WorldWideScience

Sample records for thermally stimulated deformations

  1. Thermal elastic deformations of the planet Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1972-01-01

    The variation in solar heating due to the resonance rotation of Mercury produces periodic elastic deformations on the surface of the planet. The thermal stress and strain fields under Mercury's surface are calculated after certain simplifications. It is found that deformations penetrate to a greater depth than the variation of solar heating, and that the thermal strain on the surface of the planet pulsates with an amplitude of .004 and a period of 176 days.

  2. Thermally stimulated exoelectron emission from solid Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khyzhniy, I.V.; Grigorashchenko, O.N.; Savchenko, E.V.; Ponomarev, A.N.; Bondybey, V.E.

    2007-01-01

    Thermally-stimulated emission of exoelectrons and photons from solid Xe pre-irradiated by low-energy electrons were studied. A high sensitivity of thermally-stimulated luminescence (TSL) and thermally-stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) to sample prehistory was demonstrated. It was shown that electron traps in unannealed samples are characterized by much broader distribution of trap levels in comparison with annealed samples and their concentration exceeds in number that in annealed samples. Both phenomena, TSL and TSEE, were found to be triggered by release of electrons from the same kind of traps. The data obtained suggest a competition between two relaxation channels: charge recombination and electron transport terminated by TSL and TSEE. It was found that TSEE predominates at low temperatures while at higher temperatures TSL prevails. An additional relaxation channel, a photon-stimulated exoelectron emission pre-irradiated solid Xe, was revealed

  3. Thermally stimulated scattering in plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dysthe, K. B.; Mjølhus, E.; Pécseli, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    this experiment local heat conduction is of little importance and the dynamic evolution for the electron temperature is dominated by heating and energy exchange with the ion component. These features are incorporated in the analysis. The resulting set of equations gives a growth rate and characteristic scale size......A theory for stimulated scattering of a laser beam is formulated where the dominant nonlinearity is the ohmic heating of the plasma. The analysis is carried out with particular reference to experimental investigations of CO2 laser heating of linear discharge plasma. In the conditions characterizing...

  4. Effect of plastic deformation on the niobium thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskij, E.M.; Bychkova, M.I.; Kanikovskij, V.B.

    1978-01-01

    Using dilatometric method the effect of plastic deformation on change of thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of niobium of different purity was studied. It was shown that deformation affected the TEC in different ways. At first the deformation degree rising causes linear decrease of the TEC and then linear increase. Carbon intensifies the TEC decrease of deformed niobium. The linear correlation was established between the TEC and the value of macroscopic stresses in plastic deformed niobium. The expression indicating the metal TEC change under loading was defined for case of strain hardening

  5. Human transient response under local thermal stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human body can operate physiological thermoregulation system when it is exposed to cold or hot environment. Whether it can do the same work when a local part of body is stimulated by different temperatures? The objective of this paper is to prove it. Twelve subjects are recruited to participate in this experiment. After stabilizing in a comfort environment, their palms are stimulated by a pouch of 39, 36, 33, 30, and 27°C. Subject’s skin temperature, heart rate, heat flux of skin, and thermal sensation are recorded. The results indicate that when local part is suffering from harsh temperature, the whole body is doing physiological thermoregulation. Besides, when the local part is stimulated by high temperature and its thermal sensation is warm, the thermal sensation of whole body can be neutral. What is more, human body is more sensitive to cool stimulation than to warm one. The conclusions are significant to reveal and make full use of physiological thermoregulation.

  6. Thermal-mechanical deformation modelling of soft tissues for thermal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhong, Yongmin; Jazar, Reza; Subic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Modeling of thermal-induced mechanical behaviors of soft tissues is of great importance for thermal ablation. This paper presents a method by integrating the heating process with thermal-induced mechanical deformations of soft tissues for simulation and analysis of the thermal ablation process. This method combines bio-heat transfer theories, constitutive elastic material law under thermal loads as well as non-rigid motion dynamics to predict and analyze thermal-mechanical deformations of soft tissues. The 3D governing equations of thermal-mechanical soft tissue deformation are discretized by using the finite difference scheme and are subsequently solved by numerical algorithms. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively predict the thermal-induced mechanical behaviors of soft tissues, and can be used for the thermal ablation therapy to effectively control the delivered heat energy for cancer treatment.

  7. The analysis of thermally stimulated processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, R; Pamplin, Brian

    1981-01-01

    Thermally stimulated processes include a number of phenomena - either physical or chemical in nature - in which a certain property of a substance is measured during controlled heating from a 'low' temperature. Workers and graduate students in a wide spectrum of fields require an introduction to methods of extracting information from such measurements. This book gives an interdisciplinary approach to various methods which may be applied to analytical chemistry including radiation dosimetry and determination of archaeological and geological ages. In addition, recent advances are included, such

  8. Isoconversional kinetics of thermally stimulated processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vyazovkin, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    The use of isoconversional kinetic methods for analysis of thermogravimetric and calorimetric data on thermally stimulated processes is quickly growing in popularity. The purpose of this book is to create the first comprehensive resource on the theory and applications of isoconversional methodology. The book introduces the reader to the kinetics of physical and chemical condensed phase processes that occur as a result of changing temperature and discusses how isoconversional analysis can provide important kinetic insights into them. The book will help the readers to develop a better understanding of the methodology, and promote its efficient usage and successful development.

  9. In vitro deposition of hydroxyapatite on cortical bone collagen stimulated by deformation-induced piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noris-Suárez, Karem; Lira-Olivares, Joaquin; Ferreira, Ana Marina; Feijoo, José Luis; Suárez, Nery; Hernández, Maria C; Barrios, Esteban

    2007-03-01

    In the present work, we have studied the effect of the piezoelectricity of elastically deformed cortical bone collagen on surface using a biomimetic approach. The mineralization process induced as a consequence of the piezoelectricity effect was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). SEM micrographs showed that mineralization occurred predominantly over the compressed side of bone collagen, due to the effect of piezoelectricity, when the sample was immersed in the simulated body fluid (SBF) in a cell-free system. The TSDC method was used to examine the complex collagen dielectric response. The dielectric spectra of deformed and undeformed collagen samples with different hydration levels were compared and correlated with the mineralization process followed by SEM. The dielectric measurements showed that the mineralization induced significant changes in the dielectric spectra of the deformed sample. DSC and TSDC results demonstrated a reduction of the collagen glass transition as the mineralization process advanced. The combined use of SEM, TSDC, and DSC showed that, even without osteoblasts present, the piezoelectric dipoles produced by deformed collagen can produce the precipitation of hydroxyapatite by electrochemical means, without a catalytic converter as occurs in classical biomimetic deposition.

  10. Thermally Stimulated Currents in Nanocrystalline Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Bruzzi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A thorough study on the distribution of defect-related active energy levels has been performed on nanocrystalline TiO2. Films have been deposited on thick-alumina printed circuit boards equipped with electrical contacts, heater and temperature sensors, to carry out a detailed thermally stimulated currents analysis on a wide temperature range (5–630 K, in view to evidence contributions from shallow to deep energy levels within the gap. Data have been processed by numerically modelling electrical transport. The model considers both free and hopping contribution to conduction, a density of states characterized by an exponential tail of localized states below the conduction band and the convolution of standard Thermally Stimulated Currents (TSC emissions with gaussian distributions to take into account the variability in energy due to local perturbations in the highly disordered network. Results show that in the low temperature range, up to 200 K, hopping within the exponential band tail represents the main contribution to electrical conduction. Above room temperature, electrical conduction is dominated by free carriers contribution and by emissions from deep energy levels, with a defect density ranging within 1014–1018 cm−3, associated with physio- and chemi-sorbed water vapour, OH groups and to oxygen vacancies.

  11. Interface conductance between roughened Be and steel under thermal deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillack, M.S.; Abelson, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    Predictability and control over temperatures and stresses are necessary in order to assure acceptable tritium release, component reliability and lifetime in solid breeder blankets. These blankets usually contain beryllium multiplier in either pebble-bed or solid block forms. For the solid block forms, uncertainties remain in the prediction of the thermal resistance between the Be and its cladding. Several parameters are important, including surface roughness and flatness, background gas pressure, and external loads which may result from blanket thermal deformations and/or pressure stresses. Differential thermal deformation between Be and steel can cause separation to occur between the two solid surfaces, which could seriously degrade the heat transfer. Existing models and data for solid-solid conductance show inconsistencies, even for steel surfaces. Little data or none exists for the Be-steel system, in which differential surface deformations are expected. In this work, we describe a new model which incorporates the combined influences of thermal deformation and contact pressure. Data were taken with small Be specimens as a function of the relevant parameters. The results show that the inclusion of non-conforming surfaces provides a richer range of behavior. Thermal deformations degrade the heat transfer by about a factor of two from flat surfaces, but this effect tends to decrease above about 100 kW m -2 . Contact pressure (above about 1 MPa) between the two materials can effectively maintain good conductance. The flatness and roughness of the surfaces are the most critical parameters. The work also demonstrates the large degree of variation in conductance with background gas pressure. (orig.)

  12. The thermal and mechanical deformation study of up-stream pumping mechanical seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H L; Xu, C; Zuo, M Z; Wu, Q B

    2015-01-01

    Taking the viscosity-temperature relationship of the fluid film into consideration, a 3-D numerical model was established by ANSYS software which can simulate the heat transfer between the upstream pumping mechanical seal stationary and rotational rings and the fluid film between them as well as simulate the thermal deformation, structure deformation and the coupling deformation of them. According to the calculation result, thermal deformation causes the seal face expansion and the maximum thermal deformation appears at the inside of the seal ring. Pressure results in a mechanical deformation, the maximum deformation occurs at the top of the spiral groove and the overall trend is inward the mating face, opposite to the thermal deformation. The coupling deformation indicate that the thermal deformation can be partly counteracted by pressure deformation. Using this model, the relationship between deformation and shaft speed and the sealing liquid pressure was studied. It's found that the shaft speed will both enhance the thermal and structure deformation and the fluid pressure will enhance the structure deformation but has little to do with the thermal deformation. By changing the sealing material, it's found that material with low thermal expansion coefficient and low elastic modulus will suffer less thermal-pressure deformation

  13. The thermal and mechanical deformation study of up-stream pumping mechanical seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. L.; Xu, C.; Zuo, M. Z.; Wu, Q. B.

    2015-01-01

    Taking the viscosity-temperature relationship of the fluid film into consideration, a 3-D numerical model was established by ANSYS software which can simulate the heat transfer between the upstream pumping mechanical seal stationary and rotational rings and the fluid film between them as well as simulate the thermal deformation, structure deformation and the coupling deformation of them. According to the calculation result, thermal deformation causes the seal face expansion and the maximum thermal deformation appears at the inside of the seal ring. Pressure results in a mechanical deformation, the maximum deformation occurs at the top of the spiral groove and the overall trend is inward the mating face, opposite to the thermal deformation. The coupling deformation indicate that the thermal deformation can be partly counteracted by pressure deformation. Using this model, the relationship between deformation and shaft speed and the sealing liquid pressure was studied. It's found that the shaft speed will both enhance the thermal and structure deformation and the fluid pressure will enhance the structure deformation but has little to do with the thermal deformation. By changing the sealing material, it's found that material with low thermal expansion coefficient and low elastic modulus will suffer less thermal-pressure deformation.

  14. Practical Calculation of Thermal Deformation and Manufacture Error uin Surface Grinding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周里群; 李玉平

    2002-01-01

    The paper submits a method to calculate thermal deformation and manufacture error in surface grinding.The author established a simplified temperature field model.and derived the thermal deformaiton of the ground workpiece,It is found that there exists not only a upwarp thermal deformation,but also a parallel expansion thermal deformation.A upwarp thermal deformation causes a concave shape error on the profile of the workpiece,and a parallel expansion thermal deformation causes a dimension error in height.The calculations of examples are given and compared with presented experiment data.

  15. Method for compensating bellows pressure loads while accommodating thermal deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodle, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Many metal bellows are used on storage ring vacuum chambers. They allow the ring to accommodate deformations associated with alignment, mechanical assembly and thermal expansion. The NSLS has two such electron storage rings, the vuv ring and the x-ray ring. Both rings utilize a number of welded metal bellows within the ring and at every beam port. There are provisions for 16 beam ports on the vuv and 28 ports in the x-ray ring. At each of these locations the bellows are acted on by an external pressure of 1 atmosphere, which causes a 520 lb reaction at the vacuum chamber beam port and at the beamline flange downstream of the bellows. The use of rigid tie rods across the bellows flanges to support this load is troublesome because most storage ring vacuum chambers are baked in situ to achieve high internal vacuum. Significant forces can develop on components if thermal deformation is restrained and damage could occur

  16. Understanding thermally activated plastic deformation behavior of Zircaloy-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Alomari, A.; Murty, K. L.

    2018-06-01

    Understanding micromechanics of plastic deformation of existing materials is essential for improving their properties further and/or developing advanced materials for much more severe load bearing applications. The objective of the present work was to understand micromechanics of plastic deformation of Zircaloy-4, a zirconium-based alloy used as fuel cladding and channel (in BWRs) material in nuclear reactors. The Zircaloy-4 in recrystallized (at 973 K for 4 h) condition was subjected to uniaxial tensile testing at a constant cross-head velocity at temperatures in the range 293 K-1073 K and repeated stress relaxation tests at 293 K, 573 K, and 773 K. The minimum in the total elongation was indicative of dynamic strain aging phenomenon in this alloy in the intermediate temperature regime. The yield stress of the alloy was separated into effective and athermal components and the transition from thermally activated dislocation glide to athermal regime took place at around 673 K with the athermal stress estimated to be 115 MPa. The activation volume was found to be in the range of 40 b3 to 160 b3. The activation volume values and the data analyses using the solid-solution models in literature indicated dislocation-solute interaction to be a potential deformation mechanism in thermally activated regime. The activation energy calculated at 573 K was very close to that found for diffusivity of oxygen in α-Zr that was suggestive of dislocations-oxygen interaction during plastic deformation. This type of information may be helpful in alloy design in selecting different elements to control the deformation behavior of the material and impart desired mechanical properties in those materials for specific applications.

  17. Shear deformation-induced anisotropic thermal conductivity of graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liu; Shi, Sanqiang; Wei, Gaosheng; Du, Xiaoze

    2018-01-03

    Graphene-based materials exhibit intriguing phononic and thermal properties. In this paper, we have investigated the heat conductance in graphene sheets under shear-strain-induced wrinkling deformation, using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. A significant orientation dependence of the thermal conductivity of graphene wrinkles (GWs) is observed. The directional dependence of the thermal conductivity of GWs stems from the anisotropy of phonon group velocities as revealed by the G-band broadening of the phonon density of states (DOS), the anisotropy of thermal resistance as evidenced by the G-band peak mismatch of the phonon DOS, and the anisotropy of phonon relaxation times as a direct result of the double-exponential-fitting of the heat current autocorrelation function. By analyzing the relative contributions of different lattice vibrations to the heat flux, we have shown that the contributions of different lattice vibrations to the heat flux of GWs are sensitive to the heat flux direction, which further indicates the orientation-dependent thermal conductivity of GWs. Moreover, we have found that, in the strain range of 0-0.1, the anisotropy ratio of GWs increases monotonously with increasing shear strain. This is induced by the change in the number of wrinkles, which is more influential in the direction perpendicular to the wrinkle texture. The findings elucidated here emphasize the utility of wrinkle engineering for manipulation of nanoscale heat transport, which offers opportunities for the development of thermal channeling devices.

  18. Instanton transition in thermal and moduli deformed de Sitter cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kounnas, Costas; Partouche, Herve

    2008-01-01

    We consider the de Sitter cosmology deformed by the presence of a thermal bath of radiation and/or time-dependent moduli fields. Depending on the parameters, either a first or second-order phase transition can occur. In the first case, an instanton allows a double analytic continuation. It induces a probability to enter the inflationary evolution by tunnel effect from another cosmological solution. The latter starts with a big bang and, in the case the transition does not occur, ends with a big crunch. A temperature duality exchanges the two cosmological branches. In the limit where the pure de Sitter universe is recovered, the tunnel effect reduces to a 'creation from nothing', due to the vanishing of the big bang branch. However, the latter may be viable in some range of the deformation parameter. In the second case, there is a smooth evolution from a big bang to the inflationary phase

  19. Deformation analysis considering thermal expansion of injection mold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Hyung; Yi, Dae Eun; Jang, Jeong Hui; Lee, Min Seok

    2015-01-01

    In the design of injection molds, the temperature distribution and deformation of the mold is one of the most important parameters that affect the flow characteristics, flash generation, and surface appearance, etc. Plastic injection analyses have been carried out to predict the temperature distribution of the mold and the pressure distribution on the cavity surface. As the input loads, we transfer the temperature and pressure results to the structural analysis. We compare the structural analysis results with the thermal expansion effect using the actual flash and step size of a smartphone cover part. To reduce the flash problem, we proposed a new mold design, and verified the results by performing simulations

  20. Deformation analysis considering thermal expansion of injection mold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Hyung; Yi, Dae Eun; Jang, Jeong Hui; Lee, Min Seok [Samsung Electronics Co., LTD., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In the design of injection molds, the temperature distribution and deformation of the mold is one of the most important parameters that affect the flow characteristics, flash generation, and surface appearance, etc. Plastic injection analyses have been carried out to predict the temperature distribution of the mold and the pressure distribution on the cavity surface. As the input loads, we transfer the temperature and pressure results to the structural analysis. We compare the structural analysis results with the thermal expansion effect using the actual flash and step size of a smartphone cover part. To reduce the flash problem, we proposed a new mold design, and verified the results by performing simulations.

  1. A thermal comparator sensor for measuring autogenous deformation in hardening Portland cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Thomas; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a simple and accurate experimental device specially developed to measure autogenous deformation in hardening cement-based materials. The measuring system consists of a so-called thermal comparator sensor and a modular thermostatically controlled system. The operating principle...... of the thermal comparator is based on thermal expansion of aluminium. A particular characteristic of the measuring system is the fixation of the thermal comparator sensor to the deforming specimen. The modular system ensures effective thermostatic control of the hydrating cement paste samples. The technique...... allows continuous measurement with high accuracy of the linear deformation as well as determination of the activation energy of autogenous deformation....

  2. Effects of thermal deformation on optical instruments for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segato, E.; Da Deppo, V.; Debei, S.; Cremonese, G.

    2017-11-01

    Optical instruments for space missions work in hostile environment, it's thus necessary to accurately study the effects of ambient parameters variations on the equipment. In particular optical instruments are very sensitive to ambient conditions, especially temperature. This variable can cause dilatations and misalignments of the optical elements, and can also lead to rise of dangerous stresses in the optics. Their displacements and the deformations degrade the quality of the sampled images. In this work a method for studying the effects of the temperature variations on the performance of imaging instrument is presented. The optics and their mountings are modeled and processed by a thermo-mechanical Finite Element Model (FEM) analysis, then the output data, which describe the deformations of the optical element surfaces, are elaborated using an ad hoc MATLAB routine: a non-linear least square optimization algorithm is adopted to determine the surface equations (plane, spherical, nth polynomial) which best fit the data. The obtained mathematical surface representations are then directly imported into ZEMAX for sequential raytracing analysis. The results are the variations of the Spot Diagrams, of the MTF curves and of the Diffraction Ensquared Energy due to simulated thermal loads. This method has been successfully applied to the Stereo Camera for the BepiColombo mission reproducing expected operative conditions. The results help to design and compare different optical housing systems for a feasible solution and show that it is preferable to use kinematic constraints on prisms and lenses to minimize the variation of the optical performance of the Stereo Camera.

  3. Thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC) and dielectric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2001-10-09

    Oct 9, 2001 ... Measurements of TSDC and dielectric constant, ε′, have been ... Keywords. Semiconducting glass; TSDC; trap energy; dielectric constant. 1. ... determination of mean depth of the internal charge, activation ... thermal charging, viz. (i) internal ... the basis of d.c. conductivity and short range Na+ ion motion.

  4. Dosimetry based on thermally and optically stimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agersnap Larsen, Niels

    1999-01-01

    Thermally Stimulated Luminescence (TL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) properties of quartz and α-Al 2 O 3 have been investigated. Anneling-induced OSL and TL sensitivity changes in quartz has been investigated by experiments and modelling. This study does not support a pre-dose effect to account for the observed annealing-induced sensitivity change. The experimental data indicates a more simple mechanism that involves alteration of the concentration of the defect centers. Results from modelling of removal or creation of defect centers comparing well with experimentally obtained data. Thermal quenching of luminescence for the main emission center, the F-center, in α-Al 2 O 3 :C has been investigated by analysing TL curves obtained at different heating rates. The thermal quenching dependence of luminescence is found to follow the classical Mott-Seitz expression. Basic investigations of OSL properties of αAl 2 O 3 :C, including: the thermal depth of the OSL traps, the temperature dependence of OSL, and the OSL stimulation spectra. Simultaneous measurements of TL and thermally stimulated conductivity (TSC) are presented for γ-irradiated αAl 2 O 3 :C. Activation energy analysis of the data reveals a superposition of several first-order TL and TSC peaks caused by release of charge carriers from a distribution of trapping states. Furthermore a description of an experimental method developed to determine the sign of the thermally released charge carriers has been presented. (au)

  5. Nociceptive responses to thermal and mechanical stimulations in awake pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Herskin, Mette S.

    2013-01-01

    body sizes (30 and 60 kg) were exposed to thermal (CO(2) laser) and mechanical (pressure application measurement device) stimulations to the flank and the hind legs in a balanced order. The median response latency and the type of behavioural response were recorded. RESULTS: Small pigs exhibited...... animal studies in a large species require further examination. This manuscript describes the initial development of a porcine model of cutaneous nociception and focuses on interactions between the sensory modality, body size and the anatomical location of the stimulation site. METHODS: Pigs of different...... significantly lower pain thresholds (shorter latency to response) than large pigs to thermal and mechanical stimulations. Stimulations at the two anatomical locations elicited very distinct sets of behavioural responses, with different levels of sensitivity between the flank and the hind legs. Furthermore...

  6. Mapping reservoir volume changes during cyclic steam stimulation using tiltmeter-based surface deformation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, J.; Davis, E.J.; Roadarmel, W.H.; Wolhart, S.L.; Marsic, S.; Gusek, R.; Wright, C.A. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Pinnacle Technologies Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Brissenden, S.J.; McGillivray, P. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Calgary Research Centre; Bourne, S.; Hofstra, P. [Shell International E and P, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    Surface deformation measurements have been effectively used to monitor production, waterflooding, waste injection and steam flooding in oil fields, and in cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) applications. It was shown that further information can be obtained from this technique by inverting the surface deformation for the volumetric deformation at the reservoir level, so that the aerial distribution of volumetric distribution can be identified. A poroelastic model calculated deformation resulting from volumetric changes in the reservoir. A linear geophysical model was then formulated to invert the reservoir volumetric deformation from the measured surface deformation. Constraints were applied to resolve the inversion problem. Theoretical surface deformation was calculated after each inversion from the inverted volumetric deformation distribution which best fit the measured information data, or tilt, at the surface. The technique was then applied to real data from a CSS injection project at Shell Canada's Peace River development in northern Alberta, where several pads of horizontal wells have been developed. A total of 50 tiltmeters were used to monitor half of Pad A and 70 tiltmeters were used to monitor Pad B. Monitoring was used to identify and characterize any hydraulic fracturing that was contributing to injection mechanisms in the reservoir. It was noted that inverting the measured surface tilt for the volumetric change at reservoir levels improved the ability to interpret reservoir processes. It was observed that volumetric changes can be non-uniform with some pad areas deforming more than others. It was concluded that deformation-based, reservoir-level monitoring has proven helpful in ongoing efforts to optimize such variables as the length of well laterals, injection rates, lateral spacing and cycle times. 10 refs., 32 figs.

  7. Measurement of the stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karr, T.J.; Rushford, M.C.; Murray, J.R.; Morris, J.R.

    1989-04-01

    Growth of perturbations due to stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering was observed on a laser beam propagating in a 1 meter cell of CC14. Initial sinusoidal irradiance perturbations were seeded onto the laser leam, and their amplification in the cell was recorded by a near field camera. The perturbation growth rate is in agreement with analytical predictions of linearized propagation theory

  8. Calculation of thermal deformations in water-cooled monochromator crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Ario; Hashimoto, Shinya; Motohashi, Haruhiko

    1994-11-01

    Through calculation of temperature distribution and thermal deformation of monochromators, optical degradation by the heat loads in SPring-8 have been discussed. Cooling experiments were made on three models of copper structures with the JAERI Electron Beam Irradiation Stand (JEBIS) and the results were used to estimate heat transfer coefficients in the models. The heat transfer coefficients have been adopted to simulate heating processes on silicon models of the same structures as the copper models, for which radiations from the SPring-8 bending magnet and the JAERI prototype undulator (WPH-33J) were considered. It has been concluded that, in the case of bending magnet (with power density of 0.27[MW/m 2 ] on monochromator surface), the temperature at the surface center reaches about 30[degC] from the initial temperature of 27[degC] in all the models. In the case of WPH-33J (with power density of 8.2[MW/m 2 ]), the temperature reaches about 200 to 280[degC] depending on the models. The radiation from WPH-33J yields slope errors bigger than the Darwin's width(23[μrad]). (author)

  9. Dosimetry based on thermally and optically stimulated luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agersnap Larsen, Niels

    1999-01-01

    Thermally Stimulated Luminescence (TL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) properties of quartz and {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been investigated. Anneling-induced OSL and TL sensitivity changes in quartz has been investigated by experiments and modelling. This study does not support a pre-dose effect to account for the observed annealing-induced sensitivity change. The experimental data indicates a more simple mechanism that involves alteration of the concentration of the defect centers. Results from modelling of removal or creation of defect centers comparing well with experimentally obtained data. Thermal quenching of luminescence for the main emission center, the F-center, in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C has been investigated by analysing TL curves obtained at different heating rates. The thermal quenching dependence of luminescence is found to follow the classical Mott-Seitz expression. Basic investigations of OSL properties of {alpha}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C, including: the thermal depth of the OSL traps, the temperature dependence of OSL, and the OSL stimulation spectra. Simultaneous measurements of TL and thermally stimulated conductivity (TSC) are presented for {gamma}-irradiated {alpha}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C. Activation energy analysis of the data reveals a superposition of several first-order TL and TSC peaks caused by release of charge carriers from a distribution of trapping states. Furthermore a description of an experimental method developed to determine the sign of the thermally released charge carriers has been presented. (au) 8 tabs., 59 ills., 90 refs.

  10. The Lamb wave bandgap variation of a locally resonant phononic crystal subjected to thermal deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Li, Zhen; Li, Yue-ming

    2018-05-01

    A study on dynamical characteristics of a ternary locally resonant phononic crystal (PC) plate (i.e., hard scatterer with soft coating periodically disperse in stiff host matrix) is carried out in this paper. The effect of thermal deformation on the structure stiffness, which plays an important role in the PC's dynamical characteristics, is considered. Results show that both the start and the stop frequency of bandgap shift to higher range with the thermal deformation. In particular, the characteristics of band structure change suddenly at critical buckling temperature. The effect of thermal deformation could be utilized for tuning of phononic band structures, which can promote their design and further applications.

  11. Electrical stimulation vs thermal effects in a complex electromagnetic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Jesús M; Rufo, Montaña; Jiménez, Antonio; Antolín, Alicia; Sánchez, Miguel

    2009-08-01

    Studies linking exposure to low levels of radiofrequencies with adverse health effects, notwithstanding their present apparent inconsistency, have contributed to a steady improvement in the quality of evaluating that exposure. In complex electromagnetic environments, with a multitude of emissions of different frequencies acting simultaneously, knowledge of the spectral content is fundamental to evaluating human exposure to non-ionizing radiation. In the present work, we quantify the most significant spectral components in the frequency band 0.5-2200 MHz in an urban area. The measurements were made with a spectrum analyzer and monopole, biconical, and log-periodic antennas. Power density levels were calculated separately for the medium wave, short wave, and frequency modulation radio broadcasting bands, and for the television and GSM, DCS, and UMTS mobile telephony bands. The measured levels were compared with the ICNIRP reference levels for exposure to multiple frequency sources for thermal effects and electrical stimulation. The results showed the criterion limiting exposure on the basis of preventing electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves and muscles to be stricter (exposure quotient 24.7 10(-4)) than that based on thermal considerations (exposure quotient 0.16 10(-4)). The bands that contribute most to the latter are short wave, with 46.2%, and mobile telephony with 32.6% of the total exposure. In a complex electromagnetic environment, knowledge of the radiofrequency spectrum is essential in order to quantify the contribution of each type of emission to the public's exposure. It is also necessary to evaluate the electrical effects as well as the thermal effects because the criterion to limit exposure on the basis of the effect of the electrical stimulation of tissues is stricter than that based on thermal effects.

  12. Electrical stimulation vs thermal effects in a complex electromagnetic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paniagua, Jesus M.; Rufo, Montana; Jimenez, Antonio; Antolin, Alicia; Sanchez, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Studies linking exposure to low levels of radiofrequencies with adverse health effects, notwithstanding their present apparent inconsistency, have contributed to a steady improvement in the quality of evaluating that exposure. In complex electromagnetic environments, with a multitude of emissions of different frequencies acting simultaneously, knowledge of the spectral content is fundamental to evaluating human exposure to non-ionizing radiation. In the present work, we quantify the most significant spectral components in the frequency band 0.5-2200 MHz in an urban area. The measurements were made with a spectrum analyzer and monopole, biconical, and log-periodic antennas. Power density levels were calculated separately for the medium wave, short wave, and frequency modulation radio broadcasting bands, and for the television and GSM, DCS, and UMTS mobile telephony bands. The measured levels were compared with the ICNIRP reference levels for exposure to multiple frequency sources for thermal effects and electrical stimulation. The results showed the criterion limiting exposure on the basis of preventing electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves and muscles to be stricter (exposure quotient 24.7 10 -4 ) than that based on thermal considerations (exposure quotient 0.16 10 -4 ). The bands that contribute most to the latter are short wave, with 46.2%, and mobile telephony with 32.6% of the total exposure. In a complex electromagnetic environment, knowledge of the radiofrequency spectrum is essential in order to quantify the contribution of each type of emission to the public's exposure. It is also necessary to evaluate the electrical effects as well as the thermal effects because the criterion to limit exposure on the basis of the effect of the electrical stimulation of tissues is stricter than that based on thermal effects.

  13. A new approach to characterize the effect of fabric deformation on thermal protective performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun; Li, Xiaohui; Lu, Yehu; Wang, Yunyi

    2012-01-01

    It is very important to evaluate thermal protective performance (TPP) in laboratory-simulated fire scenes as accurately as possible. For this paper, to thoroughly understand the effect of fabric deformation on basic physical properties and TPP of flame-retardant fabrics exposed to flash fire, a new modified TPP testing apparatus was developed. Different extensions were employed to simulate the various extensions displayed during different body motions. The tests were also carried out with different air gaps. The results showed a significant decrease in air permeability after deformation. However, the change of thickness was slight. The fabric deformation had a complicated effect on thermal protection with different air gaps. The change of TPP depended on the balance between the surface contact area and the thermal insulation. The newly developed testing apparatus could be well employed to evaluate the effect of deformation on TPP of flame-resistant fabrics. (paper)

  14. A new approach to characterize the effect of fabric deformation on thermal protective performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Li, Xiaohui; Lu, Yehu; Wang, Yunyi

    2012-04-01

    It is very important to evaluate thermal protective performance (TPP) in laboratory-simulated fire scenes as accurately as possible. For this paper, to thoroughly understand the effect of fabric deformation on basic physical properties and TPP of flame-retardant fabrics exposed to flash fire, a new modified TPP testing apparatus was developed. Different extensions were employed to simulate the various extensions displayed during different body motions. The tests were also carried out with different air gaps. The results showed a significant decrease in air permeability after deformation. However, the change of thickness was slight. The fabric deformation had a complicated effect on thermal protection with different air gaps. The change of TPP depended on the balance between the surface contact area and the thermal insulation. The newly developed testing apparatus could be well employed to evaluate the effect of deformation on TPP of flame-resistant fabrics.

  15. Test and analysis of thermal ratcheting deformation for 316L stainless steel cylindrical structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Jae Han

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the progressive inelastic deformation, so called, thermal ratchet phenomenon which can occur in high temperature structures of liquid metal simulated with thermal ratchet structural test facility and 316L stainless steel test cylinder. The thermal ratchet deformation at the reactor baffle cylinder of the liquid metal reactor can occur due to the moving temperature distribution along the axial direction as the sodium free surface moves up and down under the cyclic heat-up and cool-down transients. The ratchet deformation was measured with the laser displacement sensor and LVDTs after cooling the structural specimen which is heated up to 550 degree C with steep temperature gradients along the axial direction. The temperature distribution of the test cylinder along the axial direction was measured with 28 channels of thermocouples and was used for the ratchet analysis. The thermal ratchet deformation was analyzed with the constitutive equation of nonlinear combined hardening model which was implemented as ABAQUS user subroutine and the analysis results were compared with those of the test. Thermal ratchet load was applied 9 times and the residual displacement after 9 cycles of thermal load was measured to be 1.79 mm. The ratcheting deformation shapes obtained by the analysis with the combined hardening model were in reasonable agreement with those of the structural tests

  16. Tactile thermal oral stimulation increases the cortical representation of swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suntrup Sonja

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysphagia is a leading complication in stroke patients causing aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition and increased mortality. Current strategies of swallowing therapy involve on the one hand modification of eating behaviour or swallowing technique and on the other hand facilitation of swallowing with the use of pharyngeal sensory stimulation. Thermal tactile oral stimulation (TTOS is an established method to treat patients with neurogenic dysphagia especially if caused by sensory deficits. Little is known about the possible mechanisms by which this interventional therapy may work. We employed whole-head MEG to study changes in cortical activation during self-paced volitional swallowing in fifteen healthy subjects with and without TTOS. Data were analyzed by means of synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM and the group analysis of individual SAM data was performed using a permutation test. Results Compared to the normal swallowing task a significantly increased bilateral cortical activation was seen after oropharyngeal stimulation. Analysis of the chronological changes during swallowing suggests facilitation of both the oral and the pharyngeal phase of deglutition. Conclusion In the present study functional cortical changes elicited by oral sensory stimulation could be demonstrated. We suggest that these results reflect short-term cortical plasticity of sensory swallowing areas. These findings facilitate our understanding of the role of cortical reorganization in dysphagia treatment and recovery.

  17. Thermally induced processes in mixtures of aluminum with organic acids after plastic deformations under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhorin, V. A.; Kiselev, M. R.; Roldugin, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    DSC is used to measure the thermal effects of processes in mixtures of solid organic dibasic acids with powdered aluminum, subjected to plastic deformation under pressures in the range of 0.5-4.0 GPa using an anvil-type high-pressure setup. Analysis of thermograms obtained for the samples after plastic deformation suggests a correlation between the exothermal peaks observed around the temperatures of degradation of the acids and the thermally induced chemical reactions between products of acid degradation and freshly formed surfaces of aluminum particles. The release of heat in the mixtures begins at 30-40°C. The thermal effects in the mixtures of different acids change according to the order of acid reactivity in solutions. The extreme baric dependences of enthalpies of thermal effects are associated with the rearrangement of the electron subsystem of aluminum upon plastic deformation at high pressures.

  18. Thermally stimulated depolarization currents in ThO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.

    1979-01-01

    Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) have been detected in polycrystalline samples of ThO 2 in the temperature range 100K - 350K. The induced polarization is found to be due to migration of charge carriers over microscopic distances with trapping at grain boundaries. Moreover the density of charges carriers released from trapping sites, upon heating the cooled previously dc biased specimen, decreases for increasing sintering temperature, suggesting the use of the technique to the study of grain growth in the bulk of ceramic nuclear oxides [pt

  19. Zero bias thermally stimulated currents in synthetic diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, R.; Miglio, S.; Bruzzi, M.; Bogani, F.; De Sio, A.; Pace, E.

    2009-06-01

    Zero bias thermally stimulated currents (ZBTSCs) have been observed in single crystal high pressure high temperature (HPHT) and polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited (pCVD) diamond films. The ZBTSC technique is characterized by an increased sensitivity with respect to a standard TSC analysis. Due to the absence of the thermally activated background current, new TSC peaks have been observed in both HPHT and pCVD diamond films, related to shallow activation energies usually obscured by the emission of the dominant impurities. The ZBTSC peaks are explained in terms of defect discharge in the nonequilibrium potential distribution created by a nonuniform traps filling at the metal-diamond junctions. The electric field due to the charged defects has been estimated in a quasizero bias TSC experiment by applying an external bias.

  20. Numerical analysis of thermal deformation in laser beam heating of a steel plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao; Kim, Yong-Rae; Kim, Jae-Woong [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Line heating is a widely used process for plate forming or thermal straightening. Flame heating and induction heating are the traditional heating processes used by industry for line heating. However, these two heating processes are ineffective when used on small steel plates. Thus, the laser beam heating with various power profiles were carried out in this study. A comparison of numerical simulation results and experimental results found a significant difference in the thermal deformation when apply a different power profile of laser beam heating. The one-sinusoid power profile produced largest thermal deformation in this study. The laser beam heating process was simulated by established a combined heat source model, and simulated results were compared with experimental results to confirm the model’s accuracy. The mechanism of thermal deformation was investigated and the effects of model parameters were studied intensively with the finite element method. Thermal deformation was found to have a significant relationship with the amount of central zone plastic deformation. Scientists and engineers could use this study’s verified model to select appropriate parameters in laser beam heating process. Moreover, by using the developed laser beam model, the analysis of welding residual stress or hardness could also be investigated from a power profile point of view.

  1. Thermal flexural analysis of cross-ply laminated plates using trigonometric shear deformation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwaraj Marotrao Ghugal

    Full Text Available Thermal stresses and displacements for orthotropic, two-layer antisymmetric, and three-layer symmetric square cross-ply laminated plates subjected to nonlinear thermal load through the thickness of laminated plates are presented by using trigonometric shear deformation theory. The in-plane displacement field uses sinusoidal function in terms of thickness co-ordinate to include the shear deformation effect. The theory satisfies the shear stress free boundary conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the plate. The present theory obviates the need of shear correction factor. Governing equations and boundary conditions of the theory are obtained using the principle of virtual work. The validity of present theory is verified by comparing the results with those of classical plate theory and first order shear deformation theory and higher order shear deformation theory.

  2. Thermally stimulated depolarization currents in the natural fluorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valerio, Mario Ernesto Giroldo

    1986-01-01

    The present work deals with natural calcium fluoride from Criciuma, Santa Catarina. Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) can be used to determine the properties of dipole defects present in this crystal. The TSDC spectrum of this material shows three bands in the temperature range of 80 to 450 K. The first one, at 130 K, is due the dipoles formed by a trivalent impurity and an interstitial fluorine ion in the next nearest position of an impurity ion (nn R s 3+ -F i - ). The second one, at 102 k, is due to the presence of small aggregates of dipoles (like a dimer). The last band, at 360 k is due to the formation of Large Clusters. The continuous distribution model gave the best fit for these bands with mean activation energies of 0.41 eV, 0.595 eV and 1.02 eV for the first, second and third band respectively. Thermal treatments can modify the number of dipoles, dimers and clusters present in the crystal. The variation in the areas under each band can be used to measure this effect. In this work we used thermal treatments between 15 minutes and 10 hours and temperatures between 200 deg C and 500 deg C. For thermal treatments at 300 deg C, the dipoles and dimers are created and the clusters are destroyed as the time of thermal treatment increases. At 400 deg C the clusters are created and the dipoles and dimers and 350 deg C for the clusters. (author)

  3. Controlling thermal deformation by using composite materials having variable fiber volume fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouremana, M.; Tounsi, A.; Kaci, A.; Mechab, I.

    2009-01-01

    In application, many thin structural components such as beams, plates and shells experience a through-thickness temperature variation. This temperature variation can produce both an in-plane expansion and an out-of-plane (bending) curvature. Given that these thin components interact with or connect to other components, we often wish to minimize the thermal deformation or match the thermal deformation of another component. This is accomplished by using a composite whose fibers have a negative axial thermal expansion coefficient. By varying the fiber volume fraction within a symmetric laminated beam to create a functionally graded material (FGM), certain thermal deformations can be controlled or tailored. Specifically, a beam can be designed which does not curve under a steady-state through-thickness temperature variation. Continuous gradation of the fiber volume fraction in the FGM layer is modelled in the form of a mth power polynomial of the coordinate axis in thickness direction of the beam. The beam results are independent of the actual temperature values, within the limitations of steady-state heat transfer and constant material properties. The influence of volume fiber fraction distributions are studied to match or eliminate an in-plane expansion coefficient, or to match a desired axial stiffness. Combining two fiber types to create a hybrid FGM can offer desirable increase in axial and bending stiffness while still retaining the useful thermal deformation behavior.

  4. Thermally stimulated current method applied to highly irradiated silicon diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Pintilie, I; Pintilie, I; Moll, Michael; Fretwurst, E; Lindström, G

    2002-01-01

    We propose an improved method for the analysis of Thermally Stimulated Currents (TSC) measured on highly irradiated silicon diodes. The proposed TSC formula for the evaluation of a set of TSC spectra obtained with different reverse biases leads not only to the concentration of electron and hole traps visible in the spectra but also gives an estimation for the concentration of defects which not give rise to a peak in the 30-220 K TSC temperature range (very shallow or very deep levels). The method is applied to a diode irradiated with a neutron fluence of phi sub n =1.82x10 sup 1 sup 3 n/cm sup 2.

  5. A pratical case of a pipeline deformation by transverse and longitudinal thermal gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca Filho, J.L. de; Souza, H.S.; Ribeiro, S.V.G.

    1982-01-01

    A pratical case of pipeline deformation due to a thermal gradient that exist in the cross section and along its length is presented. From an approximation of the temperature profile obtained by measurements made in the field and taking into account the boundary conditions of the structure, its displacements are calculated for comparison with the actual values observed. The analytical calculation of the displacements fields and stress fields are executed, using the concept of thermal momentum in the section. (EG) [pt

  6. Control of thermal deformation in dielectric mirrors using mechanical design and atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Nicholas T; Kim, Sangho S; Talghader, Joseph J

    2009-07-01

    A mechanical design technique for optical coatings that simultaneously controls thermal deformation and optical reflectivity is reported. The method requires measurement of the refractive index and thermal stress of single films prior to the design. Atomic layer deposition was used for deposition because of the high repeatability of the film constants. An Al2O3/HfO2 distributed Bragg reflector was deposited with a predicted peak reflectivity of 87.9% at 542.4 nm and predicted edge deformation of -360 nm/K on a 10 cm silicon substrate. The measured peak reflectivity was 85.7% at 541.7 nm with an edge deformation of -346 nm/K.

  7. Plastic deformation tests on fragile materials using a thermal expansion machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco, E.; Morales, A.; Mendoza, A.

    1991-01-01

    Applying an electrical current on an iron bar, a thermal expansion can be induced. We have taken advantage of this to deform fragile materials, in order to study their mechanical properties. In this paper we show some gels and high T c oxide superconductors (Author)

  8. Experimental Study on Hygrothermal Deformation of External Thermal Insulation Cladding Systems with Glazed Hollow Bead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houren Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the thermal and strain behavior of external thermal insulation cladding systems (ETICS with Glazed Hollow Beads (GHB thermal insulation mortar under hygrothermal cycles weather test in order to measure its durability under extreme weather (i.e., sunlight and rain. Thermometers and strain gauges are placed into different wall layers to gather thermal and strain data and another instrument measures the crack dimensions after every 4 cycles. The results showed that the finishing coat shrank at early stage (elastic deformation and then the finishing coat tends to expand and become damaged at later stage (plastic deformation. The deformation of insulation layer is similar to that of the finishing coat but its variation amplitude is smaller. Deformation of substrate expanded with heat and contracted with cold due to the small temperature variation. The length and width of cracks on the finishing coat grew as the experiment progressed but with a decreasing growth rate and the cracks stopped growing around 70 cycles.

  9. Modeling thermal stress propagation during hydraulic stimulation of geothermal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Gunnar; Miller, Stephen A.

    2017-04-01

    A large fraction of the world's water and energy resources are located in naturally fractured reservoirs within the earth's crust. Depending on the lithology and tectonic history of a formation, fracture networks can range from dense and homogeneous highly fractured networks to single large scale fractures dominating the flow behavior. Understanding the dynamics of such reservoirs in terms of flow and transport is crucial to successful application of engineered geothermal systems (also known as enhanced geothermal systems or EGS) for geothermal energy production in the future. Fractured reservoirs are considered to consist of two distinct separate media, namely the fracture and matrix space respectively. Fractures are generally thin, highly conductive containing only small amounts of fluid, whereas the matrix rock provides high fluid storage but typically has much smaller permeability. Simulation of flow and transport through fractured porous media is challenging due to the high permeability contrast between the fractures and the surrounding rock matrix. However, accurate and efficient simulation of flow through a fracture network is crucial in order to understand, optimize and engineer reservoirs. It has been a research topic for several decades and is still under active research. Accurate fluid flow simulations through field-scale fractured reservoirs are still limited by the power of current computer processing units (CPU). We present an efficient implementation of the embedded discrete fracture model, which is a promising new technique in modeling the behavior of enhanced geothermal systems. An efficient coupling strategy is determined for numerical performance of the model. We provide new insight into the coupled modeling of fluid flow, heat transport of engineered geothermal reservoirs with focus on the thermal stress changes during the stimulation process. We further investigate the interplay of thermal and poro-elastic stress changes in the reservoir

  10. Fundamental processes in the production of thermally stimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeever, S.W.S.; Markey, B.G.; Lewandowski, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    We introduce two new functions, known as the q(T) and Q(T) functions, which describe how close a system is to quasi-equilibrium during the production of thermally stimulated conductivity (TSC) and thermoluminescence (TL). These functions are related to physically meaningful quantities (i.e. the various rates of recombination, excitation and retrapping) and are closely related to the kinetic-order function, P(T). From a numerical analysis of the rate equations describing the flow of charge carriers between various energy levels in a simple model for TL and TSC we demonstrate that the usual equation for describing TL emission is related to the actual TL peak by the Q(T) function, for first-order kinetics. The use of the simplified function to analyze TL and TSC data leads to errors which can be directly traced to the departure of the system from quasi-equilibrium. We show how the q(T) function can be obtained experimentally and we present arguments to demonstrate that first-order kinetics are likely to be the most common in nature. (author)

  11. Thermally stimulated investigations on diamond X-Ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromson, D.; Bergonzo, P.; Brambilla, A.; Mer, C.; Foulon, F.; Amosov, V.N.

    1999-01-01

    Intrinsic diamond material is increasingly used for the fabrication of radiation detectors. However, the presence of inherent defects has a strong impact on the detector characteristics such as the time dependent stability of the detection signal. In order to draw better insights into this effect, comparative investigations of the X-ray responses with thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurements were carried out on natural diamond detectors. TSC revealed the presence of four peaks or shoulders on natural samples in the 200 to 500 K domain. Three energy levels were identified at about 0.7, 0.71 and 0.95 eV. Time dependent X-ray detector sensitivity was investigated for various initial conditions. The results give evidence of the improvement of the detection properties after having filled traps in the material by X-ray irradiation. The comparison between the X-ray response and the TSC spectra indicate that trapping levels emptied at room temperature appear to significantly affect the performance of radiation detectors. (authors)

  12. Thermal Stimulation Alters Cervical Spinal Cord Functional Connectivity in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kenneth A; Sentis, Amy I; Bernadel-Huey, Olivia N; Chen, Yufen; Wang, Xue; Parrish, Todd B; Mackey, Sean

    2018-01-15

    The spinal cord has an active role in the modulation and transmission of the neural signals traveling between the body and the brain. Recent advancements in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have made the in vivo examination of spinal cord function in humans now possible. This technology has been recently extended to the investigation of resting state functional networks in the spinal cord, leading to the identification of distinct patterns of spinal cord functional connectivity. In this study, we expand on the previous work and further investigate resting state cervical spinal cord functional connectivity in healthy participants (n = 15) using high resolution imaging coupled with both seed-based functional connectivity analyses and graph theory-based metrics. Within spinal cord segment functional connectivity was present between the left and right ventral horns (bilateral motor network), left and right dorsal horns (bilateral sensory network), and the ipsilateral ventral and dorsal horns (unilateral sensory-motor network). Functional connectivity between the spinal cord segments was less apparent with the connectivity centered at the region of interest and spanning spinal cord functional network was demonstrated to be state-dependent as thermal stimulation of the right ventrolateral forearm resulted in significant disruption of the bilateral sensory network, increased network global efficiency, and decreased network modularity. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Some contributions to the high strain rate deformation of solids and the thermally activated deformation of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, W George

    2009-01-01

    The behaviour of metals as a function of rate of loading, strain rate, and temperature is discussed in terms of previous work by the author. Strain rates range from 10 -3 s -1 , obtained in a standard tensile testing machine, to 10 2 s -1 obtained in a hydraulic piston driven machine and up to 10 4 s -1 , very high strain rates with a Kolsky split Hopkinson bar using shear type loading. At rates less 10 3 s -1 the strength is a function of strain rate and temperature, is thermally activated and governed by the stress-assisted thermal activation of dislocations across short-range barriers in the crystal. At very high strain rates however the behaviour is controlled by interaction of dislocations with either phonons or electrons, giving a strength proportional to strain rate. The compressive strength of small clear samples of wood, Pinus radiata and Kahikatea, determined over the strain rate range 10 -3 s -1 to 10 3 s -1 as a function of strain rate, temperature and moisture content shows the behaviour to again be thermally activated with the strength a function of stain rate, temperature and moisture content. A rate theory of deformation is developed where the yield behaviour of wood is assumed to result from the stress-assisted thermally activated motion of elementary fibrils over short-range barriers. The moisture is assumed to affect the bond energy between elementary fibrils and the barrier energy is taken to be a linear decreasing function of increasing moisture content and the moisture to act like a plasticiser in separating the elementary fibrils. The theory more than adequately explains the observed behaviour.

  14. STUDY ON THERMAL DEFORMATIONS OF THE PRIMARY SEALING OF FRONT SEALING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ISTRATE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The thermal phenomena appear at the level of the film within the primary sealing interstitium. An important temperature gradient is performed in the stator and in the rotor, which produces thermoelastic deformations. These deformations are of the order of film width and affect essentially the interstitium geometry. According to the temperature increase direction the repartition in the friction ring is different. The farthest areas from the temperature drops or the nearest to the heat sources will have he highest temperature. These dilate more that the rest of the areas and modify the interstitium form. From the calculation relations it comes out that deformations depend also on certain operating conditions, which can be modified through time (pressure, temperature, the sealing efficiency being thus different in time.

  15. Thermal deformation analysis and test of electron gun for high power klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zusheng; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Dong Dong

    2006-01-01

    A 120 MW pulsed electron gun has been developed for 50 MW China-made klystron. It has a Pierce type dispenser cathode and it scans with a diameter of 85 mm. This paper describes the temperature field distribution in the gun and the gun deformation caused by this distribution by using ANSYS. According to the real complex structure and the energy conversion inside the electron gun, the authors took the thermal conduction as the main energy conversion form and got the temperature field. The coincidence between the temperature field and the structural deformation is also described. The beam optics simulated by EGUN with and without considering deformation is discussed, and the valuable results have been obtained. The high power test results and simulation results are analyzed and compared. (authors)

  16. Co-planar deformation and thermal propagation behavior in a bundle burst test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Yasuo; Kawasaki, Satoru

    1980-07-01

    The probability of the suggested feedback mechanism which could lead to co-planar deformation in a bundle burst test was assessed by the data of test and the calculation based on simplified model. Following four points were evaluated. (1) The probability of local deformation during early heat up stage. (2) The relation between the characteristic of heater and the feedback mechanism. (3) Thermal propagation behavior between two adjacent rods during heat up stage. (4) The propagation of ballooning in a bundle. The probability of suggested feedback mechanism was denied in all the evaluation. The feedback mechanism suggested by Burman could not be a controlling mechanism in co-planar deformation in a bundle burst test. (author)

  17. Thermal Deformation and RF Performance Analyses for the SWOT Large Deployable Ka-Band Reflectarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H.; Sunada, E.; Chaubell, J.; Esteban-Fernandez, D.; Thomson, M.; Nicaise, F.

    2010-01-01

    A large deployable antenna technology for the NASA Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission is currently being developed by JPL in response to NRC Earth Science Tier 2 Decadal Survey recommendations. This technology is required to enable the SWOT mission due to the fact that no currently available antenna is capable of meeting SWOT's demanding Ka-Band remote sensing requirements. One of the key aspects of this antenna development is to minimize the effect of the on-orbit thermal distortion to the antenna RF performance. An analysis process which includes: 1) the on-orbit thermal analysis to obtain the temperature distribution; 2) structural deformation analysis to get the geometry of the antenna surface; and 3) the RF performance with the given deformed antenna surface has been developed to accommodate the development of this antenna technology. The detailed analysis process and some analysis results will be presented and discussed by this paper.

  18. Numerical simulation of time-dependent deformations under hygral and thermal transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelfstra, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    Some basic concepts of numerical simulation of the formation of the microstructure of HCP are outlined. The aim is to replace arbitrary terms like aging by more realistic terms like bond density in the xerogel and bonds between hydrating particles of HCP. Actual state parameters such as temperature, humidity and degree of hydration can be determined under transient hygral and thermal conditions by solving numerically a series of appropriate coupled differential equations with given boundary conditions. Shrinkage of a composite structure without crack formation, based on calculated moisture distributions, has been determined with numerical concrete codes. The influence of crack formation, tensile strain-hardening and softening on the total deformation of a quasi-homogeneous drying material has been studied by means of model based on FEM. The difference between shrinkage without crack formation and shrinkage with crack formation can be quantified. Drying shrinkage and creep of concrete cannot be separated. The total deformation depends on the superimposed stress fields. Transient hygral deformation can be realistically predicted if the concept of point properties is applied rigorously. Transient thermal deformation has to be dealt with in the same way. (orig./HP)

  19. Investigation of hydrogen-deformation interactions in β-21S titanium alloy using thermal desorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tal-Gutelmacher, E.; Eliezer, D.; Boellinghaus, Th.

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the investigation of the combined influence of hydrogen and pre-plastic deformation on hydrogen's absorption/desorption behavior, the microstructure and microhardness of a single-phased β-21S alloy. In this study, thermal desorption analyses (TDS) evaluation of various desorption and trapping parameters provide further insight on the relationships between hydrogen absorption/desorption processes and deformation, and their mutual influence on the microstructure and the microhardness of β-21S alloy. TDS spectra were supported by other experimental techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, hydrogen quantity analyses and microhardness tests. Pre-plastic deformation, performed before the electrochemical hydrogenation of the alloy, increased significantly the hydrogen absorption capacity. Its influence was also evident on the notably expanded lattice parameter of β-21S alloy after hydrogenation. However, no hydride precipitation was observed. An interesting softening effect of the pre-deformed hydrogenated alloy was revealed by microhardness tests. TDS demonstrated the significant effect of pre-plastic deformation on the hydrogen evolution process. Hydrogen desorption temperature and the activation energy for hydrogen release increased, additional trap states were observed and the amount of desorbed hydrogen decreased

  20. Modeling the thermal deformation of TATB-based explosives. Part 1: Thermal expansion of “neat-pressed” polycrystalline TATB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luscher, Darby J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-05-08

    thermal deformation of engineered components whose consolidation process is generally more complex than isostatic or die-pressed specimens. Finally, an envisioned application of the modeling approach to simulating thermal expansion of weapon systems and components is outlined along with necessary future work to introduce the effects of binder and ratcheting behavior. Key conclusions from this work include the following. Both porosity and grain aspect ratio have an influence on the thermal expansion of polycrystal TATB considering realistic material variability. Thepreferred orientation of the single crystal TATB [001] poles within a polycrystal gives rise to pronounced anisotropy of the macroscopic thermal expansion. The extent of this preferred orientation depends on the magnitude of deformation, and consequently, is expected to vary spatially throughout manufactured components much like porosity. The modeling approach presented here has utility toward bringing spatially variable microstructural features into macroscale system engineering modelsAbstract Not Provided

  1. Thermal deformation prediction in reticles for extreme ultraviolet lithography based on a measurement-dependent low-order model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikcora, C.; Weiland, S.; Coene, W.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography, imaging errors due to thermal deformation of reticles are becoming progressively intolerable as the source power increases. Despite this trend, such errors can be mitigated by adjusting the wafer and reticle stages based on a set of predicted deformation-induced

  2. Effect of deformation on the thermal conductivity of granular porous media with rough grain surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Roohollah; Hejazi, S. Hossein; Sahimi, Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    Heat transfer in granular porous media is an important phenomenon that is relevant to a wide variety of problems, including geothermal reservoirs and enhanced oil recovery by thermal methods. Resistance to flow of heat in the contact area between the grains strongly influences the effective thermal conductivity of such porous media. Extensive experiments have indicated that the roughness of the grains' surface follows self-affine fractal stochastic functions, and thus, the contact resistance cannot be accounted for by models based on smooth surfaces. Despite the significance of rough contact area, the resistance has been accounted for by a fitting parameter in the models of heat transfer. In this Letter we report on a study of conduction in a packing of particles that contains a fluid of a given conductivity, with each grain having a rough self-affine surface, and is under an external compressive pressure. The deformation of the contact area depends on the fractal dimension that characterizes the grains' rough surface, as well as their Young's modulus. Excellent qualitative agreement is obtained with experimental data. Deformation of granular porous media with grains that have rough self-affine fractal surface is simulated. Thermal contact resistance between grains with rough surfaces is incorporated into the numerical simulation of heat conduction under compressive pressure. By increasing compressive pressure, thermal conductivity is enhanced more in the grains with smoother surfaces and lower Young's modulus. Excellent qualitative agreement is obtained with the experimental data.

  3. Non-Contact Acousto-Thermal Signatures of Plastic Deformation in TI-6AL-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, J. T.; Malott, G.; Schehl, N.; Sathish, S.; Jata, K. V.; Blodgett, M. P.

    2010-02-01

    Plastic deformation introduces changes in a material which include increases in: dislocations, strains, residual stress, and yield stress. However, these changes have a very small impact on the material properties such as elastic modulus, conductivity and ultrasonic wave speed. This is due to the fact that interatomic forces govern these properties, and they are not affected by plastic deformation to any large degree. This is evident from the fact that the changes in electrical resistance and ultrasonic velocity in plastically deformed and virgin samples are very small and can only be determined by highly controlled experiments. Except for X-ray diffraction, there are no direct nondestructive methods for measuring strain and the residual stress. This paper presents an application of the non-contact acousto-thermal signature (NCATS) NDE methodology to detect plastic deformation in flat dog bone Ti-6Al-4V samples. Results of the NCATS measurements on samples subjected to incremental amounts of plastic deformation are presented. The maximum temperature attained by the sample due to acoustic excitation is found to be sensitive to the amount of plastic strain. It is observed that the temperature induced by acoustic excitation increases to a peak followed by a decrease to failure. The maximum temperature peak occurs at plastic strains of 12-14%. It is observed that there is a correlation between the peak in maximum temperature rise and the strain at the experimentally determined ultimate tensile strength. A microstructural based explanation for this will be presented. The results are discussed in reference to utilizing this technique for detection and evaluation of plastic deformation.

  4. Thermally stimulated luminescence in ZnMoO{sub 4} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degoda, V.Ya.; Kogut, Ya.P.; Moroz, I.M. [Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Danevich, F.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2017-03-15

    Thermally stimulated luminescence in ZnMoO{sub 4} crystals after X-ray irradiation at temperatures 8 K, 85 K and 295 K was studied. A theoretical model of crystal phosphor with three types of traps (shallow, phosphorescent and deep) is proposed. Simple analytic solutions of the kinetic equations system describing localized electrons on the traps and holes on recombination centres were obtained by using approximations accepted in the classic theories of crystal phosphors. Analytical curves describing thermally stimulated luminescence were obtained. A substantial effect of the different traps concentrations ratios on the thermally stimulated luminescence and conductivity peaks shapes is shown. A good agreement of the theoretical curves with the experimental data for the thermally stimulated luminescence peak at 114 K is obtained.

  5. Coupling analysis of frictional heat of fluid film and thermal deformation of mechanical seal end faces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianfeng; Gu Boqin

    2007-01-01

    The heat transfer model of the rotating ring and the stationary ring of mechanical seal was built. The method to calculate the frictional heat that transferred by the rings was given. the coupling analysis of the frictional heat of fluid film and thermal deformation of end faces was carried out by using FEA and BP ANN, and the relationship among the rotational speed ω, the fluid film thickness h i on the inner diameter of sealing face and the radial separation angle β of deformed end faces was obtained. Corresponding to a given ω, h i and β can be obtained by the equilibrium condition between the closing force and the bearing force of fluid film. The relationship between the leakage rate and the closing force was analyzed, and the fundamental of controlling the leakage rate by regulating the closing force was also discussed. (authors)

  6. Research on Non-Similarity about Thermal Deformation Error of Mechanical Parts in High-accuracy Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Z; Fei, Y T

    2006-01-01

    Expanding with heat and contracting with cold are common physical phenomenon in the nature. The conventional theories and calculations of thermal deformation are approximate and linear, can only be applied in normal or low precision field. The thermal deformation error of mechanical parts doesn't follow the conventional linear formula, it relates to all physical dimension of the mechanical part, and the deformation can be indicated by a nonlinear formula of physical dimensions. A theory on non-similarity about thermal deformation error of mechanical parts is presented. Studies on some common mechanical parts in precision technology have went on and the mathematical models have been set up, hollow piece, gear and cube are included. The experimental results also make it clear that these models are more logical than traditional models

  7. Modeling Thermal Transport and Surface Deformation on Europa using Realistic Rheologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linneman, D.; Lavier, L.; Becker, T. W.; Soderlund, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    Most existing studies of Europa's icy shell model the ice as a Maxwell visco-elastic solid or viscous fluid. However, these approaches do not allow for modeling of localized deformation of the brittle part of the ice shell, which is important for understanding the satellite's evolution and unique geology. Here, we model the shell as a visco-elasto-plastic material, with a brittle Mohr-Coulomb elasto-plastic layer on top of a convective Maxwell viscoelastic layer, to investigate how thermal transport processes relate to the observed deformation and topography on Europa's surface. We use Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC) code, which employs an explicit time-stepping algorithm to simulate deformation processes in Europa's icy shell. Heat transfer drives surface deformation within the icy shell through convection and tidal dissipation due to its elliptical orbit around Jupiter. We first analyze the visco-elastic behavior of a convecting ice layer and the parameters that govern this behavior. The regime of deformation depends on the magnitude of the stress (diffusion creep at low stresses, grain-size-sensitive creep at intermediate stresses, dislocation creep at high stresses), so we calculate effective viscosity each time step using the constitutive stress-strain equation and a combined flow law that accounts for all types of deformation. Tidal dissipation rate is calculated as a function of the temperature-dependent Maxwell relaxation time and the square of the second invariant of the strain rate averaged over each orbital period. After we initiate convection in the viscoelastic layer by instituting an initial temperature perturbation, we then add an elastoplastic layer on top of the convecting layer and analyze how the brittle ice reacts to stresses from below and any resulting topography. We also take into account shear heating along fractures in the brittle layer. We vary factors such as total shell thickness and minimum viscosity, as these parameters are

  8. Deformation and rupture of a horizontal liquid layer by thermal and solutal Marangoni flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viviani, Antonio [Seconda Universita di Napoli (SUN), Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aerospaziale e Meccanica (DIAM), via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Zuev, Andrew [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, UB Russian Academy of Sciences, Academic Korolev Street 1, 614013 Perm (Russian Federation)

    2008-11-15

    The evolution of strong surface deformation of a thin viscous fluid layer on a horizontal solid wettable substrate was studied experimentally. Layer deformation is caused by the concentration gradient of surface tension generated by a drop of soluble surfactant placed on the free layer surface. The conditions leading to the layer rupture and drying of the bottom section under the spreading drop were studied. The dependence of the dry spot radius on time, horizontal dimension and thickness of the layer, volume of the introduced droplet and fluids properties, were obtained for various fluid pairs. It was found that the critical initial thickness of the layer, at which its deformation reaches the layer bottom, is practically insensitive to the quantity of the applied surfactant and is defined by the difference in surface tension between the drop and the layer. Comparison of the data with the results of the study of the thermocapillary rupture of a cylindrical layer heated at the center and cooled along the periphery showed good agreement between the dependences of the critical layer thickness on the thermal and the solutal surface tension difference. (author)

  9. Locomotion response of airborne, ambulatory and aquatic insects to thermal stimulation using piezoceramic microheaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvanathan, Karthik; Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

    2011-12-01

    This paper reports the locomotion response of airborne, ambulatory and aquatic insects to thermal stimulation. A finite element model has been developed to predict the variation of insect-stimulator interface temperature with input power. Piezothermal stimulators have been fabricated from lead zirconate titanate (PZT) using a batch mode micro ultrasonic machining process. Typical sizes range from 200 µm to 3.2 mm. For PZT stimulators, the temperature and thermal efficiency reach the maximum value around the resonance frequency which is typically in the range of 650 kHz to 47 MHz. Experiments have been conducted on green June beetles (GJBs), Madagascar hissing roaches and green diving beetles (GDBs) in order to show the versatility of the proposed technique. The stimulators have been implanted near the antennae of the GJBs and on either side of the thorax of the Madagascar hissing roaches and GDBs, respectively. In all cases, the insects move away from the direction of the actuated stimulator. The left and right turns are statistically similar. Thermal stimulation achieves an overall success rate of 78.7%, 92.8% and 61.6% in GJBs, roaches and GDBs, respectively. On average, thermal stimulation results in an angle turn of about 13.7°-16.2° on GJBs, 30°-45° on the roaches and 30°-50° on GDBs. The corresponding average input power is 360, 330 and 100 mW for GJBs, roach and GDBs, respectively. Scaling limits of the PZT stimulators for operating these stimulators are also discussed.

  10. Hierarchical evolution and thermal stability of microstructure with deformation twins in 316 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Jozaghi, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Karaman, I., E-mail: ikaraman@tamu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Arroyave, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Chumlyakov, Y.I. [Siberian Physical Technical Institute, Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-10

    We report extensive nano-twin formation in 316 stainless steel (SS) and the evolution of a hierarchical microstructure through the formation of multi-scale twin bundles after uniaxial tension with uniform elongation levels of 20%, 30%, and 40%. Multiscale characterization techniques were employed to reveal the nature of these twins. The twin density increases with the increasing strain level, however, the twin width remains the same, notably reducing the mean free path of dislocations. Concurrently, significant work hardening is observed during subsequent deformation. The deformation-induced nano-twins are thermally stable up to ~800 °C, shown by both interrupted and in-situ transmission electron microscopy experiments, above which the recrystallization takes place in the vicinity of the twins. Such favorable thermal stability of the twins in nano-twin strengthened 316 SS offers a promising approach for microstructurally engineering these materials for potential applications at elevated temperatures. The related strengthening mechanisms are discussed in the light of the mean free path of dislocations and the dislocation interactions with twin boundaries.

  11. Effect of Length, Diameter, Chirality, Deformation, and Strain on Contact Thermal Conductance between Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Vikas; Lee, Jonghoon; Brown, Joshua S.; Farmer, Barry L.; Voevodin, Andrey A.; Roy, Ajit K.

    2018-04-01

    Thermal energy transfer across physically interacting single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) interconnects has been investigated using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The role of various geometrical and structural (length, diameter, chirality) as well as external (deformation and strain) carbon nanotube (CNT) parameters has been explored to estimate total as well as area-normalized thermal conductance across cross-contact interconnects. It is shown that the CNT aspect ratio and degree of lateral as well as tensile deformation play a significant role in determining the extent of thermal energy exchange across CNT contacts, while CNT chirality has a negligible influence on thermal transport. Depending on the CNT diameter, aspect ratio, and degree of deformation at the contact interface, the thermal conductance values can vary significantly –by more than an order of magnitude for total conductance and a factor of 3 to 4 for area-normalized conductance. The observed trends are discussed from the perspective of modulation in number of low frequency out-of-plane (transverse, flexural, and radial) phonons that transmit thermal energy across the contact and govern the conductance across the interface. The established general dependencies for phonon governed thermal transport at CNT contacts are anticipated to help design and performance prediction of CNT-based flexible nanoelectronic devices, where CNT-CNT contact deformation and strain are routinely encountered during device operations.

  12. Effects of thermal residual stresses and fiber packing on deformation of metal-matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Suresh, S.

    1993-01-01

    The combined effects of thermal residual stresses and fiber spatial distribution on the deformation of a 6061 aluminum alloy containing a fixed concentration unidirectional boron fibers have been analyzed using detailed finite element models. The geometrical structure includes perfectly periodic, uniformly space fiber arrangements in square and hexagonal cells, as well as different cells in which either 30 or 60 fibers are randomly placed in the ductile matrix. The model involves an elastic-plastic matrix, elastic fibers, and mechanically bonded interfaces. The results indicate that both fiber packing and thermal residual stresses can have a significant effect on the stress-strain characteristics of the composite. The thermal residual stresses cause pronounced matrix yielding which also influences the apparent overall stiffness of the composite during the initial stages of subsequent far-field loading along the axial and transverse direction. Furthermore, the thermal residual stresses apparently elevate the flow stress of the composite during transverse tension. Such effects can be traced back to the level of constraint imposed on the matrix by local fiber spacing. The implications of the present results to the processing of the composites are also briefly addressed

  13. Kinetic concepts of thermally stimulated reactions in solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyazovkin, Sergey

    Historical analysis suggests that the basic kinetic concepts of reactions in solids were inherited from homogeneous kinetics. These concepts rest upon the assumption of a single-step reaction that disagrees with the multiple-step nature of solid-state processes. The inadequate concepts inspire such unjustified anticipations of kinetic analysis as evaluating constant activation energy and/or deriving a single-step reaction mechanism for the overall process. A more adequate concept is that of the effective activation energy, which may vary with temperature and extent of conversion. The adequacy of this concept is illustrated by literature data as well as by experimental data on the thermal dehydration of calcium oxalate monohydrate and thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate, ammonium nitrate and 1,3,5,7- tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine.

  14. The effects of thermal stimulation on clinical and experimental itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruhstorfer, H; Hermanns, M; Latzke, L

    1986-02-01

    In order to substantiate accidental observations on the influence of skin temperature on itch, and to elucidate a possible involvement of thermoreceptors in itch generation, the effects of thermostimulation on clinical and experimental itch were studied. Eighteen patients with atopic dermatitis rated the intensity of spontaneous itch on one of their forearms before, during, and after its immersion in a waterbath of either 10 degrees C or 45 degrees C. In 40 normal subjects itch was elicited by histamine topically applied to a 7 cm2 skin area of the volar forearm. Before and after histamine application thermal thresholds were recorded. Then the skin area was heated or cooled at a rate of 0.5 degrees C/sec and itch intensity was continuously rated. Cooling abolished itch in all patients and in most of the normal subjects. Heating produced less clear effects: in two-thirds of both patients and normal subjects itch disappeared or was reduced whereas in the others itch was aggravated. Usually after the end of thermostimulation the opposite changes in itch intensity occurred. In the normal subjects thermal thresholds were not significantly influenced by histamine. Over a certain temperature range itch and thermal sensations could coexist as separate modalities. The results indicate that changes in skin temperature have a marked influence on itch intensity. Whereas cooling seems to act directly on the sensory receptors mediating itch, warm stimuli could have a central inhibitory effect. A direct role of thermoreceptors in the generation of itch is improbable.

  15. Application of thermally stimulated current measurement to the polymorphic characterization of drug substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Y.; Hirayama, T.; Terada, K.

    2005-01-01

    The thermal stimulated current measurement was used as an innovative analytical equipment to evaluate the polymorphic properties of terfenadine and Compound A, being developed by Takeda Pharmaceutical Company, Limited. At first, terfenadine, which is known to have polymorphs, was used as a model sample for thermally stimulated current (TSC) analyses. The TSC curves of amorphous and two polymorphs were distinctly different from each other. Therefore, it was considered that TSC measurement could be a useful technique to evaluate the crystalline properties of drug substances. The polymorphs of compound A were difficult to distinguish the characteristics of polymorphs from conventional powder X-ray diffractometry and also differential scanning calorimetry. Forms A and B of compound A were clearly differentiated by the thermal stimulated current properties that were adequate to characterize each form. Thus, it was shown that TSC was extremely useful and powerful tool for identification of complicated polymorphs, which were not distinguished by conventional methods

  16. Effects of deformability and thermal motion of lipid membrane on electroporation: By molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Sheng; Yin, Guangyao; Lee, Yi-Kuen; Wong, Joseph T.Y.; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → MD simulations show that deformability and thermal motion of membrane affect electroporation. → Stiffer membrane inhibits electroporation and makes water penetrate from both sides. → Higher temperature accelerates electroporation. -- Abstract: Effects of mechanical properties and thermal motion of POPE lipid membrane on electroporation were studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Among simulations in which specific atoms of lipids were artificially constrained at their equilibrium positions using a spring with force constant of 2.0 kcal/(mol A 2 ) in the external electric field of 1.4 kcal/(mol A e), only constraint on lateral motions of lipid tails prohibited electroporation while non-tail parts had little effects. When force constant decreased to 0.2 kcal/(mol A 2 ) in the position constraints on lipid tails in the external electric field of 2.0 kcal/(mol A e), water molecules began to enter the membrane. Position constraints of lipid tails allow water to penetrate from both sides of membrane. Thermal motion of lipids can induce initial defects in the hydrophobic core of membrane, which are favorable nucleation sites for electroporation. Simulations at different temperatures revealed that as the temperature increases, the time taken to the initial pore formation will decrease.

  17. Simulating the swelling and deformation behaviour in soft tissues using a convective thermal analogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzog Walter

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is generally accepted that cartilage adaptation and degeneration are mechanically mediated. Investigating the swelling behaviour of cartilage is important because the stress and strain state of cartilage is associated with the swelling and deformation behaviour. It is well accepted that the swelling of soft tissues is associated with mechanical, chemical, and electrical events. Method The purpose of the present study was to implement the triphasic theory into a commercial finite element tool (ABAQUS to solve practical problems in cartilage mechanics. Because of the mathematical identity between thermal and mass diffusion processes, the triphasic model was transferred into a convective thermal diffusion process in the commercial finite element software. The problem was solved using an iterative procedure. Results The proposed approach was validated using the one-dimensional numerical solutions and the experimental results of confined compression of articular cartilage described in the literature. The time-history of the force response of a cartilage specimen in confined compression, which was subjected to swelling caused by a sudden change of saline concentration, was predicted using the proposed approach and compared with the published experimental data. Conclusion The advantage of the proposed thermal analogy technique over previous studies is that it accounts for the convective diffusion of ion concentrations and the Donnan osmotic pressure in the interstitial fluid.

  18. Currents of thermally stimulated depolarization in CaIn2S4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagiev, B.G.; Tagiev, O.B.; Dzhabbarov, R.B.; Musaeva, N.N.

    1996-01-01

    The results of investigation into currents of thermally stimulated depolarization in CaIn 2 S 4 monocrystals are presented for the first time. Spectra of thermally stimulated depolarization for In-CaIn S4 -In structures are measured under T=99 K at various rates of heat, times of polarization and times of expectation following switching off of electrical field up to beginning of measurements of shorting. The main parameters of capture cross section, partial factor, concentration of traps, are determined. It is determined that one may observed a biomolecular mechanism with a strong secondary capture in CaIn 2 S 4 monocrystals. 9 refs.; 4 figs

  19. Thermally stimulated nonlinear refraction in gelatin stabilized Cu-PVP nanocomposite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamgadge, Y. S., E-mail: ystamgadge@gmail.com; Atkare, D. V. [Department of Physics, Mahatma Fule Arts, Commerce & SitaramjiChoudhari Science College, Warud, Dist. Amravati (MS), India-444906 (India); Pahurkar, V. G.; Muley, G. G., E-mail: gajananggm@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, SantGadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati (MS), India-444602 (India); Talwatkar, S. S. [Department of Physics, D K Marathe and N G Acharya College, Chembur, Mumbai (MS), India-440071 (India); Sunatkari, A. L. [Department of Physics, Siddharth College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Fort, Mumbai (MS), India-440001 (India)

    2016-05-06

    This article illustrates investigations on thermally stimulated third order nonlinear refraction of Cu-PVP nanocomposite thin films. Cu nanoparticles have been synthesized using chemical reduction method and thin films in PVP matrix have been obtained using spin coating technique. Thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopyfor structural and linear optical studies. Third order nonlinear refraction studies have been performed using closed aperture z-scan technique under continuous wave (CW) He-Ne laser. Cu-PVP nanocomposites are found to exhibit strong nonlinear refractive index stimulated by thermal lensing effect.

  20. Thermal Hydraulic Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations and Experimental Investigation of Deformed Fuel Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, Brian [AREVA Federal Services, Lynchburg, VA (United States); Jackson, R. Brian [TerraPower, Bellevue, WA (United States)

    2017-03-08

    The project, Toward a Longer Life Core: Thermal Hydraulic CFD Simulations and Experimental Investigation of Deformed Fuel Assemblies, DOE Project code DE-NE0008321, was a verification and validation project for flow and heat transfer through wire wrapped simulated liquid metal fuel assemblies that included both experiments and computational fluid dynamics simulations of those experiments. This project was a two year collaboration between AREVA, TerraPower, Argonne National Laboratory and Texas A&M University. Experiments were performed by AREVA and Texas A&M University. Numerical simulations of these experiments were performed by TerraPower and Argonne National Lab. Project management was performed by AREVA Federal Services. The first of a kind project resulted in the production of both local point temperature measurements and local flow mixing experiment data paired with numerical simulation benchmarking of the experiments. The project experiments included the largest wire-wrapped pin assembly Mass Index of Refraction (MIR) experiment in the world, the first known wire-wrapped assembly experiment with deformed duct geometries and the largest numerical simulations ever produced for wire-wrapped bundles.

  1. Measurement of optically and thermally stimulated electron emission from natural minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankjærgaard, C.; Murray, A.S.; Denby, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    to a Riso TL/OSL reader, enabling optically stimulated electrons (OSE) and thermally stimulated electrons (TSE) to be measured simultaneously with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL). Repeated irradiation and measurement is possible without removing the sample from...... the counting chamber. Using this equipment both OSE and TSE from loose sand-sized grains of natural minerals has been recorded. It is shown that both the surface electron traps (giving rise to the OSE signals) and the bulk traps (giving rise to OSL) have the same dosimetric properties. A comparison of OSL...

  2. Thermally stimulated currents in α-HgI2 polycrystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, Y.-T.; Huang, T.-J.; Shih, C.-T.; Su, C.-F.; Lan, S.-M.; Chiu, K.-C.

    2007-01-01

    A study of thermally stimulated currents (TSC) is applied to α-HgI 2 polycrystalline films grown by physical vapour deposition with various thermal boundary conditions. Five TSC peaks are clearly observed and numerically fitted. The activation energy and the density of the trapping centre that corresponds to each TSC peak are then calculated. Finally, the effects of the deposition conditions on the TSC results are discussed

  3. Non-thermal plasma instabilities induced by deformation of the electron energy distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyatko, N. A.; Kochetov, I. V.; Napartovich, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    Non-thermal plasma is a key component in gas lasers, microelectronics, medical applications, waste gas cleaners, ozone generators, plasma igniters, flame holders, flow control in high-speed aerodynamics and others. A specific feature of non-thermal plasma is its high sensitivity to variations in governing parameters (gas composition, pressure, pulse duration, E/N parameter). This sensitivity is due to complex deformations of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) shape induced by variations in electric field strength, electron and ion number densities and gas excitation degree. Particular attention in this article is paid to mechanisms of instabilities based on non-linearity of plasma properties for specific conditions: gas composition, steady-state and decaying plasma produced by the electron beam, or by an electric current pulse. The following effects are analyzed: the negative differential electron conductivity; the absolute negative electron mobility; the stepwise changes of plasma properties induced by the EEDF bi-stability; thermo-current instability and the constriction of the glow discharge column in rare gases. Some of these effects were observed experimentally and some of them were theoretically predicted and still wait for experimental confirmation.

  4. Experiment and simulation on the thermal instability of a heavily deformed Cu-Fe composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Lei; Wang Engang; Zuo Xiaowei; Zhang Lin; He Jicheng

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Fe fibers undergo thermal instability at temperature above 600 deg. C. → Longitudinal boundary splitting is the dominant instability process. → Instability of cylindrical fibers is controlled by breakup, growth and coarsening. → Breakup times can be predicted by Rayleigh perturbation model accurately. → The increase of fiber diameters is due to the coarsening and growth. - Abstract: The thermal instability of the Fe fibers in the heavily deformed Cu-12.8 wt.%Fe composites is investigated experimentally and numerically. The fiber evolution is characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results show that the dominant instability of the Fe fibers is the longitudinal boundary splitting which is determined by the greater cross sectional aspect ratio (width/thickness, w/t) and the larger ratio of boundary to interfacial energy (γ B /γ S ). The longitudinal boundary splitting makes the ribbon-like Fe fibers evolve into a series of cylindrical fibers. Then the cylindrical Fe fibers undergo the instability process in terms of the breakup, growth and coarsening concurrently. The breakup times are accurately predicted by the Rayleigh perturbation model. The growth process primarily contributes to the higher increasing rate of the fiber radius during isothermal annealing at 700 deg. C than that calculated by the coarsening theory developed for cylindrical fibers, since the Cu-matrix of composites is highly supersaturated after casting/cold-working process.

  5. Thermally stimulated conductivity and thermoluminescence from Al2O3 : C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersnap Larsen, N.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; McKeever, S.W.S.

    1999-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of thermoluminescence (TL) and thermally stimulated conductivity (TSC) are reported on single-crystal dosimetry-quality Al2O3:C following gamma irradiation at room temperature. Analysis of the data reveals a superposition of several first-order TL and TSC peaks caused...

  6. Model of the Evolution of Deformation Defects and Irreversible Strain at Thermal Cycling of Stressed TiNi Alloy Specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkov Aleksandr E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This microstructural model deals with simulation both of the reversible and irreversible deformation of a shape memory alloy (SMA. The martensitic transformation and the irreversible deformation due to the plastic accommodation of martensite are considered on the microscopic level. The irreversible deformation is described from the standpoint of the plastic flow theory. Isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening are taken into account and are related to the densities of scattered and oriented deformation defects. It is supposed that the phase transformation and the micro plastic deformation are caused by the generalized thermodynamic forces, which are the derivatives of the Gibbs’ potential of the two-phase body. In terms of these forces conditions for the phase transformation and for the micro plastic deformation on the micro level are formulated. The macro deformation of the representative volume of the polycrystal is calculated by averaging of the micro strains related to the evolution of the martensite Bain’s variants in each grain comprising this volume. The proposed model allowed simulating the evolution of the reversible and of the irreversible strains of a stressed SMA specimen under thermal cycles. The results show a good qualitative agreement with available experimental data. Specifically, it is shown that the model can describe a rather big irreversible strain in the first thermocycle and its fast decrease with the number of cycles.

  7. Effects of pulse current stimulation on the thermal fatigue crack propagation behavior of CHWD steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.Q.; Zhao, Y.G.; Gao, Z.M.; Han, L.G.

    2008-01-01

    The fatigue crack propagating behaviors of cast hot working die (CHWD) steel untreated and treated by an electric current in the intermediate stage of thermal fatigue were investigated in the present study. The circle/elliptical heating affected zone (HAZ) was formed ahead of the notch tip on the fatigued specimens after pulse electric current stimulation. Both SEM observation and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that pulse electric current stimulation refined grains/subgrains in the HAZs. With the prolonging of discharging duration, the grains/subgrains decreased in size and the dislocation density and microhardness increased gradually. The grain refinement and dislocation density increase played an important role in the material strengthening, which inevitably enhanced the propagation resistance and delayed the propagation of thermal fatigue cracks. Therefore, the pulse electric current stimulation was an effective method to improve the service lifetime of die material

  8. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the semi-quantitative, pre-operative assessment of patients undergoing spinal deformity surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasby, Michael A; Tsirikos, Athanasios I; Henderson, Lindsay; Horsburgh, Gillian; Jordan, Brian; Michaelson, Ciara; Adams, Christopher I; Garrido, Enrique

    2017-08-01

    To compare measurements of motor evoked potential latency stimulated either magnetically (mMEP) or electrically (eMEP) and central motor conduction time (CMCT) made pre-operatively in conscious patients using transcranial and intra-operatively using electrical cortical stimulation before and after successful instrumentation for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A group initially of 51 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis aged 12-19 years was evaluated pre-operatively in the outpatients' department with transcranial magnetic stimulation. The neurophysiological data were then compared statistically with intra-operative responses elicited by transcranial electrical stimulation both before and after successful surgical intervention. MEPs were measured as the cortically evoked compound action potentials of Abductor hallucis. Minimum F-waves were measured using conventional nerve conduction methods and the lower motor neuron conduction time was calculated and this was subtracted from MEP latency to give CMCT. Pre-operative testing was well tolerated in our paediatric/adolescent patients. No neurological injury occurred in any patient in this series. There was no significant difference in the values of mMEP and eMEP latencies seen pre-operatively in conscious patients and intra-operatively in patients under anaesthetic. The calculated quantities mCMCT and eCMCT showed the same statistical correlations as the quantities mMEP and eMEP latency. The congruency of mMEP and eMEP and of mCMCT and eCMCT suggests that these measurements may be used comparatively and semi-quantitatively for the comparison of pre-, intra-, and post-operative spinal cord function in spinal deformity surgery.

  9. Effects of deformable registration algorithms on the creation of statistical maps for preoperative targeting in deep brain stimulation procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; D'Haese, Pierre-Francois; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2014-03-01

    Deep brain stimulation, which is used to treat various neurological disorders, involves implanting a permanent electrode into precise targets deep in the brain. Accurate pre-operative localization of the targets on pre-operative MRI sequence is challenging as these are typically located in homogenous regions with poor contrast. Population-based statistical atlases can assist with this process. Such atlases are created by acquiring the location of efficacious regions from numerous subjects and projecting them onto a common reference image volume using some normalization method. In previous work, we presented results concluding that non-rigid registration provided the best result for such normalization. However, this process could be biased by the choice of the reference image and/or registration approach. In this paper, we have qualitatively and quantitatively compared the performance of six recognized deformable registration methods at normalizing such data in poor contrasted regions onto three different reference volumes using a unique set of data from 100 patients. We study various metrics designed to measure the centroid, spread, and shape of the normalized data. This study leads to a total of 1800 deformable registrations and results show that statistical atlases constructed using different deformable registration methods share comparable centroids and spreads with marginal differences in their shape. Among the six methods being studied, Diffeomorphic Demons produces the largest spreads and centroids that are the furthest apart from the others in general. Among the three atlases, one atlas consistently outperforms the other two with smaller spreads for each algorithm. However, none of the differences in the spreads were found to be statistically significant, across different algorithms or across different atlases.

  10. OSL at elevated temperatures: Towards the simultaneous thermal and optical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeris, George S.

    2015-01-01

    In routine OSL dating measurements, a preheat procedure at high temperatures is used to empty the shallow traps. Thus no contribution from shallow traps was expected as each OSL measurement is subsequently performed at moderately high temperatures, around 110–125 °C. The present work attempts to consider the OSL measurements performed at elevated temperatures without any previous preheat as a case of simultaneous thermal and optical stimulation of the same trap. Towards this direction, a set of proposed equations is derived for all three different cases of optical stimulation modes, namely CW-OSL, LM-OSL as well as PS-LM-OSL. According to these equations, indicative features of thermally activated OSL processes are expected, such as the steepening of CW-OSL decay curves as either stimulation temperature or intensity increases, as well as the shifting of the stimulation time of the maximum intensity for both LM-OSL and PS-LM-OSL curves towards shorter times with increasing temperatures. Experimentally, specific measurement sequences after varying stimulation temperature and/or intensity were applied in order to estimate the values of associated trap parameters, such as activation energy and photo-ionization cross-section. Experimental OSL data from a milky natural quartz sample stand in good agreement of these theoretical considerations in the case of 110 °C TL peak and the intense OSL component C 2 monitored at RT. - Highlights: • OSL at elevated temperatures without preheat results from two simultaneous stimulation modes. • Equations were derived assuming of linear superposition of two stimulation modes. • Data for 110 °C TL peak and OSL C 2 at RT stand in agreement with these equations. • Results verify the linear superposition of the two stimulation modes

  11. The field fluctuational model of thermally stimulated processes in ferroelectric LiNbO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tale, I.; Tale, V.; Rosa, J.

    1983-01-01

    The thermally stimulated processes in the x-irradiated LiNbO 3 crystals were studied by the fractional glow technique. The trap ionization with unusually high values of the mean activation energy and the effective frequency factor as well as decreasing the activation energy of the traps when the temperature increased from 150-180 K were observed. It is suggested that all these effects are due to the ion-fluctuation process (the electric field generated by thermal reorientation of dipoles). (author)

  12. Optical stimulation of the hearing and deaf cochlea under thermal and stress confinement condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, M.; Baumhoff, P.; Kallweit, N.; Sato, M.; Krüger, A.; Ripken, T.; Lenarz, T.; Kral, A.

    2014-03-01

    There is a controversy, to which extend cochlear stimulation with near infrared laser pulses at a wavelength of 1860 nm is based on optoacoustic stimulation of intact hair cells or -in contrast- is based on direct stimulation of the nerve cells in absence of functional hair cells. Thermal and stress confinement conditions apply, because of the pulse duration range (5 ns, 10 μs-20 ms) of the two lasers used. The dependency of the signal characteristics on pulse peak power and pulse duration was investigated in this study. The compound action potential (CAP) was measured during stimulation of the cochlea of four anaesthetized guinea pigs, which were hearing at first and afterwards acutely deafened using intracochlear neomycin-rinsing. For comparison hydrophone measurements in a water tank were performed to investigate the optoacoustic signals at different laser interaction regimes. With rising pulse peak power CAPs of the hearing animals showed first a threshold, then a positively correlated and finally a saturating dependency. CAPs also showed distinct responses at laser onset and offset separated with the pulse duration. At pulse durations shorter than physiological response times the signals merged. Basically the same signal characteristics were observed in the optoacoustic hydrophone measurements, scaled with the sensitivity and response time of the hydrophone. Taking together the qualitative correspondence in the signal response and the absence of any CAPs in deafened animals our results speak in favor of an optoacoustic stimulation of intact hair cells rather than a direct stimulation of nerve cells.

  13. Structural properties, deformation behavior and thermal stability of martensitic Ti-Nb alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boenisch, Matthias

    2016-06-10

    Ti-Nb alloys are characterized by a diverse metallurgy which allows obtaining a wide palette of microstructural configurations and physical properties via careful selection of chemical composition, heat treatment and mechanical processing routes. The present work aims to expand the current state of knowledge about martensite forming Ti-Nb alloys by studying 15 binary Ti-c{sub Nb}Nb (9 wt.% ≤ c{sub Nb} ≤ 44.5 wt.%) alloy formulations in terms of their structural and mechanical properties, as well as their thermal stability. The crystal structures of the martensitic phases, α{sup '} and α'', and the influence of the Nb content on the lattice (Bain) strain and on the volume change related to the β → α{sup '}/α'' martensitic transformations are analyzed on the basis of Rietveld-refinements. The magnitude of the shuffle component of the β → α{sup '}/α'' martensitic transformations is quantified in relation to the chemical composition. The largest transformation lattice strains are operative in Nb-lean alloys. Depending on the composition, both a volume dilatation and contraction are encountered and the volume change may influence whether hexagonal martensite α{sup '} or orthorhombic martensite α'' forms from β upon quenching. The mechanical properties and the deformation behavior of martensitic Ti-Nb alloys are studied by complementary methods including monotonic and cyclic uniaxial compression, nanoindentation, microhardness and impulse excitation technique. The results show that the Nb content strongly influences the mechanical properties of martensitic Ti-Nb alloys. The elastic moduli, hardness and strength are minimal in the vicinity of the limiting compositions bounding the interval in which orthorhombic martensite α'' forms by quenching. Uniaxial cyclic compressive testing demonstrates that the elastic properties of strained samples are different than those of unstrained ones

  14. Influence of thermally activated processes on the deformation behavior during low temperature ECAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, S.; Scholze, M.; F-X Wagner, M.

    2016-03-01

    High strength aluminum alloys are generally hard to deform. Therefore, the application of conventional severe plastic deformation methods to generate ultrafine-grained microstructures and to further increase strength is considerably limited. In this study, we consider low temperature deformation in a custom-built, cooled equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) tool (internal angle 90°) as an alternative approach to severely plastically deform a 7075 aluminum alloy. To document the maximum improvement of mechanical properties, these alloys are initially deformed from a solid solution heat-treated condition. We characterize the mechanical behavior and the microstructure of the coarse grained initial material at different low temperatures, and we analyze how a tendency for the PLC effect and the strain-hardening rate affect the formability during subsequent severe plastic deformation at low temperatures. We then discuss how the deformation temperature and velocity influence the occurrence of PLC effects and the homogeneity of the deformed ECAP billets. Besides the mechanical properties and these microstructural changes, we discuss technologically relevant processing parameters (such as pressing forces) and practical limitations, as well as changes in fracture behavior of the low temperature deformed materials as a function of deformation temperature.

  15. Dependence of the thermal influence on luminescence lifetimes from quartz on the duration of optical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chithambo, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Time-resolved luminescence spectra may be measured from quartz at various stages of continuous optical stimulation in order to investigate properties of the spectra associated with the 'fast', 'medium', and 'slow' components of continuous optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). In this work, temperature related changes of luminescence lifetimes and luminescence intensity, both evaluated from time-resolved luminescence spectra recorded in the 'fast' 'medium' and 'slow' component regions of quartz OSL, have been investigated. The luminescence, stimulated at 525 nm, and measured at intervals between 20 deg. C and 200 deg. C reaches maximum intensity at 100 deg. C and decreases thereafter up to 200 deg. C, the maximum temperature of the investigations. Luminescence lifetimes, on the other hand, remain constant within 40±3 μs between 20 deg. C and 100 deg. C and then decrease down to about μs at 200 deg. C. The initial increase of luminescence intensity with temperature between 20 deg. C and 100 deg. C is discussed in terms of thermal assistance to luminescence stimulation. Beyond 100 deg. C, radiative recombination is affected by quenching of luminescence and reduction in luminescence lifetimes. The activation energy for thermal quenching was evaluated to be in the range 0.63±0.07 eV at all stimulation times and that of thermal assistance was evaluated to be about 0.06 eV for the 'fast' and 'medium' component regions and about 0.1 eV for the 'slow' component region of the OSL

  16. High temperature deformation behavior, thermal stability and irradiation performance in Grade 92 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsagabi, Sultan

    The 9Cr-2W ferritic-martensitic steel (i.e. Grade 92 steel) possesses excellent mechanical and thermophysical properties; therefore, it has been considered to suit more challenging applications where high temperature strength and creep-rupture properties are required. The high temperature deformation mechanism was investigated through a set of tensile testing at elevated temperatures. Hence, the threshold stress concept was applied to elucidate the operating high temperature deformation mechanism. It was identified as the high temperature climb of edge dislocations due to the particle-dislocation interactions and the appropriate constitutive equation was developed. In addition, the microstructural evolution at room and elevated temperatures was investigated. For instance, the microstructural evolution under loading was more pronounced and carbide precipitation showed more coarsening tendency. The growth of these carbide precipitates, by removing W and Mo from matrix, significantly deteriorates the solid solution strengthening. The MX type carbonitrides exhibited better coarsening resistance. To better understand the thermal microstructural stability, long tempering schedules up to 1000 hours was conducted at 560, 660 and 760°C after normalizing the steel. Still, the coarsening rate of M23C 6 carbides was higher than the MX-type particles. Moreover, the Laves phase particles were detected after tempering the steel for long periods before they dissolve back into the matrix at high temperature (i.e. 720°C). The influence of the tempering temperature and time was studied for Grade 92 steel via Hollomon-Jaffe parameter. Finally, the irradiation performance of Grade 92 steel was evaluated to examine the feasibility of its eventual reactor use. To that end, Grade 92 steel was irradiated with iron (Fe2+) ions to 10, 50 and 100 dpa at 30 and 500°C. Overall, the irradiated samples showed some irradiation-induced hardening which was more noticeable at 30°C. Additionally

  17. Modelling the thermal quenching mechanism in quartz based on time-resolved optically stimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagonis, V.; Ankjaergaard, C.; Murray, A.S.; Jain, M.; Chen, R.; Lawless, J.; Greilich, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new numerical model for thermal quenching in quartz, based on the previously suggested Mott-Seitz mechanism. In the model electrons from a dosimetric trap are raised by optical or thermal stimulation into the conduction band, followed by an electronic transition from the conduction band into an excited state of the recombination center. Subsequently electrons in this excited state undergo either a direct radiative transition into a recombination center, or a competing thermally assisted non-radiative process into the ground state of the recombination center. As the temperature of the sample is increased, more electrons are removed from the excited state via the non-radiative pathway. This reduction in the number of available electrons leads to both a decrease of the intensity of the luminescence signal and to a simultaneous decrease of the luminescence lifetime. Several simulations are carried out of time-resolved optically stimulated luminescence (TR-OSL) experiments, in which the temperature dependence of luminescence lifetimes in quartz is studied as a function of the stimulation temperature. Good quantitative agreement is found between the simulation results and new experimental data obtained using a single-aliquot procedure on a sedimentary quartz sample.

  18. Thermal Stability of Microstructure and Microhardness of Heterophase BCC-Alloys After Torsional Deformation on Bridgman Anvils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditenberg, I. A.; Tyumentsev, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    The results of investigations of thermal stability of microstructure and microhardness of alloys of the V-4Ti-4Cr and Mo-47Re systems, subjected to torsional deformation by high quasi-hydrostatic pressure at room temperature, are reported. It is shown that submicrocrystalline and nanocrystalline states, and the respective high values of microhardness, persist up to the upper bound ( 0.4 Tmelt) of the temperature interval of their recovery and polygonization in a single-phase state. The main factors ensuring thermal stability of highlydefective states in heterophase alloys are discussed.

  19. Elasto/visco-plastic deformation of moderately thick shells of revolution under thermal loading due to fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takezono, S.; Tao, K.; Aoki, T.; Inamura, E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is concerned with an analytical formulation and a numerical solution of the thermo-elasto/visco-plastic deformation of general, moderately thick shells of revolution subjected to thermal loads due to fluid. At first the temperature distribution through the thickness is supposed to be curves of second order, and the temperature field in the shell under the appropriate initial and boundary conditions is determined by using the equations of heat conduction and heat transfer. Secondly the stresses and deformations are derived from the thermal stress equations. The equations of equilibrium and the relations between the strains and displacements are developed by extending the Reissner-Naghdi theory for elastic shells. For the constitutive relations, the Perzyna elasto/visco-plastic equations including the temperature effect are employed. The fundamental equations derived are numerically solved by the finite difference method. As a numerical example, the simply supported cylindrical shell made of mild steel under thermal loading due to fluid is analyzed, and the results are compared with those from classical theory which neglects the effect of shear deformations. (author)

  20. Thermal-deformation effect of welding on A 1 reactor pressure vessel weld joints properties and state of stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becka, J.; Kupka, I.

    1976-01-01

    The methods are compared of electroslag welding and of arc welding with a view to their possible application in welding the Bohunice A-1 reactor pressure vessel. Considered are the thermal deformation effects of welding on the physical properties and the stress present in welded joints. For testing, plates were used having the dimensions of 1100x2300x200 mm and rings with 4820 mm outer diameter, 1800 mm height and 170 mm thickness made of steel CSN 413O30 modified with Ni, Al+Ti. The deformation effect of welding on the residual surface and triaxial stress, the specific stored energy, the initiation temperature of brittle crack and the critical size of the initiation defect corresponding to the thermal deformation effect of welding were determined. It was found that for electroslag welding, there is a low probability of crack formation in the joints, a low level of residual stress and a low level of specific stored energy in a relatively wide joint zone. For arc welding there is a considerable probability of defect formation in the vicinity of the sharp boundary of the joint, a high level of the triaxial state of stress in the tensile region, and a high level of specific stored energy concentrated in the narrow zone of weld joints. The recommended thermal process is given for welding pressure vessels made of the CSN 413030 steel modified with Ni, Al+Ti, and 150 to 200 mm in thickness. (J.P.)

  1. A study of thermal deformation in the carriage of a permanent magnet direct drive linear motor stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, J.H.; Zhong, Z.W.; Lin, W.; Khoo, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    Carriage deformation due to temperature gradients within the materials of the carriage affects the accuracy of precision machines. This is largely due to the indeterminist temperature distribution in the carriage's material caused by the non-linearity of heat transfer. The joule heat from the motor coil forms the main heat source. When coupled with the heat loss through convection and radiation, the temperature variation in the motor's carriage also increases. In this study, the Finite Element Analysis was used together with a set of boundary conditions, which was obtained empirically, to analyze the distortion of the motor's carriage. The simulated results were compared with those obtained through experiments. The study shows that it is important to know, rather than to assume, the thermal boundary conditions of the motor's carriage of a precision machine in order to accurately estimate the thermal deformation of the carriage in precision machining. - Highlights: ► Deformation occurs in carriages which are mounted with linear motor. ► The convective coefficient, which is assumed to be 10 W mm −2 , is shown to be invalid. ► The perfect contact conductance is shown to be invalid too. ► To have an accurate thermal model, boundary conditions have to be realistic. ► Boundary conditions are the heat source, convective and conductance values.

  2. CFD simulation of a dry scroll vacuum pump with clearances, solid heating and thermal deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spille-Kohoff, A.; Hesse, J.; Andres, R.; Hetze, F.

    2017-08-01

    Although dry scroll vacuum pumps (DSPV) are essential devices in many different industrial processes, the CFD simulation of such pumps is not widely used and often restricted to simplified cases due to its complexity: The working principle with a fixed and an orbiting scroll leads to working chambers that are changing in time and are connected through moving small radial and axial clearances in the range of 10 to 100 μm. Due to the low densities and low mass flow rates in vacuum pumps, it is important to include heat transfer towards and inside the solid components. Solid heating is very slow compared to the scroll revolution speed and the gas behaviour, thus a special workflow is necessary to reach the working conditions in reasonable simulation times. The resulting solid temperature is then used to compute the thermal deformation, which usually results in gap size changes that influence leakage flows. In this paper, setup steps and results for the simulation of a DSVP are shown and compared to theoretical and experimental results. The time-varying working chambers are meshed with TwinMesh, a hexahedral meshing programme for positive displacement machines. The CFD simulation with ANSYS CFX accounts for gas flow with compressibility and turbulence effects, conjugate heat transfer between gas and solids, and leakage flows through the clearances. Time-resolved results for torques, chamber pressure, mass flow, and heat flow between gas and solids are shown, as well as time- and space-resolved results for pressure, velocity, and temperature for different operating conditions of the DSVP.

  3. Study of deformation mechanisms of zinc bicrystals by thermal cycling (1963); Etude des mecanismes de deformation par cyclage thermique de bicristaux de zinc (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondon, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-06-15

    The thermal cycling of zinc bicrystals has been studied in order to precise the thermal cycling growth mechanism, proposed by Burke and TURKALO, specially the dependence of 'equi-cohesive' temperature of grains on their mutual orientation and the parameters of the thermal cycle. Dilatometric studies showed that a bicrystal had no equi-cohesive temperature and that the grain-boundary develops stress at all temperatures. The creep of single and bicrystal have been studied on a dilatometer with stress below the Yield-stress. At constant temperature secondary creep appears after a transient period, at cycled temperature creep stays transient for strains of about 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -3} when the crystal is plastically hard. Micrographic investigations show that grain-boundary migration accompanies the grain boundary shearing and that cycles produce a strong polygonisation, corroborating the fact that the grain boundary remains a stress-generator and that creep occurs in the volume of grains. The discussion of results shows that the transient creep of hard grain in a bicrystal makes the thermal cycling irreversible and allows on elongation at each cycle if that have the lower expansion coefficient. (author) [French] Le cyclage thermique de bicristaux de zinc a ete etudie pour preciser le mecanisme de la croissance au cyclage thermique propose par BURKE et TURKALO, notamment la temperature d' 'equicohesion' des grains en fonction de leur orientation mutuelle et du regime de cyclage impose. Des essais dilatometriques ont montre qu'un bicristal ne presentait pas de temperature d'equicohesion et que le joint exercait des contraintes quelle que soit la temperature superieure du cycle. Le fluage de monocristaux et de bicristaux a ete etudie sur un dilatometre avec des contraintes inferieures a la limite elastique. A temperature constante le fluage secondaire apparait apres une periode transitoire, a temperature cyclee le fluage reste transitoire pour des deformations de l

  4. Determination of P3HT Trap Site Energies by Thermally Stimulated Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, J. F. P.; Serbena, J. P. M.; Kowalski, E. L.; Akcelrud, L. C.

    2018-02-01

    The thermal, electrical and morphological characterization of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5diyl) (P3HT) is presented and discussed. Thermal analyses revealed high glass transition, melting and degradation temperatures, indicating high stability of the polymer to annealings in the range 25-200°C. Electrical measurements were performed in spin-coated devices constructed using indium tin oxide (ITO) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) in the sandwich structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT/Al. The devices were thermally treated at 25°C, 100°C, 150°C, and 200°C prior to the measurements. Characteristic curves of current density versus voltage showed that the injection of charge carriers is governed by tunneling at high electric fields. Hole mobility was estimated by impedance spectroscopy, showing a maximum value of 8.6 × 10-5 cm2/Vs for annealed films at 150°C. A thermally stimulated current technique was used to analyze the trap density in the P3HT and its respective energies for all devices, presenting the lowest trap density for annealed films at 150°C. Morphological features observed by atomic force microscopy showed that the 150°C thermally treated film presents the best interface condition of the four investigated annealing temperatures.

  5. A general centroid determination methodology, with application to multilayer dielectric structures and thermally stimulated current measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.; McWhorter, P.J.; Reber, R.A. Jr.; Murray, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    A general methodology is developed to experimentally characterize the spatial distribution of occupied traps in dielectric films on a semiconductor. The effects of parasitics such as leakage, charge transport through more than one interface, and interface trap charge are quantitatively addressed. Charge transport with contributions from multiple charge species is rigorously treated. The methodology is independent of the charge transport mechanism(s), and is directly applicable to multilayer dielectric structures. The centroid capacitance, rather than the centroid itself, is introduced as the fundamental quantity that permits the generic analysis of multilayer structures. In particular, the form of many equations describing stacked dielectric structures becomes independent of the number of layers comprising the stack if they are expressed in terms of the centroid capacitance and/or the flatband voltage. The experimental methodology is illustrated with an application using thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurements. The centroid of changes (via thermal emission) in the amount of trapped charge was determined for two different samples of a triple-layer dielectric structure. A direct consequence of the TSC analyses is the rigorous proof that changes in interface trap charge can contribute, though typically not significantly, to thermally stimulated current

  6. Investigations on thermal properties, stress and deformation of Al/SiC metal matrix composite based on finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Ramesh Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AlSiC is a metal matrix composite which comprises of aluminium matrix with silicon carbide particles. It is characterized by high thermal conductivity (180-200 W/m K, and its thermal expansion are attuned to match other important materials that finds enormous demand in industrial sectors. Although its application is very common, the physics behind the Al-SiC formation, functionality and behaviors are intricate owing to the temperature gradient of hundreds of degrees, over the volume, occurring on a time scale of a few seconds, involving multiple phases. In this study, various physical, metallurgical and numerical aspects such as equation of continuum for thermal, stress and deformation using finite element (FE matrix formulation, temperature dependent material properties, are analyzed. Modelling and simulation studies of Al/SiC composites are a preliminary attempt to view this research work from computational point of view.

  7. Thermally and optically stimulated luminescence of early medieval blue-green glass mosaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galli, A. E-mail: anna.galli@mater.unimib.it; Martini, M.; Montanari, C.; Sibilia, E

    2004-12-01

    The preliminary results of a study related to luminescent mechanisms in glass mosaic tesserae are presented. The samples came from a medieval glass deposit found during archaeological excavations in the S. Lorenzo Church in Milan. Energy Dispersive X-rays Fluorescence (EDXRF) measurements were performed to obtain information on the elemental composition of the materials. Thermally Stimulated Luminescence (TSL, both conventional and wavelength resolved) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) analyses allowed to get information about traps and luminescence centres. The observed luminescence characteristics were close to that of quartz, showing the presence of an easy to bleach trap (300 deg. C, 1.95 eV) and of a hard to bleach trap (350 deg. C, 2.20 eV); charge transfer phenomena, involving the low-temperature peaks have been observed. There is a strong indication that the easy to bleach traps are responsible for both OSL and TSL emission at 300 deg. C.

  8. Thermally and optically stimulated luminescence of early medieval blue-green glass mosaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, A.; Martini, M.; Montanari, C.; Sibilia, E.

    2004-01-01

    The preliminary results of a study related to luminescent mechanisms in glass mosaic tesserae are presented. The samples came from a medieval glass deposit found during archaeological excavations in the S. Lorenzo Church in Milan. Energy Dispersive X-rays Fluorescence (EDXRF) measurements were performed to obtain information on the elemental composition of the materials. Thermally Stimulated Luminescence (TSL, both conventional and wavelength resolved) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) analyses allowed to get information about traps and luminescence centres. The observed luminescence characteristics were close to that of quartz, showing the presence of an easy to bleach trap (300 deg. C, 1.95 eV) and of a hard to bleach trap (350 deg. C, 2.20 eV); charge transfer phenomena, involving the low-temperature peaks have been observed. There is a strong indication that the easy to bleach traps are responsible for both OSL and TSL emission at 300 deg. C

  9. Thermal image analysis of plastic deformation and fracture behavior by a thermo-video measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohbuchi, Yoshifumi; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Nagatomo, Nobuaki

    2016-01-01

    The visualization of the plastic region and the measurement of its size are necessary and indispensable to evaluate the deformation and fracture behavior of a material. In order to evaluate the plastic deformation and fracture behavior in a structural member with some flaws, the authors paid attention to the surface temperature which is generated by plastic strain energy. The visualization of the plastic deformation was developed by analyzing the relationship between the extension of the plastic deformation range and the surface temperature distribution, which was obtained by an infrared thermo-video system. Furthermore, FEM elasto-plastic analysis was carried out with the experiment, and the effectiveness of this non-contact measurement system of the plastic deformation and fracture process by a thermography system was discussed. The evaluation method using an infrared imaging device proposed in this research has a feature which does not exist in the current evaluation method, i.e. the heat distribution on the surface of the material has been measured widely by noncontact at 2D at high speed. The new measuring technique proposed here can measure the macroscopic plastic deformation distribution on the material surface widely and precisely as a 2D image, and at high speed, by calculation from the heat generation and the heat propagation distribution. (paper)

  10. Positron annihilation and thermally stimulated current of electron beam irradiated polyetheretherketone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Shigetaka; Shinyama, Katsuyoshi; Baba, Makoto [Hachinohe Inst. of Tech., Hachinohe, Aomori (Japan); Suzuki, Takenori

    1997-03-01

    Positron lifetime measurements were applied to electron beam irradiated poly(ether-ether-ketone). The lifetime, {tau}{sub 3}, of the ortho-positronium of unirradiated and 5 MGy irradiated specimen became rapidly longer above about 150degC. {tau}{sub 3} of 50 MGy and 100 MGy irradiated specimen was shorter than that of unirradiated one. Thermally stimulated current (TSC) decreased with increasing the dose before voltage application. In the case of voltage application, a TSC peak appeared and the peak value decreased with increased the dose. The correlation between the results of positron annihilation and TSC was investigated. (author)

  11. Determination of deep levels in semi-insulating cadmium telluride by thermally stimulated current measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharager, C.; Muller, J.C.; Stuck, R.; Siffert, P.

    1975-01-01

    Thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurements have been performed in high resistivity (rho approximately 10 7 ohms.cm) CdTe γ-ray detectors between 35 and 300K. The TSC curves have been analyzed by different methods, including those taking into account the retrapping of the carriers. The trap characteristics have been determined; especially three levels located at E(v)+0.13eV, E(v)+0.30eV and E(c)-0.55eV have been investigated [fr

  12. Thermally stimulated currents in ZrO2:MgO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, E.N.S.

    1987-01-01

    Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Current measurements between 100 K and 350 K have been performed in ZrO 2 :MgO ceramic samples to discriminate the several kinds of polarization (orientational and interfacial polarization, and extrinsic and intrinsic space charge effects) to allow for the use of the technique in the study of solid solution formation in partially stabilized zirconia. The samples were prepared by conventional ceramic processing methods. Different electrode materials have been used: colloidal graphite, silver, gold, and also insulating electrodes (e.g. mylar foils). The current spectra obtained are strongly dependent upon the electrode material showing the presence of spacial charge phenomenon in these ceramics. (Author) [pt

  13. Thermally stimulated currents in ZrO2:MgO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, E.N.S.

    1987-01-01

    Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Current measurements between 100 K and 350 K have been performed in ZrO 2 :MgO ceramic samples to discriminate the several Kinds of polarization (orientational and interfacial polarization, and extrinsic and intrinsic space charge effects) to allow for the use of the technique in the study of solid solution formation in partially stabilized zirconia. The samples were prepared by conventional ceramic processing methods. Different electrode materials have been used: colloidal graphite, silver, gold, and also insulating electrodes (e.g. mylar foils). The current spectra obtained are strongly dependent upon the electrode material showing the presence of spacial charge phenomenon in these ceramics. (Author) [pt

  14. Creation of an Enhanced Geothermal System through Hydraulic and Thermal Stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Peter Eugene [Energy and Geoscience Institute at the University of Utah

    2013-04-15

    This report describes a 10-year DOE-funded project to design, characterize and create an Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) through a combination of hydraulic, thermal and chemical stimulation techniques. Volume 1 describes a four-year Phase 1 campaign, which focused on the east compartment of the Coso geothermal field. It includes a description of the geomechanical, geophysical, hydraulic, and geochemical studies that were conducted to characterize the reservoir in anticipation of the hydraulic stimulation experiment. Phase 1 ended prematurely when the drill bit intersected a very permeable fault zone during the redrilling of target stimulation well 34-9RD2. A hydraulic stimulation was inadvertently achieved, however, since the flow of drill mud from the well into the formation created an earthquake swarm near the wellbore that was recorded, located, analyzed and interpreted by project seismologists. Upon completion of Phase 1, the project shifted focus to a new target well, which was located within the southwest compartment of the Coso geothermal field. Volume 2 describes the Phase 2 studies on the geomechanical, geophysical, hydraulic, and geochemical aspects of the reservoir in and around target-stimulation well 46A-19RD, which is the deepest and hottest well ever drilled at Coso. Its total measured depth exceeding 12,000 ft. It spite of its great depth, this well is largely impermeable below a depth of about 9,000 ft, thus providing an excellent target for stimulation. In order to prepare 46A-19RD for stimulation, however, it was necessary to pull the slotted liner. This proved to be unachievable under the budget allocated by the Coso Operating Company partners, and this aspect of the project was abandoned, ending the program at Coso. The program then shifted to the EGS project at Desert Peak, which had a goal similar to the one at Coso of creating an EGS on the periphery of an existing geothermal reservoir. Volume 3 describes the activities that the Coso team

  15. A nonlocal strain gradient model for dynamic deformation of orthotropic viscoelastic graphene sheets under time harmonic thermal load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Ahmed F.; Sobhy, Mohammed

    2018-06-01

    This work presents a nonlocal strain gradient theory for the dynamic deformation response of a single-layered graphene sheet (SLGS) on a viscoelastic foundation and subjected to a time harmonic thermal load for various boundary conditions. Material of graphene sheets is presumed to be orthotropic and viscoelastic. The viscoelastic foundation is modeled as Kelvin-Voigt's pattern. Based on the two-unknown plate theory, the motion equations are obtained from the dynamic version of the virtual work principle. The nonlocal strain gradient theory is established from Eringen nonlocal and strain gradient theories, therefore, it contains two material scale parameters, which are nonlocal parameter and gradient coefficient. These scale parameters have two different effects on the graphene sheets. The obtained deflection is compared with that predicted in the literature. Additional numerical examples are introduced to illustrate the influences of the two length scale coefficients and other parameters on the dynamic deformation of the viscoelastic graphene sheets.

  16. Relationships between stratigraphy, deformation and thermal history in sedimentary basins. Impact of geodynamic concepts in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmiento, Luis Fernando

    2002-01-01

    The natural processes that generate petroleum accumulations in a sedimentary basin require several ingredients: (1) the petroleum system elements: source, reservoir, seal and overburden rocks, which are the result of sedimentation processes in a subsiding basin; (2) petroleum traps, which in many cases are the result of deformation and (3) heat to convert suitable organic matter into petroleum. Although these different phenomena are considered independent at the scale of an oil field, at the lithosphere scale thermal phenomena, (2) vertical movements of the earth surface responsible for sedimentation and erosion and (3) tectonic deformation are not independent phenomena, physical quantitative laws intimately relate them. These mutual inter relationships are useful in petroleum exploration to predict one factor having knowledge of the others. Applications of these concepts can contribute to understand the tectonic history of complex areas, such as the Colombian sedimentary basins and reduce exploration risk

  17. Thermally stimulated currents between 300 K and 800 K in beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelli, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Thermally Stimulated Polarization/Depolarization Currents (ISPC/ISDC) have been measured in ceramic Beryllium Oxide in the temperature range RT-800 K. Specimens dc biased above RT show a Thermoelectret behaviour at RT. The thermal destruction of the thermoelectret state gives rise to a TSDC spectrum with at least three current maxima. Two contributions to the induced polarization are found: one volumetric uniform and another due to space charge formation. These polarizations are related to the impurity content (mainly Si and Al) as well as to the microstructure (average grain size, grain boundary distribution, pore distribution, glassy phases) of the ceramic specimens. Some mechanisms, based on Al 3+ - compensation vacancies and charge carriers transport via grain boundaries (through pore glassy phases) are proposed to explain the observed TSDC Spectra and the electrical conductivity results. (Author) [pt

  18. Monitoring of the thermal deformations on polymer parts using a vision system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Madruga, Daniel González; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Dimensional measurements in production environment are affected by non‐controlled temperature conditions. In the case of polymer parts the high thermal expansion coefficient leads to significant dimensional changes. In order to achieve high accuracy in dimensional measurements, thermal deformatio...

  19. Correlation between thermal gradient and flexure-type deformation as a potential trigger for exfoliation-related rock falls (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, B. D.; Stock, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    Stress-induced exfoliation of granitic rocks is an important means by which cliffs deform and subsequently erode. During exfoliation, fractures are formed, and when exposed in cliff faces, are susceptible to subsequent rock falls. This is the case in Yosemite National Park, California, where exfoliation continues to play a primary role in cliff evolution. In Yosemite, numerous mechanisms are inferred to trigger rock falls; nevertheless, many rock falls have no recognized triggers. As a result, several potential, but as yet unquantified, triggering mechanisms have been proposed. One of these, thermally induced flexure, wherein solar radiation and temperature variation drives cumulative deformation of partially detached rock flakes, has the potential to explain several recent rock falls in Yosemite. We explore this potential mechanism by quantifying the deformation, temperature, and solar radiation exposure of a near-vertical rock flake in Yosemite Valley. The flake, 14 m tall, 4 m wide and 12 cm thick, receives direct sunlight during most of the day. Whereas the flake is attached to the cliff face at its bottom and top, the sides are detached from the cliff by a 10 cm wide crack on one side, tapering to a 1 cm wide crack on the opposite side. Instrumentation consists of three custom-designed crackmeters placed between the flake and the adjacent cliff face, three air temperature sensors located behind the flake, and three dual air temperature-light sensors located on the outside surface of the flake. Nearby relative humidity and barometric pressure sensors complete the instrumentation. Five-minute interval data from spring - fall 2010 indicate the flake undergoes maximum deformation at mid-span between attachment points and that it deforms from both diurnal and climatic temperature fluctuations. Recorded maximum deformations, measured perpendicular to crack orientation, are 1 cm diurnally and nearly 1.5 cm (including diurnal effect) over a 5-day period of cooler

  20. Non-thermal Plasma Activates Human Keratinocytes by Stimulation of Antioxidant and Phase II Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anke; Dietrich, Stephan; Steuer, Anna; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Masur, Kai; Wende, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma provides a novel therapeutic opportunity to control redox-based processes, e.g. wound healing, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. By spatial and time-resolved delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, it allows stimulation or inhibition of cellular processes in biological systems. Our data show that both gene and protein expression is highly affected by non-thermal plasma. Nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (NRF2) and phase II enzyme pathway components were found to act as key controllers orchestrating the cellular response in keratinocytes. Additionally, glutathione metabolism, which is a marker for NRF2-related signaling events, was affected. Among the most robustly increased genes and proteins, heme oxygenase 1, NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase 1, and growth factors were found. The roles of NRF2 targets, investigated by siRNA silencing, revealed that NRF2 acts as an important switch for sensing oxidative stress events. Moreover, the influence of non-thermal plasma on the NRF2 pathway prepares cells against exogenic noxae and increases their resilience against oxidative species. Via paracrine mechanisms, distant cells benefit from cell-cell communication. The finding that non-thermal plasma triggers hormesis-like processes in keratinocytes facilitates the understanding of plasma-tissue interaction and its clinical application. PMID:25589789

  1. Thermal Microstructural Stability of AZ31 Magnesium after Severe Plastic Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, John P.; Askari, Hesam A.; Hovanski, Yuri; Heiden, Michael J.; Field, David P.

    2015-03-01

    Both equal channel angular pressing and friction stir processing have the ability to refine the grain size of twin roll cast AZ31 magnesium and potentially improve its superplastic properties. This work used isochronal and isothermal heat treatments to investigate the microstructural stability of twin roll cast, equal channel angular pressed and friction stir processed AZ31 magnesium. For both heat treatment conditions, it was found that the twin roll casted and equal channel angular pressed materials were more stable than the friction stir processed material. Calculations of the grain growth kinetics showed that severe plastic deformation processing decreased the activation energy for grain boundary motion with the equal channel angular pressed material having the greatest Q value of the severely plastically deformed materials and that increasing the tool travel speed of the friction stir processed material improved microstructural stability. The Hollomon-Jaffe parameter was found to be an accurate means of identifying the annealing conditions that will result in substantial grain growth and loss of potential superplastic properties in the severely plastically deformed materials. In addition, Humphreys’s model of cellular microstructural stability accurately predicted the relative microstructural stability of the severely plastically deformed materials and with some modification, closely predicted the maximum grain size ratio achieved by the severely plastically deformed materials.

  2. Analysis of the Thermal and Hydraulic Stimulation Program at Raft River, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Jacob; McLennan, John; Moore, Joseph; Podgorney, Robert; Plummer, Mitchell; Nash, Greg

    2017-05-01

    The Raft River geothermal field, located in southern Idaho, roughly 100 miles northwest of Salt Lake City, is the site of a Department of Energy Enhanced Geothermal System project designed to develop new techniques for enhancing the permeability of geothermal wells. RRG-9 ST1, the target stimulation well, was drilled to a measured depth of 5962 ft. and cased to 5551 ft. The open-hole section of the well penetrates Precambrian quartzite and quartz monzonite. The well encountered a temperature of 282 °F at its base. Thermal and hydraulic stimulation was initiated in June 2013. Several injection strategies have been employed. These strategies have included the continuous injection of water at temperatures ranging from 53 to 115 °F at wellhead pressures of approximately 275 psi and three short-term hydraulic stimulations at pressures up to approximately 1150 psi. Flow rates, wellhead and line pressures and fluid temperatures are measured continuously. These data are being utilized to assess the effectiveness of the stimulation program. As of August 2014, nearly 90 million gallons have been injected. A modified Hall plot has been used to characterize the relationships between the bottom-hole flowing pressure and the cumulative injection fluid volume. The data indicate that the skin factor is decreased, and/or the permeability around the wellbore has increased since the stimulation program was initiated. The injectivity index also indicates a positive improvement with values ranging from 0.15 gal/min psi in July 2013 to 1.73 gal/min psi in February 2015. Absolute flow rates have increased from approximately 20 to 475 gpm by February 2 2015. Geologic, downhole temperature and seismic data suggest the injected fluid enters a fracture zone at 5650 ft and then travels upward to a permeable horizon at the contact between the Precambrian rocks and the overlying Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic deposits. The reservoir simulation program FALCON developed at the Idaho National

  3. Thermally stimulated capacitance in gamma irradiated epitaxial 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneshwara Raja, P.; Narasimha Murty, N. V. L.

    2018-04-01

    Deep level defects in 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) fabricated on n-type epitaxial 4H-SiC have been identified by thermally stimulated capacitance (TSCAP) spectroscopy prior to and after 60Co-gamma irradiation. The TSCAP measurements on the non-irradiated SBDs reveal two electron traps at Ec-0.63 eV (˜250 K) and Ec-1.13 eV (˜525 K), whereas only one trap at Ec-0.63 eV is identified by conventional thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurements. Hence, TSCAP spectroscopy is more effective in identifying deep level defects in epitaxial 4 H-SiC SBDs as compared to the TSC spectroscopy. Upon exposure to 60Co-gamma rays up to a dose of 100 Mrad, significant changes in the concentration of the traps at Ec-0.63 eV, Ec-1.13 eV, and one new trap at Ec-0.89 eV (˜420 K) are observed. The electrical characteristics of the SBDs are considerably changed after gamma irradiation. The dominant mechanisms responsible for the irradiation induced changes in the SBD electrical characteristics are analyzed by incorporating the trap signatures in the commercial Silvaco® TCAD device simulator. The extracted trap parameters of the irradiated SBDs may be helpful in predicting the survival of 4H-SiC SBD detectors at higher irradiation levels.

  4. Stimulation of chondrocyte proliferation following photothermal, thermal, and mechanical injury in ex-vivo cartilage grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandoh, Nidhi S.; Truong, Mai T.; Diaz-Valdes, Sergio H.; Gardiner, David M.; Wong, Brian J.

    2002-06-01

    Laser irradiation may stimulate chondrocytes proliferation in the peripheral region surrounding a photothermally-heated area in rabbit nasal septal cartilage. In this study, ex- vivo rabbit nasal septal cartilages maintained in culture were irradiated with an Nd:YAG laser ((lambda) equals1.32 micrometers , 4-16 sec, 10-45 W/cm2) to examine the relationship between the diameter of replicating cells and irradiation time. Also, this study investigated whether proliferation occurs following heating (by immersion in hot saline baths, with a heated metal rod, and a soldering iron) and mechanical modification (crushing with a metal stamp and scoring with a scalpel). Replicating chondrocytes were identified using a Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) double antibody detection system in whole mount tissue. Light microscopy was used to confirm the presence of BrdU stained chondrocytes. The mechanical and thermal stressors used failed to produce a proliferative response in chondrocytes as previously seen with laser irradiation. We suspect that chondrocyte proliferation may be induced as a response to alteration in matrix structure produced by photothermal, thermal, or mechanical modification of the matrix. Heat generated by a laser to stimulate chondrocyte proliferation may lead to new treatment options for degenerative articular diseases and disorders. Laser technology can be adapted for use with minimally invasive surgical instrumentation to deliver light into otherwise inaccessible regions of the body.

  5. Thermally stimulated depolarization currents in the natural fluorite; Correntes de despolarizacao termicamente estimuladas na fluorita natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerio, Mario Ernesto Giroldo

    1986-12-31

    The present work deals with natural calcium fluoride from Criciuma, Santa Catarina. Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) can be used to determine the properties of dipole defects present in this crystal. The TSDC spectrum of this material shows three bands in the temperature range of 80 to 450 K. The first one, at 130 K, is due the dipoles formed by a trivalent impurity and an interstitial fluorine ion in the next nearest position of an impurity ion (nn R{sub s}{sup 3+} -F{sub i}{sup -}). The second one, at 102 k, is due to the presence of small aggregates of dipoles (like a dimer). The last band, at 360 k is due to the formation of Large Clusters. The continuous distribution model gave the best fit for these bands with mean activation energies of 0.41 eV, 0.595 eV and 1.02 eV for the first, second and third band respectively. Thermal treatments can modify the number of dipoles, dimers and clusters present in the crystal. The variation in the areas under each band can be used to measure this effect. In this work we used thermal treatments between 15 minutes and 10 hours and temperatures between 200 deg C and 500 deg C. For thermal treatments at 300 deg C, the dipoles and dimers are created and the clusters are destroyed as the time of thermal treatment increases. At 400 deg C the clusters are created and the dipoles and dimers and 350 deg C for the clusters. (author) 60 refs., 41 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Thermally stimulated depolarization currents in the natural fluorite; Correntes de despolarizacao termicamente estimuladas na fluorita natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerio, Mario Ernesto Giroldo

    1987-12-31

    The present work deals with natural calcium fluoride from Criciuma, Santa Catarina. Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) can be used to determine the properties of dipole defects present in this crystal. The TSDC spectrum of this material shows three bands in the temperature range of 80 to 450 K. The first one, at 130 K, is due the dipoles formed by a trivalent impurity and an interstitial fluorine ion in the next nearest position of an impurity ion (nn R{sub s}{sup 3+} -F{sub i}{sup -}). The second one, at 102 k, is due to the presence of small aggregates of dipoles (like a dimer). The last band, at 360 k is due to the formation of Large Clusters. The continuous distribution model gave the best fit for these bands with mean activation energies of 0.41 eV, 0.595 eV and 1.02 eV for the first, second and third band respectively. Thermal treatments can modify the number of dipoles, dimers and clusters present in the crystal. The variation in the areas under each band can be used to measure this effect. In this work we used thermal treatments between 15 minutes and 10 hours and temperatures between 200 deg C and 500 deg C. For thermal treatments at 300 deg C, the dipoles and dimers are created and the clusters are destroyed as the time of thermal treatment increases. At 400 deg C the clusters are created and the dipoles and dimers and 350 deg C for the clusters. (author) 60 refs., 41 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Experimental investigation into methane hydrate production during three-dimensional thermal stimulation with five-spot well system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi; Li, Xiao-Sen; Li, Gang; Zhang, Yu; Li, Bo; Chen, Zhao-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The production behaviors of methane hydrate are obtained in the 3-D simulator. • The thermal stimulation method with a five-spot well is used for hydrate production. • The water and gas production, efficiency, recovery, production rate are analyzed. • The effect of injection rate change on the production behavior is investigated. - Abstract: The cubic hydrate simulator (CHS) is used to study the methane hydrate production behaviors in porous media by the thermal stimulation with a five-spot well system. The hot water injection rates range from 10.0 to 40.0 ml/min. The thermal stimulation process is analyzed, and the conclusions are that the hydrate decomposition boundary moves from the central point to the surroundings gradually and finally covers almost the entire hydrate field in the CHS during the thermal stimulation process. The heat conduction plays a more significant role than the convection for the heat diffusion in the thermal stimulation process. The increasing injection rate of the hot water enhances the rate of hydrate decomposition, shortens the production time, and decreases the water production volumes, while it has little influence on the final gas production volumes. Furthermore, the change of the hot water injection rate (R inj ) has little influence on the final gas recovery, however, the higher R inj leads to the higher average production rate and the lower energy efficiency

  8. Analyses of deformation and thermal-hydraulics within a wire-wrapped fuel subassembly in a liquid metal fast reactor by the coupled code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki, E-mail: uwaba.tomoyuki@jaea.go.jp; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Ito, Masahiro

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The coupled computational code system allowed for mechanical and thermal-hydraulic analyses in a fast reactor fuel subassembly. • In this system interactive calculations between flow area deformations and coolant temperature changes are repeated to their convergence state. • Effects on bundle-duct interaction on coolant temperature distributions were investigated by using the code system. - Abstract: The coupled numerical analysis of mechanical and thermal-hydraulic behaviors was performed for a wire-wrapped fuel pin bundle subassembly irradiated in a fast reactor. For the analysis, the fuel pin bundle deformation analysis code BAMBOO and the thermal-hydraulic analysis code ASFRE exchanged the deformation and temperature analysis results through the iterative calculations to attain convergence corresponding to the static balance between deformation and temperature. The analysis by the coupled code system showed that the radial distribution of coolant temperature in the subassembly tended to flatten as a result of the fuel pin bundle deformation governed by cladding void swelling and irradiation creep. Such flattening of temperature distribution was slightly observed as a result of fuel pin bowings due to the cladding-wire interaction even when no bundle-duct interaction occurred. The effect of the spacer wire-pitch on deformation and thermal-hydraulics was also investigated in this study.

  9. Modeling Thermal Pressurization Around Shallow Dikes Using Temperature-Dependent Hydraulic Properties: Implications for Deformation Around Intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Meredith R.

    2018-01-01

    Pressurization and flow of groundwater around igneous intrusions depend in part on the hydraulic diffusivity of the host rocks and processes that enhance diffusivity, such as fracturing, or decrease diffusivity, such as mineral precipitation during chemical alteration. Characterizing and quantifying the coupled effects of alteration, pore pressurization, and deformation have significant implications for deformation around intrusions, geothermal energy, contact metamorphism, and heat transfer at mid-ocean ridges. Fractures around dikes at Ship Rock, New Mexico, indicate that pore pressures in the host rocks exceeded hydrostatic conditions by at least 15 MPa following dike emplacement. Hydraulic measurements and petrographic analysis indicate that mineral precipitation clogged the pores of the host rock, reducing porosity from 0.25 to reducing permeability by 5 orders of magnitude. Field data from Ship Rock are used to motivate and constrain numerical models for thermal pore fluid pressurization adjacent to a meter-scale dike, using temperature-dependent hydraulic properties in the host rock as a proxy for porosity loss by mineral precipitation during chemical alteration. Reduction in permeability by chemical alteration has a negligible effect on pressurization. However, reduction in porosity by mineral precipitation increases fluid pressure by constricting pore volume and is identified as a potentially significant source of pressure. A scaling relationship is derived to determine when porosity loss becomes important; if permeability is low enough, pressurization by porosity loss outweighs pressurization by thermal expansion of fluids.

  10. Thermal conductivity of graphene nanoribbons under shear deformation: A molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Hao, Xiao-Li; Wang, Cui-Xia; Wei, Ning; Rabczuk, Timon

    2017-01-01

    Tensile strain and compress strain can greatly affect the thermal conductivity of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). However, the effect of GNRs under shear strain, which is also one of the main strain effect, has not been studied systematically yet. In this work, we employ reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (RNEMD) to the systematical study of the thermal conductivity of GNRs (with model size of 4 nm × 15 nm) under the shear strain. Our studies show that the thermal conductivity of GNRs is not sensitive to the shear strain, and the thermal conductivity decreases only 12–16% before the pristine structure is broken. Furthermore, the phonon frequency and the change of the micro-structure of GNRs, such as band angel and bond length, are analyzed to explore the tendency of thermal conductivity. The results show that the main influence of shear strain is on the in-plane phonon density of states (PDOS), whose G band (higher frequency peaks) moved to the low frequency, thus the thermal conductivity is decreased. The unique thermal properties of GNRs under shear strains suggest their great potentials for graphene nanodevices and great potentials in the thermal managements and thermoelectric applications. PMID:28120921

  11. Moving Particle Semi-implicit method: a numerical method for thermal hydraulic analysis with topological deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshizuka, S.; Oka, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method is presented. Partial differential operators in the governing equations, such as gradient and Laplacian, are modeled as particle interactions without grids. A semi-implicit algorithm is used for incompressible flow analysis. In the present study, calculation models of moving solids, thin structures and phase change between liquid and gas are developed. Interaction between breaking waves and a floating solid is simulated using the model of moving solids. Calculations of collapsing water with a vertical thin plate show that water spills out over the plate which is largely deformed. Impingement of water jets on a molten metal pool is analyzed to investigate fundamental processes of vapor explosions. Water, vapor and molten metal are simultaneously calculated with evaporation. This calculation reveals that filaments of the molten metal emerge as the fragmentation process of vapor explosions. The MPS method is useful for complex problems involving moving interfaces even if topological deformations occur. (author)

  12. Thermally and optically stimulated luminescence of AlN-Y2O3 ceramics after ionising irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkler, L.; Bos, A.J.J.; Winkelman, A.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    , an essential drawback of AlN-Y2O3 is its high fading rate. Special attention has been focused on understanding and improving the fading properties. In particular, the influence of the ceramics production conditions and the additive concentration on the fading rate have been studied. Experimental results......Thermally (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were studied in AlN-Y2O3 ceramics after irradiation with ionising radiation. The extremely high TL sensitivity (approximately 60 times the sensitivity of LiF:Mg,Tl (TLD-100)) makes AlN-Y2O3 ceramics attractive as a TLD material. However...... on spectral properties and thermal evolution of OSL are also presented. The stimulation spectrum covers the spectral range from green to infrared light. A combination of thermal and optical stimulation allowed a correlation to be found between parameters of OSL and TL after the same irradiation dose...

  13. Thermally stimulated luminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance studies on uranium doped calcium phosphate

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, V; Veeraraghavan, R; Sastry, M D

    2003-01-01

    Thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies on uranium doped calcium phosphate yielded mechanistic information on the observed glow peaks at 365, 410 and 450 K. TSL spectral studies of the glow peaks showed that UO sub 2 sup 2 sup + acts as the luminescent center. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies on gamma-irradiated samples revealed that the predominant radiation induced centers are H sup 0 , PO sub 4 sup 2 sup - , PO sub 3 sup 2 sup - and O sup - ion. Studies on the temperature dependence studies of the EPR spectra of samples annealed to different temperatures indicate the role of H sup 0 and PO sub 4 sup 2 sup - ions in the main glow peak at 410 K.

  14. Research trend in thermally stimulated current method for development of materials and devices in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Taguchi, Dai

    2018-03-01

    Thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurement is widely used in a variety of research fields, i.e., physics, electronics, electrical engineering, chemistry, ceramics, and biology. TSC is short-circuit current that flows owing to the displacement of charges in samples during heating. TSC measurement is very simple, but TSC curves give very important information on charge behaviors. In the 1970s, TSC measurement contributed greatly to the development of electrical insulation engineering, semiconductor device technology, and so forth. Accordingly, the TSC experimental technique and its analytical method advanced. Over the past decades, many new molecules and advanced functional materials have been discovered and developed. Along with this, TSC measurement has attracted much attention in industries and academic laboratories as a way of characterizing newly discovered materials and devices. In this review, we report the latest research trend in the TSC method for the development of materials and devices in Japan.

  15. Thermally stimulated current in PTFE and its application in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, S.

    1985-01-01

    Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurement was made on PTFE (Polytetrafluoro ethylene) in an attempt to develop an integrating radiation dosimeter material and the system. TSC spectra, dose response, energy response, fading and background charge stability characteristics were used as a measure of suitability of various untreated and heat treated PTFE samples for dosimetry applications. For practical TSC dosimetry system, it was discovered that the PTFE samples should be subjected to a specific heat treatment in order to produce samples with better dosimeter characteristics. A treatment at a temperature of 240 C produces a high dose response and low fading characteristics. It was found that the spurious charges due to storage and low sensitivity to irradiation caused the limitation in the measurement of low doses with PTFE samples for personnel protection. However, a TSC Dosimetry system using PTFE is proposed which is suitable for radiation doses in the radiotherapy range from *approx* 50 to *approx* 800 mGy. (author)

  16. UV induced photoluminescence and thermally stimulated luminescence of ThO2:Tb3+ phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbole, S.V.; Nagpal, J.S.; Page, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    Thorium oxide doped with trivalent terbium ions offers itself as a novel phosphor with its photo- and thermally-stimulated luminescence (PL and TSL) characteristics showing a marked change on sustained exposure to 254 and 365 nm ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The reduction in luminescence intensity of Tb 3+ ions, on irradiation with 254 nm photons and subsequent restoration on exposure to 365 nm, has been correlated with the complimentary behaviour in UV-induced TSL. These changes are, in turn, ascribed to inter-configurational (f-d) transitions and e-h formation and recombination processes. UV radiation induced TSL output increases linearly with incident UV radiant energy at a constant radiation flux; however, for a fixed exposure, TSL output increases with increase in radiant flux

  17. Development of system for automatic measurement of transient photocurrent and thermally stimulated current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asdrubal Antonio Ramirez Botero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents details of the design and implementation of a system for measuring of thermally stimulated current (TSC and transient photocurrent (Iph, developed using the Virtual Instrumentation concept. For that we have used National Instrument hardware and the LabView® package as software. The system is controlled by a virtual instrument (VI which includes facilities to perform measurements of photocurrent keeping the temperature of the sample and the pressure of the chamber of measurement controlled as well as  real time display of the Iph vs t and TSC vs T curves. The system was tested by performing transient photocurrent and TSC measurements on CH3NH3PbI3 thin films that are generally used as absorbent layer of solar cells. This type of characterization is very useful to get information of the  trapping and recombination processes that affect the transport properties of the devices.

  18. Energy measurements of thermally stimulated exoelectrons from LiF single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubozoe, T.; Watanabe, Y.

    1986-01-01

    In the course of energy measurements of thermally stimulated exoelectrons from LiF single crystal irradiated with X rays, the integral energy spectrum is found to be broad and to deviate from an exponential distribution, and the onset of saturation current is not around zero volts. However, with an increasing period of illumination with UV radiation just after X-ray irradiation, the onset of saturation current goes toward zero volts and the energy spectrum can be approximated by an exponential distribution. The mean energy is then evaluated to be approximately 0.3 eV. Experimental spectra are compared with those of Monte Carlo calculations based on a model with an overthermal exponential distribution, taking into account electron-phonon interactions and satisfactory agreement is obtained. (author)

  19. Effects of deformability and thermal motion of lipid membrane on electroporation: By molecular dynamics simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Sheng; Yin, Guangyao; Lee, Yi-Kuen; Wong, Joseph T.Y.; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Effects of mechanical properties and thermal motion of POPE lipid membrane on electroporation were studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Among simulations in which specific atoms of lipids were artificially constrained at their equilibrium

  20. Tracking hydrothermal feature changes in response to seismicity and deformation at Mud Volcano thermal area, Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, A. K.; Hurwitz, S.; Murphy, F.; Evans, W.

    2013-12-01

    The Mud Volcano thermal area in Yellowstone National Park comprises many hydrothermal features including fumaroles, mudpots, springs, and thermal pools. Observations of hydrothermal changes have been made for decades in the Mud Volcano thermal area, and include reports of significant changes (the appearance of new features, increased water levels in pools, vigor of activity, and tree mortality) following an earthquake swarm in 1978 that took place beneath the area. However, no quantitative method to map and measure surface feature changes through time has been applied. We present an analysis of aerial photographs from 1954 to present to track temporal changes in the boundaries between vegetated and thermally barren areas, as well as location, extent, color, clarity, and runoff patterns of hydrothermal features within the Mud Volcano thermal area. This study attempts to provide a detailed, long-term (>50 year) inventory of hydrothermal features and change detection at Mud Volcano thermal area that can be used to identify changes in hydrothermal activity in response to seismicity, uplift and subsidence episodes of the adjacent Sour Creek resurgent dome, or other potential causes.

  1. Thermally and optically stimulated luminescence of new ZnO nano phosphors exposed to beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz V, C.; Burruel I, S.E.; Grijalva M, H.; Chernov, V.; Bernal, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we report the thermoluminescence (TL) and the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of ZnO nano phosphors obtained by thermal annealing of ZnS powders synthesized by precipitation in a chemical bath deposition reaction. To obtain nanocrystalline ZnO, ZnS pellet-shaped samples were subjected to a sintering process at 700 C during 24 under air atmosphere. Some samples were exposed to beta particles in the 0.15-10.15 kGy dose range and the integrated thermoluminescence as a function of dose increased as dose increased, with no saturation clue for the tested doses. Computerized glow-curve deconvolution of the experimental TL curves in individual peaks revealed a second order kinetics. In order to test the BOSL (Blue Optically Stimulated Luminescence) response, samples were beta irradiated with doses up to 600 Gy, showing an increasing OSL intensity as dose increases. From the experimental results that we have obtained, we conclude that the new ZnO phosphors under investigation are good candidates to be used as dosimetric materials. (Author)

  2. Thermally and optically stimulated luminescence correlated processes in X-ray irradiated KCl:Eu2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, V.; Melendrez Ao, R.; Piters, T.M.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of optical bleaching on thermoluminescence (TL) and thermal bleaching on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) outputs in X-ray irradiated KCl : Eu 2+ have been investigated. The X-ray induced glow curves reveal three main peaks located at 370, 410 and 470 K. Illumination with 560 nm light leads to a drastic change of the TL glow curve. The 470 K peak is destroyed during bleaching. The other peaks initially increase in intensity and only after sufficiently long bleaching begin to decrease. After long-time bleaching, the TL peaks in X-ray irradiated crystals look like the TL peaks found in UV irradiated crystals. The effect of thermal bleaching on OSL is also very pronounced. The temperature dependencies show a step-by-step decrease of the OSL intensity correlated with the positions of the TL peaks. The result obtained shows that centers responsible for the TL peaks participate in OSL, but this participation seems not to be direct and is complicated by processes accompanying the F center bleaching

  3. Thermally stimulated currents in polycrystalline diamond films and their application to ultraviolet dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajkov, E.; Prawer, S.

    1999-01-01

    Quantifying individual exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is imperative to understanding the epidemiology of UVR related skin cancer. The development of personal UVR dosimeters is hence essential for obtaining data regarding individual UVR exposure, which can then be used to establish appropriate protective measures for occupational and recreational exposure. Because diamond is a tissue equivalent material and has a wide band-gap, CVD polycrystalline diamond has been proposed for use in solar-blind UV dosimetry. It has been reported that the photoconductivity in polycrystalline diamond films is enhanced after UV illumination Photo-generated carriers can be trapped at some deep levels after illumination. Because these levels are deep the thermal release of carriers is a slow process at room temperature. Therefore the new carrier distribution reached after illumination can result in a metastable state because the temperature is too low to restore the initial equilibrium. The sample can be bought back to initial equilibrium by heating. If the current is recorded during heating of the samples one can observe current peaks corresponding to the thermal release of trapped carriers, the so-called thermally stimulated currents (TSC). From first-order kinetics, we find that the TSC intensity is proportional to the initial density of trapped carriers, n to . Since n to varies with the radiation dose, the measurement of TSC can find an application in radiation dosimetry since the measurement of TSC gives a direct measure of that dose. Nitrogen can be used to introduce deep traps in diamond. This investigation will involve examining the affect of the nitrogen concentration on the irradiation response of the films. Furthermore, we will analyse the fading rate of the TSC signal. If diamond films are to have a practical application in UVR dosimetry, then ideally we require a linear relationship between the dose response and the TSC, and we also require a low fading rate

  4. Analysis of the ballooning deformation of an internally pressurized thin-wall tube during fast thermal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, E.I.H.

    1977-01-01

    A large-strain time-dependent thermoplastic analysis has been developed for the ballooning deformation of a thin-wall tube subjected to internal pressure, axial loading, and fast thermal transients. This deformation initiates with the onset of plastic instability in the material, the onset being determined by a plastic-instability criterion for strain-rate sensitive materials. The interaction among the local ballooning geometry, the state of stress, and the plastic flow process was considered, and integration of the flow equations yields the local curvature and the states of stress and strain in the vicinity of the maximum ballooning site. The effects of axial constraint and heating rate were also discussed. The analysis was applied to a LWR Zircaloy cladding subjected to a constant heating rate and a range of internal pressures. The results agree very well with experimental strain-time data obtained from tube-burst tests. In most cases, the time of rupture was accurately predicted despite the lack of complete material-property data

  5. Creep deformation and microstructural examination of a prior thermally exposed nickel base superalloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zrník, J.; Strunz, Pavel; Vrchovinský, V.; Muránsky, O.; Horňák, P.; Wiedenmann, A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 274 (2004), s. 925-930 ISSN 1013-9826 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Keywords : superalloy * thermal exposition * creep Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.278, year: 2004

  6. Decay kinetics and thermally stimulated luminescence of Mn.sup.4 +./sup. in SrTiO.sub.3./sub

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryknar, Z.; Potůček, Zdeněk; Trepakov, Vladimír; Shen, M. Y.; Goto, T.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 154, - (2001), s. 341-345 ISSN 1042-0150 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/00/1425 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : thermally stimulated luminescence * decay kinetics * strontium titanate * manganese Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.380, year: 2001

  7. Toward transient finite element simulation of thermal deformation of machine tools in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Andreas; Ruprecht, Daniel; Wensch, Joerg

    2018-01-01

    Finite element models without simplifying assumptions can accurately describe the spatial and temporal distribution of heat in machine tools as well as the resulting deformation. In principle, this allows to correct for displacements of the Tool Centre Point and enables high precision manufacturing. However, the computational cost of FE models and restriction to generic algorithms in commercial tools like ANSYS prevents their operational use since simulations have to run faster than real-time. For the case where heat diffusion is slow compared to machine movement, we introduce a tailored implicit-explicit multi-rate time stepping method of higher order based on spectral deferred corrections. Using the open-source FEM library DUNE, we show that fully coupled simulations of the temperature field are possible in real-time for a machine consisting of a stock sliding up and down on rails attached to a stand.

  8. Hydromechanical and Thermomechanical Behaviour of Elastic Fractures during Thermal Stimulation of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Mohammadreza; Valley, Benoît

    2015-04-01

    During the last two decades, incentives were put in place in order to feed our societies in energy with reduced CO2 emissions. Various policies have been considered to fulfill this strategy such as replacing coal by natural gas in power plants, producing electricity using CO2 free resources, and CO2 sequestration as a remediation for large point-source emitters (e.g. oil sands facilities, coal-fired power plants, and cement kilns). Naturally fractured reservoirs (NFRs) are among those geological structures which play a crucial role in the mentioned energy revolution. The behavior of fractured reservoirs during production processes is completely different than conventional reservoirs because of the dominant effects of fractures on fluid flux, with attendant issues of fracture fabric complexity and lithological heterogeneity. The level of complexity increases when thermal effects are taking place - as during the thermal stimulation of these stress-sensitive reservoirs in order to enhance the gas production in tight shales and/or increase the local conductivity of the fractures during the development of enhanced geothermal systems - where temperature is introduced as another degree of freedom in addition to pressure and displacement (or effective stress). Study of these stress-pressure-temperature effects requires a thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) coupling approach, which considers the simultaneous variation of effective stress, pore pressure, and temperature and their interactions. In this study, thermal, hydraulic and mechanical behavior of partially open and elastic fractures in a homogeneous, isotropic and low permeable porous rock is studied. In order to compare the hydromechanical (HM) and thermomechanical (TM) characteristics of these fractures, three different injection scenarios, i.e. constant isothermal fluid injection rate, constant cooling without any fluid injection and constant cold fluid injection, are considered. Both thermomechanical and hydromechanical

  9. Optically stimulated luminescence of ZnO obtained by thermal treatment of ZnS chemically synthesized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz V, C.; Burruel I, S.E.; Orante B, V.R.; Grijalva M, H.; Perez S, R.; Bernal, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we report the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry of new nano phosphors of ZnO obtained by thermal annealing of chemically synthesized ZnS powder. The synthesized ZnS nano powder was compressed in order to form pellet shaped pellets, which were afterwards subjected to a thermal annealing at 700 C during 24 h under air atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and energy-disperse X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analyses confirmed the transformation of ZnS to ZnO. Samples were exposed to several doses of beta radiation up to 600 Gy, and the optically stimulated luminescence with 470 nm wavelength light was recorded as a function of dose. The intensity of the OSL signal increases by increasing dose, for what it is concluded that these new phosphor materials are suitable to be used in optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry. (Author)

  10. Thermally-activated deformation in dispersion-hardened polycrystalline iron at room temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Cotteril, P.

    1970-01-01

    The activation volume and dislocation velocity exponent have been obtained for polycrystalline iron in the extruded, extruded and annealed, and cold-rolled and annealed condition containing various amounts of alumina or zirconia particles, using the strain rate-change technique. It is found that ...... to the thermally activated flow stress contribution at room temperature. The dislocation velocity exponent also explains the yield-drop and Lüder's strain and is in a good agreement with Hahn's model....

  11. Immediate effects of thermal-tactile stimulation on timing of swallow in idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Julie; Walshe, Margaret; Tobin, W Oliver

    2010-09-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia frequently presents in people with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Clinical sequelae of dysphagia in this group include weight loss and aspiration pneumonia, the latter of which is the leading cause of hospital admissions and death in IPD. Thermal-tactile stimulation (TTS) is a sensory technique whereby stimulation is provided to the anterior faucial pillars to speed up the pharyngeal swallow. The effects of TTS on swallowing have not yet been investigated in IPD. The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of TTS on the timing of swallow in a cohort of people with IPD and known oropharyngeal dysphagia. Thirteen participants with IPD and known dysphagia attended for videofluoroscopy during which standardised volumes of liquid barium and barium paste were administered preceding and immediately subsequent to TTS. The immediate effects of TTS on swallowing were examined using oral, pharyngeal, and total transit times and pharyngeal delay times as outcome measures. TTS significantly reduced median pharyngeal transit time on fluids (0.20 s, 95% CI = 0.12-0.28, p = 0.004) and on paste (0.3 s, 95% CI = 0.08-0.66, p = 0.01). Median total transit time was also reduced on fluids (0.48 s, 95% CI = 0.00-1.17, p = 0.049) and on paste (0.52 s, 95% CI = 0.08-1.46, p = 0.033). Median pharyngeal delay time was reduced on fluids (0.20 s, 95% CI = 0.12-0.34, p = 0.002). TTS did not significantly alter median oral transit time on either fluid or paste consistency. TTS significantly reduced temporal measures of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing in the IPD population. Significant results may be attributed to the role of sensory stimulation in improving motor function in IPD, with emphasis on the impaired glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves in this population. It is still unclear whether these findings will translate into a clinically beneficial effect.

  12. Immediate effects of thermal-tactile stimulation on timing of swallow in idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Regan, Julie

    2012-02-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia frequently presents in people with idiopathic Parkinson\\'s disease (IPD). Clinical sequelae of dysphagia in this group include weight loss and aspiration pneumonia, the latter of which is the leading cause of hospital admissions and death in IPD. Thermal-tactile stimulation (TTS) is a sensory technique whereby stimulation is provided to the anterior faucial pillars to speed up the pharyngeal swallow. The effects of TTS on swallowing have not yet been investigated in IPD. The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of TTS on the timing of swallow in a cohort of people with IPD and known oropharyngeal dysphagia. Thirteen participants with IPD and known dysphagia attended for videofluoroscopy during which standardised volumes of liquid barium and barium paste were administered preceding and immediately subsequent to TTS. The immediate effects of TTS on swallowing were examined using oral, pharyngeal, and total transit times and pharyngeal delay times as outcome measures. TTS significantly reduced median pharyngeal transit time on fluids (0.20 s, 95% CI = 0.12-0.28, p = 0.004) and on paste (0.3 s, 95% CI = 0.08-0.66, p = 0.01). Median total transit time was also reduced on fluids (0.48 s, 95% CI = 0.00-1.17, p = 0.049) and on paste (0.52 s, 95% CI = 0.08-1.46, p = 0.033). Median pharyngeal delay time was reduced on fluids (0.20 s, 95% CI = 0.12-0.34, p = 0.002). TTS did not significantly alter median oral transit time on either fluid or paste consistency. TTS significantly reduced temporal measures of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing in the IPD population. Significant results may be attributed to the role of sensory stimulation in improving motor function in IPD, with emphasis on the impaired glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves in this population. It is still unclear whether these findings will translate into a clinically beneficial effect.

  13. Opposite patterns of change in perception of imagined and physically induced pain over the course of repeated thermal stimulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gács, B; Szolcsányi, T; Csathó, Á

    2017-08-01

    Individuals frequently show habituation to repeated noxious heat. However, given the defensive function of human pain processing, it is reasonable to assume that individuals anticipate that they would become increasingly sensitive to repeated thermal pain stimuli. No previous studies have, however, been addressed to this assumption. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated how healthy human individuals imagine the intensity of repeated thermal pain stimulations, and compared this with the intensity ratings given after physically induced thermal pain trials. Healthy participants (N = 20) gave pain intensity ratings in two conditions: imagined and real thermal pain. In the real pain condition, thermal pain stimuli of two intensities (minimal and moderate pain) were delivered in four consecutive trials. The duration of the peak temperature was 20 s, and stimulation was always delivered to the same location. In each trial, participants rated the pain intensity twice, 5 and 15 s after the onset of the peak temperature. In the imagined pain condition, participants were subjected to a reference pain stimulus and then asked to imagine and rate the same sequence of stimulations as in the induced pain condition. Ratings of imagined pain and physically induced pain followed opposite courses over repeated stimulations: Ratings of imagined pain indicated sensitization, whereas ratings for physically induced pain indicated habituation. The findings were similar for minimal and moderate pain intensities. The findings suggest that, rather than habituating to pain, healthy individuals imagine that they would become increasingly sensitive to repeated thermal pain stimuli. This study identified opposite patterns of change in perception of imagined pain (sensitization) and physically induced pain (habituation). The findings show that individuals anticipate that they would become increasingly sensitive to repeated pain stimuli, which might also have clinical implications.

  14. Structurally Deformed MoS2 for Electrochemically Stable, Thermally Resistant, and Highly Efficient Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yen-Chang; Lu, Ang-Yu; Lu, Ping; Yang, Xiulin; Jiang, Chang-Ming; Mariano, Marina; Kaehr, Brian; Lin, Oliver; Taylor, André ; Sharp, Ian D.; Li, Lain-Jong; Chou, Stanley S.; Tung, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    The emerging molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) offers intriguing possibilities for realizing a transformative new catalyst for driving the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, the trade-off between catalytic activity and long-term stability represents a formidable challenge and has not been extensively addressed. This study reports that metastable and temperature-sensitive chemically exfoliated MoS2 (ce-MoS2) can be made into electrochemically stable (5000 cycles), and thermally robust (300 °C) while maintaining synthetic scalability and excellent catalytic activity through physical-transformation into 3D structurally deformed nanostructures. The dimensional transition enabled by a high throughput electrohydrodynamic process provides highly accessible, and electrochemically active surface area and facilitates efficient transport across various interfaces. Meanwhile, the hierarchically strained morphology is found to improve electronic coupling between active sites and current collecting substrates without the need for selective engineering the electronically heterogeneous interfaces. Specifically, the synergistic combination of high strain load stemmed from capillarity-induced-self-crumpling and sulfur (S) vacancies intrinsic to chemical exfoliation enables simultaneous modulation of active site density and intrinsic HER activity regardless of continuous operation or elevated temperature. These results provide new insights into how catalytic activity, electrochemical-, and thermal stability can be concurrently enhanced through the physical transformation that is reminiscent of nature, in which properties of biological materials emerge from evolved dimensional transitions.

  15. Structurally Deformed MoS2 for Electrochemically Stable, Thermally Resistant, and Highly Efficient Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yen-Chang

    2017-10-12

    The emerging molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) offers intriguing possibilities for realizing a transformative new catalyst for driving the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, the trade-off between catalytic activity and long-term stability represents a formidable challenge and has not been extensively addressed. This study reports that metastable and temperature-sensitive chemically exfoliated MoS2 (ce-MoS2) can be made into electrochemically stable (5000 cycles), and thermally robust (300 °C) while maintaining synthetic scalability and excellent catalytic activity through physical-transformation into 3D structurally deformed nanostructures. The dimensional transition enabled by a high throughput electrohydrodynamic process provides highly accessible, and electrochemically active surface area and facilitates efficient transport across various interfaces. Meanwhile, the hierarchically strained morphology is found to improve electronic coupling between active sites and current collecting substrates without the need for selective engineering the electronically heterogeneous interfaces. Specifically, the synergistic combination of high strain load stemmed from capillarity-induced-self-crumpling and sulfur (S) vacancies intrinsic to chemical exfoliation enables simultaneous modulation of active site density and intrinsic HER activity regardless of continuous operation or elevated temperature. These results provide new insights into how catalytic activity, electrochemical-, and thermal stability can be concurrently enhanced through the physical transformation that is reminiscent of nature, in which properties of biological materials emerge from evolved dimensional transitions.

  16. Dielectric relaxation of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol around the glass transition by thermally stimulated depolarization currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrese-Igor, S; Alegría, A; Colmenero, J

    2015-06-07

    We explore new routes for characterizing the Debye-like and α relaxation in 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) monoalcohol by using low frequency dielectric techniques including thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) techniques and isothermal depolarization current methods. In this way, we have improved the resolution of the overlapped processes making it possible the analysis of the data in terms of a mode composition as expected for a chain-like response. Furthermore the explored ultralow frequencies enabled to study dynamics at relatively low temperatures close to the glass transition (Tg). Results show, on the one hand, that Debye-like and α relaxation timescales dramatically approach to each other upon decreasing temperature to Tg. On the other hand, the analysis of partial polarization TSDC data confirms the single exponential character of the Debye-like relaxation in 2E1H and rules out the presence of Rouse type modes in the scenario of a chain-like response. Finally, on crossing the glass transition, the Debye-like relaxation shows non-equilibrium effects which are further emphasized by aging treatment and would presumably emerge as a result of the arrest of the structural relaxation below Tg.

  17. Development of a thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) system for dosimetric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Felicia del Gallo

    1997-01-01

    A thermally stimulated exoelectron emission measuring system (TSEE) with a counting (reader) and a heating system was designed, constructed and tested for the dosimetry of weakly penetrating radiations, such as alpha and beta particles and low energy X rays. The counting system consists of a 271 windowless gas-flow proportional counter, while the heating system is composed by a temperature programmer that provides linear heating of the samples. The characterization of the proportional counter was done, as well as the tests to verify the performance of the counting system with reference TSEE materials, such as beryllium oxide (BeO) and magnesium oxide (MgO) single crystals. The dosimetric characteristics of some materials as pure calcium sulphate (CaS0 4 ) sintered pellets and with 10% of graphite in its composition, lithium fluoride doped with magnesium, copper and phosphor (LiF:Mg,Cu,P), lithium fluoride (LiF) thin films on aluminum and stainless steel substrates and BeO on graphite substrates were studied. As an application, the feasibility of the use of pure calcium sulphate sintered pellets and others with 10% of graphite in area monitoring of an electron accelerator with variable energy was studied. The obtained results show the usefulness of this system in the dosimetry of weakly penetrating radiations. (author)

  18. Influence of attention focus on neural activity in the human spinal cord during thermal sensory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, Patrick W; Coe, Brian C; Munoz, Doug P

    2011-01-01

    Perceptions of sensation and pain in healthy people are believed to be the net result of sensory input and descending modulation from brainstem and cortical regions depending on emotional and cognitive factors. Here, the influence of attention on neural activity in the spinal cord during thermal sensory stimulation of the hand was investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging by systematically varying the participants' attention focus across and within repeated studies. Attention states included (1) attention to the stimulus by rating the sensation and (2) attention away from the stimulus by performing various mental tasks of watching a movie and identifying characters, detecting the direction of coherently moving dots within a randomly moving visual field and answering mentally-challenging questions. Functional MRI results spanning the cervical spinal cord and brainstem consistently demonstrated that the attention state had a significant influence on the activity detected in the cervical spinal cord, as well as in brainstem regions involved with the descending analgesia system. These findings have important implications for the detection and study of pain, and improved characterization of the effects of injury or disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Recent developments in thermoluminescence kinetics: applications to other thermally stimulated processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    Recent thermoluminescence (TL) studies indicate that many kinetic properties are not in accord with the well known 1st and 2nd order TL kinetic equations. For example, the usual equations do not describe: (1) the shape of certain single glow peaks. (2) The shape of glow peaks in many glow curves containing more than one glow peak. (3) The dependence of the peak temperature, the FWHM, the shape, and other properties on the pre-measurement dose. However, the properties of some single glow peaks are precisely described, or closely approximated by, the more general basic equation from which the usual 1st and 2nd order equations are obtained as special cases. Furthermore, glow curves containing more than one glow peak are described by a system of equations that includes interactions between different types of traps and is a straightforward extension of the general one peak equation. This system - called Interactive Kinetics - accounts for most properties, and explains many anomalies, associated with glow curves containing more than one glow peak. It is particularly convenient for computerized analysis procedures. Lastly, it is suggested that other thermally stimulated processes depend on analogous interactions and are describable by similar sets of kinetic equations that are convenient for computer analysis. 11 refs., 2 figs

  20. Effects of deformability and thermal motion of lipid membrane on electroporation: By molecular dynamics simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Effects of mechanical properties and thermal motion of POPE lipid membrane on electroporation were studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Among simulations in which specific atoms of lipids were artificially constrained at their equilibrium positions using a spring with force constant of 2.0kcal/(molÅ2) in the external electric field of 1.4kcal/(molÅe), only constraint on lateral motions of lipid tails prohibited electroporation while non-tail parts had little effects. When force constant decreased to 0.2kcal/(molÅ2) in the position constraints on lipid tails in the external electric field of 2.0kcal/(molÅe), water molecules began to enter the membrane. Position constraints of lipid tails allow water to penetrate from both sides of membrane. Thermal motion of lipids can induce initial defects in the hydrophobic core of membrane, which are favorable nucleation sites for electroporation. Simulations at different temperatures revealed that as the temperature increases, the time taken to the initial pore formation will decrease. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  1. Microstructural study of thermally aged duplex stainless steel deformation and fracture modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaeghe, B.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the micro mechanisms of deformation and rupture of an austeno ferritic stainless steel (Z 3 CND 22-10 M) with 33 % of ferrite. It is studied after ageing 1 000 h at 400 deg. C and 8 000 h at 350 deg. C and compared to the 'as received' state. During ageing the ferritic phase undergoes microstructural evolutions which affects its properties. The two ageing treatments lead to roughly the same level of embrittlement. Microstructural characterisation shows that both phases percolate and exhibit orientation relationships close to Kurdjumov-Sachs ones. Mechanical properties of the steel were characterised for different ageing treatments at room temperature and at 320 deg. C. The interface is particularly strong and ensures the load transfer to ferrite even if this phase contains cleavage cracks. Moreover the interface does not oppose slip transmission which is instead controlled by localised glide in the ferritic phase. If activated slip systems of austenite are common with ferrite, slip transmission from austenite to ferrite indeed occurs through the=e interface. If they are not common, dislocations cross-slip back into the austenite. At 320 deg. C cross-slip occurs even far from the interface. Damage starts by nucleation in ferrite of cleavage cracks which propagate between austenite islands. Crack propagation is controlled by stretching of austenite ligaments. The material breaks by ductile tearing of austenite islands when the crack eventually percolates in the ferritic phase. The ductility of the material can be correctly describer using a simple model that takes into account the tearing-off the ductile-phase. (author)

  2. Influence of thermal deformation in cavity mirrors on beam propagation characteristics of high-power slab lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Xiao, Longsheng; Wang, Wei; Wu, Chao; Tang, Xiahui

    2018-01-01

    Owing to their good diffusion cooling and low sensitivity to misalignment, slab-shape negative-branch unstable-waveguide resonators are widely used for high-power lasers in industry. As the output beam of the resonator is astigmatic, an external beam shaping system is required. However, the transverse dimension of the cavity mirrors in the resonator is large. For a long-time operation, the heating of cavity mirrors can be non-uniform. This results in micro-deformation and a change in the radius of curvature of the cavity mirrors, and leads to an output beam of an offset optical axis of the resonator. It was found that a change in the radius of curvature of 0.1% (1 mm) caused by thermal deformation generates a transverse displacement of 1.65 mm at the spatial filter of the external beam shaping system, and an output power loss of more than 80%. This can potentially burn out the spatial filter. In order to analyze the effect of the offset optical axis of the beam on the external optical path, we analyzed the transverse displacement and rotational misalignments of the spatial filter. For instance, if the transverse displacement was 0.3 mm, the loss in the output power was 9.6% and a sidelobe appeared in the unstable direction. If the angle of rotation was 5°, the loss in the output power was 2%, and the poles were in the direction of the waveguide. Based on these results, by adjusting the bending mirror, the deviation angle of the output beam of the resonator cavity was corrected, in order to obtain maximum output power and optimal beam quality. Finally, the propagation characteristics of the corrected output beam were analyzed.

  3. Thermally and optically stimulated radiative processes in Eu and Y co-doped LiCaAlF6 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Kentaro; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Yttrium co-doping was attempted to enhance dosimeter performance of Eu doped LiCaAlF 6 crystal. Eu doped and Eu, Y co-doped LiCaAlF 6 were prepared by the micro-pulling-down technique, and their dosimeter characteristics such as optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) were investigated. By yttrium co-doping, emission intensities of OSL and TSL were enhanced by some orders of magnitude. In contrast, scintillation characteristics of yttrium co-doped crystal such as intensity of prompt luminescence induced by X-ray and light yield under neutron irradiation were degraded

  4. Coupling analysis of deformation and thermal-hydraulics in a FBR fuel pin bundle using BAMBOO and ASFRE-IV Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masahiro; Imai, Yasutomo; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2004-03-01

    The bundle-duct interaction may occur in sodium cooled wire-wrapped FBR fuel subassemblies in high burn-up conditions. JNC has been developing a bundle deformation analysis code BAMBOO (Behavior Analysis code for Mechanical interaction of fuel Bundle under On-power Operation), a thermal hydraulics analysis code ASFRE-IV (Analysis of Sodium Flow in Reactor Elements - ver. IV) and their coupling method as a simulation system for the evaluation on the integrity of deformed FBR fuel pin bundles. In this study, the simulation system was applied to a coupling analysis of deformation and thermal-hydraulics in the fuel pin-bundle under a steady-state condition just after startup for the purpose of the verification of the simulation system. The iterative calculations of deformation and thermal-hydraulics employed in the coupling analysis provided numerically unstable solutions. From the result, it was found that improvement of the coupling algorithm of BAMBOO and ASFRE-IV is necessary to reduce numerical fluctuations and to obtain better convergence by introducing such computational technique as the optimized under-relaxation method. (author)

  5. Spectrally resolved thermally stimulated luminescence of irradiated anion-defective alumina single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortov, V., E-mail: vskortov@mail.ru [Ural Federal University, Mira Str. 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Lushchik, A.; Nagirnyi, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwald Str. 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Ananchenko, D. [Ural Federal University, Mira Str. 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Romet, I. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwald Str. 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2017-06-15

    Thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) spectra in the 313–580 K temperature range have been studied in anion-defective alumina crystals (named in literature as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C) exposed to different irradiation doses. The TSL curve features two peaks with the maxima at T{sub m1}=437 K and T{sub m2}=565 K. The TSL spectrum of the first peak contains the emission of F centers and the R line of Cr{sup 3+} impurity ions. The absence of the emission of F{sup +} centers indicates that electron traps are responsible for the first dosimetric TSL peak. The TSL spectrum of the second peak features emission bands of F, F{sup +} centers, R line as well as a wide band centered at 550 nm and associated with the formation of aggregate centers (F{sub 2} and F{sub 2}{sup 2+}) under irradiation. Possible excitation mechanisms of the TSL emission bands that involve both electron and hole traps related to anion vacancies and impurities are discussed. - Highlights: •TSL curve of alumina crystals features peaks at 437 and 565 K. •There are emission bands of 410 and 695 nm in the TSL spectrum of the first peak. •TSL spectrum of the second peak features bands of F, F{sub 2}-type centers and the R line of trivalent chromium. •Excitation mechanisms of the emission bands in TSL spectra are discussed.

  6. Thermally stimulated current of electron beam irradiation cross-linked polyethylene, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aihara, Mitsugu; Aida, Fumio; Shiono, Takeo

    1984-01-01

    In the past, electron-beam irradiation was for the most part applied to rather thin insulation electric cables. Considering application to thick insulation, high voltage power cables (6.6 kV or more), the authors experimented on the charge accumulation and crystallizing properties of polyethylene due to irradiation, using three differently crystallizing samples, high and low density polyethylenes (HDPE and LDPE) and straight chain low density polyethylene (LLDPE), and have obtained some findings. Those are summarized as follows. (1) The crystallizing properties (crystallinity, the size of spherulite, etc.) of polyethylene varied according to the cooling condition, and affected the thermally stimulated current (TSC). (2) In HDPE and LDPE, the behaviour of crystallization differed. In HDPE, fine crystals decreased, and spherulites significantly grew in slow cooling, but in LDPE, the generation of fine crystals and the growth of spherulites simultaneously progressed. (3) The TSC peak area for HDPE was scarcely affected by slow cooling, but that for LDPE greatly increased. (4) The TSC of irradiated polyethylene showed peaks corresponding to the melting temperatures of fine crystals and spherulites when collecting voltage Vc was lowered. (5) The above facts suggest that fine crystals and spherulites took part as charge trap sites, but the aspect of participation was different in HDPE and LDPE. (6) LLDPE has the properties of both HDPE and LDPE in view of the crystallinity, charge accumulation was small, and it was hard to be affected by cooling condition. Accordingly, it seemed to be an interesting material as the PE for irradiation. A differential scanning calorimeter and laser small angle scattering method were used for the analysis of the measured results of TSC. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THERMAL AND STRAIN FIELDS DURING DEFORMATION OF EN ENCHELON FAULTS AND ITS GEOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of experimental studies using a bi-axial servo-control system to apply load on samples with extensional and compressional en echelon faults. During the experiments, variations of temperature and thermal images were recorded synchronously by a multi-path contact-type thermometric apparatus and a thermal image system, respectively. A digital CCD camera was employed to synchronously collect images of specimens’ surfaces. The digital speckle correlation method (DSCM was utilized to analyze the images and to define displacements and strain fields. Our experimental results show that temperature fields have clear responses to opposite stress states in the jog areas of both types of the en echelon faults. Prior to failure of the jog area, its temperature is the highest at the compressional en echelon faults and the lowest at the extensional en echelon faults. Records by DSCM give evidence that mean strain of the jog area is the highest at compressional en echelon faults and the lowest at the extensional en echelon faults. It is revealed that deformation of the en echelon faults occurs in two stages, developing from stress build-up and fault propagation in the jog area to unstable sliding along the fault. Correspondingly, the mechanism of heating-up converts from strain heating into friction heating. During the period of transformation of the temperature rising mechanism, three events are observed in the jog area and its vicinity. Analyses of our experimental results demonstrate that variations of temperatures in the jog area can be indicative of fault sliding and suggest sliding directions. Observations and studies of temperature changes during transformation of the temperature rising mechanism at sensitive portions of faults are of great importance for early detection of precursors of unstable slip on active faults.

  8. Positive grid corrosion elongation analysis using CAE with corrosion deformation transformed into thermal phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaitani, Ichiroh; Hayashi, Koji; Shimoura, Ichiro; Takemasa, Arihiko; Takahashi, Isamu; Tsubakino, Harushige

    software " Solid Works" and computer aided engineering (CAE) software " ANSYS" with corrosion elongation transformed into thermal elongation. We established a current collector corrosion elongation forecast and found that the microstructure controlled the Pb-Ca-Sn alloy; thus newly designed VRLA batteries (MU-series [A. Takemasa, I. Mukaitani, Y. Yoshiyama, K. Fukui, T. Sakamoto, T. Kuwano, M. Fukuda, H. Misaki, K. Uwatari, Shin-Kobe Technical Report 9 (1999) 11] for telecommunication and LL-series [H. Takabayashi, T. Shibahara, Y. Mastuda, K. Fukui, S. Hazui, Y. Matsumura, S. Kondo, Shin-Kobe Tech. Rep. 11 (2001) 35] for electric energy storage) which are lightweight and have long life are introduced here.

  9. Evolution of photo-stimulated luminescence of EB-PVD/(Ni, Pt)Al thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Mei; Jordan, Eric H.; Gell, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    Experiments are described which were designed to assess the suitability of photo-stimulated luminescence piezo-spectroscopy (PLPS) measurements as a basis for non-destructive inspection (NDI) and determination of life remaining of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Thermal cyclic tests were conducted on 7 wt.% Y 2 O 3 stabilized ZrO 2 (YSZ) electron beam physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD)/(Ni, Pt)Al/CMSX-4 TBCs at two temperatures 1151 and 1121 deg. C. The evolution of PLPS spectral characteristics (peak frequency shift, peak width and area ratio of peaks) was studied as a function of thermal cycles. It was observed that the average thermally grown oxide (TGO) stress and its standard deviation, and the area ratio of peaks show systematic change with thermal cycling, indicating that these characteristics can be used for NDI and determination of life remaining. The average TGO stress increases initially and then decreases monotonically with thermal cycling. The rate of change in the stress can be related to specimen life: the shallower the slope, the higher the life. The peak area ratio also decreases monotonically with cycling. The average TGO stress changes in a systematic manner versus remaining life fraction independent of temperature. Remaining life predictions were made based on average stress versus life fraction, which resulted in life assessments within ±13% of actual values excluding one specimen with abnormal behavior

  10. Investigation of human frontal cortex under noxious thermal stimulation of temporo-mandibular joint using functional near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yennu, Amarnath; Rawat, Rohit; Manry, Michael T.; Gatchel, Robert; Liu, Hanli

    2013-03-01

    According to American Academy of Orofacial Pain, 75% of the U.S. population experiences painful symptoms of temporo-mandibular joint and muscle disorder (TMJMD) during their lifetime. Thus, objective assessment of pain is crucial for efficient pain management. We used near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a tool to explore hemodynamic responses in the frontal cortex to noxious thermal stimulation of temporomadibular joint (TMJ). NIRS experiments were performed on 9 healthy volunteers under both low pain stimulation (LPS) and high pain stimulation (HPS), using a temperature-controlled thermal stimulator. To induce thermal pain, a 16X16 mm2 thermode was strapped onto the right TMJ of each subject. Initially, subjects were asked to rate perceived pain on a scale of 0 to 10 for the temperatures from 41°C to 47°C. For the NIRS measurement, two magnitudes of temperatures, one rated as 3 and another rated as 7, were chosen as LPS and HPS, respectively. By analyzing the temporal profiles of changes in oxy-hemoglobin concentration (HbO) using cluster-based statistical tests, we were able to identify several regions of interest (ROI), (e.g., secondary somatosensory cortex and prefrontal cortex), where significant differences (ppain, a neural-network-based classification algorithm was used. With leave-one-out cross validation from 9 subjects, the two levels of pain were identified with 100% mean sensitivity, 98% mean specificity and 99% mean accuracy to high pain. From the receiver operating characteristics curve, 0.99 mean area under curve was observed.

  11. Analysis of the ballooning deformation of an internally pressurized thin-wall tube during fast thermal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, E.I.H.

    1977-01-01

    A large-strain, time-dependent thermoplastic analysis of ballooning deformation was developed. The true (or lagorithmic) strains, the Von Mises yield criterion and Prandtl-Reuss flow rules were used. The constitutive equation was expressed in terms of the temperature, effective stress, strain and strain rate. Material isotropy was assumed as a first approximation; note that at high temperatures even zircaloy tends to lose a substantial amount of its low-temperature anisotropy. The axisymmetry of ballooning was also assumed, which has actually been verified by numerous experiments to be accurate throughout the course of ballooning, except in the final stage when rupture is imminent. The thin-shell approximation was made, which proved to be adequate for the standard fuel claddings and which was advantageous in that the averaged state of stress was rendered determinate. The analysis led to a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations, which was then integrated by a fifth-order Runge-Kutta routine. The general formulation allows for a direct interpretation of the experimentally-observed effects of the heating rate and cladding axial constraints on the ballooning behavior. Its implications on the flow-blockage and cladding-rupture evaluations were discussed. The analysis was applied to zircaloy claddings subjected to simulated thermal transient conditions. Most of the required material properties were taken from the existing uniaxial tensile test data. Analyses were performed at a uniform heating rate of 115 0 C/sec with internal pressures ranging from 100 to 1200 psi. Satisfactory agreement was obtained between the predictions and the diametral strain-time data available from tube-burst tests

  12. Numerical modelling of stresses and deformations in casting processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper Henri

    1997-01-01

    Keywords: Stresses and deformations, casting, governing equations, thermal strain, control volume method......Keywords: Stresses and deformations, casting, governing equations, thermal strain, control volume method...

  13. Temperature and press load stimulation on thermal transport in fibrous and porous composite insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, M.A.; Maqsood, A.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal transport properties of synthetic pliable insulators are measured as a function of applied pressure at constant temperatures. Advantageous Transient Plane Source (ATPS) method is used for the simultaneous measurement of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of these materials and heat capacity per unit volume is then calculated. Three samples namely foam, closed cell foam and fiber glass are subjected to press load, taking into account the flexibility and sustainability of the samples and the requirements of the technique used. The thermal data of the samples were determined within the temperature range (300-414K) and pressure range (Normal -15kPa). These materials are used for thermal insulation and temperature control of air-conditioned space, acoustic and sound insulation, agriculture and fishery, sports and leisure goods, building and civil engineering, industrial packaging cold storage ware house, boiler work and other electric appliances, so they are helpful in reducing energy losses. (author)

  14. Evaluating Origin of Electron Traps in Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum Thin Films using Thermally Stimulated Current Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushima, Toshinori; Adachi, Chihaya

    2008-01-01

    We measured the energy distributions and concentrations of electron traps in O_2-unexposed and O_2-exposed tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq_3) films using a thermally stimulated current (TSC) technique to investigate how doping O_2 molecules in Alq_3 films affect the films' electron trap and electron transport characteristics. The results of our TSC studies revealed that Alq_3 films have an electron trap distribution with peak depths ranging from 0.075 to 0.1 eV and peak widths ranging ...

  15. Impact of thermal conductivity models on the coupling of heat transport, oxygen diffusion, and deformation in (U, Pu)O nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaila, Bogdan; Stan, Marius; Crapps, Justin; Yun, Di

    2013-02-01

    We study the coupled thermal transport, oxygen diffusion, and thermal expansion in a generic nuclear fuel rod consisting of a (U) fuel pellet separated by a helium gap from zircaloy cladding. Steady-state and time-dependent finite-element simulations with a variety of initial- and boundary-value conditions are used to study the effect of the Pu content, y, and deviation from stoichiometry, x, on the temperature and deformation profiles in this fuel element. We find that the equilibrium radial temperature and deformation profiles are most sensitive to x at small values of y. For larger values of y, the effects of oxygen and Pu content are equally important. Following a change in the heat-generation rate, the centerline temperature, the radial deformation of the fuel pellet, and the centerline deviation from stoichiometry track each other closely in (U,Pu)O, as the characteristic time scales of the heat transport and oxygen diffusion are similar. This result is different from the situation observed in the case of UO fuels.

  16. Influences of thermal deformation of cavity mirrors induced by high energy DF laser to beam quality under the simulated real physical circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shaoyong; Zhang, Shiqiang; He, Minbo; Zhang, Zheng; Guan, Xiaowei

    2017-05-01

    The positive-branch confocal unstable resonator with inhomogeneous gain medium was studied for the normal used high energy DF laser system. The fast changing process of the resonator's eigenmodes was coupled with the slow changing process of the thermal deformation of cavity mirrors. Influences of the thermal deformation of cavity mirrors to the outcoupled beam quality and transmission loss of high frequency components of high energy laser were computed. The simulations are done through programs compiled by MATLAB and GLAD software and the method of combination of finite elements and Fox-li iteration algorithm was used. Effects of thermal distortion, misaligned of cavity mirrors and inhomogeneous distribution of gain medium were introduced to simulate the real physical circumstances of laser cavity. The wavefront distribution and beam quality (including RMS of wavefront, power in the bucket, Strehl ratio, diffraction limit β, position of the beam spot center, spot size and intensity distribution in far-field ) of the distorted outcoupled beam were studied. The conclusions of the simulation agree with the experimental results. This work would supply references of wavefront correction range to the adaptive optics system of interior alleyway.

  17. Nociceptive thermal threshold testing in horses – effect of neuroleptic sedation and neuroleptanalgesia at different stimulation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aim of the study was to compare the effect of neuroleptic sedation with acepromazine and neuroleptanalgesia with acepromazine and buprenorphine on thermal thresholds (TT) obtained at the nostrils and at the withers. The study was carried out as a randomized, blinded, controlled trial with cross-over design. Thermal thresholds were determined by incremental contact heat applied to the skin above the nostril (N) or the withers (W). Eleven horses were treated with saline (S), acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg) (ACE) or acepromazine and buprenorphine (0.0075 mg/kg) (AB) intravenously (IV). Single stimulations were performed 15 minutes prior and 15, 45, 75, 105, 165, 225, 285, 405 and 525 minutes after treatment. Sedation score, gastrointestinal auscultation score and occurrence of skin lesions were recorded. Data were analysed with analysis of variance for repeated measurements. Results There were no significant differences in TT between N and W with all treatments. The TT remained constant after S and there was no difference in TT between S and ACE. After AB there was a significant increase above baseline in TT until 405 minutes after treatment. Restlessness occurred 30–90 minutes after AB in 7 horses. All horses had reduced to absent borborygmi after AB administration for 165 to 495 minutes. Conclusion Thermal stimulation at both described body areas gives comparable results in the assessment of cutaneous anti-nociception in horses. There is no differential influence of neuroleptic sedation or neuroleptanalgesia on TTs obtained at N or W. Buprenorphine combined with acepromazine has a long lasting anti-nociceptive effect associated with the typical opioid induced side effects in horses. PMID:23837730

  18. Reservoir response to thermal and high-pressure well stimulation efforts at Raft River, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, Mitchell [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bradford, Jacob [Energy & Geoscience Institute at the Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Moore, Joseph [Energy & Geoscience Institute at the Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Podgorney, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    An injection stimulation test begun at the Raft River geothermal reservoir in June, 2013 has produced a wealth of data describing well and reservoir response via high-resolution temperature logging and distributed temperature sensing, seismic monitoring, periodic borehole televiewer logging, periodic stepped flow rate tests and tracer injections before and after stimulation efforts. One of the primary measures of response to the stimulation is the relationship between fluid pressure and flow rate, short-term during forced flow rate changes and the long-term change in injectivity. In this paper we examine that hydraulic response using standard pumping test analysis methods, largely because pressure response to the stimulation was not detected, or measurable, in other wells. Analysis of stepped rate flow tests supports the inference from other data that a large fracture, with a radial extent of one to several meters, intersects the well in the target reservoir, suggests that the flow regime is radial to a distance of only several meters and demonstrates that the pressure build-up cone reaches an effective constant head at that distance. The well’s longer term hydraulic response demonstrated continually increasing injectivity but at a dramatically faster rate later from ~2 years out and continuing to the present. The net change in injectivity is significantly greater than observed in other longterm injectivity monitoring studies, with an approximately 150–fold increase occurring over ~2.5 years. While gradually increasing injectivity is a likely consequence of slow migration of a cooling front, and consequent dilation of fractures, the steady, ongoing, rate of increase is contrary to what would be expected in a radial or linear flow regime, where the cooling front would slow with time. As a result, occasional step-like changes in injectivity, immediately following high-flow rate tests suggest that hydro shearing during high-pressure testing altered the near

  19. Microstructural study of thermally aged duplex stainless steel deformation and fracture modes; Etude microstructurale des modes de deformation et de rupture d`un acier austenoferritique vieilli thermiquement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaeghe, B. [Institut national polytechnique, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this work is to study the micro mechanisms of deformation and rupture of an austeno ferritic stainless steel (Z 3 CND 22-10 M) with 33 % of ferrite. It is studied after ageing 1 000 h at 400 deg. C and 8 000 h at 350 deg. C and compared to the `as received` state. During ageing the ferritic phase undergoes microstructural evolutions which affects its properties. The two ageing treatments lead to roughly the same level of embrittlement. Microstructural characterisation shows that both phases percolate and exhibit orientation relationships close to Kurdjumov-Sachs ones. Mechanical properties of the steel were characterised for different ageing treatments at room temperature and at 320 deg. C. The interface is particularly strong and ensures the load transfer to ferrite even if this phase contains cleavage cracks. Moreover the interface does not oppose slip transmission which is instead controlled by localised glide in the ferritic phase. If activated slip systems of austenite are common with ferrite, slip transmission from austenite to ferrite indeed occurs through the=e interface. If they are not common, dislocations cross-slip back into the austenite. At 320 deg. C cross-slip occurs even far from the interface. Damage starts by nucleation in ferrite of cleavage cracks which propagate between austenite islands. Crack propagation is controlled by stretching of austenite ligaments. The material breaks by ductile tearing of austenite islands when the crack eventually percolates in the ferritic phase. The ductility of the material can be correctly describer using a simple model that takes into account the tearing-off the ductile-phase. (author). 153 refs.

  20. Debris extrusion and foraminal deformation produced by reciprocating instruments made of thermally treated NiTi wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frota, Myrna Maria Arcanjo; Bernardes, Ricardo Affonso; Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci; Vivacqua-Gomes, Nilton; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Vasconcelos, Bruno Carvalho de

    2018-01-18

    To evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris, percentage of foraminal enlargement and apical foramen (AF) deformation that occurred during root canal preparation with different reciprocation systems: Reciproc, WaveOne (M-Wire), and ProDesign R (Shape Memory Technology Wire) at two different working lengths (WLs): 0.0 and 1.0 mm beyond the AF. The AF of 120 root canals in 60 mesial roots of mandibular molars were photographed with stereomicroscope and randomly assigned into four groups: manual, Reciproc (REC), WaveOne (WO), and ProDesign R (PDR); subsequently, they were further subdivided according to the WL (n=15). Teeth were instrumented, coupled to a dual collecting chamber, and then another photograph of each AF was captured. Extrusion was analysed by determining the weight of extruded debris. Each AF diameter was measured in pre- and post-instrumentation images to determine deformation, which was analysed, and afterwards the final format of AFs was classified (circular/oval/deformed). We found no significant differences when analysing each system at different WLs. When considering each WL, REC and WO showed highest extrusion values (P<.05); for AF enlargement, differences were observed only for WO, when it was used beyond the AF; differences were observed among M-Wire groups beyond the AF (P<.05). AF deformation was observed in all groups; PDR showed the lowest AF deformation values at both WLs; M-Wire groups showed 50% strain beyond the AF. Authors concluded that beyond the apical limit, the alloy and taper are important aspects when considering extrusion and deformation.

  1. Debris extrusion and foraminal deformation produced by reciprocating instruments made of thermally treated NiTi wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Maria Arcanjo Frota

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris, percentage of foraminal enlargement and apical foramen (AF deformation that occurred during root canal preparation with different reciprocation systems: Reciproc, WaveOne (M-Wire, and ProDesign R (Shape Memory Technology Wire at two different working lengths (WLs: 0.0 and 1.0 mm beyond the AF. Material and methods The AF of 120 root canals in 60 mesial roots of mandibular molars were photographed with stereomicroscope and randomly assigned into four groups: manual, Reciproc (REC, WaveOne (WO, and ProDesign R (PDR; subsequently, they were further subdivided according to the WL (n=15. Teeth were instrumented, coupled to a dual collecting chamber, and then another photograph of each AF was captured. Extrusion was analysed by determining the weight of extruded debris. Each AF diameter was measured in pre- and post-instrumentation images to determine deformation, which was analysed, and afterwards the final format of AFs was classified (circular/oval/deformed. Results We found no significant differences when analysing each system at different WLs. When considering each WL, REC and WO showed highest extrusion values (P<.05; for AF enlargement, differences were observed only for WO, when it was used beyond the AF; differences were observed among M-Wire groups beyond the AF (P<.05. AF deformation was observed in all groups; PDR showed the lowest AF deformation values at both WLs; M-Wire groups showed 50% strain beyond the AF. Conclusion Authors concluded that beyond the apical limit, the alloy and taper are important aspects when considering extrusion and deformation.

  2. Numerical simulation of Class 3 hydrate reservoirs exploiting using horizontal well by depressurization and thermal co-stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shengwen; Lang, Xuemei; Wang, Yanhong; Wen, Yonggang; Fan, Shuanshi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Depressurization and thermal co-stimulation using horizontal well were proposed. • 3D stimulation showed that gas release rate was 3 × 10 5 m 3 per day within 450 days. • 2D stimulation showed that Class 3 hydrates could be dissociated within 8500 days. • 2D Simulation showed that heat flow was 1620 W lasting 1500 days, and decreased fast. • 1.1× 10 5 kg water was collected within 2000 days and then no more water was produced. - Abstract: Class 3 hydrate reservoirs exploiting using horizontal well by depressurization and thermal co-stimulation was simulated using the HydarteResSim code. Results showed that more than 20% of hydrates in the reservoirs had been dissociated within 450 days at the well temperature of 42 °C and well pressure of 0.1P 0 , 0.2P 0 (P 0 is the initial pressure of the reservoirs, simplifying 42 °C and 0.1P 0 , 42 °C and 0.2P 0 ). While the production behavior of 42 °C and 0.5P 0 , 42 °C and 0.8P 0 were not so exciting. In order to understand the production character of the well in long term, the cross section of 1 m length reservoirs was simulated. Simulation results showed that 4.5 × 10 5 m 3 gas would be collected within 4500 days and 1.1 × 10 6 kg water could be produced within 1500 days in the well at 42 °C and 0.1P 0 . 3.5 × 10 5 m 3 gas would be collected within 8500 days and 1.1 × 10 6 kg water could be produced within 1500 days in the well at 42 °C and 0.2P 0 . The heat flow was 1620 W at the beginning and then decreased rapidly in the two cases. For reservoirs of 1495.2 m in length, about 6.7 × 10 8 m 3 and 5.3 × 10 8 m 3 gas would be collected in the well corresponding to conditions of 42 °C and 0.1P 0 , and 42 °C and 0.2P 0

  3. UV induced photoluminescence and thermally stimulated luminescence of ThO{sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godbole, S.V.; Nagpal, J.S.; Page, A.G. E-mail: agpage@magnum.barc.ernet.in

    2000-08-15

    Thorium oxide doped with trivalent terbium ions offers itself as a novel phosphor with its photo- and thermally-stimulated luminescence (PL and TSL) characteristics showing a marked change on sustained exposure to 254 and 365 nm ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The reduction in luminescence intensity of Tb{sup 3+} ions, on irradiation with 254 nm photons and subsequent restoration on exposure to 365 nm, has been correlated with the complimentary behaviour in UV-induced TSL. These changes are, in turn, ascribed to inter-configurational (f-d) transitions and e-h formation and recombination processes. UV radiation induced TSL output increases linearly with incident UV radiant energy at a constant radiation flux; however, for a fixed exposure, TSL output increases with increase in radiant flux.

  4. Thermal stability of a highly-deformed warm-rolled tungsten plate in the temperature range 1100–1250 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonso, A., E-mail: aalz@dtu.dk [Section of Materials and Surface Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research, Denmark and China (Denmark); Juul Jensen, D. [Danish-Chinese Center for Nanometals, Section of Materials Science and Advanced Characterization, Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research, Denmark and China (Denmark); Luo, G.-N. [Fusion Reactor Materials Science and Technology Division, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 230031 Hefei, Anhui (China); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research, Denmark and China (Denmark); Pantleon, W. [Section of Materials and Surface Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Association EURATOM-DTU (Denmark); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research, Denmark and China (Denmark)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Annealing kinetics of highly-deformed tungsten up to 190 h between 1100 °C and 1250 °C. • Loss of mechanical strength characterized by Vickers hardness measurements. • Two distinct stages of recovery and recrystallization identified and described by established models. • Activation energy of recrystallization lower than after moderate deformation of tungsten. • Comparable to activation energy of grain boundary diffusion due to abundance of low angle boundaries. - Abstract: Pure tungsten is considered as armor material for the most critical parts of fusion reactors (i.e. the divertor and the first wall), among other reasons due to its high melting point (3422 °C) and recrystallization temperature. The thermal stability of a pure tungsten plate warm-rolled to a high plastic strain by 90% thickness reduction was investigated by isothermal annealing for up to 190 h in the temperature range between 1100 °C and 1250 °C. Vickers hardness testing allowed tracking the changes in mechanical properties caused by recovery and recrystallization. The hardness evolution could be rationalized in terms of a logarithmic recovery kinetics and a Johnson–Mehl–Avrami–Kolmogorov recrystallization kinetics accounting for an incubation time of recrystallization. The observed time spans for recrystallization and the corresponding recrystallization activation energy for this highly deformed plate suggest that large plastic deformations (e.g. applied during shaping) are only suitable to produce tungsten components to be used at relatively low temperatures (up to 900 °C for a 2 years lifespan). Higher operation temperatures will lead to fast degradation of the microstructure during operation.

  5. Thermal stability of a highly-deformed warm-rolled tungsten plate in the temperature range 1100–1250 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonso, A.; Juul Jensen, D.; Luo, G.-N.; Pantleon, W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Annealing kinetics of highly-deformed tungsten up to 190 h between 1100 °C and 1250 °C. • Loss of mechanical strength characterized by Vickers hardness measurements. • Two distinct stages of recovery and recrystallization identified and described by established models. • Activation energy of recrystallization lower than after moderate deformation of tungsten. • Comparable to activation energy of grain boundary diffusion due to abundance of low angle boundaries. - Abstract: Pure tungsten is considered as armor material for the most critical parts of fusion reactors (i.e. the divertor and the first wall), among other reasons due to its high melting point (3422 °C) and recrystallization temperature. The thermal stability of a pure tungsten plate warm-rolled to a high plastic strain by 90% thickness reduction was investigated by isothermal annealing for up to 190 h in the temperature range between 1100 °C and 1250 °C. Vickers hardness testing allowed tracking the changes in mechanical properties caused by recovery and recrystallization. The hardness evolution could be rationalized in terms of a logarithmic recovery kinetics and a Johnson–Mehl–Avrami–Kolmogorov recrystallization kinetics accounting for an incubation time of recrystallization. The observed time spans for recrystallization and the corresponding recrystallization activation energy for this highly deformed plate suggest that large plastic deformations (e.g. applied during shaping) are only suitable to produce tungsten components to be used at relatively low temperatures (up to 900 °C for a 2 years lifespan). Higher operation temperatures will lead to fast degradation of the microstructure during operation.

  6. Thermal and electron stimulated luminescence of natural bones, commercial hydroxyapatite and collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Lopez, J; Correcher, V; Garcia-Guinea, J; Rivera, T; Lozano, I B

    2014-01-01

    The luminescence (cathodoluminescence and thermoluminescence) properties of natural bones (Siberian mammoth and adult elephant), commercial hydroxyapatite and collagen were analyzed. Chemical analyses of the natural bones were determined using by Electron Probe Micro-Analysis (EMPA). Structural, molecular and thermal characteristics were determined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Differential Thermal and Thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TG). Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of natural bones and collagen showed similar intense broad bands at 440 and 490 nm related to luminescence of the tetrahedral anion [Formula: see text] or structural defects. A weaker luminescence exhibited at 310 nm could be attributed to small amount of rare earth elements (REEs). Four luminescent bands at 378, 424, 468 and 576 nm were observed in the commercial hydroxyapatite (HAP). Both natural bones and collagen samples exhibited natural thermoluminescence (NTL) with well-defined glow curves whereas that the induced thermoluminescence (ITL) only appears in the samples of commercial hydroxyapatite and collagen. Additional explanations for the TL anomalous fading of apatite, as a crucial difficulty performing dosimetry and dating, are also considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) material for thermal neutron detection: SrS:Ce,Sm,B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravotti, Federico; Garcia, Pierre; Prevost, Hildegarde; Dusseau, Laurent; Lapraz, Dominique; Vaille, Jean-Roch; Benoit, David

    2008-01-01

    SrS:Ce,Sm exhibits some interesting phosphorescent and charge storage properties that are used in OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) radiation dosimetry. To enhance the thermal neutron sensitivity of this phosphor, a new material obtained by boron doping has been developed. This OSL, B material was analysed with respect to its optical and structural characteristics in order to study possible modifications induced by doping procedure. Optical study highlights a decrease in the material luminescence of about 40% with TL and OSL experiments. The emission spectrum remains the same after boron addition. This result is in agreement with the structural characterization analysis since the lattice parameters were not modified. 11B MAS NMR results indicate that boron atoms are present in the host lattice in form of BO4 groups. Consequences on dosimetry applications are discussed. The neutron response of the OSL, B irradiated in a nuclear reactor is linear up to a fluence of 5 x 1011 cm -2 and it is possible to separate the thermal neutron and gamma components. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Performance of CVD diamond as an optically and thermally stimulated luminescence dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciado-Flores, S.; Schreck, M.; Melendrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Bernal, R.; Cruz-Vazquez, C.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2006-01-01

    Diamond is a material with extreme physical properties. Its radiation hardness, chemical inertness and tissue equivalence qualify it as an ideal material for radiation dosimetry. In the present work, the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of a 10 μm thick CVD diamond (polycrystalline diamond films prepared by chemical vapor deposition) film were studied in order to test its performance as a beta radiation dosemeter. The TL response is composed of four main TL glow peaks; two of these are in the range of 150-200 deg. C and two additional peaks in the 250-400 deg. C temperature range. The integrated TL as a function of radiation dose is linear up to 100 Gy and increases with increasing dose exposure. The dose dependence of the integrated OSL exhibits a similar behavior. The observed OSL/TL behavior for the CVD diamond film clearly demonstrate its capability for applications in radiation dosimetry with special relevance in medical dosimetry owing to the diamond's intrinsic material properties. (authors)

  9. Improvement of computer programs 'BAMBOO' and 'ASFRE-IV' for coupling analysis of deformation and thermal-hydraulics in a high burn-up fuel subassembly of fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Imai, Yasutomo

    2003-04-01

    A simulation system of a deformed fuel subassembly is being developed for the structure integrity of high burn-up wire-spacer-type fuel subassemblies of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors. This report describes a computer program improvement work for coupling analyses of deformation and thermal-hydraulics in a fuel subassembly as part of the simulation system development. In this work, a function of data conversion as an interface between a bundle deformation analysis program BAMBOO and a thermal hydraulic analysis program ASFRE-IV was incorporated to each program. BAMBOO was improved to accept the coolant temperature data from ASFRE-IV and to offer bundle deformation data to ASFRE-IV. ASFRE-IV was also improved to offer the coolant temperature data to BAMBOO and to obtain the bundle deformation data from BAMBOO. Improved BAMBOO and ASFRE-IV were applied to an analysis of 169-pin bundle for the program verification. It was confirmed that the coupling analysis gave the physically reasonable results on both deformation and thermal hydraulic behaviors in the fuel subassembly. (author)

  10. Thermal dependence of time-resolved blue light stimulated luminescence in α-Al2O3:C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagonis, Vasilis; Ankjærgaard, Christina; Jain, Mayank

    2013-01-01

    (activation energy, Eth=0.067±0.002 eV) and thermal quenching (activation energy W=(1.032+0.005) eV). Changes in the shape of the TR-OSL curves were analyzed at different stimulation temperatures using analytical expressions available in the literature. The TR-OSL signals contain a slower temperature...

  11. Parametric Assessment of Stress Development and Cracking in Internally Cured Restrained Mortars Experiencing Autogenous Deformations and Thermal Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Raoufi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A finite element model is used to examine how the properties of cementitious mortar are related to the stress development in the dual ring test. The results of this investigation are used to explain the thermal cracking behavior of mixtures containing prewetted lightweight aggregates (LWA by quantifying the contribution of several material properties individually. In addition to the beneficial effects of using the LWA as an internal curing agent to reduce the autogenous shrinkage of concrete, the LWA also helps to reduce the potential for thermal cracking due to a lower elastic modulus and increased stress relaxation. The rate of stress development, age of cracking, and magnitude of the temperature drop necessary to induce cracking in a dual ring specimen are dependent on a variety of factors, including the coefficient of thermal expansion of both the cementitious mortar and the restraining rings, elastic modulus of the mortar, creep effect of the mortar, and rate of thermal loading. Depending on the rate of cooling, cracking may or may not occur. The slowest rate of cooling (2.5∘C/h minimizes the effects of creep while cooling rates faster than 8∘C/h can produce a thermal gradient through the mortar cross-section that needs to be considered.

  12. Feasibility study for the installation of a nuclear reactor in thermal stimulation processes in heavy oil extraction from Orinoco oil belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, A.; Sanchez, R.

    1982-01-01

    Due to strategic need in the exploitation of heavy and extraheavy oil wells of Orinoco oil belt, technical and economical studies have been carried out to determine an optimal method for oil production and exploitation. So far, studies indicate thermal stimulation is the most adequate technique. Experience shows that stimulation cost is high when traditional methods (boilers) are used. The profit is due to the high price of oil in international market. Due to actual oil price trends, evaluation of nontraditional methods to generate steam in thermal stimulation processes (steam injection) is in order. A nuclear reactor as steam generator was evaluated. It was found economical feasibility and saving in fuel cost between 31.08% and 72.63% depending on oil prices

  13. Thermal stability of a highly-deformed warm-rolled tungsten plate in the temperature range 1100 °C to 1250 °C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfonso Lopez, Angel; Juul Jensen, Dorte; Luo, G.-N.

    2015-01-01

    plastic strain by 90% thickness reduction was investigated by isothermal annealing for up to 190 h in the temperature range between 1100 °C and 1250 °C. Vickers hardness testing allowed tracking the changes in mechanical properties caused by recovery and recrystallization. The hardness evolution could......Pure tungsten is considered as armor material for the most critical parts of fusion reactors (i.e. the divertor and the first wall), among other reasons due to its high melting point (3422 °C) and recrystallization temperature. The thermal stability of a pure tungsten plate warm-rolled to a high...... suggest that large plastic deformations (e.g. applied during shaping) are only suitable to produce tungsten components to be used at relatively low temperatures (up to 900 °C for a 2 years lifespan). Higher operation temperatures will lead to fast degradation of the microstructure during operation....

  14. Multiple relaxation processes in high-energy ion irradiated kapton-H polyimide: Thermally stimulated depolarization current study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Maneesha; Quamara, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    High-energy ion irradiation effects on the thermally stimulated depolarization current (Tdc) behaviour of kapton-H samples (12.5 μm) irradiated with 50 MeV Li ion (fluence 5 x 10 4 , 10 5 and 5 x 10 5 ions/cm 2 ) have been investigated. The TSDC spectra of the irradiated samples reveal that the β-peak (appearing around 80-110 deg. C) associated with dipolar relaxation has been significantly affected owing to the demerization of carbonyl groups due to irradiation. The TSDC spectra also reveal a new relaxation process (termed as γ-relaxation) around 30 deg. C, due to increased water absorptivity in irradiated samples. The peak around 200 deg. C (α-peak) associated with space charge relaxation process also shows a behavioural change with ion irradiation. The peak not only shifts towards the higher temperature with increasing fluence but also show an increase in its activation energy (0.33-0.99 eV) with increasing polarizing field. The creation of new deep energy trap centers due to the formation of conjugated bonds after irradiation is responsible for this modification. The Cole-Cole distribution curves show the formation of new sub-polar group with different characteristic relaxation time

  15. Selective creation of colour centres and peaks of thermally stimulated luminescence by VUV photons in LiF single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'chenko, E.; Kudryavtseva, I.; Lushchik, A.; Lushchik, Ch.; Nagirnyi, V.

    2005-01-01

    Processes of radiation creation and annealing of Frenkel defects as well as electron-hole processes have been studied in LiF single crystals with a various content of impurity ions by means of highly sensitive method of thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) and other optical methods. In highly pure LiF crystals, X-irradiated at 4.2 K, the TSL peaks connected with the annealing of interstitial fluorine ions (25-40 K) or atoms, i.e. H centres (50-65 K) and self-trapped holes (120-140 K) have been separated. For the first time, the creation spectra of the TSL peaks at 480 and 550 K by 10-33 eV-photon irradiation at 295 K have been measured. The anomalously high creation efficiency of the TSL peak at 480 K by 11.7-12.3 eV and 26-27 eV photons is interpreted as the creation of near-impurity electronic excitations both, directly by photons and by hot conduction electrons. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. A comparative study of the models dealing with localized and semi-localized transitions in thermally stimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Munish; Kher, R K; Bhatt, B C; Sunta, C M

    2007-01-01

    Different models dealing with localized and semi-localized transitions, namely Chen-Halperin, Mandowski and the model based on the Braunlich-Scharmann (BS) approach are compared. It has been found that for recombination dominant situations (r > 1, the three models differ. This implies that for localized transitions under recombination dominant situations, the Chen-Halperin model is the best representative of the thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) process. It has also been found that for the TSL glow curves arising from delocalized recombination in Mandowski's semi-localized transitions model, the double peak structure of the TSL glow curve is a function of the radiation dose as well as of the heating rate. Further, the double peak structure of the TSL glow curves arising from delocalized recombination disappears at low doses as well as at higher heating rates. It has also been found that the TSL glow curves arising from delocalized recombination in the semi-localized transitions model based on the BS approach do not exhibit double peak structure as observed in the Mandowski semi-localized transitions model

  17. Analytical and experimental assessment of TVS-2006 fuel assembly thermal-mechanical shape deformation at temperature modeling of a loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasiev, A.; Semishkin, V.; Makarov, V.; Matvienko, I.; Puzanov, D.

    2015-01-01

    generated for the consideration of TVS-2006 fuel assembly thermal-mechanical stability and its component shape deformation in loss-of-coolant accidents. The calculation results have shown that in the course of a design-basis loss-of-coolant accident TVS-2006 has a two-fold margin for stability loss at the longitudinal compression considering the increase in the force of FA compression due to thermal expansion of fuel rod bundle. The increase in the width across the flats is insignificant and it does not impede the post-accident core unloading. (authors) KEYWORDS: TVS- 2006, thermal-mechanical, shape deformation, modeling, loss of coolant

  18. The behavior of thermally and optically stimulated luminescence of SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ long persistent phosphor after blue light illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, V.; Melendrez, R.; Pedroza-Montero, M.; Yen, W.M.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2008-01-01

    The behavior of afterglow (AG), thermoluminescence (TL), infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) and phototransferred TL (PTTL) under thermal and/or infrared (IR) stimulation in blue (470 nm) light illuminated at room temperature (RT) SrAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ , Dy 3+ is presented. The TL glow curve consists of four peaks with maxima at about 340, 430, 560 and 680 K. The 340 and 440 K peaks are described well by second order kinetics with activation energies of 0.83 and 1.05 eV, respectively. The AG decay is fitted by the Becquerel's law with exponent 1.5 and correlates well with the thermal emptying of the traps responsible for the 340 K peak. The 340 and 430 K TL peak traps are destroyed under IR (830 nm) stimulation creating IRSL. IR stimulation after illumination with blue light and preliminary heating restore partially the 340 and 430 K TL peaks by phototransfer from deeper traps. The shape of the IRSL decay curves depends strongly on the preheating temperature and is determined by simultaneous refilling of the 340 and 430 K TL traps and their reverse filling due to phototransfer from the deeper traps under IR stimulation. The obtained data are interpreted by the transformation of Eu 2+ and Dy 3+ to Eu 3+ and Dy 2+ under blue light illumination and their reverse transformation under thermal or IR stimulation. The Eu 2+ ions are the luminescent centers and the Dy 2+ centers are the IR sensitive traps responsible for the TL peaks, AG and IRSL

  19. Thermally and optically stimulated radiative processes in Eu and Y co-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Kentaro, E-mail: ken-fukuda@tokuyama.co.jp [Tokuyama Corporation, 1-1 Mikage-cho, Shunan-shi, Yamaguchi 745-8648 (Japan); Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka [Kyushu Institute of Technology, 2-4 Hibikino, Wakamatsu, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 808-0196 (Japan)

    2015-06-01

    Yttrium co-doping was attempted to enhance dosimeter performance of Eu doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} crystal. Eu doped and Eu, Y co-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} were prepared by the micro-pulling-down technique, and their dosimeter characteristics such as optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) were investigated. By yttrium co-doping, emission intensities of OSL and TSL were enhanced by some orders of magnitude. In contrast, scintillation characteristics of yttrium co-doped crystal such as intensity of prompt luminescence induced by X-ray and light yield under neutron irradiation were degraded.

  20. Thermo-elastic plane deformations in doubly-connected domains with temperature and pressure which depend of the thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cimatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new weak formulation for the plane problem of thermoelastic theory in multiply-connected domains. This permits to avoid the difficulties connected with the Cesaro-Volterra boundary conditions in the related elliptic boundary-value problem. In the second part we consider a nonlinear version of the problem assuming that the thermal conductivity depends not only on the temperature but also on the pressure. Recent studies reveals that this situation can occur in practice. A theorem of existence and uniqueness is proved for this problem.

  1. Thermal nucleation of kink-antikink pairs in a deformable chain: Influence of the non-Gaussian correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woulache, R.L.; Kofane, T.C.; Yemele, D.

    2005-08-01

    Thermal nucleation of kink-antikink pairs in a nonlinear Klein- Gordon model with Remoissenet-Peyrard substrate potential coupled to an applied field is analyzed in the limits of moderate temperature and strong damping. We derive analytically the non- Gaussian correction to the nucleation rate formula of kink- antikink pairs previously calculated by Yemele and Kofane and show that the correction factor depends on the intensity of the applied field, the temperature of the system and the shape of the substrate potential. (author)

  2. Detection of defect states responsible for leakage current in ultrathin tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) films by zero-bias thermally stimulated current spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, W.S.; Zhong, L.; Lee, A.; See, C.H.; Han, T.; Sandler, N.P.; Chong, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    Defect states responsible for leakage current in ultrathin (physical thickness 2 O 5 ) films were measured with a novel zero-bias thermally stimulated current technique. It was found that defect states A, whose activation energy was estimated to be about 0.2 eV, can be more efficiently suppressed by using N 2 O rapid thermal annealing (RTA) instead of using O 2 RTA for postdeposition annealing. The leakage current was also smaller for samples with N 2 O RTA than those with O 2 RTA for postdeposition annealing. Hence, defect states A are quite likely to be important in causing leakage current. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Prediction of deformation and hygro-thermal stresses distribution in PEM fuel cell vehicle using three-dimensional CFD model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. [Fuel Cell Research Center, International Energy & Environment Foundation, Al-Najaf, P.O.Box 39 (Iraq)

    2012-07-01

    Durability is one of the most critical remaining issues impeding successful commercialization of broad PEM fuel cell transportation energy applications. Automotive fuel cells are likely to operate with neat hydrogen under load-following or load-levelled modes and be expected to withstand variations in environmental conditions, particularly in the context of temperature and atmospheric composition. In addition, they are also required to survive over the course of their expected operational lifetimes i.e., around 5,500 hrs, while undergoing as many as 30,000 startup/shutdown cycles. The damage mechanisms in a PEM fuel cell are accelerated by mechanical stresses arising during fuel cell assembly (bolt assembling), and the stresses arise during fuel cell running, because it consists of the materials with different thermal expansion and swelling coefficients. Therefore, in order to acquire a complete understanding of the damage mechanisms in the membrane, mechanical response under steady-state hygro-thermal stresses should be studied under real cell operating conditions and in real cell geometry (three-dimensional). In this work, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a PEM fuel cell has been developed to simulate the stresses inside the PEM fuel cell, which are occurring during fuel cell assembly (bolt assembling), and the stresses arise during fuel cell running due to the changes of temperature and relative humidity. A unique feature of the present model is to incorporate the effect of hygro and thermal stresses into actual three-dimensional fuel cell model. In addition, the temperature and humidity dependent material properties are utilize in the simulation for the membrane. The model is shown to be able to understand the many interacting, complex electrochemical, transport phenomena, and stresses distribution that have limited experimental data. This model is used to study and analyse the effect of operating parameters on the

  4. Thermally stimulated luminescence and persistent luminescence of β-irradiated YAG:Pr"3"+ nanophosphors produced by combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Meléndrez, R.; Gil-Tolano, M.I.; Jimenez, J.A.; Makale, M.T.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Castaneda, B.; Soto-Puebla, D.; Pedroza-Montero, M.; McKittrick, J.; Hirata, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) and persistent luminescence (PLUM) properties of praseodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Pr"3"+) exposed to β-irradiation are reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms a single phase of YAG obtained by the combustion method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that powder particles appear to be irregular crystals with an average size of 67 nm. TSL glow-curve deconvolution of YAG:Pr"3"+ after β-irradiation consist in six peaks centered at 394, 450, 467, 543, 637 and 705 K. The TSL fading and PLUM signals were found to be associated with at least with two different kinds of traps, corresponding to the peaks located at 394, 450 and 467 K. YAG:Pr"3"+ nanophosphors analyzed in this work showed interesting features about the dosimetric sensitivity as well as the reproducibility for both TSL/PLUM techniques, with good linearity dose response. These results indicate that nanocrystalline YAG:Pr3"+ is a good candidate for dosimetric applications in the range of 80 mGy-20 Gy. - Highlights: • β-irradiated YAG:Pr"3"+ TSL consist in 394, 450, 467, 543, 637 and 705 K peaks. • YAG:Pr"3"+ is a good candidate for dosimetry in the range of 80 mGy-20 Gy. • PLUM can be potentially used for in vivo, in situ and quasi in real time dosimetry.

  5. Thermal analysis of smart composite laminated angle-ply using higher order shear deformation theory with zig zag function

    Science.gov (United States)

    YagnaSri, P.; Siddiqui, Maimuna; Vijaya Nirmala, M.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the work is to develop the higher order theory for piezoelectric composite laminated plates with zigzag function and to determine the thermal characteristics of piezoelectric laminated plate with zig zag function for different aspect ratios (a/h), thickness ratios (z/h) and voltage and also to evaluate electric potential function by solving second order differential equation satisfying electric boundary conditions along the thickness direction of piezoelectric layer. The related functions and derivations for equation of motion are obtained using the dynamic version of the principle of virtual work or Hamilton’s principle. The solutions are obtained by using Navier’s stokes method for anti-symmetric angle-ply with specific type of simply supported boundary conditions. Computer programs have been developed for realistic prediction of stresses and deflections for various sides to thickness ratios (a/h) and voltages.

  6. Effects of the plastic deformation and thermal cycles on the mechanical properties of fully recrystallized Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvack, Nicolas

    2005-01-01

    The development of crystallographic texture in a product depends, for a given material, of its fabrication history. In our case, the evolution of that texture results from a combination of cold working and thermal cycles applied together or separately. In the present work, cold working levels ranging from 50 % to approximately 90 % and different heat treatment cycles has been applied to Zircaloy-4 sheets and tubes. Using X-ray diffraction techniques and the direct pole figure method, the evolution of crystallographic texture has been analyzed for each fabrication route. We observed that cold working levels up to 90 % without intermediate annealing heat treatment do not change significantly the classic angle between basal pole and the normal/radial direction of the product (φ ≅ ± 25 degrees). Furthermore, the application of intermediate cold working levels (50 % - 60 %) and more than two intermediate annealing heat treatments exhibits a marked modification of the basal pole orientation. The basal poles appear now parallel to the normal direction (φ ≅ 0 degrees) of the product. Additionally, the crystallographic texture change observed with X-ray procedures was evaluated by the measure of anisotropic parameters R and P. The results here obtained will be use in the future as a basis for the design of a fabrication route capable to obtain in a HPTR process, seamless calandria tubes strengthened by crystallographic texture. (author) [es

  7. Thermally stimulated current analysis of Zn{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}O alloy films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aybek, A. Senol, E-mail: saybek@anadolu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Anadolu University, Eskisehir 26470 (Turkey); Baysal, Nihal [Kilicoglu Anadolu High School, Eskisehir 26050 (Turkey); Zor, Muhsin; Turan, Evren; Kul, Metin [Department of Physics, Anadolu University, Eskisehir 26470 (Turkey)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > We have studied the structural and electrical properties of Zn{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}O alloy films deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. > The trap energy, the capture cross-section, the attempt-to-escape frequency and the concentration of the traps in Zn{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}O films are reported. > The effect of the Cd incorporation into ZnO material on trapping levels was investigated by the TSC measurements. Two overlapped peaks were registered at levels of 0.033 and 0.197 eV in ZnO sample by the curve fitting technique. The observed trap energy levels for ZnO film is thought to originate from zinc interstitials and oxygen vacancies. However, the incorporation of Cd into Zn{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}O alloy films with x = 0.59 have resulted in two trapping centers with activation energies of 0.118 and 0.215 eV. The observed trap levels in Zn{sub 0.41}Cd{sub 0.59}O alloy film are related to oxygen adsorption in the sample. - Abstract: We have studied the structural and electrical properties of Zn{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}O alloy films deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. XRD measurement indicated that pure ZnO and CdO samples had single phases with hexagonal wurtzite and cubic structures, respectively. However, Zn{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}O alloy films with x = 0.59 and 0.78 exhibited mixtures of a hexagonal wurtzite ZnO phase and a cubic CdO phase. Analysis of thermally stimulated current spectra of Zn{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}O alloy films revealed the existence of a number of overlapped peaks each characterized by different trap energy levels located in the range of 0.033-0.215 eV below the conduction band. We have used curve fitting method for the evaluation of the trap parameters of the alloy films. The values of attempt-to-escape frequency {nu}, capture cross-section S and concentration of the traps N{sub t} have been determined.

  8. BOLD fMRI of C-Fiber Mediated Nociceptive Processing in Mouse Brain in Response to Thermal Stimulation of the Forepaws.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone C Bosshard

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in rodents enables non-invasive studies of brain function in response to peripheral input or at rest. In this study we describe a thermal stimulation paradigm using infrared laser diodes to apply noxious heat to the forepaw of mice in order to study nociceptive processing. Stimulation at 45 and 46°C led to robust BOLD signal changes in various brain structures including the somatosensory cortices and the thalamus. The BOLD signal amplitude scaled with the temperature applied but not with the area irradiated by the laser beam. To demonstrate the specificity of the paradigm for assessing nociceptive signaling we administered the quaternary lidocaine derivative QX-314 to the forepaws, which due to its positive charge cannot readily cross biological membranes. However, upon activation of TRPV1 channels following the administration of capsaicin the BOLD signal was largely abolished, indicative of a selective block of the C-fiber nociceptors due to QX-314 having entered the cells via the now open TRPV1 channels. This demonstrates that the cerebral BOLD response to thermal noxious paw stimulation is specifically mediated by C-fibers.

  9. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on Yongquan acupoint reduces CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia of rats via down-regulation of ERK2 phosphorylation and c-Fos expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Yang, Lianxue; Gao, Xiulai

    2010-07-01

    Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) and its involvement in regulating gene expression in spinal dorsal horn, cortical and subcortical neurons by peripheral noxious stimulation contribute to pain hypersensitivity. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a treatment used in physiotherapy practice to promote analgesia in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. In this study, a total number of 114 rats were used for three experiments. Effects of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain hypersensitivity and TENS analgesia on ERK1/2 phosphorylation and c-Fos protein expression were examined by using behavioral test, Western blot, and immunostaining methods. We found that CFA injection caused an area of localized swelling, erythema, hypersensitivity to thermal stimuli, the decreased response time of hind paw licking (HPL), as well as upregulation of c-Fos protein expression and ERK2 phosphorylation in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn and the contralateral primary somatosensory area of cortex and the amygdala of rats. TENS on Yongquan acupoint for 20 min produced obvious analgesic effects as demonstrated with increased HPL to thermal stimuli of CFA-treated rats. In addition, TENS application suppressed the CFA-induced ERK2 activation and c-Fos protein expression. These results suggest that down-regulation of ERK2 phosphorylation and c-Fos expression were involved in TENS inhibition on CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia of rats.

  10. A three-dimensional histological atlas of the human basal ganglia. II. Atlas deformation strategy and evaluation in deep brain stimulation for Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardinet, Eric; Bhattacharjee, Manik; Dormont, Didier; Pidoux, Bernard; Malandain, Grégoire; Schüpbach, Michael; Ayache, Nicholas; Cornu, Philippe; Agid, Yves; Yelnik, Jérôme

    2009-02-01

    The localization of any given target in the brain has become a challenging issue because of the increased use of deep brain stimulation to treat Parkinson disease, dystonia, and nonmotor diseases (for example, Tourette syndrome, obsessive compulsive disorders, and depression). The aim of this study was to develop an automated method of adapting an atlas of the human basal ganglia to the brains of individual patients. Magnetic resonance images of the brain specimen were obtained before extraction from the skull and histological processing. Adaptation of the atlas to individual patient anatomy was performed by reshaping the atlas MR images to the images obtained in the individual patient using a hierarchical registration applied to a region of interest centered on the basal ganglia, and then applying the reshaping matrix to the atlas surfaces. Results were evaluated by direct visual inspection of the structures visible on MR images and atlas anatomy, by comparison with electrophysiological intraoperative data, and with previous atlas studies in patients with Parkinson disease. The method was both robust and accurate, never failing to provide an anatomically reliable atlas to patient registration. The registration obtained did not exceed a 1-mm mismatch with the electrophysiological signatures in the region of the subthalamic nucleus. This registration method applied to the basal ganglia atlas forms a powerful and reliable method for determining deep brain stimulation targets within the basal ganglia of individual patients.

  11. Detection of oxygen vacancy defect states in capacitors with ultrathin Ta2O5 films by zero-bias thermally stimulated current spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, W.S.; Leong, L.L.; Han, Taejoon; Sandler, Nathan P.

    2003-01-01

    Defect state D (0.8 eV) was experimentally detected in Ta 2 O 5 capacitors with ultrathin (physical thickness 2 O 5 films using zero-bias thermally stimulated current spectroscopy and correlated with leakage current. Defect state D can be more efficiently suppressed by using N 2 O rapid thermal annealing (RTA) instead of using O 2 RTA for postdeposition annealing and by using TiN instead of Al for top electrode. We believe that defect D is probably the first ionization level of the oxygen vacancy deep double donor. Other important defects are Si/O-vacancy complex single donors and C/O-vacancy complex single donors

  12. Plastic deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitter, de L.U.

    1937-01-01

    § 1. Plastic deformation of solid matter under high confining pressures has been insufficiently studied. Jeffreys 1) devotes a few paragraphs to deformation of solid matter as a preface to his chapter on the isostasy problem. He distinguishes two properties of solid matter with regard to its

  13. Construction of TSL lector equipment with spectral resolution for the determination of thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) properties of NaCl: Tl+ induced by UV-visible radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Romero, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    A revision of physical models of thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) in crystals induced by both ionizing and non-ionizing radiation is presented. Particular emphasis is given to the connection of TSL with other thermally stimulated processes and physico-chemical phenomena because basic information on physical mechanics for TSL can be obtained through them. Glow curves of TSL induced by UV-visible radiation in NaCl: Tl + were measured. Additionally, the following spectrums were obtained for the same samples: optical absorption, excitation, fluorescent emission, and TSL emission. An optical absorption peak was correlated with the Thallium ion concentration. With respect to the TSL emission spectrums, some peaks associated to Thallium dimmers were at 298 and at 480 nm; others which were attributed to NaCl intrinsic properties were at 365, 430, 450 and 525 nm. Also TSL glow curves were studied as a function of the Thallium ion concentration (0.8 ppm to 14.8 ppm). They were de convoluted so as to calculate the activation energy, the frequency factor and the kinetic order for each separate TSL peak. Anomalous values were observed for some frequency factors. A method and TSL lector equipment to obtain TSL emission spectra were developed. (Author)

  14. Heat shock protein 90 inhibitor enhances apoptosis by inhibiting the AKT pathway in thermal-stimulated SK-MEL-2 human melanoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min Kyung; Jeong, Ki-Heon; Choi, Hyeongwon; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Lee, Mu-Hyoung

    2018-02-08

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are chaperone proteins, which are upregulated after various stresses. Hsp90 inhibitors have been investigated as adjuvant therapies for the treatment of melanoma. Thermal ablation could be a treatment option for surgically unresectable melanoma or congenital nevomelanocytic nevi, however, there is a limitation such as the possibility of recurrence. We evaluated apoptosis in a melanoma cell line treated with the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-Dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG), in hyperthermic conditions. SK-MEL-2 cells were stimulated at 43 °C for 1 h and treated with 0, 0.1 and 1 μM 17-DMAG. We evaluated the cell viability using MTT and apoptosis with HSP 90 inhibitor. We studied the protein expression of AKT, phospho-AKT, ERK, phospho-ERK, MAPK, and phospho-MAPK, caspase 3,7,9, and anti-poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. 17-DMAG significantly inhibited the proliferation of the SK-MEL-2 cells at 37 °C (0.1 μM: 44.47% and 1 μM: 61.23%) and 43 °C (0.1 μM: 49.21% and 1 μM: 63.60%), suggesting synergism between thermal stimulation and 17-DMAG. 17-DMAG treatment increased the frequency of apoptotic cell populations to 2.17% (0.1 μM) and 3.05% (1 μM) in 37 °C controls, and 4.40% (0.1 μM) and 4.97% (1 μM) in the group stimulated at 43 °C. AKT phosphorylation were activated by thermal stimulation and inhibited by 17-DMAG. Hsp90 inhibitor treatment may be clinically applicable to enhance the apoptosis of melanoma cells in hyperthermic condition. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Absorption and stimulated emission between the electronic states of C and C_2 radicals in an expanding thermal plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otorbaev, D.K.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Buuron, A.J.M.; Schram, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Using the method of reabsorption the absolute densities of argon, atomic and molecular carbon are determined during the deposition of amorphous hydrogenated (diamond-like) carbon coatings by an expanding thermal are plasma. Depending on the gas mixture argon/methane or argon/acetylene and the manner

  16. Study beryllium microplastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papirov, I.I.; Ivantsov, V.I.; Nikolaenko, A.A.; Shokurov, V.S.; Tuzov, Yu.V.

    2015-01-01

    Microplastic flow characteristics systematically studied for different varieties beryllium. In isostatically pressed beryllium it decreased with increasing particle size of the powder, increasing temperature and increasing the pressing metal purity. High initial values of the limit microelasticity and microflow in some cases are due a high level of internal stresses of thermal origin and over time it can relax slowly. During long-term storage of beryllium materials with high initial resistance values microplastic deformation microflow limit and microflow stress markedly reduced, due mainly to the relaxation of thermal microstrain

  17. Dosimetry in the multi kilo-Gray range using optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermally-transferred OSL from quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbidge, C.I.; Cabo Verde, S.I.; Fernandes, A.C.; Prudencio, M.I.; Botelho, M.L.; Dias, M.I.; Cardoso, G.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the potential for using photon-stimulated luminescence of quartz grains to retrospectively evaluate multi-kGy gamma radiation doses. Subsamples from two ceramic tiles were given 60 Co gamma doses of 1, 3, 5, 15 and 30 kGy (nominal), accompanied by PMMA dosimeters and quartz grains from a geological sample known to exhibit thermally-transferred optically-stimulated luminescence (TTOSL). Following gamma irradiation, quartz grains were prepared from each subsample. OSL and TTOSL signals were measured for different preheat temperatures, and following re-irradiation with beta doses designed to equal the nominal gamma doses. OSL responses to 10 Gy beta test doses were measured following each cycle of high dose irradiation. Gamma doses were predicted from the beta responses, to evaluate the effectiveness of retrospective dose evaluation for different signal integrals, preheat combinations, and dose intervals. The use of linear modulation limited maximum OSL signal levels to 1.5 x 10 6 cps without reducing detector sensitivity, for the measurement of smaller TTOSL signals. The dosimetric behaviour of the three samples differed significantly: the best results were obtained from the pre-prepared geological quartz. OSL signals evident at short stimulation times, which are conventionally used for dosimetry and dating, did not in general appear appropriate for dosimetry in the range of doses examined. They exhibited dose response characteristics that were highly preheat dependant and variable in form between samples, which contained rapidly saturating and/or non-monotonic components. Higher preheats, up to 300 o C, preferentially removed OSL and TTOSL signals evident at longer stimulation times: those that remained yielded growth in signal with dose to approximately 10 kGy, but the accuracy of retrospective dose determinations was variable. TTOSL signals evident at short stimulation times increased proportionally with dose when 300 o C preheats were used, up

  18. Frequency up-shift in the stimulated thermal scattering under two-photon absorption in liquids and colloids of metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanin, I. V.; Erokhin, A. I.; Baranov, A. N.

    2018-07-01

    We report the results of the experimental and theoretical study of stimulated temperature scattering in toluene and hexane solutions of Ag-nanoparticles, as well as in pure toluene in the two-photon absorption regime. A four-wave mixing scheme with two counter-propagating pump waves of the same frequency is utilised to demonstrate the lasing effect and the amplification of the backscattered anti-Stokes signal. For the first time, we have measured anti-Stokes spectral shifts which turn out to appreciably exceed the Rayleigh line widths in those liquids. It is shown that the amplification effect is provided predominantly by thermally induced coherent polarisation oscillations, while the dynamic interference temperature grating causes the formation of a self-induced optical cavity inside the interaction region.

  19. Detection of electron and hole traps in CdZnTe radiation detectors by thermoelectric emission spectroscopy and thermally stimulated conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.Y.; Brunett, B.A.; Olsen, R.W.; Van Scyoc, J.M. III; Hermon, H.; James, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The electrical properties of CdZnTe radiation detectors are largely determined by electron and hole traps in this material. The traps, in addition to degrading the detector performance, can function as dopants and determine the resistivity of the material. Thermoelectric emission spectroscopy and thermally stimulated conductivity are used to detect these traps in a commercially available spectrometer-grade CdZnTe detector, and the electrical resistivity is measured as a function of temperature. A deep electron trap having an energy of 695 meV and cross section of 8 x 10 -16 cm 2 is detected and three hole traps having energies of 70 ± 20 meV, 105 ± 30 meV and 694 ± 162 meV are detected. A simple model based on these traps explains quantitatively all the data, including the electrical properties at room temperature and also their temperature dependence

  20. Evaluation of trapping parameters of thermally stimulated luminescence glow curves in Cu-doped Li2B4O7 phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manam, J.; Sharma, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of trapping parameters, including order of kinetics, activation energy and frequency factor, is one of the most important aspect of studies in the field of thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL). A polycrystalline sample of Cu-doped Li 2 B 4 O 7 was prepared by the melting method. Formation of the doped compound was checked by use of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. TSL studies of the Cu-doped lithium tetraborate sample shows three glow peaks, the maximum emission occurring, respectively, at a temperature of 175 deg. C, 290 deg. C and 350 deg. C, the intensity of the 175 deg. C-glow peak being the maximum. The trapping parameters associated with this prominent glow peak of Cu-doped lithium tetraborate are reported herein, using the isothermal luminescence decay and glow curve shape (Chen's) methods. Our results show very good agreement between the trapping parameters calculated by the two methods

  1. Thermally stimulated depolarization currents and dielectric properties of Mg0.95Ca0.05TiO3 filled HDPE composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunzhou; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Jie; Yue, Zhenxing

    2017-12-01

    Mg0.95Ca0.05TiO3 (MCT) filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites were prepared by twin-screw extrusion followed by hot pressing technique. The thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) measurement was performed to analyze the contribution of charge distribution and interfacial characteristics to the dielectric loss. TSDC spectra under different polarization conditions show that the introduction of ceramic fillers engenders shallow traps in the vicinity of ceramic-polymer interface, which hinders the injection of space charge from the electrode into the polymer matrix. In the composite materials applied to an external field, charges tend to be captured by these traps. The temperature dependence of relative permittivity and dielectric loss of the composites was measured, and a strong reliance of dielectric loss on temperature was observed. In the heating process, the release of charges accumulating at interfacial region is considered to contribute to the rise in dielectric loss with the increase of temperature.

  2. Reversible flexible structural changes in multidimensional MOFs by guest molecules (I{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}) and thermal stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yang; Li, Libo; Yang, Jiangfeng; Wang, Shuang; Li, Jinping, E-mail: Jpli211@hotmail.com

    2015-03-15

    Three metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), [Cu(INA){sub 2}], [Cu(INA){sub 2}I{sub 2}] and [Cu(INA){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}], were synthesized with 3D, 2D, and 0D structures, respectively. Reversible flexible structural changes of these MOFs were reported. Through high temperature (60–100 °C) stimulation of I{sub 2} or ambient temperature stimulation of NH{sub 3}, [Cu(INA){sub 2}] (3D) converted to [Cu(INA){sub 2}I{sub 2}] (2D) and [Cu(INA){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}] (0D); as the temperature increased to 150 °C, the MOFs changed back to their original form. In this way, this 3D MOF has potential application in the capture of I{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} from polluted water and air. XRD, TGA, SEM, NH{sub 3}-TPD, and the measurement of gas adsorption were used to describe the changes in processes regarding the structure, morphology, and properties. - Graphical abstract: Through I{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} molecules and thermal stimulation, the three MOFs can achieve reversible flexible structural changes. Different methods were used to prove the flexible reversible changes. - Highlights: • [Cu(INA){sub 2}] can flexible transform to [Cu(INA){sub 2}I{sub 2}] and [Cu(INA){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}] by adsorbing I{sub 2} or NH{sub 3}. • The reversible flexible transformation related to material source, temperature and concentration. • Potential applications for the capture of I{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} from polluted water or air.

  3. Structural features and functional properties of water in model DMPC membranes: thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDCs) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridelli, M. G.; Capelletti, R.; Mora, C.

    2013-12-01

    Thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDCs) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies were employed to investigate the state of water incorporated in a model DMPC (dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine) membrane. The lipid multilayers, highly inhomogeneous from the dielectric point of view, originate complex TSDC spectra critically dependent on the sample water content and thermal history. Different temperature ranges were chosen to polarize the sample, i.e. 100-300 K (type I) and 100-285 K (type II). The purpose of the latter choice was to avoid any sample heating above the DMPC phase transition temperature (295 K) along the sample polarization. According to the results, water in a fully hydrated system (aw = 0.92) (1) is ordered around the hydrophilic head molecular groups, (2) is layered in the interbilayer space and (3) penetrates among the hydrocarbon chains. It can assume different local structural configurations depending on the lipid packing. Irreversible conformational transitions in the lipid array system were monitored as a consequence of different dehydration treatments. FTIR absorption measurements were performed to study the water sorption kinetics into a DMPC thin film. The water related OH band was decomposed into three components, describing three water states, with different propensity to the H-bond formation. The changes of the lipid characteristic groups (CH2/CH3, PO_{2}^{-} and C=O) absorption bands as a function of increasing hydration level were monitored and discussed.

  4. Structural features and functional properties of water in model DMPC membranes: thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDCs) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridelli, M G; Capelletti, R; Mora, C

    2013-01-01

    Thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDCs) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies were employed to investigate the state of water incorporated in a model DMPC (dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine) membrane. The lipid multilayers, highly inhomogeneous from the dielectric point of view, originate complex TSDC spectra critically dependent on the sample water content and thermal history. Different temperature ranges were chosen to polarize the sample, i.e. 100–300 K (type I) and 100–285 K (type II). The purpose of the latter choice was to avoid any sample heating above the DMPC phase transition temperature (295 K) along the sample polarization. According to the results, water in a fully hydrated system (a w  = 0.92) (1) is ordered around the hydrophilic head molecular groups, (2) is layered in the interbilayer space and (3) penetrates among the hydrocarbon chains. It can assume different local structural configurations depending on the lipid packing. Irreversible conformational transitions in the lipid array system were monitored as a consequence of different dehydration treatments. FTIR absorption measurements were performed to study the water sorption kinetics into a DMPC thin film. The water related OH band was decomposed into three components, describing three water states, with different propensity to the H-bond formation. The changes of the lipid characteristic groups (CH 2 /CH 3 , PO 2 − and C=O) absorption bands as a function of increasing hydration level were monitored and discussed. (paper)

  5. Compensation and trapping in CdZnTe radiation detectors studied by thermoelectric emission spectroscopy, thermally stimulated conductivity, and current-voltage measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, Ralph B.

    2000-01-01

    In today's commercially available counter-select-grade CdZnTe crystals for radiation detector applications, the thermal ionization energies of the traps and their types, whether electron or hole traps, were measured. The measurements were successfully done using thermoelectric emission spectroscopy (TEES) and thermally stimulated conductivity (TSC). For reliability, the electrical contacts to the sample were found to be very important and, instead of Au Schottky contacts, In Ohmic contacts had to be used. For the filling of the traps, photoexcitation was done at zero bias, at 20K and at wavelengths which gave the maximum bulk photoexcitation for the sample. Between the temperature range from 20 to 400 K, the TSC current was found to be on the order of ∼ 10,000 times or even larger than the TEES current, in agreement with theory, but only TEES could resolve the trap type and was sensitive to the deep traps. Large concentration of hole traps at 0.1 and 0.6 eV were observed and smaller contraction of electron traps at 0.4 eV was seen. These deep traps cause compensation in the material and also cause trapping that degrades the radiation detection measurement

  6. Deformation microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Hughes, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Microstructural characterization and modeling has shown that a variety of metals deformed by different thermomechanical processes follows a general path of grain subdivision, by dislocation boundaries and high angle boundaries. This subdivision has been observed to very small structural scales...... of the order of 10 nm, produced by deformation under large sliding loads. Limits to the evolution of microstructural parameters during monotonic loading have been investigated based on a characterization by transmission electron microscopy. Such limits have been observed at an equivalent strain of about 10...

  7. Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2010-01-01

    "Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics" mainly consists in a mathematical treatise of approximate theories for thin deformable bodies, including cables, beams, rods, webs, membranes, plates, and shells. The intent of the book is to stimulate more research in the area of nonlinear deformable-body dynamics not only because of the unsolved theoretical puzzles it presents but also because of its wide spectrum of applications. For instance, the theories for soft webs and rod-reinforced soft structures can be applied to biomechanics for DNA and living tissues, and the nonlinear theory of deformable bodies, based on the Kirchhoff assumptions, is a special case discussed. This book can serve as a reference work for researchers and a textbook for senior and postgraduate students in physics, mathematics, engineering and biophysics. Dr. Albert C.J. Luo is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, USA. Professor Luo is an internationally recognized scientist in the field of non...

  8. Thermal behavior of Ni (99.967% and 99.5% purity) deformed to an ultra-high strain by high pressure torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, H.W.; Huang, Xiaoxu; Pippan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline Ni of two purities (99.967% (4N) and 99.5% (2N)) was deformed to an ultra-high strain of εvM = 100 (εvM, von Mises strain) by high pressure torsion at room temperature. The 4N and 2N samples at this strain are nanostructured with an average boundary spacing of 100 nm, a high density...

  9. Optically stimulated luminescence of ZnO obtained by thermal treatment of ZnS chemically synthesized; Luminiscencia opticamente estimulada de ZnO obtenido por tratamiento termico de ZnS sintetizado quimicamente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz V, C.; Burruel I, S.E.; Orante B, V.R.; Grijalva M, H.; Perez S, R.; Bernal, R. [Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 130, Hermosillo (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this work, we report the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry of new nano phosphors of ZnO obtained by thermal annealing of chemically synthesized ZnS powder. The synthesized ZnS nano powder was compressed in order to form pellet shaped pellets, which were afterwards subjected to a thermal annealing at 700 C during 24 h under air atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and energy-disperse X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analyses confirmed the transformation of ZnS to ZnO. Samples were exposed to several doses of beta radiation up to 600 Gy, and the optically stimulated luminescence with 470 nm wavelength light was recorded as a function of dose. The intensity of the OSL signal increases by increasing dose, for what it is concluded that these new phosphor materials are suitable to be used in optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry. (Author)

  10. Emission of thermally stimulated luminescence in mixed monocrystals KCl-KBr: Pb2+, KCl: Pb2+ and KBr: Pb2+ exposed at low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Z, E.; Ramos B, S.; Melendrez A, R.; Chernov, V.; Piters, T.M.; Barboza F, M.; Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H.

    2002-01-01

    It is reported the behavior of solid solutions of mixed crystals KCl 1-x KBr x doped with divalent lead which were exposed to gamma radiation. The mixtures of KCl-KBr were varied, with x equivalents at 2, 50, 65, and 85 % including the extremes KCl: Pb 2+ and KBr: Pb 2+ . It was maintained a concentration of divalent lead between 20 and 40 ppm in the crystalline lattice. The production of the generated defects by radiation have been correlated with the increase in the brilliance curves depending on the received dose by the mixed doped crystal. It has been used the thermal stimulation (Tl) for obtaining the crystal luminescence depending on the dose until 130 Gy with gammas of cobalt 60. The results shows that this mixed crystalline material of varied composition responds adequately to low doses which indicates that this would be a good detector of ionizing radiation. The results have been correlated with the optical properties of this mixed doped crystal, however it has been found that exists an important loss of luminescence depending on the halogen quantity presents in the mixed crystal. (Author)

  11. Persistent photocurrent and deep level traps in PLD-grown In-Ga-Zn-O thin films studied by thermally stimulated current spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Buguo; Anders, Jason; Leedy, Kevin; Schuette, Michael; Look, David

    2018-02-01

    InGaZnO (IGZO) is a promising semiconductor material for thin-film transistors (TFTs) used in DC and RF switching applications, especially since it can be grown at low temperatures on a wide variety of substrates. Enhancement-mode TFTs based on IGZO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) have been recently fabricated and these transistors show excellent performance; however, compositional variations and defects can adversely affect film quality, especially in regard to electrical properties. In this study, we use thermally stimulated current (TSC) spectroscopy to characterize the electrical properties and the deep traps in PLD-grown IGZO thin films. It was found that the as-grown sample has a DC activation energy of 0.62 eV, and two major traps with activation energies at 0.16-0.26 eV and at 0.90 eV. However, a strong persistent photocurrent (PPC) sometimes exists in the as-grown sample, so we carry out post-growth annealing in an attempt to mitigate the effect. It was found that annealing in argon increases the conduction, produces more PPC and also makes more traps observable. Annealing in air makes the film more resistive, and removes PPC and all traps but one. This work demonstrates that current-based trap emission, such as that associated with the TSC, can effectively reveal electronic defects in highlyresistive semiconductor materials, especially those are not amenable to capacitance-based techniques, such as deeplevel transient spectroscopy (DLTS).

  12. UV-induced photoluminescence and thermally stimulated luminescence of CaSO{sub 4}:Eu and CaF{sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godbole, S.V.; Nagpal, J.S.; Page, A.G. E-mail: agpage@magnum.barc.ernet.in

    2000-08-15

    Ultraviolet radiation induced changes in photoluminescence (PL) and thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) of europium activated calcium sulphate (CaSO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 2+}) and terbium doped calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+}) phosphors have been studied. PL measurements suggest conversion of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} on 254 nm irradiation corresponding to charge transfer band of Eu{sup 3+} ions and reduction of Eu{sup 2+} ions with 365 nm illumination representing a f-d transition of Eu{sup 2+} ions. Similar studies carried out on CaF{sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} phosphor, however, do not show any significant wavelength specific changes. The integrated TSL output appears to be rate-dependent for both phosphors. The wavelength dependent changes in TSL output observed for CaSO{sub 4}:Eu phosphor have been correlated with those obtained in PL studies. The changes in TSL and PL characteristics of CaF{sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} phosphor have been explained on the basis of stabilisation of traps based on matrix specific charge similarities.

  13. Sub-paresthesia spinal cord stimulation reverses thermal hyperalgesia and modulates low frequency EEG in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Suguru; Xia, Jimmy; Leblanc, Brian W; Gu, Jianwen Wendy; Saab, Carl Y

    2018-05-08

    Paresthesia, a common feature of epidural spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for pain management, presents a challenge to the double-blind study design. Although sub-paresthesia SCS has been shown to be effective in alleviating pain, empirical criteria for sub-paresthesia SCS have not been established and its basic mechanisms of action at supraspinal levels are unknown. We tested our hypothesis that sub-paresthesia SCS attenuates behavioral signs of neuropathic pain in a rat model, and modulates pain-related theta (4-8 Hz) power of the electroencephalogram (EEG), a previously validated correlate of spontaneous pain in rodent models. Results show that sub-paresthesia SCS attenuates thermal hyperalgesia and power amplitude in the 3-4 Hz range, consistent with clinical data showing significant yet modest analgesic effects of sub-paresthesia SCS in humans. Therefore, we present evidence for anti-nociceptive effects of sub-paresthesia SCS in a rat model of neuropathic pain and further validate EEG theta power as a reliable 'biosignature' of spontaneous pain.

  14. Thermally stimulated luminescence and photoluminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-13

    Jan 13, 2012 ... red to ultraviolet, which depends on the crystal structure of host materials ..... to strong anisotropic nature of the fine structure (fs) transi- tion(s), other .... 39 2065. Pan Shilie, Wu Yicheng, Fu Peizhen, Zhang Guochun, Li Zhihua,.

  15. Photoluminescence, thermally stimulated luminescence and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    γ and self α irradiated samples were carried out. PL spectra of these samples give structured broad band ... generated in these solids by self α and γ irradiation effects. Also structure of defect centres, their recombination on ... Author for correspondence (giritks@gmail.com) have different molecular structure leading to UO2−.

  16. Bunionette deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bruce E; Nicholson, Christopher W

    2007-05-01

    The bunionette, or tailor's bunion, is a lateral prominence of the fifth metatarsal head. Most commonly, bunionettes are the result of a widened 4-5 intermetatarsal angle with associated varus of the metatarsophalangeal joint. When symptomatic, these deformities often respond to nonsurgical treatment methods, such as wider shoes and padding techniques. When these methods are unsuccessful, surgical treatment is based on preoperative radiographs and associated lesions, such as hyperkeratoses. In rare situations, a simple lateral eminence resection is appropriate; however, the risk of recurrence or overresection is high with this technique. Patients with a lateral bow to the fifth metatarsal are treated with a distal chevron-type osteotomy. A widened 4-5 intermetatarsal angle often requires a diaphyseal osteotomy for correction.

  17. Currents of thermally stimulated depolarization in CaIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} single crystals; Toki termostimulirovannoj depolyarizatsii v monokristallakh CaIN{sub 2}S{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagiev, B G; Tagiev, O B; Dzhabbarov, R B; Musaeva, N N [AN Azerbajdzhanskoj SSR, Baku (Azerbaijan). Inst. Fiziki

    1996-10-01

    The results of investigation into currents of thermally stimulated depolarization in CaIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} monocrystals are presented for the first time. Spectra of thermally stimulated depolarization for In-CaIn{sub S4}-In structures are measured under T=99 K at various rates of heat, times of polarization and times of expectation following switching off of electrical field up to beginning of measurements of shorting. The main parameters of capture cross section, partial factor, concentration of traps, are determined. It is determined that one may observed a biomolecular mechanism with a strong secondary capture in CaIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} monocrystals. 9 refs.; 4 figs.

  18. Correlated analysis of 2 MeV proton-induced radiation damage in CdZnTe crystals using photoluminescence and thermally stimulated current techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yaxu [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Detection Materials and Devices of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Jie, Wanqi, E-mail: jwq@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Detection Materials and Devices of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Rong, Caicai [Institute of Modern Physics, Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wang, Yuhan; Xu, Lingyan; Xu, Yadong [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Detection Materials and Devices of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Lv, Haoyan; Shen, Hao [Institute of Modern Physics, Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Du, Guanghua [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Fu, Xu [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Detection Materials and Devices of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • 2 MeV proton-induced radiation damage in CdZnTe crystals is investigated by PL and TSC techniques. • The influence of radiation damage on the luminescent and electrical properties of CdZnTe crystals is studied. • Intensity of PL spectrum is found to decrease significantly in irradiated regions, suggesting the increase of non-radiative recombination centers. • A correlated analysis of PL and TSC spectra suggests that the density of dislocations and A-centers increase after proton irradiation. - Abstract: Radiation damage induced by 2 MeV protons in CdZnTe crystals has been studied by means of photoluminescence (PL) and thermally stimulated current (TSC) techniques. A notable quenching of PL intensity is observed in the regions irradiated with a fluence of 6 × 10{sup 13} p/cm{sup 2}, suggesting the increase of non-radiative recombination centers. Moreover, the intensity of emission peak D{sub complex} centered at 1.48 eV dominates in the PL spectrum obtained from irradiated regions, ascribed to the increase of interstitial dislocation loops and A centers. The intensity of TSC spectra in irradiated regions decreases compared to the virgin regions, resulting from the charge collection inefficiency caused by proton-induced recombination centers. By comparing the intensity of identified traps obtained from numerical fitting using simultaneous multiple peak analysis (SIMPA) method, it suggests that proton irradiation under such dose can introduce high density of dislocation and A-centers in CdZnTe crystals, consistent with PL results.

  19. Luminescence and photo-thermally stimulated defects creation processes in PbWO{sub 4} crystals doped with trivalent rare-earth ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabeni, P. [Institute of Applied Physics “N.Carrara” (IFAC) of CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Krasnikov, A.; Kärner, T. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Laguta, V.V.; Nikl, M. [Institute of Physics AS CR, Cukrovarnicka 10, 16253 Prague (Czech Republic); Pazzi, G.P. [Institute of Applied Physics “N.Carrara” (IFAC) of CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Zazubovich, S., E-mail: svet@fi.tartu.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia)

    2013-04-15

    In PbWO{sub 4} crystals, doped with various trivalent rare-earth A{sup 3+} ions (A{sup 3+}: La{sup 3+}, Lu{sup 3+}, Y{sup 3+}, Ce{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+}), electron (WO{sub 4}){sup 3−} and {(WO_4)"3"−–A"3"+} centers can be created under UV irradiation not only in the host absorption region but also in the energy range around 3.85 eV (Böhm et al., 1999; Krasnikov et al., 2010). Under excitation in the same energy range, the UV emission peak at 3.05–3.20 eV is observed. In the present work, the origin of this emission is investigated in detail by low-temperature time-resolved luminescence methods. Photo-thermally stimulated creation of (WO{sub 4}){sup 3−} and {(WO_4)"3"−–A"3"+} centers is studied also in PbWO{sub 4}:Mo,A{sup 3+} crystals. Various processes, which could explain both the appearance of the UV emission and the creation of the {(WO_4)"3"−–A"3"+}-type centers under irradiation of PbWO{sub 4}: A{sup 3+} crystals in the 3.85±0.35 eV energy range, are discussed. The radiative and non-radiative decay of the excitons localized near A{sup 3+} ions is considered as the most probable mechanism to explain the observed features. -- Highlights: ► UV emission of PbWO{sub 4}: A{sup 3+} (A{sup 3+}: La{sup 3+}, Lu{sup 3+}, Y{sup 3+}, Ce{sup 3+}, and Gd{sup 3+}) crystals is studied. ► The emission is ascribed to the radiative decay of excitons localized near A{sup 3+} ions. ► The excitons are created at 3.85 eV excitation by a two-step process. ► Non-radiative decay of the excitons leads to the creation of (WO{sub 4}){sup 3−}–A{sup 3+} centers.

  20. Strong crystal size effect on deformation twinning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Qian; Shan, Zhi-Wei; Li, Ju

    2010-01-01

    plasticity. Accompanying the transition in deformation mechanism, the maximum flow stress of the submicrometre-sized pillars was observed to saturate at a value close to titanium’s ideal strength9, 10. We develop a ‘stimulated slip’ model to explain the strong size dependence of deformation twinning......Deformation twinning1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 in crystals is a highly coherent inelastic shearing process that controls the mechanical behaviour of many materials, but its origin and spatio-temporal features are shrouded in mystery. Using micro-compression and in situ nano-compression experiments, here we...... find that the stress required for deformation twinning increases drastically with decreasing sample size of a titanium alloy single crystal7, 8, until the sample size is reduced to one micrometre, below which the deformation twinning is entirely replaced by less correlated, ordinary dislocation...

  1. Characterization of deep level defects and thermally stimulated depolarization phenomena in La-doped TlInS{sub 2} layered semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyidov, MirHasan Yu., E-mail: smirhasan@gyte.edu.tr; Suleymanov, Rauf A.; Mikailzade, Faik A. [Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, Gebze, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey); Institute of Physics of NAS of Azerbaijan, H. Javid ave. 33, Baku AZ-1143 (Azerbaijan); Kargın, Elif Orhan [Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, Gebze, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey); Odrinsky, Andrei P. [Institute of Technical Acoustics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Lyudnikov ave. 13, Vitebsk 210717 (Belarus)

    2015-06-14

    Lanthanum-doped high quality TlInS{sub 2} (TlInS{sub 2}:La) ferroelectric-semiconductor was characterized by photo-induced current transient spectroscopy (PICTS). Different impurity centers are resolved and identified. Analyses of the experimental data were performed in order to determine the characteristic parameters of the extrinsic and intrinsic defects. The energies and capturing cross section of deep traps were obtained by using the heating rate method. The observed changes in the Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) near the phase transition points in TlInS{sub 2}:La ferroelectric-semiconductor are interpreted as a result of self-polarization of the crystal due to the internal electric field caused by charged defects. The TSDC spectra show the depolarization peaks, which are attributed to defects of dipolar origin. These peaks provide important information on the defect structure and localized energy states in TlInS{sub 2}:La. Thermal treatments of TlInS{sub 2}:La under an external electric field, which was applied at different temperatures, allowed us to identify a peak in TSDC which was originated from La-dopant. It was established that deep energy level trap BTE43, which are active at low temperature (T ≤ 156 K) and have activation energy 0.29 eV and the capture cross section 2.2 × 10{sup −14} cm{sup 2}, corresponds to the La dopant. According to the PICTS results, the deep level trap center B5 is activated in the temperature region of incommensurate (IC) phases of TlInS{sub 2}:La, having the giant static dielectric constant due to the structural disorders. From the PICTS simulation results for B5, native deep level trap having an activation energy of 0.3 eV and the capture cross section of 1.8 × 10{sup −16} cm{sup 2} were established. A substantial amount of residual space charges is trapped by the deep level localized energy states of B5 in IC-phase. While the external electric field is applied, permanent dipoles

  2. Characterization of deep level defects and thermally stimulated depolarization phenomena in La-doped TlInS2 layered semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyidov, MirHasan Yu.; Suleymanov, Rauf A.; Mikailzade, Faik A.; Kargın, Elif Orhan; Odrinsky, Andrei P.

    2015-01-01

    Lanthanum-doped high quality TlInS 2 (TlInS 2 :La) ferroelectric-semiconductor was characterized by photo-induced current transient spectroscopy (PICTS). Different impurity centers are resolved and identified. Analyses of the experimental data were performed in order to determine the characteristic parameters of the extrinsic and intrinsic defects. The energies and capturing cross section of deep traps were obtained by using the heating rate method. The observed changes in the Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) near the phase transition points in TlInS 2 :La ferroelectric-semiconductor are interpreted as a result of self-polarization of the crystal due to the internal electric field caused by charged defects. The TSDC spectra show the depolarization peaks, which are attributed to defects of dipolar origin. These peaks provide important information on the defect structure and localized energy states in TlInS 2 :La. Thermal treatments of TlInS 2 :La under an external electric field, which was applied at different temperatures, allowed us to identify a peak in TSDC which was originated from La-dopant. It was established that deep energy level trap BTE43, which are active at low temperature (T ≤ 156 K) and have activation energy 0.29 eV and the capture cross section 2.2 × 10 −14 cm 2 , corresponds to the La dopant. According to the PICTS results, the deep level trap center B5 is activated in the temperature region of incommensurate (IC) phases of TlInS 2 :La, having the giant static dielectric constant due to the structural disorders. From the PICTS simulation results for B5, native deep level trap having an activation energy of 0.3 eV and the capture cross section of 1.8 × 10 −16 cm 2 were established. A substantial amount of residual space charges is trapped by the deep level localized energy states of B5 in IC-phase. While the external electric field is applied, permanent dipoles, which are originated from the charged B5

  3. A novel deformation mechanism for superplastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, H.; Sakai, M. (Toyohashi Univ. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science)

    1999-01-01

    Uniaxial compressive creep tests with strain value up to -0.1 for a [beta]-spodumene glass ceramic are conducted at 1060 C. From the observation of microstructural changes between before and after the creep deformations, it is shown that the grain-boundary sliding takes place via cooperative movement of groups of grains rather than individual grains under the large-scale-deformation. The deformation process and the surface technique used in this work are not only applicable to explain the deformation and flow of two-phase ceramics but also the superplastic deformation. (orig.) 12 refs.

  4. An investigation of thermal and deformation properties of quartzite at the temperature interval of polymorphic α - β transition by neutron diffraction and acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, A.N.; Vasin, R.N.; Balagurov, A.M.; Sobolev, G.A.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The results of complex application of neutron diffraction and acoustic emission for investigation of the physical properties of synthetic quartz and natural quartzite at the temperature interval of α-β transition are given. During the experiments the quartzite sample was exposed to heating and also to uniaxial compression. The changes of the lattice spacings of quartzite at the temperature interval of 540-620 C were measured and values of lattice stresses were estimated; estimated lattice stresses several times exceed the applied stresses. It is found that short strong splashes of acoustic emission (AE) occurred when the phase transition was completed; the intensity of those splashes exceeds by two orders the level of AE, caused by the thermal bursting of the sample under heating up to the transition temperature. The assumption is placed that anomalous behaviour of quartz-containing rocks being under relatively small stresses near the phase transition temperature could cause the appearance of the concentrators of local stresses. These stresses are commensurable to the strength of quartz, and initiate the microcracking of the material

  5. Deformation twinning: Influence of strain rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, G.T. III

    1993-11-01

    Twins in most crystal structures, including advanced materials such as intermetallics, form more readily as the temperature of deformation is decreased or the rate of deformation is increased. Both parameters lead to the suppression of thermally-activated dislocation processes which can result in stresses high enough to nucleate and grow deformation twins. Under high-strain rate or shock-loading/impact conditions deformation twinning is observed to be promoted even in high stacking fault energy FCC metals and alloys, composites, and ordered intermetallics which normally do not readily deform via twinning. Under such conditions and in particular under the extreme loading rates typical of shock wave deformation the competition between slip and deformation twinning can be examined in detail. In this paper, examples of deformation twinning in the intermetallics TiAl, Ti-48Al-lV and Ni{sub 3}A as well in the cermet Al-B{sub 4}C as a function of strain rate will be presented. Discussion includes: (1) the microstructural and experimental variables influencing twin formation in these systems and twinning topics related to high-strain-rate loading, (2) the high velocity of twin formation, and (3) the influence of deformation twinning on the constitutive response of advanced materials.

  6. Thermoelastoplastic Deformation of a Multilayer Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashkin, E. V.; Dats, E. P.

    2017-09-01

    The problem of centrally symmetric deformation of a multilayer elastoplastic ball in the process of successive accretion of preheated layers to its outer surface is considered in the framework of small elastoplastic deformations. The problems of residual stress formation in the elastoplastic ball with an inclusion and a cavity are solved under various mechanical boundary conditions on the inner surface and for prescribed thermal compression distributions. The graphs of residual stress and displacement fields are constructed.

  7. Inelastic deformations of fault and shear zones in granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, D.G.

    1986-02-01

    Deformations during heating and cooling of three drifts in granitic rock were influenced by the presence of faults and shear zones. Thermal deformations were significantly larger in sheared and faulted zones than where the rock was jointed, but neither sheared nor faulted. Furthermore, thermal deformations in faulted or sheared rock were not significantly recovered during subsequent cooling, thus a permanent deformation remained. This inelastic response is in contrast with elastic behavior identified in unfaulted and unsheared rock segments. A companion paper indicates that deformations in unsheared or unfaulted rock were effectively modeled as an elastic response. We conclude that permanent deformations occurred in fractures with crushed minerals and fracture filling or gouge materials. Potential mechanisms for this permanent deformation are asperity readjustments during thermal deformations, micro-shearing, asperity crushing and crushing of the secondary fracture filling minerals. Additionally, modulus differences in sheared or faulted rock as compared to more intact rock would result in greater deformations in response to the same thermal loads

  8. Numerical analysis for long-term stability of disposal facility considering thermal and hydraulic effect. Uncoupled analysis for long-term deformation of rock and buffer material and for transport of heat and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Masataka; Okada, Tetsumi; Hasegawa, Takuma

    2004-01-01

    For the early realization of HLW geological repository and for its rational and economical design and safety assessment, it is important to evaluate the stability of repository facilities in deep underground, where high temperature, earth pressure and underground water flow affect the stability. This report discusses the numerical approaches that are useful for attaining these objectives. One of the efficient approaches is to develop models capable of simulating coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) processes. Several T-H-M coupled simulation codes have been proposed and the international cooperative research project DECOVALEX has been held from 1991 in order to develop and validate the T-H-M coupled simulations. But mechanical models adopted in these simulation codes are too simple to be applied to the evaluation of long-term interaction of materials that show nonlinear mechanical behavior (especially in the case that surrounding rock is soft sedimentary rock). Before simulating the long-term and coupled phenomena, uncoupled simulations for four phenomena (creep behavior of surrounding rock mass, consolidation and deformation behavior of buffer material, transport of water, and transport of heat) are conducted using various parameters and boundary condition sets. From the results of those simulations, following conclusions are obtained: (1) swelling property of buffer material is important to evaluate mechanical behavior of barrier materials, (2) hydraulic properties of natural barrier can be more important than that of buffer material because suction effect of buffer material is so strong that transport of water in the buffer material is fast, (3) change of thermal properties and filling of gaps caused by water saturation of buffer material have a strong effect on the temperature field. On the next stage, we will develop a T-H-M coupled simulation code to evaluate the mechanical interaction between barrier materials based on the above study. (author)

  9. Thermally assisted deformation of structural superplastics and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    constant.) (xii) It has been suggested that the self and the solute diffusivities are enhanced and the .... In this paper, only a summary of the important experimental results that a viable theory of structural ..... Experimental verification. Mater. Sci.

  10. Thermal Deformation Analysis of the Annular Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju Seong; Kim, Yong Soo; Yang, Yong Sik; Bang, Je Geon

    2009-01-01

    Recently Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute suggested 12 by 12 annular fuel assembly, claiming that this new design can be applied to PWR reactor of OPR-1000 that are using 16 by 16 assembly, Compared to current fuel system, heat transfer area is enlarged, and thus heat flux is diminished. This design demonstrates that CHF(critical heat flux) restricting the operation power condition. This advanced fuel is believed to many advantages such as lowered fuel temperature, reduced fission gas release, and so forth. Nevertheless, annular geometry has some difficulties in predicting fuel performance behavior. This new design, heat transfer takes place in two directions through inner and outer gap. This heat split ultimately determines the inner and outer gap conductances that are key variables governing the fuel performance

  11. Double NIR laser stimulation and enhancing the thermal sensitivity of Er3+/Tm3+/Nd3+ doped multilayer core-shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Zhaojing; Hu, Min; Zhao, Yiming; Wang, Yiqing; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Zhenxi

    2018-06-04

    Non-contact thermal sensors are important devices to study cellular processes and monitor temperature in vivo. Herein, a novel highly sensitive nanothermometer based on NaYF4:Yb,Er@ NaYF4@NaYF4:Yb,Tm@ NaYF4:Nd (denoted as Er@Y@Tm@Nd) was prepared by a facile solvothermal method. When excited by the NIR light of 808 and 980 nm, the as-prepared Er@Y@Tm@Nd nanoparticles could emit both blue and green light respectively, since the lanthanide cations responsible for these emissions are gathered inside this nanostructure. The green and blue light intensity ratio exhibits obvious temperature dependence in the range of the physiological temperature. Additionally, the fluorescence intensity of Er3+ and Tm3+ are also greatly enhanced due to the multilayer structure that implies avoiding the Er3+ and Tm3+ energy cross-relaxation by introduction of a NaYF4 wall between them. The as-prepared core-shell-shell-shell structure with Er3+ and Tm3+ in different layers improves dozens of times of the thermal sensitivity based on the non-thermal coupling levels of the probe: the maximum values for the sensitivity are 2.95% K-1 (IEr-521/ITm-450) and 6.30% K-1 (ITm-474/IEr-541) when excited by 980 and 808 nm laser sources respectively. These values are well above those previously reported (< 0.7% K-1), indicating that the prepared nanostructures are temperature sensors with excellent thermal sensitivity and sensitive to NIR wavelength excitation that makes them highly preferred for thermal detection. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  12. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-01-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  13. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  14. Structure of deformed metals. Struktura deformirovannykh metallov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernshtein, M L

    1977-01-01

    A teaching aid for students at metallurgical and machine-building institutions of higher learning. It can also be used by engineering-technical personnel and scientists. A presentation is made of physical concepts on the mechanism of plastic deformation and its effect on fine structure, structure and properties of metals and alloys. An examination is made of the processes of recovery, polygonization and recrystallization during the heating of cold-deformed metals. The influence of thermal deformation is described to account for the interaction between admixture atoms and dislocations, phase and structural transformations. An examination is made of the phenomenon of superplasticity. Special attention is given to the process of hot deformation. An analysis is made of phenomena at the basis of hardening steel as a result of thermo-mechanical processing, including controlled rolling.

  15. Biomedical Applications of Thermally Activated Shape Memory Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small IV, W; Singhal, P; Wilson, T S; Maitland, D J

    2009-04-10

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are smart materials that can remember a primary shape and can return to this primary shape from a deformed secondary shape when given an appropriate stimulus. This property allows them to be delivered in a compact form via minimally invasive surgeries in humans, and deployed to achieve complex final shapes. Here we review the various biomedical applications of SMPs and the challenges they face with respect to actuation and biocompatibility. While shape memory behavior has been demonstrated with heat, light and chemical environment, here we focus our discussion on thermally stimulated SMPs.

  16. Investigation of surface deformations by double exposure holographic interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecevit, F.N.; Guven, H.; Aydin, R.

    1990-01-01

    Surface deformations of rigid bodies produced by thermal as well as mechanical strains have been investigated using double-exposure holographic interferometry. The recorded interference fringes have been discussed qualitatively. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs

  17. Deformation mechanisms of nanotwinned Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinghang [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The objective of this project is to investigate the role of different types of layer interfaces on the formation of high density stacking fault (SF) in Al in Al/fcc multilayers, and understand the corresponding deformation mechanisms of the films. Stacking faults or twins can be intentionally introduced (via growth) into certain fcc metals with low stacking fault energy (such as Cu, Ag and 330 stainless steels) to achieve high strength, high ductility, superior thermal stability and good electrical conductivity. However it is still a major challenge to synthesize these types of defects into metals with high stacking fault energy, such as Al. Although deformation twins have been observed in some nanocrystalline Al powders by low temperature, high strain rate cryomilling or in Al at the edge of crack tip or indentation (with the assistance of high stress intensity factor), these deformation techniques typically introduce twins sporadically and the control of deformation twin density in Al is still not feasible. This project is designed to test the following hypotheses: (1) Certain type of layer interfaces may assist the formation of SF in Al, (2) Al with high density SF may have deformation mechanisms drastically different from those of coarse-grained Al and nanotwinned Cu. To test these hypotheses, we have performed the following tasks: (i) Investigate the influence of layer interfaces, stresses and deposition parameters on the formation and density of SF in Al. (ii) Understand the role of SF on the deformation behavior of Al. In situ nanoindentation experiments will be performed to probe deformation mechanisms in Al. The major findings related to the formation mechanism of twins and mechanical behavior of nanotwinned metals include the followings: 1) Our studies show that nanotwins can be introduced into metals with high stacking fault energy, in drastic contrast to the general anticipation. 2) We show two strategies that can effectively introduce growth twins in

  18. Deformation mechanisms of nanotwinned Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinghang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the role of different types of layer interfaces on the formation of high density stacking fault (SF) in Al in Al/fcc multilayers, and understand the corresponding deformation mechanisms of the films. Stacking faults or twins can be intentionally introduced (via growth) into certain fcc metals with low stacking fault energy (such as Cu, Ag and 330 stainless steels) to achieve high strength, high ductility, superior thermal stability and good electrical conductivity. However it is still a major challenge to synthesize these types of defects into metals with high stacking fault energy, such as Al. Although deformation twins have been observed in some nanocrystalline Al powders by low temperature, high strain rate cryomilling or in Al at the edge of crack tip or indentation (with the assistance of high stress intensity factor), these deformation techniques typically introduce twins sporadically and the control of deformation twin density in Al is still not feasible. This project is designed to test the following hypotheses: (1) Certain type of layer interfaces may assist the formation of SF in Al, (2) Al with high density SF may have deformation mechanisms drastically different from those of coarse-grained Al and nanotwinned Cu. To test these hypotheses, we have performed the following tasks: (i) Investigate the influence of layer interfaces, stresses and deposition parameters on the formation and density of SF in Al. (ii) Understand the role of SF on the deformation behavior of Al. In situ nanoindentation experiments will be performed to probe deformation mechanisms in Al. The major findings related to the formation mechanism of twins and mechanical behavior of nanotwinned metals include the followings: 1) Our studies show that nanotwins can be introduced into metals with high stacking fault energy, in drastic contrast to the general anticipation. 2) We show two strategies that can effectively introduce growth twins in

  19. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    Each of the following types of well stimulation techniques are summarized and explained: hydraulic fracturing; thermal; mechanical, jetting, and drainhole drilling; explosive and implosive; and injection methods. Current stimulation techniques, stimulation techniques for geothermal wells, areas of needed investigation, and engineering calculations for various techniques. (MHR)

  20. How deformation enhances mobility in a polymer glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacks, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Recent experiments show that deformation of a polymer glass can lead to orders-of-magnitude enhancement in the atomic level dynamics. To determine why this change in dynamics occurs, we carry out molecular dynamics simulations and energy landscape analyses. The simulations address the coarse-grained polystyrene model of Kremer and co-workers, and the dynamics, as quantified by the van Hove function, are examined as the glass undergoes shear deformation. In agreement with experiment, the simulations find that deformation enhances the atomic mobility. The enhanced mobility is shown to arise from two mechanisms: First, active deformation continually reduces barriers for hopping events, and the importance of this mechanism is modulated by the rate of thermally activated transitions between adjacent energy minima. Second, deformation moves the system to higher-energy regions of the energy landscape, characterized by lower barriers. Both mechanisms enhance the dynamics during deformation, and the second mechanism is also relevant after deformation has ceased.

  1. Step-wise stimulated martensitic transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airoldi, G.; Riva, G.

    1991-01-01

    NiTi alloys, widely known both for their shape memory properties and for unusual pseudoelastic behaviour, are now on the forefront attention for step-wise induced memory processes, thermal or stress stimulated. Literature results related to step-wise stimulated martensite (direct transformation) are examined and contrasted with step-wise thermal stimulated parent phase (reverse transformation). Hypothesis are given to explain the key characters of both transformations, a thermodynamic model from first principles being till now lacking

  2. Low temperature deformation mechanisms in LiF single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotedar, H.L.; Stroebe, T.G.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of the deformation behavior of high purity LiF single crystals is given using yielding and work hardening data and thermally activated deformation parameters obtained in the temperature range 77-423 0 K. It is found that while the Fleischer mechanism is apparently valid experimentally over the thermally activated temperature range, vacancies produced in large numbers at 77 0 K could also play a role in determining the critical resolved shear stress at that temperature

  3. Simulated evolution of fractures and fracture networks subject to thermal cooling: A coupled discrete element and heat conduction model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hai; Plummer, Mitchell; Podgorney, Robert

    2013-02-01

    Advancement of EGS requires improved prediction of fracture development and growth during reservoir stimulation and long-term operation. This, in turn, requires better understanding of the dynamics of the strongly coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes within fractured rocks. We have developed a physically based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by using a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) to model mechanical rock deformation and fracture propagation induced by thermal stress and fluid pressure changes. We also developed a network model to simulate fluid flow and heat transport in both fractures and porous rock. In this paper, we describe results of simulations in which the DEM model and network flow & heat transport model are coupled together to provide realistic simulation of the changes of apertures and permeability of fractures and fracture networks induced by thermal cooling and fluid pressure changes within fractures. Various processes, such as Stokes flow in low velocity pores, convection-dominated heat transport in fractures, heat exchange between fluid-filled fractures and solid rock, heat conduction through low-permeability matrices and associated mechanical deformations are all incorporated into the coupled model. The effects of confining stresses, developing thermal stress and injection pressure on the permeability evolution of fracture and fracture networks are systematically investigated. Results are summarized in terms of implications for the development and evolution of fracture distribution during hydrofracturing and thermal stimulation for EGS.

  4. Deformations of superconformal theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Córdova, Clay [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Dumitrescu, Thomas T. [Department of Physics, Harvard University,17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Intriligator, Kenneth [Department of Physics, University of California,9500 Gilman Drive, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2016-11-22

    We classify possible supersymmetry-preserving relevant, marginal, and irrelevant deformations of unitary superconformal theories in d≥3 dimensions. Our method only relies on symmetries and unitarity. Hence, the results are model independent and do not require a Lagrangian description. Two unifying themes emerge: first, many theories admit deformations that reside in multiplets together with conserved currents. Such deformations can lead to modifications of the supersymmetry algebra by central and non-central charges. Second, many theories with a sufficient amount of supersymmetry do not admit relevant or marginal deformations, and some admit neither. The classification is complicated by the fact that short superconformal multiplets display a rich variety of sporadic phenomena, including supersymmetric deformations that reside in the middle of a multiplet. We illustrate our results with examples in diverse dimensions. In particular, we explain how the classification of irrelevant supersymmetric deformations can be used to derive known and new constraints on moduli-space effective actions.

  5. Non-uniform temperature gradients and thermal stresses produced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thermally-induced stress distributions in a hollow steel sphere heated by a moving uniform ... models to evaluate temperatures according to the frictional heat generation, ... of these thermal effects include thermal stress, strain and deformation.

  6. Quantum deformed magnon kinematics

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, César; Hernández Redondo, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The dispersion relation for planar N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills is identified with the Casimir of a quantum deformed two-dimensional kinematical symmetry, E_q(1,1). The quantum deformed symmetry algebra is generated by the momentum, energy and boost, with deformation parameter q=e^{2\\pi i/\\lambda}. Representing the boost as the infinitesimal generator for translations on the rapidity space leads to an elliptic uniformization with crossing transformations implemented through translations by t...

  7. Mechanics of deformable bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerfeld, Arnold Johannes Wilhelm

    1950-01-01

    Mechanics of Deformable Bodies: Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Volume II covers topics on the mechanics of deformable bodies. The book discusses the kinematics, statics, and dynamics of deformable bodies; the vortex theory; as well as the theory of waves. The text also describes the flow with given boundaries. Supplementary notes on selected hydrodynamic problems and supplements to the theory of elasticity are provided. Physicists, mathematicians, and students taking related courses will find the book useful.

  8. Energy levels in YPO{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+},Sm{sup 3+} studied by thermally and optically stimulated luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bos, Adrie J.J., E-mail: a.j.j.bos@tudelft.n [Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, NL 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Poolton, Nigel R.J. [Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, NL 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Institute of Maths and Physics, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Wallinga, Jakob [Netherlands Centre for Luminescence Dating, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, NL 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Bessiere, Aurelie [Ecole Nat. Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11 Rue P et M Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Dorenbos, Pieter [Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, NL 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-03-15

    Energy-resolved optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) spectra and thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of a powder sample of YPO{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+},Sm{sup 3+} were measured to investigate the nature of the trapping centre and to locate its energy level relative to the valence and conduction bands of the YPO{sub 4} host. The high-temperature glow peak could unequivocally be assigned to Sm{sup 2+} (thus Sm{sup 3+} acts as an electron trap). The trap depth of this centre, as derived from the OSL excitation spectra, is in good agreement with the Dorenbos model prediction. The OSL excitation spectra also reveal excited states of Sm{sup 2+} well below the conduction band. These excited states produce a broadening of the high-temperature TL glow peak and also cause the activation energy determined by the Hoogenstraten method to underestimate the trap depth.

  9. growth stimulant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of timing and duration of supplementation of LIVFIT VET ® (growth stimulant) as substitute for fish meal on the growth performance, haematology and clinical enzymes concentration of growing pigs.

  10. Investigations on fuel can plastic deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutard, J.L.; Dupouy, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    To the extent where the elongation of claddings differs from the mean swelling, the diametral plastic deformation can include, apart from that due to fission gases or the mechanical oxide-cladding interaction, contributions due to swelling prevented along the axis or to growth phenomena. The high thermal activation of the creep of hyper quenched steel unlike cold rolled steel, gives rise to the problem of a contribution to creep in the reactor other than the term SIPA. The impact of mechanisms of diffusion deformation on the boundary decohesion criteria is discussed in conclusion [fr

  11. Intracrystalline deformation of calcite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bresser, J.H.P. de

    1991-01-01

    It is well established from observations on natural calcite tectonites that intracrystalline plastic mechanisms are important during the deformation of calcite rocks in nature. In this thesis, new data are presented on fundamental aspects of deformation behaviour of calcite under conditions where

  12. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar

    2003-01-01

    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...

  13. Thermally-driven Coupled THM Processes in Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutqvist, J.

    2017-12-01

    Temperature changes can trigger strongly coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes in shales that are important to a number of subsurface energy applications, including geologic nuclear waste disposal and hydrocarbon extraction. These coupled processes include (1) direct pore-volume couplings, by thermal expansion of trapped pore-fluid that triggers instantaneous two-way couplings between pore fluid pressure and mechanical deformation, and (2) indirect couplings in terms of property changes, such as changes in mechanical stiffness, strength, and permeability. Direct pore-volume couplings have been studied in situ during borehole heating experiments in shale (or clay stone) formations at Mont Terri and Bure underground research laboratories in Switzerland and France. Typically, the temperature changes are accompanied with a rapid increase in pore pressure followed by a slower decrease towards initial (pre-heating) pore pressure. Coupled THM modeling of these heater tests shows that the pore pressure increases because the thermal expansion coefficient of the fluid is much higher than that of the porous clay stone. Such thermal pressurization induces fluid flow away from the pressurized area towards areas of lower pressure. The rate of pressure increase and magnitude of peak pressure depends on the rate of heating, pore-compressibility, and permeability of the shale. Modeling as well as laboratory experiments have shown that if the pore pressure increase is sufficiently large it could lead to fracturing of the shale or shear slip along pre-existing bedding planes. Another set of data and observations have been collected associated with studies related to concentrated heating and cooling of oil-shales and shale-gas formations. Heating may be used to enhance production from tight oil-shale, whereas thermal stimulation has been attempted for enhanced shale-gas extraction. Laboratory experiments on shale have shown that strength and elastic deformation

  14. Finite element analysis of large elasto-plastic deformation for sealing ring in nuclear pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Xuejian; Chen Ruxin

    1995-02-01

    Based on the R. Hills incremental virtual power principle and the elasto-plastic constitution equation for large deformation and by considering physical nonlinear, geometric nonlinear and thermal effects, a plane and axisymmetric finite element equation for thermal large elasto-plastic deformation has been established in the Euler description. The corresponding analysis program ATLEPD has been also complied for thermal large elasto-plastic deformation process of O-ring in RPV. The variations of stress, strain, contact specific pressure, mesh deformation and the aspects of spring back in upsetting and spring back process have been also investigated. Numerical results are fairly consistent with experimental ones. (5 figs., 4 tabs.)

  15. Anisotropic plastic deformation by viscous flow in ion tracks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dillen, T; Polman, A; Onck, PR; van der Giessen, E

    2005-01-01

    A model describing the origin of ion beam-induced anisotropic plastic deformation is derived and discussed. It is based on a viscoelastic thermal spike model for viscous flow in single ion tracks derived by Trinkaus and Ryazanov. Deviatoric (shear) stresses, brought about by the rapid thermal

  16. 2017 GTO Project review Laboratory Evaluation of EGS Shear Stimulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The objectives and purpose of this research has been to produce laboratory-based experimental and numerical analyses to provide a physics-based understanding of shear stimulation phenomena (hydroshearing) and its evolution during stimulation. Water was flowed along fractures in hot and stressed fractured rock, to promote slip. The controlled laboratory experiments provide a high resolution/high quality data resource for evaluation of analysis methods developed by DOE to assess EGS “behavior” during this stimulation process. Segments of the experimental program will provide data sets for model input parameters, i.e., material properties, and other segments of the experimental program will represent small scale physical models of an EGS system, which may be modeled. The coupled lab/analysis project has been a study of the response of a fracture in hot, water-saturated fractured rock to shear stress experiencing fluid flow. Under this condition, the fracture experiences a combination of potential pore pressure changes and fracture surface cooling, resulting in slip along the fracture. The laboratory work provides a means to assess the role of “hydroshearing” on permeability enhancement in reservoir stimulation. Using the laboratory experiments and results to define boundary and input/output conditions of pore pressure, thermal stress, fracture shear deformation and fluid flow, and models were developed and simulations completed by the University of Oklahoma team. The analysis methods are ones used on field scale problems. The sophisticated numerical models developed contain parameters present in the field. The analysis results provide insight into the role of fracture slip on permeability enhancement-“hydroshear” is to be obtained. The work will provide valuable input data to evaluate stimulation models, thus helping design effective EGS.

  17. Studies in dosimetry using stimulated exoelectron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petel, Maurice.

    1976-06-01

    Some applications of the stimulated exoelectron emission in radiation dosimetry are discussed. The principles which govern the phenomenon are presented. The apparatus, in particular the counter, used to monitor the emission is discussed with reference to both optical and thermal stimulation. The correlation existing between thermoluminescence and thermally stimulated exoelectron emission were studied in both lithium fluoride and aluminium oxide. Furthermore, aluminium oxides from different sources were examined, and one of these, chosen to investigate the dosimetric properties of this material using both methods of stimulation [fr

  18. Is nucleon deformed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Afsar

    1992-01-01

    The surprising answer to this question Is nucleon deformed? is : Yes. The evidence comes from a study of the quark model of the single nucleon and when it is found in a nucleus. It turns out that many of the long standing problems of the Naive Quark Model are taken care of if the nucleon is assumed to be deformed. Only one value of the parameter P D ∼1/4 (which specifies deformation) fits g A (the axial vector coupling constant) for all the semileptonic decay of baryons, the F/D ratio, the pion-nucleon-delta coupling constant fsub(πNΔ), the double delta coupling constant 1 fsub(πΔΔ), the Ml transition moment μΔN and g 1 p the spin structure function of proton 2 . All this gives strong hint that both neutron and proton are deformed. It is important to look for further signatures of this deformation. When this deformed nucleon finds itself in a nuclear medium its deformation decreases. So much that in a heavy nucleus the nucleons are actually spherical. We look into the Gamow-Teller strengths, magnetic moments and magnetic transition strengths in nuclei to study this property. (author). 15 refs

  19. Ground Deformation Detection Using China’s ZY-3 Stereo Imagery in an Opencast Mining Area

    OpenAIRE

    Wenmin Hu; Lixin Wu; Wei Zhang; Bin Liu; Jiaxing Xu

    2017-01-01

    Detection and extraction of mining-induced ground deformation can be used to understand the deformation process and space distribution and to estimate the deformation laws and trends. This study focuses on the application of ground deformation detection and extraction combined with digital surface model (DSM), derived from China’s ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3) satellite stereo imagery and the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer global digital elevation model (ASTER GDEM) data. A ...

  20. A study of the deformability of composite rods with end fittings for truss structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanychev, E I; Novikov, V V; Sukhanov, A V; Lapotkin, V A; Postnov, A N [Moskovskii Aviatsionnyi Tekhnologicheskii Institut, Moscow (USSR)

    1989-04-01

    A method is proposed for studying the deformability characteristics of composite rods with end fittings under static loading. Three types of connectors for tubular composite rods are examined from the standpoint of deformability, and differences in the deformability of the central part of a rod and of the connection zone are discussed. The effect of thermal cycling on the deformability of structures of this type is analyzed. 7 refs.

  1. Towards a physiology-based measure of pain: patterns of human brain activity distinguish painful from non-painful thermal stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin E Brown

    Full Text Available Pain often exists in the absence of observable injury; therefore, the gold standard for pain assessment has long been self-report. Because the inability to verbally communicate can prevent effective pain management, research efforts have focused on the development of a tool that accurately assesses pain without depending on self-report. Those previous efforts have not proven successful at substituting self-report with a clinically valid, physiology-based measure of pain. Recent neuroimaging data suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and support vector machine (SVM learning can be jointly used to accurately assess cognitive states. Therefore, we hypothesized that an SVM trained on fMRI data can assess pain in the absence of self-report. In fMRI experiments, 24 individuals were presented painful and nonpainful thermal stimuli. Using eight individuals, we trained a linear SVM to distinguish these stimuli using whole-brain patterns of activity. We assessed the performance of this trained SVM model by testing it on 16 individuals whose data were not used for training. The whole-brain SVM was 81% accurate at distinguishing painful from non-painful stimuli (p<0.0000001. Using distance from the SVM hyperplane as a confidence measure, accuracy was further increased to 84%, albeit at the expense of excluding 15% of the stimuli that were the most difficult to classify. Overall performance of the SVM was primarily affected by activity in pain-processing regions of the brain including the primary somatosensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, insular cortex, primary motor cortex, and cingulate cortex. Region of interest (ROI analyses revealed that whole-brain patterns of activity led to more accurate classification than localized activity from individual brain regions. Our findings demonstrate that fMRI with SVM learning can assess pain without requiring any communication from the person being tested. We outline tasks that should be

  2. Cold deformation of ADI castings: Martensitic transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navea, Lilian R; Mannheim, Rodolfo M; Garin, Jorge L

    2004-01-01

    Research and applications in austempered ductile iron (ADI castings) have recently undergone noticeable progress in the industrialized world, becoming a highly competitive engineering material. The notable properties of these castings derive from their austenitic matrix stabilized by carbon, a thermally stable austenite during the austenizing process but possibly turning into martensite when undergoing plastic deformation. This work aims to study the changing structure of an ADI casting caused by one directional cold lamination. The samples that were studied were obtained from two nodular castings, one without alloying and the other alloyed with Cu, Ni and Mo. The samples were austenized in the first stage of the austempering process at 910 o C for 80 min. Then in the second stage the unalloyed samples were austempered at 410 o C for 10 min and the alloyed samples for 120 min. After the thermal treatment, the test pieces were deformed 0% to 25% by cold lamination. The quantification of the phases was performed using x-ray diffraction and the metallographic study using optic and Scanning Electronic Microscopy. The results show that the martensitic phase obtained by deformation is a very fine structure that evolves into a thicker one when the deformation of the samples increases (CW)

  3. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  4. Diffeomorphic Statistical Deformation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Hansen, Mads/Fogtman; Larsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method for constructing diffeomorphic statistical deformation models in arbitrary dimensional images with a nonlinear generative model and a linear parameter space. Our deformation model is a modified version of the diffeomorphic model introduced by Cootes et al....... The modifications ensure that no boundary restriction has to be enforced on the parameter space to prevent folds or tears in the deformation field. For straightforward statistical analysis, principal component analysis and sparse methods, we assume that the parameters for a class of deformations lie on a linear...... with ground truth in form of manual expert annotations, and compared to Cootes's model. We anticipate applications in unconstrained diffeomorphic synthesis of images, e.g. for tracking, segmentation, registration or classification purposes....

  5. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar

    2003-01-01

    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...... a single central section of the object. We use maximum-likelihood-based inference for this purpose and demonstrate the suggested methods on real data....

  6. Mechanism for microstructural evolution induced by high temperature deformation in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Sirui; Wang, Chunju; Ma, Mingzhen; Shan, Debin; Guo, Bin

    2016-01-01

    In the Zr_4_1_._2Ti_1_3_._8Cu_1_2_._5Ni_1_0Be_2_2_._5 (Vit1) alloy undergoing high temperature deformation, its thermal properties and microstructure are quite different from those in the annealing alloy. In order to research the coupled effect of temperature and plastic strain on microstructural evolution of Zr-based amorphous, uniaxial compression test of Vit1 alloy with good amorphous nature has been performed, and then the structural state and thermal properties of Vit1 alloy after thermal deformation and isothermal annealing in the supercooled liquid region were investigated. It is revealed that the deformed specimens possess higher characteristic temperature and lower enthalpy change of microstructural relaxation. In addition, the smaller inter-atomic distance and higher order degree of atomic arrangement can be observed in those deformed Vit1 alloy. That can be deduced that thermal deformation is in favor of the microstructural evolution from a metastable amorphous state to stable crystallization state, because plastic strain promotes the annihilation of free volume and provide excess driving force of atomic diffusion. However, upon increasing the ambient temperature, the influence of plastic deformation on microstructure gradually decreased owing to the decreasing proportion of the plastic deformation-induced annihilation of free volume during the whole thermal deformation process. - Highlights: • The deformed specimens possess closer microstructure and higher characteristic temperatures. • The order degree of microstructures in deformed specimens is higher than that in annealed specimens. • Thermal deformation accelerates the microstructural evolution of Zr-based BMGs. • The influence of thermal deformation on microstructure decreases with the temperature increasing.

  7. Mechanism for microstructural evolution induced by high temperature deformation in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Sirui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Chunju [Key Laboratory of Micro-Systems and Micro-Structures Manufacturing, Ministry of Education, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Ma, Mingzhen [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Shan, Debin, E-mail: shandebin@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Micro-Systems and Micro-Structures Manufacturing, Ministry of Education, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Guo, Bin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-08-15

    In the Zr{sub 41.2}Ti{sub 13.8}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 22.5} (Vit1) alloy undergoing high temperature deformation, its thermal properties and microstructure are quite different from those in the annealing alloy. In order to research the coupled effect of temperature and plastic strain on microstructural evolution of Zr-based amorphous, uniaxial compression test of Vit1 alloy with good amorphous nature has been performed, and then the structural state and thermal properties of Vit1 alloy after thermal deformation and isothermal annealing in the supercooled liquid region were investigated. It is revealed that the deformed specimens possess higher characteristic temperature and lower enthalpy change of microstructural relaxation. In addition, the smaller inter-atomic distance and higher order degree of atomic arrangement can be observed in those deformed Vit1 alloy. That can be deduced that thermal deformation is in favor of the microstructural evolution from a metastable amorphous state to stable crystallization state, because plastic strain promotes the annihilation of free volume and provide excess driving force of atomic diffusion. However, upon increasing the ambient temperature, the influence of plastic deformation on microstructure gradually decreased owing to the decreasing proportion of the plastic deformation-induced annihilation of free volume during the whole thermal deformation process. - Highlights: • The deformed specimens possess closer microstructure and higher characteristic temperatures. • The order degree of microstructures in deformed specimens is higher than that in annealed specimens. • Thermal deformation accelerates the microstructural evolution of Zr-based BMGs. • The influence of thermal deformation on microstructure decreases with the temperature increasing.

  8. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  9. Thermo-optical properties of optically stimulated luminescence in feldspars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poolton, N.R.J.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Johnsen, O.

    1995-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence processes in feldspars are subject to competing thermal enhancement and quenching processes: this article describes the thermal enhancement effects for orthoclase, albite and plagioclase feldspars. It is demonstrated that certain lattice vibrational modes can be ...

  10. Comparative study of low-temperature photoluminescence and thermally stimulated current in quinary Tl{sub 4}Ga{sub 3}InSe{sub 6}S{sub 2} layered crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasanly, N.M., E-mail: nizami@metu.edu.tr [Physics Department, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Virtual International Scientific Research Centre, Baku State University, 1148 Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2016-04-15

    Photoluminescence (PL) and thermally stimulated current (TSC) spectra of Tl{sub 4}Ga{sub 3}InSe{sub 6}S{sub 2} layered crystals grown by Bridgman method have been studied in the wavelength region of 560–690 nm and the temperature range of 15–45 K (PL) and in the temperature region of 10–90 K (TSC). A broad PL band centered at 620 nm (2.00 eV) was observed at T=15 K. Variations of emission band has been studied as a function of excitation laser intensity in the 0.7–36.5 mW cm{sup −2} range. Radiative transitions from donor level located at 150 meV below the bottom of conduction band to shallow acceptor level located at 10 meV above the top of the valence band were suggested to be responsible for the observed PL band. TSC curve of Tl{sub 4}Ga{sub 3}InSe{sub 6}S{sub 2} crystal exhibited one broad peak at about 41 K. The activation energy of trap level was found to be 11 meV. An energy level diagram showing transitions in the band gap of the crystal was plotted taking into account the results of PL and TSC measurements carried out below room temperature.

  11. Kinetics of infrared stimulated luminescence from feldspars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Sohbati, Reza; Guralnik, Benny

    2015-01-01

    thermal and optical, of the infrared stimulated luminescence signal from feldspar. Based on the application of this model, it is concluded that different infra-red stimulated luminescence emissions (UV, blue, yellow and far-red) follow the same kinetics, and, therefore, involve participation of the same...

  12. All Madelung deformities are not endocrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Rai, Gopal K; Akhtar, Javed; Phillip, Rajeev; Gutch, Manish; Arya, T V S

    2013-10-01

    Madelung deformity is a rare inherited disorder associated with endocrine disorders like Turner's syndrome, pseudohypoparathyroidism, but can be seen with short stature homeobox deficiency conditions such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and Langers mesomelic dysplasia. It has also been reported following trauma to the distal radius epiphysis neoplasia mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) and achondroplasia. Madelung deformity is an abnormality of distal radial epiphysis where in progressive ulnar and volar tilt of the articular surface occurring in association with distal subluxation of ulna. A 13-year-old girl was referred to us for evaluation of bilateral deformity of wrist and short stature. There was ulnar deviation and dorsal tilt of bilateral hands without history of pain to the joint trauma and family history of similar illness. On X-ray, wrist showed malformed distal radial epiphysis with dorsal and ulnar shift and with increased length of phalanges suggestive of Madelung deformity. X-ray spine was normal. Ultrasound abdomen showed normal uterus and ovary and her follicle stimulating hormone. Luteinizing hormone was normal and so was urine MPS screening. Based on the above points the diagnosis of LWD was made.

  13. All Madelung deformities are not endocrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Madelung deformity is a rare inherited disorder associated with endocrine disorders like Turner′s syndrome, pseudohypoparathyroidism, but can be seen with short stature homeobox deficiency conditions such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD and Langers mesomelic dysplasia. It has also been reported following trauma to the distal radius epiphysis neoplasia mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS and achondroplasia. Madelung deformity is an abnormality of distal radial epiphysis where in progressive ulnar and volar tilt of the articular surface occurring in association with distal subluxation of ulna. A 13-year-old girl was referred to us for evaluation of bilateral deformity of wrist and short stature. There was ulnar deviation and dorsal tilt of bilateral hands without history of pain to the joint trauma and family history of similar illness. On X-ray, wrist showed malformed distal radial epiphysis with dorsal and ulnar shift and with increased length of phalanges suggestive of Madelung deformity. X-ray spine was normal. Ultrasound abdomen showed normal uterus and ovary and her follicle stimulating hormone. Luteinizing hormone was normal and so was urine MPS screening. Based on the above points the diagnosis of LWD was made.

  14. Inverted temperature sequences: role of deformation partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujic, D.; Ashley, K. T.; Coble, M. A.; Coutand, I.; Kellett, D.; Whynot, N.

    2015-12-01

    The inverted metamorphism associated with the Main Central thrust zone in the Himalaya has been historically attributed to a number of tectonic processes. Here we show that there is actually a composite peak and deformation temperature sequence that formed in succession via different tectonic processes. The deformation partitioning seems to the have played a key role, and the magnitude of each process has varied along strike of the orogen. To explain the formation of the inverted metamorphic sequence across the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) in eastern Bhutan, we used Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material (RSCM) to determine the peak metamorphic temperatures and Ti-in-quartz thermobarometry to determine the deformation temperatures combined with thermochronology including published apatite and zircon U-Th/He and fission-track data and new 40Ar/39Ar dating of muscovite. The dataset was inverted using 3D-thermal-kinematic modeling to constrain the ranges of geological parameters such as fault geometry and slip rates, location and rates of localized basal accretion, and thermal properties of the crust. RSCM results indicate that there are two peak temperature sequences separated by a major thrust within the LHS. The internal temperature sequence shows an inverted peak temperature gradient of 12 °C/km; in the external (southern) sequence, the peak temperatures are constant across the structural sequence. Thermo-kinematic modeling suggest that the thermochronologic and thermobarometric data are compatible with a two-stage scenario: an Early-Middle Miocene phase of fast overthrusting of a hot hanging wall over a downgoing footwall and inversion of the synkinematic isotherms, followed by the formation of the external duplex developed by dominant underthrusting and basal accretion. To reconcile our observations with the experimental data, we suggest that pervasive ductile deformation within the upper LHS and along the Main Central thrust zone at its top stopped at

  15. Autogenous Deformation of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autogenous deformation of concrete can be defined as the free deformation of sealed concrete at a constant temperature. A number of observed problems with early age cracking of high-performance concretes can be attributed to this phenomenon. During the last 10 years , this has led to an increased...... focus on autogenous deformation both within concrete practice and concrete research. Since 1996 the interest has been significant enough to hold international, yearly conferences entirely devoted to this subject. The papers in this publication were presented at two consecutive half-day sessions...... at the American Concrete Institute’s Fall Convention in Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2002. All papers have been reviewed according to ACI rules. This publication, as well as the sessions, was sponsored by ACI committee 236, Material Science of Concrete. The 12 presentations from 8 different countries indicate...

  16. Interfacial Bubble Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Brian; Shabane, Parvis; Cypull, Olivia; Cheng, Shengfeng; Feitosa, Klebert

    Soap bubbles floating at an air-water experience deformations as a result of surface tension and hydrostatic forces. In this experiment, we investigate the nature of such deformations by taking cross-sectional images of bubbles of different volumes. The results show that as their volume increases, bubbles transition from spherical to hemispherical shape. The deformation of the interface also changes with bubble volume with the capillary rise converging to the capillary length as volume increases. The profile of the top and bottom of the bubble and the capillary rise are completely determined by the volume and pressure differences. James Madison University Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4VA Consortium, Research Corporation for Advancement of Science.

  17. Review of prediction for thermal contact resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical prediction research on thermal contact resistance is reviewed in this paper. In general, modeling or simulating the thermal contact resistance involves several aspects, including the descriptions of surface topography, the analysis of micro mechanical deformation, and the thermal models. Some key problems are proposed for accurately predicting the thermal resistance of two solid contact surfaces. We provide a perspective on further promising research, which would be beneficial to understanding mechanisms and engineering applications of the thermal contact resistance in heat transport phenomena.

  18. Joining by plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Ken-ichiro; Bay, Niels; Fratini, Livan

    2013-01-01

    As the scale and complexity of products such as aircraft and cars increase, demand for new functional processes to join mechanical parts grows. The use of plastic deformation for joining parts potentially offers improved accuracy, reliability and environmental safety as well as creating opportuni......As the scale and complexity of products such as aircraft and cars increase, demand for new functional processes to join mechanical parts grows. The use of plastic deformation for joining parts potentially offers improved accuracy, reliability and environmental safety as well as creating...

  19. Thermally stimulated luminescence of KDP activated crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagaeva, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is the study of recombination luminescence pure and doped by the ions Tl, Se, Pb and Cu of crystals double potassium phosphates (KDP) at irradiation by X-rays. It is established that in the given crystals mechanisms for under-threshold defect formation are realize. The impurity ions results the basic crystal light sum redistribution in the TL peaks. Explanations for some phenomena are given. (author)

  20. Thermally stimulated luminescence studies in combustion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    irradiated aluminum oxide samples were studied. A broad PL ... formance, especially when doped with carbon. A good amount of work on TSL of ... to the spectrograph through optical fibre for detection and analysis. The TSL measurements ...

  1. Thermally stimulating mechanically-lifted well production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, E.A.; Hinson, R.A.

    1984-06-19

    A well which is producing slowly by artificial lift can be economically heated by first inflowing a nitrogen-generating solution, to form a pool of reacting liquid near the uppermost opening into the reservoir, then inflowing more solution while artificially-lifting liquid from near the lowermost opening into the reservoir at a rate substantially equalling the inflow rate.

  2. Liquid Segregation Phenomenological Behaviors of Ti14 Alloy during Semisolid Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The liquid segregation phenomenon and its effect on deformation mechanism of Ti14 alloy in semisolid metal processing were investigated by thermal simulation test. Microstructure of depth profile was determined by cross-section quantitative metallography, and liquid segregation phenomenon was described by Darcy's law. The results show that segregation phenomenon was affected by solid fraction, strain rate, and deformation rate. More liquid segregated from center to edge portion with high strain rate and/or deformation ratio as well as low solid fraction, which caused different distribution of dominating deformation mechanism. The relationship between liquid segregation and main deformation mechanism was also discussed by phenomenological model.

  3. Marginally Deformed Starobinsky Gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, A.; Joergensen, J.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We show that quantum-induced marginal deformations of the Starobinsky gravitational action of the form $R^{2(1 -\\alpha)}$, with $R$ the Ricci scalar and $\\alpha$ a positive parameter, smaller than one half, can account for the recent experimental observations by BICEP2 of primordial tensor modes....

  4. Transfer involving deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.O.; Guidry, M.W.; Canto, L.F.

    1985-03-01

    Results are reviewed of 1- and 2-neutron transfer reactions at near-barrier energies for deformed nuclei. Rotational angular momentum and excitation patterns are examined. A strong tendency to populating high spin states within a few MeV of the yrast line is noted, and it is interpreted as preferential transfer to rotation-aligned states. 16 refs., 12 figs

  5. Advanced Curvature Deformable Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Hawaii ,Institute for Astronomy,640 North A‘ohoku Place, #209 , Hilo ,HI,96720-2700 8. PERFORMING...Advanced Curvature Deformable Mirrors Christ Ftaclas1,2, Aglae Kellerer2 and Mark Chun2 Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii

  6. Plastic deformation of cubic zirconia single crystals at 1400 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baufeld, B.; Baither, D.; Bartsch, M.; Messerschmidt, U.

    1998-01-01

    Cubic zirconia single crystals stabilized with 11 mol% yttria were deformed in air at 1400 C and around 1200 C at different strain rates along [1 anti 12] and [100] compression directions. The strain rate sensitivity of the flow stress was determined by strain rate cycling and stress relaxation tests. The microstructure of the deformed specimens was investigated by transmission high-voltage electron microscopy, including contrast extinction analysis for determining the Burgers vectors as well as stereo pairs and wide-angle tilting experiments to find the active slip planes. At deformation along [1 anti 12], the primary and secondary slip planes are of {100} type. Previous experiments had shown that the dislocations move easily on these planes in an athermal way. During deformation along [100], mainly dislocations on {100} planes are activated, which move in a viscous way by the aid of thermal activation. The discussion of the different deformation behaviours during deformation along [1 anti 12] and [100] is based on the different dynamic properties of dislocations and the fact that recovery is an essential feature of the deformation of cubic zirconia at 1400 C. The results on the shape of the deformation curve and the strain rate sensitivity of the flow stress are partly at variance with those of previous authors. (orig.)

  7. q-Deformed nonlinear maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 64; Issue 3 ... Keywords. Nonlinear dynamics; logistic map; -deformation; Tsallis statistics. ... As a specific example, a -deformation procedure is applied to the logistic map. Compared ...

  8. Effect of dynamic plastic deformation on microstructure and annealing behaviour of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Mishin, Oleg V.; Tao, N. R.

    2015-01-01

    after quasi- static compression. The microstructure after dynamic plastic deformation is however less stable than the microstructure after quasi- static compression. Annealing at 675 and 700 degrees C leads to structural coarsening and recrystallisation in each sample, but with recrystallisation...... occurring faster in the sample annealed after dynamic plastic deformation. The lower thermal stability of the microstructure produced by dynamic plastic deformation is attributed to a higher driving force for recrystallisation in the dynamically deformed material....

  9. Bridge monitoring by interferometric deformation sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaudi, Daniele; Vurpillot, Samuel; Casanova, Nicoletta

    1996-09-01

    In many concrete bridges, the deformations are the most relevant parameter to be monitored in both short and long- terms. Strain monitoring gives only local information about the material behavior and too many such sensors would therefore be necessary to gain a complete understanding of the bridge behavior. We have found that fiber optic deformation sensors, with measurement bases of the order of one to a few meters, can give useful information both during the first days after concrete pouring and in the long term. In a first phase it is possible to monitor the thermal expansion due to the exothermic setting reaction and successively the thermal and drying shrinkages. Thanks to the long sensor basis, the detection of a crack traverse to the measurement region becomes probable and the evolution of cracks can therefore be followed with a reduced number of sensors. In the long-term it is possible to measure the geometric deformations and therefore the creeping of the bridge under static loads, especially under its own weight. In the past two years, our laboratory has installed hundreds of fiber optic deformation sensors in more than five concrete, composite steel-concrete, refurbished and enlarged bridges (road, highway and railway bridges). The measuring technique relies on low-coherence interferometry and offers a resolution down to a few microns even for long-term measurements. This contribution briefly discusses the measurement technique and then focuses on the development of a reliable sensor for direct concrete embedding and on the experimental results obtained on these bridges.

  10. q-Deformed Kink solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.F. de

    2003-01-01

    The q-deformed kink of the λφ 4 -model is obtained via the normalisable ground state eigenfunction of a fluctuation operator associated with the q-deformed hyperbolic functions. The kink mass, the bosonic zero-mode and the q-deformed potential in 1+1 dimensions are found. (author)

  11. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  12. Optical stimulation of peripheral nerves in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathon D.

    This dissertation documents the emergence and validation of a new clinical tool that bridges the fields of biomedical optics and neuroscience. The research herein describes an innovative method for direct neurostimulation with pulsed infrared laser light. Safety and effectiveness of this technique are first demonstrated through functional stimulation of the rat sciatic nerve in vivo. The Holmium:YAG laser (lambda = 2.12 mum) is shown to operate at an optimal wavelength for peripheral nerve stimulation with advantages over standard electrical neural stimulation; including contact-free stimulation, high spatial selectivity, and lack of a stimulation artifact. The underlying biophysical mechanism responsible for transient optical nerve stimulation appears to be a small, absorption driven thermal gradient sustained at the axonal layer of nerve. Results explicitly prove that low frequency optical stimulation can reliably stimulate without resulting in tissue thermal damage. Based on the positive results from animal studies, these optimal laser parameters were utilized to move this research into the clinic with a combined safety and efficacy study in human subjects undergoing selective dorsal rhizotomy. The clinical Holmium:YAG laser was used to effectively stimulate human dorsal spinal roots and elicit functional muscle responses recorded during surgery without evidence of nerve damage. Overall these results predict that this technology can be a valuable clinical tool in various neurosurgical applications.

  13. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.

  14. Deformed supersymmetric mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.; Sidorov, S.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by a recent interest in curved rigid supersymmetries, we construct a new type of N = 4, d = 1 supersymmetric systems by employing superfields defined on the cosets of the supergroup SU(2|1). The relevant worldline supersymmetry is a deformation of the standard N = 4, d = 1 supersymmetry by a mass parameter m. As instructive examples we consider at the classical and quantum levels the models associated with the supermultiplets (1,4,3) and (2,4,2) and find out interesting interrelations with some previous works on nonstandard d = 1 supersymmetry. In particular, the d = 1 systems with 'weak supersymmetry' are naturally reproduced within our SU(2|1) superfield approach as a subclass of the (1,4,3) models. A generalization to the N = 8, d = 1 case implies the supergroup SU(2|2) as a candidate deformed worldline supersymmetry

  15. Intermediate size inducer pump - structural analysis and transient deformation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, T.K.; Nishizaka, J.N.

    1979-05-01

    This report summarizes the structural and thermal transient deformation analysis of the Intermediate Size Inducer Pump. The analyses were performed in accordance to the requirements of N266ST310001, the specification for the ISIP. Results of stress analysis indicate that the thermal transient stress and strain are within the stress strain limits of RDT standard F9-4 which was used as a guide

  16. Deformation Theory ( Lecture Notes )

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doubek, M.; Markl, Martin; Zima, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2007), s. 333-371 ISSN 0044-8753. [Winter School Geometry and Physics/27./. Srní, 13.01.2007-20.01.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/2117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : deformation * Mauerer-Cartan equation * strongly homotopy Lie algebra Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  17. Deformations of fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1977-09-01

    Results of the DBM and FEM analysis in this study indicate that a suitable rock mass for repository of radioactive waste should be moderately jointed (about 1 joint/m 2 ) and surrounded by shear zones of the first order. This allowes for a gentle and flexible deformation under tectonic stresses and prevent the development of large cross-cutting failures in the repository area. (author)

  18. Negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)

  19. Non-Fourier based thermal-mechanical tissue damage prediction for thermal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhong, Yongmin; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2017-01-02

    Prediction of tissue damage under thermal loads plays important role for thermal ablation planning. A new methodology is presented in this paper by combing non-Fourier bio-heat transfer, constitutive elastic mechanics as well as non-rigid motion of dynamics to predict and analyze thermal distribution, thermal-induced mechanical deformation and thermal-mechanical damage of soft tissues under thermal loads. Simulations and comparison analysis demonstrate that the proposed methodology based on the non-Fourier bio-heat transfer can account for the thermal-induced mechanical behaviors of soft tissues and predict tissue thermal damage more accurately than classical Fourier bio-heat transfer based model.

  20. Full Core Multiphysics Simulation with Offline Mesh Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzari, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shemon, E. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yu, Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Thomas, J. W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Obabko, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jain, Rajeev [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahadevan, Vijay [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Solberg, Jerome [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ferencz, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whitesides, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-21

    In this report, building on previous reports issued in FY13 we describe our continued efforts to integrate thermal/hydraulics, neutronics, and structural mechanics modeling codes to perform coupled analysis of a representative fast sodium-cooled reactor core. The focus of the present report is a full core simulation with off-line mesh deformation.

  1. Predicting deformation and stress as a function of additive manufacturing process parameters for Europa drill

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will combine part-level FEM model of residual stresses with phase-field transformation model to predict deformation and cracking due to thermal stresses from the...

  2. Acoustic emission during tensile deformation of M250 grade maraging steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Chandan Kumar; Rajkumar, Kesavan Vadivelu; Chandra Rao, Bhaghi Purna; Jayakumar, Tamanna

    2012-05-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) generated during room temperature tensile deformation of varyingly heat treated (solution annealed and thermally aged) M250 grade maraging steel specimens have been studied. Deformation of microstructure corresponding to different heat treated conditions in this steel could be distinctly characterized using the AE parameters such as RMS voltage, counts and peak amplitude of AE hits (events).

  3. Simulation and analysis of the thermal and deformation behaviour of `as-received` and `hydrided` pressure tubes used in the circumferential temperature distribution experiments (end of life/pressure tube behaviour)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, W C; Bayoumi, M H [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    It is postulated that in-reactor pressure tubes may be subjected to radiation damage and dissolved deuterium which could change the pressure tube characteristics and lead to different behaviour than that of as-received pressure tubes under large LOCA (loss of coolant) conditions. A hydrided pressure tube was used to study the effect of dissolved hydrogen on thermal-mechanical behaviour. In the experiment, simulating an in-reactor (hydrided) pressure tube with circumferential differential temperature under boil-off conditions, the pressure tube ballooned into contact with the calandria tube. The pressure tube used in this experiment was hydrided in a furnace to a nominal value of 200 {mu}g/g dissolved hydrogen. This test was a repeat of the first supplementary boil-off test (S-5-1) which used an as-received pressure tube. The objective of this paper is to analyze the results obtained from the simulation of this Boil-Off test using the SMARTT computer code and to examine the effect of hydriding on the thermal and ballooning behaviour of the pressure tube by comparison with the results obtained from test S-5-1. A discussion of the results obtained from this comparison is presented together with an analysis of their application to the analysis of pressure tube behaviour in CANDU reactors. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 16 figs.

  4. Simulation and analysis of the thermal and deformation behaviour of 'as-received' and 'hydrided' pressure tubes used in the circumferential temperature distribution experiments (end of life/pressure tube behaviour)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, W.C.; Bayoumi, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    It is postulated that in-reactor pressure tubes may be subjected to radiation damage and dissolved deuterium which could change the pressure tube characteristics and lead to different behaviour than that of as-received pressure tubes under large LOCA (loss of coolant) conditions. A hydrided pressure tube was used to study the effect of dissolved hydrogen on thermal-mechanical behaviour. In the experiment, simulating an in-reactor (hydrided) pressure tube with circumferential differential temperature under boil-off conditions, the pressure tube ballooned into contact with the calandria tube. The pressure tube used in this experiment was hydrided in a furnace to a nominal value of 200 μg/g dissolved hydrogen. This test was a repeat of the first supplementary boil-off test (S-5-1) which used an as-received pressure tube. The objective of this paper is to analyze the results obtained from the simulation of this Boil-Off test using the SMARTT computer code and to examine the effect of hydriding on the thermal and ballooning behaviour of the pressure tube by comparison with the results obtained from test S-5-1. A discussion of the results obtained from this comparison is presented together with an analysis of their application to the analysis of pressure tube behaviour in CANDU reactors. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 16 figs

  5. Microstructure and mechanical properties of precipitation hardened aluminum under high rate deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, D.E.; Asav, J.R.; Rohde, R.W.; Wise, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter attempts to correlate the shock compression and quasistatic deformation of 6061-T6 aluminium. Examines recovered specimens which have been shock loaded, and compares results with both static and dynamic mechanical property measurements. Discusses experimental procedures (reshock and unloading experiments, shock recovery techniques, metallographic techniques and coldwork experiments); dynamic strength and wave-profile properties (strength and shear-stress states on the Hugoniot, steady-wave risetime and viscosity); quasistatic and shock metallography studies (metallography of quasistatically deformed material; metallography of shock deformed specimens; comparison of static and shock deformation; correlation of hardness and dynamic strength measurements); and thermal trapping calculations in shocked aluminium (heterogeneous deformation and adiabatic heating in shock-wave loading; energy and risetime relations under steadywave shock compression; heterogeneous temperature calculations in aluminium). Concludes that heterogeneous shear deformation appears to play a role in the dynamic deformation process

  6. GAPCON-THERMAL-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, C.L.; Lanning, D.D.; Panisko, F.E.

    1979-01-01

    The fuel performance code GAPCON-THERMAL-3 has been expanded to include recent transient material deformation constitutive relations and the FLECHT heat transfer correlation. The modifications make it possible to compute the thermal and mechanical response of nuclear fuel to postulated Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCA). The numerical formulation has the capability of predicting both steady state and transient behavior of a fuel rod using a single analytical procedure. GAPCON-THERMAL-3 (G-T-3) uses a specialized finite element procedure for mechanics predictions and the method of weighted residuals and finite difference techniques to compute temperature and thermal behavior. Fuel behavior, gas release models, gas conductance models, and stored energy calculations are applicable to both steady state and transient conditions. The code has been used to perform scoping analysis for in-reactor LOCA simulation testing. (orig.)

  7. Deformation at Lava Lake Volcanoes: Lessons from Karthala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, J.; Rust, A.; Owens, C.

    2014-12-01

    To remain hot, permanent lava lakes require a continuous connection to a magma reservoir. Depending on the state of the conduit, changes in magma pressure could result in changes in the lake level (hydraulic head) or be accommodated elastically leading to surface deformation. Observing deformation is therefore key to understanding the plumbing system associated with lava lakes. However, the majority of the world's lava lakes lie in difficult socio-economic or remote locations meaning that there are few ground-based observations, and it is often necessary to rely on satellite imagery. Karthala volcano experienced a sequence of eruptions in April 2005, Nov 2005, May 2006 and Jan 2007. The first 3 took place at the Choungou Chahale crater, which typically contains either a water or lava lake; the last formed a new pit crater to the north. Satellite thermal imagery (Hirn et al, 2008) does not show an anomaly during the first eruption, which had a phreatomagmatic component, but large thermal anomalies, associated with an ephemeral lava lake were detected during the Nov 2005 and May 2006 eruptions. The final eruption produced a smaller anomaly attributed to a minor lava flow. Here we present InSAR observations from 2004-2010. We find no significant deformation associated with the first three eruptions, but the January 2007 eruption was associated with ~25 cm of deformation near the volcano's summit, characteristic of a dyke intrusion aligned with the northern rift zone. We also observe an unusual pattern deformation along the coast which may be attributed to rapid settling of soft sediment or recent volcanic deposits triggered by seismic activity. We propose that the first eruption cleared the reservoir-summit connection and interacted with the water in Choungou Chahale. The following eruptions formed a lava lake, but without causing deformation. By the final eruption, the conduit had become blocked and magma intruded along the rift zone causing deformation but no

  8. Thermomechanical characterization of a membrane deformable mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, Kathleen A.; McHugh, Stuart L.; Fixler, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    A membrane deformable mirror has been investigated for its potential use in high-energy laser systems. Experiments were performed in which the deformable mirror was heated with a 1 kW incandescent lamp and the thermal profile, the wavefront aberrations, and the mechanical displacement of the membrane were measured. A finite element model was also developed. The wavefront characterization experiments showed that the wavefront degraded with heating. Above a temperature of 35 deg. C, the wavefront characterization experiments indicated a dramatic increase in the high-order wavefront modes before the optical beam became immeasurable in the sensors. The mechanical displacement data of the membrane mirror showed that during heating, the membrane initially deflected towards the heat source and then deflected away from the heat source. Finite element analysis (FEA) predicted a similar displacement behavior as shown by the mechanical displacement data but over a shorter time scale and a larger magnitude. The mechanical displacement data also showed that the magnitude of membrane displacement increased with the experiments that involved higher temperatures. Above a temperature of 35 deg. C, the displacement data showed that random deflections as a function of time developed and that the magnitude of these deflections increased with increased temperature. We concluded that convection, not captured in the FEA, likely played a dominant role in mirror deformation at temperatures above 35 deg. C

  9. Actuators of 3-element unimorph deformable mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tianyang; Ning, Yu; Du, Shaojun

    2016-10-01

    Kinds of wavefront aberrations exist among optical systems because of atmosphere disturbance, device displacement and a variety of thermal effects, which disturb the information of transmitting beam and restrain its energy. Deformable mirror(DM) is designed to adjust these wavefront aberrations. Bimorph DM becomes more popular and more applicable among adaptive optical(AO) systems with advantages in simple structure, low cost and flexible design compared to traditional discrete driving DM. The defocus aberration accounted for a large proportion of all wavefront aberrations, with a simpler surface and larger amplitude than others, so it is very useful to correct the defocus aberration effectively for beam controlling and aberration adjusting of AO system. In this study, we desired on correcting the 3rd and 10th Zernike modes, analyze the characteristic of the 3rd and 10th defocus aberration surface distribution, design 3-element actuators unimorph DM model study on its structure and deformation principle theoretically, design finite element models of different electrode configuration with different ring diameters, analyze and compare effects of different electrode configuration and different fixing mode to DM deformation capacity through COMSOL finite element software, compare fitting efficiency of DM models to the 3rd and 10th Zernike modes. We choose the inhomogeneous electrode distribution model with better result, get the influence function of every electrode and the voltage-PV relationship of the model. This unimorph DM is suitable for the AO system with a mainly defocus aberration.

  10. Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brutzel, L.; Dingreville, R.; Bartel, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)

  11. Neutron halo in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shangui; Meng Jie; Ring, P.; Zhao Enguang

    2010-01-01

    Halo phenomena in deformed nuclei are investigated within a deformed relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov (DRHB) theory. These weakly bound quantum systems present interesting examples for the study of the interdependence between the deformation of the core and the particles in the halo. Contributions of the halo, deformation effects, and large spatial extensions of these systems are described in a fully self-consistent way by the DRHB equations in a spherical Woods-Saxon basis with the proper asymptotic behavior at a large distance from the nuclear center. Magnesium and neon isotopes are studied and detailed results are presented for the deformed neutron-rich and weakly bound nucleus 44 Mg. The core of this nucleus is prolate, but the halo has a slightly oblate shape. This indicates a decoupling of the halo orbitals from the deformation of the core. The generic conditions for the occurrence of this decoupling effects are discussed.

  12. Rotary deformity in degenerative spondylolisthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sung Gwon; Kim, Jeong; Kho, Hyen Sim; Yun, Sung Su; Oh, Jae Hee; Byen, Ju Nam; Kim, Young Chul

    1994-01-01

    We studied to determine whether the degenerative spondylolisthesis has rotary deformity in addition to forward displacement. We have made analysis of difference of rotary deformity between the 31 study groups of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis and 31 control groups without any symptom, statistically. We also reviewed CT findings in 15 study groups. The mean rotary deformity in study groups was 6.1 degree(the standard deviation is 5.20), and the mean rotary deformity in control groups was 2.52 degree(the standard deviation is 2.16)(p < 0.01). The rotary deformity can be accompanied with degenerative spondylolisthesis. We may consider the rotary deformity as a cause of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis in case that any other cause is not detected

  13. q-deformed Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Man'ko, V I

    1993-01-01

    Brownian motion may be embedded in the Fock space of bosonic free field in one dimension.Extending this correspondence to a family of creation and annihilation operators satisfying a q-deformed algebra, the notion of q-deformation is carried from the algebra to the domain of stochastic processes.The properties of q-deformed Brownian motion, in particular its non-Gaussian nature and cumulant structure,are established.

  14. Deformation of nasal septal cartilage during mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dayeh, Ayman A; Rafferty, Katherine L; Egbert, Mark; Herring, Susan W

    2009-10-01

    The cartilaginous nasal septum plays a major role in structural integrity and growth of the face, but its internal location has made physiologic study difficult. By surgically implanting transducers in 10 miniature pigs (Sus scrofa), we recorded in vivo strains generated in the nasal septum during mastication and masseter stimulation. The goals were (1) to determine whether the cartilage should be considered as a vertical strut supporting the nasal cavity and preventing its collapse, or as a damper of stresses generated during mastication and (2) to shed light on the overall pattern of snout deformation during mastication. Strains were recorded simultaneously at the septo-ethmoid junction and nasofrontal suture during mastication. A third location in the anterior part of the cartilage was added during masseter stimulation and manipulation. Contraction of jaw closing muscles during mastication was accompanied by anteroposterior compressive strains (around -1,000 muepsilon) in the septo-ethmoid junction. Both the orientation and the magnitude of the strain suggest that the septum does not act as a vertical strut but may act in absorbing loads generated during mastication. The results from masseter stimulation and manipulation further suggest that the masticatory strain pattern arises from a combination of dorsal bending and/or shearing and anteroposterior compression of the snout. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Deformation mechanism of the Cryostat in the CADS Injector II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiandong; Zhang, Bin; Wan, Yuqin; Sun, Guozhen; Bai, Feng; Zhang, Juihui; He, Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Thermal contraction and expansion of the Cryostat will affect its reliability and stability. To optimize and upgrade the Cryostat, we analyzed the heat transfer in a cryo-vacuum environment from the theoretical point first. The simulation of cryo-vacuum deformation based on a finite element method was implemented respectively. The completed measurement based on a Laser Tracker and a Micro Alignment Telescope was conducted to verify its correctness. The monitored deformations were consistent with the simulated ones. After the predictable deformations in vertical direction have been compensated, the superconducting solenoids and Half Wave Resonator cavities approached the ideal "zero" position under liquid helium conditions. These guaranteed the success of 25 MeV@170 uA continuous wave protons of Chinese accelerator driven subcritical system Injector II. By correlating the vacuum and cryo-deformation, we have demonstrated that the complete deformation was the superposition effect of the atmospheric pressure, gravity and thermal stress during both the process of cooling down and warming up. The results will benefit to an optimization for future Cryostat's design.

  16. q-deformed Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogievetsky, O.; Pillin, M.; Schmidke, W.B.; Wess, J.; Zumino, B.

    1993-01-01

    In this lecture I discuss the algebraic structure of a q-deformed four-vector space. It serves as a good example of quantizing Minkowski space. To give a physical interpretation of such a quantized Minkowski space we construct the Hilbert space representation and find that the relevant time and space operators have a discrete spectrum. Thus the q-deformed Minkowski space has a lattice structure. Nevertheless this lattice structure is compatible with the operation of q-deformed Lorentz transformations. The generators of the q-deformed Lorentz group can be represented as linear operators in the same Hilbert space. (orig.)

  17. Deformable paper origami optoelectronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-19

    Deformable optoelectronic devices are provided, including photodetectors, photodiodes, and photovoltaic cells. The devices can be made on a variety of paper substrates, and can include a plurality of fold segments in the paper substrate creating a deformable pattern. Thin electrode layers and semiconductor nanowire layers can be attached to the substrate, creating the optoelectronic device. The devices can be highly deformable, e.g. capable of undergoing strains of 500% or more, bending angles of 25° or more, and/or twist angles of 270° or more. Methods of making the deformable optoelectronic devices and methods of using, e.g. as a photodetector, are also provided.

  18. Deformation behaviour of turbine foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, W.; Klitzing, R.; Pietzonka, R.; Wehr, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of foundation deformation on alignment in turbine generator sets have gained significance with the transition to modern units at the limit of design possibilities. It is therefore necessary to obtain clarification about the remaining operational variations of turbine foundations. Static measurement programmes, which cover both deformation processes as well as individual conditions of deformation are described in the paper. In order to explain the deformations measured structural engineering model calculations are being undertaken which indicate the effect of limiting factors. (orig.) [de

  19. Thermal comfort following immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéritée, Julien; Redortier, Bernard; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Unlike thermal comfort in air, little research has been undertaken exploring thermal comfort around water sports. We investigated the impact of swimming and cooling in air after swimming on thermal comfort. After 10 min of swimming-and-resting cycles in 28°C water, volunteers wearing two types of garments or in swim briefs, faced winds in 24°C air, at rest or when stepping. Thermal comfort was significantly higher during swimming than resting. Post-immersion, following maximum discomfort, in 45 of 65 tests thermal comfort improved although mean skin temperature was still cooling (0.26 [SD 0.19] °C·min(-1) - max was 0.89°C·min(-1)). When thermal comfort was re-established mean skin temperature was lower than at maximal discomfort in 39 of 54 tests (0.81 [SD 0.58] °C - max difference was 2.68°C). The reduction in thermal discomfort in this scenario could be due to the adaptation of thermoreceptors, or to reductions in cooling rates to levels where discomfort was less stimulated. The relief from the recent discomfort may explain why, later, thermal comfort returned to initial levels in spite of poorer thermal profiles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Deformation Parameters on Microstructure and Properties During DIFT of X70HD Pipeline Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhu, Wei; Xiao, Hong; Zhang, Liang-liang; Qin, Hao; Yu, Yue

    2018-02-01

    Grain refinement is a critical approach to improve the strength of materials without damaging the toughness. The grains of deformation-induced ferrite are considerably smaller than those of proeutectoid ferrite. Grain refinement is crucial to the application of deformation-induced ferrite. The composition of ferrite and bainite or martensite is important in controlling the performance of X70HD pipeline steel, and cooling significantly influences the control of their ratio and grain size. By analyzing the static and dynamic phase-transition points using Gleeble-3800 thermal simulator, thermal simulations were performed through two-stage deformations in the austenite zone. Ferrite transformation rules were studied with thermal simulation tests under different deformation and cooling parameters based on the actual production of cumulative deformation. The influence of deformation parameters on the microstructure transformation was analyzed. Numerous fine-grain deformation-induced ferrites were obtained by regulating various parameters, including deformation temperature, strain rate, cooling rate, final cooling temperature and other parameters. Results of metallographic observation and microtensile testing revealed that the selection of appropriate parameters can refine the grains and improve the performance of the X70HD pipeline steel.

  1. Deformed chiral nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, C E; Shepard, J R [Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1991-04-18

    We compute properties of the nucleon in a hybrid chiral model based on the linear {sigma}-model with quark degrees of freedom treated explicity. In contrast to previous calculations, we do not use the hedgehog ansatz. Instead we solve self-consistently for a state with well defined spin and isospin projections. We allow this state to be deformed and find that, although d- and g-state admixtures in the predominantly s-state single quark wave functions are not large, they have profound effects on many nucleon properties including magnetic moments and g{sub A}. Our best fit parameters provide excellent agreement with experiment but are much different from those determined in hedgehog calculations. (orig.).

  2. Deformations of surface singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Szilárd, ágnes

    2013-01-01

    The present publication contains a special collection of research and review articles on deformations of surface singularities, that put together serve as an introductory survey of results and methods of the theory, as well as open problems, important examples and connections to other areas of mathematics. The aim is to collect material that will help mathematicians already working or wishing to work in this area to deepen their insight and eliminate the technical barriers in this learning process. This also is supported by review articles providing some global picture and an abundance of examples. Additionally, we introduce some material which emphasizes the newly found relationship with the theory of Stein fillings and symplectic geometry.  This links two main theories of mathematics: low dimensional topology and algebraic geometry. The theory of normal surface singularities is a distinguished part of analytic or algebraic geometry with several important results, its own technical machinery, and several op...

  3. IBA in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casten, R.F.; Warner, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    The structure and characteristic properties and predictions of the IBA in deformed nuclei are reviewed, and compared with experiment, in particular for 168 Er. Overall, excellent agreement, with a minimum of free parameters (in effect, two, neglecting scale factors on energy differences), was obtained. A particularly surprising, and unavoidable, prediction is that of strong β → γ transitions, a feature characteristically absent in the geometrical model, but manifest empirically. Some discrepancies were also noted, principally for the K=4 excitation, and the detailed magnitudes of some specific B(E2) values. Considerable attention is paid to analyzing the structure of the IBA states and their relation to geometric models. The bandmixing formalism was studied to interpret both the aforementioned discrepancies and the origin of the β → γ transitions. The IBA states, extremely complex in the usual SU(5) basis, are transformed to the SU(3) basis, as is the interaction Hamiltonian. The IBA wave functions appear with much simplified structure in this way as does the structure of the associated B(E2) values. The nature of the symmetry breaking of SU(3) for actual deformed nuclei is seen to be predominantly ΔK=0 mixing. A modified, and more consistent, formalism for the IBA-1 is introduced which is simpler, has fewer free parameters (in effect, one, neglecting scale factors on energy differences), is in at least as good agreement with experiment as the earlier formalism, contains a special case of the 0(6) limit which corresponds to that known empirically, and appears to have a close relationship to the IBA-2. The new formalism facilitates the construction of contour plots of various observables (e.g., energy or B(E2) ratios) as functions of N and chi/sub Q/ which allow the parameter-free discussion of qualitative trajectories or systematics

  4. Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Since the pioneering work by Huntley et al. (1985), optical dating is being increasingly recognised as an important technique for establishing a time frame of deposition of sediments (Aitken, 1998). Optical dating differs from thermoluminescence (TL) dating in that visible/infrared light from lasers or LEDs (light-emitting-diodes) is used as a means of stimulation, in contrast to thermal stimulation. It has several advantages over TL dating: (i) the resetting of the OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) clock is more effective than that of TL clock; for sediments transported under water or in other situations where the sediment grains have undergone inhomogeneous bleaching, this property ensures that ages based on optical dating are generally more reliable than TL ages, (ii) the optical dating technique is non-destructive, and multiple readouts of the optical signal is possible; this feature has resulted in the development of single-aliquot and single-grain protocols (Murray and Wintle, 1999; Banerjee et al. 1999), (iii) the sample is not heated as in TL; thus, spurious luminescence is avoided and there is a significant reduction in blackbody radiation. Dating of materials which change phase on heating is also practical, and finally, (iv) thermal quenching of luminescence is negligible, allowing accurate estimation of kinetic parameters using standard techniques and providing access to deep OSL traps. This characteristic may be helpful in extending the limits of optical dating beyond the last 150 ka from a global point of view

  5. Hot deformation behavior of delta-processed superalloy 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y., E-mail: wangyanhit@yahoo.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Shao, W.Z.; Zhen, L.; Zhang, B.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} The peak stress for hot deformation can be described by the Z parameter. {yields} The grain size of DRX was inversely proportional to the Z parameter. {yields} The dissolution of {delta} phases was greatly accelerated under hot deformation. {yields}The {delta} phase stimulated nucleation can serve as the main DRX mechanism. - Abstract: Flow stress behavior and microstructures during hot compression of delta-processed superalloy 718 at temperatures from 950 to 1100 deg. C with strain rates of 10{sup -3} to 1 s{sup -1} were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The relationship between the peak stress and the deformation conditions can be expressed by a hyperbolic-sine type equation. The activation energy for the delta-processed superalloy 718 is determined to be 467 kJ/mol. The change of the dominant deformation mechanisms leads to the decrease of stress exponent and the increase of activation energy with increasing temperature. The dynamically recrystallized grain size is inversely proportional to the Zener-Hollomon (Z) parameter. It is found that the dissolution rate of {delta} phases under hot deformation conditions is much faster than that under static conditions. Dislocation, vacancy and curvature play important roles in the dissolution of {delta} phases. The main nucleation mechanisms of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) for the delta-processed superalloy 718 include the bulging of original grain boundaries and the {delta} phase stimulated DRX nucleation, which is closely related to the dissolution behavior of {delta} phases under certain deformation conditions.

  6. Fraktalnist deformational relief polycrystalline aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.В. Карускевич

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available  The possibility of the fractal geometry method application for the analisys of surface deformation structures under cyclic loading is presented.It is shown, that deformation relief of the alclad aluminium alloyes meets the criteria of the fractality. For the fractal demention estimation the method of  “box-counting”can be applied.

  7. Contribution to the study of can deformations in the fuel elements of gas-graphite reactors during thermal cycling; Contribution a l'etude des deformations des gaines des elements combustibles de reacteur graphite-gaz au cours du cyclage thermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthron, M; Boudouresques, B; Delpeyroux, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The cans of fuel cartridges used in reactors of the gas-graphite type have either longitudinal fins of variable thickness, short herring-bone fins, or else a mixture of the two. An important test of the strength of these cartridges is their behaviour during thermal cycling carried out in cells reproducing in-pile conditions. It has been observed during with rapid cooling that there occurs a shortening at the base of the fins which can be accompanied in particular by a compression effect at the fin type, which has a tendency to curl, and by a tractive force acting on the body of the can at the ends of the longitudinal fins; this last phenomenon can result in a fracturing of the welds at the extremities or of the ends of the cartridge. This report presents first of all the way in which the stress diagram can be drawn for a can touching the fuel, and then the effect of the ratchet along a fin fixed to a bar with or without grooves. Finally the importance is shown of the test cycling variables (temperature, heating and cooling rates). (authors) [French] Les gaines des cartouches combustibles des reacteurs de la filiere graphite-gaz comportent soit des ailettes longitudinales plus ou moins epaisses, soit de courtes ailettes a chevrons, soit un ensemble des deux. Un test important de la tenue des cartouches, est la tenue au cyclage thermique en cellule pour reproduire le comportement en pile. On a observe au cours des cyclages a refroidissement rapide, un raccourcissement a la base des ailettes qui peut s'accompagner notamment d'une mise en compression du sommet de l'ailette qui a tendance a friser, et d'une traction exercee sur le corps des gaines au bout des ailettes longitudinales; ce dernier phenomene peut se traduire par des ruptures de soudures d'extremites ou des parties terminales de la cartouche. Ce rapport presente d'abord la maniere dont peut etre trace le diagramme des contraintes dans une gaine liee au combustible, puis l'effet du rochet le long d

  8. Deformation of Man Made Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    We introduce a framework for 3D object deformation with primary focus on man-made objects. Our framework enables a user to deform a model while preserving its defining characteristics. Moreover, our framework enables a user to set constraints on a model to keep its most significant features intact after the deformation process. Our framework supports a semi-automatic constraint setting environment, where some constraints could be automatically set by the framework while others are left for the user to specify. Our framework has several advantages over some state of the art deformation techniques in that it enables a user to add new features to the deformed model while keeping its general look similar to the input model. In addition, our framework enables the rotation and extrusion of different parts of a model.

  9. Thermal stress relaxation in magnesium composites during thermal cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trojanova, Z.; Lukac, P. (Karlova Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)); Kiehn, J.; Kainer, K.U.; Mordike, B.L. (Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany))

    1998-01-01

    It has been shown that the internal friction of Mg - Saffil metal matrix composites can be influenced by thermal stresses, if MMCc are submitted to thermal cycling between room temperature and an upper temperature of cycling. These stresses can be accommodated by generation and motion of dislocations giving the formation of the microplastic zones. The thermal stress relaxation depends on the upper temperature of cycling, the volume fraction of reinforcement and the matrix composition and can result in plastic deformation and strain hardening of the matrix without applied stress. The internal friction measurements can be used for non destructive investigation of processes which influence the mechanical properties. (orig.)

  10. Outdoor thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2011-06-01

    A review of the various approaches in understanding outdoor thermal comfort is presented. The emphasis on field surveys from around the world, particularly across Europe, enables us to understand thermal perception and evaluate outdoor thermal comfort conditions. The consistent low correlations between objective microclimatic variables, subjective thermal sensation and comfort outdoors, internationally, suggest that thermophysiology alone does not adequate describe these relationships. Focusing on the concept of adaptation, it tries to explain how this influences outdoor comfort, enabling us to inhabit and get satisfaction from outdoor spaces throughout the year. Beyond acclimatization and behavioral adaptation, through adjustments in clothing and changes to the metabolic heat, psychological adaptation plays a critical role to ensure thermal comfort and satisfaction with the outdoor environment. Such parameters include recent experiences and expectations; personal choice and perceived control, more important than whether that control is actually exercised; and the need for positive environmental stimulation suggesting that thermal neutrality is not a pre-requisite for thermal comfort. Ultimately, enhancing environmental diversity can influence thermal perception and experience of open spaces.

  11. Case study on ground surface deformation induced by CO2 injection into coal seam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Tang Chun'an

    2010-01-01

    To monitor a geomechanical response of injecting CO 2 into relatively shallow coal seams, tiltmeters were set as an array to cover the ground surface area surrounding the injection well, and to measure the ground deformation during a well fracturing stimulation and a short-term CO 2 injection test. In this paper, an attempt to establish a quantitative relationship between the in-situ coal swelling and the corresponding ground deformation was made by means of numerical simulation study. (authors)

  12. On infinitesimal conformai deformations of surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Степановна Федченко

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A new form of basic equations for conformai deformations is found. The equations involve tensor fields of displacement vector only. Conditions for trivial deformations as well as infinitesimal conformai deformations are studied.

  13. Perceptual transparency from image deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Maruya, Kazushi; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-08-18

    Human vision has a remarkable ability to perceive two layers at the same retinal locations, a transparent layer in front of a background surface. Critical image cues to perceptual transparency, studied extensively in the past, are changes in luminance or color that could be caused by light absorptions and reflections by the front layer, but such image changes may not be clearly visible when the front layer consists of a pure transparent material such as water. Our daily experiences with transparent materials of this kind suggest that an alternative potential cue of visual transparency is image deformations of a background pattern caused by light refraction. Although previous studies have indicated that these image deformations, at least static ones, play little role in perceptual transparency, here we show that dynamic image deformations of the background pattern, which could be produced by light refraction on a moving liquid's surface, can produce a vivid impression of a transparent liquid layer without the aid of any other visual cues as to the presence of a transparent layer. Furthermore, a transparent liquid layer perceptually emerges even from a randomly generated dynamic image deformation as long as it is similar to real liquid deformations in its spatiotemporal frequency profile. Our findings indicate that the brain can perceptually infer the presence of "invisible" transparent liquids by analyzing the spatiotemporal structure of dynamic image deformation, for which it uses a relatively simple computation that does not require high-level knowledge about the detailed physics of liquid deformation.

  14. Quantifying the Erlenmeyer flask deformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A; Rajan, P S; Deegan, P; Cox, T M; Bearcroft, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective Erlenmeyer flask deformity is a common radiological finding in patients with Gaucher′s disease; however, no definition of this deformity exists and the reported prevalence of the deformity varies widely. To devise an easily applied definition of this deformity, we investigated a cohort of knee radiographs in which there was consensus between three experienced radiologists as to the presence or absence of Erlenmeyer flask morphology. Methods Using the presence or absence of Erlenmeyer flask morphology as a benchmark, we measured the diameter of the femur at the level of the physeal scar and serially at defined intervals along the metadiaphysis. Results A measured ratio in excess of 0.57 between the diameter of the femoral shaft 4 cm from the physis to the diameter of the physeal baseline itself on a frontal radiograph of the knee predicted the Erlenmeyer flask deformity with 95.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity in our series of 43 independently diagnosed adults with Gaucher′s disease. Application of this method to the distal femur detected the Erlenmeyer flask deformity reproducibly and was simple to carry out. Conclusion Unlike diagnostic assignments based on subjective review, our simple procedure for identifying the modelling deformity is based on robust quantitative measurement: it should facilitate comparative studies between different groups of patients, and may allow more rigorous exploration of the pathogenesis of the complex osseous manifestations of Gaucher′s disease to be undertaken. PMID:22010032

  15. Microstructure and properties of 700 MPa grade HSLA steel during high temperature deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xizhang; Huang, Yuming; Lei, Yucheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hot deformation behavior of 700 MPa HSLA steel above 1200 °C in was detailed studied. • Uniform and granular bainite is formed when the deformation amount is 40%. • Deformation resistance value under steady-equilibrium state is about 56 MPa. - Abstract: A high temperature deformation experiment was conducted on a high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel Q690 using Thermecmastor-Z thermal/physical simulator. During the experiment, the specimens were heated from room temperature to 1200 °C with the heating rate of 10 °C/s and 50 °C/s, respectively. The deformation temperature was 1200 °C and the deformation amounts were 0%, 10% and 40%, respectively. The microstructures, stress–strain diagram and hardness were obtained. The results revealed that the microstructure transformation of deformed austenite was quite different from that of the normal situation. With the increasing of deformation amount, more lath-shaped microstructure and less granulous microstructure were observed. The compressive deformation effectively prevented the precipitation of carbides. Larger deformation amount or lower heating rate was conducive to the atomic diffusion, which led to the microstructure uniformity and hardness decreasing. The maximum stress was 68.4 MPa and the steady stress was about 56 MPa

  16. Deformation twinning in a creep-deformed nanolaminate structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiung, Luke L

    2010-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of deformation twinning occurring in a TiAl-(γ)/Ti 3 Al-(α 2 ) nanolaminate creep deformed at elevated temperatures has been studied. Since the multiplication and propagation of lattice dislocations in both γ and α 2 thin lamellae are very limited, the total flow of lattice dislocations becomes insufficient to accommodate the accumulated creep strains. Consequently, the movement of interfacial dislocations along the laminate interfaces, i.e., interface sliding, becomes an alternative deformation mode of the nanolaminate structure. Pile-ups of interfacial dislocations occur when interfacial ledges and impinged lattice dislocations act as obstacles to impede the movement of interfacial dislocations. Deformation twinning can accordingly take place to relieve a stress concentration resulting from the pile-up of interfacial dislocations. An interface-controlled twinning mechanism driven by the pile-up and dissociation of interfacial dislocations is accordingly proposed.

  17. Deformation twinning in a creep-deformed nanolaminate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Luke L.

    2010-10-01

    The underlying mechanism of deformation twinning occurring in a TiAl-(γ)/Ti3Al-(α2) nanolaminate creep deformed at elevated temperatures has been studied. Since the multiplication and propagation of lattice dislocations in both γ and α2 thin lamellae are very limited, the total flow of lattice dislocations becomes insufficient to accommodate the accumulated creep strains. Consequently, the movement of interfacial dislocations along the laminate interfaces, i.e., interface sliding, becomes an alternative deformation mode of the nanolaminate structure. Pile-ups of interfacial dislocations occur when interfacial ledges and impinged lattice dislocations act as obstacles to impede the movement of interfacial dislocations. Deformation twinning can accordingly take place to relieve a stress concentration resulting from the pile-up of interfacial dislocations. An interface-controlled twinning mechanism driven by the pile-up and dissociation of interfacial dislocations is accordingly proposed.

  18. Deforming tachyon kinks and tachyon potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonso, Victor I.; Bazeia, Dionisio; Brito, Francisco A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate deformation of tachyon potentials and tachyon kink solutions. We consider the deformation of a DBI type action with gauge and tachyon fields living on D1-brane and D3-brane world-volume. We deform tachyon potentials to get other consistent tachyon potentials by using properly a deformation function depending on the gauge field components. Resolutions of singular tachyon kinks via deformation and applications of deformed tachyon potentials to scalar cosmology scenario are discussed

  19. Fiber amplifiers under thermal loads leading to transverse mode instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette Marie; Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2014-01-01

    Transverse mode instability (TMI) in rare-earth doped fiber amplifiers operating above an average power threshold is caused by intermodal stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering due to quantum defect heating. We investigate thermally induced longitudinal waveguide perturbations causing power...

  20. The hot deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of HA/Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr composites for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Debao; Liu, Yichi; Zhao, Yue; Huang, Y; Chen, Minfang

    2017-08-01

    The hot deformation behavior of nano-sized hydroxylapatite (HA) reinforced Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr composites were performed by means of Gleeble-1500D thermal simulation machine in a temperature range of 523-673K and a strain rate range of 0.001-1s -1 , and the microstructure evolution during hot compression deformation were also investigated. The results show that the flow stress increases increasing strain rates at a constant temperature, and decreases with increasing deforming temperatures at a constant strain rate. Under the same processing conditions, the flow stresses of the 1HA/Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr specimens are higher than those of the Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr alloy specimens, and the difference is getting closer with increasing deformation temperature. The hot deformation behaviors of Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr and 1HA/Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr can be described by constitutive equation of hyperbolic sine function with the hot deformation activation energy being 124.6kJ/mol and 125.3kJ/mol, respectively. Comparing with Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr alloy, the instability region in the process map of 1HA/Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr expanded to a bigger extent at the same conditions. The optimum process conditions of 1HA/Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr composite is concluded as between the temperature window of 573-623K with a strain rate range of 0.001-0.1s -1 . A higher volume fraction and smaller grain size of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) grains was observed in 1HA/Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr specimens after the hot compression deformation compared with Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr alloy, which was ascribed to the presence of the HA particles that play an important role in particle-stimulated nucleation (PSN) mechanism and can effectively hinder the migration of interfaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Spinal cord stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007560.htm Spinal cord stimulation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses ...

  2. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  3. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of ...

  4. M theory on deformed superspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Mir

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we will analyze a noncommutative deformation of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory in N=1 superspace formalism. We will then analyze the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetries for this deformed ABJM theory, and its linear as well as nonlinear gauges. We will show that the sum of the gauge fixing term and the ghost term for this deformed ABJM theory can be expressed as a combination of the total BRST and the total anti-BRST variation, in Landau and nonlinear gauges. We will show that in Landau and Curci-Ferrari gauges deformed ABJM theory is invariant under an additional set of symmetry transformations. We will also discuss the effect that the addition of a bare mass term has on this theory.

  5. Deformable paper origami optoelectronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau; Lin, Chun-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Deformable optoelectronic devices are provided, including photodetectors, photodiodes, and photovoltaic cells. The devices can be made on a variety of paper substrates, and can include a plurality of fold segments in the paper substrate creating a

  6. Capillary Deformations of Bendable Films

    KAUST Repository

    Schroll, R. D.; Adda-Bedia, M.; Cerda, E.; Huang, J.; Menon, N.; Russell, T. P.; Toga, K. B.; Vella, D.; Davidovitch, B.

    2013-01-01

    We address the partial wetting of liquid drops on ultrathin solid sheets resting on a deformable foundation. Considering the membrane limit of sheets that can relax compression through wrinkling at negligible energetic cost, we revisit the classical

  7. Non-linear elastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Ogden, R W

    1997-01-01

    Classic in the field covers application of theory of finite elasticity to solution of boundary-value problems, analysis of mechanical properties of solid materials capable of large elastic deformations. Problems. References.

  8. Anisotropic Ripple Deformation in Phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C; Chen, Changfeng

    2015-05-07

    Two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classical elasticity theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.

  9. Deformations of free jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paruchuri, Srinivas

    This thesis studies three different problems. First we demonstrate that a flowing liquid jet can be controllably split into two separate subfilaments through the applications of a sufficiently strong tangential stress to the surface of the jet. In contrast, normal stresses can never split a liquid jet. We apply these results to observations of uncontrolled splitting of jets in electric fields. The experimental realization of controllable jet splitting would provide an entirely novel route for producing small polymeric fibers. In the second chapter we present an analytical model for the bending of liquid jets and sheets from temperature gradients, as recently observed by Chwalek et al. [Phys. Fluids, 14, L37 (2002)]. The bending arises from a local couple caused by Marangoni forces. The dependence of the bending angle on experimental parameters is presented, in qualitative agreement with reported experiments. The methodology gives a simple framework for understanding the mechanisms for jet and sheet bending. In chapter 4 we address the discrepancy between hydrodynamic theory of liquid jets, and the snap-off of narrow liquid jets observed in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations [23]. This has been previously attributed to the significant role of thermal fluctuations in nanofluidic systems. We argue that hydrodynamic description of such systems should include corrections to the Laplace pressure which result from the failure of the sharp interface assumption when the jet diameter becomes small enough. We show that this effect can in principle give rise to jet shapes similar to those observed in MD simulations, even when thermal fluctuations are completely neglected. Finally we summarize an algorithm developed to simulate droplet impact on a smooth surface.

  10. Radiation effects on time-dependent deformation: Creep and growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, E.P.

    1989-03-01

    Observations of irradiation creep strain as well as irradiation growth strain and related microstructures are reviewed and compared to mechanisms for radiation effects on time-dependent deformation. Composition, microstructure, stress and temperature affect irradiation creep less than thermal creep. Irradiation creep rates can often dominate thermal creep rates, particularly at low temperatures and low stresses. Irradiation creep mechanisms are classified in two general categories: (1) stress-induced preferential absorption and (2) climb-glide. In the former, creep results from dislocation climb, whereas in the latter, creep results from dislocation glide. The effects of irradiation creep on failure modes in nuclear environments are discussed. 53 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab

  11. Unsaturated deformable porous media flow with thermal phase transition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel; Rocca, E.; Sprekels, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 14 (2017), s. 2675-2710 ISSN 0218-2025 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12227S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : porous media * phase transitions * existence of solutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 2.860, year: 2016 http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0218202517500555

  12. Effects of superplastic deformations on thermophysical properties of tetragonal zirconia polycrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motohashi, Y.; Wan, C.; Sakuma, T.; Harjo, S.; Shibata, T.; Ishihara, M.; Baba, S.; Hoshiya, T.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron irradiation studies on superplastic zirconia-based ceramics are now in progress as an innovative basic project using the High-temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) in Japan. The characteristics of the zirconia-based engineering components, made through the formation of superplastic, may be strongly affected by their response to transient or steady-state heat flow. Reliable thermophysical properties such as the coefficients of thermal expansion and thermal conductivity are, therefore, needed to estimate and predict the influence of a high-temperature environment. Accordingly, one of this project's targets is to study the thermophysical properties of superplastic zirconia-based ceramics. The first stage of the research addresses the effects of superplastic deformations on the thermophysical properties of a typical superplastic ceramic, 3 mol% yttria-stabilised tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZP), in its un-irradiated state. First, superplastic tensile deformations were conducted on 3Y-TZP specimens under different conditions in order to obtain specimens with different microstructural characteristics. Afterwards, the following actions were taken: - Specific heat measurements were conducted on the specimens at temperatures ranging from 473 K to 1273 K. - The thermal diffusivity was measured using a laser flash method. The thermal conductivity was then calculated from the measured thermal diffusivity, specific heat and density. - The linear thermal expansion was measured by a push-rod type dilatometer from 300 K to 1473 K. The coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CTE) was estimated from the thermal expansion data. The results obtained from the above measurements are discussed, as is the microstructural evolution caused by the superplastic deformations. It was found that the specific heat was almost independent of microstructural evolution, whereas the thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion were quite sensitive to

  13. Deformed configurations, band structures and spectroscopic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... The deformed configurations and rotational band structures in =50 Ge and Se nuclei are studied by deformed Hartree–Fock with quadrupole constraint and angular momentum projection. Apart from the `almost' spherical HF solution, a well-deformed configuration occurs at low excitation. A deformed ...

  14. Interactive Character Deformation Using Simplified Elastic Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of our research into realistic skin and model deformation methods aimed at the field of character deformation and animation. The main contributions lie in the properties of our deformation scheme. Our approach preserves the volume of the deformed object while

  15. Associative and Lie deformations of Poisson algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Remm, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Considering a Poisson algebra as a non associative algebra satisfying the Markl-Remm identity, we study deformations of Poisson algebras as deformations of this non associative algebra. This gives a natural interpretation of deformations which preserves the underlying associative structure and we study deformations which preserve the underlying Lie algebra.

  16. 3D multifunctional integumentary membranes for spatiotemporal cardiac measurements and stimulation across the entire epicardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lizhi; Gutbrod, Sarah R.; Bonifas, Andrew P.; Su, Yewang; Sulkin, Matthew S.; Lu, Nanshu; Chung, Hyun-Joong; Jang, Kyung-In; Liu, Zhuangjian; Ying, Ming; Lu, Chi; Webb, R. Chad; Kim, Jong-Seon; Laughner, Jacob I.; Cheng, Huanyu; Liu, Yuhao; Ameen, Abid; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Kim, Gwang-Tae; Huang, Yonggang; Efimov, Igor R.; Rogers, John A.

    2014-02-01

    Means for high-density multiparametric physiological mapping and stimulation are critically important in both basic and clinical cardiology. Current conformal electronic systems are essentially 2D sheets, which cannot cover the full epicardial surface or maintain reliable contact for chronic use without sutures or adhesives. Here we create 3D elastic membranes shaped precisely to match the epicardium of the heart via the use of 3D printing, as a platform for deformable arrays of multifunctional sensors, electronic and optoelectronic components. Such integumentary devices completely envelop the heart, in a form-fitting manner, and possess inherent elasticity, providing a mechanically stable biotic/abiotic interface during normal cardiac cycles. Component examples range from actuators for electrical, thermal and optical stimulation, to sensors for pH, temperature and mechanical strain. The semiconductor materials include silicon, gallium arsenide and gallium nitride, co-integrated with metals, metal oxides and polymers, to provide these and other operational capabilities. Ex vivo physiological experiments demonstrate various functions and methodological possibilities for cardiac research and therapy.

  17. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Arun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it′s management both at the time of cleft lip repair

  18. Deformation of second and third quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Mir

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we will deform the second and third quantized theories by deforming the canonical commutation relations in such a way that they become consistent with the generalized uncertainty principle. Thus, we will first deform the second quantized commutator and obtain a deformed version of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Then we will further deform the third quantized theory by deforming the third quantized canonical commutation relation. This way we will obtain a deformed version of the third quantized theory for the multiverse.

  19. Thermal expansion absorbing structure for pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Takashi; Yamashita, Takuya.

    1995-01-01

    A thermal expansion absorbing structure for a pipeline is disposed to the end of pipelines to form a U-shaped cross section connecting a semi-circular torus shell and a short double-walled cylindrical tube. The U-shaped longitudinal cross-section is deformed in accordance with the shrinking deformation of the pipeline and absorbs thermal expansion. Namely, since the central lines of the outer and inner tubes of the double-walled cylindrical tube deform so as to incline, when the pipeline is deformed by thermal expansion, thermal expansion can be absorbed by a simple configuration thereby enabling to contribute to ensure the safety. Then, the entire length of the pipeline can greatly be shortened by applying it to the pipeline disposed in a high temperature state compared with a method of laying around a pipeline using only elbows, which has been conducted so far. Especially, when it is applied to a pipeline for an FBR-type reactor, the cost for the construction of a facility of a primary systems can greater be reduced. In addition, it can be applied to a pipeline for usual chemical plants and any other structures requiring absorption of deformation. (N.H.)

  20. Stochastic deformation of a thermodynamic symplectic structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kazinski, P. O.

    2008-01-01

    A stochastic deformation of a thermodynamic symplectic structure is studied. The stochastic deformation procedure is analogous to the deformation of an algebra of observables like deformation quantization, but for an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). Gauge symmetries of thermodynamics and corresponding stochastic mechanics, which describes fluctuations of a thermodynamic system, are revealed and gauge fields are introduced. A physical interpretation to the gauge transform...

  1. Volcanic deformation in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S.; Fournier, T.; Pritchard, M.

    2009-05-01

    We present the results from an InSAR survey of volcanic activity in South America. We use data from the Japanese Space Agency's ALOS L-band radar satellite from 2006-2009. The L-band instrument provides better coherence in densely vegetated regions, compared to the shorter wave length C-band data. The survey reveals volcano related deformation in regions, north, central and southern, of the Andes volcanic arc. Since observations are limited to the austral summer, comprehensive coverage of all volcanoes is not possible. Yet, our combined observations reveal volcanic/hydrothermal deformation at Lonquimay, Llaima, Laguna del Maule, and Chaitén volcanoes, extend deformation measurements at Copahue, and illustrate temporal complexity to the previously described deformation at Cerro Hudson and Cordón Caulle. No precursory deformation is apparent before the large Chaitén eruption (VEI_5) of 2 May 2008, (at least before 16 April) suggesting rapid magma movement from depth at this long dormant volcano. Subsidence at Ticsani Volcano occurred coincident with an earthquake swarm in the same region.

  2. Plastic deformation of indium nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Kim, Ju-Young; Burek, Michael J.; Greer, Julia R.; Tsui, Ting Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Indium nanopillars display two different deformation mechanisms. → ∼80% exhibited low flow stresses near that of bulk indium. → Low strength nanopillars have strain rate sensitivity similar to bulk indium. → ∼20% of compressed indium nanopillars deformed at nearly theoretical strengths. → Low-strength samples do not exhibit strength size effects. - Abstract: Mechanical properties and morphology of cylindrical indium nanopillars, fabricated by electron beam lithography and electroplating, are characterized in uniaxial compression. Time-dependent deformation and influence of size on nanoscale indium mechanical properties were investigated. The results show two fundamentally different deformation mechanisms which govern plasticity in these indium nanostructures. We observed that the majority of indium nanopillars deform at engineering stresses near the bulk values (Type I), with a small fraction sustaining flow stresses approaching the theoretical limit for indium (Type II). The results also show the strain rate sensitivity and flow stresses in Type I indium nanopillars are similar to bulk indium with no apparent size effects.

  3. Static response of deformable microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Sidhore, Tanmay C.

    2017-11-01

    Microfluidic channels manufactured from PDMS are a key component of lab-on-a-chip devices. Experimentally, rectangular microchannels are found to deform into a non-rectangular cross-section due to fluid-structure interactions. Deformation affects the flow profile, which results in a nonlinear relationship between the volumetric flow rate and the pressure drop. We develop a framework, within the lubrication approximation (l >> w >> h), to self-consistently derive flow rate-pressure drop relations. Emphasis is placed on handling different types of elastic response: from pure plate-bending, to half-space deformation, to membrane stretching. The ``simplest'' model (Stokes flow in a 3D rectangular channel capped with a linearly elastic Kirchhoff-Love plate) agrees well with recent experiments. We also simulate the static response of such microfluidic channels under laminar flow conditions using ANSYSWorkbench. Simulations are calibrated using experimental flow rate-pressure drop data from the literature. The simulations provide highly resolved deformation profiles, which are difficult to measure experimentally. By comparing simulations, experiments and our theoretical models, we show good agreement in many flow/deformation regimes, without any fitting parameters.

  4. Cyclic deformation of Nb single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiu, F.; Anglada, M.

    1982-01-01

    The temperature and strain-rate dependence of the cyclic flow stress of Nb single crystals with two different axial orientations has been studied at temperatures between 175 and 350 K. This dependence is found to be independent of the crystal orientation when the internal stresses are taken into account, and the results are discussed in terms of the theory of thermally activated dislocation glide. A transition temperature can be identified at about 250 K which separates two regions with different thermally activated deformation behaviour. Above this transition temperature the strain rate can be described by a stress power law, and the activation energy can be represented by a logarithmic function of the stress, as in Escaig's model of screw dislocation mobility. In the temperature range 170 to 250 K the results are also in agreement with the more recent model proposed by Seeger. The large experimental errors inherent in the values of activation enthalpy at low stresses are emphasized and taken into account in the discussion of the results. It is suggested that either impurity-kink interactions or the flexibility of the screw dislocations are responsible for the trend towards the high values of activation enthalpy measured at the low stresses. (author)

  5. Recovery by triple junction motion in aluminium deformed to ultrahigh strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2011-01-01

    during plastic deformation and decreases during isochronal and isothermal annealing. Based on TEM and EBSD observations, thermally activated triple junction motion is identified as the key process during the recovery of highly strained aluminium, leading to the removal of thin lamellae with small...... dihedral angles at the ends and structural coarsening. A mechanism for recovery by triple junction motion is proposed, which can underpin the general observation that a lamellar structure formed by plastic deformation during annealing can evolve into an equiaxed structure, preceding further structural...... coarsening and recrystallization. Within this framework, the grain boundary surface tension on triple junctions is discussed based on the structural parameters characterizing the deformed and annealed microstructure....

  6. Making Deformable Template Models Operational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Rune

    2000-01-01

    for estimation of the model parameters, which applies a combination of a maximum likelihood and minimum distance criterion. Another contribution is a very fast search based initialization algorithm using a filter interpretation of the likelihood model. These two methods can be applied to most deformable template......Deformable template models are a very popular and powerful tool within the field of image processing and computer vision. This thesis treats this type of models extensively with special focus on handling their common difficulties, i.e. model parameter selection, initialization and optimization....... A proper handling of the common difficulties is essential for making the models operational by a non-expert user, which is a requirement for intensifying and commercializing the use of deformable template models. The thesis is organized as a collection of the most important articles, which has been...

  7. Phonon operators in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    For the description of the excited states in deformed nuclei new phonon operators are introduced, which depend on the sign of the angular momentum projection onto the symmetry axis of a deformed nucleus. In the calculations with new phonons the Pauli principle is correctly taken into account in the two-phonon components of the wave functions. There is a difference in comparison with the calculation with phonons independent of the sign of the angular momentum projection. The new phonons should be used in deformed nuclei if the Pauli principle is consistently taken into account and in the calculations with the excited state wave functions having the components with more than one phonon operator [ru

  8. Phonon operators for deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.

    1982-01-01

    The mathematical formalism with the phonon operators independent of the signature of the angular momentum projection turns out to be inadequate for describing excited states of deformed nuclei. New phonon operators are introduced which depend on the signature of the angular momentum projection on the symmetry axis of a deformed nucleus. It is shown that the calculations with the new phonons take correctly into account the Pauli principle in two-phonon components of wave functions. The results obtained differ from those given by the phonons independent of the signature of the angular momentum projection. The new phonons must be used in deformed nuclei at taking systematically the Pauli principle into account and in calculations involving wave functions of excited states having components with more than one-phonon operator

  9. Foam rheology at large deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géminard, J.-C.; Pastenes, J. C.; Melo, F.

    2018-04-01

    Large deformations are prone to cause irreversible changes in materials structure, generally leading to either material hardening or softening. Aqueous foam is a metastable disordered structure of densely packed gas bubbles. We report on the mechanical response of a foam layer subjected to quasistatic periodic shear at large amplitude. We observe that, upon increasing shear, the shear stress follows a universal curve that is nearly exponential and tends to an asymptotic stress value interpreted as the critical yield stress at which the foam structure is completely remodeled. Relevant trends of the foam mechanical response to cycling are mathematically reproduced through a simple law accounting for the amount of plastic deformation upon increasing stress. This view provides a natural interpretation to stress hardening in foams, demonstrating that plastic effects are present in this material even for minute deformation.

  10. Toward stimulated interaction of surface phonon polaritons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, B. D.; Trew, R. J.; Kim, K. W., E-mail: kwk@ncsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7911 (United States)

    2013-12-21

    Thermal emission spectra mediated by surface phonon polariton are examined by using a theoretical model that accounts for generation processes. Specifically, the acoustic phonon fusion mechanism is introduced to remedy theoretical deficiencies of the near thermal equilibrium treatments. The model clarifies the thermal excitation mechanism of surface phonon polaritons and the energy transfer path under non-zero energy flow. When applied to GaAs and SiC semi-infinite surfaces, the nonequilibrium model predicts that the temperature dependence of the quasi-monochromatic peak can exhibit distinctly different characteristics of either sharp increase or slow saturation depending on the materials, which is in direct contrast with the estimate made by the near-equilibrium model. The proposed theoretical tool can accurately analyze the nonequilibrium steady states, potentially paving a pathway to demonstrate stimulated interaction/emission of thermally excited surface phonon polaritons.

  11. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han

    2014-07-22

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  12. Neutron scattering on deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.F.; Haight, R.C.; Pohl, B.A.; Wong, C.; Lagrange, C.

    1984-09-01

    Measurements of neutron elastic and inelastic differential cross sections around 14 MeV for 9 Be, C, 181 Ta, 232 Th, 238 U and 239 Pu have been analyzed using a coupled channel (CC) formalism for deformed nuclei and phenomenological global optical model potentials (OMP). For the actinide targets these results are compared with the predictions of a semi-microscopic calculation using Jeukenne, Lejeune and Mahaux (JLM) microscopic OMP and a deformed ground state nuclear density. The overall agreement between calculations and the measurements is reasonable good even for the very light nuclei, where the quality of the fits is better than those obtained with spherical OMP

  13. Plastic Deformation of Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2013-01-01

    of metal components. An optimization of processes and material parameters must be based on a quantification of stress and strain gradients at the surface and in near surface layer where the structural scale can reach few tens of nanometers. For such fine structures it is suggested to quantify structural...... parameters by TEM and EBSD and apply strength-structural relationships established for the bulk metal deformed to high strains. This technique has been applied to steel deformed by high energy shot peening and a calculated stress gradient at or near the surface has been successfully validated by hardness...

  14. Nucleon deformation from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapalis, A.

    2008-01-01

    The issue of nucleon and Delta(1232) deformation is discussed through the evaluation of the N to Delta electromagnetic transition and Delta electromagnetic form factors in Lattice QCD. The momentum dependence of the form factors is studied using 2+1 staggered dynamical flavors at pion masses as low as 350 MeV and compared to results obtained in the Wilson quenched and two-flavor dynamical theory at similar pion masses. The measurement of small non-zero quadrupole amplitudes, in agreement to recent experiments, establishes the existence of deformation in the N and Delta states. (author)

  15. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han; Yang, Yongliang; Wonka, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  16. Formal connections in deformation quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masulli, Paolo

    The field of this thesis is deformation quantization, and we consider mainly symplectic manifolds equipped with a star product. After reviewing basics in complex geometry, we introduce quantization, focusing on geometric quantization and deformation quantization. The latter is defined as a star...... characteristic class, and that formal connections form an affine space over the derivations of the star products. Moreover, if the parameter space for the family of star products is contractible, we obtain that any two flat formal connections are gauge equivalent via a self-equivalence of the family of star...

  17. Nanodisturbances in deformed Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutkin, Mikhail Yu.; Ishizaki, Toshitaka; Kuramoto, Shigeru; Ovid'ko, Ilya A.

    2006-01-01

    Systematic experiments have been performed to characterize defect structures in deformed Gum Metal, a special titanium alloy with high strength, low Young's modulus, excellent cold workability and low resistance to shear in certain crystallographic planes. Results from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy characterization reveal nanodisturbances (planar nanoscopic areas of local shear) as typical elements of defect structures in deformed Gum Metal. A theoretical model is suggested describing nanodisturbances as nanoscale dipoles of non-conventional partial dislocations with arbitrary, non-quantized Burgers vectors. It is shown theoretically that the homogeneous generation of nanodisturbances is energetically favorable in Gum Metal, where they effectively carry plastic flow

  18. Deformation properties of lead isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolokonnikov, S. V.; Borzov, I. N.; Lutostansky, Yu. S.; Saperstein, E. E.

    2016-01-01

    The deformation properties of a long lead isotopic chain up to the neutron drip line are analyzed on the basis of the energy density functional (EDF) in the FaNDF 0 Fayans form. The question of whether the ground state of neutron-deficient lead isotopes can have a stable deformation is studied in detail. The prediction of this deformation is contained in the results obtained on the basis of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 Skyrme EDF versions and reported on Internet. The present analysis reveals that this is at odds with experimental data on charge radii and magnetic moments of odd lead isotopes. The Fayans EDF version predicts a spherical ground state for all light lead isotopes, but some of them (for example, 180 Pb and 184 Pb) prove to be very soft—that is, close to the point of a phase transition to a deformed state. Also, the results obtained in our present study are compared with the predictions of some other Skyrme EDF versions, including SKM*, SLy4, SLy6, and UNE1. By and large, their predictions are closer to the results arising upon the application of the Fayans functional. For example, the SLy4 functional predicts, in just the same way as the FaNDF 0 functional, a spherical shape for all nuclei of this region. The remaining three Skyrme EDF versions lead to a deformation of some light lead isotopes, but their number is substantially smaller than that in the case of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 functionals. Moreover, the respective deformation energy is substantially lower, which gives grounds to hope for the restoration of a spherical shape upon going beyond the mean-field approximation, which we use here. Also, the deformation properties of neutron-rich lead isotopes are studied up to the neutron drip line. Here, the results obtained with the FaNDF 0 functional are compared with the predictions of the HFB-17, HFB-27, SKM*, and SLy4 Skyrme EDF versions. All of the EDF versions considered here predict the existence of a region where neutron-rich lead isotopes undergo

  19. Monitoring the Deformation of High-Rise Buildings in Shanghai Luijiazui Zone by Tomo-Psinsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L. F.; Ma, P. F.; Xia, Y.; Xie, C. H.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we utilize a Tomography-based Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (Tomo-PSInSAR) approach for monitoring the deformation performances of high-rise buildings, i.e. SWFC and Jin Mao Tower, in Shanghai Lujiazui Zone. For the purpose of this study, we use 31 Stripmap acquisitions from TerraSAR-X missions, spanning from December 2009 to February 2013. Considering thermal expansion, creep and shrinkage are two long-term movements that occur in high-rise buildings with concrete structures, we use an extended 4-D SAR phase model, and three parameters (height, deformation velocity, and thermal amplitude) are estimated simultaneously. Moreover, we apply a two-tier network strategy to detect single and double PSs with no need for preliminary removal of the atmospheric phase screen (APS) in the study area, avoiding possible error caused by the uncertainty in spatiotemporal filtering. Thermal expansion is illustrated in the thermal amplitude map, and deformation due to creep and shrinkage is revealed in the linear deformation velocity map. The thermal amplitude map demonstrates that the derived thermal amplitude of the two high-rise buildings both dilate and contract periodically, which is highly related to the building height due to the upward accumulative effect of thermal expansion. The linear deformation velocity map reveals that SWFC is subject to deformation during the new built period due to creep and shrinkage, which is height-dependent movements in the linear velocity map. It is worth mention that creep and shrinkage induces movements that increase with the increasing height in the downward direction. In addition, the deformation rates caused by creep and shrinkage are largest at the beginning and gradually decrease, and at last achieve a steady state as time goes infinity. On the contrary, the linear deformation velocity map shows that Jin Mao Tower is almost stable, and the reason is that it is an old built building, which is not influenced by creep

  20. MONITORING THE DEFORMATION OF HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS IN SHANGHAI LUIJIAZUI ZONE BY TOMO-PSINSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we utilize a Tomography-based Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (Tomo-PSInSAR approach for monitoring the deformation performances of high-rise buildings, i.e. SWFC and Jin Mao Tower, in Shanghai Lujiazui Zone. For the purpose of this study, we use 31 Stripmap acquisitions from TerraSAR-X missions, spanning from December 2009 to February 2013. Considering thermal expansion, creep and shrinkage are two long-term movements that occur in high-rise buildings with concrete structures, we use an extended 4-D SAR phase model, and three parameters (height, deformation velocity, and thermal amplitude are estimated simultaneously. Moreover, we apply a two-tier network strategy to detect single and double PSs with no need for preliminary removal of the atmospheric phase screen (APS in the study area, avoiding possible error caused by the uncertainty in spatiotemporal filtering. Thermal expansion is illustrated in the thermal amplitude map, and deformation due to creep and shrinkage is revealed in the linear deformation velocity map. The thermal amplitude map demonstrates that the derived thermal amplitude of the two high-rise buildings both dilate and contract periodically, which is highly related to the building height due to the upward accumulative effect of thermal expansion. The linear deformation velocity map reveals that SWFC is subject to deformation during the new built period due to creep and shrinkage, which is height-dependent movements in the linear velocity map. It is worth mention that creep and shrinkage induces movements that increase with the increasing height in the downward direction. In addition, the deformation rates caused by creep and shrinkage are largest at the beginning and gradually decrease, and at last achieve a steady state as time goes infinity. On the contrary, the linear deformation velocity map shows that Jin Mao Tower is almost stable, and the reason is that it is an old built building, which is not

  1. Multi-dimensional SAR tomography for monitoring the deformation of newly built concrete buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peifeng; Lin, Hui; Lan, Hengxing; Chen, Fulong

    2015-08-01

    Deformation often occurs in buildings at early ages, and the constant inspection of deformation is of significant importance to discover possible cracking and avoid wall failure. This paper exploits the multi-dimensional SAR tomography technique to monitor the deformation performances of two newly built buildings (B1 and B2) with a special focus on the effects of concrete creep and shrinkage. To separate the nonlinear thermal expansion from total deformations, the extended 4-D SAR technique is exploited. The thermal map estimated from 44 TerraSAR-X images demonstrates that the derived thermal amplitude is highly related to the building height due to the upward accumulative effect of thermal expansion. The linear deformation velocity map reveals that B1 is subject to settlement during the construction period, in addition, the creep and shrinkage of B1 lead to wall shortening that is a height-dependent movement in the downward direction, and the asymmetrical creep of B2 triggers wall deflection that is a height-dependent movement in the deflection direction. It is also validated that the extended 4-D SAR can rectify the bias of estimated wall shortening and wall deflection by 4-D SAR.

  2. Deformations of the Almheiri-Polchinski model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyono, Hideki; Okumura, Suguru; Yoshida, Kentaroh [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-03-31

    We study deformations of the Almheiri-Polchinski (AP) model by employing the Yang-Baxter deformation technique. The general deformed AdS{sub 2} metric becomes a solution of a deformed AP model. In particular, the dilaton potential is deformed from a simple quadratic form to a hyperbolic function-type potential similarly to integrable deformations. A specific solution is a deformed black hole solution. Because the deformation makes the spacetime structure around the boundary change drastically and a new naked singularity appears, the holographic interpretation is far from trivial. The Hawking temperature is the same as the undeformed case but the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is modified due to the deformation. This entropy can also be reproduced by evaluating the renormalized stress tensor with an appropriate counter-term on the regularized screen close to the singularity.

  3. Research and field tests of staged fracturing technology for casing deformation sections in horizontal shale gas wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimeng Liao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal shale gas well fracturing is mostly carried out by pumping bridge plugs. In the case of casing deformation, the bridge plug can not be pumped down to the designated position, so the hole sections below the deformation could not be stimulated according to the design program. About 30% of horizontal shale gas wells in the Changning and Weiyuan Blocks, Sichuan Basin, suffer various casing deformation after fracturing. Previously, the hole sections which could not be stimulated due to casing deformation were generally abandoned. As a result, the resources controlled by shale gas wells weren't exploited effectively and the fracturing effect was impacted greatly. There are a lot of difficulties in investigating casing deformation, such as complex mechanisms, various influencing factors and unpredictable deformation time. Therefore, it is especially important to seek a staged fracturing technology suitable for the casing deformation sections. In this paper, the staged fracturing technology with sand plugs inside fractures and the staged fracturing technology with temporary plugging balls were tested in casing deformation wells. The staged fracturing technology with sand plugs inside fractures was carried out in the mode of single-stage perforation and single-stage fracturing. The staged fracturing technology with temporary plugging balls was conducted in the mode of single perforation, continuous fracturing and staged ball dropping. Then, two kinds of technologies were compared in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, they were tested on site. According to the pressure response, the pressure monitoring of the adjacent wells and the microseismic monitoring in the process of actual fracturing, both technologies are effective in the stimulation of the casing deformation sections, realizing well control reserves efficiently and guaranteeing fracturing effects. Keywords: Shale gas, Horizontal well, Casing deformation, Staged

  4. Thermal comfort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is influenced by environmental parameters as well as other influences including asymmetric heating and cooling conditions. Additionally, some aspects of thermal comfort may be exploited so as to enable a building to operate within a...

  5. Gate-tunable gigantic lattice deformation in VO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, D.; Hatano, T.; Nakano, M.; Takeshita, S.; Ohsumi, H.; Tardif, S.; Shibuya, K.; Yumoto, H.; Koyama, T.; Ohashi, H.; Takata, M.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.; Iwasa, Y.; Arima, T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the impact of electric field on crystal lattice of vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) in a field-effect transistor geometry by in-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements. Whereas the c-axis lattice parameter of VO 2 decreases through the thermally induced insulator-to-metal phase transition, the gate-induced metallization was found to result in a significant increase of the c-axis length by almost 1% from that of the thermally stabilized insulating state. We also found that this gate-induced gigantic lattice deformation occurs even at the thermally stabilized metallic state, enabling dynamic control of c-axis lattice parameter by more than 1% at room temperature

  6. Deformable Models for Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Leimberg, Denis; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2005-01-01

    A deformable template method for eye tracking on full face images is presented. The strengths of the method are that it is fast and retains accuracy independently of the resolution. We compare the me\\$\\backslash\\$-thod with a state of the art active contour approach, showing that the heuristic...

  7. Orbita - Anatomy, development and deformities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, K.M.; Reith, W.; Golinski, M.; Schroeder, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the structures of the human orbita is very complex, but understanding the development makes it easier to understand normal anatomy and dysplasia. The following article first discusses the embryonic development of the eye structures and then presents the ''normal'' radiological anatomy using different investigation techniques and the most common deformities. (orig.) [de

  8. Deformations of topological open strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, C.; Ma, Whee Ky

    Deformations of topological open string theories are described, with an emphasis on their algebraic structure. They are encoded in the mixed bulk-boundary correlators. They constitute the Hochschild complex of the open string algebra - the complex of multilinear maps on the boundary Hilbert space.

  9. Simulation of rock deformation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Я. И. Рудаев

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A task of simulating the deformation behavior of geomaterials under compression with account of over-extreme branch has been addressed. The physical nature of rock properties variability as initially inhomogeneous material is explained by superposition of deformation and structural transformations of evolutionary type within open nonequilibrium systems. Due to this the description of deformation and failure of rock is related to hierarchy of instabilities within the system being far from thermodynamic equilibrium. It is generally recognized, that the energy function of the current stress-strain state is a superposition of potential component and disturbance, which includes the imperfection parameter accounting for defects not only existing in the initial state, but also appearing under load. The equation of state has been obtained by minimizing the energy function by the order parameter. The imperfection parameter is expressed through the strength deterioration, which is viewed as the internal parameter of state. The evolution of strength deterioration has been studied with the help of Fokker – Planck equation, which steady form corresponds to rock statical stressing. Here the diffusion coefficient is assumed to be constant, while the function reflecting internal sliding and loosening of the geomaterials is assumed as an antigradient of elementary integration catastrophe. Thus the equation of state is supplemented with a correlation establishing relationship between parameters of imperfection and strength deterioration. While deformation process is identified with the change of dissipative media, coupled with irreversible structural fluctuations. Theoretical studies are proven with experimental data obtained by subjecting certain rock specimens to compression.

  10. Deformation Driven Alloying and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-03

    process is a repeated deformation and welding or folding of particles or layers that allows for strain levels in excess of 100 as shown in Fig.1. The...complete transformation yielded a duplex product of metastable BCC and FCC solid solutions. Another form of mechanochemical transduction is

  11. Coherent gradient sensing method for measuring thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coherent gradient sensing (CGS method can be used to measure the slope of a reflective surface, and has the merits of full-field, non-contact, and real-time measurement. In this study, the thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating (TBC structures is measured by CGS method. Two kinds of powders were sprayed onto Ni-based alloy using a plasma spraying method to obtain two groups of film–substrate specimens. The specimens were then heated with an oxy-acetylene flame. The resulting thermal mismatch between the film and substrate led to out-of-plane deformation of the specimen. The deformation was measured by the reflective CGS method and the thermal stress field of the structure was obtained through calibration with the help of finite element analysis. Both the experiment and numerical results showed that the thermal stress field of TBC structures can be successfully measured by CGS method.

  12. A Novel Method of Modeling the Deformation Resistance for Clad Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jianliang; Yi Youping; Xie Mantang

    2011-01-01

    Because of the excellent thermal conductivity, the clad sheet (3003/4004/3003) of aluminum alloy is extensively used in various heat exchangers, such as radiator, motorcar air conditioning, evaporator, and so on. The deformation resistance model plays an important role in designing the process parameters of hot continuous rolling. However, the complex behaviors of the plastic deformation of the clad sheet make the modeling very difficult. In this work, a novel method for modeling the deformation resistance of clad sheet was proposed by combining the finite element analysis with experiments. The deformation resistance model of aluminum 3003 and 4004 was proposed through hot compression test on the Gleeble-1500 thermo-simulation machine. And the deformation resistance model of clad sheet was proposed through finite element analysis using DEFORM-2D software. The relationship between cladding ratio and the deformation resistance was discussed in detail. The results of hot compression simulation demonstrate that the cladding ratio has great effects on the resistance of the clad sheet. Taking the cladding ratio into consideration, the mathematical model of the deformation resistance for clad sheet has been proved to have perfect forecasting precision of different cladding ratio. Therefore, the presented model can be used to predict the rolling force of clad sheet during the hot continuous rolling process.

  13. Treatment of hallux valgus deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraissler, Lukas; Konrads, Christian; Hoberg, Maik; Rudert, Maximilian; Walcher, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Hallux valgus deformity is a very common pathological condition which commonly produces painful disability. It is characterised as a combined deformity with a malpositioning of the first metatarsophalangeal joint caused by a lateral deviation of the great toe and a medial deviation of the first metatarsal bone.Taking the patient's history and a thorough physical examination are important steps. Anteroposterior and lateral weight-bearing radiographs of the entire foot are crucial for adequate assessment in the treatment of hallux valgus.Non-operative treatment of the hallux valgus cannot correct the deformity. However, insoles and physiotherapy in combination with good footwear can help to control the symptoms.There are many operative techniques for hallux valgus correction. The decision on which surgical technique is used depends on the degree of deformity, the extent of degenerative changes of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and the shape and size of the metatarsal bone and phalangeal deviation. The role of stability of the first tarsometatarsal joint is controversial.Surgical techniques include the modified McBride procedure, distal metatarsal osteotomies, metatarsal shaft osteotomies, the Akin osteotomy, proximal metatarsal osteotomies, the modified Lapidus fusion and the hallux joint fusion. Recently, minimally invasive percutaneous techniques have gained importance and are currently being evaluated more scientifically.Hallux valgus correction is followed by corrective dressings of the great toe post-operatively. Depending on the procedure, partial or full weight-bearing in a post-operative shoe or cast immobilisation is advised. Post-operative radiographs are taken in regular intervals until osseous healing is achieved. Cite this article: Fraissler L, Konrads C, Hoberg M, Rudert M, Walcher M. Treatment of hallux valgus deformity. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:295-302. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000005.

  14. Thorax deformity, joint hypermobility and anxiety disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulsun, M.; Dumlu, K.; Erbas, M.; Yilmaz, Mehmet B.; Pinar, M.; Tonbul, M.; Celik, C.; Ozdemir, B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to evaluate the association between thorax deformities, panic disorder and joint hypermobility. The study includes 52 males diagnosed with thorax deformity, and 40 healthy male controls without thorax deformity, in Tatvan Bitlis and Isparta, Turkey. The study was carried out from 2004 to 2006. The teleradiographic and thoracic lateral images of the subjects were evaluated to obtain the Beighton scores; subjects psychiatric conditions were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-1), and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) was applied in order to determine the anxiety levels. Both the subjects and controls were compared in sociodemographic, anxiety levels and joint mobility levels. In addition, males with joint hypermobility and thorax deformity were compared to the group with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. A significant difference in HAM-A scores was found between the groups with thorax deformity and without. In addition, 21 subjects with thorax deformity met the joint hypermobility criteria in the group with thorax deformity and 7 subjects without thorax deformity met the joint hypermobility criteria in the group without thorax deformity, according to Beighton scoring. The Beighton score of subjects with thorax deformity were significantly different from those of the group without deformity. Additionally, anxiety scores of the males with thorax deformity and joint hypermobility were found higher than males with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. Anxiety disorders, particularly panic disorder, have a significantly higher distribution in males subjects with thorax deformity compared to the healthy control group. In addition, the anxiety level of males with thorax deformity and joint hypermobility is higher than males with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. (author)

  15. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormos, J M; Catalá, M D; Pascual-Leone, A

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) permits stimulation of the cerebral cortex in humans without requiring open access to the brain and is one of the newest tools available in neuroscience. There are two main types of application: single-pulse TMS and repetitive TMS. The magnetic stimulator is composed of a series of capacitors that store the voltage necessary to generate a stimulus of the sufficient intensity of generate an electric field in the stimulation coil. The safety of TMS is supported by the considerable experience derived from studies involving electrical stimulation of the cortex in animals and humans, and also specific studies on the safety of TMS in humans. In this article we review historical and technical aspects of TMS, describe its adverse effects and how to avoid them, summarize the applications of TMS in the investigation of different cerebral functions, and discuss the possibility of using TMS for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  16. Highly deformable bones: unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael M; Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Castro-Ceseña, Ana Bertha; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    Multifunctional materials and devices found in nature serve as inspiration for advanced synthetic materials, structures and robotics. Here, we elucidate the architecture and unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse tails that provide prehension as well as protection against predators. The seahorse tail is composed of subdermal bony plates arranged in articulating ring-like segments that overlap for controlled ventral bending and twisting. The bony plates are highly deformable materials designed to slide past one another and buckle when compressed. This complex plate and segment motion, along with the unique hardness distribution and structural hierarchy of each plate, provide seahorses with joint flexibility while shielding them against impact and crushing. Mimicking seahorse armor may lead to novel bio-inspired technologies, such as flexible armor, fracture-resistant structures or prehensile robotics. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nanoscale thermal transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, David G.; Ford, Wayne K.; Goodson, Kenneth E.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Majumdar, Arun; Maris, Humphrey J.; Merlin, Roberto; Phillpot, Simon R.

    2003-01-01

    promise of improved thermoelectric materials and problems of thermal management of optoelectronic devices have stimulated extensive studies of semiconductor superlattices; agreement between experiment and theory is generally poor. Advances in measurement methods, e.g., the 3ω method, time-domain thermoreflectance, sources of coherent phonons, microfabricated test structures, and the scanning thermal microscope, are enabling new capabilities for nanoscale thermal metrology.

  18. On deformations of linear differential systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gontsov, R.R.; Poberezhnyi, V.A.; Helminck, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    This article concerns deformations of meromorphic linear differential systems. Problems relating to their existence and classification are reviewed, and the global and local behaviour of solutions to deformation equations in a neighbourhood of their singular set is analysed. Certain classical

  19. Deformed configurations, band structures and spectroscopic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... Our study gives insight into possible deformed structures at spherical shell closure. ... Considerable experimental and theoretical efforts ... True deformation effects can be seen only by considering configuration mixing.

  20. The effect of pre-dose on thermally and optically stimulated luminescence from α-Al2O3:C,Mg and α-Al2O3:C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, J M; Chithambo, M L

    2018-06-15

    We report the effect of pre-dose on the thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dose response of α-Al 2 O 3 :C,Mg and α-Al 2 O 3 :C. Before any luminescence measurement, the samples were irradiated with different doses, namely 100, 500 and 1000 Gy to populate the deep electron traps. This is the pre-dose. The results from TL and OSL studies are compared with results from samples used without any pre-measurement dose. The TL glow curves and OSL decay curves of α-Al 2 O 3 :C,Mg recorded after pre-doses of 100, 500 and 1000 Gy are identical to those from a sample used without any pre-dose. Further, the TL and OSL dose response of all α-Al 2 O 3 :C,Mg samples are similar regardless of pre-dose. In comparison, the TL glow curves and OSL decay curves of α-Al 2 O 3 :C are influenced by pre-dose. We conclude that the differences in the TL and OSL dose response of various pre-dosed samples of α-Al 2 O 3 :C are due to the concentration of charge in the deep traps. On the other hand, owing to the lower concentration of such deep traps in α-Al 2 O 3 :C,Mg, the TL or OSL dose responses are not affected by pre-dose in this material. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Music acupuncture stimulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brătilă, F; Moldovan, C

    2007-01-01

    Harmonic Medicine is the model using the theory that the body rhythms synchronize to an outer rhythm applied for therapeutic purpose, can restores the energy balance in acupuncture channels and organs and the condition of well-being. The purpose of this scientific work was to demonstrate the role played by harmonic sounds in the stimulation of the Lung (LU) Meridian (Shoutaiyin Feijing) and of the Kidney (KI) Meridian (Zushaoyin Shenjing). It was used an original method that included: measurement and electronic sound stimulation of the Meridian Entry Point, measurement of Meridian Exit Point, computer data processing, bio feed-back adjustment of the music stimulation parameters. After data processing, it was found that the sound stimulation of the Lung Meridian Frequency is optimal between 122 Hz and 128 Hz, with an average of 124 Hz (87% of the subjects) and for Kidney Meridian from 118 Hz to 121 Hz, with an average of 120 Hz (67% of the subjects). The acupuncture stimulation was more intense for female subjects (> 7%) than for the male ones. We preliminarily consider that an informational resonance phenomenon can be developed between the acupuncture music stimulation frequency and the cellular dipole frequency, being a really "resonant frequency signature" of an acupoint. The harmonic generation and the electronic excitation or low-excitation status of an acupuncture point may be considered as a resonance mechanism. By this kind of acupunctural stimulation, a symphony may act and play a healer role.

  2. Shell effects in the nuclear deformation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, C.K.

    1973-01-01

    A new approach to shell effects in the Strutinsky method for calculating nuclear deformation energy is evaluated and the suggestion of non-conservation of angular momentum in the same method is resolved. Shell effects on the deformation energy in rotational bands of deformed nuclei are discussed. (B.F.G.)

  3. Conformal deformation of Riemann space and torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyzh, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    Method for investigating conformal deformations of Riemann spaces using torsion tensor, which permits to reduce the second ' order equations for Killing vectors to the system of the first order equations, is presented. The method is illustrated using conformal deformations of dimer sphere as an example. A possibility of its use when studying more complex deformations is discussed [ru

  4. Deformation limits of polymer coated metal sheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Bosch, M.J.W.J.P.; Schreurs, P.J.G; Geers, M.G.D.

    2005-01-01

    Polymer coated metals are increasingly used by the packaging and automotive industry. During industrial deformation processes (drawing, roll-forming, bending etc.) the polymer-metal laminate is highly deformed at high deformation rates. These forming conditions can affect the mechanical integrity

  5. Problem of ''deformed'' superheavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobiczewski, A.; Patyk, Z.; Muntian, I.

    2000-08-01

    Problem of experimental confirmation of deformed shapes of superheavy nuclei situated in the neighbourhood of 270 Hs is discussed. Measurement of the energy E 2+ of the lowest 2+ state in even-even species of these nuclei is considered as a method for this confirmation. The energy is calculated in the cranking approximation for heavy and superheavy nuclei. The branching ratio p 2+ /p 0+ between α decay of a nucleus to this lowest 2+ state and to the ground state 0+ of its daughter is also calculated for these nuclei. The results indicate that a measurement of the energy E 2+ for some superheavy nuclei by electron or α spectroscopy is a promising method for the confirmation of their deformed shapes. (orig.)

  6. Deformation properties of lead isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolokonnikov, S. V.; Borzov, I. N.; Lutostansky, Yu. S.; Saperstein, E. E., E-mail: saper43-7@mail.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The deformation properties of a long lead isotopic chain up to the neutron drip line are analyzed on the basis of the energy density functional (EDF) in the FaNDF{sup 0} Fayans form. The question of whether the ground state of neutron-deficient lead isotopes can have a stable deformation is studied in detail. The prediction of this deformation is contained in the results obtained on the basis of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 Skyrme EDF versions and reported on Internet. The present analysis reveals that this is at odds with experimental data on charge radii and magnetic moments of odd lead isotopes. The Fayans EDF version predicts a spherical ground state for all light lead isotopes, but some of them (for example, {sup 180}Pb and {sup 184}Pb) prove to be very soft—that is, close to the point of a phase transition to a deformed state. Also, the results obtained in our present study are compared with the predictions of some other Skyrme EDF versions, including SKM*, SLy4, SLy6, and UNE1. By and large, their predictions are closer to the results arising upon the application of the Fayans functional. For example, the SLy4 functional predicts, in just the same way as the FaNDF{sup 0} functional, a spherical shape for all nuclei of this region. The remaining three Skyrme EDF versions lead to a deformation of some light lead isotopes, but their number is substantially smaller than that in the case of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 functionals. Moreover, the respective deformation energy is substantially lower, which gives grounds to hope for the restoration of a spherical shape upon going beyond the mean-field approximation, which we use here. Also, the deformation properties of neutron-rich lead isotopes are studied up to the neutron drip line. Here, the results obtained with the FaNDF{sup 0} functional are compared with the predictions of the HFB-17, HFB-27, SKM*, and SLy4 Skyrme EDF versions. All of the EDF versions considered here predict the existence of a region where neutron

  7. Deformations of super Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninnemann, H.

    1992-01-01

    Two different approaches to (Konstant-Leites-) super Riemann surfaces are investigated. In the local approach, i.e. glueing open superdomains by superconformal transition functions, deformations of the superconformal structure are discussed. On the other hand, the representation of compact super Riemann surfaces of genus greater than one as a fundamental domain in the Poincare upper half-plane provides a simple description of super Laplace operators acting on automorphic p-forms. Considering purely odd deformations of super Riemann surfaces, the number of linear independent holomorphic sections of arbitrary holomorphic line bundles will be shown to be independent of the odd moduli, leading to a simple proof of the Riemann-Roch theorem for compact super Riemann surfaces. As a further consequence, the explicit connections between determinants of super Laplacians and Selberg's super zeta functions can be determined, allowing to calculate at least the 2-loop contribution to the fermionic string partition function. (orig.)

  8. Deformations of super Riemann surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninnemann, H [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1992-11-01

    Two different approaches to (Konstant-Leites-) super Riemann surfaces are investigated. In the local approach, i.e. glueing open superdomains by superconformal transition functions, deformations of the superconformal structure are discussed. On the other hand, the representation of compact super Riemann surfaces of genus greater than one as a fundamental domain in the Poincare upper half-plane provides a simple description of super Laplace operators acting on automorphic p-forms. Considering purely odd deformations of super Riemann surfaces, the number of linear independent holomorphic sections of arbitrary holomorphic line bundles will be shown to be independent of the odd moduli, leading to a simple proof of the Riemann-Roch theorem for compact super Riemann surfaces. As a further consequence, the explicit connections between determinants of super Laplacians and Selberg's super zeta functions can be determined, allowing to calculate at least the 2-loop contribution to the fermionic string partition function. (orig.).

  9. Performance through Deformation and Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Katia

    2015-03-01

    Materials capable of undergoing large deformations like elastomers and gels are ubiquitous in daily life and nature. An exciting field of engineering is emerging that uses these compliant materials to design active devices, such as actuators, adaptive optical systems and self-regulating fluidics. Compliant structures may significantly change their architecture in response to diverse stimuli. When excessive deformation is applied, they may eventually become unstable. Traditionally, mechanical instabilities have been viewed as an inconvenience, with research focusing on how to avoid them. Here, I will demonstrate that these instabilities can be exploited to design materials with novel, switchable functionalities. The abrupt changes introduced into the architecture of soft materials by instabilities will be used to change their shape in a sudden, but controlled manner. Possible and exciting applications include materials with unusual properties such negative Poisson's ratio, phononic crystals with tunable low-frequency acoustic band gaps and reversible encapsulation systems.

  10. Deterritorializing Drawing - transformation/deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2012-01-01

    but also from within by sensations, body ‘images’ are different to all other images. Twisting these body images make a mode of operation of art. The paper will address the above issues discussing modes of operation and appearance of my actual project. Acting in the reality of drawing, the project confront...... criticises figurative as well as abstract painting as passing through the brain and not acting directly upon the senses. Figurative and abstract painting both fail to liberate the Figure, implementing transformation of form, but not attaining deformations of bodies. Bacon, then, is concerned about...... deformation, about painting the sensation, which is essentially rhythm, making Figure-rhythm relations appear as vibrations that flow through the body - making resonance. Deleuze, with Bergson, argues that art extracts ’a little time in a pure state’ from the everyday repetitions, and thereby opens...

  11. Deformation-driven diffusion and plastic flow in amorphous granular pillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbin; Rieser, Jennifer M; Liu, Andrea J; Durian, Douglas J; Li, Ju

    2015-06-01

    We report a combined experimental and simulation study of deformation-induced diffusion in compacted quasi-two-dimensional amorphous granular pillars, in which thermal fluctuations play a negligible role. The pillars, consisting of bidisperse cylindrical acetal plastic particles standing upright on a substrate, are deformed uniaxially and quasistatically by a rigid bar moving at a constant speed. The plastic flow and particle rearrangements in the pillars are characterized by computing the best-fit affine transformation strain and nonaffine displacement associated with each particle between two stages of deformation. The nonaffine displacement exhibits exponential crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior with respect to the cumulative deviatoric strain, indicating that in athermal granular packings, the cumulative deviatoric strain plays the role of time in thermal systems and drives effective particle diffusion. We further study the size-dependent deformation of the granular pillars by simulation, and find that different-sized pillars follow self-similar shape evolution during deformation. In addition, the yield stress of the pillars increases linearly with pillar size. Formation of transient shear lines in the pillars during deformation becomes more evident as pillar size increases. The width of these elementary shear bands is about twice the diameter of a particle, and does not vary with pillar size.

  12. Deformation Analysis of the Main Components in a Single Screw Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feilong; Liao, Xueli; Feng, Quanke; Van Den Broek, Martijn; De Paepe, Michel

    2015-08-01

    The single screw compressor is used in many fields such as air compression, chemical industry and refrigeration. During operation, different gas pressures and temperatures applied on the components can cause different degrees of deformation, which leads to a difference between the thermally induced clearance and the designed clearance. However, limited research about clearance design is reported. In this paper, a temperature measurement instrument and a convective heat transfer model were described and used to establish the temperature of a single screw air compressor's casing, screw rotor and star wheel. 3-D models of these three main components were built. The gas force deformation, thermal- structure deformation and thermal-force coupling deformation were carried out by using a finite element simulation method. Results show that the clearance between the bottom of the groove and the top of star wheel is reduced by 0.066 mm, the clearance between the side of groove and the star wheel is reduced by 0.015 mm, and the clearance between the cylinder and the rotor is reduced by 0.01 mm. It is suggested that these deformations should be taken into account during the design of these clearances.

  13. Deterritorializing Drawing - transformation/deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2012-01-01

    but also from within by sensations, body ‘images’ are different to all other images. Twisting these body images make a mode of operation of art. The paper will address the above issues discussing modes of operation and appearance of my actual project. Acting in the reality of drawing, the project confront...... the body, situated in real time and depth, with drawing transforming and deforming time and depth....

  14. Hindfoot Arthrodesis for Neuropathic Deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Ju Huang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Acquired neurologic disorders of the foot lead to arthrosis, deformities, instabilities, and functional disabilities. Hindfoot arthrodesis is the current option available for irreducible or nonbraceable deformities of neuropathic feet. However, the role of ankle arthrodesis in these patients has been questioned because of high nonunion and complication rates. From 1990 to 2001, 17 cases of acquired neuropathic foot deformities were treated by four tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC arthrodeses and 13 ankle arthrodeses. TTC arthrodesis was performed on cases with combined ankle and subtalar arthritis or cases whose deformities or instabilities could not be corrected by ankle fusion alone. There was no nonunion of TTC arthrodesis and seven ununited ankle arthrodeses were salvaged by two TTC-attempted arthrodeses and five revision ankle-attempted arthrodeses. Eventually in these cases, there was one nonunion in TTC arthrodesis and one nonunion in revision ankle arthrodesis. The final fusion rate was 88% (15 of 17 cases with average union time of 6.9 months (range, 2.5–18 months. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle hind-foot functional scores were evaluated: one was excellent (5.8%, seven were good (41%, eight were fair (53.3%, and one was poor (5.8% in terms of total functional outcome. We conclude that TTC arthrodesis is indicated for cases with ankle and subtalar involvement and ankle arthrodesis is an alternative for cases with intact subtalar joint. We recommend revision ankle arthrodesis if the ankle fails to fuse and the bone stock of the talus is adequate. TTC arthrodesis is reserved for ankles with poor bone stock of the talus with fragmentation.

  15. ABOUT THE STUDY OF THE THERMAL STRESS FOR NAVAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANASASE PRUIU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented and analyzed the effects of thermal expansion on gas evacuation piping from naval power plants an d technical protection possibilities to prevent structures from deformations; also are analyzed the possibilities for the use of thermal expansion for tightening the main screws for power plant propulsion.

  16. Faraday instability in deformable domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucci, G.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrodynamical instabilities are usually studied either in bounded regions or free to grow in space. In this article we review the experimental results of an intermediate situation, in which an instability develops in deformable domains. The Faraday instability, which consists in the formation of surface waves on a liquid experiencing a vertical forcing, is triggered in floating liquid lenses playing the role of deformable domains. Faraday waves deform the lenses from the initial circular shape and the mutual adaptation of instability patterns with the lens boundary is observed. Two archetypes of behaviour have been found. In the first archetype a stable elongated shape is reached, the wave vector being parallel to the direction of elongation. In the second archetype the waves exceed the response of the lens border and no equilibrium shape is reached. The lens stretches and eventually breaks into fragments that have a complex dynamics. The difference between the two archetypes is explained by the competition between the radiation pressure the waves exert on the lens border and its response due to surface tension.

  17. Thermal insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspden, G.J.; Howard, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns high temperature thermal insulation of large vessels, such as the primary vessel of a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor. The thermal insulation consists of multilayered thermal insulation modules, and each module comprises a number of metal sheet layers sandwiched between a back and front plate. The layers are linked together by straps and clips to control the thickness of the module. (U.K.)

  18. Quantification and validation of soft tissue deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Christensen, Lars Bager

    2009-01-01

    We present a model for soft tissue deformation derived empirically from 10 pig carcases. The carcasses are subjected to deformation from a known single source of pressure located at the skin surface, and the deformation is quantified by means of steel markers injected into the tissue. The steel...... markers are easy to distinguish from the surrounding soft tissue in 3D computed tomography images. By tracking corresponding markers using methods from point-based registration, we are able to accurately quantify the magnitude and propagation of the induced deformation. The deformation is parameterised...

  19. Atomistic simulation study of deformation twinning of nanocrystalline body-centered cubic Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Xiaofeng [The College of Nuclear Technology and Automation Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu (China); Li, Dan, E-mail: txf8378@163.com [The College of Nuclear Technology and Automation Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu (China); Yu, You [College of Optoelectronic Technology, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu (China); You, Zhen Jiang [Australian School of Petroleum, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Li, Tongye [The National Key Laboratory of Nuclear Fuel and Materials, Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu (China); Ge, Liangquan [The College of Nuclear Technology and Automation Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu (China)

    2017-04-06

    Deformation twinning of nanocrystalline body-centered cubic Mo was studied using molecular dynamics simulations, and the effects of grain sizes and temperatures on the deformation were evaluated. With small grain size, grain rotation accompanying grain growth was found to play important role in nanocrystalline Mo during tensile deformation. Additionally, grain rotation and the deformation controlled by GB-mediated processes induce to the difficulty of creating crack. Twin was formed by successive emission of twinning partials from grain boundaries in small grain size systems. However, the twin mechanisms of GB splitting and overlapping of two extended dislocations were also found in larger size grain. Twin induced crack tips were observed in our simulation, and this confirmed the results of previous molecular dynamics simulations. At higher temperatures, GB activities can be thermally activated, resulting in suppression of twinning tendency and improvement of ductility of nanocrystalline Mo.

  20. Filament networks attached to membranes: cytoskeletal pressure and local bilayer deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auth, Thorsten; Safran, S A; Gov, Nir S

    2007-01-01

    Several cell types, among them red blood cells, have a cortical, two-dimensional (2D) network of filaments sparsely attached to their lipid bilayer. In many mammalian cells, this 2D polymer network is connected to an underlying 3D, more rigid cytoskeleton. In this paper, we consider the pressure exerted by the thermally fluctuating, cortical network of filaments on the bilayer and predict the bilayer deformations that are induced by this pressure. We treat the filaments as flexible polymers and calculate the pressure that a network of such linear chains exerts on the bilayer; we then minimize the bilayer shape in order to predict the resulting local deformations. We compare our predictions with membrane deformations observed in electron micrographs of red blood cells. The polymer pressure along with the resulting membrane deformation can lead to compartmentalization, regulate in-plane diffusion and may influence protein sorting as well as transmit signals to the polymerization of the underlying 3D cytoskeleton

  1. Relaxation of residual stress in MMC after combined plastic deformation and heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, G.; Ceretti, M.; Girardin, E.; Giuliani, A.; Manescu, A.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron Diffraction shows that plastic pre-deformation and heat treatments have opposite effects on the residual stress in Al-SiC p composites. The thermal micro residual stress is relaxed or even reversed by pre-strains above 0.2%, but restored by heat treatments. The sense of relaxation changes above 400 deg. C (the mixing temperature)

  2. Modeling of macrosegregation caused by volumetric deformation in a coherent mushy zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolli, Lilia C.; Mo, Asbjørn; M'hamdi, Mohammed

    2005-02-01

    A two-phase volume-averaged continuum model is presented that quantifies macrosegregation formation during solidification of metallic alloys caused by deformation of the dendritic network and associated melt flow in the coherent part of the mushy zone. Also, the macrosegregation formation associated with the solidification shrinkage (inverse segregation) is taken into account. Based on experimental evidence established elsewhere, volumetric viscoplastic deformation (densification/dilatation) of the coherent dendritic network is included in the model. While the thermomechanical model previously outlined (M. M’Hamdi, A. Mo, and C.L. Martin: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2002, vol. 33A, pp. 2081-93) has been used to calculate the temperature and velocity fields associated with the thermally induced deformations and shrinkage driven melt flow, the solute conservation equation including both the liquid and a solid volume-averaged velocity is solved in the present study. In modeling examples, the macrosegregation formation caused by mechanically imposed as well as by thermally induced deformations has been calculated. The modeling results for an Al-4 wt pct Cu alloy indicate that even quite small volumetric strains (≈2 pct), which can be associated with thermally induced deformations, can lead to a macroscopic composition variation in the final casting comparable to that resulting from the solidification shrinkage induced melt flow. These results can be explained by the relatively large volumetric viscoplastic deformation in the coherent mush resulting from the applied constitutive model, as well as the relatively large difference in composition for the studied Al-Cu alloy in the solid and liquid phases at high solid fractions at which the deformation takes place.

  3. A mechanical deformation model of metallic fuel pin under steady state conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. W.; Lee, B. W.; Kim, Y. I.; Han, D. H.

    2004-01-01

    As a mechanical deformation model of the MACSIS code predicts the cladding deformation due to the simple thin shell theory, it is impossible to predict the FCMI(Fuel-Cladding Mechanical Interaction). Therefore, a mechanical deformation model used the generalized plane strain is developed. The DEFORM is a mechanical deformation routine which is used to analyze the stresses and strains in the fuel and cladding of a metallic fuel pin of LMRs. The accuracy of the program is demonstrated by comparison of the DEFORM predictions with the result of another code calculations or experimental results in literature. The stress/strain distributions of elastic part under free thermal expansion condition are completely matched with the results of ANSYS code. The swelling and creep solutions are reasonably well agreed with the simulations of ALFUS and LIFE-M codes, respectively. The predicted cladding strains are under estimated than experimental data at the range of high burnup. Therefore, it is recommended that the fine tuning of the DEFORM based on various range of experimental data

  4. Ductile fracture estimation of reactor pressure vessel under thermal shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Jun; Sakai, Shinsuke; Okamura, Hiroyuki

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a new scheme for the estimation of unstable ductile fracture of a reactor pressure vessel under thermal shock conditions. First, it is shown that the bending moment applied to the cracked section can be evaluated by considering the plastic deformation of the cracked section and the thermal deformation of the shell. As the contribution of the local thermal stress to the J-value is negligible, the J-value under thermal shock can be easily evaluated by using fully plastic solutions for the cracked part. Next, the phenomena of ductile fracture under thermal shock are expressed on the load-versus-displacement diagram which enables us to grasp the transient phenomena visually. In addition, several parametrical surveys are performed on the above diagram concerning the variation of (1) thermal shock conditions, (2) initial crack length, and (3) J-resistance curve (i.e. embrittlement by neutron irradiation). (author)

  5. Evaluation of structural deformations of a mechanical connecting unit oxidizer supplies by thermo-mechanical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Woo

    2016-01-01

    A Mechanical connecting unit (MCU) used in ground facilities for a Liquid propellant rocket (LPR) acts as a bridge between the onboard system and the ground oxidizer filling system. It should be resistant to structural deformations in order to guarantee successful supply of a cryogenic oxidizer and high pressure gases without reduction of sealing capability. The MCU consists of many components and linkages and operates under harsh conditions induced by a cryogenic oxidizer, high pressure gases and other mechanical forces. Thus, the evaluation of structural deformation of the MCU considering complex conditions is expensive and time consuming. The present study efficiently evaluates the structural deformations of the key components of the MCU by Thermo-mechanical simulation (TMS) based on the superposition principle. Deformations due to the mechanical loadings including weights, pressures, and spring forces are firstly evaluated by using a non-linear flexible body simulation module (FFlex) of Multi-body dynamics (MBD) software, RecurDyn. Then, thermal deformations for the deformed geometries obtained by RecurDyn were subsequently calculated. It was conducted by using a Finite element (FE) analysis software, ANSYS. The total deformations for the onboard plate and multi-channel plate in the connecting section due to the mechanical and thermal loadings were successfully evaluated. Moreover, the outer gaps at six points between two plates were calculated and verified by comparison to the measured data. Their values and tendencies showed a good agreement. The author concluded that the TMS using MBD software considering flexible bodies and an FE simulator can efficiently evaluate structural deformations of the MCU operating under the complex load and boundary conditions

  6. Evaluation of structural deformations of a mechanical connecting unit oxidizer supplies by thermo-mechanical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Woo [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Machine Convergence Technology, Hankyong National University, Anseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A Mechanical connecting unit (MCU) used in ground facilities for a Liquid propellant rocket (LPR) acts as a bridge between the onboard system and the ground oxidizer filling system. It should be resistant to structural deformations in order to guarantee successful supply of a cryogenic oxidizer and high pressure gases without reduction of sealing capability. The MCU consists of many components and linkages and operates under harsh conditions induced by a cryogenic oxidizer, high pressure gases and other mechanical forces. Thus, the evaluation of structural deformation of the MCU considering complex conditions is expensive and time consuming. The present study efficiently evaluates the structural deformations of the key components of the MCU by Thermo-mechanical simulation (TMS) based on the superposition principle. Deformations due to the mechanical loadings including weights, pressures, and spring forces are firstly evaluated by using a non-linear flexible body simulation module (FFlex) of Multi-body dynamics (MBD) software, RecurDyn. Then, thermal deformations for the deformed geometries obtained by RecurDyn were subsequently calculated. It was conducted by using a Finite element (FE) analysis software, ANSYS. The total deformations for the onboard plate and multi-channel plate in the connecting section due to the mechanical and thermal loadings were successfully evaluated. Moreover, the outer gaps at six points between two plates were calculated and verified by comparison to the measured data. Their values and tendencies showed a good agreement. The author concluded that the TMS using MBD software considering flexible bodies and an FE simulator can efficiently evaluate structural deformations of the MCU operating under the complex load and boundary conditions.

  7. Thermal insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsky, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal insulation for vessels and piping within the reactor containment area of nuclear power plants is disclosed. The thermal insulation of this invention can be readily removed and replaced from the vessels and piping for inservice inspection, can withstand repeated wettings and dryings, and can resist high temperatures for long periods of time. 4 claims, 3 figures

  8. Dislocation Dynamics During Plastic Deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Messerschmidt, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    The book gives an overview of the dynamic behavior of dislocations and its relation to plastic deformation. It introduces the general properties of dislocations and treats the dislocation dynamics in some detail. Finally, examples are described of the processes in different classes of materials, i.e. semiconductors, ceramics, metals, intermetallic materials, and quasicrystals. The processes are illustrated by many electron micrographs of dislocations under stress and by video clips taken during in situ straining experiments in a high-voltage electron microscope showing moving dislocations. Thus, the users of the book also obtain an immediate impression and understanding of dislocation dynamics.

  9. q-deformed Poincare algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogievetsky, O.; Schmidke, W.B.; Wess, J.; Muenchen Univ.; Zumino, B.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1992-01-01

    The q-differential calculus for the q-Minkowski space is developed. The algebra of the q-derivatives with the q-Lorentz generators is found giving the q-deformation of the Poincare algebra. The reality structure of the q-Poincare algebra is given. The reality structure of the q-differentials is also found. The real Laplaacian is constructed. Finally the comultiplication, counit and antipode for the q-Poincare algebra are obtained making it a Hopf algebra. (orig.)

  10. Deformation retracts of Stein spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, H.; Mihalache, N.

    1995-01-01

    If X is an n-dimensional Stein space, it was proved that X has the homotopy type of a CW-complex of dimension≤n and in the algebraic case this was proved with the additional conclusion that the CW-complex is finite. In this paper the authors give an answer to the question if there exists a subset Q of X with the same topological properties as X, for instance Q is a strong deformation retract of X, and Q is a CW-complex of dimension≤n. 15 refs

  11. Holographic superconductor in a deformed four-dimensional STU model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourhassan, B.; Bagheri-Mohagheghi, M.M. [Damghan University, School of Physics, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    In this paper, we consider a deformed STU model in four dimensions including both electric and magnetic charges. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we study holographic superconductors and obtain transport properties like electrical and thermal conductivities. We obtain transport properties in terms of the magnetic charge of the black hole and interpret it as the magnetic monopole of dual field theory. We find that the presence of the magnetic charge is necessary to have maximum conductivities, and the existence of a magnetic monopole with a critical charge (137 e) to reach the maximum superconductivity is important. Also, we show that the thermal conductivity increases with increasing of the magnetic charge. It may be concluded that the origin of superconductivity is the magnetic monopole. (orig.)

  12. Thermal Behaviour of clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassoni, E.

    1985-01-01

    The programme carried out by ENEA to model the thermal-hydraulic-mechanical behaviour of the clay formations and to measure, in situ and in laboratory, the thermal properties of these rocks, is presented. An in situ heating experiment has been carried out in an open clay quarry in the area of Monterotondo, near Rome. The main goal of the experiment was to know the temperature field and the thermal effects caused by the high level radioactive waste disposed of in a clayey geological formation. The conclusions are as follows: - the thermal conduction codes are sufficiently accurate to forecast the temperature increases caused in the clay by the dissipation of the heat generated by high level radioactive waste; - the thermal conductivity deduced by means of the ''curve fitting'' method ranges from 0.015 to 0.017 W.cm -1 . 0 C -1 - the temperature variation associated with the transport of clay interstitial water caused by temperature gradient is negligible. A laboratory automated method has been designed to measure the thermal conductivity and diffusivity in clay samples. A review of experimental data concerning thermomechanical effects in rocks as well as results of thermal experiments performed at ISMES on clays are presented. Negative thermal dilation has been found both in the elastic and plastic range under constant stress. Thermoplastic deformation appears ten times greater than the thermoelastic one. A mathematical model is proposed in order to simulate the above and other effects that encompass thermal-elastic-plastic-pore water pressure response of clays at high temperature and effective pressure with undrained and transient drainage conditions. Implementation of the two versions into a finite element computer code is described

  13. Predicting welding distortion in a panel structure with longitudinal stiffeners using inherent deformations obtained by inverse analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Murakawa, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Welding-induced deformation not only negatively affects dimension accuracy but also degrades the performance of product. If welding deformation can be accurately predicted beforehand, the predictions will be helpful for finding effective methods to improve manufacturing accuracy. Till now, there are two kinds of finite element method (FEM) which can be used to simulate welding deformation. One is the thermal elastic plastic FEM and the other is elastic FEM based on inherent strain theory. The former only can be used to calculate welding deformation for small or medium scale welded structures due to the limitation of computing speed. On the other hand, the latter is an effective method to estimate the total welding distortion for large and complex welded structures even though it neglects the detailed welding process. When the elastic FEM is used to calculate the welding-induced deformation for a large structure, the inherent deformations in each typical joint should be obtained beforehand. In this paper, a new method based on inverse analysis was proposed to obtain the inherent deformations for weld joints. Through introducing the inherent deformations obtained by the proposed method into the elastic FEM based on inherent strain theory, we predicted the welding deformation of a panel structure with two longitudinal stiffeners. In addition, experiments were carried out to verify the simulation results.

  14. A novel dual-wavelength laser stimulator to elicit transient and tonic nociceptive stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoxi; Liu, Tianjun; Wang, Han; Yang, Jichun; Chen, Zhuying; Hu, Yong; Li, Yingxin

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to develop a new laser stimulator to elicit both transient and sustained heat stimulation with a dual-wavelength laser system as a tool for the investigation of both transient and tonic experimental models of pain. The laser stimulator used a 980-nm pulsed laser to generate transient heat stimulation and a 1940-nm continuous-wave (CW) laser to provide sustained heat stimulation. The laser with 980-nm wavelength can elicit transient pain with less thermal injury, while the 1940-nm CW laser can effectively stimulate both superficial and deep nociceptors to elicit tonic pain. A proportional integral-derivative (PID) temperature feedback control system was implemented to ensure constancy of temperature during heat stimulation. The performance of this stimulator was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo animal experiments. In vitro experiments on totally 120 specimens fresh pig skin included transient heat stimulation by 980-nm laser (1.5 J, 10 ms), sustained heat stimulation by 1940-nm laser (50-55 °C temperature control mode or 1.5 W, 5 min continuous power supply), and the combination of transient/sustained heat stimulation by dual lasers (1.5 J, 10 ms, 980-nm pulse laser, and 1940-nm laser with 50-55 °C temperature control mode). Hemoglobin brushing and wind-cooling methods were tested to find better stimulation model. A classic tail-flick latency (TFL) experiment with 20 Wistar rats was used to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of transient and tonic pain stimulation with 15 J, 100 ms 980-nm single laser pulse, and 1.5 W constant 1940-nm laser power. Ideal stimulation parameters to generate transient pain were found to be a 26.6 °C peak temperature rise and 0.67 s pain duration. In our model of tonic pain, 5 min of tonic stimulation produced a temperature change of 53.7 ± 1.3 °C with 1.6 ± 0.2% variation. When the transient and tonic stimulation protocols were combined, no significant difference was observed depending on the order

  15. A two-dimensional deformable phantom for quantitatively verifying deformation algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Neil; Chuang, Cynthia; Pouliot, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The incorporation of deformable image registration into the treatment planning process is rapidly advancing. For this reason, the methods used to verify the underlying deformation algorithms must evolve equally fast. This manuscript proposes a two-dimensional deformable phantom, which can objectively verify the accuracy of deformation algorithms, as the next step for improving these techniques. Methods: The phantom represents a single plane of the anatomy for a head and neck patient. Inflation of a balloon catheter inside the phantom simulates tumor growth. CT and camera images of the phantom are acquired before and after its deformation. Nonradiopaque markers reside on the surface of the deformable anatomy and are visible through an acrylic plate, which enables an optical camera to measure their positions; thus, establishing the ground-truth deformation. This measured deformation is directly compared to the predictions of deformation algorithms, using several similarity metrics. The ratio of the number of points with more than a 3 mm deformation error over the number that are deformed by more than 3 mm is used for an error metric to evaluate algorithm accuracy. Results: An optical method of characterizing deformation has been successfully demonstrated. For the tests of this method, the balloon catheter deforms 32 out of the 54 surface markers by more than 3 mm. Different deformation errors result from the different similarity metrics. The most accurate deformation predictions had an error of 75%. Conclusions: The results presented here demonstrate the utility of the phantom for objectively verifying deformation algorithms and determining which is the most accurate. They also indicate that the phantom would benefit from more electron density heterogeneity. The reduction of the deformable anatomy to a two-dimensional system allows for the use of nonradiopaque markers, which do not influence deformation algorithms. This is the fundamental advantage of this

  16. Deformation-specific and deformation-invariant visual object recognition: pose vs identity recognition of people and deforming objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan J Webb

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When we see a human sitting down, standing up, or walking, we can recognise one of these poses independently of the individual, or we can recognise the individual person, independently of the pose. The same issues arise for deforming objects. For example, if we see a flag deformed by the wind, either blowing out or hanging languidly, we can usually recognise the flag, independently of its deformation; or we can recognise the deformation independently of the identity of the flag. We hypothesize that these types of recognition can be implemented by the primate visual system using temporo-spatial continuity as objects transform as a learning principle. In particular, we hypothesize that pose or deformation can be learned under conditions in which large numbers of different people are successively seen in the same pose, or objects in the same deformation. We also hypothesize that person-specific representations that are independent of pose, and object-specific representations that are independent of deformation and view, could be built, when individual people or objects are observed successively transforming from one pose or deformation and view to another. These hypotheses were tested in a simulation of the ventral visual system, VisNet, that uses temporal continuity, implemented in a synaptic learning rule with a short-term memory trace of previous neuronal activity, to learn invariant representations. It was found that depending on the statistics of the visual input, either pose-specific or deformation-specific representations could be built that were invariant with respect to individual and view; or that identity-specific representations could be built that were invariant with respect to pose or deformation and view. We propose that this is how pose-specific and pose-invariant, and deformation-specific and deformation-invariant, perceptual representations are built in the brain.

  17. Analysis of mitochondrial 3D-deformation in cardiomyocytes during active contraction reveals passive structural anisotropy of orthogonal short axes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Yaniv

    Full Text Available The cardiomyocyte cytoskeleton, composed of rigid and elastic elements, maintains the isolated cell in an elongated cylindrical shape with an elliptical cross-section, even during contraction-relaxation cycles. Cardiomyocyte mitochondria are micron-sized, fluid-filled passive spheres distributed throughout the cell in a crystal-like lattice, arranged in pairs sandwiched between the sarcomere contractile machinery, both longitudinally and radially. Their shape represents the extant 3-dimensional (3D force-balance. We developed a novel method to examine mitochondrial 3D-deformation in response to contraction and relaxation to understand how dynamic forces are balanced inside cardiomyocytes. The variation in transmitted light intensity induced by the periodic lattice of myofilaments alternating with mitochondrial rows can be analyzed by Fourier transformation along a given cardiomyocyte axis to measure mitochondrial deformation along that axis. This technique enables precise detection of changes in dimension of ∼1% in ∼1 µm (long-axis structures with 8 ms time-resolution. During active contraction (1 Hz stimulation, mitochondria deform along the length- and width-axes of the cell with similar deformation kinetics in both sarcomere and mitochondrial structures. However, significant deformation anisotropy (without hysteresis was observed between the orthogonal short-axes (i.e., width and depth of mitochondria during electrical stimulation. The same degree of deformation anisotropy was also found between the myocyte orthogonal short-axes during electrical stimulation. Therefore, the deformation of the mitochondria reflects the overall deformation of the cell, and the apparent stiffness and stress/strain characteristics of the cytoskeleton differ appreciably between the two cardiomyocyte orthogonal short-axes. This method may be applied to obtaining a better understanding of the dynamic force-balance inside cardiomyocytes and of changes in the

  18. Thermal effects on beryllium mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinswig, S.

    1989-01-01

    Beryllium is probably the most frequently used material for spaceborne system scan mirrors. Beryllium's properties include lightweightedness, high Young's modulus, high stiffness value, high resonance value. As an optical surface, beryllium is usually nickel plated in order to produce a higher quality surface. This process leads to the beryllium mirror acting like a bimetallic device. The mirror's deformation due to the bimetallic property can possibly degrade the performance of the associated optical system. As large space borne systems are designed and as temperature considerations become more crucial in the instruments, the concern about temporal deformation of the scan mirrors becomes a prime consideration. Therefore, two sets of tests have been conducted in order to ascertain the thermal effects on nickel plated beryllium mirrors. These tests are categorized. The purpose of this paper is to present the values of the bimetallic effect on typical nickel plated beryllium mirrors

  19. Deformation performance of Waba Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salloum, T.; Bhardwaj, V.; Hassan, P. [Ontario Power Generation, Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON (Canada); Cragg, C. [Cragg Consulting Services, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper described the performance of the Waba Dam which is being monitored as part of Ontario Power Generation's Dam Safety Program. It described the deformations that have been observed in this 3600 ft long earthfill dam which lies on marine clay in eastern Ontario. An extensive instrumentation program, including foundation settlement gauges, surface monuments, slope inclinometers, load cells and piezometers has been in effect since the construction of the dam in 1975. Significant settlement has occurred at Waba Dam since its construction. Wide berms were provided upstream and downstream beyond the slopes of the main fill to ensure stability of the dyke on the soft clay foundation and the crest elevations were designed to allow for the expected settlement in the foundation which would be overstressed by the dam loading. Based on current settlements, future settlements are predicted based on Asaoka's method. Inclinometer measurements have shown a foundation lateral spreading of 12 in. The lateral versus vertical deformations were found to be comparable to well behaving embankments reported in the literature. These analyses indicate that Waba Dam is performing well and should continue to perform well into the future. 8 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  20. Deformation Characteristics of Composite Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theddeus T. AKANO

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The composites provide design flexibility because many of them can be moulded into complex shapes. The carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy composites exhibit excellent fatigue tolerance and high specific strength and stiffness which have led to numerous advanced applications ranging from the military and civil aircraft structures to the consumer products. However, the modelling of the beams undergoing the arbitrarily large displacements and rotations, but small strains, is a common problem in the application of these engineering composite systems. This paper presents a nonlinear finite element model which is able to estimate the deformations of the fibre-reinforced epoxy composite beams. The governing equations are based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory (EBBT with a von Kármán type of kinematic nonlinearity. The anisotropic elasticity is employed for the material model of the composite material. Moreover, the characterization of the mechanical properties of the composite material is achieved through a tensile test, while a simple laboratory experiment is used to validate the model. The results reveal that the composite fibre orientation, the type of applied load and boundary condition, affect the deformation characteristics of the composite structures. The nonlinearity is an important factor that should be taken into consideration in the analysis of the fibre-reinforced epoxy composites.

  1. Viscous Fingering in Deformable Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian Hui; MacMinn, Chris

    2017-11-01

    Viscous fingering is a classical hydrodynamic instability that occurs when an invading fluid is injected into a porous medium or a Hele-Shaw cell that contains a more viscous defending fluid. Recent work has shown that viscous fingering in a Hele-Shaw cell is supressed when the flow cell is deformable. However, the mechanism of suppression relies on a net volumetric expansion of the flow area. Here, we study flow in a novel Hele-Shaw cell consisting of a rigid bottom plate and a flexible top plate that deforms in a way that is volume-conserving. In other words, fluid injection into the flow cell leads to a local expansion of the flow area (outward displacement of the flexible surface) that must be coupled to non-local contraction (inward displacement of the flexible surface). We explore the impact of this volumetric confinement on steady viscous flow and on viscous fingering. We would like to thank EPSRC for the funding for this work.

  2. Deformation During Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Henry J.

    2002-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process that exhibits characteristics similar to traditional metal cutting processes. The plastic deformation that occurs during friction stir welding is due to the superposition of three flow fields: a primary rotation of a radially symmetric solid plug of metal surrounding the pin tool, a secondary uniform translation, and a tertiary ring vortex flow (smoke rings) surrounding the tool. If the metal sticks to the tool, the plug surface extends down into the metal from the outer edge of the tool shoulder, decreases in diameter like a funnel, and closes up beneath the pin. Since its invention, ten years have gone by and still very little is known about the physics of the friction stir welding process. In this experiment, an H13 steel weld tool (shoulder diameter, 0.797 in; pin diameter, 0.312 in; and pin length, 0.2506 in) was used to weld three 0.255 in thick plates. The deformation behavior during friction stir welding was investigated by metallographically preparing a plan view sections of the weldment and taking Vickers hardness test in the key-hole region.

  3. New York Canyon Stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raemy, Bernard

    2012-06-21

    The New York Canyon Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "No Go" decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.

  4. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Precipitation-Modulated Landslide Deformation From Independent Component Analysis of InSAR Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Waeber, J.; Bürgmann, R.; Chaussard, E.; Giannico, C.; Ferretti, A.

    2018-02-01

    Long-term landslide deformation is disruptive and costly in urbanized environments. We rely on TerraSAR-X satellite images (2009-2014) and an improved data processing algorithm (SqueeSAR™) to produce an exceptionally dense Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar ground deformation time series for the San Francisco East Bay Hills. Independent and principal component analyses of the time series reveal four distinct spatial and temporal surface deformation patterns in the area around Blakemont landslide, which we relate to different geomechanical processes. Two components of time-dependent landslide deformation isolate continuous motion and motion driven by precipitation-modulated pore pressure changes controlled by annual seasonal cycles and multiyear drought conditions. Two components capturing more widespread seasonal deformation separate precipitation-modulated soil swelling from annual cycles that may be related to groundwater level changes and thermal expansion of buildings. High-resolution characterization of landslide response to precipitation is a first step toward improved hazard forecasting.

  5. Verification of the active deformation compensation system of the LMT/GTM by end-to-end simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisentraeger, Peter; Suess, Martin

    2000-07-01

    The 50 m LMT/GTM is exposed to the climatic conditions at 4,600 m height on Cerro La Negra, Mexico. For operating the telescope to the challenging requirements of its millimeter objective, an active approach for monitoring and compensating the structural deformations (Flexible Body Compensation FBC) is necessary. This system includes temperature sensors and strain gages for identifying large scale deformations of the reflector backup structure, a laser system for measuring the subreflector position, and an inclinometer system for measuring the deformations of the alidade. For compensating the monitored deformations, the telescope is equipped with additional actuators for active control of the main reflector surface and the subreflector position. The paper describes the verification of the active deformation system by finite element calculations and MATLAB simulations of the surface accuracy and the pointing including the servo under the operational wind and thermal conditions.

  6. A kinematical model for the plastic deformation of face-centred cubic polycrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leffers, T.

    1975-01-01

    During the plastic deformation of a polycrystalline material the deformation of the individual grain must be adjusted to the deformation of the surrounding grains so that material continuity is maintained. This continuity condition is the essential feature distinguishing polycrystal deformation from single-crystal deformation. In the present work it is attempted to explain how the continuity condition is fulfilled in face-centred cubic polycrystals. The early treatments of the plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials were aimed directly at the formulation of a ''dynamical'' theory, i.e. it was the intention to cover the magnitude of the stresses involved as well as the slip processes producing the deformation. It is argued that rolling texture is a good tool for a necessary intermediate stage of establishing a ''kinematical'' model describing the slip processes, but not the magnitude of the necessary stresses. Three aspects of rolling texture are considered: (a) the development of the rolling textures found experimentally in face-centred cubic materials can be computer-simulated on the basis of models for the plastic deformation that only involve (111) slip; (b) experimentally that the widely accepted twinning theory for the transition in f.c.c. rolling texture does not reflect the behaviour of real materials; and (c) it is shown that the texture transition is thermally activated with an activation energy corresponding to that of cross slip. An electron-microscopical investigation of the slip process operating during rolling of f.c.c. polycrystals is also included. On the basis of the computer simulation of the texture formation supplemented by the experimental results a kinematical model is developed for the plastic deformation of f.c.c. polycrystals by rolling. In the proposed model the material continuity is maintained by inhomogeneous slip processes, combined with homogeneous multiple glide when the cross-slip frequency is high. (author)

  7. Nonlinear continuum mechanics and large inelastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrienko, Yuriy I

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a rigorous axiomatic approach to continuum mechanics under large deformation. In addition to the classical nonlinear continuum mechanics - kinematics, fundamental laws, the theory of functions having jump discontinuities across singular surfaces, etc. - the book presents the theory of co-rotational derivatives, dynamic deformation compatibility equations, and the principles of material indifference and symmetry, all in systematized form. The focus of the book is a new approach to the formulation of the constitutive equations for elastic and inelastic continua under large deformation. This new approach is based on using energetic and quasi-energetic couples of stress and deformation tensors. This approach leads to a unified treatment of large, anisotropic elastic, viscoelastic, and plastic deformations. The author analyses classical problems, including some involving nonlinear wave propagation, using different models for continua under large deformation, and shows how different models lead t...

  8. Microstructural evolution during tensile deformation of polypropylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, A.; Rohrmann, J.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2003-01-01

    Tensile deformation processes occurring at varying strain rates in high and low crystallinity polypropylenes and ethylene-propylene di-block copolymers have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy. This is examined for both long and short chain polymeric materials. The deformation processes in different polymeric materials show striking dissimilarities in spite of the common propylene matrix. Additionally, the deformation behavior of long and their respective short chain polymers was different. Deformation mechanisms include crazing/tearing, wedging, ductile ploughing, fibrillation, and brittle fracture. The different modes of deformation are depicted in the form of strain rate-strain diagrams. At a constant strain rate, the strain to fracture follows the sequence: high crystallinity polypropylenes< low crystallinity polypropylenes< ethylene-propylene di-block copolymers, indicative of the trend in resistance to plastic deformation

  9. Deformation of wrought uranium: Experiments and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, R.J., E-mail: rmccabe@lanl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Capolungo, L. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)] [UMI 2958 Georgia Tech - CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Marshall, P.E.; Cady, C.M.; Tome, C.N. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    The room temperature deformation behavior of wrought polycrystalline uranium is studied using a combination of experimental techniques and polycrystal modeling. Electron backscatter diffraction is used to analyze the primary deformation twinning modes for wrought alpha-uranium. The {l_brace}1 3 0{r_brace}<3 1 0> twinning mode is found to be the most prominent twinning mode, with minor contributions from the '{l_brace}1 7 2{r_brace}'<3 1 2> and {l_brace}1 1 2{r_brace}'<3 7 2>' twin modes. Because of the large number of deformation modes, each with limited deformation systems, a polycrystalline model is employed to identify and quantify the activity of each mode. Model predictions of the deformation behavior and texture development agree reasonably well with experimental measures and provide reliable information about deformation systems.

  10. Deformation Models Tracking, Animation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Arnau; Gómez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The computational modelling of deformations has been actively studied for the last thirty years. This is mainly due to its large range of applications that include computer animation, medical imaging, shape estimation, face deformation as well as other parts of the human body, and object tracking. In addition, these advances have been supported by the evolution of computer processing capabilities, enabling realism in a more sophisticated way. This book encompasses relevant works of expert researchers in the field of deformation models and their applications.  The book is divided into two main parts. The first part presents recent object deformation techniques from the point of view of computer graphics and computer animation. The second part of this book presents six works that study deformations from a computer vision point of view with a common characteristic: deformations are applied in real world applications. The primary audience for this work are researchers from different multidisciplinary fields, s...

  11. On The Stress Free Deformation Of Linear FGM Interface Under Constant Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganczarski Artur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the stress free thermo-elastic problem of the FGM thick plate. Existence of such a purely thermal deformation is proved in two ways. First proof is based on application of the Iljushin thermo-elastic potential to displacement type system of equations. This reduces 3D problem to the plane stress state problem. Next it is shown that the unique solution fulfils conditions of simultaneous constant temperature and linear gradation of thermal expansion coefficient. Second proof is based directly on stress type system of equations which straightforwardly reduces to compatibility equations for purely thermal deformation. This occurs if only stress field is homogeneous in domain and at boundary. Finally an example of application to an engineering problem is presented.

  12. In-situ neutron diffraction characterization of temperature dependence deformation in α-uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, C. A.; Garlea, E.; Sisneros, T. A.; Agnew, S. R.

    2018-04-01

    In-situ strain neutron diffraction measurements were conducted at temperature on specimens coming from a clock-rolled α-uranium plate, and Elasto-Plastic Self-Consistent (EPSC) modeling was employed to interpret the findings. The modeling revealed that the active slip systems exhibit a thermally activated response, while deformation twinning remains athermal over the temperature ranges explored (25-150 °C). The modeling also allowed assessment of the effects of thermal residual stresses on the mechanical response during compression. These results are consistent with those from a prior study of room-temperature deformation, indicating that the thermal residual stresses strongly influence the internal strain evolution of grain families, as monitored with neutron diffraction, even though accounting for these residual stresses has little effect on the macroscopic flow curve, except in the elasto-plastic transition.

  13. Linking plate reconstructions with deforming lithosphere to geodynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R. D.; Gurnis, M.; Flament, N.; Seton, M.; Spasojevic, S.; Williams, S.; Zahirovic, S.

    2011-12-01

    While global computational models are rapidly advancing in terms of their capabilities, there is an increasing need for assimilating observations into these models and/or ground-truthing model outputs. The open-source and platform independent GPlates software fills this gap. It was originally conceived as a tool to interactively visualize and manipulate classical rigid plate reconstructions and represent them as time-dependent topological networks of editable plate boundaries. The user can export time-dependent plate velocity meshes that can be used either to define initial surface boundary conditions for geodynamic models or alternatively impose plate motions throughout a geodynamic model run. However, tectonic plates are not rigid, and neglecting plate deformation, especially that of the edges of overriding plates, can result in significant misplacing of plate boundaries through time. A new, substantially re-engineered version of GPlates is now being developed that allows an embedding of deforming plates into topological plate boundary networks. We use geophysical and geological data to define the limit between rigid and deforming areas, and the deformation history of non-rigid blocks. The velocity field predicted by these reconstructions can then be used as a time-dependent surface boundary condition in regional or global 3-D geodynamic models, or alternatively as an initial boundary condition for a particular plate configuration at a given time. For time-dependent models with imposed plate motions (e.g. using CitcomS) we incorporate the continental lithosphere by embedding compositionally distinct crust and continental lithosphere within the thermal lithosphere. We define three isostatic columns of different thickness and buoyancy based on the tectonothermal age of the continents: Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic. In the fourth isostatic column, the oceans, the thickness of the thermal lithosphere is assimilated using a half-space cooling model. We also

  14. Deformation effects in the cluster radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misicu, S.; Protopopescu, D.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the influence of the deformation on the decay rates of the cluster emission process 224 Ra → 210 Pb + 14 C. The interaction between the daughter and the cluster is given by a double folding potential, containing a nuclear repulsive core, with account of the quadrupole and hexadecupole deformed densities of both fragments. Upon comparison with the experimental value of the decay rate, the results obtained point out the importance of such deformations especially for the daughter nucleus

  15. 3D geodetic monitoring slope deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Gabriel

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available For plenty of slope failures that can be found in Slovakia is necessary and very important their geodetic monitoring (because of their activity, reactivisations, checks. The paper gives new methodologies for these works, using 3D terrestrial survey technologies for measurements in convenient deformation networks. The design of an optimal type of deformation model for various kinds of landslides and their exact processing with an efficient testing procedure to determine the kinematics of the slope deformations are presented too.

  16. Thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal expansion of fuel pellet is an important property which limits the lifetime of the fuels in reactors, because it affects both the pellet and cladding mechanical interaction and the gap conductivity. By fitting a number of available measured data, recommended equations have been presented and successfully used to estimate thermal expansion coefficient of the nuclear fuel pellet. However, due to large scatter of the measured data, non-consensus data have been omitted in formulating the equations. Also, the equation is strongly governed by the lack of appropriate experimental data. For those reasons, it is important to develop theoretical methodologies to better describe thermal expansion behaviour of nuclear fuel. In particular, first-principles and molecular dynamics simulations have been certainly contributed to predict reliable thermal expansion without fitting the measured data. Furthermore, the two theoretical techniques have improved on understanding the change of fuel dimension by describing the atomic-scale processes associated with lattice expansion in the fuels. (author)

  17. Deformations of fuel elements under irradiation (Examination of the 2000 C set, investigation of the Cottrell effect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, P.; Allain, C.

    1959-04-01

    The authors report visual and radiographic examinations of cartridges of the 2000 C solution C in order to study the influence of the combustion rate on deformations of these cartridges which spent about a year in an atomic pile. The deformation measurements are interpreted in terms of creep phenomena (Cottrell effect), of surface condition, and buckling. The authors discuss the validity of mechanical tests, the distinction between creep and flow, the deformation of fuel assemblies, the validity of thermal cycle tests, the effects of alloy compositions

  18. Effect of rolling deformation on the microstructure of bulk Cu60Zr20Ti20 metallic glass and its crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Q.P.; Li, J.F.; Zhou, Y.H.

    2006-01-01

    Bulk Cu60Zr20Ti20 metallic glass has been rolled at room temperature (RT) and cryogenic temperature (CIF) up to 97% in thickness reduction, and the dependences of microstructure on the strain and temperature have been investigated. It is revealed that as the deformation proceeds below a critical...... thickness reduction, which is 87% at RT and 89% at CT, only the shear band density and the free-volume content increase, whereas the thermal stability of the deformed glass remains unchanged. Deformation above the critical thickness reduction results in phase separation plus nanocrystallization at RT...

  19. Novel transcranial magnetic stimulation coil for mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Stephen; Stark, Spencer; Crowther, Lawrence; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2014-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) shows potential for non-invasive treatment of various neurological disorders. Significant work has been performed on the design of coils used for TMS on human subjects but few reports have been made on the design of coils for use on the brains of animals such as mice. This work is needed as TMS studies utilizing mice can allow rapid preclinical development of TMS for human disorders but the coil designs developed for use on humans are inadequate for optimal stimulation of the much smaller mouse brain. A novel TMS coil has been developed with the goal of inducing strong and focused electric fields for the stimulation of small animals such as mice. Calculations of induced electric fields were performed utilizing an MRI derived inhomogeneous model of an adult male mouse. Mechanical and thermal analysis of this new TMS helmet-coil design have also been performed at anticipated TMS operating conditions to ensure mechanical stability of the new coil and establish expected linear attraction and rotational force values. Calculated temperature increases for typical stimulation periods indicate the helmet-coil system is capable of operating within established medical standards. A prototype of the coil has been fabricated and characterization results are presented.

  20. Infinitesimal deformations of a formal symplectic groupoid

    OpenAIRE

    Karabegov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Given a formal symplectic groupoid $G$ over a Poisson manifold $(M, \\pi_0)$, we define a new object, an infinitesimal deformation of $G$, which can be thought of as a formal symplectic groupoid over the manifold $M$ equipped with an infinitesimal deformation $\\pi_0 + \\epsilon \\pi_1$ of the Poisson bivector field $\\pi_0$. The source and target mappings of a deformation of $G$ are deformations of the source and target mappings of $G$. To any pair of natural star products $(\\ast, \\tilde\\ast)$ ha...

  1. Deformation and fracture mechanics of engineering materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hertzberg, Richard W; Vinci, Richard Paul; Hertzberg, Jason L

    2012-01-01

    "Hertzberg's 5th edition of Deformation & Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials offers several new features including a greater number and variety of homework problems using more computational software...

  2. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony Wayne Dr., Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing, E-mail: hanqing.jiang@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Yu, Hongyu, E-mail: hongyu.yu@asu.edu [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  3. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing; Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong; Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing; Yu, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of elastic-plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubarda, V.

    1981-01-01

    The complete set of constitutive equations which fully describes the behaviour of material in elastic-plastic deformation is derived on the basis of thermodynamic analysis of the deformation process. The analysis is done after the matrix decomposition of the deformation gradient is introduced into the structure of thermodynamics with internal state variables. The free energy function, is decomposed. Derive the expressions for the stress response, entropy and heat flux, and establish the evolution equation. Finally, we establish the thermodynamic restrictions of the deformation process. (Author) [pt

  5. Characterization of local plastic instability during deformation of D9 clad tubes for fast breeder nuclear fuel by infrared thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, K.; Somasekhar Reddy, K.; Ramana Rao, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Plastic instability is a condition occurring ahead of ductile fracture in materials subjected to deformation. This condition is a warning before the final failure occurring by ductile fracture. This condition manifests during necking in tensile deformation and crack propagation during plastic deformation. Early detection of such a condition can prevent permanent damage. In the present case, a novel approach by use of infrared thermography is proposed for characterization of local plastic instability during deformation of D9 clad tube material. Infrared thermal imaging was used for acquiring data during deformation by plug drawing, pilgering and uniaxial tension tests. The local plastic instability due to propagation of defects was monitored by use of Taylor-Quinney coefficient (β). Where, the Taylor-Quinney coefficient is defined as the ratio of plastic work converted into heat, which was evaluated by using thermal imaging data. In our study, an analysis of the heat generated during the process of plastic deformation was measured thereby correlating the abnormal temperature variations with the defects appearing in the material. In our study, an analysis of the heat generated during the process of plastic deformation was measured thereby correlating the abnormal temperature variations with the defects appearing in the material

  6. IDEA: Stimulating Oral Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Jacob J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents daily activities that facilitate complete sentence response, promote oral production, and aid the learning of vocabulary in foreign-language classes. Because speech is the primary form of communication in the foreign-language classroom, it is important to stimulate students to converse as soon as possible. (Author/CK)

  7. stimulated BV2 Microglial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-26

    Mar 26, 2012 ... 2), in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. The level of NO production was analyzed using Griess reaction. The release of PGE2 was determined using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay ...

  8. Brain stimulation in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighina, Filippo; Cosentino, Giuseppe; Fierro, Brigida

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a very prevalent disease with great individual disability and socioeconomic burden. Despite intensive research effort in recent years, the etiopathogenesis of the disease remains to be elucidated. Recently, much importance has been given to mechanisms underlying the cortical excitability that has been suggested to be dysfunctional in migraine. In recent years, noninvasive brain stimulation techniques based on magnetic fields (transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS) and on direct electrical currents (transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS) have been shown to be safe and effective tools to explore the issue of cortical excitability, activation, and plasticity in migraine. Moreover, TMS, repetitive TMS (rTMS), and tDCS, thanks to their ability to interfere with and/or modulate cortical activity inducing plastic, persistent effects, have been also explored as potential therapeutic approaches, opening an interesting perspective for noninvasive neurostimulation for both symptomatic and preventive treatment of migraine and other types of headache. In this chapter we critically review evidence regarding the role of noninvasive brain stimulation in the pathophysiology and treatment of migraine, delineating the advantages and limits of these techniques together with potential development and future application. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Competing indentation deformation mechanisms in glass using different strengthening methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Luo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical strengthening via ion exchange, thermal tempering, and lamination are proven techniques for strengthening of oxide glasses. For each of these techniques, the strengthening mechanism is conventionally ascribed to the linear superposition of the compressive stress profile on the glass surface. However, in this work we use molecular dynamics simulations to reveal the underlying indentation deformation mechanism beyond the simple linear superposition of compressive and indentation stresses. In particular, the plastic zone can be dramatically different from the commonly assumed hemispherical shape, which leads to a completely different stress field and resulting crack system. We show that the indentation-induced fracture is controlled by two competing mechanisms: the compressive stress itself and a potential reduction in free volume that can increase the driving force for crack formation. Chemical strengthening via ion exchange tends to escalate the competition between these two effects, while thermal tempering tends to reduce it. Lamination of glasses with differential thermal expansion falls in between. The crack system also depends on the indenter geometry and the loading stage, i.e., loading vs. after unloading. It is observed that combining thermal tempering or high free volume content with ion exchange or lamination can impart a relatively high compressive stress and reduce the driving force for crack formation. Therefore, such a combined approach might offer the best overall crack resistance for oxide glasses.

  10. In situ measurement on TSV-Cu deformation with hotplate system based on sheet resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunna; Wang, Bo; Wang, Huiying; Wu, Kaifeng; Yang, Shengyong; Wang, Yan; Ding, Guifu

    2017-12-01

    The in situ measurement of TSVs deformation at different temperature is meaningful for learning more about the thermal deformation schemes of 3D TSVs in the microelectronic devices. An efficient and smart hotplate based on sheet resistance is designed for offering more heat, producing a uniform temperature distribution, relieving thermal stress and heat concentration issues, and reducing room space, which was optimized by the finite element method (FEM). The fabricated hotplate is efficient and smart (2.5 cm  ×  2.0 cm  ×  0.5 cm) enough to be located in the limited space during measuring. The thermal infrared imager was employed as the temperature sensor for monitoring the temperature distribution of TSVs sample. The 3D profilometry was adopted as the observer for TSVs profiles survey. The in situ 2D top surface profiles and 3D displacement profiles of TSVs sample at the different temperature were measured by 3D profilometer. The in situ average relative deformation and effective plastic deformation of the TSV sample were measured. With optical measurement method, 3D profilometry, the TSV sample can be tested repeatedly.

  11. DEA deformed stretchable patch antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X-J; Jalali Mazlouman, S; Menon, C; Mahanfar, A; Vaughan, R G

    2012-01-01

    A stretchable patch antenna (SPA) whose frequency is tuned by a planar dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) is presented in this paper. This mechanically reconfigurable antenna system has a configuration resembling a pre-stretched silicone belt. Part of the belt is embedded with a layer of conductive liquid metal to form the patch antenna. Part of the belt is sandwiched between conductive electrodes to form the DEA. Electrical activation of the DEA results in a contraction of the patch antenna, and as a result, in a variation of its resonance frequency. Design and fabrication steps of this system are presented. Measurement results for deformation, resonance frequency variation and efficiency of the patch antenna are also presented. (paper)

  12. Deterritorializing Drawing - transformation/deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2012-01-01

    the capacity of the body to be affected by change. The everyday and the ceremonial body, the ordinary and the aberrant movement – these poles generate a passage rather than a difference from the one to the other: from attitude or position to gesture or kinaesthetic twist. Known from without through perception...... but also from within by sensations, body ‘images’ are different to all other images. Twisting these body images make a mode of operation of art. The paper will address the above issues discussing modes of operation and appearance of my actual project. Acting in the reality of drawing, the project confront...... criticises figurative as well as abstract painting as passing through the brain and not acting directly upon the senses. Figurative and abstract painting both fail to liberate the Figure, implementing transformation of form, but not attaining deformations of bodies. Bacon, then, is concerned about...

  13. Typhoon-Induced Ground Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouyen, M.; Canitano, A.; Chao, B. F.; Hsu, Y.-J.; Steer, P.; Longuevergne, L.; Boy, J.-P.

    2017-11-01

    Geodetic instruments now offer compelling sensitivity, allowing to investigate how solid Earth and surface processes interact. By combining surface air pressure data, nontidal sea level variations model, and rainfall data, we systematically analyze the volumetric deformation of the shallow crust at seven borehole strainmeters in Taiwan induced by 31 tropical cyclones (typhoons) that made landfall to the island from 2004 to 2013. The typhoon's signature consists in a ground dilatation due to air pressure drop, generally followed by a larger ground compression. We show that this compression phase can be mostly explained by the mass loading of rainwater that falls on the ground and concentrates in the valleys towards the strainmeter sensitivity zone. Further, our analysis shows that borehole strainmeters can help quantifying the amount of rainwater accumulating and flowing over a watershed during heavy rainfalls, which is a useful constraint for building hydrological models.

  14. Precise object tracking under deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.H

    2010-01-01

    The precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This frame-work focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling , rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high precession results.

  15. Deformed exponentials and portfolio selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Flávia P.; Guerreiro, Igor M.; Cavalcante, Charles Casimiro

    In this paper, we present a method for portfolio selection based on the consideration on deformed exponentials in order to generalize the methods based on the gaussianity of the returns in portfolio, such as the Markowitz model. The proposed method generalizes the idea of optimizing mean-variance and mean-divergence models and allows a more accurate behavior for situations where heavy-tails distributions are necessary to describe the returns in a given time instant, such as those observed in economic crises. Numerical results show the proposed method outperforms the Markowitz portfolio for the cumulated returns with a good convergence rate of the weights for the assets which are searched by means of a natural gradient algorithm.

  16. Deformation quantization: Twenty years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternheimer, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    We first review the historical developments, both in physics and in mathematics, that preceded (and in some sense provided the background of) deformation quantization. Then we describe the birth of the latter theory and its evolution in the past twenty years, insisting on the main conceptual developments and keeping here as much as possible on the physical side. For the physical part the accent is put on its relations to, and relevance for, 'conventional' physics. For the mathematical part we concentrate on the questions of existence and equivalence, including most recent developments for general Poisson manifolds; we touch also noncommutative geometry and index theorems, and relations with group theory, including quantum groups. An extensive (though very incomplete) bibliography is appended and includes background mathematical literature

  17. Precise Object Tracking under Deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    The precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This framework focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling, rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high precession results. xiiiThe precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This framework focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling, rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high

  18. Developing a Virtual Rock Deformation Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Ougier-simonin, A.; Lisabeth, H. P.; Banker, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental rock physics plays an important role in advancing earthquake research. Despite its importance in geophysics, reservoir engineering, waste deposits and energy resources, most geology departments in U.S. universities don't have rock deformation facilities. A virtual deformation laboratory can serve as an efficient tool to help geology students naturally and internationally learn about rock deformation. Working with computer science engineers, we built a virtual deformation laboratory that aims at fostering user interaction to facilitate classroom and outreach teaching and learning. The virtual lab is built to center around a triaxial deformation apparatus in which laboratory measurements of mechanical and transport properties such as stress, axial and radial strains, acoustic emission activities, wave velocities, and permeability are demonstrated. A student user can create her avatar to enter the virtual lab. In the virtual lab, the avatar can browse and choose among various rock samples, determine the testing conditions (pressure, temperature, strain rate, loading paths), then operate the virtual deformation machine to observe how deformation changes physical properties of rocks. Actual experimental results on the mechanical, frictional, sonic, acoustic and transport properties of different rocks at different conditions are compiled. The data acquisition system in the virtual lab is linked to the complied experimental data. Structural and microstructural images of deformed rocks are up-loaded and linked to different deformation tests. The integration of the microstructural image and the deformation data allows the student to visualize how forces reshape the structure of the rock and change the physical properties. The virtual lab is built using the Game Engine. The geological background, outstanding questions related to the geological environment, and physical and mechanical concepts associated with the problem will be illustrated on the web portal. In

  19. A monoenergetic electron source generated by nuclear stimulated desorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelson, I.; Levy, Y.; Nir, D.; Haustein, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    A series of measurements of nuclear stimulated desorption was performed for 103 Ru, using thin ruthenium films irradiated by thermal neutrons. The magnitude, time dependence and electric charge state of the outgoing 103m Rh flux was investigated. The utilization of monoenergetic electrons accompanying the 103 Rh decay for thin film thickness measurement is considered. (Author)

  20. Thermically stimulated exoelectronic emissions and thermoluminescence of MgO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubaci, J.F.D.

    1987-01-01

    In this work, studies were performed on the following topics: i) thermically stimulated exoelectronic emission (TSEE) in pure MgO single crystals ion implanted, submitted to thermal treatment with fast on slow cooling and water adsorption; ii) ultraviolet light effect on TSEE; iii) thermoluminescent emission; iv) crystallization of FeCoB amorphous alloys. (A.C.A.S.) [pt