resulted in a severe disturbance: the biogas production, methane content, CODeffluent and microorganism all have strong disturbance. At the steady stage of thermophilic ASBR treating thermal-hydrolyzed sewage sludge, the average daily gas production, methane content, specific methane production (CH4/CODinfluent), TCOD removal rate and SCOD removal rate were 2.038 L/d, 72.0%, 188.8 mL/g, 63.8%, 83.3% respectively. The results of SEM and DGGE indicated that the dominant species are obviously different at early stage and steady stage.

  14. Effect of reactor radiation on the thermal conductivity of TREAT fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Kun, E-mail: kunmo@anl.gov; Miao, Yinbin; Kontogeorgakos, Dimitrios C.; Connaway, Heather M.; Wright, Arthur E.; Yacout, Abdellatif M.

    2017-04-15

    The Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) at the Idaho National Laboratory is resuming operations after more than 20 years in latency in order to produce high-neutron-flux transients for investigating transient-induced behavior of reactor fuels and their interactions with other materials and structures. A parallel program is ongoing to develop a replacement core in which the fuel, historically containing highly-enriched uranium (HEU), is replaced by low-enriched uranium (LEU). Both the HEU and prospective LEU fuels are in the form of UO{sub 2} particles dispersed in a graphite matrix, but the LEU fuel will contain a much higher volume of UO{sub 2} particles, which may create a larger area of interphase boundaries between the particles and the graphite. This may lead to a higher volume fraction of graphite exposed to the fission fragments escaping from the UO{sub 2} particles, and thus may induce a higher volume of fission-fragment damage on the fuel graphite. In this work, we analyzed the reactor-radiation induced thermal conductivity degradation of graphite-based dispersion fuel. A semi-empirical method to model the relative thermal conductivity with reactor radiation was proposed and validated based on the available experimental data. Prediction of thermal conductivity degradation of LEU TREAT fuel during a long-term operation was performed, with a focus on the effect of UO{sub 2} particle size on fission-fragment damage. The proposed method can be further adjusted to evaluate the degradation of other properties of graphite-based dispersion fuel.

  15. Fabrication and handling of bentonite blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    In accordance with the project for the final storage of spent nuclear fuel, the waste will be encapsulated into copper canisters, which will be deposited in a final repository located in rock 500 m below ground level. The canisters will be placed in vertical holes in the bottoms of the tunnels, where the copper cylinders will be surrounded by blocks of highly compacted bentonite. When the blocks are saturated with water and expansion is essentially retained as in the actual case, a very high swelling pressure will arise. The bentonite will be extremely impermeable and thus it will form a barrier against transport of corrosive matters to the canister. The blocks are fabricated by means of cold isostatic pressing of bentonite powder. The base material in the form of powder is enclosed in flexible forms, which are introduced into pressure vessels where the forms are surrounded by oil or water. Thus the powder is compacted into rigid bodies with a bulk density of about 2.2 t/m 3 for ''air dry'' bentonite, which might be compared with a specific density of about 2.7 t/m 3 . The placing of a canister is preceded by piling up bentonite blocks to a level just below the canister lid position, after which the slot around the blocks is filled with bentonite powder. The rest of the blocks are mounted after filling bentonite powder into the inner slot around the canister as well. Finally the storage tunnels will be sealed by filling them with a mixture o02067NRM 0000181 45

  16. Microbial activity in bentonite buffers. Literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratto, M.; Itavaara, M.

    2012-07-01

    The proposed disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes involves storing the wastes underground in copper-iron containers embedded in buffer material of compacted bentonite. Hydrogen sulphide production by sulphate-reducing prokaryotes is a potential mechanism that could cause corrosion of waste containers in repository conditions. The prevailing conditions in compacted bentonite buffer will be harsh. The swelling pressure is 7-8 MPa, the amount of free water is low and the average pore and pore throat diameters are small. This literature study aims to assess the potential of microbial activity in bentonite buffers. Literature on the environmental limits of microbial life in extreme conditions and the occurrence of sulphatereducing prokaryotes in extreme environments is reviewed briefly and the results of published studies characterizing microbes and microbial processes in repository conditions or in relevant subsurface environments are presented. The presence of bacteria, including SRBs, has been confirmed in deep groundwater and bentonite-based materials. Sulphate reducers have been detected in various high-pressure environments, and sulphate-reduction based on hydrogen as an energy source is considered a major microbial process in deep subsurface environments. In bentonite, microbial activity is strongly suppressed, mainly due to the low amount of free water and small pores, which limit the transport of microbes and nutrients. Spore-forming bacteria have been shown to survive in compacted bentonite as dormant spores, and they are able to resume a metabolically active state after decompaction. Thus, microbial sulphide production may increase in repository conditions if the dry density of the bentonite buffer is locally reduced. (orig.)

  17. Simulation of bentonite colloid migration through granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosicka, Dana; Hokr, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Colloidal bentonite particles generate at the interface of buffer and host rock in spent nuclear fuel repository due to an erosion process and migrate through granite by the water flow. Stability of these colloids and their migration possibilities have been studied on account of radionuclide transport possibility as colloid could carry adsorbed radionuclides in groundwater through granite. That is why a simulation of bentonite colloid migration in the surrounding of a repository might be requested. According to chemical condition as ionic strength and pH, the colloidal particles coagulate into clusters and that influence the migration of particles. The coagulation kinetics of natural bentonite colloids were experimentally studied in many articles, for example by light scattering techniques. We created a model of coagulation of bentonite colloids and simulation of a chosen experiment with use of the multicomponent reactive transport equation. The coagulation model describes clustering of particles due to attractive van der Waals forces as result of collision of particles due to heat fluctuation and different velocity of particles during sedimentation and velocity gradient of water flow. Next, the model includes influence of repulsive electrostatic forces among colloidal particles leading to stability of particles provided high surface charge of colloids. In the model, each group of clusters is transported as one solution component and the kinetics of coagulation are implemented as reactions between the components: a shift of particles among groups of particles with similar migration properties, according to size of the clusters of colloids. The simulation of migration of bentonite colloid through granite using the coagulation model was calibrated according to experiment results. On the basis of the simulation, one can estimate the basic processes that occur during bentonite colloid

  18. Chemical interaction of fresh and saline waters with compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Lehikoinen, J.; Melamed, A.; Pitkaenen, P.

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of compacted sodium bentonite with fresh and saline ground-water simulant was studied. The parameters varied in the experiments were the compositions of the solutions and oxygen and carbon dioxide content in the surroundings. The main interests of the study were the chemical changes in the experimental solution, bentonite porewater and bentonite together with the microstructural properties of bentonite. The major processes with fresh water were the diffusion of sodium, potassium, sulphate, bicarbonate and chloride from bentonite to the solution, and the diffusion of calcium and magnesium from the solution into bentonite. The major processes in the experiments with saline water were the diffusion of the sodium, magnesium, sulphate and bicarbonate from bentonite into the solution, and the diffusion of calcium from the solution into bentonite

  19. Evaluation of gas migration characteristics of compacted bentonite and Ca-bentonite mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yukihisa; Hironaga, Michihiko

    2014-01-01

    In the current concept of subsurface disposal and near-surface pit disposal for low level radioactive waste, compacted bentonite and Ca-bentonite mixture will be used as an engineered barrier mainly for inhibiting migration of radioactive nuclides, respectively. Hydrogen gas can be generated inside the engineered barrier of subsurface disposal facilities mainly by anaerobic corrosion of metals used for containers, etc. Hydrogen gas can be also generated inside the engineered barrier of near-surface pit disposal facilities mainly by the chemical interaction between aluminum and the alkaline component of cement, or water. If the gas generation rate exceeds the diffusion rate of gas molecules inside of the compacted bentonite and Ca-bentonite mixture, gas will accumulate in the void space inside of the compacted bentonite and Ca-bentonite mixture until breakthrough occurs. It is expected to be not easy for gas to entering into the compacted bentonite mixture as a discrete gaseous phase because the pore of the compacted bentonite and Ca-bentonite mixture is so minute. Therefore in this study, the gas migration characteristics and the effect of gas migration on the hydraulic conductivity of the compacted bentonite and Ca-bentonite mixture are investigated by the gas migration tests. The applicability of the two phase flow model without considering deformability of the specimen is investigated. The applicability of the model of two phase flow through deformable porous media, which was originally developed by CRIEPI, is also investigated. Results of this study imply that : (1) Gas migration mechanism of the compacted bentonite and Ca-bentonite mixture is revealed through gas migration test. (2) Hydraulic conductivity measured after the large gas breakthrough is substantially the same that measured before the gas migration test. (3) Stress change, pore-water pressure change and volume change of the specimen during the gas migration test can be reproduced by the numerical

  20. A coupled THMC model of a heating and hydration laboratory experiment in unsaturated compacted FEBEX bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.; Fernandez, A.M.

    2010-05-01

    Unsaturated compacted bentonite is foreseen by several countries as a backfill and sealing material in high-level radioactive waste repositories. The strong interplays between thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes during the hydration stage of a repository call for fully coupled THMC models. Validation of such THMC models is prevented by the lack of comprehensive THMC experiments and the difficulties of experimental methods to measure accurately the chemical composition of bentonite porewater. We present here a non-isothermal multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive solute transport model for a deformable medium of a heating and hydration experiment performed on a sample of compacted FEBEX bentonite. Besides standard solute transport and geochemical processes, the model accounts for solute cross diffusion and thermal and chemical osmosis. Bentonite swelling is solved with a state-surface approach. The THM model is calibrated with transient temperature, water content and porosity data measured at the end of the experiment. The reactive transport model is calibrated with porewater chemical data derived from aqueous extract data. Model results confirm that thermal osmosis is relevant for the hydration of FEBEX bentonite while chemical osmosis can be safely neglected. Dilution and evaporation are the main processes controlling the concentration of conservative species. Dissolved cations are mostly affected by calcite dissolution-precipitation and cation exchange reactions. Dissolved sulphate is controlled by gypsum/anhydrite dissolution-precipitation. pH is mostly buffered by protonation/deprotonation via surface complexation. Computed concentrations agree well with inferred aqueous extract data at all sections except near the hydration boundary where cation data are affected by a sampling artifact. The fit of Cl{sup -} data is excellent except for the data near the heater. The largest deviations of the model from inferred aqueous

  1. Study of process variables on organophilization of Cubati-PB bentonite clays with ionic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.D. da; Lima, R.C.O.; Costa, J.M.R.; Silva, E.I.A.; Neves, G.A.; Ferreira, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    The organophilic clays used as agent in the composition dispersed in petroleum drilling fluids, play important roles during drilling. This work aims at the development of several varieties of smectites Cubati-PB for use in drilling fluids for oil with the use of ionic surfactants. We used the following materials: natural bentonite clay Cinza Superior and Verde Superior, from the district of Cubati-PB and ionic quaternary ammonium salt: Praepagen WB®, with 45% active matter. The organoclays were characterized by the laser diffraction, chemical composition by x-ray, differential thermal analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis and x-ray diffraction. Globally found that clays have diffraction and thermal behavior typical of bentonite clay. The results showed showed that the clay used has the potential for application in the process of organophilic and, with respect the process variables has been observed that they do not alter the process organophilization. (author)

  2. Sorption behavior of cesium onto bentonite colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Kazuki; Masuda, Tsuguya; Tomura, Tsutomu

    2004-01-01

    It is considered that bentonite colloid might be generated from bentonite which will be used as buffer material in geological disposal system, and can facilitate the migration of radionuclides by means of sorption. In order to examine this characteristic, sorption and desorption experiments of Cs onto bentonite colloid were carried out to obtain its distribution coefficient (Kd) and information on the reversibility of its sorption. In addition, particle size distribution and shape of colloid were investigated and their effect on the sorption behavior was discussed. Kds for Cs were around 20 m 3 /kg for sorption and 30 m 3 /kg for desorption, in which sorbed Cs was desorbed by 8.4x10 -4 mol/l of NaCl solution. These values did not show any dependencies on Cs concentration and duration of sorption and desorption. The first 20% of sorbed Cs was desorbed reversibly at least. Most of colloidal particles were larger than 200 nm and TEM micrographs showed they had only several sheets of the clay crystal. Obtained Kds for colloidal bentonite were larger than those for powdered bentonite. This can be caused by difference of competing ions in the solution, characteristics of contained smectite, or sorption site density. (author)

  3. Bentonite-amended soil special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This special study was conducted to assess the viability of soil with a high percentage of bentonite added as an infiltration barrier in the cover of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cells. To achieve maximum concentration limits (MCLs) at several UMTRA Project sites, covers with a very low permeability are needed. If alternate concentration limits (ACLs) are the appropriate site groundwater compliance strategy, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is required to demonstrate, among other things, that the infiltration to the disposal cell is as low as reasonably achievable, and hence that the cover has a very low permeability. When the study discussed here was begun, the lowest permeability element available was CLAYMAX R , a manufactured liner material constructed of natural material (bentonite clay) between two geosynthetics.The strength of soil-bentonite mixes was measured to see if they could be placed on sideslopes and not pose stability problems. Also evaluated were the hydraulic conductivities of soil-bentonite mixes. If the strengths and permeabilities of soils with a high percentage of bentonite are favorable, the soils may be used as infiltration barriers in current cover designs without changing pile geometries. The scope of work for this study called for a literature review and a two-phased laboratory testing program. This report presents the results of the literature review and the first phase of the testing program

  4. BaM bentonite and some of its properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, Oldřich; Vávra Michal; Kachlík, Martin; Maca, Karel; Kotnour, Petr; Pospíšková, Ilona

    2018-01-01

    BaM bentonite is lime-magnesium bentonite of domestic origin. Its properties were measured experimentally with focus on the following parameters: composition, morphology and particle size distribution, powder bulk density, powder pressing parameters, shear strength, and water saturation. The findings will find use in nuclear safety assessments of engineered bentonite barriers in underground nuclear waste disposal facilities. (orig.)

  5. Impact of an angiotensin analogue in treating thermal and combined radiation injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Sachin Suresh

    Background: In recent years there has been a growing concern regarding the use of nuclear weapons by terrorists. Such incidents in the past have shown that radiation exposure is often accompanied by other forms of trauma such as burns, wounds or infection; leading to increased mortality rates among the affected individuals. This increased risk with combined radiation injury has been attributed to the delayed wound healing observed in this injury. The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) has emerged as a critical regulator of wound healing. Angiotensin II (A-II) and Angiotensin (1-7) [A(1-7)] have been shown to accelerate the rate of wound healing in different animal models of cutaneous injury. Nor-Leu3-Angiotensin (1-7) [Nor-Leu3-A (1-7)], an analogue of A(1-7), is more efficient than both A-II and A(1-7) in its ability to improve wound healing and is currently in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Aims: The three main goals of this study were to; 1) Develop a combined radiation and burn injury (CRBI) model and a radiation-induced cutaneous injury model to study the pathophysiological effects of these injuries on dermal wound healing; 2) To treat thermal and CRBI injuries using Nor-Leu 3-A (1-7) and decipher the mechanism of action of this peptide and 3) Develop an in-vitro model of CRBI using dermal cells in order to study the effect of CRBI on individual cell types involved in wound healing. Results: CRBI results in delayed and exacerbated apoptosis, necrosis and inflammation in injured skin as compared to thermal injury by itself. Radiation-induced cutaneous injury shows a radiation-dose dependent increase in inflammation as well as a chronic inflammatory response in the higher radiation exposure groups. Nor-Leu3-A (1-7) can mitigate thermal and CRBI injuries by reducing inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage while increasing the rate of proliferation of dermal stem cells and re-epithelialization of injured skin. The in

  6. Thermal and infrared-diode laser effects on indocyanine-green-treated corneal collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, George T.; Patmore, Ann; Shallal, Assaad; McHugh, Dominic; Marshall, John

    1993-07-01

    It has been suggested that laser welds of collagenous tissues form by interdigitation and chemical bonding of thermally 'unraveled' collagen fibrils. We investigated this proposal by attempting to weld highly collagenous, avascular corneal tissue with an infrared (IR) diode laser as follows. First, the temperature at which corneal collagen shrinks and collagen fibrils 'split' into subfibrillary components was determined. Second, since use of a near-IR laser wavelength necessitated addition of an absorbing dye (indocyanine green (ICG) to the cornea, we measured absorption spectra of ICG-treated tissue to ensure that peak ICG absorbance did not change markedly when ICG was present in the cornea. Third, using gel electrophoresis of thermally altered corneal collagen, we searched for covalently crosslinked compounds predicted by the proposed welding mechanism. Finally, we attempted to weld partial thickness corneal incisions infused with ICG. Principal experimental findings were as follows: (1) Human corneal (type I) collagen splits into subfibrillary components at approximately 63 degree(s)C, the same temperature that produces collagen shrinkage. (2) Peak ICG absorption does not change significantly in corneal stroma or with laser heating. (3) No evidence was found for the formation of novel compounds or the loss of proteins as a result of tissue heating. All tissue treated with ICG, however, exhibited a novel 244 kD protein band indicating chemical activity between collagen and corneal stromal components. (4) Laser welding corneal incisions was unsuccessful possibly due to shrinkage of the sides of the incision, lack of incision compression during heating, or a less than optimal combination of ICG concentration and radiant exposure. In summary, these experiments demonstrate the biochemical and morphological complexity of ICG-enhanced IR laser-tissue welding and the need for further investigation of laser welding mechanisms.

  7. Effectiveness of thermal annular procedures in treating discogenic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm Ii, Standiford; Deer, Timothy R; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Datta, Sukdeb; Chopra, Pradeep; Singh, Vijay; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2012-01-01

    Persistent low back pain refractory to conservative treatment is a common problem that leads to widespread impairment, resulting in significant costs to society. The intervertebral disc is a major source of persistent low back pain. Technologies developed to treat this problem, including various surgical instrumentation and fusion techniques, have not reliably provided satisfactory results in terms of either pain relief or increased function. Thermal annular procedures (TAPs) were first developed in the late 1990s in an attempt to treat discogenic pain. The hope was that they would provide greater value than fusion in terms of efficacy, morbidity, and cost. Three technologies have been developed to apply heat to the annulus: intradiscal electrothermal therapy (IDET), discTRODE, and biacuplasty. Since nerve ingrowth and tissue regeneration in the annulus is felt to be the source of pain in discogenic low back pain, when describing the 3 above techniques we use the term "thermal annular procedures" rather than "thermal intradiscal procedures." We have specifically excluded studies treating the nucleus. TAPs have been the subject of significant controversy. Multiple reviews have been conducted resulting in varying conclusions. A systematic review of TAPs for the treatment of discogenic low back pain. To evaluate the effectiveness of TAPs in treating discogenic low back pain and to assess complications associated with those procedures. The available literature on TAPs in treating discogenic low back pain was reviewed. The quality assessment and clinical relevance criteria utilized were the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Review Group criteria for interventional techniques for randomized trials, and the criteria developed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale criteria for observational studies. The level of evidence was classified as good, fair, or poor based on the quality of evidence developed by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Data sources included relevant literature

  8. Bentonite-amended soils special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    This report presents the results of a two-phased special study to evaluate the viability of soil amended with a high percentage of bentonite as an infiltration barrier in the cover of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cells. Phase I of the study was initiated in order to examine the feasibility of using bentonite-amended soils as a cover component on sideslopes and topslopes. The Phase I objectives were to test a variety of materials to determine if low hydraulic conductivities were achievable in materials exhibiting sufficient strength and to select suitable materials for further testing. Phase II objectives were to (1) optimize designs -- test materials with various percentages of bentonite added; (2) provide design recommendations; (3) address constructibility concerns; and (4) evaluate long-term performance with respect to desiccation effects on the amended materials

  9. SAXS and TEM Investigation of Bentonite Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusewicz, Michal; Liljestroem, Ville; Muurinen, Arto; Serimaa, Ritva

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of bentonite structure using Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is presented. Three types of clay were used: unchanged MX-80 bentonite and purified clays with sodium or calcium ions. Quantitative information in nano-scale - basal spacing, mean crystallite size - was obtained from SAXS, which was complemented by TEM to give qualitative information from micron to nanometre scale. SAXS seems to be a more reliable source of quantitative data than TEM. SAXS gives the averaged information about basal spacing. TEM in this study gives more qualitative information, but in a greater resolution range. The presented work is a starting point to combine more methods to obtain a better idea of bentonite structure. (authors)

  10. Strength characteristics of lightly solidified dredged marine clay admixed with bentonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, Syazwana Tajul; Chan, Chee-Ming

    2017-11-01

    Strength characteristic is a significant parameter in measuring the effect of soil improvement and effective composition of solidification. In this study, the dredged marine sediment (DMS) collected from Kuala Perlis (Malaysia) was examined to determine its strength characteristics under light cement solidification with bentonite. Dredged marine clay generally has the low shear strength and high void ratio, and consists mainly of soil particles of the fine-grained type. As a discarded geo-waste, it can be potentially treated to for reuse as a backfill material instead of being disposed of, hence reducing the negative impact on the environment. Physico-chemical parameters of the dredged sample were first determined, then solidification was carried out to improve the engineering properties by admixing ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as the binder and bentonite as a volume enhancer to the soil. The DMS was treated with the addition of 3 % and 6 % cement and bentonite within the range of 0-30 %. The specimens were cured at room temperature for 3, 7 and 14 days. The strength gain was measured by unconfined compression test and vane shear test. The laboratory test results were analyzed to establish the relationship between strength properties and solidification specifications. In summary, the strength of specimens increased with the increase of the quantity of bentonite and cement to get the effective composition of the specimen.

  11. MANU. Purchase of Bentonite. Process Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the entire bentonite purchasing process accurately. This will enable efficient and focused use of information related to the purchasing phase and to each individual bentonite batch. This work continues from the work started in the report by Ahonen et al. (2008), Quality Assurance of the Bentonite Material, Posiva Working Report 2008-33. The current work includes a short enquiry for all relevant and at the time known producers or re-sellers of bentonite. Questions about relevant products suitable for civil engineering use, more specifically nuclear waste disposal site use, were asked together with test methods, typical test results and test standards. The following aspects and opinions have been processed from the results that were obtained during the project. Each seller/producer has a quality management system, QMS (typically ISO 9001), and ability to perform the basic tests, but there is not an established common set of properties to be tested. Some producers are willing to test according to customers' specifications. Posiva could arrange a network of capable laboratories to carry out tests according to its selected standards. This activity should then be accredited with a reasonable testing volume. Before starting the purchase of bentonite at a large scale, Posiva should go through negotiations and audits with each seller in order to make sure that both parties are testing with the same methods and both understand the range where the values of key parameters may lie. A database is needed for gathering statistically relevant information from the bentonite material parameters over the long run. This is needed for determining the limits within which the material parameters should remain in order to be acceptable. Posiva is encouraged to create a process to optimize the test types and the amount of tests should be identified for immediate and long term use. This process ensures the required quality and costs involved. (orig.)

  12. Preparation and characterization of bentonite organo clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagnolli, C.; Almeida Neto, A.F.; Silva, M.G.C.

    2009-01-01

    Bentonite clays organically modified have great potential use for environmental remediation, especially in the separation of organic compounds from the water. The aim of this work was the preparation of organophilic clays from 'Verde-Lodo' bentonite clay with the quaternary ammonium salts cetyl-pyridinium chloride and benzalkonium chloride. The materials obtained were characterized by XRD, thermogravimetric analyses, Helium picnometry, SEM and energy dispersive X-ray techniques. The results show consistently successful synthesis of the organoclay through the increase in the basal spacing, as well as salt elimination picks and presence of carbon and chlorine in the modified clays; they are inexistent elements in the natural clay. (author)

  13. Sorption of natural uranium by algerian bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megouda, N.; Kadi, H.; Hamla, M.S.; Brahimi, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.Batch sorption experiments have been used to assess the sorption behaviour of uranium onto natural and drilling bentonites. The operating parameters (pH, aolis-liquid ratio, particle size, time and initial uranium concentration) influenced the rate of adsorption. The distribution coefficient (Kd) range values at equilibrium time are 45.95-1079.26 ml/g and 32.81-463053 ml/g for the drilling and natural bentonites respectively. The equilibrium isotherms show that the data correlate with both Freundlich and Langmuir models

  14. Ion diffusion in compacted bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehikoinen, J. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    In the study, a two-dimensional molecular-level diffusion model, based on a modified form of the Gouy-Chapman (GC) theory of the electrical double layers, for hydrated ionic species in compacted bentonite was developed. The modifications to the GC theory, which forms the very kernel of the diffusion model, stem from various non-conventional features: ionic hydration, dielectric saturation, finite ion-sizes and specific adsorption. The principal objectives of the study were met. With the aid of the consistent diffusion model, it is a relatively simple matter to explain the experimentally observed macroscopic exclusion for anions as well as the postulated, but greatly controversial, surface diffusion for cations. From purely theoretical grounds, it was possible to show that the apparent diffusivities of cations, anions and neutral molecules (i) do not exhibit order-or-magnitude differences, and (ii) are practically independent of the solution ionic strength used and, consequently, of the distribution coefficient, K{sub d}, unless they experience specific binding onto the substrate surface. It was also of interest to investigate the equilibrium anionic concentration distribution in the pore geometry of the GMM model as a function of the solution ionic strength, and to briefly speculate its consequences to diffusion. An explicit account of the filter-plate effect was taken by developing a computerised macroscopic diffusion model, which is based upon the very robust and efficient Laplace Transform Finite-Difference technique. Finally, the inherent limitations as well as the potential fields of applications of the models were addressed. (orig.) 45 refs.

  15. Ion diffusion in compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehikoinen, J.

    1999-03-01

    In the study, a two-dimensional molecular-level diffusion model, based on a modified form of the Gouy-Chapman (GC) theory of the electrical double layers, for hydrated ionic species in compacted bentonite was developed. The modifications to the GC theory, which forms the very kernel of the diffusion model, stem from various non-conventional features: ionic hydration, dielectric saturation, finite ion-sizes and specific adsorption. The principal objectives of the study were met. With the aid of the consistent diffusion model, it is a relatively simple matter to explain the experimentally observed macroscopic exclusion for anions as well as the postulated, but greatly controversial, surface diffusion for cations. From purely theoretical grounds, it was possible to show that the apparent diffusivities of cations, anions and neutral molecules (i) do not exhibit order-or-magnitude differences, and (ii) are practically independent of the solution ionic strength used and, consequently, of the distribution coefficient, K d , unless they experience specific binding onto the substrate surface. It was also of interest to investigate the equilibrium anionic concentration distribution in the pore geometry of the GMM model as a function of the solution ionic strength, and to briefly speculate its consequences to diffusion. An explicit account of the filter-plate effect was taken by developing a computerised macroscopic diffusion model, which is based upon the very robust and efficient Laplace Transform Finite-Difference technique. Finally, the inherent limitations as well as the potential fields of applications of the models were addressed. (orig.)

  16. Selfinjection of highly compacted bentonite into rock joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1978-02-01

    When radioactive waste is disposed in bore holes in rocks there will be some space between rock and canister. Other investigations have suggested that the space could be filled with highly compacted bentonite. In this report it is discussed if open joints formed or widened in the surrounding rock after the deposition will be sealed by self-injecting bentonite. Bentonite in contact with water will swell. The flow pattern and properties of the swelling bentonite, the permeability of the extruded bentonite and the viscosity of the extruded bentonite have been investigated. The following statements are done. In the narrow joints that can possibly be opened by various processes, the rate of bentonite extrusion will be very slow except for the first few centimeter move, which may take place in a few mounths. The swelling pressure of the extruded bentonite will decrease rapidly with the distance from the deposition hole. The loss of bentonite extruded through the narrow joints will be negligible. In the outer part of the bentonite zone there will be a successive transition to a very soft, dilute bentonite suspension. It will consist of fairly large particle aggregates which will be stuck where the joint width decreases

  17. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites

  18. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

  19. Sealing performance assessments of bentonite and bentonite/crushed rock plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Shoung.

    1990-01-01

    Bentonite and mixtures of bentonite and crushed rock are potential sealing materials for high level nuclear waste repositories. The materials have been used to form cap layers to reduce infiltration for mined waste tailings and can also be used to construct clay liners for municipal as well as industrial waste managements. American Colloid C/S granular dentonite and Apache Leap tuff have been mixed to prepare samples for laboratory flow testing. Bentonite weight percent and crushed tuff gradation are the major variables studied. The sealing performance assessments include high injection pressure flow tests, polyaxial flow tests, high temperature flow tests, and piping tests. The results indicate that an appropriate composition would have at least 25% bentonite by weight mixed with well-graded crushed rock. Hydraulic properties of the mixture plugs may be highly anisotropic if significant particle segregation occurs during sample installation and compaction. Temperature has no negative effects on the sealing performance within the test range from room temperature to 60C. The piping damage to the sealing performance is small if the maximum hydraulic gradient does not exceed 120 and 280 for 25 and 35% bentonite content, respectively. The hydraulic gradients above which flow of bentonite may take place are deemed critical. Analytical work includes the introduction of bentonite occupancy percentage and water content at saturation as two major parameters for the plug design. A permeability model developed is useful for the prediction of permeability in clays. A piping model permits the estimation of critical hydraulic gradient allowed before the flow of bentonite takes place. It can also be used to define the maximum allowable pore diameter of a protective filter layer

  20. Eutrophication management in surface waters using lanthanum modified bentonite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Copetti, Diego; Finsterle, Karin; Marziali, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the scientific knowledge on the use of a lanthanum modified bentonite (LMB) to manage eutrophication in surface water. The LMB has been applied in around 200 environments worldwide and it has undergone extensive testing at laboratory, mesocosm, and whole lake scales. The availa......This paper reviews the scientific knowledge on the use of a lanthanum modified bentonite (LMB) to manage eutrophication in surface water. The LMB has been applied in around 200 environments worldwide and it has undergone extensive testing at laboratory, mesocosm, and whole lake scales....... The available data underline a high efficiency for phosphorus binding. This efficiency can be limited by the presence of humic substances and competing oxyanions. Lanthanum concentrations detected during a LMB application are generally below acute toxicological threshold of different organisms, except in low...... alkalinity waters. To date there are no indications for long-term negative effects on LMB treated ecosystems, but issues related to La accumulation, increase of suspended solids and drastic resources depletion still need to be explored, in particular for sediment dwelling organisms. Application of LMB...

  1. Changes in the microstructure of compacted bentonite caused by heating and hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villar M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two twin 40-cm long columns of compacted FEBEX bentonite were tested in Teflon cells; water was supplied through the top surface of the columns and in one of them a heater was placed at the base and set to 100°C. The purpose of these tests was to simulate the behaviour of an engineered barrier in a radioactive waste repository and investigate the effect of the thermal gradient on saturation. In particular, changes in the pore size distribution and interlayer size have been investigated in this work. The thermal gradient had a strong influence on the water intake and distribution. Water content and dry density gradients persisted in the two columns after 12 years of testing. These changes gave place to the modification of the bentonite microstructure, overall increasing the microstructural void ratio and the proportion of adsorbed, interlayer water.

  2. Development of nanocomposites polyamide66/ bentonite clay membranes obtained by solution for water-oil separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Keila Machado de

    2010-01-01

    Microporous membranes were obtained from nanocomposites polyamide66 and regional bentonite clay, through the technique of immersion precipitation. The nanocomposites were obtained by solution with a pre-established reaction time. The clay was treated with quaternary ammonium salt (Cetremide®) in order to make it organophilic. Untreated and treated clay were characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry (TG), which confirmed the insertion of the Cetremide® salt in the layers of clay and their thermal stability. While the membranes were characterized by XRD, TG, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and flow measurements. The results of XRD, TG and DSC confirmed the thermal stability and morphological structure with intercalated/partially exfoliated lamellae of clay in the polymer matrix. By SEM, it was revealed an asymmetric morphology consisting of a skin layer and a porous sublayer. The higher clay content in the membrane give the lower film thickness. This influencing directly the flow measurements of the membranes produced from the nanocomposites. In general, the initial flow with distilled water through the membranes decrease and stabilise after 60 min, this due to a compression or swelling occurred in the membranes. In tests of water-oil separation it was found that the relationship J/J0 tends to be greater when using emulsions with lower concentration. The water-oil separation tests at concentrations of 300 and 500 ppm for all membranes showed a significant reduction in oil concentration in the permeate, thus showing that these membranes have potential for this application. (author)

  3. Characterization of natural bentonite by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Sidnei Q.M.; Dieguez, Lidia C.; Menezes, Sonia M.C.; San Gil, Rosane A.S.

    1993-01-01

    Solid state NMR as well as several other instrumental chemical analysis techniques were used in order to characterize two natural occurring bentonite. The methodology is described. The NMR spectra, together with the other used techniques suggest that the observed differences are due to iron inclusions in tetrahedral and octahedral sites

  4. Pemanfaatan Bentonite sebagai Media Pembumian Elektroda Batang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winanda Riga Tamma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sistem pentanahan merupakan suatu sistem yang bertujuan untuk mengamankan sistem tenaga listrik dari gangguan ke tanah maupun gangguan hubung singkat. Pada sistem pentanahan yang baik, resistansi pentanahan harus bernilai dibawah lima ohm. Resistansi pentanahan bergantung pada berbagai aspek antara lain yaitu struktur tanah, kelembapan tanah, dan kandungan yang ada dalam tanah itu sendiri. Dalam pengujian pada penelitian ini akan dilakukan perbaikan pada tanah dengan mencampurkan bentonite ke dalam tanah sebagai media pentanahan. Pencampuran bentonite bertujuan agar mendapatkan nilai resistansi pentanahan yang baik sesuai dengan standar sistem pentanahan. Pengujian dilakukan menggunakan elektroda batang dan alat earth resistance tester dengan metode tiga titik dimana elektroda utama atau elektroda pengukuran diberikan treatment sesuai dengan kondisi yang telah ditentukan. Diharapkan pada pengujian ini akan diketahui dampak dari bentonite terhadap penurunan nilai resistansi pentanahan. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa dengan mencampurkan bentonite pada media pentanahan, resistansi pentanahan menjadi lebih baik. Meskipun tidak terlalu signifikan, rata-rata penurunan dari setiap masing-masing treatment adalah sebesar 2 ohm.

  5. Study for the water penetration chemistry of bentonite under temperature gradation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Naohiro; Imakita, Tsuyoshi

    2003-02-01

    This work have been studied for the water fluctuation in time and space in case of the ground water penetration into the unsaturated bentonite with development of the necessary test equipment. The test equipment necessary for this test, was designed on consideration of the adiabatic condition, sensors for pH, salt and water measurement. The thickness of the bentonite specimen was set to 10 cm and the temperature slope was enable to set between 80degC and 100degC at the both end of the specimen. The water for penetration was pushed by gas constant pressure up to 1 MPa. The glass electrode for pH, electric conductivity for salinity and moisture sensor for lower water content and water sensor for higher were used as the sensors. The fluctuation of salt and water in the ground water penetration test to bentonite was estimated. The sensor data were treated as parametric data, because those data could not calibrated in those high temperature and under those high bentonite swollen pressure. For another development should be needed for water sensor. (author)

  6. Preparation and characterization of bentonite clay for formation of nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.J.M.; Silva, B.L.; Araujo, I.J.C.; Medeiros, A.M.; Melo, J.D.D.; Paskocimas, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study we used the linear medium density polyethylene (PELMD) as polymer matrix and introduced, as reinforcement to increase the mechanical and thermal properties, the green bentonite deposit of Boa Vista/PB, rich montmorillonite (MMT), previously characterized by XRD, that passed by three stages of purification. The first stage was to clean by washing and filtering for removal of coarse material (sand and organic matter), followed by an acid attack. In the second, we used the quaternary ammonium surfactant, in order to increase the distance between the layers of MMT, and the third was removed from the wastewater, using absolute ethanol, finishing the purification of process. Then, the clay was introduced into the polymer matrix by polymerization in solution by intercalation and characterized by XRD. The results showed a partial exfoliation, satisfying the increasing properties. (author)

  7. Development of the fluidized bed thermal treatment process for treating mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semones, G.B.; Williams, P.M.; Stiefvater, S.P.; Mitchell, D.L.; Roecker, B.D.

    1993-01-01

    A fluidized bed system is being developed at Rocky Flats for the treatment of mixed waste (a mixture of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste). The current program builds on experience gained in the 1970's and 1980's in tests with bench-scale, pilot-scale, and demonstration-scale fluidized bed systems. The system operates at low temperatures (∼ 525--600 degree C) which eliminates many of the disadvantages associated with high temperature thermal treatment processes. The process has shown the ability to destroy polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) with 99.9999% (''six-nines'') destruction efficiency in tests monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The bed makes use of in situ neutralization of acidic off-gases by incorporating sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) in the bed media. This eliminates using wet scrubbers to treat the off-gas; these produce a high volume of secondary waste. Once in operation, it is expected that the fluidized bed process will yield up to a 40:1 reduction in the volume of the waste

  8. LOT A2 Test, THC-modelling of bentonite buffer in a final repository of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itaelae, A.; Olin, M.; Rasilainen, K.; Pulkkanen, V.M.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Finnish spent nuclear fuel disposal is planned to be based on the KBS-3V repository concept. Within this concept, the role of the bentonite buffer is considered to be central. The aim of this study was to model the evolution of the buffer during the thermal phase (heat-generating period of spent fuel), when the bentonite is only partially saturated initially, and the surrounding rock matrix is assumed to be fully saturated. It is essential to study how temperature will affect saturation and also how both of these affect the chemistry of bentonite. In order to make the modeling more concrete, an example experimental case was considered: Long Term Test of Buffer Materials (LOT) A2-parcel test at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in Sweden. In the A2-parcel the MX-80 bentonite was exposed to adverse (120-150 deg. C) temperature conditions and high temperature gradients. The test parcel diameter was smaller than in the actual KBS-3V deposition hole to speed up the saturation. The chemical behaviour of minerals causes their redistribution inside the bentonite. For example, according to the laboratory tests, gypsum dissolves and anhydrite precipitates near the heater-bentonite interface. Also, incoming groundwater affects the bentonite pore water and its properties. These changes may, in turn, influence the mechanical properties of the bentonite. A coupled Thermo-Hydro-Chemical (THC) model was applied, which means that all mechanical effects were ignored. The purpose of the model was first to achieve a satisfactory match between the model and experimental results, and, therefore, the time frame was limited to ten years (LOT A-2 parcel test lasted approximately 6 years). The system was simplified to 1-D in order to reduce the computational work, which can be very significant due to complex chemical calculations. The 1-D model results are reported in Itaelae (2009). The aim is to extend the calculations to 2-D

  9. Structural characterization of bentonite clays for utilization as nanofillers in nanocomposites; Caracterizacao estrutural de argilas bentoniticas para utilizacao como nanocargas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Carlos Ivan Ribeiro de; Rocha, Marisa Cristina Guimares; Vogas, Arthur Considera, E-mail: carlosivanr@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico; Silva, Ana Lucia Nazareth da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano; Bertolino, Luiz Carlos [Centro de Tecnologia Mineral (CETEM/MCTI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Clays of different composition have been used in the development of polymer nanocomposites. However, the utilization of bentonite clays has been emphasized in Brazil, mainly due to their availability.The best known and studied deposits of bentonite clays are located in the state of Paraiba. However, these deposits are becoming exhausted after decades of exploitation. In this context, the aim of this work is to proceed the physical-mineralogical characterization of bentonite clays recently discovered in Cubati, PB. In order to achieve this objective, the samples underwent a particle size classification step and were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Results of X-ray diffraction showed that the samples are composed of smectite, and kaolinite and quartz. The characterization of the samples by FTIR confirmed these results. Results of chemical analysis showed that the clays have predominantly different exchangeable cations. (author)

  10. Geochemical and Mineralogical Changes in Compacted MX-80 Bentonite Submitted to Heat and Water Gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Espina, R.; Villar, M. V.

    2010-01-01

    A 20-cm high column of MX80 bentonite compacted at dry density 1.70 g/cm 3 with an initial water content of 16 percent was submitted to heating and hydration by opposite ends for 496 days (TH test). The temperature at the bottom of the column was set at 140 degree centigrade and on top at 30 degree centigrade, and deionised water was injected on top at a pressure of 0.01 MPa. Upon dismantling water content, dry density, mineralogy, specific surface area, cation exchange capacity, content of exchangeable cations, and concentration of soluble salts and pH of aqueous extracts were determined in different positions along the bentonite column. The pore water composition was modelled with a geochemical software. The test tried to simulate the conditions of an engineered barrier in a deep geological repository for high-level radioactive waste. The water intake and distribution of water content and dry density along the bentonite were conditioned by the thermal gradient. Liquid water did not penetrate into the column beyond the area in which the temperature was higher than 100 degree centigrade. A convection cell was formed above this area, and liquid water loaded with ions evaporated towards cooler bentonite as it reached the area where the temperature was too high. In this area precipitation of mineral phases took place, Advection, interlayer exchange and dissolution/precipitation processes conditioned the composition of the pore water along the column. In most of the column the pore water was Na-SO 4 2 - type, and changed to Na-Cl near the heater. TH treatment did not cause significant changes in the smectite content or the other mineral phases of the bentonite. (Author) 41 refs.

  11. Geochemical and Mineralogical Changes in Compacted MX-80 Bentonite Submitted to Heat and Water Gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Espina, R.; Villar, M. V.

    2010-05-01

    A 20-cm high column of MX80 bentonite compacted at dry density 1.70 g/cm{sup 3} with an initial water content of 16 percent was submitted to heating and hydration by opposite ends for 496 days (TH test). The temperature at the bottom of the column was set at 140 degree centigrade and on top at 30 degree centigrade, and deionised water was injected on top at a pressure of 0.01 MPa. Upon dismantling water content, dry density, mineralogy, specific surface area, cation exchange capacity, content of exchangeable cations, and concentration of soluble salts and pH of aqueous extracts were determined in different positions along the bentonite column. The pore water composition was modelled with a geochemical software. The test tried to simulate the conditions of an engineered barrier in a deep geological repository for high-level radioactive waste. The water intake and distribution of water content and dry density along the bentonite were conditioned by the thermal gradient. Liquid water did not penetrate into the column beyond the area in which the temperature was higher than 100 degree centigrade. A convection cell was formed above this area, and liquid water loaded with ions evaporated towards cooler bentonite as it reached the area where the temperature was too high. In this area precipitation of mineral phases took place, Advection, interlayer exchange and dissolution/precipitation processes conditioned the composition of the pore water along the column. In most of the column the pore water was Na-SO{sub 4} {sup 2}- type, and changed to Na-Cl near the heater. TH treatment did not cause significant changes in the smectite content or the other mineral phases of the bentonite. (Author) 41 refs.

  12. Pre-study on cementation processes in bentonite buffer under uneven saturation and temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaervinen, Joonas; Muurinen, Arto; Tanhua-Tyrkkoe, Merja

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Under final disposal conditions the uneven and slow saturation together with heat from the canister can lead to a situation where water vaporizes in certain areas in bentonite. The evaporation of ion rich water leads to enrichment of ions and precipitation of the components which may e.g. cement montmorillonite layers together and cause some changes in the bentonite properties. To study the cementation in bentonite buffer under uneven and slow saturation conditions the experimental setup was pre-modelled, constructed and tested. The experimental setups consist of a cylindrical cell (d:100 mm and h:100 mm), adsorption cells, heating system, hydration system, cooling system, sensors and a data acquisition system. A schematic drawing of the experimental equipment is presented in Figure 1. In the cell the hydration end of the bentonite was covered only partly by the sinter and the access of water to bentonite was thus limited. The cell was also equipped with holes in the upper part of the cylinder to allow the water vapour to escape from the cell. The released water vapour is collected on an adsorption material in the adsorption cells. Thermal and hydrological properties of the experimental system were pre-modelled in 2D by using TOUGH2, version 2.0. The aim of the model was to see if the planned experimental set-up leads to the wanted conditions, within reasonable time and to find justifiable parameters for experimental setup. An eleven months long pre-experiment was carried out to get preliminary understanding how the experimental arrangement works. After the experiment the cell was dismantled and water content, bulk density, CEC, exchangeable cations, poorly crystalline iron oxides and silicates, chloride, sulphate and carbonate were analysed and pH measured. The low water content and high chloride concentration next to the heater indicated movement of chloride ions from the hydration surface towards the heater and

  13. Timing of Late Cretaceous Gulf Coast volcanism and chronostratigraphic constraints on deposition of the Ripley Formation from a newly recognized bentonite bed, Pontotoc County, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, E. J.; Gifford, J.; Platt, B. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Ripley Formation is present throughout the Mississippi (MS) Embayment and contains local bentonite lenses related to regional volcanism. The Pontotoc bentonite is such a lens located near the town of Pontotoc, MS, that was strip-mined and has not been accessible since reclamation of the land. Recent investigations in Pontotoc County south of the Pontotoc bentonite site resulted in the discovery of a previously unknown bentonite bed. Litho- and biostratigraphy indicate that the bentonite is younger than known volcanism from MS. The purposes of the present investigation are 1) to test whether the new bentonite bed is correlative to the Pontotoc bentonite & 2) to recover volcanogenic zircons for U-Pb dating to better constrain timing of volcanism and chronostratigraphy of the Ripley Fm. Outcrops in an active sand pit in the field area expose 2.5 m of fine sand, and an upper gradational contact with an overlying 2.5 m of sandy clay, containing the bentonite bed. Two trenches were excavated through the outcrop, and in each trench a stratigraphic section was measured and bulk samples collected for zircons. Sampling began in the lower bounding sand and continued upsection in 1 m intervals, corresponding to the gradational contact with the bentonite, and 2 locations within the bentonite. The Ripley Fm. consists of 73 m of fossiliferous clay, sand, and calcareous sand beds. Recent stratigraphic revisions of the lateral facies in MS recognize a lower transitional clay facies, a limestone, marl, and calcareous sand facies, a sandy upper Ripley facies, and the formally named Chiwapa Sandstone Member. Ammonite biostratigraphy places the contact between the Chiwapa and the overlying Owl Creek/Prairie Bluff at 68.5 Ma. Unlike the mined area north of Pontotoc where the bentonite is within the Chiwapa, the bed here is directly above the Chiwapa section and its upper contact represents the Ripley Fm. / Owl Creek Fm. contact. Where the bentonite is present, it

  14. Corrosion of carbon steel in contact with bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrev, D.; Vokal, A.; Bruha, P.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Carbon steel canisters were chosen in a number of disposal concepts as reference material for disposal canisters. The corrosion rates of carbon steels in water solution both in aerobic and anaerobic conditions are well known, but only scarce data are available for corrosion behaviour of carbon steels in contact with bentonite. A special apparatus, which enables to measure corrosion rate of carbon steels under conditions simulating conditions in a repository, namely in contact with bentonite under high pressure and elevated temperatures was therefore prepared to study: - Corrosion rate of carbon steels in direct contact with bentonite in comparison with corrosion rate of carbon steels in synthetic bentonite pore water. - Influence of corrosion products on bentonite. The apparatus is composed of corrosion chamber containing a carbon steel disc in direct contact with compacted bentonite. Synthetic granitic water is above compacted bentonite under high pressure (50 - 100 bar) to simulate hydrostatic pressure in a repository. The experiments can be carried out under various temperatures. Bentonites used for experiments were Na-type of bentonite Volclay KWK 80 - 20 and Ca-Mg Czech bentonite from deposit Rokle. Before adding water into corrosion system the corrosion chamber was purged by nitrogen gas. The saturation of bentonite and corrosion rate were monitored by measuring consumption of water, pressure increase caused by swelling pressure of bentonite and by generation of hydrogen. Corrosion rate was also determined after corrosion experiments from weight loss of samples. The results of experiments show that the corrosion behaviour of carbon steels in contact with bentonite is very different from corrosion of carbon steels in water simulating bentonite pore water solution. The corrosion rates of carbon steel in contact with bentonite reached after 30 days of corrosion the values approaching 40 mm/yr contrary to values

  15. Studies on incorporation of exfoliated bentonitic clays in polyurethane foams for increasing flame retardancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quagliano, J; García, Irma Gavilán

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we report the results of studying the incorporation of exfoliated bentonitic clays into polyurethane foams. A suspension in water of a sodium bentonite from Argentine Patagonia was interchanged with cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) for 4 h at 80°C, rendering an exfoliated clay, which is nanometric in only one dimension. This nanoclay, when dispersed in the polyurethane, resulted in the same fire retardancy rating (UL-94) than when polyurethane was treated with a commercial nanoclay. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at low augmentations of polyurethane samples treated with the synthethized nanoclay (2,5% w/w) showed no differences respect to untreated polyurethane, except for the irregularity of void edges.

  16. Effects of feeding bentonite clay upon ochratoxin A-induced immunosuppression in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatoon, Aisha; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Abidin, Zain Ul; Bhatti, Sheraz Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    A presence of mycotoxins in feed is one of the most alarming issues in the poultry feed industry. Ochratoxins, produced by several Aspergillus and Penicillium species, are important mycotoxin regarding the health status of poultry birds. Ochratoxins are further classified into to several subtypes (A, B, C, etc) depending on their chemical structures, but ochratoxin A (OTA) is considered the most important and toxic. Bentonite clay, belonging to phyllosilicates and formed from weathering of volcanic ashes, has adsorbent ability for several mycotoxins. The present study was designed to study the effects of bentonite clay upon OTA-induced immunosuppression in broiler chicks. For this, 480 day-old broiler chicks were procured from a local hatchery and then different combinations of OTA (0.15, 0.3, or 1.0 mg/kg) and bentonite clay (5, 10, and 20 g/kg) were incorporated into their feed. At 13, 30, and 42 days of age, parameters such as antibody responses to sheep red blood cells, in situ lymphoproliferative responses to mitogen (PHA-P), and in situ phagocytic activity (i.e., via carbon clearance) were determined respectively. The results indicated there was a significant reduction of total antibody and immunoglobulin titres, lymphoproliferative responses, and phagocytic potential in OTA-treated birds, suggesting clear immunosuppression by OTA in birds in a dose-dependent manner. These results were also significantly lower in all combination groups (OTA with bentonite clay), suggesting few to no effects of feeding bentonite clay upon OTA- induced alterations in different immune parameters.

  17. Synthesis of mullite nanometers microwave from bentonite delaminated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, J.; Azevedo, N.A.; Vieira, D.A.; Neves, G.A.; Santana, L.N.L.; Menezes, R.R.

    2011-01-01

    The smectite clays present as lamellar structure is formed by two layers of silica tetrahedrons and one layer of aluminum octahedra, which can be individually delaminated, reaching a thickness of about 1mm. Mullite is the only thermodynamically stable crystalline phase of SiO 2 and Al2O 3 system and can be synthesized from minerals that exhibit these oxides in its composition. The microwave synthesis offers advantages over conventional methods, the heating is rapid and uniform, avoiding an undesirable grain growth. This study aims to obtain nanometric mullite from bentonites delamined subjected to microwave heating. The samples were initially treated, then rehydrated, frozen and deagglomeration in a ball mill for 4 and 8 hours. Subsequently subjected to centrifugation, drying and microwave heating. The results showed that nano-mullite was obtained for samples subjected to longer heating and dispersions. (author)

  18. Bentonite surface modification and characterization for high selective phosphate adsorption from aqueous media and its application for wastewater treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yaghoobi-Rahni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Raw and modified bentonite has been used to develop effective sorbents to remove phosphate from aqueous solution. Acid thermoactivation, Rewoquate, Irasoft, calcium, Fe and Al were employed to treat the bentonite. Results show that samples adsorption capacity for phosphate is in the order of, unmodified bentonite = acid thermoactivation < Rewoquate < calcium ≅ Irasoft < Fe < Al ≅ Fe-Al. The phosphate adsorption with Fe-Al-bentonite (FAB modification was more than 99% and the phosphate removal reached the peak value in the initial 30 min. The phosphate adsorption of FAB was pH independent in the range of 2–10. The common coexisting ions in wastewater have no effect on the phosphate adsorption. The phosphate adsorption results were very well fitted in the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm model and the maximum adsorption capacity was 8.33 mg P/g at pH 6.5 for 1 hour, which was better than similar modified bentonite with low time and Fe-Al consumption. FAB was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared. Therefore, the results confirm that FAB is a selective phosphate sorbent and environmentally friendly for its potential application for phosphate removal from wastewater.

  19. Bentonite. Geotechnical barrier and source for microbial life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matschiavelli, Nicole; Kluge, Sindy; Cherkouk, Andrea [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). HZDR Young Investigator Group; Steglich, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    Due to their properties, namely a high swelling capacity and a low hydraulic conductivity, Bentonites fulfil as geotechnical barrier a sealing and buffering function in the nuclear waste repository. Depending on the mineral composition Bentonites contain many suitable electron-donors and -acceptors, enabling potential microbial life. For the potential repository of highly radioactive waste the microbial mediated transformation of Bentonite could influence its properties as a barrier material. Microcosms were set up containing Bentonite and anaerobic synthetic Opalinus-clay-pore water solution under an N{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}-atmosphere to elucidate the microbial potential within selected Bentonites. Substrates like acetate and lactate were supplemented to stimulate potential microbial activity. First results show that bentonites represent a source for microbial life, demonstrated by the consumption of lactate and the formation of pyruvate. Furthermore, microbial iron-reduction was determined, which plays a crucial role in Betonite-transformation.

  20. Bentonite. Geotechnical barrier and source for microbial life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matschiavelli, Nicole; Kluge, Sindy; Cherkouk, Andrea; Steglich, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Due to their properties, namely a high swelling capacity and a low hydraulic conductivity, Bentonites fulfil as geotechnical barrier a sealing and buffering function in the nuclear waste repository. Depending on the mineral composition Bentonites contain many suitable electron-donors and -acceptors, enabling potential microbial life. For the potential repository of highly radioactive waste the microbial mediated transformation of Bentonite could influence its properties as a barrier material. Microcosms were set up containing Bentonite and anaerobic synthetic Opalinus-clay-pore water solution under an N_2/CO_2-atmosphere to elucidate the microbial potential within selected Bentonites. Substrates like acetate and lactate were supplemented to stimulate potential microbial activity. First results show that bentonites represent a source for microbial life, demonstrated by the consumption of lactate and the formation of pyruvate. Furthermore, microbial iron-reduction was determined, which plays a crucial role in Betonite-transformation.

  1. Utilization of coal/biomass fly ash and bentonite as a low permeability barrier for the containment of acid-generating mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penney, K.; Mohamedelhassan, E.; Catalan, L.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    The control and treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) in decommissioned mine sites is a major environmental challenge. In general, AMD has a low pH, high acidity, and elevated concentrations of heavy metals. This study investigated the use of coal/biomass fly ash (CBFA) and CBFA/bentonite mixtures as a low permeability seal to contain acid generating mine tailings and treat AMD. Although pure CBFA is effective as a reactive barrier to treat most toxic metals in AMD, its initial hydraulic conductivity exceeds the maximum regulatory requirement of 1 x 10 -7 cm/s. Therefore, 3 cases were investigated, notably CBFA only; CBFA amended with low percentages of bentonite; and layering of CBFA and CBFA amended with bentonite. Practical geoenvironmental applications for low permeability CBFA or bentonite/CBFA mixtures include a cap overlying reactive mine tailings, a containment pond liner, and a core in containment dams and dykes. Mixing 10 per cent by mass bentonite with CBFA decreased the hydraulic conductivity to 1 x 10 -7 cm/s or less throughout the entire permeation by water and AMD. The installation of a layer of pure CBFA upstream of the bentonite/CBFA mixture resulted in a further decrease in hydraulic conductivity over time by preventing the collapse of the bentonite double layer and promoting precipitation of gypsum and ettringite in the CBFA layer. The effluent from all tested bentonite/CBFA barriers met the regulatory requirements for chemical parameters, except for aluminum which was leached from the CBFA. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  2. FEBEX bentonite colloid stability in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seher, H.; Schaefer, T.; Geckeis, H. [Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. e-mail: holger.seher@ine.fzk .de; Fanghaenel, T. [Ruprecht-Karls-Univ. Heidelberg, Physikalisch-Chemisches In st., D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    Coagulation experiments are accomplished to identify the geochemical conditions for the stability of Febex bentonite colloids in granite ground water. The experiments are carried out by varying pH, ionic strength and type of electrolyte. The dynamic light scattering technique (photon correlation spectroscopy) is used to measure the size evolution of the colloids with time. Agglomeration rates are higher in MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} than in NaCl solution. Relative agglomeration rates follow approximately the Schulze-Hardy rule. Increasing agglomeration rates at pH>8 are observed in experiments with MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} which are, however, caused by coprecipitation phenomena. Bentonite colloid stability fields derived from the colloid agglomeration experiments predict low colloid stabilization in granite ground water taken from Aespoe, Sweden, and relatively high colloid stability in Grimsel ground water (Switzerland)

  3. Swelling characteristics of Gaomiaozi bentonite and its prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De'an Sun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gaomiaozi (GMZ bentonite has been chosen as a possible matrix material of buffers/backfills in the deep geological disposal to isolate the high-level radioactive waste (HLRW in China. In the Gaomiaozi deposit area, calcium bentonite in the near surface zone and sodium bentonite in the deeper zone are observed. The swelling characteristics of GMZ sodium and calcium bentonites and their mixtures with sand wetted with distilled water were studied in the present work. The test results show that the relationship between the void ratio and swelling pressure of compacted GMZ bentonite-sand mixtures at full saturation is independent of the initial conditions such as the initial dry density and water content, but dependent on the ratio of bentonite to sand. An empirical method was accordingly proposed allowing the prediction of the swelling deformation and swelling pressure with different initial densities and bentonite-sand ratios when in saturated conditions. Finally, the swelling capacities of GMZ Na- and Ca-bentonites and Kunigel Na-bentonite are compared.

  4. Study on the basic property of Gaomiaozi bentonite, inner mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuemiao; Xu Guoqing; Liu Shufen; Chen Zhangru

    2001-01-01

    Buffer/backfill material layer is one of important engineered barriers in the HLW geological repository. The geologic setting of Gaomiaozi bentonite deposit is introduced, and the mineral composition, physical and chemical property, basic geotechnical property, swelling property and permeability of highly compacted bentonite of main ore bed has been studied. The study results show that montmorillonite content of Gaomiaozi bentonite is relatively high, physical and chemical property, geotechnical property and impermeability are good. So Gaomiaozi bentonite deposit could be regarded as supply base of buffer/backfill material for HLW geological repository

  5. Synthesis of PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite through sonication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitompul, Johnner; Setyawan, Daru; Kim, Daniel Young Joon; Lee, Hyung Woo

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns the synthesis of poly(D,L-lactic acid)/poly(L-lactic acid) bentonite nanocomposites. Poly (D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) was synthesized using lactic acid through the ZnO-catalyzed direct polycondensation method at vacuum pressure and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was synthesized with L-lactide by ring-opening polymerization method. The PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films were synthesized using the solvent casting method. The nanoclay, bentonite, was prepared using the solution-intercalation method by dissolving the nanoparticles into chloroform before sonication. In this study, PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films were produced using variable amounts of nanoclay and sonication times during the mixing of PDLLA/PLLA and bentonite. The properties of the PDLLA/PLLA nanocomposites were then characterized using the X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Universal Testing Machine (UTM), Water Vapor Permeability (WVP) tests, and the enzymatic biodegradability test. The XRD test was used to measure the intercalation of nanoclay layers in the PDLLA/PLLA matrix and the PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite intercalated nanocomposite films. It was found through these various tests that adding bentonite to the PDLLA/PLLA increases tensile strength to 56.76 MP. Furthermore, the biodegradability increases as well as the barrier properties of the polymers The different sonication time used during the mixing of the polymer solution with bentonite also affected the properties of the PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films.

  6. Analysis of corrosion products of carbon steel in wet bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, Kazuo; Nagano, Tetsushi; Nakayama, Shinichi; Muraoka, Susumu

    1992-02-01

    As a part of evaluation of the long-term durability for the overpack containers for high-level radioactive waste, we have conducted corrosion tests for carbon steel in wet bentonite, a candidate buffer material. The corrosion rates were evaluated by weight difference of carbon steel and corrosion products were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and colorimetry. At 40degC, the corrosion rate of carbon steel in wet bentonite was smaller than that in pure water. At 95degC, however, the corrosion rate in wet bentonite was much higher than that in pure water. This high corrosion rate in wet bentonite at 95degC was considered to result from evaporation of moisture in bentonite in contact with the metal. This evaporation led to dryness and then to shrinkage of the bentonite, which generated ununiform contact of the metal with bentonite. Probably, this ununiform contact promoted the local corrosion. The locally corroded parts of specimen in wet bentonite at 95degC were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (micro-FT-IR), and lepidocrocite γ-FeO(OH) was found as well as goethite α-FeO(OH). In wet bentonite at 95degC, hematite α-Fe 2 O 3 was identified by means of colorimetry. (author)

  7. Synthesis of PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite through sonication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitompul, Johnner, E-mail: sitompul@che.itb.ac.id; Setyawan, Daru, E-mail: daru.setyawan@gmail.com; Kim, Daniel Young Joon, E-mail: daniel.kim12321@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institute of Technology Bandung Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung, West Java, 40132 (Indonesia); Lee, Hyung Woo, E-mail: leehw@che.itb.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institute of Technology Bandung Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung, West Java, 40132 (Indonesia); Research and Business Foundation, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-19

    This paper concerns the synthesis of poly(D,L-lactic acid)/poly(L-lactic acid) bentonite nanocomposites. Poly (D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) was synthesized using lactic acid through the ZnO-catalyzed direct polycondensation method at vacuum pressure and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was synthesized with L-lactide by ring-opening polymerization method. The PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films were synthesized using the solvent casting method. The nanoclay, bentonite, was prepared using the solution-intercalation method by dissolving the nanoparticles into chloroform before sonication. In this study, PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films were produced using variable amounts of nanoclay and sonication times during the mixing of PDLLA/PLLA and bentonite. The properties of the PDLLA/PLLA nanocomposites were then characterized using the X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Universal Testing Machine (UTM), Water Vapor Permeability (WVP) tests, and the enzymatic biodegradability test. The XRD test was used to measure the intercalation of nanoclay layers in the PDLLA/PLLA matrix and the PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite intercalated nanocomposite films. It was found through these various tests that adding bentonite to the PDLLA/PLLA increases tensile strength to 56.76 MP. Furthermore, the biodegradability increases as well as the barrier properties of the polymers The different sonication time used during the mixing of the polymer solution with bentonite also affected the properties of the PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films.

  8. Immobilization of spent Bentonite by using cement matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isman MT; Endro-Kismolo

    1996-01-01

    Investigation of spent bentonite immobilization by using cement was done. The purpose of the investigation was to know the performance of cement in binding bentonite waste. The investigation was done by adding cement, water, and bentonite waste into a container and string until the mixture became homogenous. The mixture was put into a polyethylene tube (3.5 cm in diameter and 4 cm high) and it was cured up to 28 days. The specific weight of the monolith block was then calculated, and the compressive strength and the leaching rate in ground water and sea water was tested. The mass ratio of water to cement was 0.4. The variable investigated was the mass ratio of bentonite to cement. The immobilized bentonite waste was natural bentonite waste and activated bentonite waste. The result of the investigation showed that cement was good for binding bentonite waste. The maximum binding mass ratio of bentonite to cement was 0.4. In this condition the specific weight of the monolith block was 2.177 gram/cm 3 , its compressive strength was 22.6 N/mm 2 , and the leaching rate for 90 days in ground water and sea water was 5.7 x 10 -4 gram cm -2 day -1

  9. Thermal properties of milk fat, xanthine oxidase, caseins and whey proteins in pulsed electric field-treated bovine whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Oey, Indrawati; Everett, David W

    2016-09-15

    Thermodynamics of milk components (milk fat, xanthine oxidase, caseins and whey proteins) in pulsed electric field (PEF)-treated milk were compared with thermally treated milk (63 °C for 30 min and 73 °C for 15s). PEF treatments were applied at 20 or 26 kV cm(-1) for 34 μs with or without pre-heating of milk (55 °C for 24s), using bipolar square wave pulses in a continuous mode of operation. PEF treatments did not affect the final temperatures of fat melting (Tmelting) or xanthine oxidase denaturation (Tdenaturation), whereas thermal treatments increased both the Tmelting of milk fat and the Tdenaturation for xanthine oxidase by 2-3 °C. Xanthine oxidase denaturation was ∼13% less after PEF treatments compared with the thermal treatments. The enthalpy change (ΔH of denaturation) of whey proteins decreased in the treated-milk, and denaturation increased with the treatment intensity. New endothermic peaks in the calorimetric thermograms of treated milk revealed the formation of complexes due to interactions between MFGM (milk fat globule membrane) proteins and skim milk proteins. Evidence for the adsorption of complexes onto the MFGM surface was obtained from the increase in surface hydrophobicity of proteins, revealing the presence of unfolded hydrophobic regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Borehole sealing with highly compactd Na bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the use of highly compacted Na bentonite for borehole plugging. Bentonites have an extremely low permeability and a low diffusivity, and a swelling ability which produces a nonleaching boundary between clay and rock if the initial bulk density of the bentonite is sufficiently high. The suggested technique, which is applicable to long vertical, and inclined, as well as horizontal boreholes, is based on the use of perforated copper pipes to insert elements of compacted bentonite. Such pipe segments are connected at the rock surface and successively inserted in the hole. When the hole is equipped, the clay takes up water spontaneously and swells through the perforation, and ultimately forms an almost completely homogenous clay core. It embeds the pipe which is left in the hole. Several tests were conducted in the laboratory and one field test was run in Stripa. They all showed that a gel soon fills the slot between the pipe and the confinement which had the form of metal pipes in the laboratory investigations. Subsequently, more clay migrates through the perforation and produces a stiff clay filling in the slot. The redistribution of minerals, leading ultimately to a high degree of homogeneity, can be described as a diffusion process. The rate of redistribution depends on the joint geometry and water flow pattern in the rock. In the rock with an average joint frequence of one per meter or higher, very good homogeneity and sealing ability of the clay are expected within a few months after the application of the plug. (author)

  11. Stability of bentonite gels in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1983-02-01

    The present, extended study comprises a derivation of a simple rock model as a basis for calculation of the penetration rate of bentonite and of the groundwater flow rate, which is a determinant of the erodibility of the protruding clay film. This model, which is representative of a gross permeability of about 10 -8 - 10 -9 m/s, implies a spectrum of slot-shaped joints with apertures ranging between 0.1 and 0.5 mm. It is concluded that less than 2percent of the highly compacted bentonite will be lost into traversing joints in 10 6 years. A closer analysis, in which also Poiseuille retardation and short-term experiments were taken into account, even suggests that the penetration into the considered joints will be less than that. The penetration rate is expected to be 1 decimeter in a few hundred years. The risk of erosion by flowing groundwater was estimated by comparing clay particle bond strength, evaluated from viscometer tests, and theoretically derived drag forces, the conclusion being that the maximum expected water flow rate in the widest joints of the rock model (4 times 10 -4 m/s) is not sufficient to disrupt the gel front or the large individual clay flocs that may exist at this front. The experiments support the conclusion that erosion will not be a source of bentonite loss. A worst case scenario with a shear zone being developed across deposition holes is finally considered and in addition to this, the conditions in the fracture-rich tunnel floor at the upper end of the deposition holes are also analysed. This study shows that even if the rock is much more fractured than normal conditions would imply, the bentonite loss is expected to be very moderate and without substantial effect on the barrier functions of the remaining clay cores in the deposition holes. (author)

  12. Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Characterisation of the Bentonite of a Simulated HLW Repository after Five Years Operation ( In Situ Test of the FEBEX Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.

    2004-07-01

    After five years of operation, heater 1 of the FEBEX experimental at the Grimsel Test Sites was switched off in February 2002. Following cooling of the system, the bentonite barrier was dismantled and the heater extracted. During dismantling many bentonite samples were taken. Several determinations were carried out in these samples with the aim of: (1) characterise the actual state of the bentonite and (2) determine the possible changes in its properties occurred during the experiment. The results of the thermo-hydro-mechanical characterisation performed at CIEMAT are reported and analysed. The distribution of water content and dry density of the bentonite in vertical sections presents axial symmetry. The construction gaps of the barrier have been filled by the expansion of the bentonite. The water retention capacity, the hydraulic conductivity and the swelling capacity of the samples from Grimsel have not irreversible changed. The pre consolidation pressure of the Grimsel samples has decreased due to the microstructural changes associated to the volume increase experienced during hydration. The thermal conductivity is higher for the bentonite blocks of the external ring of the barrier. (Author)

  13. Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Characterisation of the Bentonite of a Simulated HLW Repository after Five Years Operation ( In Situ Test of the FEBEX Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, M. V.

    2004-01-01

    After five years of operation, heater 1 of the FEBEX experimental at the Grimsel Test Sites was switched off in February 2002. Following cooling of the system, the bentonite barrier was dismantled and the heater extracted. During dismantling many bentonite samples were taken. Several determinations were carried out in these samples with the aim of: (1) characterise the actual state of the bentonite and (2) determine the possible changes in its properties occurred during the experiment. The results of the thermo-hydro-mechanical characterisation performed at CIEMAT are reported and analysed. The distribution of water content and dry density of the bentonite in vertical sections presents axial symmetry. The construction gaps of the barrier have been filled by the expansion of the bentonite. The water retention capaciaty, the hydraulic conductivity and the swelling capacity of the samples from Grimsel have not irreversible changed. The preconsolidation pressure of the Grimsel samples has decreased due to the microstructural changes asswociated to the volume increase experienced during hydration. The thermal conductivity is higher for the bentonite blocks of the external ring of the barrier. (Author)

  14. The coupled process laboratory test of highly compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Zhenyao; Li Guoding; Li Shushen; Wang Chengzu

    2004-01-01

    Highly compacted bentonite blocks have been heated and hydrated in the laboratory in order to simulate the thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) coupled processes of buffer material in a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository. The experiment facility, which is composed of experiment barrel, heated system, high pressure water input system, temperature measure system, water content measure system and swelling stress system, is introduced in this paper. The steps of the THM coupled experiment are also given out in detail. There are total 10 highly compacted bentonite blocks used in this test. Experimental number 1-4 are the tests with the heater and the hydrated process, which temperature distribution vs. time and final moisture distribution are measured. Experimental number 5-8 are the tests with the heater and without the hydrated process, which temperature distribution vs. time and final moisture distribution are measured. Experimental number 9-10 are the tests with the heater and the hydrated process, which temperature distribution vs. time, final moisture distribution and the swelling stress distribution at some typical points vs. time are measured. The maximum test time is nearly 20 days and the minimum test time is only 8 hours. The results show that the temperature field is little affected by hydration process and stress condition, but moisture transport and stress distribution are a little affected by the thermal gradient. The results also show that the water head difference is the mainly driving force of hydration process and the swelling stress is mainly from hydration process. It will great help to understand better about heat and mass transfer in porous media and the THM coupled process in actual HLW disposal. (author)

  15. Thermal shock effect on Mechanical and Physical properties of pre-moisture treated GRE composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraverty, A. P.; Panda, A. B.; Mohanty, U. K.; Mishra, S. C.; Biswal, B. B.

    2018-03-01

    Many practical situations may be encountered under which a GFRP (Glass fibre reinforced polymer) composite, during its service life, is exposed to the severities of sudden temperature fluctuations. Moisture absorption of GRE (Glass fibre reinforced epoxy) composites followed by various gradients of temperature fluctuations may cause thermo- mechanical degradation. It is on this context, the hand layed GRE composite samples are exposed to up-thermal shock (-40°C to +50°C) and down-thermal shock (+50°C to -40°C) for various time interval after several periods of moisture (hydrothermal/hygrothermal) conditioning. The thermally shocked GRE specimens are put to 3-point bend test to divulge inter laminar shear strength (ILSS). Least ILSS values are recorded for the samples with maximum period of moisture treatments under with both up-thermal and down-thermal shock conditions. Lower glass transition temperature (Tg) values, as revealed through the low temperature DSC test, are exhibited at maximum durations of both up-thermal and down-thermal shock for the samples with higher periods of hygrothermal/hydrothermal treatments. SEM fractographs of representative GRE specimens after optimum period of moisture treatments and thermal shock show the various modes of failures.

  16. Preliminary laboratory investigation of thermally treated recycled concrete aggregate for general use in concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larbi, J.A.; Heijnen, W.M.M.; Brouwer, J.P.; Mulder, E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with a preliminary laboratory study to assess the effectiveness of thermal treatment methods to improve the quality of recycled concrete aggregate. The samples used for the study consisted of sieved fractions of crushed concrete that were subjected to various thermal treatments at

  17. A comparison of nano bentonite and some nano chemical additives to improve drilling fluid using local clay and commercial bentonites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada S. Al-Zubaidi

    2017-09-01

    In the second part, a commercial bentonite was used and mixed with nano commercial bentonite and nano chemical materials (MgO, TiO2, and graphene at 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 wt% concentrations. The results showed that nano commercial bentonite gives the same filtration behavior of graphene, whereas, the plastic viscosity, yield point and apparent viscosity were the same when using nano commercial bentonite, TiO2 and graphene. The best results were obtained with MgO addition, whereby the filter loss decreased to 35% with a higher value of yield point.

  18. Report on hydro-mechanical and chemical-mineralogical analyses of the bentonite buffer in Canister Retrieval Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueck, Ann; Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Kristensson, Ola; Olsson, Siv [Clay Technology AB (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    The effect of five years of exposure to repository-like conditions on compacted Wyoming bentonite was determined by comparing the hydraulic, mechanical, and mineralogical properties of samples from the bentonite buffer of the Canister Retrieval Test (CRT) with those of reference material. The CRT, located at the Swedish Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), was a full-scale field experiment simulating conditions relevant for the Swedish KBS-3 concept for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in crystalline host rock. The compacted bentonite, surrounding a copper canister equipped with heaters, had been subjected to heating at temperatures up to 95 deg C and hydration by natural Na-Ca-Cl type groundwater for almost five years at the time of retrieval. Under the thermal and hydration gradients that prevailed during the test, sulfate in the bentonite was redistributed and accumulated as anhydrite close to the canister. The major change in the exchangeable cation pool was a loss in Mg in the outer parts of the blocks, suggesting replacement of Mg mainly by Ca along with the hydration with groundwater. Close to the copper canister, small amounts of Cu were incorporated in the bentonite. A reduction of strain at failure was observed in the innermost part of the bentonite buffer, but no influence was seen on the shear strength. No change of the swelling pressure was observed, while a modest decrease in hydraulic conductivity was found for the samples with the highest densities. No coupling was found between these changes in the hydro-mechanical properties and the montmorillonite . the X-ray diffraction characteristics, the cation exchange properties, and the average crystal chemistry of the Na-converted < 1 {mu}m fractions provided no evidence of any chemical/structural changes in the montmorillonite after the 5-year hydrothermal test.

  19. Influence of selected factors on strontium sorption on bentonites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, M.; Kufcakova, J.; Rajec, P.

    2007-01-01

    Sorption on bentonite will play an important role in retarding the migration of radionuclides from a waste repository. Bentonite is a natural clay and one of the most promising candidates for use as a buffer material in the geological disposal systems for high-level nuclear waste. It is intended to isolate metal canisters with highly radioactive waste products from the surrounding rocks because of its ability to retard the movement of radionuclides by sorption. Bentonite is characterized by low permeability, water swelling capability and excellent sorption potential for cationic radionuclides. To correctly assess the sorption potential of radionuclides on bentonite is essential for the development of predictive migration models. The sorption of strontium on bentonite from different Slovak deposits - Jelsovy potok, Kopernica and Lieskovec has been investigated under various experimental conditions, such as contact time, sorbate concentrations, presence of complementary cation. Sorption was studied using the batch technique. The uptake of Sr was rapid and equilibrium was reached almost instantaneously. The instantaneous uptake may be due to adsorption and/or exchange of the metal with some ions on the surface of the adsorbent. The best sorption characteristics distinguish bentonite Kopernica, sorption capacity for Sr of the fraction under 45 mm is 0,48 mmol·g -1 for Sr. The highest values of distribution coefficient were reached for the bentonite Jelsovy potok. Radiation stability has been investigated, the higher sorption parameters were observed for the irradiated bentonites, which can be explained by the increase of specific surface of the bentonite samples. The presence of complementary cations depresses the sorption of Sr on bentonite. Cations Ca 2+ exhibit higher effect on cesium sorption than the Na 2+ ions. Results indicate that the sorption of Sr 2+ on bentonite will be affected by the presence of high concentrations of various salts in the waste water

  20. MANU. Handling of bentonite prior buffer block manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the entire bentonite handling process starting from freight from harbour to storage facility and ending up to the manufacturing filling process of the bentonite block moulds. This work describes the bentonite handling prior to the process in which bentonite blocks are manufactured in great quantities. This work included a study of relevant Nordic and international well documented cases of storage, processing and techniques involving bentonite material. Information about storage and handling processes from producers or re-sellers of bentonite was collected while keeping in mind the requirements coming from the Posiva side. Also a limited experiment was made for humidification of different material types. This work includes a detailed description of methods and equipment needed for bentonite storage and processing. Posiva Oy used Jauhetekniikka Oy as a consultant to prepare handling process flow charts for bentonite. Jauhetekniikka Oy also evaluated the content of this report. The handling of bentonite was based on the assumption that bentonite process work is done in one factory for 11 months of work time while the weekly volume is around 41-45 tons. Storage space needed in this case is about 300 tons of bentonite which equals about seven weeks of raw material consumption. This work concluded several things to be carefully considered: sampling at various phases of the process, the air quality at the production/storage facilities (humidity and temperature), the level of automation/process control of the manufacturing process and the means of producing/saving data from different phases of the process. (orig.)

  1. Modelling interaction of deep groundwaters with bentonite and radionuclide speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanner, H.

    1986-04-01

    In the safety analysis recently reported for a potential Swiss high-level waste repository, radionuclide speciation and solubility limits are calculated for expected granitic groundwater conditions. With the objective of deriving a more realistic description of radionuclide release from the near-field, an investigation has been initiated to quantitatively specify the chemistry of the near-field. In the Swiss case, the main components of the near-field are the glass waste-matrix, a thick steel canister horizontally emplaced in a drift, and a backfill of highly compacted sodium bentonite. This report describes a thermodynamic model which is used to estimate the chemical composition of the pore water in compacted sodium bentonite. Solubility limits and speciation of important actinides and the fission product technetium in the bentonite pore water are then calculated. The model is based on available experimental data on the interaction of sodium bentonite and groundwater and represents means of extrapolation from laboratory data to repository conditions. The modelled composition of the pore water of compacted sodium bentonite, as well as the various compositions resulting from the long-term extrapolation, are used to estimate radionuclide solubilities in the near-field of a deep repository. From the chemical point of view, calcium bentonite seems to be more stable than sodium bentonite in the presence of Swiss Reference Groundwater. Since the effect of calcium bentonite on the groundwater chemical composition will be considerably less marked than that of sodium bentonite, especially with respect to key parameters for the nuclide speciation like carbonate concentration and pH, the use of calcium bentonite instead of sodium bentonite will improve the reliability in the prediction of source terms for radionuclide transport in the geosphere. (author)

  2. Over one thousand patients with early stage endometriosis treated with the Helica Thermal Coagulator (HELICA): safety aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nicholas; McQueen, John; Morey, Richard; Hanna, Leila; Chandakas, Stefanos; El-Toukhy, Tarek; Erian, John

    2006-07-01

    To assess the safety of the Helica Thermal Coagulator in the laparoscopic treatment of early stage endometriosis. Retrospective, observational. The Princess Royal University Hospital, The Sloane and Chelsfield Park Hospitals, Kent, UK. One thousand and sixty patients with early stage endometriosis. All patients were treated laparoscopically with the Helica Thermal Coagulator; a new laparoscopic device that combines electrical energy with helium for the treatment of endometriosis. No major bladder, ureteric or bowel injuries occurred. The only complication was a perforated vagina from the cutting probe during dissection of the cul-de-sac in a patient with a vaginal endometriotic nodule. The Helica Thermal Coagulator is a safe device for the laparoscopic treatment of endometriosis.

  3. Admixing dredged marine clay with cement-bentonite for reduction of compressibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahilman, Nur Nazihah Nur; Chan, Chee-Ming

    2017-11-01

    Cement-based solidification/stabilization is a method that is widely used for the treatment of dredged marine clay. The key objective for solidification/stabilization is to improve the engineering properties of the originally soft, weak material. Dredged materials are normally low in shear strength and bearing capacity while high incompressibility. In order to improve the material's properties for possible reuse, a study on the one-dimensional compressibility of lightly solidified dredged marine clay admixed with bentonite was conducted. On the other hand, due to the viscous nature, particularly the swelling property, bentonite is a popular volumising agent for backfills. In the present study, standard oedometer test was carried out to examine the compressibility of the treated sample. Complementary strength measurements were also conducted with laboratory vane shear setup on both the untreated and treated dredged marine clay. The results showed that at the same binder content, the addition of bentonite contributed significantly to the reduction of compressibility and rise in undrained shear strength. These improved properties made the otherwise discarded dredged marine soils potentially reusable for reclamation works, for instance.

  4. corrosion of a carbon steel covered by treated bentonites in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. Arbaoui

    2017-09-01

    Sep 1, 2017 ... Nuclear Waste disposal [2-4]. The multi ... isolation of radioactive waste is safe and can be considered as a permanent solution. ... the sample repeatedly with deionised wat ..... addition, a Warburg element (W) has been introduced and .... exchange capacity and swell potential determination of clayey soils.

  5. Mineralogy and geochemistry of bauxite and bentonite deposits from Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dos Muchangos, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    Results of mineralogical and geochemical studies of bauxites, kaolinitic clays and bentoniteS from Mozambique are presented in this thesis. The bauxite and kaolinitic clay deposits in Penhalonga area (in the central western part of Mozambique) are associated with Precambrian magmatic rocks and

  6. Filtration behavior of organic substance through a compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaji, Mariko; Kuno, Yoshio; Yui, Mikazu

    1999-07-01

    Filtration behavior of organic substance through a compacted bentonite was investigated. Na-type bentonite containing 30wt% of quartz sand was compacted in a column and the dry density was adjusted to be 1.6 g/cm 3 . Polyacrylic acid solution (including three types of polyacrylic acid, average molecular weight 2,100, 15,000 and 450,000) was prepared and was passed through the compacted bentonite. Molecular weight distributions of polyacrylic acid in the effluent solution were analysed by GPC (Gel Permeation Chromatography). A batch type experiment was also carried out in order to examine a sorption behavior of these organic substances onto the surfaces of grains of the bentonite. The results indicated that the smaller size polyacrylic acid (molecular weight < 100,000) was passed through the compacted bentonite. On the other hand, the larger size polyacrylic acid (molecular weight ≥100,000) was mostly filtrated by the compacted bentonite. The batch type sorption tests clarified that the polyacrylic acid did not sorb onto the surfaces of minerals constituting the bentonite. Therefore it was suggested that the larger size molecules (≥100,000) of organic substances could be predominantly filtrated by the microstructure of the compacted bentonite. (author)

  7. A comparative study of the flow enhancing properties of bentonite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of granule flow enhancing property of bentonite, magnesium stearate, talc and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was undertaken. Bentonite was processed into fine powder. A 10 %w/w of starch granules was prepared and separated into different sizes (˂180, 180-500, 500-710 and 710-850 μm).

  8. Diffusion behavior for Se and Zr in sodium-bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Haruo; Yui, Mikazu; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    1995-01-01

    Apparent diffusion coefficients for Se and Zr in bentonite were measured by in-diffusion method at room temperature using water-saturated sodium-bentonite, Kunigel V1 reg-sign containing 50wt% Na-smectite as a major mineral was used as the bentonite material. The experiments were carried out in the dry density range of 400--1,800 kg/m 3 . Bentonite samples were immersed with distilled water and saturated before the experiments. The experiments for Se were carried out under N 2 atmospheric condition (O 2 : 2.5ppm). Those for Zr were carried out under aerobic condition. The apparent diffusion coefficients decrease with increasing density of the bentonite. Since dominant species of Se in the pore water is predicted to be SeO 3 2- , Se may be retarded by anion-exclusion because of negative charge on the surface of the bentonite and little sorption. The dominant species of Zr in the porewater is predicted to be Zr(OH) 5 - or HZrO 3 - . Distribution coefficient measured for Zr on the bentonite was about 1.0 m 3 /kg from batch experiments. Therefore, the retardation may be caused by combination of the sorption and the anion-exclusion. A modeling for the diffusion mechanisms in the bentonite were discussed based on an electric double layer theory. Comparison between the apparent diffusion coefficients predicted by the model and the measured ones shows a good agreement

  9. Gas migration characteristics of highly compacted bentonite ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yukihisa; Hironaga, Michihiko

    2010-01-01

    In the current concept of repository for radioactive waste disposal, compacted bentonite will be used as an engineered barrier mainly for inhibiting migration of radioactive nuclides. Hydrogen gas can be generated inside the engineered barrier by anaerobic corrosion of metals used for containers, etc. If the gas generation rate exceeds the diffusion rate of dissolved gas inside of the engineered barrier, gas will accumulate in the void space inside of the engineered barrier until its pressure becomes large enough for it to enter the bentonite as a discrete gaseous phase. It is expected to be not easy for gas to entering into the bentonite as a discrete gaseous phase because the pore of compacted bentonite is so minute. Gas migration characteristics of highly compacted powdered bentonite are already reported by CRIEPI. In this report, gas migration characteristics of bentonite ore, which is a candidate for construction material of repository for radioactive waste, is investigated. The following conclusions are obtained through the results of the gas migration tests which are conducted in this study: 1) When the total gas pressure exceeds the initial total axial stress, the total axial stress is always equal to the total gas pressure because specimens shrink in the axial direction with causing the clearance between the end of the specimen and porous metal. By increasing the gas pressure more, gas breakthrough, which defined as a sudden and sharp increase in gas flow rate out of the specimen, occurs. Therefore gas migration mechanism of compacted bentonite ore is basically identical to that of compacted powdered bentonite. 2) Hydraulic conductivity measured after the gas breakthrough is somewhat smaller than that measured before the gas migration test. This fact means that it might be possible to neglect decline of the function of bentonite as engineered barrier caused by the gas breakthrough. These characteristics of compacted bentonite ore are identical to those of

  10. Interaction of inorganic and organic compounds of physiological fluids with thermally treated Ti surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgos-Asperilla, Laura

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of the interaction between the thermally treated Ti (TT-Ti at 277 °C for 5 hours and the body fluids, ranging from the simplest to the most complex solution is analysed. Electrochemical techniques such as the measurement of the corrosion potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the polarization curves have been used. The characterization of TT-Ti has been performed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS. The XPS reveals that the peak intensity associated with phosphate and calcium increases as immersion time does. However, the albumin covers rapidly the surface since the C peak intensity remains constant from the first day to the end of immersion time. The calcium ions have a bridging effect on the electrostatic adsorption of phosphate ions as well as that of albumin and the acidic hydroxyl groups of the oxide layer. The impedance measurement shows that the resistance of the oxide layer immersed in albumin and foetal bovine serum decrease probably due to the formation of organometallic complex. The polarization curves reveal that the presence of proteins decreases the current of anodic branch indicating that the proteins work as a barrier on the surface.Se estudia la interacción del Ti oxidado a 277 °C durante 5 horas con compuestos orgánicos e inorgánicos presentes en los fluidos fisiológicos, desde la solución más simple a la más compleja. Se han utilizado técnicas electroquímicas como la evolución del potencial de corrosión, espectroscopía de impedancia electroquímica y curvas de polarización, y la espectroscopía de fotoelectrones de rayos X (XPS. El XPS revela que la intensidad de los picos asociados a los iones fosfato y calcio aumenta con el tiempo de inmersión. Sin embargo, la albúmina cubre desde el primer día la superficie, ya que la intensidad de los picos asociados a la presencia de C permanece prácticamente constante hasta el final

  11. Temperature dependent capacity contribution of thermally treated anode current collectors in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Kwon; Li Xifei; Wang Chunlei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied the influence of the thermal treatment of current collectors on the energy capacity. ► Different current collectors show different thermal treatment effect on performance. ► The non-negligible capacity contribution is closely related to the treatment temperatures. ► Our results could be beneficial to designing battery architectures. - Abstract: Metal current collectors, offering a good connection between the active materials and the external circuit, is an important component in a rechargeable lithium ion battery. Some necessary thermal treatment in the battery fabrication and assembly procedure results in current collectors with some non-negligible reversible energy capacities; however, these energy capacities were negligible in the previous references. In this research, for the first time, we investigated the influence of the thermal treatment of current collectors (such as copper foil and stainless steel disk) on energy capacities. Our results indicate that different current collector materials have different thermal treatment effects on their electrochemical performance. The non-negligible capacity contribution is closely related to the treatment temperature.

  12. Cation Exchange Efficiency Of Modified Bentonite Using In-Situ GAMMA Radiation Polymerization Of Acrylic Acid Or Acrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ISMAIL, S.A.; FALAZI, B.

    2009-01-01

    Modified bentonites as cation exchangers were prepared by treating raw bentonite with 3N NaOH at 95 0 C followed by in-situ polymerization using gamma irradiation as well as hydrogen peroxide initiation of acrylic acid or acrylamide in the matrix.Water swelling and acid capacity were determined and cation exchange capacity for Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and Co 2+ was evaluated. It has been found that catiexchange capacity of treated bentonite was increased as result of formed polyacrylic acid and polyacrylamide in the matrix. In case of acrylic acid, the maximum cation exchange capacities of 3.5, 3.1 and 2.5 mg equivalent/g were determined for Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and Co 2+ , respectively, and for acrylamide, the corresponding capacities were 2.9, 2.8 and 2.6 mg equivalent/g, respectively. Water swelling was found to be associated with holding large amounts of water, for instance, 49 g of water was sorbed per one gram of the sodium salt form of polyacrylic acid in bentonite matrix, in other words the degree of swelling in water achieved 4500%.

  13. Verification of substitution of bentonites by montmorillonitic clays summary report on Czech montmorillonitic clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, L.; Keto, P.

    2006-10-01

    Czech bentonites and smectite-rich clays were characterised in order to study if they could be used as buffer and backfill materials instead of non-Czech commercial bentonites. The characterisation work was orgnized by RAWRA (the Czech Radioactive Waste Repository Authority) and the main part of the work was performed in the Czech Republic at Charles University and at Czech Technical University. Parallel and complementary characterisation was conducted in Finland in Sweden. This report was compiled with the aim to summarise the results, and to compare the methods and results gained in different testing laboratories. The characterisation included mineralogical, chemical and geotechnical investigations and experiments on thermal stability and sorption. There were some variations between the results gained in different laboratories. This was mainly due to differences between the testing methods used but also due to heterogeneity of the samples. The Czech bentonite-clays from Rokle and Strance clay deposits contained relatively high amount of swelling minerals and thus can be considered as potential buffer and backfill materials. (orig.)

  14. Synthesis of polycationic bentonite-ionene complexes and their benzene adsorption capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Campos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to structurally modify clays in order to incorporate water-insoluble molecules, such as petroleum hydrocarbons. The potential for ion exchange of quaternary ammonium salts was studied, which revealed their ability to interact with anions on the cationic surface, for environmental applications of the material. Ionenes, also known as polycations, have many potential uses in environmental applications. In this work, cationic aliphatic ammonium polyionenes, specifically 3,6-ionene and 3,6-dodecylionene, were prepared for incorporation into clay to form bentonite-ionene complexes. The intercalation of bentonite with ionene polymers resulted in an increase in the basal spacing of 3,6-dodecylionene from 1.5-3.5 nm. The higher d001 spacing of 3,6-dodecylionene samples than that of 3,6-ionene samples may be attributed to their longer tail length. The behavior of the TG/DTG curves and the activation energy values suggest that 3,6-dodecylionene (E = 174.85 kJ mol–1 is thermally more stable than 3,6 ionene (E = 115.52 kJ mol–1 complexes. The adsorption of benzene by 3,6-ionene and 3,6-dodecylionene was also investigated. The increase in benzene concentrations resulted in increased benzene adsorption by the sorbents tested in this work. The sorption capacity of benzene on ionene-modified bentonite was in the order of 3,6-dodecylionene > 3,6-ionene.

  15. An assessment of strontium sorption onto bentonite buffer material in waste repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Pankaj

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, changes occurring in sorption characteristics of a representative bentonite (WIn-BT) exposed to SrCl 2 (0.001-0.1 M) under the pH range of 1-13 were investigated. Such interaction revealed a significant variation in surface charge density and binding energy of ions with respect to bentonite, and alteration in their physicochemical properties viz., specific surface area, cation exchange capacity, thermal and mechanical behaviour were observed. The distribution coefficients (k d ) calculated for sorption onto virgin (UCBT) and contaminated bentonite (CBT) indicated a greater influence of mineralogical changes occurred with variance of pH and strontium concentration. Notably, the sorption mechanism clearly elucidates the effect of structural negative charge and existence of anionic metal species onto CBT, and depicted the reason behind significant k d values at highly acidic and alkaline pH. The maximum k d of UCBT and CBT (0.001M SrCl2) were 8.99 and 2.92 L/kg, respectively, at the soil pH 8.5; whereas it was 2.37 and 1.23 L/kg at pH 1 for the CBT (0.1M SrCl2) and CBT (0.01M SrCl2) , respectively. The findings of this study can be useful to identify the physicochemical parameters of candidate buffer material and sorption reversibility in waste repository.

  16. Two-phase water movement in unsaturated compacted bentonite under isothermal condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Shinji

    1994-01-01

    Bentonite is considered as one of the most promising buffer materials of engineered barrier system (EBS) for the geological isolation of high level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan. The EBS may be composed of vitrified waste, overpack and buffer material. In the early stage of setting and backfilling of HLW, a coupled thermal-hydro-mechanical phenomenon may occur in buffer material due to various causes, but water movement may be the most important phenomenon for the coupled process. It is necessary to verify the two-phase movement for the precise modeling of the water movement in unsaturated bentonite. In this study, in order to analyze water movement, the water retention curves and water diffusivity of compacted bentonite were obtained as the functions of water content, dry density and temperature. Also water movement behavior was examined by applying the Philip and de Vries' and Darcy's equations to the obtained water diffusivity. Water potential was measured with a thermocouple psychrometer. The equation for water diffusivity is shown. The measurement of water potential and water diffusivity and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  17. Experimental evaluation of the hydraulic resistance of compacted bentonite/boom clay interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Anh-Minh; Cui, Yu-Jun; Delage, Pierre; Munoz, Juan Jorge; Li, Xiang-Ling

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the in-situ PRACLAY Heater experiment to be performed in the HADES URF in Mol (Belgium), the feasibility of a hydraulic cut-off of the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) and the Repository Components (RC) of the disposal galleries by using a horizontal seal will be examined. It has been planned to install an annular seal composed of compacted bentonite between the heated zone and the access gallery (PRACLAY seal test), so that to avoid any hydraulic shortcut towards the access gallery. According to numerical scoping calculations, heating until 80 deg C will induce a pore pressure of the order of 3.0 MPa. In order to verify the effects of this water pressure on the performance of the annular seal system and more specifically on the hydraulic resistance of the interface between the compacted bentonite and the host rock (Boom clay), laboratory percolation tests at 20 and 80 deg C were performed. The results confirm the performance of the compacted bentonite seal to avoid the hydraulic shortcut to the access gallery under the foreseen hydraulic and thermal conditions. (author)

  18. Enhanced shear strength of sodium bentonite using frictional additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, K.E.; Bowders, J.J.; Gilbert, R.B.; Daniel, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    One of the most important obstacles to using geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) in landfill cover systems is the low shear strength provided by the bentonitic portion of the GCL. In this study, the authors propose that granular, frictional materials might be added to the bentonite to form an admixture that would have greater shear strength than the bentonite alone while still raining low hydraulic conductivity. Bentonite was mixed with two separate granular additives, expanded shale and recycled to form mixtures consisting of 20-70% bentonite by weight. In direct shear tests at normal stresses of 34.5-103.5 kPa, effective friction angles were measured as 45 degrees for the expanded 36 degrees for the recycled glass, and 7 degrees for the hydrated granular bentonite. The strength of the expanded shale mixtures increased nearly linearly as the percentage shale in the mixture increased, to 44 degrees for a bentonite mixture with 80% shale. The addition of recycled glass showed little effect on the shear strength of the mixtures of glass and bentonite. Hydraulic conductivity measurements for both types of mixtures indicated a linear increase with log(k) as the amount of granular additive increased. For applications involving geosynthetic clay liners for cover systems, a mixture of 40% expanded shale and 60% bentonite is recommended, although further testing must be done. The 40/60 mixture satisfies the hydraulic equivalency requirement, with k = 5.1X10 -9 cm/sec, while increasing the shear strength parameters of the bentonitic mixture to φ' = 17 degrees and c' = 0

  19. Modelling interaction of deep groundwaters with bentonite and radionuclide speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanner, H.

    1986-04-01

    In the safety analysis recently reported for a potential Swiss high-level waste repository, radionuclide speciation and solubility limits are calculated for expected granitic groundwater conditions. This report describes a thermodynamic model which is used to estimate the chemical composition of the pore water in compacted sodium bentonite. The model is based on available experimental data and describes the basic reactions between bentonite and groundwater by an ion-exchange model for sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. The model assumes equilibrium with calcite as long as sufficient carbonates remain in the bentonite, as well as quartz saturation. The long-term situation is modelled by the assumption that the near-field of a deep repository behaves like a mixing tank. It is found that sodium bentonite will slowly be converted to calcium bentonite. The modelled composition of the pore water of compacted sodium bentonite is used to estimate radionuclide solubilities in the near-field of a deep repository. The elements considered are: uranium, neptunium, plutonium, thorium, americium, and technetium. The redox potential in the near-field is assumed to be controlled by the corrosion products of the iron canister. Except for uranium and neptunium, radionuclide solubilities turn out to be lower under the modelled near-field conditions than in the groundwater of the surrounding granitic host rock. Uranium and neptunium solubility might be higher by orders of magnitude in the near-field than in the far-field. From the chemical point of view, calcium bentonite seems to be more stable than sodium bentonite in the presence of Swiss Reference Groundwater. The use of calcium bentonite instead of sodium bentonite will improve the reliability in the prediction of source terms for radionuclide transport in the geosphere. (author)

  20. Thermal characteristics of thermobrachytherapy surface applicators for treating chest wall recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, K; Maccarini, P F; Craciunescu, O I; Stauffer, P R; Schlorff, J L

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate temperature and thermal dose distributions of thermobrachytherapy surface applicators (TBSAs) developed for concurrent or sequential high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy and microwave hyperthermia treatment of chest wall recurrence and other superficial diseases. A steady-state thermodynamics model coupled with the fluid dynamics of a water bolus and electromagnetic radiation of the hyperthermia applicator is used to characterize the temperature distributions achievable with TBSAs in an elliptical phantom model of the human torso. Power deposited by 915 MHz conformal microwave array (CMA) applicators is used to assess the specific absorption rate (SAR) distributions of rectangular (500 cm 2 ) and L-shaped (875 cm 2 ) TBSAs. The SAR distribution in tissue and fluid flow distribution inside the dual-input dual-output (DIDO) water bolus are coupled to solve the steady-state temperature and thermal dose distributions of the rectangular TBSA (R-TBSA) for superficial tumor targets extending 10-15 mm beneath the skin surface. Thermal simulations are carried out for a range of bolus inlet temperature (T b = 38-43 deg. C), water flow rate (Q b = 2-4 L min -1 ) and tumor blood perfusion (ω b = 2-5 kg m -3 s -1 ) to characterize their influence on thermal dosimetry. Steady-state SAR patterns of the R- and L-TBSA demonstrate the ability to produce conformal and localized power deposition inside the tumor target sparing surrounding normal tissues and nearby critical organs. Acceptably low variation in tissue surface cooling and surface temperature homogeneity was observed for the new DIDO bolus at a 2 L min -1 water flow rate. Temperature depth profiles and thermal dose volume histograms indicate bolus inlet temperature (T b ) to be the most influential factor on thermal dosimetry. A 42 deg. C water bolus was observed to be the optimal choice for superficial tumors extending 10-15 mm from the surface even under significant blood perfusion

  1. Antifungal activity of streptomycetes isolated bentonite clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Shirobokov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the biological activity of streptomycetes, isolated from Ukrainian bentonite clay. Methods. For identification of the investigated microorganisms there were used generally accepted methods for study of morpho-cultural and biochemical properties and sequencing of 16Ѕ rRNA producer. Antagonistic activity of the strain was determined by agar diffusion and agar block method using gram-positive, gram-negative microorganisms and fungi. Results. Research of autochthonous flora from bentonite clay of Ukrainian various deposits proved the existence of stable politaxonomic prokaryotic-eukaryotic consortia there. It was particularly interesting that the isolated microorganisms had demonstrated clearly expressed antagonistic properties against fungi. During bacteriological investigation this bacterial culture was identified like representative of the genus Streptomyces. Bentonite streptomycetes, named as Streptomyces SVP-71, inagar mediums (agar block method inhibited the growth of fungi (yeast and mold; zones of growth retardation constituted of 11-36 mm, and did not affect the growth of bacteria. There were investigated the inhibitory effects of supernatant culture fluid, ethanol and butanol extracts of biomass streptomycetes on museum and clinical strains of fungi that are pathogenic for humans (Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. utilis, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. kefir, S. glabrata, C. lusitaniae, Aspergillus niger, Mucor pusillus, Fusarium sporotrichioides. It has been shown that research antifungal factor had 100% of inhibitory effect against all fungi used in experiments in vitro. In parallel, it was found that alcohol extracts hadn’t influence to the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria absolutely. It was shown that the cultural fluid supernatant and alcoholic extracts of biomass had the same antagonistic effect, but with different manifestation. This evidenced about identity of antifungal substances

  2. Modifications in Compacted MX-80 Bentonite Due to Thermo-Hydraulic Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Espina, R.; Villar, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    The thermo-hydraulic tests reproduce the thermal and hydraulic conditions to which bentonite is subjected in the engineered barrier of a deep geological repository of radioactive waste. The results of thermo-hydraulic test TBT1500, which was running for approximately 1500 days, are presented. This is a continuation to the Technical Report Ciemat 1199, which presented results of test TBT500, performed under similar conditions but with duration of 500 days. In both tests the MX-80 bentonite was used with initial density and water content similar to those of the large-scale test TBT. The bentonite column was heated at the bottom at 140 degree centigrade and hydrated on top with deionized water. At the end of the test a sharp water content gradient was observed along the column, as well as an inverse dry density gradient. Hydration modified also the bentonite microstructure. Besides, an overall decrease of the smectite content with respect to the initial value took place, especially in the most hydrated areas where the percentage of interest ratified illite increased and in the longer test. On the other hand, the content of cristobalite, feldspars and calcite increased. Smectite dissolution processes (probably colloidal) occurred, particularly in the more hydrated areas and in the longer test. Due to the dissolution of low-solubility species and to the loss of exchangeable positions in the smectite, the content of soluble salts in the pore water increased with respect to the original one, especially in the longer test. The solubilized ions were transported; sodium, calcium, magnesium and sulphate having a similar mobility, which was in turn lower than that of potassium and chloride. The cationic exchange complex was also modified. (Author)

  3. Effect of pH to adsorption behavior of Pu on bentonite in aqueous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoqiang; Tuo Xianguo; Li Pingchuan; Leng Yangchun; Su Jilong; Yueping

    2013-01-01

    The effects of pH to the adsorption behavior of Pu in GMZ-bentonite, Lingshou Ca-bentonite, Na-bentonite and bleaching earth were tested by static adsorption experiments in aqueous environment. The results show that the adsorption equilibrium time of Pu is four days in GMZ-bentonite and 5-6 days in bleaching earth, Ca-bentonite and Na-bentonite. In aqueous environment, the adsorption capacity of bentonite to Pu increases with pH in water phase, and it is weak in acidic aqueous environment and strong in alkaline aqueous environment extremely. (authors)

  4. Thermally treated polyaniline/polybenzimidazole blend membranes: structural changes and gas transport properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giel, Verena; Morávková, Zuzana; Peter, Jakub; Trchová, Miroslava

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 537, 1 September (2017), s. 315-322 ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polybenzimidazole * polyaniline * thermal treatment Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 6.035, year: 2016

  5. Hydrothermal alterations of Bentonites in Almeria (Spain); Alteracion hidrotermal de las bentonitas de Almeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares Gonzalez, J; Barahona Fernandez, E; Huertas Garcia, F; Caballero Mesa, E; Cuadros Ojeda, J

    1996-12-01

    The use of bentonite as backfilling and sealing material in the high level radioactive waste disposals has been treated in previous studies accomplished by different authors. However, the use of this clayey barrier needs the resolution of different problems so that its efficiency will be enhanced. between those could be cited the study of the actual capacity of sealing the space around the canister and the accommodation to the pressure of the rocky environment; the possible variations in plasticity; the diffusion and reaction processes that can be produced through the barrier by groundwater, the capacity of radionuclides adsorption, etc. These studies, show that the bentonites with high content in smectite fulfill satisfactorily with the physical and chemical conditions to be used as sealing material, but it is known that the smectite can be unstable in diagenetic conditions similar to those are given in a deep repository of radioactive wastes, being transformed into illite. A conclusion of immediate interest is deduced from this last study. The bentonites used as sealing material in radioactive waste repositories must no contain Na as interlayer cation since it is very easily exchangeable by K. It is better to select those smectites with Ca and Mg that detain the entry of K in the interlayer and as a consequence the transformation process of smectite into illite is made more difficult. (Author)

  6. Bentonite and Gelatine Impact on the Young Red Wine Coloured Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Jović

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impact of two fining agents (bentonite and gelatine on the coloured matters of young red wines Vranac, Pinot Noir and Gamay Noir. Both agents caused decrease in these substances. The effect is more intensive with the dose of bentonite of 1 g/L, but the variability depends on variety. Higher decrease was found in the colour intensity, coloured anthocyanins and polymers (up to 44 %, but lower in the colourless anthocyanins (up to 20 %. The intensity of red and blue colours decreases, while that of yellow colour increases. The use of bentonite in dosages higher than those recommended may cause the wine to obtain more pronounced »brick red« colour (the colour tint increases while the value of the spectrum form decreases. Fewer changes occurred in the coloured matters after treating the wine with gelatine. The colour intensity, colourless and coloured anthocyanins showed a decrease of up to 10 % and polymers of up to 16 %. The intensity of yellow colour decreases, while that of red increases as well as the ΔA/% value.

  7. Determination of residual boron in thermally treated controlled-porosity glasses, by colorimetry, spectrography and isotachophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawidowicz, A.L.; Matusewicz, J.; Wysocka-Lisek, J.

    1989-01-01

    Controlled-porosity glasses (CPGs) are often applied as sorbents in chromatography. Besides having high thermal, chemical and mechanical resistance they are characterized by a very narrow pore-size distribution and the choice of mean pore diameter and porosity covers a wide range. In spite of these advantages, their range of use in chromatography is restricted because of their strong adsorption properties, which are connected with the presence of residual boron atoms in the porous CPG skeleton. The boron concentration on the CPG surface can be increased by proper thermal treatment. When CPGs are heated in the range 400-800 0 the residual boron atoms in the network diffuse from the bulk to the surface. The paper discusses the boron content in porous glasses of different mean pore diameters and the determination of the enrichment of boron on the GPG surface, by three independent methods: colorimetry, spectrography and isotachophoresis. (author)

  8. Thermal and mechanical properties of NaOH treated hemp fabric and calcined nanoclay-reinforced cement nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakamy, A.; Shaikh, F.U.A.; Low, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fabrication of nanoclay and hemp fabric-reinforced cement composites. • The optimum nanoclay and hemp fabric content is 1.0 and 6.9 wt.% respectively. • Surface-treated hemp fabric-reinforced cement composites demonstrated better mechanical properties. • Surface modification of hemp fabric was effective in improving the hemp fabric-cement matrix adhesion. - Abstract: Cement nanocomposites reinforced with hemp fabrics and calcined nanoclay (CNC) have been fabricated and investigated. CNC is prepared by heating nanoclay (Cloisite 30B) at 900 °C for 2 h. The influences of CNC dispersion on the mechanical properties and thermal properties of these composites have been characterized in terms of porosity, density, water absorption, flexural strength, fracture toughness, impact strength and thermal stability. The microstructure is investigated using Quantitative X-ray Diffraction Analysis (QXDA) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The effects of alkali (NaOH) treatment of hemp fabric on the mechanical properties of hemp fabric-reinforced cement composites with different fabric contents of 4.5, 5.7, 6.9 and 8.1 wt% are also investigated. Results show that the optimum hemp fabric content is 6.9 wt% (i.e. 6 fabric layers). Results also indicated that physical, mechanical and thermal properties were enhanced due to the addition of CNC into the cement matrix and the optimum content of CNC was 1 wt%. The treated hemp fabric-reinforced nanocomposites containing 1 wt% CNC exhibited the highest flexural strength, fracture toughness, impact strength and thermal stability by virtue of good fibre–matrix interface. This environmentally friendly nanocomposite can be used for various construction applications such as ceilings and roofs

  9. A Raman spectroscopic study of thermally treated glushinskite--the natural magnesium oxalate dihydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ray L; Adebajo, Moses; Weier, Matt L

    2004-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been used to study the thermal transformations of natural magnesium oxalate dihydrate known in mineralogy as glushinskite. The data obtained by Raman spectroscopy was supplemented with that of infrared emission spectroscopy. The vibrational spectroscopic data was complimented with high resolution thermogravimetric analysis combined with evolved gas mass spectrometry. TG-MS identified two mass loss steps at 146 and 397 degrees C. In the first mass loss step water is evolved only, in the second step carbon dioxide is evolved. The combination of Raman microscopy and a thermal stage clearly identifies the changes in the molecular structure with thermal treatment. Glushinskite is the dihydrate phase in the temperature range up to the pre-dehydration temperature of 146 degrees C. Above 397 degrees C, magnesium oxide is formed. Infrared emission spectroscopy shows that this mineral decomposes at around 400 degrees C. Changes in the position and intensity of the CO and CC stretching vibrations in the Raman spectra indicate the temperature range at which these phase changes occur.

  10. Engineering Properties of Bentonite Stabilized with Lime and Phosphogypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sujeet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering properties such as compaction, unconfined compressive strength, consistency limits, percentage swell, free swell index, the California bearing ratio and the consolidation of bentonite stabilized with lime and phosphogypsum are presented in this paper. The content of the lime and phosphogypsum varied from 0 to 10 %. The results reveal that the dry unit weight and optimum moisture content of bentonite + 8 % lime increased with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum. The percentage of swell increased and the free swell index decreased with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum to the bentonite + 8 % lime mix. The unconfined compressive strength of the bentonite + 8 % lime increased with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum as well as an increase in the curing period up to 14 days. The liquid limit and plastic limit of the bentonite + 8 % lime increased, whereas the plasticity index remained constant with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum. The California bearing ratio, modulus of subgrade reaction, and secant modulus increased for the bentonite stabilized with lime and phosphogypsum. The coefficient of the consolidation of the bentonite increased with the addition of 8 % lime and no change with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum.

  11. Colloid chemical aspects of the ''confined bentonite concept''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.C. Le

    1978-03-01

    Measurements of the amount of particles released from a bentonite gel by light scattering and visual inspection show that while particles are released in distilled water, the gel will be coagulated if in contact with ground water and consequently the release of particles is negligibly small. Studies of sedimentation volumes by ultracentrifugation also clearly indicate that the bentonite in contact with ground water under the repository pressure will form a completely stable coagulated gel. The swelling of confined bentonite was studied in an ''artificial crack'' of width 0.5 mm. The bentonite flowed readily into this crack and into the much narrower crack formed when the cell was broken. The swelling properties of the bentonite at the repository depth are discussed. It is argued that the gel, if sufficient volume is available, will swell spontaneously to a volume that is approximately 30 % larger than the initial one and then form a stable, coagulated gel containing 30-35 % water in equilibrium with the ground water. Investigations of the diffusion of colloidal matter (sodium lignosulphonate molecules of mean diameter 6 nm) and calcium ions into a dilute bentonite gel show that colloidal matter very probably will have a negligible rate of diffusion while the calcium ions diffuse rapidly. This implies that the initial bentonite gel which is partially in its sodium form will be completely exchanged to its calcium form when brought into contact with ground water which ensures that it will remain coagulated even in its swollen state

  12. Heat sterilization of ash (Fraxinus spp.) firewood : heat-treating options, temperature monitoring and thermal verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Richard Bergman; T. Mace

    2010-01-01

    Because of the potential risk associated with moving emerald ash borer (EAB)-infested firewood, the interstate movement of all hardwood firewood in the USA is currently restricted under the Federal quarantine. Communities and firewood producers are now faced with decisions on how to treat their firewood for interstate commerce. The new US Federal regulations for heat...

  13. Modelling interaction of deep groundwaters with bentonite and radionuclide speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanner, H.

    1986-04-01

    In the safety analysis recently reported for a potential Swiss high-level waste repository, radionuclide speciation and solubility limits are calculated for expected granitic groundwater conditions. With the objective of deriving a more realistic description of radionuclide release from the near-field, an investigation has been initiated to quantitatively specify the chemistry of the near-field. In the Swiss case, the main components of the near-field are the glass waste-matrix, a thick steel canister horizontally emplaced in a drift, and a backfill of highly compacted sodium bentonite. This report describes a thermodynamic model which is used to estimate the chemical composition of the pore water in compacted sodium bentonite. Solubility limits and speciation of important actinides and the fission product technetium in the bentonite pore water are then calculated. The model is based on available experimental data on the interaction of sodium bentonite and groundwater and represents means of extrapolation from laboratory data to repository conditions. The basic reactions between sodium bentonite and groundwater are described by an ion-exchange model for sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. The model assumes equilibrium with calcite as long as sufficient carbonates remain in the bentonite, as well as quartz saturation. It is calculated that the pore water of compacted sodium bentonite saturated with Swiss Reference Groundwater will have a pH value of 9.7 and a free carbonate activity of 8x10 -4 M. The long-term situation is modelled by the assumption that the near-field of a deep repository behaves like a mixing tank. In this way, an attempt is made to account for the continuous water exchange between the near-field and the host rock. It is found that sodium bentonite will be slowly converted to calcium bentonite. This conversion is roughly estimated to be completed after 2 million years

  14. Activation of bentonite to remove the chromium from waste water produced by panning industry, and studying the chromium recovery efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.; Wahba, H.; AL-Masri, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The fast development of tanning industry led to an increase in environmental problems resulting from discharging its wastes to the surrounding environment. Thus solving this problem became one of the most important aims that the researchers work on. The chromium content of the industrial water wastes of the tanning industry considered as the main pollutant for the environment. The Aleppo Bentonite is used in early research to remove the chromium from the industrial waste water.The current research aims to find a method to activate the Aleppo Bentonite in order to increase the effective removal of chromium from the industrial waste water which is produced by tanning industry, as well as to specify the optimal conditions for chromium recovery.This study used the Aleppo Bentonite, whose origin is Tal Ajar-Aleppo to study the activation aspects using Sulfuric Acid, Hydrochloric Acid and Nitric Acid, in addition to study the recovery aspects using the same acids and hydrogen peroxide and to specify the optimal conditions for chromium recovery through applying some experiments based on three main factors: concentration, settling time and temperature.It was observed from the applied experiments that it is possible to recover chromium from Bentonite efficiently up to (80% - 90%) by treating the Bentonite with hydrogen peroxide(33% concentration) at room temperature, or by treating it with hydrogen peroxide(8.25% concentration) at 75 o C, while the settling time factor proved that full recovery of chromium is obtained during the first hour, and increasing the time factor does not affect the efficiency of chromium recovery. (author)

  15. Volatility and leachability of heavy metals and radionuclides in thermally treated HEPA filter media generated from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, In-Ho; Choi, Wang-Kyu; Lee, Suk-Chol; Min, Byung-Youn; Yang, Hee-Chul; Lee, Kune-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermally treated HEPA filter media was transformed into glassy bulk materials. ► Main radionuclide and heavy metal were Cs-137 and Zn. ► Cs and Zn were transformed into stable form without volatilization and leaching. ► The proposed technique is simple and energy efficient procedure. - Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to apply thermal treatments to reduce the volume of HEPA filter media and to investigate the volatility and leachability of heavy metals and radionuclides during thermal treatment. HEPA filter media were transformed to glassy bulk material by thermal treatment at 900 °C for 2 h. The most abundant heavy metal in the HEPA filter media was Zn, followed by Sr, Pb and Cr, and the main radionuclide was Cs-137. The volatility tests showed that the heavy metals and radionuclides in radioactive HEPA filter media were not volatilized during the thermal treatment. PCT tests indicated that the leachability of heavy metals and radionuclides was relatively low compared to those of other glasses. XRD results showed that Zn and Cs reacted with HEPA filter media and were transformed into crystalline willemite (ZnO·SiO 2 ) and pollucite (Cs 2 OAl 2 O 3 4SiO 2 ), which are not volatile or leachable. The proposed technique for the volume reduction and transformation of radioactive HEPA filter media into glassy bulk material is a simple and energy efficient procedure without additives that can be performed at relatively low temperature compared with conventional vitrification process.

  16. Bentonite chemical modification for use in industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laranjeira, E.; Pinto, M.R.O.; Rodrigues, D.P.; Costa, B.P.; Guimaraes, P.L.F.

    2010-01-01

    The present work aims at synthesizing organoclays using a layered silicate of regional importance, bentonite clay, for the treatment of industrial effluents. The choice of clay to be organophilized was based on cation exchange capacity (CEC). Bentonite with higher CTC was called AN 35 (92 meq/100 g), and therefore was the one that suffered the chemical modification with salt cetyl trimethyl ammonium Cetremide, provided by Vetec.The unmodified and modified clays were characterized by FTIR and XDR. The data obtained through the characterizations confirmed the acquisition of bentonite organoclay thus suggesting its subsequent application in the treatment of industrial effluents. (author)

  17. The effect of a new impregnated gauze containing bentonite and halloysite minerals on blood coagulation and wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Mehrosadat; Totonchi, Alireza; Okhovat, Mohammad Ali; Motazedian, Motahareh; Rezaei, Peyman; Atefi, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, a wide variety of research has been carried out in the field of novel technologies to stop severe bleeding. In several studies, coagulation properties of minerals such as zeolite, bentonite and halloysite have been proven. In this study, the effect of a new impregnated sterile gauze containing bentonite and halloysite minerals was studied on blood coagulation and wound healing rate in male Wistar rats. Initially, impregnated sterile gauze was prepared from the mixture of bentonite and halloysite minerals and petroleum jelly (Vaseline). Then, the effect of gauze was studied on the blood coagulation time and wound healing process in 40 Wistar rats. SPSS software was used for data analysis and P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. The coagulation time of 81.10 ± 2.532 s in the control group and 33.00 ± 1.214 s in the study group (bentonite-halloysite treated) were reported (P halloysite impregnated sterile gauze significantly decreases the clotting time and increase the wound healing rate.

  18. Removal of cobalt from lubricant oil by the use of bentonite: equilibrium, kinetic and adsorption preliminary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Seles, Sandro R.N.; Ladeira, Ana Cláudia Queiroz, E-mail: vc@cdtn.br, E-mail: seless@cdtn.br, E-mail: acql@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Radionuclides may contaminate lubricant oils in nuclear power plants. In Brazil, this kind of waste has been stored in the generator's facilities, awaiting treatment alternatives. This work intends to investigate a process to treat it for final deposition, using bentonite as sorbent material. This process will result in decontaminated oil, free from radiological control, and radioactive loaded sorbent, with considerable volume reduction of the radioactive waste. The study focuses in cobalt removal from a simulated oil waste (non-active). The production of the simulated waste is described. Bentonite was used for equilibrium time determination, kinetic and adsorption studies. Cobalt adsorption equilibrium was rapidly attained after 30 minutes. The data was used for modelling the system's kinetic, applying the pseudo first and pseudo second order equation models. Experimental data fitted to pseudo second order model, supporting the assumption that the adsorption is due to chemisorption. Batch sorption tests were conducted and the results fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich sorption models. Both isotherm models chosen for this work did not fit to the experimental data. Thus, these are preliminary results and the studies must be repeated to evaluate data variability and better statistical inference. Other isotherm models must be evaluated to choose the best fitted one and describe the sorption of cobalt on bentonite in oil matrix. Even though, bentonite has considerable potential as sorbent for the removal of cobalt from lubricant oil. Finally, the results might be extended to other kinds of radioactive oils and radioactive organic wastes. (author)

  19. A formula for determination of swelling characteristics of buffer material containing bentonite and evaluation of self-sealing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, Hideo; Ogata, Nobuhide

    1998-01-01

    High level radioactive waste disposal facility is planned to construct in a rock board deeper than some hundreds meter at underground, it is necessary to develop a material to refill the gap between waste container and its circumferential rock board. For this material it is required to have high water sealing and swellability, and bentonite is expected to use such application. Production of soil buffer materials containing bentonite is difficult to obtain required dry density by solidifying due to in situ roll-pressing, so it is, at present, thought to be an effective method to carry a block produced in a factory to a pit for disposal to settle. When supposing to produce and settle such buffer material, a gap forming between the buffer material and circumferential rock board or waste container has a large possibility to make a water path when remaining without treating it. Therefore, the buffer material is required to have a function to fill gap portion by swelling deformation and to proof water. In this study, in order to evaluated self-sealing of bentonite, due to a theoretical examination and a laboratory experiment on swelling behavior of soil materials containing bentonite, a swelling evaluation equation of the buffer materials was proposed. And, an application example for outlined design of an actual high level radioactive waste disposal facility was introduced. (G.K.)

  20. Study of thermal treated a-Si implanted with Er and O ions

    CERN Document Server

    Plugaru, R; Piqueras, J; Tate, T J

    2002-01-01

    Visible luminescence of amorphous silicon layers either implanted with Er or co-implanted with Er and O and subsequently annealed in nitrogen has been investigated by cathodoluminescence (CL) in a scanning electron microscope. Co-implanted samples show a more intense luminescence, which is revealed by annealing at lower temperatures than the samples implanted only with erbium. Thermal treatments cause the formation of erbium oxide as well as Er-Si complexes or precipitates. Violet-blue luminescence has been found from CL images and spectra to be related to Er-Si precipitates. Emission in the green-red range is attributed to oxide species.

  1. Comparison of physico-chemical properties of various lignites treated by mechanical thermal expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janine Hulston; Alan L. Chaffee; Christian Bergins; Karl Strauss [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). School of Chemistry and CRC for Clean Power from Lignite

    2005-12-01

    This study investigates how the Mechanical Thermal Expression (MTE) process affects the physico-chemical properties of low rank lignites sourced from Australia, Greece, and Germany. The MTE process was effective in reducing the moisture content of all three coals and resulted in significant Na reductions in both the Australian and German coals. However, the organic composition of the coals investigated remained relatively unaffected. Upon oven drying, all wet MTE products underwent significant shrinkage, the degree of which was dependent upon the temperature and pressure used during the MTE process. Upon rehydration, the oven-dried MTE products underwent significant swelling, which is most likely related to the chemical composition of the coals.

  2. Water uptake and stress development in bentonites and bentonite-sand buffer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.A.; Wan, A.W-L.; Gray, M.N.; Miller, S.H.

    1996-10-01

    The development of swelling pressure and the transfer of pore water pressures through dense bentonite and bentonite-sand materials are examined in this report. This report focuses on the swelling pressure and total pressure developed in initially unsaturated specimens allowed access to free water on one end. The bentonite in this wetted region rapidly develops its full swelling pressure and this pressure is transferred upwards through the specimen. Hence, the bentonite plug will exert a pressure approximately equivalent to the swelling pressure even though only a small region of the plug is actually saturated. A number of specimens were tested with total pressure sensors mounted normal and parallel to the axis of compaction. Lateral pressures developed long before the wetting front reached sensor locations, suggesting stress transfer through the unsaturated portions of these specimens. On achieving saturation, specimens were found to have similar swelling pressures both normal to and parallel to the axis of compaction. This indicates that there is little or no specimen anisotropy induced by the compaction process. Tests were conducted on specimens allowed only to take on a limited quantity of water and it was found that density anisotropy was induced as the result of the swelling pressures generated by the buffer. The wetted skin of buffer developed a considerable pressure and compressed a region of buffer immediately above the wetted region. The results suggest that the buffer material placed in a disposal vault will rapidly develop and transfer swelling pressures as a result of the saturation of a limited region or 'skin' within the emplacement site. The total pressure ultimately present on the container surface should be the sum of the swelling and hydraulic components. (author). 14 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs

  3. Evaluation of impact strength of polyamide 6/bentonite clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, Rene Anisio; Araujo, Edcleide Maria; Tomas Jeferson Alves; Amanda Damiao; Medeiros, Vanessa da Nobrega; Pessan, Luiz Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Nanocomposites of polymer/clay have had much attention in recent years, particularly those developed with layered silicates due to the need of engineering materials more efficient than pure polymers for certain applications. The level of exfoliation of layered silicates in crystalline structure of polymer matrices has been studied and has been observed that it affects the crystalline behavior and the physical and mechanical properties. In this study, nanocomposites of polyamide 6 were obtained by the melt intercalation method, using a Brazilian bentonite modified with a quaternary ammonium salt. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results showed the incorporation of salt among the layers of clay, making it organophilic and that the nanocomposites presented exfoliated and/or partially exfoliated structures and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By thermogravimetry (TG), the results indicated that the presence of clay increased the thermal stability of polyamide 6. The impact properties of the nanocomposites showed inferior values in relation to the pure polyamide, in other words, decrease the toughness. (author)

  4. Evaluation of impact strength of polyamide 6/bentonite clay nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, Rene Anisio; Araujo, Edcleide Maria; Tomas Jeferson Alves; Amanda Damiao; Medeiros, Vanessa da Nobrega [Federal University of Campina Grande (CCT/UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia; Pessan, Luiz Antonio [Federal University of Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Materials Engineering Department

    2012-07-15

    Nanocomposites of polymer/clay have had much attention in recent years, particularly those developed with layered silicates due to the need of engineering materials more efficient than pure polymers for certain applications. The level of exfoliation of layered silicates in crystalline structure of polymer matrices has been studied and has been observed that it affects the crystalline behavior and the physical and mechanical properties. In this study, nanocomposites of polyamide 6 were obtained by the melt intercalation method, using a Brazilian bentonite modified with a quaternary ammonium salt. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results showed the incorporation of salt among the layers of clay, making it organophilic and that the nanocomposites presented exfoliated and/or partially exfoliated structures and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By thermogravimetry (TG), the results indicated that the presence of clay increased the thermal stability of polyamide 6. The impact properties of the nanocomposites showed inferior values in relation to the pure polyamide, in other words, decrease the toughness. (author)

  5. Biological functioning of PAH-polluted and thermal desorption-treated soils assessed by fauna and microbial bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cébron, Aurélie; Cortet, Jérôme; Criquet, Stéven; Biaz, Asmaa; Calvert, Virgile; Caupert, Cécile; Pernin, Céline; Leyval, Corinne

    2011-11-01

    A large number of soil bioindicators were used to assess biological diversity and activity in soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the same soil after thermal desorption (TD) treatment. Abundance and biodiversity of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes and microarthropods, as well as functional parameters such as enzymatic activities and soil respiration, were assessed during a two year period of in situ monitoring. We investigated the influence of vegetation (spontaneous vegetation and Medicago sativa) and TD treatment on biological functioning. Multivariate analysis was performed to analyze the whole data set. A principal response curve (PRC) technique was used to evaluate the different treatments (various vegetation and contaminated vs. TD soil) contrasted with control (bare) soil over time. Our results indicated the value of using a number of complementary bioindicators, describing both diversity and functions, to assess the influence of vegetation on soil and discriminate polluted from thermal desorption (TD)-treated soil. Plants had an influence on the abundance and activity of all organisms examined in our study, favoring the whole trophic chain development. However, although TD-treated soil had a high abundance and diversity of microorganisms and fauna, enzymatic activities were weak because of the strong physical and chemical modifications of this soil. Copyright © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Studies on mechanical, thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of untreated (raw) and treated coconut sheath fiber reinforced epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Kumar, S.M.; Duraibabu, D.; Subramanian, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • UTCSE and TCSE composites have been fabricated by compression molding technique. • The prepared specimens were characterized by FTIR, DMA, TGA and SEM techniques. • TCSE composite showed higher mechanical properties compared to UTCSE composite. • DMA showed that TCSE composite exhibited higher storage modulus than UTCSE composite. • TCSE composite showed higher thermal stability than UTCSE composite. - Abstract: The untreated (raw) coconut sheath fiber reinforced epoxy (UTCSE) composite and treated coconut sheath fiber reinforced epoxy (TCSE) composite have been fabricated using hand layup followed by compression molding technique. The prepared specimens were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The prepared specimens are cut as per ASTM Standards to measure tensile, flexural and impact strengths by using universal testing machine and izod impact tester respectively. The treated coconut sheath fiber reinforced epoxy composite (TCSE) posses higher mechanical strength and thermal stability compared to untreated (raw) coconut sheath fiber reinforced epoxy composite (UTCSE). In the SEM fracture analysis, TCSE composite showed better fiber–matrix bonding and absence of voids compared to UTCSE composite

  7. Application of Thermal Desorption Unit (TDU) to treat low-toxicity mineral oil base cuttings in Barinas District, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendon, Ruben [Petroleos de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela); Luzardo, Janeth; Alcoba, Alcides [M-I SWACO, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The potential environmental impact of oil-based drill cuttings is generating increased scrutiny in the oil and gas industry. If left untreated, oil-based cuttings not only increase the risk of environmental liabilities, but also affect revenue, as drilling generates wastes that in most cases require special treatment before disposal. Consequently, the oil industry is looking for technologies to help minimize environmental liabilities. Accordingly, the Barinas District of PDVSA has started a pilot trial to treat oil-based drilling cuttings by applying thermal desorption technology. The main objective of this technology is recovering trapped hydrocarbons, while minimizing wastes and preparing solids to be disposed of through a mobile treatment plant. This novel technology has been used worldwide to treat organic pollutants in soil. Thermal desorption is a technology based on the application of heat in soils polluted with organic compounds. With this technology, target temperatures vary according to the type and concentration of detected pollutants along with its characterization, in such a way that compounds are disposed of by volatilization. As part of the integral waste management development along with the pilot trial for hydrocarbon-contaminated solid waste treatment, trials on soils were undertaken by applying process-generated ashes in equally-sized bins, with different mixtures (ashes, ashes organic material, ashes-organic material-sand, ashes-land). The resulting process offers an immediate soil remediation and final disposal solution for toxic and dangerous waste. (author)

  8. Use of Chitosan-modified Bentonite for Removal of Cu2+, Cl- and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ba, K.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Batch experiments were performed to investigate the removal of Cu2+ , Cl- , and 2,4-dichlorophe- noxyacetic acid (2,4-D from aqueous solution using chitosan-modified bentonite. When the chi-tosan was loaded on the bentonite, the inter-layer space of the montmorillonite increased and the adsorption efficiency enhanced, as chitosan contains large numbers of -NH2 and -OH functional groups that could serve as coordination sites to bind heavy metals. In this study, the bentonite that was prepared through three procedures: Na2CO3 treatment, thermal treatment and compound treatment, was modified by chitosan. Experimental results demonstrated that the average removal rates of Cu2+ , Cl-, and 2,4-D effectively were 94.87 %, 86.19 % and 91.06 %, respectively.

  9. Comparison between uniaxially and isostatically compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalbantner, P.; Sjoeblom, R.; Boergesson, Lennart

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of the present report is to provide the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) with the knowledge base needed for their selection of reference method for manufacturing of bentonite blocks. The purpose is also to provide support for the direction of the further development work. Three types of blocks are compared in the present report: uniaxially compacted medium high blocks, isostatically compacted medium high blocks, isostatically compacted high blocks. The analyses is based on three process systems relating to the sequence of excavation of bentonite-transport-powder preparation-compaction-handling and emplacement of bentonite blocks. The need for further knowledge has been identified and documented in conjunction with these analyses. The comparison is primarily made with regard to the criteria safety/risk, quality/ technique and economy. It is carried out through identification of issues of significance and subsequent analysis and evaluation as well as more formally in a simplified AHP (AHP = Analytical Hierarchic Process). The result of the analyses is that the isostatic technique is applicable for the production of high as well as medium size blocks. The pressed blocks are assessed to fulfil the basic requirements with a very large margin. The result of the analyses is also that the uniaxial technique is applicable for the preparation of medium size blocks, which are assessed to fulfil the basic requirements with a large margin. The need for development and process control is assessed to be somewhat higher for the uniaxial technique. One example is the friction against the walls of the die during the compaction, including the significance of this friction for the development of stresses and discontinuities in the block. These results support a selection of the isostatic technique as the reference technique as it provides flexibility in the choice of block height. The uniaxial technique can form a second alternative if medium high

  10. Morphology and gas sensing properties of as-deposited and thermally treated doped thin SnO{sub x} layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgieva, B; Pirov, J; Podolesheva, I [Acad. J. Malinowski Central Laboratory of Photoprocesses, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl.109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Nihtianova, D, E-mail: biliana@clf.bas.b [Central Laboratory of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl.107, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-04-01

    Thin layers intended for gas sensors are prepared by vacuum co-evaporation of TeO{sub 2} and Sn. The as-deposited layers consist of a nanosized oxide matrix and finely dispersed dopants (Te, Sn, TeO{sub 2} or SnTe, depending on the atomic ratio R{sub Sn/Te}). In order to improve the characteristics of the layers they are additionally doped with platinum. The gas sensing properties are strongly dependent on the atomic ratio R{sub Sn/Te}, as well as on the structure, composition and surface morphology. The as-deposited layers with R{sub Sn/Te} 0.8 are highly sensitive humidity sensors working at room temperature. Thermally treated Pt-doped layers with R{sub Sn/Te} 2.3 are promising as ethanol sensors. With the aim of obtaining more detailed knowledge about the surface morphology, structure and composition of layers sensitive to different environments, various techniques -TEM, SAED, SEM, EDS in SEM and white light interferometry (WLI), are applied. It is shown that all layers with 1.0 > R{sub Sn/Te} > 2, as-deposited and thermally treated, exhibit a columnar structure and a very smooth surface along with the nanograined matrix. The thermal treatment causes changes in the structure and composition of the layers. The ethanol-sensitive layers consist of nanosized polycrystalline phases of SnO{sub 2}, Sn{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4} and TeO{sub 2}. This knowledge could help us understand better the behaviour and govern the characteristics of layers obtained by co-evaporation of Sn and TeO{sub 2}.

  11. Effect of demineralization on the physiochemical structure and thermal degradation of acid treated indigenous rice husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslam Umair

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy generation from biomass presents some serious problems like slagging, fouling and corrosion of boilers. To address these problems, demineralization of biomass is performed using different leaching agents. This study is focused on determining the influence of leaching agents and leaching time on the physiochemical structure of rice husk during demineralization. Dilute (5% wt solutions of HCl and H2SO4 were used for the demineralization of rice husk separately with leaching time of 15, 60 and 120 minutes. It is shown that H2SO4 exhibited higher removal of alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM comparatively as depicted by the 34.2% decrease in ash content along with an increase of 7.10% in the heating value. The acid has been seen to induce more notable changes in physiochemical structure as depicted by the FTIR spectra and SEM micrographs. The thermal degradation behavior of the demineralized rice husk has also been reported.

  12. Polypropylene–clay composite prepared from Indian bentonite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    composites have recently found applications in packaging, automotive ... process using xylene as the solvent. Solvent ... Particle size distribution curve for clay, bentonite. Table 2. .... greater probability of debonding due to the poor interfa-.

  13. Small-scale bentonite injection test on rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1978-03-01

    When radiactive waste is disposed a sealing of the rock is very valuable since it reduces the rate of water percolation and diffusion. In an earlier report injection of bentonite gels by means of over-pressure and subsequent electrophoresis has been suggested. The present report describes a rock test series where bentonite injection was applied. For the test an approximately cubical block of about 1 m 3 was selected. The rock type was diorite with a fairly high frequency of quartz denses. The block was kept in a basin during the test in order to maintain the water saturation. Holes were bored in the block. A bentonite slurry with 1000 percent water content was injected. It was shown that the bentonite had a sealing effect but the depth of extrusion into rock joints was not large because of gelation. Electro-Kinetic injection of montmorillonite was found to be a more promising technique for rock lightening

  14. Effects of polyethyleneimine adsorption on rheology of bentonite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    XRD, zeta potential and adsorption studies were done together with rheological .... trokinetics experiments on Balikesir bentonite samples. For this reason, the ... rence between apparent and true adsorption rates, and hence swelling of clays ...

  15. Immobilization of industrial waste in cement–bentonite clay matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Immobilization of industrial waste in cement–bentonite clay matrix. I B PLECAS* and S ... high structural integrity and minimizing the risk of escape by leaching. ..... Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Fuel Cycle 14. 195. Plecas I ...

  16. Diffusion of Fission Product Elements in Compacted Bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratomo-Budiman-Sastrowardoyo; Dewi-Susilowati; Dadang-Suganda

    2000-01-01

    Study on diffusion of fission product in compacted bentonite has been conducted. The information about mobilities of these elements have been obtained from the studies resulted in many countries. It is presented that the diffusion coefficient was varied by the function of solution phase condition as well as the nature of bentonite. It is also showed that the diffusion coefficient decreased by the increasing of density, as well as the increasing of montmorillonite content in bentonite. The ratio of bentonite/silica-sand used, was related to the increasing of elements mobility. In many case variation of diffusion coefficient was related to the variation of pH, redox condition, and the presence of complex ant in solution phase. The lower diffusion coefficient could give the higher retardation factor, which is a favorable factor to retard the radionuclides release from a disposal facility to geosphere. (author)

  17. Long term mineralogical properties of bentonite/quartz buffer substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, A.; Pusch, R.

    1978-06-01

    This report shows results from investigations concerning properties in bentonitebased buffersubstances which are suggested to be used when high level radioactive wastes from nuclear powerplants are to be stored finally. Recommended material characteristica of the bentonite to be used are summerized. In an attempt to find geological evidence for bentonite to loose its desireable properties there were no such findings at the temperatures, groundwater situations and pressures which are to be expected at the actual depositing depth (500 m) for a considerable period of time. Concerning biological activity and then specially the mobility and activity of bacteria the conclusion is that there will be little or no influence from them either there is bentonite-sand or compacted pure bentonite in the buffer mass

  18. bentonite-sand mixture as new backfill/buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Suli; Liu Jisheng; Zhang Huyuan; Liang Jian

    2008-01-01

    The mixture of bentonite and quartz sand is suggested as a new backfill/buffer material for geological disposal of HLW. To improve the further design of underground laboratory and in-situ industrial construction test, the optimization of sand addition to bentonite is focused at present research stage. Based on summarizing the research results abroad, laboratory tests were conducted on the mixture of GMZ001 bentonite and quartz sand, such as compaction test and swelling tests etc. Test data shows that GMZ bentonite-sand mixture exhibits a favorite compaction with a 30% sand addition, a highest swelling pressure with a 20% sand addition, and a decreasing plasticity with increases in sand addition and pore liquid concentration. (authors)

  19. Simulation of Tracer Transport in Porous Media: Application to Bentonites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bru, A.; Casero, D.

    2001-01-01

    We present a formal framework to describe tracer transport in heterogeneous media, such as porous media like bentonites. In these media, mean field approximation is not valid because there exist some geometrical constraints and the transport is anomalous. (Author)

  20. Migration study of actinides and lanthanides in compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastrowardoyo, P.B.; Susilowati, D.; Suganda, D.

    1998-01-01

    Migration study of actinide and lanthanide elements in compacted bentonite has been conducted. Data of these elements mobilities have been shown, and it is showed that the diffusion coefficient was varied as the function of solution phase condition as well as the origin/composition of bentonite. It is showed that the diffusion coefficient decreased by the increasing of density, as well as the increasing of montmorillonite content in bentonite. The ratio of bentonite/silica-sand used was related to the increasing of elements mobility. In many case the difference of diffusion coefficient was related to the variation of pH and redox condition, as well as the presence of complexant in solution phase. The Lower diffusion coefficient could give the higher retardation factor, which is a favourable factor to retard the radionuclides release from a disposal facility to geosphere. (author)

  1. Evaluation of brazilian bentonites as additive in the radwaste cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello, C.C.O. de.

    1988-01-01

    The behavior of some Brazilian bentonites has been evaluated, concerning to their use as additive in the radwaste cementation. The purpose of the bentonite is to retain the radioelements in the final product in leaching process. Experiments to determine properties such as compressive strenght, viscosity, set time leaching and cesium sorption have been carried out to this evaluation. After one-year test, the results show that the bentonites greatly reduce the cesium release. A literature survey about cementation process and plants and about the cement product characteristics has been made in order to obtain a reliable final product, able to be transported and storaged. Some leaching test methods and mathematical models, that could be applied in the evaluation of cement products with bentonite have been evaluated. (author) [pt

  2. Comparative Analysis on Chemical Composition of Bentonite Clays ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... Comparative Analysis on Chemical Composition of Bentonite Clays. Obtained from Ashaka and ... versatile material for geotechnical engineering and as well as their demand for ..... A PhD thesis submitted to the Chemical ...

  3. Physico-chemical properties of water in bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torikai, Yuji; Sato, Seichi; Ohashi, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    As a part of safety analysis on ground layer disposal, in order to estimate nuclides migration behavior from engineering shielding materials, it is required to modelize migration process of nuclides in bentonite and chemical species relating to corrosion, to estimate solubility and to specify application condition of geochemical calculation code. In this study, as a part of elucidation of nuclide migration process, physico-chemical properties of water in bentonite and montmorillonite using steam pressure method were determined. As a result, following items were found: (1) Even if 1/3 of water in bentonite is near free water, it is far from a region dealable with dilute solution in the electrolyte solution theory. And, (2) the water in bentonite has generally small activity in comparison with dilute solution, then has smaller solubility than estimation value of calculation code. (G.K.)

  4. Efficacy of curcumin to reduce hepatic damage induced by alcohol and thermally treated oil in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr A.M.N. El-Deen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigated the effect of curcumin on markers of oxidative stress and liver damage in rats that chronically ingested alcohol and heated oil. Nine groups of ten Wistar male rats received combinations of curcumin 100 mg/kg body weight daily, ethanol 5 mg/kg, 15% dietary sunflower oil and 15% heated sunflower oil for 12 weeks. Serum and liver tissue were collected. Groups 4-6, which had received compounds causing oxidative stress, showed increased serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and reduced high density lipoprotein, protein and albumin, compared with the controls. Reductions were observed in glutathione peroxidase and reductase gene expression, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, reduced glutathione concentration and catalase enzyme activity. Groups 7, 8 and 9 which received curcumin with heated oil, ethanol or both, showed lower elevations in serum and oxidative damage markers compared with the corresponding non-curcumin treated groups.It can be concluded that curcumin reduces markers of liver damage in rats treated with heated sunflower oil or ethanol.

  5. Buffer construction technique using granular bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Ryoichi; Asano, Hidekazu; Toguri, Satohito; Mori, Takuo; Shimura, Tomoyuki; Matsuda, Takeshi; Uyama, Masao; Noda, Masaru

    2007-01-01

    Buffer construction using bentonite pellets as filling material is a promising technology for enhancing the ease of repository operation. In this study, a test of such technology was conducted in a full-scale simulated disposal drift, using a filling system which utilizes a screw conveyor system. The simulated drift, which contained two dummy overpacks, was configured as a half-cross-section model with a height of 2.22 m and a length of 6.0 m. The average dry density of the buffer obtained in the test was 1.29 Mg/m 3 , with an angle of repose of 35 to 40 degrees. These test results indicate that buffer construction using a screw conveyor system for pellet emplacement in a waste disposal drift is a promising technology for repositories for high level radioactive wastes. (author)

  6. Experimental Setup to Characterize Bentonite Hydration Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bru, A.; Casero, D.; Pastor, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    We present an experimental setup to follow-up the hydration process of a bentonite. Clay samples, of 2 cm x 12 cm x 12 cm, were made and introduced in a Hele-Shaw cell with two PMM windows and two steel frames. In hydration experiments, a fluid enters by an orifice in the frame, located both at the top and the bottom of the cell, to perform hydration in both senses. To get a uniform hydration we place a diffuser near the orifice. Volume influxes in hydration cells are registered in time. The evolution of the developed interface was recorded on a videotape. The video cameras was fixed to a holder so that the vertical direction in the monitor was the same as the direction of the larger extension of the cell. (Author) 6 refs

  7. Thermoluminescence response of calcic bentonite subjected to conditions of high nuclear waste underground storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dies, J.; Miralles, L.; Tarrasa, F.; Pueyo, J.J.; Cuevas, C. de las

    2002-01-01

    Bentonite is regarded as a backfilling material for underground storage facilities of highly radioactive nuclear waste built on granite formations. In these facilities, bentonite will be subjected to a gradient of temperature and dose rate, achieving a very high integrated dose and, therefore, changes in its structure and physical properties may take place. Two experiments to discriminate between the thermal and the irradiation effect were performed. In the first (named BIC-2A), samples were subjected to temperature while in second (named BIC-2B) the combined effect of temperature and irradiation was studied. The experimental conditions were: a thermal gradient between 130 deg. C and 90 deg. C, a maximum dose rate of 3.5 kGy.h -1 and a gradient of the integrated dose between 1.75 MGy and 10 MGy. Both experiments lasted a total of 124 days. An irradiation source of 60 Co with an activity close to 300,000 Ci, and bentonite samples of 200 mm in length and 50 mm in diameter were used. After the experiment, the samples were ground and two fractions were obtained: a fine fraction ( 80 μm). The results are described of thermoluminescence analyses on the two fractions obtained which showed that the coarse fractions can be 100 times more sensitive to radiation than the fine fraction. On the other hand, the heated and irradiated samples showed a thermoluminescence response around 50 times greater than the samples that were only heated. In addition to this, the temperature and dose rate conditions are relevant parameters in the generation and stabilisation of radiation induced defects. Finally, the response of samples heated and irradiated for two months was quite similar to that obtained on samples heated and irradiated for four months, indicating a saturation phenomenon. (author)

  8. Adsorption behavior of 99Tc in Ca-bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dejun; Fan Xianhua; Zhang Yingjie; Yao Jun; Zhou Duo; Wang Yong

    2004-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of 99 Tc in bentonite were studied with batch methods under aerobic and anoxic conditions. The adsorption ratios is about 1.47 mL/g under aerobic conditions. The adsorption ratio of 99 Tc in bentonite is not affected by pH in the range of 5-12 and the CO 3 2- , Fe 3+ concentrations in the range of 10 -8 -10 -2 mol/L in the solution. The adsorption ratio of Tc in bentonite increases with the increase of the mass percent of Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 and the Fe 2+ concentration in the range of 10 -8 -10 -2 mol/L. Tc exists ainly in the form of Tc(VII) after the adsorption equilibriums. The adsorption ratio of Tc in bentonite increase with the increase of the mass percent of Fe and Tc exists mainly in the form of Tc(VII) after the adsorption equilibriums. The adsorption ratio of Tc in bentonite is about 84.84 mL/g under anoxic conditions. The adsorption ratios of 99 Tc in bentonite decreases with the increase of pH in the range of 5-12 and the CO 3 2- concentration in the range of 10 -8 -10 -2 mol/L in the solution. The adsorption ratio of Tc in bentonite increases with the increase of the Fe 3+ , Fe 2+ concentration in the range of 10 -8 -10 -2 mol/L and the mass percent of Fe, Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 . Tc exists mainly in the form of Tc(IV) after the adsorption equilibriums. The adsorption isotherms of TcO 4 - in bentonite are all in fairly agree with the Freundlich's equation under aerobic and anoxic conditions. (authors)

  9. Bentonite as a backfill material for shallow land repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalmali, V.S.; Deshingkar, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    Two commercially available indigenous bentonite samples were evaluated for their cesium and strontium sorption properties in distilled water and surface water. By converting them into sodium form, the distribution coefficients for both cesium (I) and strontium (II) increased. Sodium bentonite was recommended because of high sorption capacity for Cs(I), Mg(II) and Sr(II) for use as backfill material in shallow land repositories where cement waste form containing Cs, Sr and Be wastes are disposed. (author)

  10. Saturation of bentonite dependent upon temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausmannova, Lucie; Vasicek, Radek

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The fundamental idea behind the long-term safe operation of a deep repository is the use of the Multi-barrier system principle. Barriers may well differ according to the type of host rock in which the repository is located. It is assumed that the buffer in the granitic host rock environment will consist of swelling clays which boast the ideal properties for such a function i.e. low permeability, high swelling pressure, self-healing ability etc. all of which are affected primarily by mineralogy and dry density. Water content plays a crucial role in the activation of swelling pressure as well as, subsequently, in the potential self healing of the various contact areas of the numerous buffer components made from bentonite. In the case of a deep repository, a change in water content is not only connected with the possible intake of water from the host rock, but also with its redistribution owing to changes in temperature after the insertion of the heat source (disposal waste package containing spent fuel) into the repository 'nest'. The principal reason for the experimental testing of this high dry density material is the uncertainty with regard to its saturation ability (final water content or the degree of saturation) at higher temperatures. The results of the Mock-Up-CZ experiment showed that when the barrier is constantly supplied with a saturation medium over a long time period the water content in the barrier as well as the degree of saturation settle independently of temperature. The Mock-Up-CZ experiment was performed at temperatures of 30 deg. - 90 deg. C in the barrier; therefore it was decided to experimentally verify this behaviour by means of targeted laboratory tests. A temperature of 110 deg. C was added to the set of experimental temperatures resulting in samples being tested at 25 deg. C, 95 deg. C and 110 deg. C. The degree of saturation is defined as the ratio of pore water volume to pore

  11. Aluminothermic reduction of Cr2O3 contained in the ash of thermally treated leather waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Wenzel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the viability of utilising ashes with high chromium oxide content, obtained by thermal treatment of footwear leather waste, in the production of low-carbon ferrochromium alloy (Fe-Cr-LC by aluminothermic reduction was investigated. The following key-factors were selected for process modelling: the quantity of aluminium (Al employed in the reaction, the iron amount added, the iron compound (Fe and/or Fe2O3 used, and the chromic acid addition. The process was investigated using a 2(4 full factorial design where the percentage of Cr2O3 reduced was used as the response. Variance analysis was employed to determine the significant effects and to validate the obtained model. The model was useful for finding the optimal operating conditions, including the maximisation of chromium conversion and the gross margin. Both resulted in similar process conditions, with 76.8±12.3% of chromium being reduced to the metallic phase, and 1.65±0.52 USD (kg ash-1 as the gross margin. The qualities of some alloys obtained were investigated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (SEM/EDS. The results showed that the main problem for these alloys in a standard specification was the P and S content, suggesting that a pre-treatment is required.

  12. Production of basic chromium sulfate by using recovered chromium from ashes of thermally treated leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Aline; Nunes, Keila Guerra Pacheco; Gutterres, Mariliz; Marcílio, Nilson Romeu

    2010-04-15

    Leather wastes tanned with chromium are generated during the production process of leather, hence the wastes from hand crafted goods and footwear industries are a serious environmental problem. The thermal treatment of leather wastes can be one of the treatment options because the wastes are rich in chromium and can be used as a raw material for sodium chromate production and further to obtain several chromium compounds. The objective of this study was to utilize the chromium from leather wastes via basic chromium sulfate production to be subsequently applied in a hide tanning. The obtained results have shown that this is the first successful attempt to achieve desired base properties of the product. The result was achieved when the following conditions were applied: a molar ratio between sodium sulfite and sodium dichromate equal to 6; reaction time equal to 5 min before addition of sulfuric acid; pH of sodium dichromate solution equal to 2. Summarizing, there is an opportunity to utilize the dangerous wastes and reused them in the production scheme by minimizing or annulling the environmental impact and to attend a sustainable process development concept. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sorption of strontium on bentonites from Slovak deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kufcakova, J.; Galambos, M.; Rajc, P.

    2005-01-01

    Sorption on bentonite from different Slovak deposits / Jelsovy potok, Kopernica and Lieskove has been investigated under various experimental conditions, such as contact time, pH, sorbate concentrations, presence of complementary cation. The sorption of strontium from aqueous solutions was investigated using a radiometric determination of distribution coefficient, Kd. The individual solutions were labelled with radiotracer. Radiation stability has been investigated, the higher sorption parameters were observed for the irradiated bentonites /tab.l/ , which can be explained by the increase of specific surface and change of solubility of the irradiated samples of bentonite. The presence of complementary cations, Na + , K + , NH 4 + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and Ba 2+ depresses the sorption of Sr on bentonite. In the case of bentonite Kopernica the effectiveness in reducing the sorption of strontium by cations followed the order K + 4 + + 2+ 2+ 2+ . Results indicate that the sorption of Sr + on bentonite will be affected by the presence of high concentrations of various salts in the waste water effluents. (author)

  14. Geochemical investigation of iron transport into bentonite as steel corrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, Fiona; Bate, Fiona; Heath, Tim; Hoch, Andrew

    2007-09-01

    In Sweden and Finland, it is proposed that spent nuclear fuel will be encapsulated in sealed cylindrical canisters, for disposal in a geologic repository, either in vertical boreholes (KBS-3V) or in long horizontal boreholes (KBS-3H). The canisters will consist of a thick cast iron insert and a copper outer container, and each canister will be surrounded by a compacted bentonite clay buffer. It is important to investigate the possible consequences if a failure of these physical barriers was to occur. For instance, if mechanical failure of the copper outer container were to occur then groundwater could enter the annulus and reach the cast iron insert. This would result in anaerobically corroded iron from the cast iron insert interacting with the bentonite surrounding the canisters. The presence of anaerobically corroded iron in groundwater raises the question of how the bentonite will be affected by this process. In the case of the KBS-3H concept, mechanical failure of the copper outer container could lead to interaction between anaerobically corroded iron and bentonite, as above. However, direct contact between anaerobically corroding carbon steel and bentonite is also likely because of the presence of perforated carbon steel support structures in the long horizontal boreholes. As part of the NF-PRO project, an extensive experimental programme has been carried out over several years to study the interactions between anaerobically corroding carbon steel or cast iron and bentonite. The purpose of this report is to describe the modelling work that has been carried out, and the conclusions that have been reached. The experimental programme has carried out a series of long term experiments looking at anaerobic corrosion of carbon steel or cast iron in compacted MX80 bentonite at 30 deg C or 50 deg C. In the bentonite the concentration of iron decreased with increasing distance away from the iron-bentonite interface, with local iron concentrations as high as 20 wt % in

  15. Geochemical investigation of iron transport into bentonite as steel corrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Fiona; Bate, Fiona; Heath, Tim; Hoch, Andrew [Serco Assurance, Harwe ll (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    In Sweden and Finland, it is proposed that spent nuclear fuel will be encapsulated in sealed cylindrical canisters, for disposal in a geologic repository, either in vertical boreholes (KBS-3V) or in long horizontal boreholes (KBS-3H). The canisters will consist of a thick cast iron insert and a copper outer container, and each canister will be surrounded by a compacted bentonite clay buffer. It is important to investigate the possible consequences if a failure of these physical barriers was to occur. For instance, if mechanical failure of the copper outer container were to occur then groundwater could enter the annulus and reach the cast iron insert. This would result in anaerobically corroded iron from the cast iron insert interacting with the bentonite surrounding the canisters. The presence of anaerobically corroded iron in groundwater raises the question of how the bentonite will be affected by this process. In the case of the KBS-3H concept, mechanical failure of the copper outer container could lead to interaction between anaerobically corroded iron and bentonite, as above. However, direct contact between anaerobically corroding carbon steel and bentonite is also likely because of the presence of perforated carbon steel support structures in the long horizontal boreholes. As part of the NF-PRO project, an extensive experimental programme has been carried out over several years to study the interactions between anaerobically corroding carbon steel or cast iron and bentonite. The purpose of this report is to describe the modelling work that has been carried out, and the conclusions that have been reached. The experimental programme has carried out a series of long term experiments looking at anaerobic corrosion of carbon steel or cast iron in compacted MX80 bentonite at 30 deg C or 50 deg C. In the bentonite the concentration of iron decreased with increasing distance away from the iron-bentonite interface, with local iron concentrations as high as 20 wt % in

  16. Review of the interactions between bentonite and cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerden, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    Properties of bentonite may be significantly affected by reaction with cement. This report reviews the literature to identify the reactions that may occur and considers their effects on the performance of bentonite in these applications. The dominant reactions expected under alkaline conditions prevalent in an underground repository where cement is used extensively are zeolitization, beidellitization, and ion exchange. Zeolitisation will occur at high temperatures (200 o C) or after long periods (500-1000 years) when the pH is high (pH>9). Beidellitization may occur at high pH (pH>9). The silica may reprecipitate in situ due to low hydraulic conductivity or in regions of low pH or temperature. This may result in reduced porosity/permeability and plasticity. Ion exchange reactions are virtually instantaneous. The rate of the reaction depends on the concentration and rate of access of ground water. Substitution of Ca 2+ ions from cement for Na + ions in sodium-bentonites will result in reduced swelling pressure and plasticity, and increased hydraulic conductivity of the bentonite. The effect of Na-bentonite on the properties of cement is the formation of an Al-substituted 11A tobermorite, which results in improved Cs + sorption. In cements reacted with Calcium-bentonite the main product was found to be a hydroxyapatite layer on the cement surface. (author)

  17. Diffusive transport of strontium-85 in sand-bentonite mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillham, R.W.; Robin, M.J.L.; Dytynyshyn, D.J.

    1983-06-01

    Diffusion experiments have been used to determine the transport of 85 Sr in sand-bentonite mixtures. The diffusion experiments were performed on one natural soil (Chalk River sand) and on seven mixtures of bentonite and silica sand, containing from 0 percent to 100 percent bentonite. Two non-reactive solutes ( 36 Cl and 3 H) and one reactive solute ( 85 Sr) were used in the study. The experiments with non-reactive solutes yielded estimates of tortuosity factors. Retardation factors were obtained from experimental porosities, experimental bulk densities, and from batch distribution coefficients (Ksub(d)). These Ksub(d) values are a simple way of describing the solute/medium reaction, and are based on the assumption that the cation-exchange reaction may be described by a linear adsorption isotherm passing through the origin. The results demonstrate that, for practical purposes and for our experimental conditions, the use of the distribution coefficient provides a convenient means of calculating the effective diffusion coefficient for 85 Sr. The porosity and bulk density were also found to have a considerable influence on the effective diffusion coefficient, through the retardation factor. Mixtures containing 5-10 percent bentonite were found to be more effective in retarding 85 Sr than either sand alone, or mixtures containing more bentonite. In the soils of higher bentonite content, the effect of increased cation-exchange capacity was balanced by a decreasing ratio of bulk density to porosity

  18. Chitosan/bentonite bionanocomposites: morphology and mechanical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, C.R.C.; Melo, F.M.A. de; Vitorino, I.F.; Fook, M.V.L.; Silva, S.M.L.

    2010-01-01

    This study chitosan/bentonite bionanocomposite films were prepared by solution intercalation process, seeking to investigate the effect of the chitosan/bentonite ratio (5/1 e 10/1) on the morphology and mechanical behavior of the bionanocomposites. It was used as nanophase, Argel sodium bentonite (AN), was provided by Bentonit Uniao Nordeste-BUN (Campina Grande, Brazil) and as biopolymer matrix the chitosan of low molecular weight and degree of deacetylation of 86,7% was supplied by Polymar (Fortaleza, Brazil). The bionanocomposites was investigated by X-ray diffraction and tensile properties. According to the results, the morphology and the mechanical behavior of the bionanocomposite was affected by the ratio of chitosan/bentonite. The chitosan/bentonite ratio (5/1 and 10/1) indicated the formation of an intercalated nanostructure and of the predominantly exfoliated nanostructure, respectively. And the considerable increases in the resistance to the traction were observed mainly for the bionanocomposite with predominantly exfoliated morphology. (author)

  19. Modelling of long term geochemical evolution and study of mechanical perturbation of bentonite buffer of a KBS-3 repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsal, Francois; Pellegrini, Delphine; Deleruyelle, Frederic; Serres, Christophe (French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) (FR)); Windt, Laurent de (Paris School of Mines (ENSMP) (FR))

    2008-03-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) has recently completed a safety assessment project named SR-Can, related to the KBS-3 disposal concept. In this concept, the waste packages are surrounded by a buffer made of either MX-80 or Deponit CA-N bentonite. Interactions between the buffer and groundwater may modify the buffer composition and thus its containment properties. The Swedish Radiation Protection Authorities (SSI) requested the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) to perform the present study in support of SSI review of the SR-Can report. The purpose is to assess the geochemical evolution of both potential buffer materials due to the intrusion of different types of groundwater, with a similar modelling layout to that reported in SR-Can. Three main categories of water inflows via a fracture intersecting a deposition hole are considered: the Forsmark reference groundwater, a high-salinity groundwater to account for up-rise of deep-seated brines and a diluted water representing ice-melting derived groundwater. In addition to this, the redox buffering capacity of Deponit CA-N bentonite and the thermal effect on MX-80 bentonite geochemistry have been assessed. This modelling work has been performed using the reactive transport modelling code HYTEC. The main outcome of the present study is that the intrusion of the considered groundwaters should not affect drastically the geochemistry of neither the Deponit CA-N nor the MX-80 bentonite on the long-term (100,000 y). Bentonite pH may reach high values (up to 10.5) in some cases but does not reach SKB criterion value related to bentonite chemical stability. Dissolution-precipitation of accessory minerals is not significant enough to induce important porosity changes (rise by maximum 2 %). Globally, the montmorillonite exchanger undergoes Na by Ca partial replacement, which may decrease the swelling pressure of the bentonite. The simulated intrusion of oxidizing waters

  20. Modelling of long term geochemical evolution and study of mechanical perturbation of bentonite buffer of a KBS-3 repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsal, Francois; Pellegrini, Delphine; Deleruyelle, Frederic; Serres, Chris tophe; Windt, Laurent de

    2008-03-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) has recently completed a safety assessment project named SR-Can, related to the KBS-3 disposal concept. In this concept, the waste packages are surrounded by a buffer made of either MX-80 or Deponit CA-N bentonite. Interactions between the buffer and groundwater may modify the buffer composition and thus its containment properties. The Swedish Radiation Protection Authorities (SSI) requested the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) to perform the present study in support of SSI review of the SR-Can report. The purpose is to assess the geochemical evolution of both potential buffer materials due to the intrusion of different types of groundwater, with a similar modelling layout to that reported in SR-Can. Three main categories of water inflows via a fracture intersecting a deposition hole are considered: the Forsmark reference groundwater, a high-salinity groundwater to account for up-rise of deep-seated brines and a diluted water representing ice-melting derived groundwater. In addition to this, the redox buffering capacity of Deponit CA-N bentonite and the thermal effect on MX-80 bentonite geochemistry have been assessed. This modelling work has been performed using the reactive transport modelling code HYTEC. The main outcome of the present study is that the intrusion of the considered groundwaters should not affect drastically the geochemistry of neither the Deponit CA-N nor the MX-80 bentonite on the long-term (100,000 y). Bentonite pH may reach high values (up to 10.5) in some cases but does not reach SKB criterion value related to bentonite chemical stability. Dissolution-precipitation of accessory minerals is not significant enough to induce important porosity changes (rise by maximum 2 %). Globally, the montmorillonite exchanger undergoes Na by Ca partial replacement, which may decrease the swelling pressure of the bentonite. The simulated intrusion of oxidizing waters

  1. Occurrence of Fe-Mg-rich smectites and corrensite in the Morron de Mateo bentonite deposit (Cabo de Gata region, Spain): A natural analogue of the bentonite barrier in a radwaste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelayo, M., E-mail: m.pelayo@ciemat.es [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Romero, E. [Departamento de Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Facultad C.C. Geologicas, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Labajo, M.A.; Perez del Villar, L. [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > A hydrothermal process transformed Fe-Mg smectites into corrensite. > This transformation was favoured by the intrusion of the Morron de Mateo dome. > The intrusion caused a temperature increased and a supply of Fe-Mg rich solutions. > The system can be a good natural analogue of bentonite barrier in a radwaste disposal. > Experimental studies of stability of bentonite are in agreement with the results. - Abstract: The Morron de Mateo bentonite deposit is being studied as a natural analogue of the thermal and geochemical effects on a bentonite barrier in a deep geological repository of high level radioactive wastes. This bentonite deposit and its host rocks were intruded by a rhyodacitic volcanic dome that induced a hydrothermal metasomatic process affecting the biocalcarenite beds close to the dome. In this work, the mineralogical and chemical features of the clay minerals of the hydrothermally altered pyroclastic (white tuffs) and epiclastic rocks (mass flow), located in the NE sector of the Morron de Mateo deposit are described. White tuffs have a high content of phyllosilicates, mainly composed of dioctahedral smectites, while mass flow have a higher proportion of inherited minerals, the neoformed phyllosilicates are dioctahedral smectites and an interlayer chlorite/smectite mineral of corrensite type. The chemical composition of smectites reflects the different nature of the parent rocks, in such a way that smectites from white tuffs have a quite homogeneous chemical composition and their structural formulae correspond to montmorillonite type, while smectites from mass flow show more chemical variability, higher Fe and Mg contents and a mean structural formulae corresponding to Fe-Mg-rich beidellite and/or to an intermediate smectite member between beidellite and saponite. In addition, chemical composition and textural features of corrensite-like clay minerals in relation to Fe-Mg-rich smectites in the samples have also been studied, suggesting

  2. Occurrence of Fe-Mg-rich smectites and corrensite in the Morron de Mateo bentonite deposit (Cabo de Gata region, Spain): A natural analogue of the bentonite barrier in a radwaste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelayo, M.; Garcia-Romero, E.; Labajo, M.A.; Perez del Villar, L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A hydrothermal process transformed Fe-Mg smectites into corrensite. → This transformation was favoured by the intrusion of the Morron de Mateo dome. → The intrusion caused a temperature increased and a supply of Fe-Mg rich solutions. → The system can be a good natural analogue of bentonite barrier in a radwaste disposal. → Experimental studies of stability of bentonite are in agreement with the results. - Abstract: The Morron de Mateo bentonite deposit is being studied as a natural analogue of the thermal and geochemical effects on a bentonite barrier in a deep geological repository of high level radioactive wastes. This bentonite deposit and its host rocks were intruded by a rhyodacitic volcanic dome that induced a hydrothermal metasomatic process affecting the biocalcarenite beds close to the dome. In this work, the mineralogical and chemical features of the clay minerals of the hydrothermally altered pyroclastic (white tuffs) and epiclastic rocks (mass flow), located in the NE sector of the Morron de Mateo deposit are described. White tuffs have a high content of phyllosilicates, mainly composed of dioctahedral smectites, while mass flow have a higher proportion of inherited minerals, the neoformed phyllosilicates are dioctahedral smectites and an interlayer chlorite/smectite mineral of corrensite type. The chemical composition of smectites reflects the different nature of the parent rocks, in such a way that smectites from white tuffs have a quite homogeneous chemical composition and their structural formulae correspond to montmorillonite type, while smectites from mass flow show more chemical variability, higher Fe and Mg contents and a mean structural formulae corresponding to Fe-Mg-rich beidellite and/or to an intermediate smectite member between beidellite and saponite. In addition, chemical composition and textural features of corrensite-like clay minerals in relation to Fe-Mg-rich smectites in the samples have also been studied

  3. Advances on experimental techniques for the characterization of THM behaviour of bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M.V. [CIEMAT - Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Lioret, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna (UPC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    The design of high level radioactive waste (HLW) repositories in deep geological media in which bentonite clay is proposed as a sealing material leads to the need of further studying the behaviour of highly compacted expansive soils when subjected to mechanical, hydraulic and thermal changes. Laboratory tests may help to understand the processes that take place in the clay barrier under simple and controlled conditions and to develop the governing equations. The laboratory tests enable to isolate the different processes, making their interpretation easier, and provide with fundamental data concerning the parameters to be used in the models. The extremely low permeability of these materials, their avidity for water (high suction) and their high swelling capacity make necessary the modification of the conventional laboratory techniques and procedures to determine basic physical parameters. The main hydraulic properties of the barrier to be considered are the permeability and the water retention capacity. Among the mechanical properties of bentonites, the most outstanding is their capacity to change volume and thus, the characterisation and measurement of swelling pressure, swelling under load and mechanical compressibility are keystones to understand the behaviour of expansive materials. Besides, since the barrier will be subjected to thermal and hydraulic gradients, the variation of its mechanical and hydraulic characteristics with temperature and suction must be known. (authors)

  4. Studies on binding mechanism between carotenoids from sea buckthorn and thermally treated α-lactalbumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitraşcu, Loredana; Ursache, Florentina Mihaela; Stănciuc, Nicoleta; Aprodu, Iuliana

    2016-12-01

    Sea buckthorn is a natural food ingredient rich in bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, flavonoids, lipids, vitamins, tannins and minerals. Herein, fluorescence and UV-vis techniques were used to study the interaction of heat treated α-lactalbumin (α-LA) with carotenoids from sea buckthorn berries extract (CSB) and β-carotene. Further atomic level details on the interaction between α-LA and β-carotene were obtained by means of molecular modelling techniques. The quenching rate constants, binding constants, and number of binding sites were calculated in the presence of CSB. The emission spectral studies revealed that, CSB have the ability to bind α-LA and form a ground state complex via static quenching process. Maximum degree of quenching was reached at 100 °C, where β-carotene and CSB quenched the Trp fluorescence of α-LA by 56% and 47%, respectively. In order to reveal the interaction between CSB and α-LA, the thermodynamic parameters were determined from the van't Hoff plot based on the temperature dependence of the binding constant. In agreement with the in silico observations, the thermodynamic parameters enabled us to consider that the association between α-LA and β-carotene is a spontaneous process driven by enthalpy, dominated mainly by the van der Waals interaction, but hydrophobic interactions might also be considered. The interaction between CSB and α-LA was further confirmed by UV-vis absorption spectra, where a blue shift of position was noticed at higher temperature suggesting the complex formation. The results provided here supply a better understanding of the binding of CSB to α-LA, which can be further exploited in designing new healthy food applications.

  5. Evaluation of permeability and swelling pressure of compacted bentonite using a calcium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Takayoshi; Maeda, Munehiro; Mihara, Morihiro; Tanaka, Masuhiro

    1998-12-01

    Tests to determine the swelling pressure, permeability, compressive strength and elastic modulus of Ca-Na exchanged bentonite, Na-bentonite and Ca-bentonite at the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation have mainly used distilled water. However, disposal facilities for TRU waste will use cementateous material for packaging, backfill as well as structural support. In this case, a large amount of calcium will dissolve in groundwater flowing through the cementateous material. Therefore, it is important to investigate the mechanical properties of bentonite in calcium-rich water as part of the disposal research program for TRU waste. In order to understand the effect of the chemical composition of water on the basic mechanical properties of bentonite - part of evaluating the disposal concepts for TRU waste disposal - we tested the permeability of compacted bentonite under saturated conditions using a calcium hydroxide solution. The aqueous solution represents water dominated by the calcium component. Na-bentonite, Ca-Na exchanged bentonite and Ca-bentonite were used for swelling pressure measurement tests and permeability testing. Measures of the maximum and equilibrium swelling pressure as well as permeability we obtained. The dry density of bentonite was varied between tests. Results show that swelling pressure and permeability are dependent on dry density. In separate tests using Ca-bentonite, the bentonite-mixing rate was varied as an independent parameter. Results show that there is little change in the swelling pressure and permeability between tests using calcium hydroxide solution and distilled water for all bentonite types. (author)

  6. Structure and wettability property of the growth and nucleation surfaces of thermally treated freestanding CVD diamond films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xiaoqiang; Cheng, Shaoheng; Ma, Yibo; Wu, Danfeng; Liu, Junsong; Wang, Qiliang; Yang, Yizhou; Li, Hongdong

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports the surface features and wettability properties of the (1 0 0)-textured freestanding chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond films after thermal exposure in air at high temperature. Thermal oxidation at proper conditions eliminates selectively nanodiamonds and non-diamond carbons in the films. The growth side of the films contains (1 0 0)-oriented micrometer-sized columns, while its nucleation side is formed of nano-sized tips. The examined wettability properties of the as-treated diamond films reveal a hydrophilicity and superhydrophilicity on the growth surface and nucleation surface, respectively, which is determined by oxygen termination and geometry structure of the surface. When the surface termination is hydrogenated, the wettability of nucleation side converted from superhydrophilicity to high hydrophobicity, while the hydrophilicity of the growth side does not change significantly. The findings open a possibility for realizing freestanding diamond films having not only novel surface structures but also multifunction applications, especially proposed on the selected growth side or nucleation side in one product.

  7. Microscopic View of Defect Evolution in Thermal Treated AlGaInAs Quantum Well Revealed by Spatially Resolved Cathodoluminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Song

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available An aluminum gallium indium arsenic (AlGaInAs material system is indispensable as the active layer of diode lasers emitting at 1310 or 1550 nm, which are used in optical fiber communications. However, the course of the high-temperature instability of a quantum well structure, which is closely related to the diffusion of indium atoms, is still not clear due to the system’s complexity. The diffusion process of indium atoms was simulated by thermal treatment, and the changes in the optical and structural properties of an AlGaInAs quantum well are investigated in this paper. Compressive strained Al0.07Ga0.22In0.71As quantum wells were treated at 170 °C with different heat durations. A significant decrement of photoluminescence decay time was observed on the quantum well of a sample that was annealed after 4 h. The microscopic cathodoluminescent (CL spectra of these quantum wells were measured by scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL. The thermal treatment effect on quantum wells was characterized via CL emission peak wavelength and energy density distribution, which were obtained by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence. The defect area was clearly observed in the Al0.07Ga0.22In0.71As quantum wells layer after thermal treatment. CL emissions from the defect core have higher emission energy than those from the defect-free regions. The defect core distribution, which was associated with indium segregation gradient distribution, showed asymmetric character.

  8. The Effect of Radioactive Lantern Mantle Powder and Bentonite-Zeoloite Minerals on the Volume of Blood Loss, Bleeding and Clotting Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Atefi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction & Objective: Over the past decade the US army has widely studied new technologies for stopping sever hemorrhages and has introduced an effective Zeolite based hemostatic agent. On the other hand, Mortazavi and his colleagues previously reported the bio-stimulatory effects of the topical application of radioactive lantern mantle powder on wound healing. Their subsequent studies showed significant changes in some histological parameters concerning healing. In this light, here the bio-stimulatory effect of burned radioactive lantern mantles powder as well as two minerals bentonite and zeolite are presented. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the center for radiological studies, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2008. Fifty male Wistar rats were divided randomly into 5 groups of 10 animals each. Following anesthesia, animals’ tails were cut at a thickness of 5 mm by using a surgical scissor. No intervention was made on the animals of the 1st group. The 2nd to 4th group received topical non-radioactive lantern mantle powder, radioactive lantern mantle powder, Bentonite mineral or a mixture of Bentonite-Zeoliteat minerals respectively. After treatment with above mentioned agents, the volume of blood loss was measured using a scaled test-tube. The bleeding time and clotting time were also measured using a chronometer. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. ANOVA was used for comparing the means of each parameter in the 5 groups. Results: The the volume of blood loss, bleeding and clotting times in control animals were 4.39±1.92 cc, 112.10±39.60 sec and 94.9±54.26 sec, respectively. In the 5th group in which the animals were treated with a mixture of Bentonite-Zeoliteat minerals, the volume of blood loss, bleeding and clotting times were 1.31±0.60 cc, 34.50±4.65 sec and 24.2±4.61 sec, respectively. Conclusion: This is the 1st investigation that studied the alterations of bleeding

  9. Mechanisms and models for bentonite erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neretnieks, Ivars; Longcheng Liu; Moreno, Luis (Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Royal Inst. of Technology, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    There are concerns that the bentonite buffer surrounding the canisters with spent nuclear fuel may erode when non-saline groundwaters seep past the buffer. This is known to happen if the water content of ions is below the critical coagulation concentration CCC. Above the CCC the smectite forms a coherent gel, which does not release particles. One main effort in this study has been directed to assess under which conditions the pore water composition of the gel at the gel/water interface could be lower than the CCC. Another main effort has been directed to understanding the behaviour of expansive gel when the pore water is below the CCC. We have developed a Dynamic model for sodium gel expansion in fractures where the gel soaks up non-saline water as it expands. The model is based on a force balance between and on smectite particles, which move in the water. The Dynamic model of gel expansion showing the evolution in time and space of a gel was successfully tested against expansion experiments in test tubes. The expansion was measured with high resolution and in great detail over many months by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The model also predicted the gel expansion through filters with very narrow pores well. A gel viscosity model of dilute gels was derived, which accounts for ion concentration influence as well as the volume fraction of smectite in the gel. The model accounts for the presence of the DDL, which seemingly makes the particles larger so that they interact at lower particle densities. Simulations were performed for a case where the gel expands outward into the fracture that intersects the deposition hole. Fresh groundwater approaches and passes the gel/water interface. Smectite colloids move out into the water due to the repulsive forces between the particle and by Brownian motion (effect included in the Dynamic model). The dilute gel/sol is mobilised and flows downstream in a thin region where the viscosity is low enough to permit flow. Sodium diffuses

  10. Mechanisms and models for bentonite erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, Ivars; Longcheng Liu; Moreno, Luis

    2009-12-01

    There are concerns that the bentonite buffer surrounding the canisters with spent nuclear fuel may erode when non-saline groundwaters seep past the buffer. This is known to happen if the water content of ions is below the critical coagulation concentration CCC. Above the CCC the smectite forms a coherent gel, which does not release particles. One main effort in this study has been directed to assess under which conditions the pore water composition of the gel at the gel/water interface could be lower than the CCC. Another main effort has been directed to understanding the behaviour of expansive gel when the pore water is below the CCC. We have developed a Dynamic model for sodium gel expansion in fractures where the gel soaks up non-saline water as it expands. The model is based on a force balance between and on smectite particles, which move in the water. The Dynamic model of gel expansion showing the evolution in time and space of a gel was successfully tested against expansion experiments in test tubes. The expansion was measured with high resolution and in great detail over many months by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The model also predicted the gel expansion through filters with very narrow pores well. A gel viscosity model of dilute gels was derived, which accounts for ion concentration influence as well as the volume fraction of smectite in the gel. The model accounts for the presence of the DDL, which seemingly makes the particles larger so that they interact at lower particle densities. Simulations were performed for a case where the gel expands outward into the fracture that intersects the deposition hole. Fresh groundwater approaches and passes the gel/water interface. Smectite colloids move out into the water due to the repulsive forces between the particle and by Brownian motion (effect included in the Dynamic model). The dilute gel/sol is mobilised and flows downstream in a thin region where the viscosity is low enough to permit flow. Sodium diffuses

  11. Flavor characterization of sugar-added pennywort (Centella asiatica L.) juices treated with ultra-high pressure and thermal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee; Wongfhun, Pronprapa; Gordon, Michael H

    2009-01-01

    The flavor characteristics of pennywort juices with added sugar treated by ultra-high pressure, pasteurization, and sterilization were investigated using solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It was found that sesquiterpene hydrocarbons comprised the major class of volatile components present and the juices had a characteristic aroma due to the presence of volatiles including beta-caryophyllene and humulene and alpha-copaene. In comparison with heated juices, HPP-treated samples could retain more volatile compounds such as linalool and geraniol similar to those present in fresh juice, whereas some volatiles such as alpha-terpinene and ketone class were apparently formed by thermal treatment. All processing operations produced juice that was not significantly different in the concentration of total volatiles. Practical Application: Pennywort juice is considered a nutraceutical drink for health benefits. Therefore, to preserve all aroma and active components in this juice, a nonthermal process such as ultra-high pressure should be a more appropriate technique for retention of its nutritive values than pasteurization and sterilization.

  12. Diffusion in crushed rock and in bentonite clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olin, M.

    1994-04-01

    Diffusion theories for porous media with sorption are reviewed to serve as a basis for considering diffusion in simple systems like sand of crushed rock. A Fickian diffusion and linear sorption model is solved both by analytical Laplance transform and Green's function methods and by numerical methods, and then applied to small-scale experiments for Finnish low- and medium-level operating waste repositories. The main properties of bentonite are reviewed. The hydraulic conductivity of compacted bentonite is so low that the major transport mechanism is diffusion. A Fickian diffusion and linear sorption model is applied to bentonite. The main component of bentonite, montmorillonite, has a high ion-exchange capacity and thus, transport in bentonite consists of interactive chemical and diffusion phenomena. A chemical equilibrium model, CHEQ, is developed for ion-exchange reactions in bentonite water systems. CHEQ is applied to some bentonite experiments with success, especially for monovalent ions. The fitted log-binding constants for sodium exchange with potassium, magnesium, and calcium were 0.27, 1.50, and 2.10, respectively. A coupled chemical and diffusion model, CHEQDIFF, is developed to take account of diffusion in pore water, surface diffusion and ion-exchange reactions. The model is applied to the same experiments as CHEQ, and validation is partly successful. In the diffusion case, the above-mentioned values for binding constants are used. The apparent diffusion (both anions and cations) and surface diffusion (only for cations) constants used are 3.0*10 -11 m 2 /s and 6.0*10 -12 m 2 /s, respectively, but these values are questionable, as experimental results good enough for fitting are not available. (orig.). (74 refs., 27 figs., 12 tabs.)

  13. Improving thermal stability and efficacy of BCNU in treating glioma cells using PAA-functionalized graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu YJ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Jen Lu1,2,#, Hung-Wei Yang1,#, Sheng-Che Hung3, Chiung-Yin Huang2, Shin-Ming Li4, Chen-Chi M Ma4, Pin-Yuan Chen2, Hong-Chieh Tsai2, Kuo-Chen Wei2, Jyh-Ping Chen1 1Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kwei-San, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 3Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan#These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU, a commercial chemotherapeutic drug for treating malignant brain tumors, has poor thermal stability and a short half-life. Immobilization of BCNU on a nanocarrier might increase the thermal stability of BCNU and extend its half-life.Methods: Nanosized graphene oxide (GO could be modified by polyacrylic acid (PAA to improve the aqueous solubility and increase the cell penetration efficacy of the nanocarrier. PAA–GO intended as a drug carrier for BCNU was prepared and characterized in this study. The size and thickness of PAA–GO was investigated by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, and the presence of PAA functional groups was confirmed by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. BCNU was conjugated to PAA–GO by covalent binding for specific killing of cancer cells, which could also enhance the thermal stability of the drug.Results: Single layer PAA–GO (about 1.9 nm with a lateral width as small as 36 nm was successfully prepared. The optimum drug immobilization condition was by reacting 0.5 mg PAA–GO with 0.4 mg BCNU, and the drug-loading capacity and residual drug activity were 198 µg BCNU/mg PAA–GO and 70%, respectively. This nanocarrier significantly prolonged the half-life of bound BCNU from 19 to 43 hours compared with free drug and showed efficient intracellular

  14. Lake restoration with aluminium, bentonite and Phoslock: the effect on sediment stability and light attenuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egemose, Sara; Reitzel, Kasper; Flindt, Mogens

    treatments on aluminium mobility, sediment stability or light climate. A laboratory flume experiment including three shallow Danish lakes was conducted. We measured the effects of aluminium, Phoslock (a commercial product), bentonite, and a combination of bentonite/aluminium. Each treatment caused a varying...... consolidation of the sediment. The largest consolidation occurred using Phoslock- and bentonite-addition followed by bentonite/aluminium-addition, whereas aluminium alone had no effect. Sediment stability thresholds were measured before and after addition. Especially Phoslock, but also bentonite and bentonite....../aluminium increased sediment erosion threshold, with respectively 200%, 43% and 57%. Aluminium, bentonite/aluminium, and Phoslock improved the light conditions in the water phase, with respectively 60%, 57% and 50%, whereas bentonite created higher turbidity. Conclusively aluminium improved the light conditions...

  15. Effect of seawater and high-temperature history on swelling characteristics of bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yukihisa; Nakamura, Kunihiko

    2005-01-01

    In the case of construction of repository for nuclear waste near the coastal area, the effect of seawater on swelling characteristics of bentonite as an engineering as an engineering barrier should be considered. Effects of high-temperature history on swelling characteristics of bentonite should also be considered because nuclear waste generates heat. Thus, in this study, swelling characteristics of bentonite on the conditions of high temperature history and seawater are investigated. The results of this study imply that : (1) Swelling strain of sodium bentonite or transformed sodium bentonite decrease as the salinity of water increases, whereas those of calcium bentonite are not affected by salinity of the water. (2) Quantitative evaluation method for swelling strain and swelling pressure of several kinds of bentonites under brine is proposed. (3) Using distilled water, swelling strain and swelling pressure of sodium bentonite with high-temperature history is less than those without high-temperature history. (author)

  16. Thermic and thermodynamic properties of desorption process of essential oil of Hyssopus seravshanicus from bentonite clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukaniev, M.A.; Badalov, A.B.; Sharopov, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    It shown, that desorption process of essential oil of Hyssopus seravshanicus from bentonite clays include by four parts (lines) and the nature between essential oil of Hyssopus seravshanicus from bentonite clays is physical and chemical sorption

  17. Field test of ethanol/bentonite slurry grouting into rock fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoyuki Asada; Hitoshi Nakashima; Takashi Ishii; Sumio Horiuchi

    2006-01-01

    Crystalline rocks have fractures which may cause unexpected routes of groundwater seepage. Cement grouting is one of the most effective methods to minimize seepage; however, cement materials may not be suitable for the purpose of extra-long durability, because cement is neutralized or degraded by chemical and physical influence of chemical reaction. Natural clay like bentonite is one of the most promising materials for seepage barrier; however, water/bentonite grout is so viscous that enough amount of bentonite can not be grouted into rock fractures. To increase bentonite content in grout with low viscosity, the utilization of ethanol as a mixing liquid was studied. Ethanol suppresses bentonite swelling, and more bentonite can be injected more than that of water/bentonite slurry. In this paper, grouting into in-situ rock mass fracture from the ground surface was tested to investigate the barrier performance and workability of ethanol/bentonite slurry as a grouting material. (author)

  18. Observations of bentonite-hyper-alkaline fluid and bentonite-cement interactions by the X-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakabayashi, R.; Chino, D.; Kawaragi, C.; Sato, T.; Yoneda, T.; Kaneko, K.; Shibata, S.; Sakamoto, H.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Bentonite-hyper-alkaline fluid interaction has been a key research issue in the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal. It has therefore been investigated based on the dissolution rate of smectite (main constituent mineral of bentonite) under such hyper-alkaline condition. Generally, the dissolution rate has been obtained from batch and flow-through experiments under the conditions with high fluid/solid weight rations. These previous studies have provided a contribution to kinetic model of smectite dissolution. Some of them in particularly showed some equations explaining the effect of different factors such as pH of reactive fluid, temperature and deviation from equilibrium on smectite dissolution rate. However, the experimental conditions in such studies were completely different from the conditions in actual radioactive waste disposal system. For quantitative understanding, dissolution experiments for the compacted bentonite have also been conducted. These studies showed that the dissolution rate of compacted bentonite was different from that of batch and flow-through experiments. However, the difference has not been understood in details. On the other hand, the interface between bentonite and cement has also been investigated by experiments in laboratories and field sites, via reaction transport modelling. Despite the very few in numbers of experimental results as function of time, there are many long-term modelling works intended for bentonite-cement interaction. The models developed by many authors should be verified by comparing results of the model calculations with experimental observations. The experimental results with different conditions are therefore necessary for verifications and comparisons. Even in the experimental works done previously, the alteration process at the interface has mainly been observed by EPMA. EPMA is a destructive analysis with lower time resolution for 2D images

  19. Radioassay of vitamin B-12 employing bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, N.; Fries, J.E.; Richards, C.S.

    1976-01-01

    Radioassay for vitamin B-12 using the unknown quantity of non-radioactive vitamin B-12 released from serum mixed with the radioactivity of a known quantity of radioactive vitamin B-12 tracer. A solution of intrinsic factor having a binding capacity less than the quantity of serum vitamin B-12 and radioactive vitamin B-12 is used to bind a portion of the vitamin B-12 mixture. The vitamin B-12 not bound to intrinsic factor is removed by addition of a bentonite-containing tablet. The quantity of radioactive vitamin B-12 bound to intrinsic factor is compared with standard values and the unknown serum vitamin B-12 obtained. In the steps of the procedure the acid assay medium is pre-combined with the radioactive tracer so that the radioactive vitamin B-12 tracer receives the same treatment as serum vitamin B-12. Certain of the other reagent solutions are pre-combined and the concentration of the components adjusted so that the volume used of each of these other reagent solutions is the same in different assay steps. Thus, fewer pipetting steps are necessary. 7 claims, 1 drawing figure

  20. Analysis of corrosion products of carbon steel in wet bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, K.; Nagano, T.; Kozai, N.; Nakashima, S.; Nakayama, S.; Muraoka, S.

    1991-01-01

    The following conclusions were obtained; (1) At 40degC, the average corrosion rate of SS41 carbon steel in wet bentonite was 0.025 mm/y. This is smaller than the value of 0.042 mm/y obtained in pure water at 40degC. However, at 95degC, the corrosion rate of SS41 carbon steel in wet bentonite was 0.27 mm/y, which is much larger than that in pure water at 95degC. (2) At 95degC, γ-FeO(OH) (lepidocrocite) was formed only in wet bentonite, and it was absent in pure water. Evaporation of moisture resulted in the formation of partial covering of bentonite, which promoted local corrosion. Consequently, γ-FeO(OH) was considered to be formed. (3) In wet bentonite at 95degC, α-Fe 2 O 3 (hematite) can be identified by means of colorimetry. The color of corrosion products is orangish, indicating the contribution of α-Fe 2 O 3 in iron hydroxides. (author)

  1. Tracer diffusion in compacted, water-saturated bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourg, Ian C.; Sposito, Garrison; Bourg, Alain C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Compacted Na-bentonite clay barriers, widely used in the isolation of solid-waste landfills and other contaminated sites, have been proposed for a similar use in the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Molecular diffusion through the pore space in these barriers plays a key role in their performance, thus motivating recent measurements of the apparent diffusion coefficient tensor of water tracers in compacted, water-saturated Na-bentonites. In the present study, we introduce a conceptual model in which the pore space of water-saturated bentonite is divided into 'macropore' and 'interlayer nanopore' compartments. With this model we determine quantitatively the relative contributions of pore-network geometry (expressed as a geometric factor) and of the diffusive behavior of water molecules near montmorillonite basal surfaces(expressed as a contrastivity factor) to the apparent diffusion coefficient tensor. Our model predicts, in agreement with experiment, that the mean principal value of the apparent diffusion coefficient tensor follows a single relationship when plotted against the partial montmorillonite dry density (mass of montmorillonite per combined volume of montmorillonite and pore space). Using a single fitted parameter, the mean principal geometric factor, our model successfully describes this relationship for a broad range of bentonite-water system, from dilute gel to highly-compacted bentonite with 80 percent of its pore water in interlayer nanopores

  2. Iodine sorption of bentonite - radiometric and polarographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konirova, R.; Vinsova, H.; Koudelkova, M.; Ernestova, M.; Jedinakova-Krizova, V.

    2003-01-01

    The experiments focused on kinetics of iodine retardation on bentonite, influence of aqueous phase pH, buffering properties of bentonite, etc. were carried out by batch method. Distribution coefficient KD was the criterion applied for evaluation of iodine interaction with solid phase. High sorption potential of bentonite to cationic forms of various radionuclides, resulting from relatively high cation exchange capacity, is generally known. On the other hand the inorganic anions are not adsorbed strongly to mineral surface of clays thus uptake of iodine (occurring mainly at iodide (I - ) or iodate (IO 3 - ) form under oxoic conditions) is limited. The distribution coefficients of iodine anions' sorption on bentonite R reach order of magnitude 10 -1 mL/g. In order to increase the sorption capacity of the solid phase, several additives were added to bentonite. Most of them didn't provide satisfactory results except of the addition of activated carbon, which has high surface area. Electromigration and polarographic methods were used for investigation of the redox state of iodine in aqueous phase and determination of KD values as well. Acquired results were compared with data obtained by radiometric measurements. (authors)

  3. Hydrothermal alkaline stability of bentonite barrier by concrete interstitial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leguey Jimenez, S.; Cuevas Rodriguez, J.; Ramirez Martin, S.; Vigil de la villa Mencia, R.; Martin Barca, M.

    2002-01-01

    At present, the main source of High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) is the electrical energy production during all the steps of developing. In almost all the countries with nuclear programs, the option for the final management of HLW is the Deep Geological Repository (DGR) based on the concept of multi barrier. According to this concept, the waste is isolated from biosphere by the interposition of confinement barriers. Two of the engineering barriers in the Spanish design of DGR in granitic rock are compacted bentonite and concrete. The bentonite barrier is the backfilling and sealing material for the repository gallery, because of its mechanical and physico-chemical properties. The main qualities of concrete as a component of a multi barrier system are its low permeability, mechanical resistance and chemical properties. With regard to chemical composition of concrete, the alkaline nature of cement pore water lowers the solubility of many radioactive elements. However, structural transformation in smectite, dissolution or precipitation of minerals and, consequently, changes in the bentonite properties could occurs in the alkaline conditions generated by the cement degradation. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate the effect of concrete in the stability of Spanish reference bentonite (La Serrata of Nijar, Almeria, Spain) in conditions similar to those estimated in a DGR in granitic rock. Because of the main role of bentonite barrier in the global performance of the repository, the present study is essential to guarantee its security. (Author)

  4. Diffusion, sorption, and retardation processes of anions in bentonite and organo-bentonites for multibarrier systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schampera, Birgit; Dultz, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The low permeability, high cation exchange capacity (CEC) and plasticity of bentonites favor their use in multibarrier systems of waste deposits [1]. Bentonites have a high CEC but their ability to sorb anions is very low. There is, however, need for retardation of anions and organic pollutants in many applications. Bentonites, modified with certain organic cations, have the capacity to sorb anions and non-polar organic compounds in addition to cations. Investigations on organically modified clays address a wide variety of applications including immobilization of pollutants in contaminated soils, waste water treatment and in situ placement for the protection of ground water [2]. Many experiments on anion and cation sorption of organo-clays were conducted in the batch mode which does not reflect solid-liquid ratios and material densities in barrier systems. Diffusion experiments on compacted clays allow the evaluation of transport processes and sorption of pollutants at conditions relevant for repositories. For organo-clays only few diffusion studies are published e.g. [3] measured the diffusion of tritium and [4] the diffusion of H2O in bentonite and organo-bentonites. The organic cation hexadecylpyridinium (HDPy) was added to Wyoming bentonite (MX-80) in amounts corresponding to 2-400 % of the CEC. The uptake of organic cations was determined by the C-content, XRD and IR-spectroscopy. Wettability was analyzed by the contact angle. Physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of clays were characterized. Diffusion experiments were carried out in situ in a cell attached to the ATR-unit of a FTIR-spectrometer. For H2O-diffusion the compacted organo-clays are saturated first with D2O, afterwards H2O is supplied to the surface at the top of the clay platelet. Anion-diffusion was conducted with NO3--solution instead of H2O only having characteristic IR band positions at 1350 cm-1. Three different concentrations (0.25M, 0.5M and 1M) were used. Additional batch

  5. Evaluation for swelling characteristics of buffer and backfill materials for high-level nuclear waste disposal. Influence of sand-bentonite content and cation compositions in bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, Hideo; Ogata, Nobuhide

    1999-01-01

    Compacted bentonite and sand-bentonite mixture are attracting greater attention as buffer and backfill materials for disposal pits and access tunnels in the underground facilities for repositories of high-level nuclear waste. Buffer and backfill materials must have the swelling characteristics and are expected to fill up the space between these materials and surrounding ground by swelling. This role is called as 'Self-sealing'. To design the specifications, such as dry density, bentonite content and size, of buffer and backfill materials for the disposal facilities of high-level nuclear wastes described above, we must evaluate the swelling characteristics of compacted bentonite and sand-bentonite mixtures. For this purpose, this study proposed the evaluation formula for swelling characteristics of buffer and backfill materials containing bentonite. This study derived new equations for evaluating the relationship between the swelling deformation of compacted bentonite and sand-bentonite mixtures, and the swelling behavior of montmorillonite minerals, which are swelling clay minerals. This study also proposed new equations for evaluating the ion compositions of bentonite, ion concentration of pore water and the specific surface of bentonite, which significantly influence the swelling characteristics of buffer and backfill materials. The evaluation formula proposed in this study is presented by combining the above-mentioned new equations with theoretical equations, of which are the Gouy-Chapman diffuse double layer theory and the van der Waals force, of repulsive and attractive forces of montmorillonite minerals. (author)

  6. Determination of the cation exchange capacity of bentonite exposed to hyperalkaline fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabria, Jaqueline A.A.; Amaral, Daniela N. do; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Q.; Cota, Stela D.S.; Silva, Talita S.S., E-mail: jaalmeida@cdtn.br, E-mail: danielanogueir@gmail.com, E-mail: acql@cdtn.br, E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.br, E-mail: tsss@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The hyper alkaline fluid that could be generated by cementitious degradation in a repository, can affect important properties of backfilling materials, host-rocks and soils. It is well known that mineralogical characteristics of materials can change with the exposition to high pH conditions, such as found in a disposal installation. These modifications are likely to cause deterioration in physical and chemical properties of these materials, e.g., hydraulic conductivity, radionuclides sorption (Kd), diffusivity and cation exchange capacity (CEC). This paper presents the preliminary results for bentonite exposed to alkaline solutions in order to establish the time for mineralogical modifications to occur. The property of bentonite used as an indicator of the modification was CEC. A commercial bentonite was treated with NaOH 1 mol/L at 30 deg C, for different periods of time that varied from 4 hours to 28 days. After that, the CEC was determined by the conventional methylene-blue adsorption titration method. Although the methylene-blue titration has given fast results, it has not demonstrated confidence, due to the semi-quantitative nature of this technique. Generally, the values of CEC decreased from 68 meq/100g to 42 meq/100g with the time of contact showing that hyper alkaline conditions provide significant changes in the CEC. Additionally, a second group of samples was modified with moderate alkaline solution and had the CEC determined by Centrifuge Method, reported in Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual, number 42. The second group presented an increase in the CEC in few hours of alteration, which can be explained by the formation of zeolites when an alkaline solution containing K and Ca is used. (author)

  7. Effect of Fluoride and Bentonite on Biochemical Aspects of Oxidative Stress in Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Śnioszek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is regarded as one of the strongest oxidants, which causes oxidative changes in cells of living organisms. It may both increase the content of reactive oxygen species and inhibit the activity of antioxidative enzyme. In recent years, many researchers successfully used the properties of clay minerals in the sorption of fluoride ion from water. This raises the question of the possibility of limiting the effect of fluorine on the negative changes in plants by adding bentonite to soil. A two-year pot experiment was carried out in the Greenhouse of West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, on loamy sand and sandy loam. Each sample of soil was mixed with three different concentrations of bentonite – 1, 5, 10% of dry weight (DW of the soil and then treated with 30 mmol of F- per 1 kg of dry weight of the soil in a form of NaF solution. A control series was prepared for each soil, to which no additives were added. The medium prepared in such way was transferred to plastic pots (3 kg each and seeded with 16 pea seeds of Pisum sativum. In three phases of pea development (4 leaves unfolded, flowering and development of fruit, fresh leaf samples were collected and the concentrations of ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, total flavonoids and total polyphenols were measured. Sodium fluoride introduced to the soil changed the level of antioxidant parameters in the plant, which may suggest that fluoride is involved in the formation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in oxidative stress. Bentonite in a dosage of 10% reduced the toxic effects of fluoride on the oxidative balance and morphological changes in the plant, which was observed especially for loamy sand, naturally poor in clay minerals.

  8. Determination of the cation exchange capacity of bentonite exposed to hyperalkaline fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabria, Jaqueline A.A.; Amaral, Daniela N. do; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Q.; Cota, Stela D.S.; Silva, Talita S.S.

    2013-01-01

    The hyper alkaline fluid that could be generated by cementitious degradation in a repository, can affect important properties of backfilling materials, host-rocks and soils. It is well known that mineralogical characteristics of materials can change with the exposition to high pH conditions, such as found in a disposal installation. These modifications are likely to cause deterioration in physical and chemical properties of these materials, e.g., hydraulic conductivity, radionuclides sorption (Kd), diffusivity and cation exchange capacity (CEC). This paper presents the preliminary results for bentonite exposed to alkaline solutions in order to establish the time for mineralogical modifications to occur. The property of bentonite used as an indicator of the modification was CEC. A commercial bentonite was treated with NaOH 1 mol/L at 30 deg C, for different periods of time that varied from 4 hours to 28 days. After that, the CEC was determined by the conventional methylene-blue adsorption titration method. Although the methylene-blue titration has given fast results, it has not demonstrated confidence, due to the semi-quantitative nature of this technique. Generally, the values of CEC decreased from 68 meq/100g to 42 meq/100g with the time of contact showing that hyper alkaline conditions provide significant changes in the CEC. Additionally, a second group of samples was modified with moderate alkaline solution and had the CEC determined by Centrifuge Method, reported in Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual, number 42. The second group presented an increase in the CEC in few hours of alteration, which can be explained by the formation of zeolites when an alkaline solution containing K and Ca is used. (author)

  9. Evaluation of bentonite alteration due to interactions with iron. Sensitivity analyses to identify the important factors for the bentonite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Wilson, James; Sato, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Performance assessment of geological disposal systems for high-level radioactive waste requires a consideration of long-term systems behaviour. It is possible that the alteration of swelling clay present in bentonite buffers might have an impact on buffer functions. In the present study, iron (as a candidate overpack material)-bentonite (I-B) interactions were evaluated as the main buffer alteration scenario. Existing knowledge on alteration of bentonite during I-B interactions was first reviewed, then the evaluation methodology was developed considering modeling techniques previously used overseas. A conceptual model for smectite alteration during I-B interactions was produced. The following reactions and processes were selected: 1) release of Fe 2+ due to overpack corrosion; 2) diffusion of Fe 2+ in compacted bentonite; 3) sorption of Fe 2+ on smectite edge and ion exchange in interlayers; 4) dissolution of primary phases and formation of alteration products. Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify the most important factors for the alteration of bentonite by I-B interactions. (author)

  10. Migration Behaviour of Strontium in Czech Bentonite Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Baborova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with sorption and diffusion behaviour of strontium in Czech bentonite B75. The study is a part of a research on reactive transport of radioactive contaminants in barrier materials of a deep geological repository of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic. Series of sorption and diffusion experiments with Sr and non-activated Ca bentonite B75 produced in the Czech Republic were performed in two background solutions (CaCl2 and NaCl. On the basis of sorption batch experiments the kinetics of strontium sorption on bentonite was assessed and the sorption isotherms for various experimental conditions were obtained. As a result of performed diffusion experiments the parameters of diffusion (i.e. effective diffusion coefficient De and apparent diffusion coefficient Da were determined. The observed discrepancies between sorption characteristics obtained from the sorption and diffusion experiments are discussed.

  11. Decantation time of evaluation on bentonite clays fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, J.; Menezes, R.R.; Neves, G.A.; Lira, H.L; Santana, L.N.L.

    2009-01-01

    Bentonite clays present a great number of industrial uses, from petroleum to pharmaceutics and cosmetic industry. The bentonite clay present particles with very fine particles that is responsible by the vast application of these materials. However, commercial clays present wide particle size distribution and a significant content of impurities, particularly quartz, in the form of silt and fine silt. So, the aim of this work is to analyze the effect of the stirring and decantation time in the deagglomeration, purification and size separation of the bentonite clay particles from Paraiba. The clays were characterized by X-ray diffraction and particle size distribution. Based on the results it was observed the decantation time give the elimination of the agglomerates formed by submicrometric particles. The uses of decantation column give separation of the fraction below 200nm. (author)

  12. Effect of organic matter on 125I diffusion in bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Wu; Qing Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Through-diffusion method was conducted to investigate the diffusion behavior of 125 I in bentonite in present of organic matter, such as polyaminopolycarboxylate EDTA, oxalic acid, hydrazine and humic acid HA. The effective diffusion coefficient D e value and rock capacity factor α were (2.32.6) × 10 -11 m 2 /s and 0.040-0.052, respectively. The small difference showed that iodine was preferentially associated with silicoaluminate mineral as an inorganic form. In present of HA, the D a value of 125 I was almost two orders of magnitude higher than that of HA and humic substances HS. The D e and α derived from the experiments were used to simulate its diffusion in the designed bentonite obstacle of high-level radioactive waste repository and the results showed that 125 I can be transported from 30 to 50 cm thickness of bentonite to the far-field of repository in several years. (author)

  13. Database on gas migration tests through bentonite buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanai, Kenji

    2009-02-01

    Carbon steel is a candidate material for an overpack for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Japan. The corrosion of the carbon steel overpack in aqueous solution under anoxic conditions will cause the generation of hydrogen gas, which may affect hydrological and mechanical properties of the bentonite buffer. To evaluate such an effect of gas generation, it is necessary to develop a model of gas migration through bentonite buffer material taking account of data obtained from experiments. The gas migration experiments under both unsaturated and saturated conditions have been carried out to clarify the fundamental characteristics of bentonite for gas migration. This report compiles the experimental data obtained from gas migration tests for buffer material which has been conducted by JAEA until December, 2007. A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (author)

  14. Synthesis, characterization, and solid-state NMR investigation of organically modified bentonites and their composites with LDPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsacchi, Silvia; Sudhakaran, Umayal; Geppi, Marco; Ricci, Lucia; Liuzzo, Vincenzo; Ruggeri, Giacomo

    2013-07-23

    Polymer/clay nanocomposites show remarkably improved properties (mechanical properties, as well as decreased gas permeability and flammability, etc.) with respect to their microscale counterparts and pristine polymers. Due to the substantially apolar character of most of the organic polymers, natural occurring hydrophilic clays are modified into organophilic clays with consequent increase of the polymer/clay compatibility. Different strategies have been developed for the preparation of nanocomposites with improved properties, especially aimed at achieving the best dispersion of clay platelets in the polymer matrix. In this paper we present the preparation and characterization of polymer/clay nanocomposites composed of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and natural clay, montmorillonite-containing bentonite. Two different forms of the clay have been considered: the first, a commercial organophilic bentonite (Nanofil 15), obtained by exchanging the natural cations with dimethyldioctadecylammonium (2C18) cations, and the second, obtained by performing a grafting reaction of an alkoxysilane containing a polymerizable group, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TSPM), onto Nanofil 15. Both the clays and LDPE/clay nanocomposites were characterized by thermal, FT-IR, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The samples were also investigated by means of (29)Si, (13)C, and (1)H solid-state NMR, obtaining information on the structural properties of the modified clays. Moreover, by exploiting the effect of bentonite paramagnetic (Fe(3+)) ions on proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1's), useful information about the extent of the polymer-clay dispersion and their interfacial interactions could be obtained.

  15. Coupled behaviour of bentonite buffer results of PUSKURI project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olin, M.; Rasilainen, K.; Itaelae, A.

    2011-08-01

    In the report main results form a KYT2010 programme's project Coupled behaviour of bentonite buffer (PUSKURI) are presented. In THC modelling, Aku Itaelae made and published his Master of Science Thesis. Itaelae was able to successfully model the LOT-experiment. Additionally, he also listed problems and development proposals for THC-modelling of bentonite buffer. VTT and Numerola created in collaboration a model coupling saturation, diffusion and cation exchange; the model was implemented and tested in Numerrin, COMSOL and TOUGHREACT. Petri Jussila's PhD THM-model was implemented into COMSOL to facilitate further development. At GTK, the mineralogical characterisation of bentonite was planned. The previous THM model (Jussila's model) including only small deformations was successfully generalized to finite deformations in way at least formally preserving the original formalism. It appears that the theory allows also a possibility to include finite plastic deformations in the theory. In order to measure the relevant mechanical properties of compacted bentonite, two different experiments, namely hydrostatic compression experiment and one-dimensional compression experiment were designed. In the hydrostatic compression experiment, a cylindrical sample of compacted bentonite covered with liquid rubber coating is placed in the sample chamber equipped with a piston. The same device was also used in one-dimensional compression experiment. X-ray microtomographic techniques were used in order to study the basic mechanisms of water transport in bentonite. The preliminary results indicate that in the present experimental set-up, water transport is dominated by a dispersive mechanism such as diffusion of vapour in gas phase or diffusion of water in solid phase. (orig.)

  16. Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of Novel Rotary Files Manufactured from Different Thermal Treated Nickel-Titanium Wires in Artificial Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataşlıoglu, E; Aydın, U; Yıldırım, C

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the static cyclic fatigue resistance of thermal treated rotary files with a conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary file. Four groups of 60 rotary files with similar file dimensions, geometries, and motion were selected. Groups were set as HyFlex Group [controlled memory wire (CM-Wire)], ProfileVortex Group (M-Wire), Twisted File Group (R-Phase Wire), and OneShape Group (conventional NiTi wire)] and tested using a custom-made static cyclic fatigue testing apparatus. The fracture time and fragment length of the each file was also recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test at the 95% confidence level (P = 0.05). The HyFlex group had a significantly higher mean cyclic fatigue resistance than the other three groups (P Wire alloy represented the best performance in cyclic fatigue resistance, and NiTi alloy in R-Phase had the second highest fatigue resistance. CM and R-Phase manufacturing technology processed to the conventional NiTi alloy enhance the cyclic fatigue resistance of files that have similar design and size. M-wire alloy did not show any superiority in cyclic fatigue resistance when compared with conventional NiTi wire.

  17. Evaluation of phenomena affecting diffusion of cations in compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Lehikoinen, J.

    1995-04-01

    In a number of diffusion studies, contradictions between the apparent diffusivities of cations and their distribution coefficients in bentonite have been found. Two principal reasons have been offered as explanations for this discrepancy; diffusion of the sorbed cations, often called surface diffusion, and the decrease of sorption in compacted clay compared to a sorption value obtained from a batch experiment. In the study the information available from the literature on sorption-diffusion mechanisms of cations in bentonite has been compiled and re-interpreted in order to improve the understanding of the diffusion process. (103 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs.)

  18. Structure and forces in bentonite MX-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, Bo; Aakesson, Torbjoern; Joensson, Bengt; Meehdi, Segad; Janiak, John; Wallenberg, Reine

    2009-03-01

    Wyoming bentonite (MX-80) and its ion exchanged forms, Na and Ca montmorillonite, have been studied experimentally and theoretically. A variety of experimental techniques have been used in order to gain insight into the structural conditions in dry clay as well as clay in equilibrium with a bulk solution of given ionic composition. The main objective has been the swelling behaviour and osmotic pressure of montmorillonite clay when the bulk solution contains a mix of monovalent sodium and divalent calcium ions. For a clay system in equilibrium with pure water, Monte Carlo simulations predict a large swelling when the clay counterions are monovalent, while in presence of divalent counterions a limited swelling is predicted with an aqueous layer between the clay lamellaes of about 1 nm. This latter result is in excellent agreement with small angle x-ray scattering data, but in disagreement with dialysis experiments, which gives a significantly larger swelling for Ca montmorillonite in pure water. Obviously, there is one lamellar swelling and a second 'extra-lamellar' swelling, which could be the result of a phase separation in the clay. Montmorillonite in contact with a salt reservoir with both Na + and Ca 2+ counterions will only show a modest swelling unless the sodium concentration in the bulk is several orders of magnitude larger than the calcium concentration. The limited swelling of clay in presence of divalent counterions is a consequence of ion-ion correlations, which reduce the entropic repulsion as well as give rise to an attractive component in the total osmotic pressure. Ion-ion correlations also favour divalent counterions in a situation where we have a competition with monovalent ones. A more fundamental result of ion-ion correlations is that the osmotic pressure as a function of clay sheet separation becomes nonmonotonic, which indicates the possibility of a phase separation into a concentrated and a dilute clay phase. This phenomenon could explain the

  19. Supplementary feeding with thermally treated cereals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) pond farming and its effects on water quality, nutrient budget and zooplankton and zoobenthos assemblages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváč, D.; Anton-Pardo, M.; Másílko, J.; Hartman, P.; Regenda, J.; Vejsada, P.; Baxa, M.; Pechar, L.; Valentová, O.; Všetičková, Lucie; Drozd, B.; Adámek, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2016), s. 1681-1697 ISSN 0967-6120 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Common carp * Nutrient budget * Supplementary feeding * Thermally treated cereals Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.095, year: 2016

  20. Strength and Compaction Analysis of Sand-Bentonite-Coal Ash Mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobti, Jaskiran; Singh, Sanjay Kumar

    2017-08-01

    This paper deals with the strength and compaction characteristics of sand-bentonite-coal ash mixes prepared by varying percentages of sand, bentonite and coal ash to be used in cutoff walls and as a liner or cover material in landfills. The maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) of sand-bentonite mixes and sand-bentonite-coal ash mixes were determined by conducting the standard proctor test. Also, the strength and stiffness characteristics of soil mixes were furnished using unconfined compressive strength test. The results of the study reveal influence of varying percentages of coal ash and bentonite on the compaction characteristics of the sand-bentonite-coal ash mixes. Also, validation of a statistical analysis of the correlations between maximum dry density (MDD), optimum moisture content (OMC) and Specific Gravity (G) was done using the experimental results. The experimental results obtained for sand-bentonite, sand-bentonite-ash and coal ash-bentonite mixes very well satisfied the statistical relations between MDD, OMC and G with a maximum error in the estimate of MDD being within ±1 kN/m3. The coefficient of determination (R2) ranged from 0.95 to 0.967 in case of sand-bentonite-ash mixes. However, for sand-bentonite mixes, the R2 values are low and varied from 0.48 to 0.56.

  1. Numerical simulation of alteration of sodium bentonite by diffusion of ionic groundwater components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, J.S.; Carnahan, C.L.

    1987-12-01

    Experiments measuring the movement of trace amounts of radionuclides through compacted bentonite have typically used unaltered bentonite. Models based on experiments such as these may not lead to accurate predictions of the migration through altered or partially altered bentonite of radionuclides that undergo ion exchange. To address this problem, we have modified an existing transport code to include ion exchange and aqueous complexation reactions. The code is thus able to simulate the diffusion of major ionic groundwater components through bentonite and reactions between the bentonite and groundwater. Numerical simulations have been made to investigate the conversion of sodium bentonite to calcium bentonite for a reference groundwater characteristic of deep granitic formations. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Pore water chemistry of Rokle Bentonite (Czech Republic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervinka, R.; Vejsada, J.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. With inflowing the groundwater to Deep Geological Repository (DGR), the interaction of this water with engineering barrier materials will alter both, barrier materials and also the groundwater. One of the most important alterations represents the formation of bentonite pore water that will affect a number of important processes, e.g. corrosion of waste package materials, solubility of radionuclides, diffusion and sorption of radionuclides. The composition of bentonite pore water is influenced primarily by the composition of solid phase (bentonite), liquid phase (inflowing groundwater), the gaseous phase (partial pressure of CO 2 ), bentonite compaction and the rate of groundwater species diffusion through bentonite. Also following processes have to be taken into account: dissolution of admixtures present in the bentonite (particularly well soluble salts, e.g. KCl, NaCl, gypsum), ion exchange process and protonation and deprotonation of surface hydroxyl groups on clay minerals. Long-term stability of mineral phases and possible mineral transformation should not be neglected as well. In the Czech Republic, DGR concept takes local bentonite into account as material for both buffer and backfill. The candidate bentonite comes from the Rokle deposit (NW Bohemia) and represents complex mixture of (Ca,Mg)-Fe-rich montmorillonite, micas, kaolinite and other mineral admixtures (mainly Ca, Mg, Fe carbonates, feldspars and iron oxides). The mineralogical and chemical characteristics were published previously. This bentonite is different in composition and properties from worldwide studied Na-bentonite (e.g. MX-80, Volclay) or Na-Ca bentonite (e.g. Febex). This fact leads to the need of investigation of Rokle bentonite in greater detail to verify its suitability as a buffer and backfill in DGR. Presented task is focused on the study of pore water evolution. Our approach for this study consists in modeling the pore water using

  3. The application of bentonite in the atomic energy field and some research results of the sorption of uranium on Vietnam bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Than Van Lien; Do Qui Son; Le Thi Kim Dung

    2008-01-01

    The properties of bentonite can be summarised as follows: low gas permeability, low hydraulic conductivity, high radionuclide retardation capacity, high swelling potential, that is why bentonite has been widely used in the atomic energy fields in many countries all over the world. Vietnam has bentonite deposits that is exploited and used in some fields. In order to use bentonite - available and abandon resources in our country for atomic energy many research activities on the field of bentonite applications have been carried out in Institute for Technology of Radioactive and Rare Elements and Dalat Nuclear Research Institute. In this content, this article introduces the application of bentonite in radioactive waste management and treatment fields (bentonite used as barrier in the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, as barriers in landfills to prevent contamination of soil and groundwater by leachates containing radioactive, bentonite is also used as sorbent for nuclear reactor activation products (Co, Cr in the waste effluents). At the some time it is present some research results of the sorption of uranium on Vietnamese bentonite. (author)

  4. Controlled release of diuron from an alginate-bentonite formulation: water release kinetics and soil mobility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, M; Villafranca-Sánchez, M; González-Pradas, E; Flores-Céspedes, F

    1999-02-01

    The herbicide diuron was incorporated in alginate-based granules to obtain controlled release (CR) properties. The standard formulation (alginate-herbicide-water) was modified by the addition of different sorbents. The effect on diuron release rate caused by incorporation of natural and acid-treated bentonites in alginate formulation was studied by immersion of the granules in water under static conditions. The release of diuron was diffusion-controlled. The time taken for 50% release of active ingredient to be released into water, T(50), was calculated for the comparison of formulations. The addition of bentonite to the alginate-based formulation produced the higher T(50) values, indicating slower release of the diuron. The mobility of technical and formulated diuron was compared by using soil columns. The use of alginate-based CR formulations containing bentonite produced a less vertical distribution of the active ingredient as compared to the technical product and commercial formulation. Sorption capacities of the various soil constituents for diuron were also determined using batch experiments.

  5. Sintered bentonite ceramics for the immobilization of cesium- and strontium-bearing radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Luis Humberto

    were also tested. The final solid product was a hard dense ceramic with a density that varied from 2.12 g/cm3 for a 19% waste loading with a 1200°C sintering temperature to 3.03 g/cm 3 with a 29% waste loading and sintered at 1100°C. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (DSC-TGA) of the loaded bentonite displayed mass loss steps which were consistent with water losses in pure bentonite. Water losses were complete after dehydroxylation at ˜650°C. No mass losses were evident beyond the dehydroxylation. The ceramic melts at temperatures greater than 1300°C. Light flash analysis found heat capacities of the ceramic to be comparable to those of strontium and barium feldspars as well as pollucite. Thermal conductivity improved with higher sintering temperatures, attributed to lower porosity. Porosity was minimized in 1200°C sinterings. Ceramics with waste loadings less than 25 wt% displayed slump, the lowest waste loading, 15 wt% bloated at a 1200°C sintering. Waste loading above 25 wt% produced smooth uniform ceramics when sintered >1100°C. Sintered bentonite may provide a simple alternative to vitrification and other engineered radioactive waste-forms.

  6. A validation study for the gas migration modelling of the compacted bentonite using existing experiment data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, Y.; Mori, K.; Tada, K.; Shimura, T.; Sato, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Hayashi, H.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. After the field-scaled Gas Migration Test (GMT) was carried out at Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland from 1997 through 2005, a study on advanced gas migration modelling has been conducted as a part of R and D programs of the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management funding and Research Center) to evaluate long-term behaviour of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) for the TRU waste disposal system in Japan. One of main objectives of this modelling study is to provide the qualified models and parameters in order to predict long-term gas migration behaviour in compacted bentonite. In addition, from a perspective of coupled THMC (Thermal, Hydrological, Mechanical and Chemical) processes, the specific processes which may have considerable impact to the gas migration behaviour are discussed by means of scoping calculations. Literature survey was conducted to collect experimental data related to gas migration in compacted bentonite in order to discuss an applicability of the existing gas migration models in the bentonite. The well-known flow rate controlled-gas injection experiment by Horseman, et al. and the pressure-controlled-gas injection test using several data with wide range of clay density and water content by Graham, et al, were selected. These literatures show the following characteristic behaviour of gas migration in high compacted and water-saturated bentonite. The observed gas flow rate from the outlet in the experiment by Horseman et al. was numerically reproduced by using the different conceptual models and computer codes, and then an applicability of the models and the identified key parameters such as relative permeability and capillary pressure were discussed. Helium gas was repeatedly injected into fully water-saturated and isotropically consolidated MX-80 bentonite (dry density: 1.6 Mg/m 3 ) in the experiment. One of the most important conclusions from this experiment is that it's impossible for

  7. Mineralogy of the A2 test parcel bentonite lot project at Aespoe HRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Siv; Karnland, Ola

    2010-01-01

    -tetramine following the procedure of Meier and Kahr (1999), modified according to Ammann et al. (2005) to ensure complete exchange. The exchangeable cations of the bulk bentonite were also extracted into alcoholic ammonium chloride solution. An alcoholic solution was used to minimize dissolution of gypsum and calcite. The mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis of two different types of preparations, one type consisting of unsorted and randomly oriented powders of the bulk materials, the other type consisting of aggregates with maximized preferred orientation of the clay minerals. The chemical and mineralogical investigation of the bentonite of the warm blocks 09, 11 and the cold block 33 from the LOT A2 parcel indicates that: - Cu has been incorporated in the bentonite matrix proximal (0-2 cm) to the Cu-tube in all blocks. The heated blocks have higher concentrations with a maximum of ∼ 0.5% Cu in the mm-thick contact zone. A comparison of the results of the 5-year A2 test with those of the short term LOT A0 test suggests that the rate of copper mobilization/incorporation is not linearly related to the duration of the test conditions but seems to have proceeded at a higher rate during an early stage of the test. The Cu concentration of the clay fractions was 20-30% of that of the corresponding bulk samples, which suggests that the major fraction of Cu is not incorporated in the structure of the montmorillonite. - Sulfates have been redistributed along the thermal gradient in the heated blocks. Anhydrite has accumulated approximately 3-5 cm from the heater, whereas the peripheral parts of the blocks are depleted in sulfates. - The carbonate content decreased with increasing temperature in the heated blocks. - Dissolution/precipitation reactions involving sulfates and carbonates of calcium have influenced the pore water composition and, consequently, the pool of exchangeable cations. Accordingly, some exchangeable sodium has been replaced by calcium in

  8. An assessment of the impact of the long term evolution of engineered structures on the safety-relevant functions of the bentonite buffer in a HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, D.

    2014-07-01

    Bentonite is important as a near-field buffer and backfill for a spent fuel/high level waste (SF/HLW) repository in Opalinus Clay, because of swelling and low solute transport rates. These properties should be preserved in the long-term (up to a million years). A number of processes could perturb them, such as thermal gradients from the decay heat of waste packages and chemical gradients due to thermodynamically unstable materials (steel, concrete). The potential interactions of bentonite with engineered components have been assessed. They are characterized by a complex interplay between fluid transport, clay ion exchange and dissolution, secondary mineral growth, and consequent changes in physical properties (porosity, permeability, swelling pressure). The near-field evolution will be curtailed well within the timeframe of a million years by mass transport constraints (porosity decreasing to zero) or mass balance limitations (reactants completely consumed). For bentonite alteration at 100 ka limited by mass transport constraints, there will be a thin (5 cm thick; 1 vol.-% total bentonite) alteration layer around the canister, derived partly through thermal redistribution of minerals and aqueous solutes, and partly due to interaction of the steel canister with bentonite. This results in a thin zone with zero porosity and zero swelling pressure (montmorillonite totally altered) around the canister, but with an unaltered hydraulic conductivity (potential minor fracturing cancels out the effects of decreased porosity). The mineralogical composition of the thin zone consists of a layer of calcite, gypsum/anhydrite and magnetite on the canister, with montmorillonite in the altered bentonite replaced by Fe-silicates such as cronstedtite, berthierine and chlorite. Beyond this inner alteration zone is an annulus of 68 cm (92 vol.-%) of unaltered bentonite. The potential interaction of metallic engineered structures other than the canister with bentonite is relatively minor

  9. An assessment of the impact of the long term evolution of engineered structures on the safety-relevant functions of the bentonite buffer in a HLW repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, D.

    2014-07-15

    Bentonite is important as a near-field buffer and backfill for a spent fuel/high level waste (SF/HLW) repository in Opalinus Clay, because of swelling and low solute transport rates. These properties should be preserved in the long-term (up to a million years). A number of processes could perturb them, such as thermal gradients from the decay heat of waste packages and chemical gradients due to thermodynamically unstable materials (steel, concrete). The potential interactions of bentonite with engineered components have been assessed. They are characterized by a complex interplay between fluid transport, clay ion exchange and dissolution, secondary mineral growth, and consequent changes in physical properties (porosity, permeability, swelling pressure). The near-field evolution will be curtailed well within the timeframe of a million years by mass transport constraints (porosity decreasing to zero) or mass balance limitations (reactants completely consumed). For bentonite alteration at 100 ka limited by mass transport constraints, there will be a thin (5 cm thick; 1 vol.-% total bentonite) alteration layer around the canister, derived partly through thermal redistribution of minerals and aqueous solutes, and partly due to interaction of the steel canister with bentonite. This results in a thin zone with zero porosity and zero swelling pressure (montmorillonite totally altered) around the canister, but with an unaltered hydraulic conductivity (potential minor fracturing cancels out the effects of decreased porosity). The mineralogical composition of the thin zone consists of a layer of calcite, gypsum/anhydrite and magnetite on the canister, with montmorillonite in the altered bentonite replaced by Fe-silicates such as cronstedtite, berthierine and chlorite. Beyond this inner alteration zone is an annulus of 68 cm (92 vol.-%) of unaltered bentonite. The potential interaction of metallic engineered structures other than the canister with bentonite is relatively minor

  10. Modelling of long term geochemical evolution and study of mechanical perturbation of bentonite buffer of a KBS-3 repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsal, Francois; Pellegrini, Delphine; Deleruyelle, Frederic; Serres, Christophe (French Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (FR)); Windt, Laurent de (Ecole des Mines de Paris, Paris (FR))

    2008-03-15

    PART I: The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) has recently completed a safety assessment project named SR-Can, related to the KBS-3 disposal concept. In this concept, the waste packages are surrounded by a buffer made of either MX-80 or Deponit CA-N bentonite. Interactions between the buffer and groundwater may modify the buffer composition and thus its containment properties. The Swedish Radiation Protection Authorities (SSI) requested the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) to perform the present study in support of SSI review of the SR-Can report. The purpose is to assess the geochemical evolution of both potential buffer materials due to the intrusion of different types of groundwater, with a similar modelling layout to that reported in SR-Can and detailed in Arcos et al. Three main categories of water inflows via a fracture intersecting a deposition hole are considered: the Forsmark reference groundwater, a high-salinity groundwater to account for up-rise of deep-seated brines and a diluted water representing ice-melting derived-groundwater. In addition to this, the redox buffering capacity of Deponit CA-N bentonite and the thermal effect on MX-80 bentonite geochemistry have been assessed. This modelling work has been performed using the reactive transport modelling code HYTEC. The main outcome of the present study is that the intrusion of the considered groundwaters should not affect drastically the geochemistry of neither the Deponit CA-N nor the MX-80 bentonite on the longterm (100,000 y). Bentonite pH may reach high values (up to 10.5) in some cases but does not reach SKB criterion value related to bentonite chemical stability. Dissolution-precipitation of accessory minerals is not significant enough to induce important porosity changes (rise by maximum 2 %). Globally, the montmorillonite exchanger undergoes Na by Ca partial replacement, which may decrease the swelling pressure of the bentonite. The

  11. Glucose Oxidase Immobilization on TMAH-Modified Bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Chrisnasari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of bentonite modification by tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH on its capability to immobilize glucose oxidase (GOX was studied. Modification of bentonite was conducted by the adding of 0-5% (v/v TMAH. The observed results show that the different concentrations of TMAH affect the percentage of immobilized enzyme. The results of this study show that the best concentration of TMAH is 5% (v/v which can immobilize up to 84.71% of GOX. X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier Transforms Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR studies have been carried out to observe the structural changes in bentonite due to TMAH modification. The obtained immobilized GOX show the optimum catalytic activity on reaction temperature of 40-50 °C and pH of 7. The immobilized GOX kinetics at the optimum conditions determined the Km and Vmax value to be 4.96x10-2 mM and 4.99x10-3 mM.min-1 respectively. In addition, the immobilized GOX on TMAH-modified bentonite is stable enough so it could be re-used six times before its activity decreased by 39.44%.

  12. Magnesium incorporated bentonite clay for defluoridation of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakre, Dilip; Rayalu, Sadhana; Kawade, Raju; Meshram, Siddharth; Subrt, J; Labhsetwar, Nitin

    2010-08-15

    Low cost bentonite clay was chemically modified using magnesium chloride in order to enhance its fluoride removal capacity. The magnesium incorporated bentonite (MB) was characterized by using XRD and SEM techniques. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to study and optimize various operational parameters such as adsorbent dose, contact time, pH, effect of co-ions and initial fluoride concentration. It was observed that the MB works effectively over wide range of pH and showed a maximum fluoride removal capacity of 2.26 mgg(-1) at an initial fluoride concentration of 5 mg L(-1), which is much better than the unmodified bentonite. The experimental data fitted well into Langmuir adsorption isotherm and follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. Thermodynamic study suggests that fluoride adsorption on MB is reasonably spontaneous and an endothermic process. MB showed significantly high fluoride removal in synthetic water as compared to field water. Desorption study of MB suggest that almost all the loaded fluoride was desorbed ( approximately 97%) using 1M NaOH solution however maximum fluoride removal decreases from 95.47 to 73 (%) after regeneration. From the experimental results, it may be inferred that chemical modification enhances the fluoride removal efficiency of bentonite and it works as an effective adsorbent for defluoridation of water. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnesium incorporated bentonite clay for defluoridation of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakre, Dilip; Rayalu, Sadhana; Kawade, Raju; Meshram, Siddharth; Subrt, J.; Labhsetwar, Nitin

    2010-01-01

    Low cost bentonite clay was chemically modified using magnesium chloride in order to enhance its fluoride removal capacity. The magnesium incorporated bentonite (MB) was characterized by using XRD and SEM techniques. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to study and optimize various operational parameters such as adsorbent dose, contact time, pH, effect of co-ions and initial fluoride concentration. It was observed that the MB works effectively over wide range of pH and showed a maximum fluoride removal capacity of 2.26 mg g -1 at an initial fluoride concentration of 5 mg L -1 , which is much better than the unmodified bentonite. The experimental data fitted well into Langmuir adsorption isotherm and follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. Thermodynamic study suggests that fluoride adsorption on MB is reasonably spontaneous and an endothermic process. MB showed significantly high fluoride removal in synthetic water as compared to field water. Desorption study of MB suggest that almost all the loaded fluoride was desorbed (∼97%) using 1 M NaOH solution however maximum fluoride removal decreases from 95.47 to 73 (%) after regeneration. From the experimental results, it may be inferred that chemical modification enhances the fluoride removal efficiency of bentonite and it works as an effective adsorbent for defluoridation of water.

  14. The biological costs of not reclaiming bentonite mine spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Daniel W. Uresk; Richard M. Hansen

    1982-01-01

    Bentonite clay has been mined in the northern Great Plains for more than 80 years. Until the late 1960's, mine spoil materials were left in steep piles and no effort was made to restore biological productivity to these disturbed sites. As a result, unreclaimed spoils are barren and eroded. The biological costs of not reclaiming these spoils are examined in this...

  15. Mineralogical behaviour of bentonites in open and closed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, H.J.; Kasbohm, J.

    2004-01-01

    Mineralogical and chemical changes of bentonites were investigated in a natural analogue study and in laboratory experiments. As a working hypothesis we assumed that in geological, i.e. open systems, bentonites may be penetrated over geological time scales by larger water volumes than high compacted bentonites used as technical barriers in repositories in salt formations. Under this assumption open geological systems are characterised by low solid/liquid ratios and closed repository systems by high solid/liquid ratios. Consequently in laboratory experiments the mineralogical changes were investigated under different solid/liquid ratios and compared with results of a natural analogue study. In the natural analogue study in deep boreholes in the East Slovakian Basin the expandability of montmorillonite and the degree of transformation in illite-smectite (IS) mixed layer structures was found to be dependent not only on depth and temperature but also on the salinity of the pore waters. In this open geological system with a comparatively low solid/liquid ratio the observed changes in the montmorillonite were significantly different than those observed in the laboratory study on compacted MX-80 bentonite. (authors)

  16. Behaviour of humic-bentonite aggregates in diluted suspensions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formation and disaggregation of micron-size aggregates in a diluted suspension made up of HSs and bentonite (B) were studied by tracing distribution of aggregate sizes and their counts in freshly prepared and aged suspensions, and at high (10 000) and low (1.0) [HS]/[B] ratios. Diluted HSB suspensions are unstable ...

  17. Magnesium incorporated bentonite clay for defluoridation of drinking water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thakre, D.; Rayalu, S.; Kawade, R.; Meshram, S.; Šubrt, Jan; Labhsetwar, N.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 180, 1-3 (2010), s. 122-130 ISSN 0304-3894 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : adsorption * bentonite * fluoride removal Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.723, year: 2010

  18. Synthesis of MCM-41 nanomaterial from Algerian bentonite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mesoporous materials of the MCM-41 type were synthesized from Algerian bentonite as an aluminosilicate source without the addition of pure silica and aluminum reagents. The samples were synthesized under hydrothermal condition using cetyltrimithylammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant. The influence of initial ...

  19. Vitrification and neomineralisation of bentonitic and kaolinitic clays ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... metamorphic and/or igneous rocks. Resultant fired mineral phases depicted mineral compositions of ceramic bodies, and the study suggested that these clays could be gainfully utilized in the making of ceramic wares, subject to selected beneficiation processes. Keywords: kaolin, bentonite, vitrification, neomineralization, ...

  20. Diffusion of anions and cations in compacted sodium bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.

    1994-02-01

    The thesis presents the results of studies on the diffusion mechanisms of anions and cations in compacted sodium bentonite, which is planned to be used as a buffer material in nuclear waste disposal in Finland. The diffusivities and sorption factors were determined by tracer experiments. The pore volume accessible to chloride, here defined as effective porosity, was determined as a function of bentonite density and electrolyte concentration in water, and the Stern-Gouy double-layer model was used to explain the observed anion exclusion. The sorption of Cs + and Sr 2+ was studied in loose and compacted bentonite samples as a function of the electrolyte concentration in solution. In order to obtain evidence of the diffusion of exchangeable cations, defined as surface diffusion, the diffusivities of Cs + and Sr 2+ in compacted bentonite were studied as a function of the sorption factor, which was varied by electrolyte concentration in solution. The measurements were performed both by a non-steady state method and by a through-diffusion method. (89 refs., 35 fig., 4 tab.)

  1. Effects of polyethyleneimine adsorption on rheology of bentonite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... The influence of the cationic polymer, polyethyleneimine polymer (PEI) on the flow behaviour of bentonite suspensions (2%, w/w), was studied. XRD, zeta potential and adsorption studies were done together with rheological measurements. The addition of PEI at concentration ranges of 10-5–4.5 g/l and ...

  2. characterization of geotechnical properties of lateritic soil-bentonite

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... cilities should ensure minimum fluid flow through or into the repository ... were evaluated using the rigid wall permeameter un- der falling ... cell pressure [22]. 3. Results .... them to retain a portion of water (double layer water) that may ... water in the pore space. ... The effect of bentonite content on volumetric.

  3. Performance of Mn2+-modified Bentonite Clay for the Removal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    Clay minerals are promising materials for defluoridation of ... edge of the bentonite sheet. ... surface area analyzer (Autosorb-iQ & Quadrasorb SI, USA). .... used to describe chemisorption, as well as cation exchange reac- tions.14 t q. 1. K q. 1.

  4. Bentonite Modification with Manganese Oxides and Its Characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dolinská, S.; Schütz, T.; Znamenáčková, I.; Lovás, M.; Vaculíková, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2015), s. 213-218 ISSN 1640-4920 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : bentonite * natrification * manganese oxide Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://www.potopk.com.pl/ Full _text/2015_full/IM%202-2015-a35.pdf

  5. The removal of chromium from wastewaters by activated bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellah, A.; Chegrouche, S.; Ait Ghezala, H.; Douar, L.

    1994-12-01

    The adsorption of chromium onto activated bentonite has been investigated. Adsorption isotherms were analysed to obtain the Langmuir and freundlich constants. The operating parameters (i.e pH, contact time, solid/liquid ratio, temperatureand initial chromium concentration) influenced the rate of adsorption have been studied

  6. DEPOSITS AND MINING POTENTIAL OF BENTONITE IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Klanfar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite is one of the materials that is planed to be used for buffering and backfilling in spent nuclear fuel repositories, within deep crystalline rock. There are several locations in Croatia that bentonite deposits and occurrences are found on. Some were exploited in past, and others were more or less explored. This paper presents overview of bentonite deposits, basic properties and potential resources, and mining practices in Croatia. Largest exploited deposits are found in area of Poljanska luka, Gornja Jelenska and Bednja. Surface and underground methods (drift and fill, sublevel caving were used during exploitation. In the area of Svilaja and Lika are found potentially valuable deposits that were never exploited. Montmorilonite content ranges form 20-50% to 57-89%. Most deposits contain bentonite beds with thickness 0,4-1,6 m, and have plunge 10°-30°. Few exceptions are nearly horizontal and thick more than 5 m and even 12 m. One is declined at 70° and up to 40m thick. Proven reserves are about 2,3 Mt with some level of uncertainty. Average production per mine during exploitation period can be assumed to be several thousands t/y.

  7. Structure and forces in bentonite MX-80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, Bo; Aakesson, Torbjoern; Joensson, Bengt; Meehdi, Segad; Janiak, John; Wallenberg, Reine (Theoretical Chemistry, Chemical Center, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    Wyoming bentonite (MX-80) and its ion exchanged forms, Na and Ca montmorillonite, have been studied experimentally and theoretically. A variety of experimental techniques have been used in order to gain insight into the structural conditions in dry clay as well as clay in equilibrium with a bulk solution of given ionic composition. The main objective has been the swelling behaviour and osmotic pressure of montmorillonite clay when the bulk solution contains a mix of monovalent sodium and divalent calcium ions. For a clay system in equilibrium with pure water, Monte Carlo simulations predict a large swelling when the clay counterions are monovalent, while in presence of divalent counterions a limited swelling is predicted with an aqueous layer between the clay lamellaes of about 1 nm. This latter result is in excellent agreement with small angle x-ray scattering data, but in disagreement with dialysis experiments, which gives a significantly larger swelling for Ca montmorillonite in pure water. Obviously, there is one lamellar swelling and a second 'extra-lamellar' swelling, which could be the result of a phase separation in the clay. Montmorillonite in contact with a salt reservoir with both Na+ and Ca2+ counterions will only show a modest swelling unless the sodium concentration in the bulk is several orders of magnitude larger than the calcium concentration. The limited swelling of clay in presence of divalent counterions is a consequence of ion-ion correlations, which reduce the entropic repulsion as well as give rise to an attractive component in the total osmotic pressure. Ion-ion correlations also favour divalent counterions in a situation where we have a competition with monovalent ones. A more fundamental result of ion-ion correlations is that the osmotic pressure as a function of clay sheet separation becomes nonmonotonic, which indicates the possibility of a phase separation into a concentrated and a dilute clay phase. This phenomenon could

  8. Gas migration mechanism of saturated dense bentonite and its modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yukihisa; Hironaga, Michihiko; Kudo, Koji

    2007-01-01

    In the current concept of repository for nuclear waste disposal, compacted bentonite will be used as an engineered barrier mainly for inhibiting migration of radioactive nuclides. Hydrogen gas can be generated inside the engineered barrier by anaerobic corrosion of metals used for containers, etc. If the gas generation rate exceeds the diffusion rate of gas molecules inside of the engineered barrier, gas will accumulate in the void space inside of the engineered barrier until its pressure becomes large enough for it to enter the bentonite as a discrete gaseous phase. It is expected to be not easy for gas to entering into the bentonite as a discrete gaseous phase because the pore of compacted bentonite is so minute. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the following subjects: a) Effect of the accumulated gas pressure on surrounding objects such as concrete lining, rock mass. b) Effect of gas breakthrough on the barrier function of bentonite. c) Revealing and modeling gas migration mechanism for overcoming the scale effects in laboratory specimen test. Therefore in this study, gas migration tests for compacted and saturated bentonite to investigate and to model the mechanism of gas migration phenomenon. Firstly, the following conclusions were obtained through by the results of the gas migration tests which are conducted in this study: 1) Bubbles appear in the semitransparent drainage tube at first when the total gas is equal to the initial total axial stress or somewhat smaller. By increasing the gas pressure more, breakthrough of gas migration, which is defined as a sudden increase of amount of emission gas, occurred. When the total gas pressure exceeds the initial total axial stress, the total axial stress is always equal to the total gas pressure because specimens shrink in the axial direction with causing the clearance between the end of the specimen and porous metal. 2) Effective gas conductivity after breakthrough of gas migration is times larger than that

  9. Response surface optimisation for activation of bentonite with microwave irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rožić Ljiljana S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the statistical design of the experimental method was applied on the acid activation process of bentonite with microwave irradiation. The influence of activation parameters (time, acid normality and microwave heating power on the selected process response of the activated bentonite samples was studied. The specific surface area was chosen for the process response, because the chemical, surface and structural properties of the activated clay determine and limit its potential applications. The relationship of various process parameters with the specific surface area of bentonite was examined. A mathematical model was developed using a second-order response surface model (RSM with a central composite design incorporating the above mentioned process parameters. The mathematical model developed helped in predicting the variation in specific surface area of activated bentonite with time (5-21 min, acid normality (2-7 N and microwave heating power (63-172 W. The calculated regression models were found to be statistically significant at the required range and presented little variability. Furthermore, high values of R2 (0.957 and R2 (adjusted (0.914 indicate a high dependence and correlation between the observed and the predicted values of the response. These high values also indicate that about 96% of the result of the total variation can be explained by this model. In addition, the model shows that increasing the time and acid normality improves the textural properties of bentonites, resulting in increased specific surface area. This model also can be useful for setting an optimum value of the activation parameters for achieving the maximum specific surface area. An optimum specific surface area of 142 m2g-1 was achieved with an acid normality of 5.2 N, activation time of 7.38 min and microwave power of 117 W. Acid activation of bentonite was found to occur faster with microwave irradiation than with conventional heating. Microwave

  10. Alteration of bentonite when contacted with supercritical CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinseok, K.; Jo, H. Y.; Yun, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    Deep saline formations overlaid by impermeable caprocks with a high sealing capacity are attractive CO2 storage reservoirs. Shales, which consist of mainly clay minerals, are potential caprocks for the CO2 storage reservoirs. The properties of clay minerals in shales may affect the sealing capacity of shales. In this study, changes in clay minerals' properties when contacted with supercritical (SC) CO2 at various conditions were investigated. Bentonite, whichis composed of primarily montmorillonite, was used as the clay material in this study. Batch reactor tests on wet bentonite samples in the presence of SC CO2 with or without aqueous phases were conducted at high pressure (12 MPa) and moderate temperature (50 oC) conditions for a week. Results show that the bentonite samples obtained from the tests with SC CO2 had less change in porosity than those obtained from the tests without SC CO2 (vacuum-drying) at a given reaction time, indicating that the bentonite samples dried in the presence of SC CO2 maintained their structure. These results suggest that CO2 molecules can diffuse into interlayer of montmorillonite, which is a primary mineral of bentonite, and form a single CO2 molecule layer or double CO2 molecule layers. The CO2 molecules can displace water molecules in the interlayer, resulting in maintaining the interlayer spacing when dehydration occurs. Noticeable changes in reacted bentonite samples obtained from the tests with an aqueous phase (NaCl, CaCl2, or sea water) are decreases in the fraction of plagioclase and pyrite and formation of carbonate minerals (i.e., calcite and dolomite) and halite. In addition, no significant exchanges of Na or Ca on the exchangeable complex of the montmorillonite in the presence of SC CO2 occurred, resulting in no significant changes in the swelling capacity of bentonite samples after reacting with SC CO2 in the presence of aqueous phases. These results might be attributed by the CO2 molecule layer, which prevents

  11. Cement/bentonite interaction. Results from 16 month laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnland, O. [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    The work concerns possible bentonite clay mineral alteration in constructions with bentonite in close contact with cement, and the effect of such changes on bentonite buffer properties. The investigation comprises a 16 months laboratory test series with hydrothermal cell tests, percolation tests and diffusion tests. MX-80 Wyoming bentonite was used in all tests. Two types of artificial cement pore water solutions were used in the percolation and diffusion tests. The swelling pressure and the hydraulic conductivity were measured continuously in the percolation tests. After termination, the clay was analyzed with respect to changes in element distribution, mineralogy and shear strength. The water solutions were analyzed with respect to pH, cations and major anions. The results concerning chemical and mineralogical changes are in summary: Ion exchange in the montmorillonite until equilibrium with cement pore-water ions was reached; Increase in cation exchange capacity; Dissolution of original cristobalite; Increase in quartz content; Minor increase in illite content; Minor formation of chlorite; Formation of CSH(I); Wash away of CSH-gel into surrounding water. A large decrease in swelling pressure and a moderate increase in hydraulic conductivity were recorded in the samples percolated by SULFACEM pore-water solution. The mineralogical alterations only concerned a minor part of the total bentonite mass and the changes in physical properties were therefore most likely due to the replacement of the original charge balancing cation by cement pore-water cations. Comparisons between the current test result and results from 4 month tests indicate that the rates of illite and chlorite formation were reduced during the tests. The presence of zeolites in the clay could not be ensured. However, the discovery of CSH material is important since CSH is expected to precede the formation of zeolites 5 refs, 48 figs, 11 tabs

  12. Thermodynamic understanding on swelling pressure of bentonite buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Haruo

    2007-01-01

    Smectite (montmorillonite) is a major clay mineral constituent of the bentonite buffer and backfilling materials to be used for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Swelling pressure of the bentonite buffer occurring in the permeation process of moisture was estimated based on thermodynamic theory and the thermodynamic data of interlayer water in smectite in this study. The relative partial molar Gibbs free energies (ΔG H2O ) of water on the smectite surface were measured as a function of water content (0-83%) in a dry density range of 0.6-0.9 Mg/m 3 . Purified Na-smectite of which interlayer cations were exchanged with Na + ions and soluble salts were completely removed, was used in this study. Obtained ΔG H2O decreased with an increase of water content in the range of water content lower than about 40%, and similar trends were obtained to data of Kunipia-F bentonite (Na-bentonite) of which smectite content was approximately 100 wt.%. From the specific surface area of smectite (ca. 800 m 2 /g) and the correlation between ΔG H2O and water content, water affected from the surface of smectite was estimated to be up to approximately 2 water layers. Swelling pressure versus smectite partial density (montmorillonite partial density) was estimated based on ΔG H2O from the chemical potential balance of water in equilibrium between the free water and moisturized smectite, and compared to data measured for various kinds of bentonites of which smectite contents were respectively different. The estimated swelling pressures were in good agreement with the measured data. (author)

  13. Study of cesium and strontium adsorption on slovak bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, M.

    2010-01-01

    Bentonite is a natural clay and one of the most promising candidates for use as a buffer material in the geological disposal systems for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. It is intended to isolate metal canisters with highly radioactive waste products from the surrounding rocks because of its ability to retard the movement of radionuclides by adsorption. Slovak Republic avails of many significant deposits of bentonite. Adsorption of Cs and Sr on five Slovak bentonite of deposits (Jelsovy potok, Kopernica, Lieskovec, Lastovce and Dolna Ves) and montmorillonite K10 (Sigma-Aldrich) has been studied with the using batch of radiometric techniques. Natural, irradiated and natrified samples, in three different kinds of grain size: 15, 45 and 250 μm have been used in the experiments. The adsorptions of Cs and Sr on bentonite under various experimental conditions, such as contact time, adsorbent and adsorbate concentrations, pH after adsorption and effect of pH change, chemical modification, competitive ions and organic agents on the adsorption have been studied. The K d have been determined for adsorbent-Cs/Sr solution system as a function of contact time and adsorbate and adsorbent concentration. The data have been interpreted in terms of Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption of Cs and Sr has increased with increasing metal concentrations. Adsorption of Cs and Sr has been suppressed by presence of organic agents; and of bivalent cations more than univalent cations. By adsorption on natrified samples colloidal particles and pH value increase have been formed. Adsorption experiments carried out show that the most suitable materials intended for use as barriers surrounding a canister of spent nuclear fuel are bentonite of the Jelsovy potok and Kopernica deposits. (author)

  14. Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste: Investigating the Thermo-Hygro-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) Coupled Processes at the Waste Canister- Bentonite Barrier Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. W.; Davie, D. C.; Charles, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geological disposal of nuclear waste is being increasingly considered to deal with the growing volume of waste resulting from the nuclear legacy of numerous nations. Within the UK there is 650,000 cubic meters of waste safely stored and managed in near-surface interim facilities but with no conclusive permanent disposal route. A Geological Disposal Facility with incorporated Engineered Barrier Systems are currently being considered as a permanent waste management solution (Fig.1). This research focuses on the EBS bentonite buffer/waste canister interface, and experimentally replicates key environmental phases that would occur after canister emplacement. This progresses understanding of the temporal evolution of the EBS and the associated impact on its engineering, mineralogical and physicochemical state and considers any consequences for the EBS safety functions of containment and isolation. Correlation of engineering properties to the physicochemical state is the focus of this research. Changes to geotechnical properties such as Atterberg limits, swelling pressure and swelling kinetics are measured after laboratory exposure to THMC variables from interface and batch experiments. Factors affecting the barrier, post closure, include corrosion product interaction, precipitation of silica, near-field chemical environment, groundwater salinity and temperature. Results show that increasing groundwater salinity has a direct impact on the buffer, reducing swelling capacity and plasticity index by up to 80%. Similarly, thermal loading reduces swelling capacity by 23% and plasticity index by 5%. Bentonite/steel interaction studies show corrosion precipitates diffusing into compacted bentonite up to 3mm from the interface over a 4 month exposure (increasing with temperature), with reduction in swelling capacity in the affected zone, probably due to the development of poorly crystalline iron oxides. These results indicate that groundwater conditions, temperature and corrosion

  15. Understanding the Alteration of Bentonite Backfill Using Coupled THMC Modeling for a Long Term Heater Test at the Grimsel Underground Research Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholzer, J. T.; Zheng, L.; Xu, H.; Rutqvist, J.

    2017-12-01

    Compacted bentonite is commonly used as backfill material in emplacement tunnels of nuclear waste repositories because of its low permeability, high swelling pressure, and retardation capacity of radionuclide. To assess whether this backfill material can maintain these favorable features when undergoing heating from the waste package and hydration from the host rock, we need a thorough understanding of the thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical evolution of bentonite under disposal conditions. Dedicated field tests integrated with THMC modeling provide an effective way to deepen such understanding. Here, we present coupled THMC models for an in situ heater test which was conducted at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland for 18 years. The comprehensive monitoring data obtained in the test provide a unique opportunity to evaluate bentonite integrity and test coupled THMC models. We developed a modeling strategy where conceptual model complexity is increased gradually by adding/testing processes such as Non-Darcian flow, enhanced vapor diffusion, thermal osmosis and different constitutive relationships for permeability/porosity changes due to swelling. The final THMC model explains well all the THM data and the concentration profiles of conservative chemical species. Over the course of modeling the in situ test, we learned that (1) including Non-Darcian flow into the model leads to a significant underestimation of hydration rate of bentonite, (2) chemical data provide an important additional piece of information for calibrating a THM model; (3) key processes needed to reproduce the data include vapor diffusion, as well as porosity and permeability changes due to swelling and thermal osmosis; (4) the concentration profiles of cations (calcium, potassium, magnesium and sodium) were largely shaped by transport processes despite their concentration levels being affected by mineral dissolution/precipitation and cation exchange. The concentration profiles of p

  16. The Research on Thermal Properties and Hydrophobility of the Native Starch/hydrolysis Starch Blends with Treated CaCO3 Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-I.; Huang, Chi-Yuan

    2008-08-01

    In this research, hydrolysis starch was added into the starch blends to study the thermal properties. The enthalpy of blends had a significant decrease to 109J/g as content of treated CaCO3 increased to 5wt%. The modified starch was degraded slightly to produce glucose in the hydrolysis treatment. The amount of glucose in native starch and hydrolysis starch was 0.09 μmol and 0.14 μmol by the DNS measurement. Moreover, CaCO3 treated with titanium coupling agent was also added to improve miscibility and hydrophobility in the starch blends. The contact angle of the blends increased from 60° to 95° when 15wt% treated CaCO3 was added. Treated CaCO3 was confirmed to improve the hydrophobility of starch blends effectively.

  17. THE RESEARCH ON THERMAL PROPERTIES AND HYDROPHOBILITY OF THE NATIVE STARCH/HYDROLYSIS STARCH BLENDS WITH TREATED CaCO3 POWDER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-I; Huang, C.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this research, hydrolysis starch was added into the starch blends to study the thermal properties. The enthalpy of blends had a significant decrease to 109J/g as content of treated CaCO 3 increased to 5wt%. The modified starch was degraded slightly to produce glucose in the hydrolysis treatment. The amount of glucose in native starch and hydrolysis starch was 0.09 μmol and 0.14 μmol by the DNS measurement. Moreover, CaCO 3 treated with titanium coupling agent was also added to improve miscibility and hydrophobility in the starch blends. The contact angle of the blends increased from 60 deg. to 95 deg. when 15wt% treated CaCO 3 was added. Treated CaCO 3 was confirmed to improve the hydrophobility of starch blends effectively

  18. Alteration behavior of bentonite barrier of radioactive waste disposal by alkaline solutions. Part 2. Effect of type of alkaline solution on permeability of compacted bentonite-sand mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shingo; Nakamura, Kunihiko; Tanaka, Yukihisa; Hironaga, Michihiko

    2011-01-01

    Permeability tests were carried out using compacted bentonite-sand mixture with initial dry density of 1.55 Mg/m 3 and alkaline solutions at 50degC for about two years to estimate the alteration behavior and the change in the permeability. Bentonite-sand mixtures which contain bentonites of 15wt% were made using Na-bentonite or Ca-exchanged bentonite. 0.3M-NaOH solution with pH 13.3 and 5mM-Ca(OH) 2 solution with pH 12.0 were used to the permeability tests of Na-bentonite-sand mixture and of Ca-exchanged bentonite-sand mixture, respectively. In the case of the permeability test conducted using NaOH solution, montmorillonite and other associated minerals were dissolved, and consequently, the dry density and effective montmorillonite density of Na-bentonite-sand mixture were decreased. Furthermore, the mineralogical feature of montmorillonite was changed (i.e. beidellitization and an increase in the layer charge). The permeability of Na-bentonite-sand mixture was increased 5.6 times by the end of permeability test as a result of above alteration. In the case of the permeability test conducted using Ca(OH) 2 solution, montmorillonite and other associated minerals were dissolved, and calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) was precipitated. Consequently, the dry density of Ca-exchanged bentonite-sand mixture was increased, while the effective montmorillonite density was decreased. The mineralogical feature of montmorillonite was changed (i.e. beidellitization and an increase in the layer charge). The permeability of Ca-exchange bentonite-sand mixture was decreased by more than two orders of magnitude due to fill the pore of Ca-exchange bentonite-sand mixture by the precipitation of C-S-H. From above results, the type of alkaline solution affects the mineralogical alteration behavior of the compacted bentonite-sand mixture, and consequently, affects the changing trend of permeability. In conclusion, it is important not only to consider the dissolution of montmorillonite, but

  19. Granular MX-80 bentonite as buffer material: a focus on swelling characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzi, M.; Laloui, L.; Salager, S.; Marschall, P.

    2010-01-01

    .8 g/cm 3 . The bottom of the sample is in contact with a porous stone connected to a graduated burette which allows control the pore water pressure while the material saturates. The air in the pores escapes from the upper part of the cell through the opportunely pierced piston. Tests have been carried out for about 4 months and confirm, in line with other literature data, the remarkable swelling capacity the MX-80 granular bentonite. For instance, a swelling pressure of about 7 MPa is exerted by a specimen characterized by an initial dry density of 1.67 g/cm 3 . In order to be able to understand correctly the swelling behaviour of the material, it is essential, in addition to the fundamental basic characterisation, to investigate its retention properties and their evolution with temperature. In general, the water retention behaviour of unsaturated soils is presented through the Soil Water Retention Curve (SWRC). The SWRC plays a significant role within the constitutive framework and has therefore to be precisely defined. In detail, the required parameters are the air entry value, the slope of retention curve and the extension of the hysteresis for different temperatures. Specific experimental tools have to be developed for this purpose. In particular, our sorption bench allows determining different points of the SWRC simultaneously and for accurately set thermal conditions. Finally, thanks to the possibility of weighing regularly the samples without disturbing the equilibrium of the system, the water content kinetics can be precisely drawn. The final goal is indeed to catch the geomechanical behaviour of the bentonite, mainly in terms of swelling capability, in a high pressure - high temperature - high suction coupled context. Thanks to the fact that within the reference model both suction and temperature influence the size of the elastic domain, the physics of coupled processes is captured. In detail, the model considers, in an elastoplastic framework, multiple

  20. Thermal and oxidation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamcova, J.; Kolaoikova, I. [Prague Univ., Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Science, Charles (Czech Republic); Adamcova, J. [Czech Geological Survey, Geologicka 6, Prague (Czech Republic); Kaufhold, S.; Dohrmann, R. [BGR, Federal Institute for Geoscience and Natural Resources, Hannover (Germany); Dohrmann, R. [LBEG, State Authority for Mining, Energy, and Geology, Hannover (Germany); Craen, M. de; Van Geet, M.; Honty, M.; Wang, L.; Weetjens, E. [CK-CEN - Belgian Nuclear Research Centre - Environment, Healt and Safety Institute, Mol (Belgium); Van Geet, M. [ONDRAF/NIRAS - Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, Brussel (Belgium); Pozzi, J.P.; Janots, D. [Ecole Normale Paris, CNRS Lab. de Geologie, 75 - Paris (France); Aubourg, C. [Universite Cergy Pontoise, CNRS Lab. de Tectonique, 95 (France); Cathelineau, M.; Rousset, D.; Ruck, R. [Nancy-1 Univ. Henri Poincare, CNRS G2R, 54 (France); Clauer, N. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., CNRS CGS, 67 (France); Liewig, N. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, CNRS, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Techer, I. [Nimes Univ., CNRS Cerege, 30 (France)

    2007-07-01

    This session gathers 4 articles dealing with: the alteration processes in bentonites: mineralogical and structural changes during long-term and short-term experiments (J. Adamcov, I. Kolarikova); the implications from the lot experiment regarding the selection of an optimum HLRW bentonite (S. Kaufhold, R. Dohrmann); the extent of oxidation in Boom clay as a result of excavation and ventilation of the HADES URF: Experimental and modelling assessments (M. De Craen, M. Van Geet, M. Honty, L. Wang, E. Weetjens); and the magnetic and mineralogical alterations under thermal stress at 95 deg. C of Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stones (Bure, France) and lower Dogger Mont Terri clay-stones, Switzerland (J.P. Pozzi, C. Aubourg, D. Janots, M. Cathelineau, N. Clauer, D. Rousset, R. Ruck, N. Liewig, I. Techer)

  1. Enhanced performance and interfacial investigation of mineral-based composite phase change materials for thermal energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanchang; Fu, Liangjie; Ouyang, Jing; Yang, Huaming

    2013-01-01

    A novel mineral-based composite phase change materials (PCMs) was prepared via vacuum impregnation method assisted with microwave-acid treatment of the graphite (G) and bentonite (B) mixture. Graphite and microwave-acid treated bentonite mixture (GBm) had more loading capacity and higher crystallinity of stearic acid (SA) in the SA/GBm composite. The SA/GBm composite showed an enhanced thermal storage capacity, latent heats for melting and freezing (84.64 and 84.14 J/g) was higher than those of SA/B sample (48.43 and 47.13 J/g, respectively). Addition of graphite was beneficial to the enhancement in thermal conductivity of the SA/GBm composite, which could reach 0.77 W/m K, 31% higher than SA/B and 196% than pure SA. Furthermore, atomic-level interfaces between SA and support surfaces were depicted, and the mechanism of enhanced thermal storage properties was in detail investigated.

  2. Application of HDTMA-intercalated bentonites in water waste treatment for U(VI) removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajnak, Adrian; Viglasova, Eva; Galambos, Michal; Krivosudsky, Lukas; Universitat Wien, Vienna

    2017-01-01

    Bentonite deposits in Slovakia are systematically investigated as potential adsorbents for wastewater and radioactive waste treatment applications. Herein, adsorption properties (isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics) of raw and organo-modified bentonites towards uranium species in aqueous solutions were investigated. Organo-modified bentonites was prepared by practical and simple chemical modification method with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (denoted as HDTMA-bentonites). The adsorption processes of U(VI) on HDTMA-bentonites were spontaneous and endothermic, and well simulated by pseudo-second-order model. The maximum adsorption capacity of U(VI) was calculated to be 31.45 mg/g at pH 8.5 and T = 298 K. Slovak bentonites Jelsovy potok and Kopernica, their natural and HDTMA-modified forms might be a promising sorbent for the treatment of U(VI) contaminants in aqueous solutions. (author)

  3. Progress of research on the influence of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on bentonite properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Weimin; Zheng Zhenji; Chen Bao; Chen Yonggui

    2011-01-01

    Based on the previous laboratory studies and numerical simulation on bentonite in alkaline environments, the effects of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite are emphasized in this paper, temperature, pH values and concentration are discussed as main affecting factors. When bentonite is exposed to alkaline cation or alkaline solution, microstructure of bentonite will be changed due to the dissolution of montmorillonite and the formation of secondary minerals, which results in the decrease of swelling pressure. The amount of the reduction of swelling pressure depends on the concentration of alkaline solution. Temperature, polyvalent cation, salinity and concentration are the main factors affecting hydraulic properties of bentonite under alkaline conditions. Therefore, future research should focus on the mechanism of coupling effects of weak alkaline solutions on the mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite under different temperatures and different pH values. (authors)

  4. Optimization of acid-activated bentonites on bleaching of cotton oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacin, O.; Sayan, E.; Kirali, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Bentonites are commonly used adsorbent on bleaching cotton oil to produce edible oil products. Bleaching capacities of neutralized cotton oil were investigated with acid-activated Arguvan and Kursunlu bentonites. Two models for acid activation of the bentonites were developed by using a full factorial experimental design and central composite design. The parameters used to develop these models were contact time, solid to liquid ratio, acid concentration and moisture of bentonite. By using a constrained optimization program, the maximum bleaching capacities of neutralized cotton oil were determined as 99.99% and 48.5% for Arguvan and Kursunlu, respectively. Optimum results showed that Turkish bentonites (especially Arguvan bentonite) have high bleaching ability and they can be used efficiently to bleach neutralized cotton oil by considering the favorable volume weight, capacity of oil adsorbed and filtration rate. (author)

  5. Microstructure of bentonite in relation to its physical properties within nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, E.

    1998-01-01

    High-level nuclear waste in Finland is planned to be placed in bedrock at a depth of several hundred metres. The spent fuel containers in boreholes drilled in the floors of deposition tunnels will be surrounded by bentonite blocks. The upper parts of the tunnels will be filled with mixture of bentonite and crushed rock. The behaviour of the bentonite around the containers during several years after deposition of nuclear waste should be predicted. In the present report, a short literature study of the microstructure of bentonite is presented. The report concentrates on bentonite MX-80. The use of stochastic imaging of microstructure was tested by using the Boolean simulation. Using stochastic imaging, the effect of changes of bentonite microstructure on its physical properties can be evaluated and predicted. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of permeability of compacted bentonite ground considering heterogeneity by geostatistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yukihisa; Nakamura, Kunihiko; Kudo, Kohji; Hironaga, Michihiko; Nakagami, Motonori; Niwase, Kazuhito; Komatsu, Shin-ichi

    2007-01-01

    The permeability of the bentonite ground as an engineered barrier is possibly designed to the value which is lower than that determined in terms of required performance because of heterogeneous distribution of permeability in the ground, which might be considerable when the ground is created by the compaction method. The effect of heterogeneity in the ground on the permeability of the bentonite ground should be evaluated by overall permeability of the ground, whereas in practice, the effect is evaluated by the distribution of permeability in the ground. Thus, in this study, overall permeability of the bentonite ground is evaluated from the permeability of the bentonite ground is evaluated from the permeability distribution determined using the geostatistical method with the dry density data as well as permeability data of the undisturbed sample recovered from the bentonite ground. Consequently, it was proved through this study that possibility of overestimation of permeability of the bentonite ground can be reduced if the overall permeability is used. (author)

  7. Migration behaviour of Pu released from Pu-doped glass in compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashida, T.; Kohara, Y.; Yui, M.

    1994-01-01

    In order to investigate the coupled behavior of Pu release from the waste glass and transport in bentonite, a migration experiment with compacted sodium-type bentonite saturated with distilled water was carried out at room temperature, in which Pu-doped borosilicate glass was sandwiched. Under these conditions, leaching of Pu from the glass, diffusion and sorption of Pu in the compacted bentonite occur simultaneously. (orig.)

  8. LABORATORY TESTING OF BENTONITE CLAYS FOR LANDFILL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kovačević Zelić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Top and bottom liners are one of the key construction elements in every landfill. They are usually made as compacted clay liners (CCLs composed of several layers of compacted clay with strictly defined properties or by the use of alternative materials such as: GCL – geosynthetic clay liner, BES – bentonite enhanced soils or bentonite/polymer mixtures. Following the state of the art experiences in the world, GCLs are used in Croatian landfills for several years, as well. Depending upon the location and the obeying function, GCLs have to fulfill certain conditions. A legislated compatibility criterion has to be proven by various laboratory tests. In the paper are presented the results of direct shear and chemical compatibility tests of GCLs as well as the results of permeability measurement of kaolin clay (the paper is published in Croatian .

  9. Retention of Cs on zeolite, bentonite and their mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atun, G.

    2002-01-01

    The sorption behavior of cesium on zeolite and bentonite minerals and their mixtures was studied by means of a batch method and a tracer technique. All experiments were carried out in the presence of CsCl spiked with 137 Cs and NaCl as a supporting electrolyte in varying concentrations. The distribution coefficients (K D ) did not show significant differences at low Cs + loadings while they decreased in the high loading region. Freundlich and D-R isotherms were applied to the adsorption data of zeolite and bentonite. Adsorption capacities and mean energies calculated from D-R isotherm parameters decreased by increasing ionic strength on both minerals. The identification of the specific uptake sites was attempted on the basis of the Freundlich isotherm. Experimentally observed distribution coefficients of Cs on two mineral mixtures were smaller than theoretically calculated values, except at the highest NaCl concentration. (author)

  10. Sedimentation Characteristics of Kaolin and Bentonite in Concentrated Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulah Obut

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The sedimentation characteristics of two clays, namely kaolinite and bentonite, were determinated at high clay (5 % wt/vol and electrolyte (1 N concentrations using various inorganic-organic compounds. It was observed that the settling behaviour of kaolinite (1:1 clay and montmorillonite (2:1 clay is quite different due to the structural differences between these minerals. Although, similar initial settling rates and final sediment volumes were obtained after 24 hours of settling time for kaolin suspensions, the corresponding rates and volumes for bentonite suspensions varied greatly with the used chemical compound. According to the experimental results, a further intensive theoretical and experimental investigation is needed to reveal the mechanism underlying the sedimentation characteristics of clay minerals at high clay and electrolyte concentrations.

  11. Removal of uranium from water media by bentonite and zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viglasova, E.; Krajnak, A.; Galambos, M.; Rosskopfova, O.

    2014-01-01

    The removal and recovery of uranium from contaminated surface, environment and ground water, as result of nuclear industries, has attracted more and more attentions. Several methods are available for removing of uranium, but adsorption among the others, is the most attractive. In case of management of radioactive waste, the adsorption of radionuclides plays significant role. Among the natural sorbents applied to the adsorption of uranium zeolites and bentonites offer a number of advantages. The main aims of this work are investigations of adsorption properties of Greek zeolite Metaxades and Greek bentonite Kimolos during adsorption of uranium from water solutions, comparison of their adsorption characteristics, fitting with isotherms (Freundlich, Langmuir and DR isotherm) and its behaviour during kinetics process influenced by temperature. (authors)

  12. Investigation of alteration behaviour of compacted bentonite contracted with carbon steel for 10 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Tadahiro; Ueno, Kenichi; Sasamoto, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate long term behavior of corrosion for carbon steel in compacted bentonite, and to evaluate long term stability of bentonite, corrosion experiments were conducted using synthetic sea water and synthetic groundwater at 50 and 80degC for 10 years under anaerobic atmosphere. In the present study, the samples of compacted bentonite after experiments were investigated to understand the alteration behavior of bentonite by iron-bentonite interactions. Results were summarized below. Iron generated by corrosion of carbon steel was migrated into compacted bentonite further in the synthetic seawater case than in the synthetic groundwater case. Result of TEM observation for the sample of synthetic sea water case at 80degC showed that the original layer structure for clay minerals was maintained and the layer distance was about 12[A] which was similar to the layer distance of normal 2:1 smectite. Thus, it was suggested that there was no change in smectite before and after experiments. Iron generated by corrosion of carbon steel was migrated into compacted bentonite in anaerobic condition case but scarcely migrated in aerobic condition case. Results of EPMA analysis indicated that the maximum migration depth of iron in compacted bentonite was about 0.2 mm for sample in synthetic sea water at 80degC under anaerobic condition. Results of XRD analysis for the sample in which iron migration in compacted bentonite was observed showed that there was no corrosion product in compacted bentonite and the structure of clay mineral in bentonite was di-octahedral. Furthermore, the result of XRD analysis under relative humidity controlled condition suggested that the swelling property of sample after experiment was similar to that of initial Na-type smectite. Therefore, it was supposed that the initial Na-type smectite did not change during the experiment. Batch type experiments with different temperature, solutions and duration have been conducted to understand the alteration

  13. Characteristics study of bentonite as candidate of buffer materials for radioactive waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryantoro; Arimuladi, S.P.; Sastrowardoyo, P.B.

    1998-01-01

    Literature studies on bentonite characteristic of, as candidate for radioactive waste disposal system, have been conducted. Several information have been obtained from references, which would be contributed on performance assessment of engineered barrier. The functions bentonite includes the buffering of chemical and physical behavior, i.e. swelling property, self sealing, hydraulic conductivities and gas permeability. This paper also presented long-term stability of bentonite in natural condition related to the illitisazation, which could change its buffering capacities. These information, showed that bentonite was satisfied to be used for candidate of buffer materials in radioactive waste disposal system. (author)

  14. Study of the Properties of Bentonites for their use in Clay Geo synthetic Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiro Lopez, A.; Mateo Sanz, B.; Garcia Cidoncha, H.; Blanco Fernandez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Bentonites used for the production of clay geo synthetic barriers need to meet some properties so that they can be a waterproofing system. among the bentonites used in industry, sodium bentonite has the lowest permeability due to its high water absorption capacity in the inter-laminar space, causing it to swell and form a barrier to water flow. this paper provides the study of the properties of four bentonite to evaluate their quality the study of the properties of four bentonite to evaluate their quality. For this study, the main properties have been tested: water absorption, swelling index, fluid loss, cation exchange capacity and montmorillonite content. In order to optimize the procedure for the characterization of bentonites, correlations between different tests have been done, to identify the most suitable ones. Finally, a compatibility test has been carried out to study the performance of bentonites in water containing a high amount of sales, because in this case, an ion exchange between the interlayer sodium ions of bentonite and cations dissolved in the water can take, resulting in a decrease swell of the bentonite. (Author)

  15. Characterization of organo-modified bentonite sorbents: The effect of modification conditions on adsorption performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolo, María E.; Pettinari, Gisela R.; Musso, Telma B.; Sánchez-Izquierdo, María P.; Fernández, Laura G.

    2014-11-01

    The organic modification of a natural bentonite was evaluated using two methods: exchanging the interlayer cations by hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) and grafting with vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) and γ-methacryloyloxy propyl trimethoxysilane (TMSPMA) on montmorillonite surface. The physicochemical characterization of all materials was made by X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area techniques. HDTMA cations and organosilanes were intercalated into the interlayer space of montmorillonite, as deduced from the increase of the basal spacing. IR spectroscopy, TGA and BET area give evidence of successful organic modification. The studies show a decrease in the IR absorption band intensity at 3465 cm-1 with surfactant modification, and also a decrease of mass loss due to adsorbed water observed in two samples: the organoclay and functionalized bentonites, which are evidences of a lower interlayer hydrophilicity. The efficiency of aniline removal onto natural bentonite, organobentonite and functionalized bentonites from aqueous solutions was evaluated. Aniline sorption on natural bentonite was studied using batch experiments, XRD and IR spectroscopy. The hydrophobic surface of organobentonite and functionalized bentonites increased the retention capacity for nonionic organic substances such as aniline on bentonites. The sorption properties of modified bentonite, through different modification methods, enhanced the potential industrial applications of bentonites in water decontamination.

  16. Soil-bentonite design mix for slurry cutoff walls used as containment barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rad, N.S.; Bachus, R.C.; Jacobson, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, soil-bentonite slurry cutoff walls have been increasingly used as containment barriers around contaminated soils to impede or, in some cases, nearly eliminate the off-site migration of contaminated ground water or other potentially hazardous liquids. The paper presents the procedures used and the results obtained during an extensive laboratory testing program performed to select varying soil-bentonite slurry mix components for a soil-bentonite slurry cutoff wall constructed around an old landfill at a former oil refinery. The landfill is underlain to varying depths by a coarse granular soils that has been exposed to oil-products. Compatibility of three commercially available bentonite products with the free oil-products and the oil-contaminated ground water found at some locations in the landfill was initially investigated. Based on the test results, one of the bentonite products was selected for use in the soil-bentonite slurry testing program. A clayey soil from a borrow source, potable water from the site, and subsurface soils from the proposed soil-bentonite slurry wall alignment were used to form different soil-bentonite slurry mixes. Slump tests were performed to evaluate the workability of the mixes. Based on the test results, a single mix was selected for further study, including permeability/compatibility testing. The results of the compatibility testing program are presented and discussed in the paper. A specific design mix methodology for evaluating the chemical compatibility of soil-bentonite slurry mixes with permeants is proposed

  17. One-dimensional self-sealing ability of bentonites in artificial seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, Hideo; Yasuhara, Kazuya; Murakami, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    A high-level radioactive waste disposal facility might be built in a coastal area in Japan from the viewpoint of feasible transportation of waste. Therefore, it is important to investigate the effects of seawater on a bentonite-based buffer. This study investigated the influence of seawater on self-sealing ability of three common sodium-types of bentonite by the laboratory experiment and chemical analysis. From the results of laboratory experiment, suitable specifications were defined for a bentonite-based buffer that can withstand the effects of seawater. Furthermore, mechanism on filtration of seawater components in highly compacted bentonite was discussed by the results of chemical analysis. (author)

  18. Production of smectite organophylic clays from three commercial sodium bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela Diaz, Francisco R.; Souza Santos, Persio de

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory cationic exchange procedures using Brazilian's commercial quaternary ammonium salt and three samples of commercial sodium bentonites (two Brazilian's and one from Wyoming (US) are described. Swelling values in some liquid organic media are shown for the organophilic clays and for a Brazilian's commercial organophilic clay. Organophilic clays with larger swelling values than the commercial organophilic clay in kerosene, Varsol, toluene and soya bean oil were obtained. (author)

  19. Removal of zinc from aqueous solutions by natural bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellah, A.; Chegrouche, S.

    1994-01-01

    The equilibrium isotherms of zinc adsorption onto natural bentonite show that the data correlate well with freundlich and Langmuir's models and that the adsorption is physical in nature. The operating parameters (agitation speed, solid/liquid ratio temperature, particle size and initial zinc concentration) influenced the rate of adsorption. The maximum monomolecular capacity (Q 0 ) according to the Langmuir model is 52.91 mg. g-1 for an initial zinc concentration of 300 mg. litre-1, At 20 0 C

  20. Leaching of rare earth elements from bentonite clay

    OpenAIRE

    van der Watt, J.G; Waanders, F.B

    2012-01-01

    Due to increasing concerns of global rare earth element shortfalls in the near future, possible alternative sources of rare earth elements have recently become of economic interest. One such alternative is decanting acid mine water originating primarily from abandoned old mines in the Witwatersrand region of the Republic of South Africa. In this study, a novel way of rare earth element removal from the acid mine drainage was employed, making use of bentonite clay, which has very good adsorben...

  1. Water uptake and motion in highly densified bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahr, G.; Mueller-Vonmoos, F.; Kraehenbuehl, F.; Stoeckli, H.F.

    1986-07-01

    Water uptake by the bentonites MX-80 and Montigel was investigated according to the classical method of determination of the heat immersion and the adsorption-desorption isotherms. In addition, the layer expansion of the montmorillonite was measured as a function of the water content. The evaluation of the adsorption isotherms according to Dubinin-Radushkevich and the stratification distances determined by x-ray confirmed gradual water uptake. Up to 10% water content, the water is adsorbed as a monolayer, up to 20%, as a bimolecular layer around the interlayer cations. The partial specific entropy could be determined from the approximative calculation of the partial specific enthalpy from the heats of immersion and the free enthalpy from the adsorption isotherms. From this it is evident that the interlayer water shows a high degree of order. In this condition, the mobility of the water molecules is considerably lower than in free water. From the adsorption isotherm and the layer expansion observed, it can be assumed that water can appear in the pore space only from approximately 25% water content. The spaces outwith the interlayer space and the surfaces of the montmorillonite particles are considered as pore space. If free swelling is prevented and with dry densities greater than 1.8 Mg/m/sup 3/ for the highly compacted bentonites, water uptake causes a drastic reduction of the original pore space so that practically all the water is in the interlayer space. Calculation of the swelling pressure from the adsorption isotherms gives a good approximation of the measured swelling pressures. A montmorillonite surface of ca. 750 m/sup 2//g for both bentonites can be derived from a Dubinin-Radushkevich analysis of the adsorption isotherm. Water uptake into the compacted unsaturated bentonites can be described as diffusion with a diffusion coefficient of the order of magnitude of 3.10/sup -10/ m/sup 2//s. (author)

  2. Preparation and performance of Ecobras/bentonite biodegrading films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Ana Nery M.; Melo, Nadja M.C.; Canedo, Eduardo L.; Carvalho, Laura H.; Araujo, Arthur R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Compounds based on the biodegradable polymer Ecobras and bentonite clay in its pristine, sonicated, and organically modified with a quaternary ammonium salt forms were prepared as flat films. Clays and compounds were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties of the films were determined according to pertinent ASTM standards. Reasonable properties, higher than those of the matrix, were obtained with compounds prepared with purified clays and organoclays, particularly for low clay loading. (author)

  3. Diffusion and sorption properties of radionuclides in compacted bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Ji-Wei; Neretnieks, I. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    1997-07-01

    In this report, recent studies on sorption and diffusion of radionuclides in compacted bentonite have been reviewed. The sorption distribution coefficient and diffusion coefficient data obtained from experiments in the literature have been compiled. Based on these experimental data and the report SKB-TR--91-16 (Brandberg and Skagius, 1991), this report proposes a set of sorption distribution coefficient and diffusion coefficient values for modelling purpose for safety analysis of nuclear waste repositories. The variability and uncertainty of the diffusivity data span somewhat more than an order or magnitude up and down. Most of the nuclides have an effective diffusivity in around 10{sup -10} m{sup 2}/s. Ion exclusion effects are observed for C, Cl and for Tc in oxidizing waters. Effective diffusivities are nearly tow orders of magnitude lower for these elements and of the order of 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}/s. Surface diffusion effects are found for Cs, Ni, Pa, Pb, Ra, Sn, Sr and Zr. Effective diffusivities for these elements are of the order of 10{sup -8} m{sup 2}/s. The surface diffusion effect should decrease in saline waters which is seen for Cs and Sr where there are data available. It is also deemed that Ra will have this effect because of its similarity with Sr. The other nuclides should also show this decrease but no data is available. Sorption and diffusion mechanisms in compacted bentonite are discussed in the report. In highly compacted bentonite, sorption and hence its distribution coefficient is not well defined, and a pore diffusion coefficient or a surface diffusion coefficient is not well defined either. Therefore, an apparent diffusion coefficient and a total concentration gradient should be more relevant in describing the diffusion process in compacted bentonite. 99 refs.

  4. Advanced study of transport analysis in bentonite (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Katsuyuki

    2004-03-01

    Solute and radionuclide transport analysis in buffer material made of bentonite clay is essential in safety assessment of a geological disposal facility for high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It is keenly required to understand the true physical and chemical process of the transport phenomena and to improve reliability of the safety assessment, since any conventional methods based on experimental models involve difficulty to estimate the robustness for a very long-term behavior. In order to solve this difficulty we start with the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method for understanding the molecular-based fundamental properties such as an ionic state and diffusion characteristics of hydrated smectite clay minerals, and we extend the microscale properties to the macroscale behaviors by applying the multiscale homogenization method. In the study of this year we improved the MD atomic model for the hydrated clay minerals, and a new adsorption-diffusion analysis scheme by the homogenization analysis (HA). In the MD simulation first we improved the interatomic potential model for the smectitic clays. Then the behaviors of hydrated Na-beidellite and its substitution products by Cs and Ca were calculated. Not only the swelling behaviors of the beidellite minerals but also the diffusion characteristics of cations in the interlayer space are calculated. A microscopic image is important to specify micro/macro behavior of bentonite. Last year we observed microstructures of bentonite by using a confocal laser scanning microscope (LSM). Based on the knowledge of the local material properties obtained by MD and the microscopic observation we simulated the micro-/macro-behavior of diffusion experiments of the bentonite which included the microscale adsorption characteristics at the edges of clay minerals. (author)

  5. Advanced study of transport analysis in bentonite (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Katsuyuki

    2005-02-01

    Solute and radionuclide transport analysis in buffer material made of bentonite clay is essential in safety assessment of a geological disposal facility for high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It is keenly required to understand the true physical and chemical process of the transport phenomena and to improve reliability of the safety assessment, since any conventional methods based on experimental models involve difficulty to estimate the robustness for a very long-term behavior. In order to solve this difficulty we start with the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method for understanding the molecular-based fundamental properties such as an ionic state and diffusion characteristics of hydrated smectite clay minerals, and we extend the microscale properties to the macroscale behaviors by applying the multiscale homogenization analysis (HA) method. In the study of this year we improved the MD atomic model for the hydrated clay minerals, and a new adsorption-diffusion analysis scheme by the homogenization analysis (HA). In the MD simulation we precisely simulated the molecular behaviors of cations and H 2 O in the neighborhood of a clay mineral. In FY2002 the swelling property and diffusivity of interlayer cations, Cs and Ca, were calculated. In FY2003 the interatomic potential model was improved, and the diffusivity of several interlayer cations were calculated. In FY2004 the interatomic potential model was further improved, and the swelling and diffusive properties became more realistic. Then the coordination number of cations were calculated. A microscopic image is important to specify micro/macro behavior of bentonite. In FY2002 we observed microstructures of bentonite by using a confocal laser scanning microscope (LSM). In FY2003 based on the knowledge of the local material properties obtained by MD and the microscopic observation we simulated the micro-/macro-behavior of diffusion experiments of the bentonite which included the microscale adsorption

  6. Thermal properties of clay-based buffer materials for a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishna, H.S.

    1984-06-01

    The thermal properties of three types of bentonite clay, one illite-rich shale and one kaolin mixed with crushed granite were investigated. Thermal conductivity measurements were made over a range of mix proportions, moisture content, density and ambient temperature using the transient heat-probe method. The effects of thermal drying in the buffer zone prior to water uptake were investigated by means of laboratory-scale heater experiments. Illite-rich shale (Sealbond) and kaolin exhibited better compactability and thermal conductivity than the bentonite clays. The thermal conductivity of all types of clay buffers showed a high degree of moisture dependency and relatively no effect due to elevated temperature under high fluid pressure conditions. Bentonite buffers compacted to a dry density of 1200 to 1400 kg/m 3 showed extensive cracking due to differential shrinkage. Addition of crushed granite, and/or compaction to a higher density, reduced the thermal cracking of the buffer material

  7. Adsorption of strontium on different sodium-enriched bentonites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinović Sanja R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bentonites from three different deposits (Wyoming, TX, USA and Bogovina, Serbia with similar cation exchange capacities were sodium enriched and tested as adsorbents for Sr2+ in aqueous solutions. X-Ray diffraction analysis confirmed successful Na-exchange. The textural properties of the bentonite samples were determined using low-temperature the nitrogen physisorption method. Significant differences in the textural properties between the different sodium enriched bentonites were found. Adsorption was investigated with respect to adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time and the initial concentration of Sr2+. The adsorption capacity increased with pH. In the pH range from 4.0–8.5, the amount of adsorbed Sr2+ was almost constant but 2–3 times smaller than at pH ≈11. Further experiments were performed at the unadjusted pH since extreme alkaline conditions are environmentally hostile and inapplicable in real systems. The adsorption capacity of all the investigated adsorbents toward Sr2+ was similar under the investigated conditions, regardless of significant differences in the specific surface areas. It was shown and confirmed by the Dubinin–Radushkevich model that the cation exchange mechanism was the dominant mechanism of Sr2+ adsorption. Their developed microporous structures contributed to the Sr2+ adsorption process. The adsorption kinetics obeyed the pseudo-second-order model. The isotherm data were best fitted with the Langmuir isotherm model. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III 45001

  8. Diffusion of radionuclides in concrete/bentonite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albinsson, Y.; Boerjesson, S.; Andersson, K.; Allard, B.

    1993-02-01

    In a repository for nuclear waste, different construction materials will be used. Two important materials among these are concrete and bentonite clay. These will act as mechanical barriers, preventing convective water flow and also retard transport due to diffusion of dissolved radionuclides by a combination of mechanical constraints and chemical interactions with the solid. An important issue is the possible change of the initial sodium bentonite into the calcium form due to ion exchange with calcium from the cement. The initial leaching of the concrete has been studied using radioactive spiked concrete in contact with compacted bentonite. The diffusion of Cs, Am and Pu into 5 different types of concrete in contact with porewater have been measured. The measured diffusivity for Cs agrees reasonable well with data found in literature. For Am and Pu no movement could be measured (less than 0.2 mm) even though the contact times were extremely long (2.5 y and 5 y, respectively). This report gives also a summary of the previously published results about sorption and diffusion of radionuclides in cement performed in Prav/KBS/SKB projects 1980-1990. 25 refs

  9. Swelling pressure in compacted bentonite below 0°C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, Martin; Karnland, Ola; Nilsson, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Bentonite is a common component in many concepts for underground storage of high level radioactive waste. During its lifetime, an underground repository will be subject to various ambient temperatures. Backfilled tunnels, shafts and investigation bore holes closest to ground level will experience periods of temperature below 0 deg. C. From a safety assessment perspective, it is therefore essential to investigate and understand the behavior of bentonite below 0 deg. C. A large set of laboratory tests have been performed where fully water saturated samples of bentonites have been exposed to temperatures in the range -10 deg. C - +25 deg. C. The swelling pressure response has been recorded continuously. The samples have been varied with respect to bentonite type (e.g. calcium or sodium dominated), smectite content and density. The general observation is that the pressure of the bentonite lowers in a temperature range between 0 deg. C and a specific (negative) temperature T c , which is strongly correlated to the swelling pressure measured above 0 deg. C. Consequently, Tc decreases (i.e. becomes more negative) with increased density or smectite content. At T c , swelling pressure is completely lost. Furthermore, a very weak pressure dependence is observed at temperatures above 0 deg. C. This dependence is however strictly dependent on sample density. For any type of bentonite at high enough densities above 0 deg. C, the slope of the P-T curve is negative and becomes more negative with increasing density. For Na-dominated bentonites at lower densities, on the other hand, the slope is positive. An important observation is that no pressure increase was observed for any of the tested bentonite samples as the transition to temperatures below 0 deg. C was made. Since water expands as it freezes, this observation indicates that no ice is formed in compacted bentonite as the 0 deg. C level is passed. The observed swelling

  10. Compression characteristics and permeability of saturated Gaomiaozi ca-bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wenjing; Sun De'an; Fang Lei

    2012-01-01

    The compression characteristics and permeability of compacted Gaomiaozi Ca-bentonite saturated by the water uptake tests are studied by conducting a series of one-dimension compression tests. The permeability coefficient can be calculated by the Terzaghi's one-dimensional consolidation theory after the consolidation coefficient is obtained by the square root of time method. It is found that the compression curves of compacted specimens saturated by the water uptake tests tend to be consistent in the relatively high stress range. The compression indexes show a linear decrease with increasing dry density and the swelling index is a constant. The permeability coefficient decreases with increasing compression stress, and they show the linear relationship in double logarithmic coordinates. Meanwhile, the permeability coefficient shows a linear decrease with decreasing void ratio, which has no relationship with initial states, stress states and stress paths. The permeability coefficient k of GMZ Ca-bentonite at dry density Pd of 1.75 g/cm 3 can be calculated as 2.0 × 10 -11 cm/s by the linear relationship between Pd and log k. It is closed to the permeability coefficient of GMZ Ca-bentonite with the same dry density published in literature, which testifies that the method calculating the permeability coefficient is feasible from the consolidation coefficient obtained by the consolidation test. (authors)

  11. Modelling Ni diffusion in bentonite using different sorption models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfingsten, W.; Baeyens, B.; Bradbury, M.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. An important component of the multi barrier disposal concept for a radioactive waste repository is the bentonite backfill surrounding the canisters containing vitrified high-level waste and spent fuel located in the tunnels deep within the chosen host rock. The effectiveness of the compacted bentonite barrier is such that calculations have indicated that many radionuclides have decayed to insignificant levels before having diffused through the thickness of bentonite. These calculations are performed using the simple Kd sorption concept in which the values are taken from batch type experiments performed on dispersed systems performed for a single metal at a time, usually at trace concentrations. However, in such complex systems many radionuclides, inactive metal contaminants/ground water components may be simultaneously present in the aqueous phase at a range of concentrations varying with time during the temporal evolution of the repository system. An important aspect influencing the sorption of any radioactive metal under a set of given geochemical conditions is its competition with other metals present, and how this may vary as a function of concentration. Competitive sorption effects are not currently included in safety assessments and are thus an issue which needs to be addressed. Here we provide some first estimates of the potential influence of competitive sorption effects on the migration of radioactive metals through compacted bentonite as a function of their concentration and the concentration of competing metals. Ni(II) and Fe(II) were chosen as possible competing cations since their concentration levels are expected to have values greater than trace levels and effects might be maximal and canister corrosion represents a permanent Fe source at the bentonite interface which could influence bivalent radionuclide diffusion. The modelling of the Ni(II) diffusion/sorption has been carried out using three

  12. Ageing effects on swelling behaviour of compacted GMZ01 bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, W.M., E-mail: ye_tju@tongji.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Geotechnical and Underground Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); United Research Center for Urban Environment and Sustainable Development, the Ministry of Education, China, Shanghai 200092 (China); Lai, X.L.; Liu, Y. [Key Laboratory of Geotechnical and Underground Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Chen, Y.G. [Key Laboratory of Geotechnical and Underground Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); United Research Center for Urban Environment and Sustainable Development, the Ministry of Education, China, Shanghai 200092 (China); Cui, Y.J. [Key Laboratory of Geotechnical and Underground Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Ecole des Ponts Paris Tech, UR Navier/CERMES (France)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Ageing effects on compacted GMZ01 bentonite are investigated. • Swelling property decreases with ageing and influenced by initial conditions. • Ageing effects are mainly attributed to the bonding effects and the hydration of smectites. - Abstract: Ageing effects on the swelling properties of compacted GMZ01 bentonite are investigated in this paper. Samples were compacted to prescribed dry densities and water contents and kept for ageing under constant volume and K{sub 0} confined conditions for target days of 0, 1, 7, 15, 30 and 90. Then, swelling deformation and swelling pressure tests were performed on the aged samples. Results indicate that both the swelling deformation and swelling pressure decrease with ageing time, with a more significant decrease at the first few days of ageing. Ageing effects are more pronounced for samples with large dry density and high water content. At the same initial dry density and water content, samples aged under constant volume conditions show much smaller decrease of swelling pressure compared to that of samples aged under K{sub 0} confined conditions. The decrease of swelling potential of samples with ageing days is mainly attributed to the bonding effects and the internal redistribution of water within the bentonite, which was confirmed by the changes of microstructure of samples with ageing.

  13. Transient nuclide release through the bentonite barrier -SKB 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, A.; Widen, H.

    1991-05-01

    A study of near-field radionuclide migration is presented. The study has been performed in the context of the SKB91 study which is a comprehensive performance assessment of disposal of spent fuel. The objective of the present study has been to enable the assessment of which nuclides can be screened out because they decay to insignificant levels already in the near-field of the repository. A numerical model has been used which describes the transient transport of radionuclides through a small hole in a HLW canister imbedded in bentonite clay into a fracture in the rock outside the bentonite. Calculations for more than twenty nuclides, nuclides with both high and low solubility have been made. The effect of sorption in the bentonite backfill is included. The size of the penetration hole was assumed to be constant up to time when the calculations were terminated, 500000 year after the deposition. The mass transport rate is controlled by diffusion. The model is three dimensional. The report describes the geometry of the modelled system, the assumptions concerning the transport resistances at the boundary conditions, the handling of the source term and obtained release curves. (au)

  14. Volatility and leachability of heavy metals and radionuclides in thermally treated HEPA filter media generated from nuclear facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, In-Ho; Choi, Wang-Kyu; Lee, Suk-Chol; Min, Byung-Youn; Yang, Hee-Chul; Lee, Kune-Woo

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of the present study was to apply thermal treatments to reduce the volume of HEPA filter media and to investigate the volatility and leachability of heavy metals and radionuclides during thermal treatment. HEPA filter media were transformed to glassy bulk material by thermal treatment at 900°C for 2h. The most abundant heavy metal in the HEPA filter media was Zn, followed by Sr, Pb and Cr, and the main radionuclide was Cs-137. The volatility tests showed that the heavy metals and radionuclides in radioactive HEPA filter media were not volatilized during the thermal treatment. PCT tests indicated that the leachability of heavy metals and radionuclides was relatively low compared to those of other glasses. XRD results showed that Zn and Cs reacted with HEPA filter media and were transformed into crystalline willemite (ZnO·SiO(2)) and pollucite (Cs(2)OAl(2)O(3)4SiO(2)), which are not volatile or leachable. The proposed technique for the volume reduction and transformation of radioactive HEPA filter media into glassy bulk material is a simple and energy efficient procedure without additives that can be performed at relatively low temperature compared with conventional vitrification process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Corrosion of high-level radioactive waste iron-canisters in contact with bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufhold, Stephan, E-mail: s.kaufhold@bgr.de [BGR, Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover (Germany); Hassel, Achim Walter [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Straße 1, D-40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Sanders, Daniel [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Straße 1, D-40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Dohrmann, Reiner [BGR, Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover (Germany); LBEG, Landesamt für Bergbau, Energie und Geologie, Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover (Germany)

    2015-03-21

    Graphical abstract: Corrosion at the bentonite iron interface proceeds unaerobically with formation of an 1:1 Fe silicate mineral. A series of exposure tests with different types of bentonites showed that Na–bentonites are slightly less corrosive than Ca–bentonites and highly charges smectites are less corrosive compared to low charged ones. The formation of a patina was observed in some cases and has to be investigated further. - Highlights: • At the iron bentonite interface a 1:1 Fe layer silicate forms upon corrosion. • A series of iron–bentonite corrosion products showed slightly less corrosion for Na-rich and high-charged bentonites. • In some tests the formation of a patina was observed consisting of Fe–silicate, which has to be investigated further. - Abstract: Several countries favor the encapsulation of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) in iron or steel canisters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite. In the present study the corrosion of iron in contact with different bentonites was investigated. The corrosion product was a 1:1 Fe layer silicate already described in literature (sometimes referred to as berthierine). Seven exposition test series (60 °C, 5 months) showed slightly less corrosion for the Na–bentonites compared to the Ca–bentonites. Two independent exposition tests with iron pellets and 38 different bentonites clearly proved the role of the layer charge density of the swelling clay minerals (smectites). Bentonites with high charged smectites are less corrosive than bentonites dominated by low charged ones. The type of counterion is additionally important because it determines the density of the gel and hence the solid/liquid ratio at the contact to the canister. The present study proves that the integrity of the multibarrier-system is seriously affected by the choice of the bentonite buffer encasing the metal canisters in most of the concepts. In some tests the formation of a patina was observed consisting of Fe

  16. Sorption and diffusion of FE(II) in bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Tournassat, C.; Hadi, J.; Greneche, J.-M.

    2014-02-01

    The iron in the engineering barrier system of a nuclear waste repository interacts via the corrosion process with the swelling clay intended as the buffer material. This interaction may affect the sealing properties of the clay. In the case of iron-bentonite interaction, redox reactions, dissolution/precipitation, the diffusion and sorption are coupled together. In a combined study different processes are difficult to distinguish from each other, and more specific studies are needed for the separate processes. In particular, there is a need for well-controlled diffusion and sorption experiments where iron is kept as Fe(II). In this project, sorption and diffusion of Fe(II) in bentonite have been studied. The experiments were carried out under low-oxygen conditions in an anaerobic glove-box. The radioactive isotope ( 55 Fe) was used as a tracer in the experiments. The sorption experiments were carried out with two batches of purified MX-80 bentonite. One was purified at Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, French Geological Survey (BRGM) and the other one at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). Experiments were also carried out with synthetic smectite, which did not include iron, which was prepared at LMPC (ENSC, F 68093 Mulhouse, France). The sorption experiments were carried out in 0.3 M and 0.05 M NaCl solutions as a function of pH, and in 0.3 M NaCl solution buffered at pH 5 as a function of added Fe(II) concentration. The separation of bentonite and solution at the end of the sorption experiment was carried out in the early phase by centrifuging only. In the later phase, ultrafiltering was added in order to improve the separation. The diffusion experiments were carried out in compacted samples prepared from MX-80 purified at VTT and saturated with 0.3 M NaCl at pH 8 and 5. A non-steady-state diffusion experiment method, where the tracer was introduced as an impulse source between two bentonite plugs was used in the measurements

  17. Sorption and diffusion of FE(II) in bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muurinen, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Tournassat, C.; Hadi, J. [BRGM, Orleans (France); Greneche, J.-M. [LPCE, Le Mans (France)

    2014-02-15

    The iron in the engineering barrier system of a nuclear waste repository interacts via the corrosion process with the swelling clay intended as the buffer material. This interaction may affect the sealing properties of the clay. In the case of iron-bentonite interaction, redox reactions, dissolution/precipitation, the diffusion and sorption are coupled together. In a combined study different processes are difficult to distinguish from each other, and more specific studies are needed for the separate processes. In particular, there is a need for well-controlled diffusion and sorption experiments where iron is kept as Fe(II). In this project, sorption and diffusion of Fe(II) in bentonite have been studied. The experiments were carried out under low-oxygen conditions in an anaerobic glove-box. The radioactive isotope ({sup 55}Fe) was used as a tracer in the experiments. The sorption experiments were carried out with two batches of purified MX-80 bentonite. One was purified at Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, French Geological Survey (BRGM) and the other one at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). Experiments were also carried out with synthetic smectite, which did not include iron, which was prepared at LMPC (ENSC, F 68093 Mulhouse, France). The sorption experiments were carried out in 0.3 M and 0.05 M NaCl solutions as a function of pH, and in 0.3 M NaCl solution buffered at pH 5 as a function of added Fe(II) concentration. The separation of bentonite and solution at the end of the sorption experiment was carried out in the early phase by centrifuging only. In the later phase, ultrafiltering was added in order to improve the separation. The diffusion experiments were carried out in compacted samples prepared from MX-80 purified at VTT and saturated with 0.3 M NaCl at pH 8 and 5. A non-steady-state diffusion experiment method, where the tracer was introduced as an impulse source between two bentonite plugs was used in the measurements

  18. Performance Enhancement of Silicon Alloy-Based Anodes Using Thermally Treated Poly(amide imide) as a Polymer Binder for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hwi Soo; Kim, Sang-Hyung; Kannan, Aravindaraj G; Kim, Seon Kyung; Park, Cheolho; Kim, Dong-Won

    2016-04-05

    The development of silicon-based anodes with high capacity and good cycling stability for next-generation lithium-ion batteries is a very challenging task due to the large volume changes in the electrodes during repeated cycling, which results in capacity fading. In this work, we synthesized silicon alloy as an active anode material, which was composed of silicon nanoparticles embedded in Cu-Al-Fe matrix phases. Poly(amide imide)s, (PAI)s, with different thermal treatments were used as polymer binders in the silicon alloy-based electrodes. A systematic study demonstrated that the thermal treatment of the silicon alloy electrodes at high temperature made the electrodes mechanically strong and remarkably enhanced the cycling stability compared to electrodes without thermal treatment. The silicon alloy electrode thermally treated at 400 °C initially delivered a discharge capacity of 1084 mAh g(-1) with good capacity retention and high Coulombic efficiency. This superior cycling performance was attributed to the strong adhesion of the PAI binder resulting from enhanced secondary interactions, which maintained good electrical contacts between the active materials, electronic conductors, and current collector during cycling. These findings are supported by results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and a surface and interfacial cutting analysis system.

  19. Formula of Moulding Sand, Bentonite and Portland Cement toImprove The Quality of Al-Si Cast Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Andoko Andoko; Poppy Puspitasari; Avita Ayu Permanasari; Didin Zakaria Lubis

    2017-01-01

    A binder is any material used to strengthen the bonding of moulding sand grains. The primary function of the binder is to hold the moulding sand and other materialstogether to produce high-quality casts. In this study, there were four binder compositions being tested, i.e. 5% bentonite + 5% Portland cement, 4% bentonite + 6% Portland cement, 6% bentonite + 4% Portland cement, and 7% bentonite + 3% Portland cement. Each specimen was measured for its compressive strength, shear strength, tensil...

  20. Influence quaternary ammonium salt in the organophilization of an bentonite; Influencia de um sal quaternario de amonio na organofilizacao de uma argila bentonitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, S.V.; Alves, G.P.; Wanderley, A.S.D.; Araujo, E.M., E-mail: saraveruscadeoliveira@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Depto de Engenharia de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    Clays are natural materials, earthy, fine-grained particles with diameters generally less than 2μm, and formed by chemically hydrated silicates of aluminum, iron and magnesium. The clays have a range of applications, both in pottery and in other technology areas. This work aimed to study the influence of a quaternary ammonium salt to increase the basal distance of a bentonite clay powder obtained thereby promoting to a new structural profile characteristic with organoclay. The bentonite clay was treated with salt Praepragem WB. The following methods were used: X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The results indicated the intercalation of ammonium ions of the salt studied within the layers of silicate and expansion of basal spacing d{sub 001}, ie the clay in the study showed 2θ angle shifts to smaller angles, indicating that the clay was organophilization. (author)

  1. Characterization of the anaerobic digestion of thermal pre-treated slaughterhouse waste by applying new IR techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Abalde, Ángela; Gómez, X.; Blanco, D.; Cuetos, María José; Flotats Ripoll, Xavier; Fernández, B.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, thermal analysis and infrared spectrometry were used to explain the behaviour of two different pasteurized animal by-products with different protein/fat/carbohydrate composition. The presence of hardly degradable nitrogen containing components, identified by infrared spectrometry, and produced during Maillard reactions at pasteurization temperature, explained the different behaviour (methane rate and yield) under anaerobic conditions of pig and poultry wastes

  2. Number of fragments, margin status and thermal artifacts of conized specimens from LLETZ surgery to treat cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Dulcimary Dias; Zanine, Rita Maira; Sebastião, Ana Martins; Taha, Nabiha Saadi; Speck, Neila Góis; Ribalta, Julisa Chamorro Lascasas

    2012-01-01

    Large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) is a nontraumatic cut and coagulation method with several advantages, but it induces thermal artifacts in the cut region. The aim here was to assess the correlations of age, number of fragments, lesion grade and degree of thermal artifacts with margin quality in conized specimens from LLETZ for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Cross-sectional study at Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). The records and histopathology findings of 118 women who underwent LLETZ between 1999 and 2007 were reviewed. Age, number of fragments, lesion grade, degree of thermal artifacts and margin quality were assessed. The patients' mean age was 27.14 years; 63.6% had been diagnosed with CIN II and 36.4% with CIN III. The lesion was removed as a single fragment in 79.6% of the cases. The margins were free from intraepithelial neoplasia in 85.6% and compromised in the endocervical margin in 6.8%. Fragment damage due to artifacts occurred in 2.5%. Severe artifacts occurred in 22.8%. Women aged 30 years or over presented more cases of CIN III (P < 0.0004). Neoplastic compromising of surgical margins and severe artifacts occurred more often in cases in which two or more fragments were removed, and in patients aged 30 years or over. CIN III in women aged 30 or over, when removed in two or more fragments during LLETZ, presented a greater number of compromised margins and greater severity of thermal artifacts.

  3. BENTONITE-QUARTZ SAND AS THE BACKFILL MATERIALS ON THE RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raharjo Raharjo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the contribution of quartz sand in the bentonite mixture as the backfill materials on the shallow land burial of radioactive waste has been done. The experiment objective is to determine the effect of quartz sand in a bentonite mixture with bentonite particle sizes of -20+40, -40+60, and -60+80 mesh on the retardation factor and the uranium dispersion in the simulation of uranium migration in the backfill materials. The experiment was carried out by the fixed bed method in the column filled by the bentonite mixture with a bentonite-to-quartz sand weight percent ratio of 0/100, 25/75, 50/50, 75/25, and 100/0 on the water saturated condition flown by uranyl nitrate solution at concentration (Co of 500 ppm. The concentration of uranium in the effluents in interval 15 minutes represented as Ct was analyzed by spectrophotometer, then using Co and Ct, retardation factor (R and dispersivity ( were determined. The experiment data showed that the bentonite of -60+80 mesh and the quartz sand of -20+40 mesh on bentonite-to-quartz sand with weight percent ratio of 50/50 gave the highest retardation factor and dispersivity of 18.37 and 0.0363 cm, respectively.   Keywords: bentonite, quartz sand, backfill materials, radioactive waste

  4. Corrosion of high-level radioactive waste iron-canisters in contact with bentonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufhold, Stephan; Hassel, Achim Walter; Sanders, Daniel; Dohrmann, Reiner

    2015-03-21

    Several countries favor the encapsulation of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) in iron or steel canisters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite. In the present study the corrosion of iron in contact with different bentonites was investigated. The corrosion product was a 1:1 Fe layer silicate already described in literature (sometimes referred to as berthierine). Seven exposition test series (60 °C, 5 months) showed slightly less corrosion for the Na-bentonites compared to the Ca-bentonites. Two independent exposition tests with iron pellets and 38 different bentonites clearly proved the role of the layer charge density of the swelling clay minerals (smectites). Bentonites with high charged smectites are less corrosive than bentonites dominated by low charged ones. The type of counterion is additionally important because it determines the density of the gel and hence the solid/liquid ratio at the contact to the canister. The present study proves that the integrity of the multibarrier-system is seriously affected by the choice of the bentonite buffer encasing the metal canisters in most of the concepts. In some tests the formation of a patina was observed consisting of Fe-silicate. Up to now it is not clear why and how the patina formed. It, however, may be relevant as a corrosion inhibitor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of Cr/Bentonite and HZSM-5 Zeolite as Catalysts for Ethanol Conversion to Biogasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ronal Widjaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research it has been done characterization on Cr/Bentonit and Zeolit HZSM-5 catalysts for ethanol catalytic process to biogasoline (equal to gasoline. Cr/Bentonit has high acidity and resistant to a lot of moisture, so in addition to being able to processing feed which a lot of moisture (>15% from ethanol-water mixture, also it is not easy deactivated. Cr/Bentonit which is then used as the catalyst material on the process of ethanol conversion to be biogasoline and the result was compared with catalyst HZSM-5 zeolite. Several characterization methods: X-ray diffraction, Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET, thermogravimetry analysis (TGA, and catalyst activity tests using catalytic Muffler instrument and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS for product analysis were performed on both catalysts. From acidity measurement, it is known that acidity level of Cr/Bentonit is the highest and also from XRD result, it is known there is shift for 2theta in Cr/Bentonit, which indicates that Cr-pillar in the Bentonite can have interaction. It is also supported by BET data that shows the addition of specific surface are in Cr/Bentonite compared with natural Bentonite before pillarization. Futhermore catalyst activity test produced the results, analyzed by GC-MS, identified as butanol and also possibly formed hexanol, decane, dodecane, undecane, which are all included in gasoline range (C4 until C12.

  6. Study on the saturating and swelling behavior of an engineering bentonite barrier using a test model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Makoto; Kobayashi, Ichizo; Toida, Masaru; Fujisaki, Katsutoshi

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual design of a disposal facility with additional buffer depth for radioactive waste is mainly constituted from the multi-barrier system that is constructed around the waste form so that it prevents radionuclide transfer to the biosphere. The engineered bentonite barrier is one of the elements of the multi-barrier system and is constructed with homogeneous bentonite-containing material compacted to a high density so that there are no voids. Due to the swelling characteristics of the bentonite material, the self-sealing function which is an important function of the bentonite barrier can work, but at the same time it mechanically affects the neighboring structures. Therefore, an experimental study was implemented in order to evaluate the mechanical effect of the bentonite swelling behavior throughout the construction, emplacement operations and closure re-saturation phase. In this article, the results of swelling tests to obtain the mechanical properties of the bentonite and three types of test model experiments performed for the event observations in the different saturation processes are described. As a result, the effects of a seepage pattern of ground water and a variation in the density produced by construction on the swelling pressure distribution of the bentonite barrier could be reproduced and validated. It is thought that they will be important events when ground water permeates the bentonite layer of a multiple barrier system. (author)

  7. Literature study on the microstructure of bentonite and its effect on diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Lehikoinen, J.; Pusch, R.

    1994-12-01

    In the study the available information from the literature on the microstructural properties of bentonite and its main component montmorillonite have been compiled, together with different phenomena which have been found to participate in the diffusion process in bentonite. (167 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs.)

  8. Electrochemical and radiochemical material transport examinations in humate-containing montmorillonite a bentonite thin layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antal, K.; Joo, P.

    1999-01-01

    Various humate-containing H-bentonite layers were investigated using 137 Cs ion transport and radio absorption measuring method. These processes can model radioactive contamination migration in soils exposed to acid rains. Experiment using montmorillonite and bentonite layers are discussed, and the results obtained with electrochemical and radioisotope absorption techniques are presented. (R.P.)

  9. Removal of nitrate by zero-valent iron and pillared bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianfa; Li Yimin; Meng Qingling

    2010-01-01

    The pillared bentonite prepared by intercalating poly(hydroxo Al(III)) cations into bentonite interlayers was used together with Fe(0) for removing nitrate in column experiments. The obvious synergetic effect on nitrate removal was exhibited through uniformly mixing the pillared bentonite with Fe(0). In such a mixing manner, the nitrate was 100% removed, and the removal efficiency was much higher than the simple summation of adsorption by the pillared bentonite and reduction by Fe(0). The influencing factors such as bentonite type, amount of the pillared bentonite and initial pH of nitrate solutions were investigated. In this uniform mixture, the pillared bentonite could adsorb nitrate ions, and facilitated the mass transfer of nitrate onto Fe(0) surface, then accelerated the nitrate reduction. The pillared bentonite could also act as the proton-donor, and helped to keep the complete nitrate removal for at least 10 h even when the nitrate solution was fed at nearly neutral pH.

  10. Geochemical modelling of hydrogen gas migration in an unsaturated bentonite buffer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedighi, M.; Thomas, H.R.; Al Masum, S.; Vardon, P.J.; Nicholson, D.; Chen, Q.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the transport and fate of hydrogen gas through compacted bentonite buffer. Various geochemical reactions that may occur in the multiphase and multicomponent system of the unsaturated bentonite buffer are considered. A reactive gas transport model, developed

  11. Effect of calcium bentonite on lipid parameters in Wistar albino rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vivo effect of Nigerian calcium bentonite clay on rat plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels of Wistar albino rats was investigated. The rats were fed for a period of four weeks with varying concentrations of the bentonite clay, and the cholesterol and triglyceride levels determined using spectrophotometric methods.

  12. Sorption of technetium and its analogue rhenium on bentonite material under aerobic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koudelkova, M.; Vinsova, H.; Konirova, R.; Ernestova, M.; Jedinakova-Krizova, V.; Tereesha, M.

    2003-01-01

    The uptake of technetium on bentonite materials has been studied from the point of view of characterization of long-term radioactive elements behavior in nuclear waste repository. Bentonite R (locality Rokle, Czech Republic) and two types of model groundwater (granitic and bentonite) were selected for the sorption experiments. The aim of our research has been to find out the conditions suitable for the technetium sorption on selected bentonite under oxidizing condition. The sorption experiments with Tc-99 on bentonite have been carried out by batch method. The influence of the addition of different materials (e.g. activated carbon, graphite, Fe 2+ ) with bentonite, the effect of solid: aqueous phase ratio and a pH value on the percentage of technetium uptake and on the K d values were tested. Perrhenate was selected as an analogue of pertechnetate in non-active experiments of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and isotachophoresis (ITP). The percentage of rhenium sorbed on bentonite material was determined from the decrease of perrhenate peak area (CE) and from the shortening of the ITP zone corresponding to perrhenate. Both electromigration methods provided comparable results. The results obtained in this study with non-active material were compared to those of technetium acquired by radiometry and polarography. The 8 days kinetics of the perrhenate and pertechnetate sorption on bentonite was described mathematically with a tendency to predict long-term behavior of studied systems. (authors)

  13. Natural analogue study for interaction between alkaline groundwater and bentonite at Mangatarem region in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Y.; Fujita, K.; Nakabayashi, R.; Sato, T.; Yoneda, T.; Yamakawa, M.; Fujii, N.; Namiki, K.; Kasama, T.; Alexander, R.; Arcilla, C.; Pascua, C.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Alteration of bentonite by alkaline leachate from cement/concrete in geological repositories for TRU radioactive waste is deleterious to bentonite performance as a buffer material. Although there have been many laboratory studies on high pH fluid-bentonite interaction for longer term understanding of the behavior of bentonites as buffer materials, different time scales between laboratory experiments and real disposal conditions impede its proper assessment. Thus, a natural analogue study can play an important role in (a) bridging the timescale gaps between laboratory experiments and real disposal conditions and (b) verifying the modeling studies of bentonite stability. Previous natural analogue studies on the cement-bentonite interaction are relatively few. Therefore, this study focuses on the process of serpentinization in ophiolitic rocks which resemble the process of leaching high pH ground waters from cement materials and report the results of study about alkaline water-bentonite interaction in Mangatarem, Philippines. In Mangatarem, in west central Luzon Island in the northern Philippines, there are bentonite quarries in the Aksitero Formation, which is part of the Zambales Ophiolite. Several alkaline hot springs derived from ongoing serpentinization of the ophiolite can be found in close proximity to the bentonite.Through a site characterization (including a foot survey, a series of boreholes and trench excavation in the Saile quarry in Mangatarem, the interface between the bentonite and the pillow lava of the upper ophiolite was confirmed, and chrysotile, a low temperature type of serpentine, was observed in the fault filling by XRD analysis. In the pillow lava, serpentine was also observed inside the fault that cut across both the bentonite and the pillow lava. From these facts, low temperature high pH fluids appears to have passed through the faults and came into contact with the bentonite. In order to

  14. Coupled transport/reaction model of the properties of bentonite buffer in a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jinsong; Neretnieks, I.

    1996-11-01

    Two mechanisms that can affect the long-term properties of the bentonite buffer surrounding the canister in a final repository of spent nuclear fuel are studied. The two mechanisms are the oxidation of reducing minerals in the buffer by radiolytically generated oxidant, and the low-temperature alteration of Na-montmorillonite in the bentonite buffer to illite. A coupled mass transport with geochemical reaction model is used. Four cases have been considered, which differ in the assumptions of whether the radiolytically generated oxidant first oxidizes uraninite in the spent fuel, or it is directly transported to the bentonite to oxidize the pyrite. The cases also differ in the assumptions of varying initial concentrations of pyrite in the bentonite buffer. The modelling results show that, at low temperatures, the sodium montmorillonite in the bentonite buffer is chemically stable with respect to the chemical conditions of the near field. Alteration to illite and thus an increase in hydraulic conductivity and loss of swelling ability is not likely to occur. The radiolytically generated oxidant can possibly oxidize the reducing minerals in the bentonite buffer. A redox front can be generated. In all the cases considered in this study, the modelling results indicate that slightly less than 1% by weight of pyrite in the bentonite buffer will be able to ensure that the redox front does not penetrate through the bentonite buffer within 1 million years. 31 refs

  15. Effects of bentonite on plasma urea and creatinine of wistar albino rats.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vivo effect of Nigerian calcium bentonite clay on wistar albino rat plasma urea and creatinine levels were investigated. The rats were fed for a period of four weeks with varying concentrations of the bentonite clay, and the urea and creatinine levels determined using spectrophotometric methods. Test results showed ...

  16. Freezing of bentonite. Experimental studies and theoretical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgersson, Martin; Karnland, Ola; Nilsson, Ulf (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    During its lifetime, a KBS-3 repository will be subject to various ambient temperatures. Backfilled tunnels, shafts and investigation bore holes closest to ground level will experience periods of temperature below 0 deg C. From a safety assessment perspective, it is therefore essential to understand the behavior of compacted bentonite below 0 deg C. A theoretical framework for predicting the pressure response in compacted water saturated bentonite due to temperature changes has been developed based on thermodynamics and a single pore-type. This model predicts an approximately linear temperature dependence of swelling pressure P{sub s}(w,DELTAT) = P{sub s}(w,0 deg C) + DELTAs(w)DELTAT/nu{sub clay}(w) where DELTAT denotes a temperature difference from 0 deg C, DELTAs(w) is the difference in partial molar entropy between clay water and bulk water, nu{sub clay} (w) is the partial molar volume of the clay water and w denotes the water/solid mass ratio of the clay. As bulk water changes phase at 0 deg C, DELTAs(w) has a different value dependent on whether DELTAT is negative or positive. Above 0 deg C DELTAs(w) is a small value for all relevant densities which means that the pressure response due to temperature changes is small. A further consequence of this fact is that DELTAs(w) is a large positive number below 0 deg C when the external water phase is transformed to ice. Consequently, the model predicts a large drop of swelling pressure with temperature below 0 deg C, in the order of 1.2 MPa/deg C. Specifically, the swelling pressure is zero at a certain (negative) temperature T{sub C}. T{sub C} also quantifies the freezing point of the bentonite sample under consideration, as ice formation in the bentonite does not occur until swelling pressure is lost. A large set of laboratory tests have been performed where fully water saturated samples of bentonites have been exposed to temperatures in the range -10 deg C to +25 deg C. The swelling pressure response has been

  17. Wyoming bentonites. Evidence from the geological record to evaluate the suitability of bentonite as a buffer material during the long-term underground containment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, J.

    2001-12-01

    In the Swedish programme for the deep, geological disposal of radioactive wastes, bentonite is planned to be used as a barrier material to reduce groundwater flow and minimise radionuclide migration into the geosphere. One of the possible threats to long-term bentonite stability is the gradual incursion of saline water into the repository confines which may reduce the swelling capacity of the bentonite, even to the extent of eliminating the positive effects of mixing bentonite into backfill materials. Important information may be obtained from the study of analogous processes in nature (i.e. natural analogue or natural system studies) where bentonite, during its formation, has been in long-term contact with reducing waters of brackish to saline character. Type bentonites include those mined from the Clay Spur bed at the top of the Cretaceous Mowry Formation in NE Wyoming and demarcated for potential use as a barrier material (e.g. MX-80 sodium bentonite) in the Swedish radioactive waste programme. This bentonite forms part of the Mowry Shale which was deposited in a southern embayment of the late Albian Western Interior Cretaceous sea (Mowry Sea). The question is whether these bentonite deposits show evidence of post-deposition alteration caused by the sea water in which they were deposited, and/or, have they been altered subsequently by contact with waters of increasing salinity? Bentonites are the product of pyroclastic fall deposits thought to be generated by the type of explosive, subaerial volcanic activity characteristic of Plinian eruptive systems. In Wyoming the overall composition of the original ash varied from dacite to rhyolite, or latite to trachyte. The ash clouds were carried to high altitudes and eastwards by the prevailing westerly winds before falling over the shallow Mowry Sea and forming thin but widespread and continuous horizons on sea floor muds and sands. Whilst bentonites were principally wind-transported, there is evidence of some water

  18. Wyoming bentonites. Evidence from the geological record to evaluate the suitability of bentonite as a buffer material during the long-term underground containment of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, J [Conterra AB (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    In the Swedish programme for the deep, geological disposal of radioactive wastes, bentonite is planned to be used as a barrier material to reduce groundwater flow and minimise radionuclide migration into the geosphere. One of the possible threats to long-term bentonite stability is the gradual incursion of saline water into the repository confines which may reduce the swelling capacity of the bentonite, even to the extent of eliminating the positive effects of mixing bentonite into backfill materials. Important information may be obtained from the study of analogous processes in nature (i.e. natural analogue or natural system studies) where bentonite, during its formation, has been in long-term contact with reducing waters of brackish to saline character. Type bentonites include those mined from the Clay Spur bed at the top of the Cretaceous Mowry Formation in NE Wyoming and demarcated for potential use as a barrier material (e.g. MX-80 sodium bentonite) in the Swedish radioactive waste programme. This bentonite forms part of the Mowry Shale which was deposited in a southern embayment of the late Albian Western Interior Cretaceous sea (Mowry Sea). The question is whether these bentonite deposits show evidence of post-deposition alteration caused by the sea water in which they were deposited, and/or, have they been altered subsequently by contact with waters of increasing salinity? Bentonites are the product of pyroclastic fall deposits thought to be generated by the type of explosive, subaerial volcanic activity characteristic of Plinian eruptive systems. In Wyoming the overall composition of the original ash varied from dacite to rhyolite, or latite to trachyte. The ash clouds were carried to high altitudes and eastwards by the prevailing westerly winds before falling over the shallow Mowry Sea and forming thin but widespread and continuous horizons on sea floor muds and sands. Whilst bentonites were principally wind-transported, there is evidence of some water

  19. Preliminary Study on Benzoic Acid Adsorption from Crude Active Coals and Bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbes Boucheta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied the adsorption of pollutant benzoic acid by the modified bentonite of Maghnia (west of Algeria, and coal (Coal from the mines, southwest of Algeria, Bechar area under three forms, crude and activated. Kinetic data show that the balance of bentonite (as amended adsorbs organic acids better than activated and raw coal. Indeed, the intercalation of bentonite with benzoic acid causes an improvement in the texture of porous material, which allows its use in the adsorption of organic compounds. The adsorption isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich indicate that the adsorption of benzoic acid by the coal and bentonite yielded results favorably. The results obtained showed the practical value of using the activated coal and bentonite (as amended in the field of remediation of water contaminated with organic pollutants

  20. A study of the condition for the passivation of carbon steel in bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Naoki; Morimoto, Masataka; Honda, Akira

    1999-01-01

    It is important to study the corrosion behavior of materials to be used for overpack for high-level radioactive waste disposal. Carbon steel is one of the candidate materials. The type of corrosion on carbon steel depends on whether the carbon steel is passivated or not. In this study, the condition for the passivation of carbon steel was studied using bentonite as the buffer material. Anodic polarization in bentonite and the measurements of pH of porewater in bentonite was measured. The results of these experiments showed that the possibility of passivation is small in highly compacted bentonite in groundwater in Japan. Therefore, localized corrosion on carbon steel due to the breakdown of passive film is unlikely in bentonite. In other words, general corrosion seems to be the most probable type of corrosion under repository condition in Japan. (author)

  1. Corrosion behavior of carbon steel in wet Na-bentonite medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeon, Jae-Won; Ha, Young-Kyoung; Choi, In-Kyu; Chun, Kwan-Sik

    1996-01-01

    Corrosion behaviors of carbon steel in wet Na-bentonite medium were studied. Corrosion rate of carbon steel in wet bentonite was measured to be 20 μm/yr at 25 deg C using the AC impedance technique. This value is agreed with that obtained by weight loss at 40 deg C for 1 year. The effect of bicarbonate ion on the corrosion of carbon steel in wet bentonite was also evaluated. The carbon steels in wet bentonite having 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 M concentration of bicarbonate ion gave corrosion rates of 20, 8, and 0.2 μm/yr, respectively. Corrosion potentials of specimens were also measured and compared with the AC impedance results. Both results indicated that bicarbonate ion could effectively reduce the corrosion rate of carbon steels in bentonite due to the formation of protective layer on the carbon steel. (author)

  2. Cytotoxicity and mechanical behavior of chitin-bentonite clay based polyurethane bio-nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zuber, Mohammad; Barikani, Mehdi; Hussain, Rizwan; Jamil, Tahir; Anjum, Sohail

    2011-12-01

    Chitin based polyurethane bio-nanocomposites (PUBNC) were prepared using chitin, Delite HPS bentonite nanoclay enriched in montmorillonite (MMT), 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and polycaprolactone polyol CAPA 231 (3000 g/mol(-1)). The prepolymers having different concentration of Delite HPS bentonite nanoclay were extended with 2 moles of chitin. The structures of the resulted polymers were determined by FT-IR technique. The effect of nanoclay contents on mechanical properties and in vitro biocompatibility was investigated. The mechanical properties of the synthesized materials were improved with increase in the Delite HPS bentonite nanoclay contents. Optimum mechanical properties were obtained from the PU bio-nanocomposite samples having 4% Delite HPS bentonite nanoclay. The results revealed that the final PU bio-nanocomposite having 2% Delite HPS bentonite nanoclay contents is ideal contenders for surgical threads with on going investigations into their in vitro biocompatibility, non-toxicity, and mechanical properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mobility of U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm from spent nuclear fuel into bentonite clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramebaeck, H.; Skaalberg, M.; Eklund, U.B.; Kjellberg, L.; Werme, L.

    1998-01-01

    The mobility of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium from spent nuclear fuel (UO 2 ) into compacted bentonite was studied. Pieces of spent BWR UO 2 fuel was embedded in a compacted bentonite clay/low saline synthetic groundwater system. After a contact time of six years the bentonite was sliced into 0.1 mm thick slices and analysed for its content of actinides. Radiometric as well as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used for the analysis. The influence on the mobility by the addition of metallic iron, metallic copper and vivianite (Fe(II)-mineral) to the bentonite clay was investigated. The results show a low mobility of actinides in bentonite clay. Except for uranium the mobility of the other actinides could, after six years of diffusion time, only be detected less than 1 mm from the spent fuel. (orig.)

  4. Fire retardancy assessment of polypropylene composite filed with nano clay prepared from Iraqi bentonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareem Salih, Watheq

    2018-05-01

    Fire retardants have an extraordinary importance because of their role in saving the people, property and reducing the damages and minimizing the dangers resulting from fires and burning of polymeric composites which are used in different civil and industrial fields. The work in this paper can be divided into two main stages. In first one nano-clay was manufactured from Iraqi bentonite and it was characterized using AFM, XRD, XRF, SEM, and BET. The AFM test showed the particle size of prepared nano clay was about 99.25 nm. In the second stage, polypropylene/nano clay composites at three low loading percents (0%,2%,4%,6%) were formulated via twin screw extruder. The fire retardancy tests included burning rate according to ASTM:D-635 and maximum flame height of flame according to ASTM:D-3014. Besides, the mechanical tests and thermal behavior of prepared samples were investigated. The results showed that (4%) of nano-clay had the maximum fire retardancy and while at (2%) loading, the maximum value of tensile strength and Yong modulus were obtained. The maximum heat of fusion was recorded for 6% nano clay sample. The final results assessment confirmed on the possibility of using low loadings of prepared nano clay to improve the fire retardancy, mechanical and thermal properties successfully.

  5. Improved electrical conduction properties in unintentionally-doped ZnO thin films treated by rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youngmin; Lee, Choeun; Shim, Eunhee; Jung, Eiwhan; Lee, Jinyong; Kim, Deukyoung; Lee, Sejoon; Fu, Dejun; Yoon, Hyungdo

    2011-01-01

    The effects of thermal treatments on the electrical conduction properties for the unintentionally doped ZnO thin films were investigated. Despite the decreased carrier density in the annealed ZnO thin films, the conductivity was increased because the contribution of the effective carrier mobility to the conductivity of the unintentionally-doped ZnO thin films is greater than that of the carrier density. The resistivity exponentially decreased with increasing RTA temperature, and this result was confirmed to come from the enhanced effective carrier-mobility, which originated from the increased crystallite size in the annealed ZnO thin films.

  6. Improved electrical conduction properties in unintentionally-doped ZnO thin films treated by rapid thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngmin; Lee, Choeun; Shim, Eunhee; Jung, Eiwhan; Lee, Jinyong; Kim, Deukyoung; Lee, Sejoon [Dongguk University-Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Fu, Dejun [Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Yoon, Hyungdo [Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The effects of thermal treatments on the electrical conduction properties for the unintentionally doped ZnO thin films were investigated. Despite the decreased carrier density in the annealed ZnO thin films, the conductivity was increased because the contribution of the effective carrier mobility to the conductivity of the unintentionally-doped ZnO thin films is greater than that of the carrier density. The resistivity exponentially decreased with increasing RTA temperature, and this result was confirmed to come from the enhanced effective carrier-mobility, which originated from the increased crystallite size in the annealed ZnO thin films.

  7. Eco-friendly polyvinyl alcohol/carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogels reinforced with graphene oxide and bentonite for enhanced adsorption of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongjie; Huang, Yue; Huang, Huihua

    2018-04-01

    Eco-friendly polyvinyl alcohol/carboxymethyl cellulose (isolated from pineapple peel) hydrogels reinforced with graphene oxide and bentonite were prepared as efficient adsorbents for methylene blue (MB). The structure and morphology of the prepared hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Introducing graphene oxide and bentonite into the hydrogels evidently enhanced the thermal stability, swelling ability and MB adsorption capacity. The effects of initial concentration of MB, pH, contact time and temperature on MB adsorption capacity of the prepared hydrogels were investigated. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium adsorption isotherm fitted pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model well, respectively. After introducing graphene oxide and bentonite into the hydrogels, the maximum adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir isotherm model reached 172.14 mg/g at 30 °C, obviously higher than the hydrogels prepared without these additions (83.33 mg/g). Furthermore, all the prepared hydrogels also displayed good reusability for the efficient removal of MB. Consequently, the prepared hydrogels could be served as eco-friendly, stable, efficient and reusable adsorbents for anionic dyes in wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Erosion of bentonite by flow and colloid diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Luis; Liu, Longcheng; Neretnieks, Ivars

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Bentonite intrusion into a fracture intersecting the canister deposition hole is modelled. The model describes the expansion of the bentonite within the fracture. It accounts for the repulsive electrostatic double-layer forces, the attractive van der Waals forces and friction forces between the particles and the water. The model also takes into account the diffusion of the colloid particles in the smectite sol. The buffer contains sodium in the pore water in much higher concentrations than the approaching seeping groundwater in the fracture has. Diffusion of sodium outward in the expanding gel is accounted for as this strongly influences the double layer force and the viscosity of the gel/sol. The gel/ sol is considered to be a fluid with a varying viscosity that is strongly dependent on the bentonite volume fraction in the gel and the sodium concentration in the water. Two different geometries were modelled; a rectangular and a cylindrical showing the flow in a fracture intersecting the deposition hole with the canister. The rectangular geometry was used to gain experience with the processes and mechanisms and how they interact since the cylindrical geometry was somewhat less stable numerically and more time consuming. In the rectangular geometry a fracture 1 metre long in the flow direction was modelled. In both geometries the fracture depth (extent from the deposition hole) was selected sufficiently large to ensure that the water velocity, near this border was nearly the same as the approaching water velocity and that the smectite concentration there was vanishingly small. It was found that the velocity of the fluid drops considerably where the bentonite volume fraction is larger than 1-2%. This is due to the strong increase in viscosity with increasing bentonite volume fraction. The loss of smectite as it is carried away by the slowly flowing fluid was found to be proportional to the square root of the seeping

  9. Review on cation exchange selectivity coefficients for MX-80 bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenech, C.; Arcos, D.; Duro, L.; Sellin, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Bentonite is considered as engineered barrier in the near field of a nuclear waste repository due to its low permeability, what impedes groundwater flow to the nuclear waste, and its high retention capacity (sorption) of radionuclides in the eventuality of groundwater intrusion. One of the main retention processes occurring at the bentonite surface is ion exchange. This process may exert a strong control on the mobility of major pore water cations. Changes in major cation concentration, especially calcium, can affect the dissolution-precipitation of calcite, which in turn controls one of the key parameters in the system: pH. The cation exchange process is usually described according to the Gaines-Thomas convention: Ca 2+ + 2 NaX = CaX 2 + 2 Na + , K Ca = (N Ca x a 2 Na + )/(N 2 Na x a Ca 2+ ) where K Ca is the selectivity coefficient for the Ca by Na exchange, ai is the activity of cation 'i' in solution and NJ the equivalent fractional occupancy of cation 'J' in bentonite. Parameters such as solid to liquid (S:L) ratio and dry density of the solid have an important influence on the value of selectivity coefficients (K ex ). Although in most geochemical modelling works, K ex values are directly taken from experiments conducted at low S:L ratios and low dry densities, the expected conditions in a deep geological nuclear waste repository are higher S:L and higher bentonite density (1.6 g.cm -3 in the SKB design to obtain a fully water saturated density of around 2.0 g.cm -3 ). Experiments focused at obtaining selectivity coefficients under the conditions of interest face the difficulty of achieving a proper extraction and analyses of pore water without disturbing the system by the sampling method itself. In this work we have conducted a complete analyses of published data on MX-80 bentonite cationic exchange in order to assess the effect of the S:L ratio and dry density on the value of the selectivity coefficients determined so far

  10. Behavior of plutonium interacting with bentonite and sulfate-reducing anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, A.; Zheng, J.; Cayer, I.; Fujikawa, Y.; Yoshikawa, H.; Ito, M.

    1997-01-01

    The interactions between sulfate reducing anaerobic bacteria and plutonium, with or without bentonite present, were investigated using distribution coefficients [Kd (ml/g)] as an index of the radionuclide behavior. Plutonium Kds for living bacteria varied within a large range, from 1,804 to 112,952, depending on the pH, while the Kds ranged from 1,180 to 5,931 for dead bacteria. In general, living bacteria had higher plutonium Kds than dead bacteria. Furthermore, the higher Kd values of 39,677 to 106,915 for living bacteria were obtained for a pH range between 6.83 and 8.25, while no visible pH effect was observed for dead bacteria. These Kd values were obtained using tracers for both 236 Pu and 239 Pu, which can check the experimental procedures and mass balance. Another comparison was conducted for plutonium Kd values of mixtures of living bacteria with bentonite and sterilized bacteria with bentonite. The range of Kd values for the non-sterilized bacteria with bentonite were 1,194 to 83,648 while Kd values for the sterilized bacteria with bentonite were from 624 to 17,236. Again, the Kd values for the living bacteria with bentonite were higher than those of sterilized bacteria with bentonite. In other words, the presence of living anaerobic bacteria with bentonite increased, by roughly 50 times, the Kd values of 239 Pu when compared to the mixture of dead bacteria with bentonite. The results indicate that the effects of anaerobic bacteria within the engineered barrier system (in this case bentonite) will play a significant role in the behavior of plutonium in geologic repositories

  11. The advantages of a salt/bentonite backfill for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, B.M.; Novak, C.F.; Jercinovic, M.

    1991-04-01

    A 70/30 wt% salt/bentonite mixture is shown to be preferable to pure crushed salt as backfill for disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report discusses several selection criteria used to arrive at this conclusion: the need for low permeability and porosity after closure, chemical stability with the surroundings, adequate strength to avoid shear erosion from human intrusion, ease of emplacement, and sorption potential for brine and radionuclides. Both salt and salt/bentonite are expected to consolidate to a final state of impermeability (i.e., ≤ 10 -18 m 2 ) adequate for satisfying federal nuclear regulations. Any advantage of the salt/bentonite mixture is dependent upon bentonite's potential for sorbing brine and radionuclides. Estimates suggest that bentonite's sorption potential for water in brine is much less than for pure water. While no credit is presently taken for brine sorption in salt/bentonite backfill, the possibility that some amount of inflowing brine would be chemically bound is considered likely. Bentonite may also sorb much of the plutonium, americium, and neptunium within the disposal room inventory. Sorption would be effective only if a major portion of the backfill is in contact with radioactive brine. Brine flow from the waste out through highly localized channels in the backfill would negate sorption effectiveness. Although the sorption potentials of bentonite for both brine and radionuclides are not ideal, they are distinctly beneficial. Furthermore, no detrimental aspects of adding bentonite to the salt as a backfill have been identified. These two observations are the major reasons for selecting salt/bentonite as a backfill within the WIPP. 39 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Sorption of technetium and its analogue rhenium on bentonite material under aerobic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinsova, H.; Koudelkova, M.; Konirova, R.; Vecernik, P.; Jedinakova-Krizova, V.

    2003-01-01

    The uptake of technetium on bentonite materials has been studied from the point of view of characterization of long-term radioactive elements behavior in nuclear waste repository. Bentonite R (locality Rokle, Czech Republic) and two types of model groundwater (granitic and bentonite) were selected for the sorption experiments. It is generally known that bentonite materials show an excellent cation-exchange capacity and, on the other hand, a poor uptake of anions. Technetium occurs under aerobic conditions in its most stable oxidation state (+VII) as pertechnetate, which makes a question of its sorption on bentonite more complex when compared with e.g. Cs + or Sr 2+ . To increase the K d values for technetium sorption on bentonite, it is necessary to carry out the experiments under anaerobic conditions in the presence of reducing agent, which is capable to lower the oxidation state of technetium which enables its successful immobilization. The aim of our research has been to find out the conditions suitable for the technetium sorption on selected bentonite under oxidizing conditions. The sorption experiments with Tc-99 on bentonite have been carried out by batch method. The influence of the addition of different materials (e.g. activated carbon, graphite, Fe 2+ , Fe) with bentonite, the effect of solid:aqueous phase ratio and a pH value on the percentage of technetium uptake and on the K d values were tested. Perrhenate was selected as an analogue of pertechnetate in non-active experiments of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and isotachophoresis (ITP). The percentage of rhenium sorbed on bentonite material was determined from the decrease of perrhenate peak area (CE) and from the shortening of the ITP zone corresponding to perrhenate. Both electromigration methods provided comparable results. The results obtained in this study with non-active material were compared to those of technetium acquired by radiometry and polarography. (authors)

  13. A conceptual proposal for an integrated system to treat radioactive waste using thermal treatment and vitrification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohyiza Baan; Mohd Fairus Abd Farid; Khaironie Mohamed Takip; Muhammad Nizammuddin Abd Aziz; Muhd Ridwan Abd Rahim; Sivapalan Kathiravale; Mohamad Azman Che Mat Isa; Norasalwa Zakaria; Mohamad Puad Abu; Muhamat Omar

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of crude oil sludge from the crude oil terminal are very unique because it contains both heavy metals and are inappropriate and will have long term environment effect. Due to the organic nature of the oil sludge, there is a potential and realistic method to trea also Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). Malaysia will face a serious problem in finding space to store this sludge. The volume is increasing drastically and the space available to store is very limited. In Malaysia, there is no well-establish disposal policy of oil sludge. Current practices, for oil sludge treatment includes land farming, storing in plastic drum, recovery, etc. However, the land farming method of oil scale and sludge disposal t this sludge by using thermal treatment and vitrification technology. Therefore, WETec has taking this opportunity to develop the facility. The thermal treatment system will consists of continuous solid feeder system and Fluidized Bed Combustor, and the vitrification system will consist of high temperature burner (1600 degree C) and ash melting chamber. This paper will highlight on various functions of components in that integrated system. (Author)

  14. Demonstration Testing of a Thermal Desorption Unit to Receive and Treat Waste with Unlimited Concentration of PCBs - 13437

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Timothy L. [EnergySolutions, 423 West 300 South, Salt Lake City, UT 84101 (United States); Palmer, Carl R. [TD.X Associates LP, 148 South Dowlen Road, PMB 700, Beaumont, TX 77707 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    For the last nine years, EnergySolutions and TD*X Associates LP have teamed up to provide the most comprehensive organic removal treatment process in the radioactive waste industry. The high performance thermal desorption unit (HP-TDU) located at the EnergySolutions Clive facility in Utah has successfully processed over 1,850 tons of organically contaminated radioactive mixed waste. Products from the HP-TDU system include a radioactively contaminated dry solid material that can be disposed in the on-site landfill and an organic condensate with high thermal energy content that is generally below background radiation and capable of free-release to a non-radioactive incinerator. Over the years, Permits and approvals have been obtained through the state of Utah, United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Region 8, and USEPA headquarters that enable the treatment of several waste categories including volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, combustion-coded (CMBST) compounds, volatile metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The unit has recently successfully completed Demonstration Testing for PCB concentrations up to 660,000 ppm (parts per million). Solid processed material from this Demonstration Testing was less than two ppm PCBs in three separate treatment runs; reprocessing or additional treatment was not needed to meet this limit. Through post-demonstration permitting, the system is unlimited in scope as approval has been given to receive and solidify up to pure PCBs down to this processing limit concentration to complete treatment of mixed waste. (authors)

  15. Physicochemical, mineralogical and mechanical properties of domestic bentonite and bentonite-sand mixture as a buffer material in the high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Kang, Chul Hyung; Chun, Kwan Sik

    1999-09-01

    The physicochemical properties such as specific weight, free swell rate, chemical composition, cation exchange capacity (CEC), surface area and distribution coefficient of Kyunggju bentonite were measured, and the mineralogical analysis was performed to investigate the mineralogical composition. For the compacted bentonite and the mixture of bentonite and sand, the liquid and plastic limit, the linear shrinkage, and compaction property, the compression property, the shear property, and the consolidation property were investigated and analyzed. The bentonite contains montmorillonite (70 percent), feldspar (29 percent), and small amounts of quartz(-1 percent). The compressive strengths of bentonites are increased from 0.53 MPa to 8.83 MPa rapidly with increasing dry density of 1.4 g/cm 3 to 1.8 g/cm 3 . The cohesion and internal friction angles of bentonites with the dry density of 1.4 g/cm 3 to 1.8 g/cm 3 are in the range of 500 to 1100 kPa and 27 to 50 degree, respectively. (Author). 21 refs., 20 tabs., 46 figs

  16. Physicochemical, mineralogical and mechanical properties of domestic bentonite and bentonite-sand mixture as a buffer material in the high-level waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Kang, Chul Hyung; Chun, Kwan Sik

    1999-09-01

    The physicochemical properties such as specific weight, free swell rate, chemical composition, cation exchange capacity (CEC), surface area and distribution coefficient of Kyunggju bentonite were measured, and the mineralogical analysis was performed to investigate the mineralogical composition. For the compacted bentonite and the mixture of bentonite and sand, the liquid and plastic limit, the linear shrinkage, and compaction property, the compression property, the shear property, and the consolidation property were investigated and analyzed. The bentonite contains montmorillonite (70 percent), feldspar (29 percent), and small amounts of quartz(-1 percent). The compressive strengths of bentonites are increased from 0.53 MPa to 8.83 MPa rapidly with increasing dry density of 1.4 g/cm{sup 3} to 1.8 g/cm{sup 3}. The cohesion and internal friction angles of bentonites with the dry density of 1.4 g/cm{sup 3} to 1.8 g/cm{sup 3} are in the range of 500 to 1100 kPa and 27 to 50 degree, respectively. (Author). 21 refs., 20 tabs., 46 figs.

  17. Adsorption of La(III) onto GMZ bentonite. Effect of contact time, bentonite content, pH value and ionic strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonggui Chen; Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha; Chunming Zhu; Weimin Ye; Yanhong Sun; Huiying Duan; Dongbei Wu

    2012-01-01

    Bentonite has been studied extensively because of its strong adsorption capacity. A local Na-bentonite named GMZ bentonite, collected from Gaomiaozi County (Inner Mongolia, China), was selected as the first choice of buffer/backfill material for the high-level radioactive waste repository in China. In this research, the adsorption of La (III) onto GMZ bentonite was performed as a function of contact time, pH, solid content and metal ion concentrations by using the batch experiments. The results indicate that the adsorption of La (III) on GMZ bentonite achieves equilibration quickly and the kinetic adsorption follows the pseudo-second-order model; the adsorption of La (III) on the adsorbent is strongly dependent on pH and solid content, the adsorption process follows Langmuir isotherm. The equilibrium batch experiment data demonstrate that GMZ bentonite is effective adsorbent for the removal of La (III) from aqueous solution with the maximum adsorption capacity of 26.8 mg g -1 under the given experimental conditions. (author)

  18. A comparative study of the physical properties of Sb2S3 thin films treated with N2 AC plasma and thermal annealing in N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calixto-Rodriguez, M.; Martinez, H.; Pena, Y.; Flores, O.; Esparza-Ponce, H.E.; Sanchez-Juarez, A.; Campos-Alvarez, J.; Reyes, P.

    2010-01-01

    As-deposited antimony sulfide thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition were treated with nitrogen AC plasma and thermal annealing in nitrogen atmosphere. The as-deposited, plasma treated, and thermally annealed antimony sulfide thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and electrical measurements. The results have shown that post-deposition treatments modify the crystalline structure, the morphology, and the optoelectronic properties of Sb 2 S 3 thin films. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the crystallinity of the films was improved in both cases. Atomic force microscopy studies showed that the change in the film morphology depends on the post-deposition treatment used. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) analysis revealed the plasma etching on the surface of the film, this fact was corroborated by the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. The optical band gap of the films (E g ) decreased after post-deposition treatments (from 2.36 to 1.75 eV) due to the improvement in the grain sizes. The electrical resistivity of the Sb 2 S 3 thin films decreased from 10 8 to 10 6 Ω-cm after plasma treatments.

  19. Modifications in Compacted MX-80 Bentonite Due to Thermo-Hydraulic Treatment; Modificaciones en la Bentonita MX-80 Compactada Sometida a Tratamiento Termo-Hidraulico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Espina, R.; Villar, M. V.

    2013-09-01

    The thermo-hydraulic tests reproduce the thermal and hydraulic conditions to which bentonite is subjected in the engineered barrier of a deep geological repository of radioactive waste. The results of thermo-hydraulic test TBT1500, which was running for approximately 1500 days, are presented. This is a continuation to the Technical Report Ciemat 1199, which presented results of test TBT500, performed under similar conditions but with duration of 500 days. In both tests the MX-80 bentonite was used with initial density and water content similar to those of the large-scale test TBT. The bentonite column was heated at the bottom at 140 degree centigrade and hydrated on top with deionized water. At the end of the test a sharp water content gradient was observed along the column, as well as an inverse dry density gradient. Hydration modified also the bentonite microstructure. Besides, an overall decrease of the smectite content with respect to the initial value took place, especially in the most hydrated areas where the percentage of interest ratified illite increased and in the longer test. On the other hand, the content of cristobalite, feldspars and calcite increased. Smectite dissolution processes (probably colloidal) occurred, particularly in the more hydrated areas and in the longer test. Due to the dissolution of low-solubility species and to the loss of exchangeable positions in the smectite, the content of soluble salts in the pore water increased with respect to the original one, especially in the longer test. The solubilized ions were transported; sodium, calcium, magnesium and sulphate having a similar mobility, which was in turn lower than that of potassium and chloride. The cationic exchange complex was also modified. (Author)

  20. Morphology study of polyamide 6/bentonite clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, Rene A.; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Melo, Tomas J.A.; Leite, Amanda M.D.; Medeiros, Vanessa Nobrega; Pessan, Luiz A.; Passador, Fabio R.

    2011-01-01

    Polymer/clay nanocomposites have had much attention in recent years, especially those developed with layered silicates, due to the need for engineering materials more efficient than pure polymers for certain applications. The level of exfoliation of layered silicates in the crystalline structure of polymer matrices has been studied and it has been observed that it affects the behavior of crystalline and therefore the mechanical and physical properties. In this study, polyamide 6 nanocomposites were obtained by the melt intercalation technique, using regional bentonite clay modified with a quaternary ammonium salt in an amount of 3% by weight. XRD and TEM tests showed obtaining nanocomposites with exfoliated structures (author)

  1. Microbial communities in bentonite formations and their interactions with uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Fernández, Margarita; Fernández-Sanfrancisco, Omar; Moreno-García, Alberto; Martín-Sánchez, Inés; Sánchez-Castro, Iván; Merroun, Mohamed Larbi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Microbial diversity of Spanish bentonites was studied. • High number of aerobe and facultative anaerobe microbes were isolated from bentonites. • Natural bentonite microbes are able to tolerate high U concentrations. • U is immobilized by the cells of the strain Rhodotorula mucilaginosa BII-R8 as U(VI) phosphates. - Abstract: A reliable performance assessment of deep geological disposal of nuclear waste depends on better knowledge of radionuclide interactions with natural microbes of geological formations (granitic rock, clay, salts) used to host these disposal systems. In Spain, clay deposits from Cabo de Gata region, Almeria, are investigated for this purpose. The present work characterizes the culture-dependent microbial diversity of two bentonite samples (BI and BII) recovered from Spanish clay deposits. The evaluation of aerobe and facultative anaerobe microbial populations shows the presence of a high number of cultivable bacteria (e.g. Stenotrophomonas, Micrococcus, Arthrobacter, Kocuria, Sphingomonas, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, etc.) affiliated to three phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. In addition, a pigmented yeast strain BII-R8 related to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was also recovered from these formations. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of uranium for the growth of these natural isolates were found to range from 4 to 10.0 mM. For instance, strain R. mucilaginosa BII-R8 was shown to tolerate up to 8 mM of U. Flow cytometry studies indicated that the high U tolerance of this yeast isolate is a biologically mediated process. Microscopically dense intracellular and cell wall-bound precipitates were observed by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy-High-Angle Annular Dark-Field (STEM-HAADF). Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) element-distribution maps showed the presence of U and P within these accumulates, indicating the ability of cells to precipitate U as U(VI) phosphate minerals. Fundamental understanding of the

  2. Microbial communities in bentonite formations and their interactions with uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Fernández, Margarita; Fernández-Sanfrancisco, Omar; Moreno-García, Alberto; Martín-Sánchez, Inés; Sánchez-Castro, Iván; Merroun, Mohamed Larbi, E-mail: merroun@ugr.es

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Microbial diversity of Spanish bentonites was studied. • High number of aerobe and facultative anaerobe microbes were isolated from bentonites. • Natural bentonite microbes are able to tolerate high U concentrations. • U is immobilized by the cells of the strain Rhodotorula mucilaginosa BII-R8 as U(VI) phosphates. - Abstract: A reliable performance assessment of deep geological disposal of nuclear waste depends on better knowledge of radionuclide interactions with natural microbes of geological formations (granitic rock, clay, salts) used to host these disposal systems. In Spain, clay deposits from Cabo de Gata region, Almeria, are investigated for this purpose. The present work characterizes the culture-dependent microbial diversity of two bentonite samples (BI and BII) recovered from Spanish clay deposits. The evaluation of aerobe and facultative anaerobe microbial populations shows the presence of a high number of cultivable bacteria (e.g. Stenotrophomonas, Micrococcus, Arthrobacter, Kocuria, Sphingomonas, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, etc.) affiliated to three phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. In addition, a pigmented yeast strain BII-R8 related to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was also recovered from these formations. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of uranium for the growth of these natural isolates were found to range from 4 to 10.0 mM. For instance, strain R. mucilaginosa BII-R8 was shown to tolerate up to 8 mM of U. Flow cytometry studies indicated that the high U tolerance of this yeast isolate is a biologically mediated process. Microscopically dense intracellular and cell wall-bound precipitates were observed by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy-High-Angle Annular Dark-Field (STEM-HAADF). Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) element-distribution maps showed the presence of U and P within these accumulates, indicating the ability of cells to precipitate U as U(VI) phosphate minerals. Fundamental understanding of the

  3. Characterization of residues from thermal treatment of treated wood and extraction of Cu, Cr, As and Zn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Christensen, Iben Vernegren

    2005-01-01

    , that the charcoal contained a high concentration of Zn, probably from paint. Chemical extraction experiments in HNO were conducted with the charcoal and it was found that the order of extraction (in percentage) was Zn > Cu > As > Cr. A SEM/EDX investigation of the mixed ash from combustion showed the presence...... a matter to cope with when methods to avoid As emission are implemented: the residues with increased concentrations of Cu, Cr and As. In the present paper two different residues after thermal treatment are characterized: a mixed bottom and fly ash from combustion of CCA impregnated wood, and a charcoal...... form in a small layer on the surface of some matrix particles indicating condensation of volatile Cu species. Chemical extraction with inorganic acids showed the order of percentages mobilized as: As > Cu > Cr....

  4. Atomic force microscopy study of TiO2 sol-gel films thermally treated under NH3 atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapalis, C.; Todorova, N.; Anastasescu, M.; Anastasescu, C.; Stoica, M.; Gartner, M.; Zaharescu, M.; Stoica, T.

    2009-01-01

    Multilayered TiO 2 films were obtained by sol-gel and dipping deposition on quartz substrate followed by thermal treatment under NH 3 atmosphere. In an attempt to understand the close relationship between microstructural characteristics and the synthesis parameters, a systematic research of the structure and the morphology of NH 3 modified TiO 2 sol-gel films by XRD and Atomic Force Microscopy is reported. The surface morphology has been evaluated in terms of grains size, fractal dimension and surface roughness. For each surface, it was found a self-similar behavior (with mean fractal dimension in the range of 2.67-3.00) related to an optimum morphology favorable to maintain a nano-size distribution of the grains. The root mean square (RMS) roughness of the samples was found to be in the range of 0.72-6.02 nm.

  5. An integrated fingerprinting and kinetic approach to accelerated shelf-life testing of chemical changes in thermally treated carrot puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Biniam T; Grauwet, Tara; Magpusao, Johannes; Palmers, Stijn; Michiels, Chris; Hendrickx, Marc; Loey, Ann Van

    2015-07-15

    To have a better understanding of chemical reactions during shelf-life, an integrated analytical and engineering toolbox: "fingerprinting-kinetics" was used. As a case study, a thermally sterilised carrot puree was selected. Sterilised purees were stored at four storage temperatures as a function of time. Fingerprinting enabled selection of volatiles clearly changing during shelf-life. Only these volatiles were identified and studied further. Next, kinetic modelling was performed to investigate the suitability of these volatiles as quality indices (markers) for accelerated shelf-life testing (ASLT). Fingerprinting enabled selection of terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, fatty acid derivatives, Strecker aldehydes and sulphur compounds as volatiles clearly changing during shelf-life. The amount of Strecker aldehydes increased during storage, whereas the rest of the volatiles decreased. Out of the volatiles, based on the applied kinetic modelling, myristicin, α-terpinolene, β-pinene, α-terpineol and octanal were identified as potential markers for ASLT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical and chemical stability of the bentonite buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinsong Liu; Neretnieks, Ivars [Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal I nstitute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    A literature study was made on previous work on clay erosion and on the fundamental processes that govern the stability of clay gels. Mechanical erosion has been studied earlier and models devised to estimate the tendency to erode. We have used a different approach that we deem is fundamentally more correct. Chemical erosion processes have not been found to be studied previously and we have approached the problem by applying simple but fundamental mass balances and transport processes to the problem. The physical and chemical processes that govern the repulsive and cohesive forces in clay are well understood in principle but cannot yet be applied quantitatively to predict the gel/sol behaviour of the bentonite clay. It was necessary to rely directly on laboratory measurements for information on swelling and gel/sol properties. The backfill bentonite clay acts as a Bingham fluid over a wide range of clay density. To mobilise the clay a shear stress larger than the Bingham yield stress must be applied to the gel. The Bingham yield stress has been measured to be larger than 1 Pa (N/m{sup 2}) although it cannot be ruled out that lower values can be found under different experimental conditions than those reported. Shear stresses exerted by the water flowing in the fractures that intersect the deposition holes with the clay backfill have been estimated for a wide range of fracture transmissivities, apertures and hydraulic gradients that could exist under repository conditions. This includes the extremely high gradients that could exist during some periods during an ice age. For fracture transmissivities ranging from 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s, fracture apertures from 0.1 to 2 mm and the hydraulic gradients from 0.01 to 1 mH{sub 2}O/m, the largest local shear stress found in this range was about 0.1 Pa. To investigate a 'what if' situation where the shear stress exceeds the yield stress simple models were devised. They were used to assess the rate of

  7. Physical and chemical stability of the bentonite buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinsong Liu; Neretnieks, Ivars

    2007-12-01

    A literature study was made on previous work on clay erosion and on the fundamental processes that govern the stability of clay gels. Mechanical erosion has been studied earlier and models devised to estimate the tendency to erode. We have used a different approach that we deem is fundamentally more correct. Chemical erosion processes have not been found to be studied previously and we have approached the problem by applying simple but fundamental mass balances and transport processes to the problem. The physical and chemical processes that govern the repulsive and cohesive forces in clay are well understood in principle but cannot yet be applied quantitatively to predict the gel/sol behaviour of the bentonite clay. It was necessary to rely directly on laboratory measurements for information on swelling and gel/sol properties. The backfill bentonite clay acts as a Bingham fluid over a wide range of clay density. To mobilise the clay a shear stress larger than the Bingham yield stress must be applied to the gel. The Bingham yield stress has been measured to be larger than 1 Pa (N/m 2 ) although it cannot be ruled out that lower values can be found under different experimental conditions than those reported. Shear stresses exerted by the water flowing in the fractures that intersect the deposition holes with the clay backfill have been estimated for a wide range of fracture transmissivities, apertures and hydraulic gradients that could exist under repository conditions. This includes the extremely high gradients that could exist during some periods during an ice age. For fracture transmissivities ranging from 10 -9 to 10 -6 m 2 /s, fracture apertures from 0.1 to 2 mm and the hydraulic gradients from 0.01 to 1 mH 2 O/m, the largest local shear stress found in this range was about 0.1 Pa. To investigate a 'what if' situation where the shear stress exceeds the yield stress simple models were devised. They were used to assess the rate of erosion by the groundwater. In

  8. Early age sealing of buffer-rock gap by artificial wetting to induce bentonite swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, Erika; Marjavaara, Pieti

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The aim of this work is to study the homogeneous and rapid swelling of bentonite in the gap between the buffer blocks and the rock wall of the Olkiluoto disposal facility by artificial wetting. The focus was on the construction period of the deposition hole and buffer, and thus only the very early ages of the first weeks. In practice it is desirable that the bentonite material has a volume increase sufficient enough to prevent rock scaling while lowering the risks of bentonite piping and erosion due to potential water flow. This initial study was done in a small-scale mock-up in laboratory conditions. The small-scale steel mock-up had dimensions of 39 cm in height by 36 cm in diameter and included 12 pressure sensors, two displacement transducers, thermal couples, and pore water pressure measurements. The radial and axial pressure development was typically measured over a two week period to assess the rate and magnitude of sealing. A steel confining lid was used for simulating overpressure, though in some cases a plexiglass lid was used to take video images of the gap sealing. The buffer blocks were produced by isostatic compression of 100 MPa. The material was MX-80 Wyoming bentonite having a water content of approximately 13% and a dry density of 1890 kg/m 3 . The testing samples were dry sawn and core drilled from the large block and machined to their final dimensions. These were typically 30 x 30 cm, either as a solid block or three disks of 10 cm height each. The diameter was sometimes varied to allow for a change of gap width between 25 to 50 mm The study included various scenarios, such as: eccentric aligned blocks with gap sizes of 5 and 45 mm, free upward swelling or confinement, different types of pellet and granular gap filling, addition of water at varying rates, and longer term test duration. The samples were typically disassembled after two weeks. At this ending point, material assessments were done

  9. Investigation of Erosion of Cement-Bentonite via Piping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement-bentonite is one of the main materials used in the seepage barriers to protect earth dams and levees from water erosion. However, the current understanding of the erodibility of the cementitious materials and the interactions between cracked seepage barriers and the water flow is inadequate. Based on the laboratory pinhole erosion test, we first investigated the impacts of cement-ben