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Sample records for thermal treatment led

  1. Thermal management for LED applications

    CERN Document Server

    Poppe, András

    2014-01-01

    Thermal Management for LED Applications provides state-of-the-art information on recent developments in thermal management as it relates to LEDs and LED-based systems and their applications. Coverage begins with an overview of the basics of thermal management including thermal design for LEDs, thermal characterization and testing of LEDs, and issues related to failure mechanisms and reliability and performance in harsh environments. Advances and recent developments in thermal management round out the book with discussions on advances in TIMs (thermal interface materials) for LED applications, advances in forced convection cooling of LEDs, and advances in heat sinks for LED assemblies. This book also: Presents a comprehensive overview of the basics of thermal management as it relates to LEDs and LED-based systems Discusses both design and thermal management considerations when manufacturing LEDs and LED-based systems Covers reliability and performance of LEDs in harsh environments Has a hands-on applications a...

  2. Lifetime prediction of LED lighting systems considering thermal coupling between LED sources and drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfarog, Azzarn Orner; Qu, Xiaohui; Wang, Huai

    2017-01-01

    and accelerate the failure. In this paper, a new thermal model concerning the thermal coupling is proposed with Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation for parameter acquirement. The proposed model has a better estimation of the thermal stresses of key components in the LED lamps and therefore an improved...... separately, and then the thermal design is also optimized independently. In practice, the LED source and driver are usually compacted in a single fixture. The heat dissipated from LED source and driver will be coupled together and affect the heat transfer performance, which may degrade the whole system...

  3. A review of passive thermal management of LED module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, H.; Sau, K.; Zeijl, H. van; Gielen, A.W.J.; Zhang, G.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the high-brightness LEDs have begun to be designed for illumination application. The increased electrical currents used to drive LEDs lead to thermal issues. Thermal management for LED module is a key design parameter as high operation temperature directly affects their maximum light

  4. Refrigerating liquid prototype for LED's thermal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faranda, Roberto; Guzzetti, Stefania; Lazaroiu, George Cristian; Leva, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The heat management is the critical factor for high performance operation of LED. A new heat management application of refrigerating liquid integrated within a fabricated prototype is proposed and investigated. A series of experiments considering different heights of liquid level were performed to evaluate the heat dissipation performance and optical characteristics of the refrigerating liquid based prototype. The results reveal that the junction temperature decreases as the level of refrigerating liquid increases. The experimental results report that the refrigerating liquid reduces the junction temperature, and can positively influence the luminous radiation performances. An optimization investigation of the proposed solution was carried out to find an optimum thermal performance. The experiments indicated that refrigerating liquid cooling is a powerful way for heat dissipation of high power LEDs, and the fabrication of prototype was feasible and useful. - Highlights: ► New heat management application of refrigerating liquid on a fabricated LED prototype. ► Thermal models setup and comparison between the classical and the new solutions. ► The impact of refrigerating liquid level on LED thermal and luminous performances. ► The relationship between different levels of liquid with LED prototype performances.

  5. Thermal Characterization and Lifetime Prediction of LED Boards for SSL Lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Formanek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a detailed 3-D thermo-mechanical modelling of two LED board technologies to compare their performance. LED board are considered to be used in high power 800 lumen retrofit SSL (Solid State Lighting lamp. Thermal, mechanical and life time properties are evaluated by numerical modelling. Experimental results measured on fabricated LED board samples are compared to calculated data. Main role of LED board in SSL lamp is to transport heat from LED die to a heat sink and keep the thermal stresses in all layers as low as possible. The work focuses on improving of new LED board thermal management. Moreover, reliability and lifetime of LED board has been inspected by numerical calculation and validated by experiment. Thermally induced stress has been studied for wide temperature range that can affect the LED boards (-40 to +125°C. Numerical modelling of thermal performance, thermal stress distribution and lifetime has been carried out with ANSYS structural analysis where temperature dependent stress-strain material properties have been taken into account. The objective of this study is to improve not only the thermal performance of new LED board, but also identification of potential problems from mechanical fatigue point of view. Accelerated lifetime testing (e.g., mechanical is carried out in order to study the failure behaviour of current and newly developed LED board.

  6. Analyzing Thermal Module Developments and Trends in High-Power LED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Chang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid-state light emitting diode (SSLED has been verified as consumer-electronic products and attracts attention to indoor and outdoor lighting lamp, which has a great benefit in saving energy and environmental protection. However, LED junction temperature will influence the luminous efficiency, spectral color, life cycle, and stability. This study utilizes thermal performance experiments with the illumination-analysis method and window program (vapour chamber thermal module, VCTM V1.0 to investigate and analyze the high-power LED (Hi-LED lighting thermal module, in order to achieve the best solution of the fin parameters under the natural convection. The computing core of the VCTM program employs the theoretical thermal resistance analytical approach with iterative convergence stated in this study to obtain a numerical solution. Results showed that the best geometry of thermal module is 4.4 mm fin thickness, 9.4 mm fin pitch, and 37 mm fin height with the LED junction temperature of 58.8°C. And the experimental thermal resistances are in good agreement with the theoretical thermal resistances; calculating error between measured data and simulation results is no more than ±7%. Thus, the Hi-LED illumination lamp has high life cycle and reliability.

  7. Development of thermal LED Model | Kapitonov | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... operating conditions of LEDs at the design stage, taking into account a cooling system in use. ... The created models will allow to reveal unfavorable thermal operating modes for LEDs and, ...

  8. Thermal simulation and validation of 8W LED lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Formánek, J.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Bolt, P.J.; Kulha, P.

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with thermal simulation and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) LED Lamp in order to get precise 3D thermal models for further lamp thermal optimization. Simulations are performed with ANSYS-CFX and CoventorWare software tools. The simulated thermal distribution has been

  9. In-situ measurements of material thermal parameters for accurate LED lamp thermal modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellvehi, M.; Perpina, X.; Jorda, X.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Jakovenko, J.; Bancken, P.; Bolt, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the extraction of key thermal parameters for accurate thermal modelling of LED lamps: air exchange coefficient around the lamp, emissivity and thermal conductivity of all lamp parts. As a case study, an 8W retrofit lamp is presented. To assess simulation results, temperature is

  10. Effects of melatonin injection or green-wavelength LED light on the antioxidant system in goldfish (Carassius auratus) during thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Bong-Seok; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-05-01

    We tested the mitigating effects of melatonin injections or irradiation from green-wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to thermal stress (high water temperature, 30 °C). The effects of the two treatments were assessed by measuring the expression and activity levels of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, plasma hydrogen peroxide, lipid hydroperoxide, and lysozyme. In addition, a comet assay was conducted to confirm that high water temperature damaged nuclear DNA. The expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, plasma hydrogen peroxide, and lipid hydroperoxide were significantly higher after exposure to high temperature and were significantly lower in fish that received melatonin or LED light than in those that received no mitigating treatment. Plasma lysozyme was significantly lower after exposure to high temperature and was significantly higher after exposure to melatonin or LED light. The comet assay revealed that thermal stress caused a great deal of damage to nuclear DNA; however, treatment with melatonin or green-wavelength LED light prevented a significant portion of this damage from occurring. These results indicate that, although high temperatures induce oxidative stress and reduce immune system strength in goldfish, both melatonin and green-wavelength LED light inhibit oxidative stress and boost the immune system. LED treatment increased the antioxidant and immune system activity more significantly than did melatonin treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental investigation of a PCM-HP heat sink on its thermal performance and anti-thermal-shock capacity for high-power LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yuxuan; Tang, Yong; Li, Zongtao; Ding, Xinrui; Yuan, Wei; Zhao, Xuezhi; Yu, Binhai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A phase-change material (PCM) base heat pipe heat sink (PCM-HP heat sink) is designed. • The PCM-HP heat sink can significantly lower the LED heating rate and temperature. • The PCM-HP heat sink achieves a best anti-thermal-shock capacity in LED cyclic working modes. - Abstract: High-power LEDs demonstrate a number of benefits compared with conventional incandescent lamps and fluorescent lamps, including a longer lifetime, higher brightness and lower power consumption. However, owing to their severe high heat flux, it is difficult to develop effective thermal management of high-power LEDs, especially under cyclic working modes, which cause serious periodic thermal stress and limit further development. Focusing on the above problem, this paper designed a phase-change material (PCM) base heat pipe heat sink (PCM-HP heat sink) that consists of a PCM base, adapter plate, heat pipe and finned radiator. Different parameters, such as three types of interior materials to fill the heat sink, three LED power inputs and eight LED cyclic working modes, were separately studied to investigate the thermal performance and anti-thermal-shock capacity of the PCM-HP heat sink. The results show that the PCM-HP heat sink possesses remarkable thermal performance owing to the reduction of the LED heating rate and peak temperature. More importantly, an excellent anti-thermal-shock capacity of the PCM-HP heat sink is also demonstrated when applied in LED cyclic working modes, and this capacity demonstrates the best range.

  12. Optical and thermal simulation chain for LED package

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tapaninen, O.; Myohanen, P.; Majanen, M.; Sitomaniemi, A.; Olkkonen, J.; Hildenbrand, V.; Gielen, A.W.J.; Mackenzie, F.V.; Barink, M.; Smilauer, V.; Patzak, B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a test case for coupling two physical aspects of an LED, optical and thermal, using specific simulation models coupled through an open source platform for distributed multi-physics modelling. The glue code for coupling is written with Python programming language including

  13. Study on the Thermal Resistance of Multi-chip Module High Power LED Packaging Heat Dissipation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailin Pan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal resistance is a key technical index which indicates the thermal management of multi-chip module high power LED (MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system. In this paper, the prototype structure of MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system is proposed to study the reliable thermal resistance calculation method. In order to analyze the total thermal resistance of the MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system, three kinds of thermal resistance calculation method including theoretical calculation, experimental testing and finite element simulation are developed respectively. Firstly, based on the thermal resistance network model and the principle of steady state heat transfer, the theoretical value of total thermal resistance is 6.111 K/W through sum of the thermal resistance of every material layer in the major direction of heat flow. Secondly, the thermal resistance experiment is carried out by T3Ster to obtain the experimental result of total thermal resistance, and the value is 6.729 K/W. Thirdly, a three-dimensional finite element model of MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system is established, and the junction temperature experiment is also performed to calculated the finite element simulated result of total thermal resistance, the value is 6.99 K/W. Finally, by comparing the error of all the three kinds of result, the error of total thermal resistance between the theoretical value and experimental result is 9.2 %, and the error of total thermal resistance between the experimental result and finite element simulation is only about -3.9 %, meanwhile, the main reason of each error is discussed respectively.

  14. Influence of dome phosphor particle concentration on mid-power LED thermal resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexeev, A.; Martin, G.; Hildenbrand, V.D.; Bosschaart, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    The modern white mid-power LEDs usually contain phosphor particles encapsulated in silicone dome material. The particles convert the blue light emitted from the epitaxial layer and play significant role in thermal processes of LED packages. In this paper the influence of the phosphor particles

  15. Quantification and analysis of color stability based on thermal transient behavior in white LED lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisa Khan, M

    2017-09-20

    We present measurement and analysis of color stability over time for two categories of white LED lamps based on their thermal management scheme, which also affects their transient lumen depreciation. We previously reported that lumen depreciation in LED lamps can be minimized by properly designing the heat sink configuration that allows lamps to reach a thermal equilibrium condition quickly. Although it is well known that lumen depreciation degrades color stability of white light since color coordinates vary with total lumen power by definition, quantification and characterization of color shifts based on thermal transient behavior have not been previously reported in literature for LED lamps. Here we provide experimental data and analysis of transient color shifts for two categories of household LED lamps (from a total of six lamps in two categories) and demonstrate that reaching thermal equilibrium more quickly provides better stability for color rendering, color temperature, and less deviation of color coordinates from the Planckian blackbody locus line, which are all very important characterization parameters of color for white light. We report for the first time that a lamp's color degradation from the turn-on time primarily depends on thermal transient behavior of the semiconductor LED chip, which experiences a wavelength shift as well as a decrease in its dominant wavelength peak value with time, which in turn degrades the phosphor conversion. For the first time, we also provide a comprehensive quantitative analysis that differentiates color degradation due to the heat rise in GaN/GaInN LED chips and subsequently the boards these chips are mounted on-from that caused by phosphor heating in a white LED module. Finally, we briefly discuss why there are some inevitable trade-offs between omnidirectionality and color and luminous output stability in current household LED lamps and what will help eliminate these trade-offs in future lamp designs.

  16. Thermal treatment of radioactive wastes by the PLASMARC process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffelner, W.; Haefeli, V.; Fuenfschilling, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The plasma plant for the thermal treatment of radioactive wastes to be supplied to ZWILAG is briefly described and the results of experiments with simulated waste are provided. The experiments led to the conclusion that the plant is well suited for handling low- and intermediate level radioactive wastes. (author) 1 fig., 3 tabs

  17. The impact of the thermal conductivities of the color conversion elements of phosphor converted LEDs under different current driving schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulmek, Paul; Nicolics, Johann [Institute of Sensor & Actuator Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstraße 27-29, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Nemitz, Wolfgang; Schweitzer, Susanne; Sommer, Christian; Hartmann, Paul [Institute of Surface Technologies and Photonics, Joanneum Research Forschungsges mbH, Franz-Pichler Straße 30, A-8160 Weiz (Austria); Schrank, Franz [Tridonic Jennersdorf GmbH, Technologiepark 10, A-8380 Jennersdorf (Austria); Wenzl, Franz P., E-mail: Franz-Peter.Wenzl@joanneum.at [Institute of Sensor & Actuator Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstraße 27-29, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-01-15

    For a systematic approach to improve the reliability and the white light quality of phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) it is imperative to gain a better understanding of the individual parameters that affect color temperature constancy and maintenance. By means of a combined optical and thermal simulation procedure, in this contribution we give a comprehensive discussion on the impact of different thermal conductivities of the color conversion elements (CCE) of phosphor converted LEDs on their respective thermal load for different current driving schemes. In particular we show that, while for the thermal load of CCEs with low thermal conductivities also effects due to the non-linearity between the blue radiant flux and the current have to be considered, these effects are largely diminished in case of CCEs with higher thermal conductivities. - Highlights: • We discuss the thermal load of phosphor based LEDs for different current driving. • We report on the time scales for the thermal load of phosphor based LEDs. • We report on the impact of the non-linearity of the radiant flux on the thermal load. • We discuss the impact of the thermal conductivity on the thermal load.

  18. Thermal, spectral, and surface properties of LED light-polymerized bulk fill resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pişkin, Mehmet Burçin; Atalı, Pınar Yılmaz; Figen, Aysel Kantürk

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the thermal, spectral, and surface properties of four different bulk fill materials – SureFil SDR (SDR, Dentsplay DETREY), QuixFil (QF, Dentsplay DETREY), X-tra base (XB, Voco) X-tra fil (XF, Voco) – polymerized by light-emitting diode (LED). Resin matrix, filler type, size and amount, and photoinitiator types influence the degree of conversion. LED-cured bulk fill composites achieved sufficient polymerization. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed different patterns of surface roughness, depending on the composite material. Bulk fill materials showed surface characteristics similar to those of nanohybrid composites. Based on the thermal analysis results, glass transition (T(g)) and initial degradation (T(i)) temperatures changed depending on the bulk fill resin composites.

  19. Controlled High Filler Loading of Functionalized Al2O3-Filled Epoxy Composites for LED Thermal Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permal, Anithambigai; Devarajan, Mutharasu; Hung, Huong Ling; Zahner, Thomas; Lacey, David; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi

    2018-03-01

    Thermal management in light-emitting diode (LED) has been extensively researched recently. This study is intended to develop an effective thermally conductive epoxy composite as thermal interface material (TIM) for headlamp LEDs. Silane-functionalized aluminum oxide (Al2O3) powder of different average particle sizes (44 and 10 µm) was studied for its feasibility as filler at its maximum loading. A detailed comparison of three different methods of particle dispersions, hand-mix, speed-mix and calendaring process (3-roll mill), has been reported. The dispersion of Al2O3 particles, the thermal conductivity and thermal degradation characteristics of the composites were investigated and explained in detail. At 75 wt.% filler loading, 10 and 44 µm Al2O3 achieved composite thermal conductivities of 1.13 and 2.08 W/mK, respectively, which is approximately 528 and 1055% of enhancement with respect to neat epoxy. The package-level thermal performance of the LED employing the Al2O3-filled TIMs was carried out using thermal transient analysis. The experimental junction-to-ambient thermal resistances ( R thJ-A) achieved were 6.65, 7.24, and 8.63 K/W for Al2O3_44µm, Al2O3_10µm and neat epoxy, respectively. The results revealed that the Al2O3_44µm fillers-filled composite performed better in both material-level and package-level thermal characteristics.

  20. Feasibility of LED-Assisted CMOS Camera: Contrast Estimation for Laser Tattoo Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngot Thi Pham

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the residual tattoo ink in skin after laser treatment is often critical for achieving good clinical outcomes. The current study aims to investigate the feasibility of a light-emitting diode (LED-assisted CMOS camera to estimate the relative variations in tattoo contrast after the laser treatment. Asian mice were tattooed using two color inks (black and red. The LED illumination was a separate process from the laser tattoo treatment. Images of the ink tattoos in skin were acquired under the irradiation of three different LED colors (red, green, and blue for pre- and post-treatment. The degree of contrast variation due to the treatment was calculated and compared with the residual tattoo distribution in the skin. The black tattoo demonstrated that the contrast consistently decreased after the laser treatment for all LED colors. However, the red tattoo showed that the red LED yielded an insignificant contrast whereas the green and blue LEDs induced a 30% (p < 0.001 and 26% (p < 0.01 contrast reduction between the treatment conditions, respectively. The proposed LED-assisted CMOS camera can estimate the relative variations in the image contrast before and after the laser tattoo treatment.

  1. Savings in Cooling Energy with a Thermal Management System for LED Lighting in Office Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Lip Ahn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Light-emitting diode (LED lighting should be considered for lighting efficiency enhancement, however, waste heat from light-emitting diode (LED lighting increases the internal cooling load during the summer season. In order to solve this problem we propose a thermal management system for light-emitting diode (LED lighting with a heat exchanger module integrated with the building’s heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC system to move the lighting’s waste heat outdoors. An experiment was carried out to investigate the thermal effects in a test chamber and the heat exchange rate between the heat sink and the duct air. The heat generated by the light-emitting diode (LED lighting was calculated as 78.1% of light-emitting diode (LED input power and the heat exchange rate of the lighting heat exchange module was estimated to be between 86.5% and 98.1% according to the light-emitting diode (LED input power and the flow rate of air passing the heat sink. As a result, the average light-emitting diode (LED lighting heat contribution rate for internal heat gain was determined as 0.05; this value was used to calculate the heating and cooling energy demand of the office building through an energy simulation program. In the simulation results, the cooling energy demand was reduced by 19.2% compared with the case of conventionally installed light-emitting diode (LED lighting.

  2. Imposed Thermal Fatigue and Post-Thermal-Cycle Wear Resistance of Biomimetic Gray Cast Iron by Laser Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Qi; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Deping; Chen, Zhikai; Zhang, Peng

    2017-08-01

    The present study aims to create coupling biomimetic units on gray cast iron substrate by laser surface treatment (LST). LSTs for single-step (LST1) and two-step (LST2) processes, were carried out on gray cast iron in different media (air and water). Their effects on microstructure, thermal fatigue, and post-thermal-cycle wear (PTW) resistance on the specimens were studied. The tests were carried out to examine the influence of crack-resistance behavior as well as the biomimetic surface on its post-thermal-cycle wear behavior and different units, with different laser treatments for comparison. Results showed that LST2 enhanced the PTW behaviors of gray cast iron, which then led to an increase in its crack resistance. Among the treated cast irons, the one treated by LST2 in air showed the lowest residual stress, due to the positive effect of the lower steepness of the thermal gradient. Moreover, the same specimen showed the best PTW performance, due to its superior crack resistance and higher hardness as a result of it.

  3. Thermal, optical, and electrical engineering of an innovative tunable white LED light engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellin, Nicola; Meneghini, Matteo; Ferretti, Marco; Barbisan, Diego; Dal Lago, Matteo; Meneghesso, Gaudenzio; Zanoni, Enrico

    2014-02-01

    Color temperature, intensity and blue spectrum of the light affects the ganglion receptors in human brain stimulating the human nervous system. With this work we review different methods for obtaining tunable light emission spectra and propose an innovative white LED lighting system. By an in depth study of the thermal, electrical and optical characteristics of GaN and GaP based compound semiconductors for optoelectronics a specific tunable spectra has been designed. The proposed tunable white LED system is able to achieve high CRI (above 95) in a large CCT range (3000 - 5000K).

  4. Novel Transparent Phosphor Conversion Matrix with High Thermal Conductivity for Next Generation Phosphor-Converted LED-based Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockstaller, Michael [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The low thermal conductivity of state-of-the-art polymer encapsulants (k ~ 0.15 Wm-1K-1) limits the efficiency and power density of current phosphor conversion light emitting diodes (pc-LEDs). The technical objective of this project was to demonstrate synthesis and processing schemes for the fabrication of polymer hybrid encapsulants with a thermal conductivity exceeding k = 0.4 Wm-1K-1 for LED applications. The ‘hybrid polymer’ approach encompasses the dispersion of high thermal conductivity particle fillers (zinc oxide, ZnO as well as the alpha-polymorph of alumina, Al2O3) within a polysiloxane matrix (poly(dimethylsiloxane), PDMS as well as poly(phenyl methyl siloxane), PPMS) to increase the thermal conductivity while maintaining optical transparency and photothermal stability at levels consistent with LED applications. To accomplish this goal, a novel synthesis method for the fabrication of nanosized ZnO particles was developed and a novel surface chemistry was established to modify the surface of zinc oxide particle fillers and thus to enable their dispersion in poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) matrix polymers. Molecular dynamics and Mie simulations were used to optimize ligand structure and to enable the concurrent mixing of particles in PDMS/PPMS embedding media while also minimizing the thermal boundary resistance as well as optical scattering of particle fillers. Using this approach the synthesis of PDMS/ZnO hybrid encapsulants exhibiting a thermal conductivity of 0.64 Wm-1K-1 and optical transparency > 0.7 mm-1 was demonstrated. A forming process based on micromolding was developed to demonstrate the forming of particle filled PDMS into film and lens shapes. Photothermal stability testing revealed stability of the materials for approximately 4000 min when exposed to blue light LED (450 nm, 30 W/cm2). One postgraduate and seven graduate students were supported by the project. The research performed within this project led to fifteen publications in peer

  5. BiliLED low cost neonatal phototherapy, from prototype to industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geido, Daniel; Failache, Horacio [Instituto de Fisica de la Facultad de Ingenieria - Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Simini, Franco [Nucleo de Ingenieria Biomedica de las Facultades de Medicina e Ingenieria (Uruguay); Hospital de ClInicas. Av Italia S/N. Piso 15 sala 2, 11600 Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2007-11-15

    BiliLED is a phototherapy instrument designed to reduce bilirrubin blood rates in new born babies with jaundice. The light source is centred at 470 nm with a bandwidth of 35 nm and includes a matrix of 196 (14x14) InGaN LEDs. The optical elements are designed to maximize the light intensity useful for treatment, with a small number of LEDs in a compact and low cost unit. The optic array is such that every LED illuminates all the treatment area, which ensures redundancy and, thus, a high reliability not to be found in single-lamp instruments. Thermal dissipation and cost of BiliLED are both an order-of-magnitude smaller than conventional therapy lamps. BiliLED adjusts coetaneous irradiation with a feedback loop to compensate the loss or aging of LEDs achieving a calibrated light source for over a decade of use. A clinical trial in 20 hyperbilirrubinaemia patients shows 16% bilirrubin degradation within 24 hours of treatment, higher than most lamp phototherapy instruments. The steps from prototype to commercial model are described.

  6. BiliLED low cost neonatal phototherapy, from prototype to industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geido, Daniel; Failache, Horacio; Simini, Franco

    2007-11-01

    BiliLED is a phototherapy instrument designed to reduce bilirrubin blood rates in new born babies with jaundice. The light source is centred at 470 nm with a bandwidth of 35 nm and includes a matrix of 196 (14×14) InGaN LEDs. The optical elements are designed to maximize the light intensity useful for treatment, with a small number of LEDs in a compact and low cost unit. The optic array is such that every LED illuminates all the treatment area, which ensures redundancy and, thus, a high reliability not to be found in single-lamp instruments. Thermal dissipation and cost of BiliLED are both an order-of-magnitude smaller than conventional therapy lamps. BiliLED adjusts coetaneous irradiation with a feedback loop to compensate the loss or aging of LEDs achieving a calibrated light source for over a decade of use. A clinical trial in 20 hyperbilirrubinaemia patients shows 16% bilirrubin degradation within 24 hours of treatment, higher than most lamp phototherapy instruments. The steps from prototype to commercial model are described.

  7. BiliLED low cost neonatal phototherapy, from prototype to industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geido, Daniel; Failache, Horacio; Simini, Franco

    2007-01-01

    BiliLED is a phototherapy instrument designed to reduce bilirrubin blood rates in new born babies with jaundice. The light source is centred at 470 nm with a bandwidth of 35 nm and includes a matrix of 196 (14x14) InGaN LEDs. The optical elements are designed to maximize the light intensity useful for treatment, with a small number of LEDs in a compact and low cost unit. The optic array is such that every LED illuminates all the treatment area, which ensures redundancy and, thus, a high reliability not to be found in single-lamp instruments. Thermal dissipation and cost of BiliLED are both an order-of-magnitude smaller than conventional therapy lamps. BiliLED adjusts coetaneous irradiation with a feedback loop to compensate the loss or aging of LEDs achieving a calibrated light source for over a decade of use. A clinical trial in 20 hyperbilirrubinaemia patients shows 16% bilirrubin degradation within 24 hours of treatment, higher than most lamp phototherapy instruments. The steps from prototype to commercial model are described

  8. Final Scientific/Technical Report (DOE F 241.3) Next-Generation LED Package Architectures Enabled by Thermally Conductive Transparent Encapsulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugaiah, Anand [Momentive Performance Materials Quartz, Inc., Strongsville, OH (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The objective of this program is to generate novel LED package designs that would provide 30% improvement in lumen/$ output. This was to be achieved by improving thermal management in encapsulants/ phosphors to reduce their temperatures. Currently, the heat that is generated during down conversion of blue light to longer wavelengths by the phosphors dispersed in the encapsulant does not have optimum thermal pathways for dissipation due to poor thermal conductivity of the encapsulant material. Additionally, high temperature in the encapsulant during operation is one of the primary failure modes in LED luminaires resulting in much shorter than expected life. The thermal issues manifest in color instability (yellowing, browning), cracking and hot spots in the encapsulant leading to failures. This work explored boron nitride (hBN) as thermal fillers in encapsulants to improve thermal conductivity while minimally impacting optical properties. Various approaches to Boron Nitride (BN) were evaluated and over 380 samples were generated to down select appropriate BN morphologies. We developed a range or BN materials for enabling thermal properties while attempting to minimally impact to optical properties.

  9. Thermal treatment for TRU waste sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshiki; Aoyama, Yoshio; Yamashita, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    A thermal treatment that can automatically unpack TRU waste and remove hazardous materials has been developed to reduce the risk of radiation exposure and save operation cost. The thermal treatment is a process of removing plastic wrapping and hazardous material from TRU waste by heating waste at 500 to 700degC. Plastic wrappings of simulated wastes were removed using a laboratory scale thermal treatment system. Celluloses and isoprene rubbers that must be removed from waste for disposal were pyrolyzed by the treatment. Although the thermal treatment can separate lead and aluminum from the waste, a further technical development is needed to separate lead and aluminum. A demonstration scale thermal treatment system that comprises a rotary kiln with a jacket water cooler and a rotating inner cage for lead and aluminum separation is discussed. A clogging prevention system against zinc chloride, a lead and aluminum accumulation system, and a detection system for spray cans that possibly cause explosion and fire are also discussed. Future technology development subjects for the TRU waste thermal treatment system are summarized. (author)

  10. Alteration of diaspore by thermal treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华明; 胡岳华; 杨武国; 敖伟琴; 邱冠周

    2004-01-01

    Diaspore (α-AlOOH) was heated at various temperatures from 300 to 1000 ℃ for 2 h. The alteration of diaspore by thermal treatment was investigated by differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The mechanism of thermal decomposition of diaspore was discussed according to the Coats-Redfern equation. It is found that after thermal treatment at 500 ℃, diaspore is transformed entirely to corundum (α-Al2O3). Combined with the mass loss ratio obtained from the thermogravimetric analysis data, the activation energies for the thermal treatment of diaspore are calculated as Ea=10.4 kJ/mol below 400 ℃ and Eb=47.5 kJ/mol above 400 ℃, respectively, which is directly related to the structural alteration of diaspore during the thermal treatment. The results indicate that the thermal decomposition of diaspore is conducted primarily by means of an interfacial reaction.

  11. Experimental study on the thermal management of high-power LED headlight cooling device integrated with thermoelectric cooler package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhao, Xin-Jie; Cai, Yi-Xi; Zhang, Chun; Bao, Wei-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel TEC cooling system for multi-chip LED module was successfully developed. • Influences of liquid velocity on the system thermal performance were investigated. • TEC system is more sensitive to the input current than that of the mere air cooling. • The junction temperature can be maintained below 61.8 °C (liquid cooling & TEC). - Abstract: In view of the characteristics of high power light-emitting diodes (LEDs), such as strict junction temperature (T j ) control, the enhanced cooling models based on the thermoelectric cooler (TEC) were presented to meet the thermal demand of high-power LED headlight. The cooling performance of different devices (air cooling & TEC, liquid cooling & TEC) was evaluated and compared by measuring the LED case temperature. Details of the heat transfer performance, particularly, the start-up performances of the TEC cooler, as well as the influence of the fan rotate speed or liquid velocity on the system thermal performance were obtained. It was found that the thermal performance had been elevated dramatically due to the reduction of the hot side temperature, and the thermoelectric cooler was more sensitive to the external fan speed or liquid velocity than purely air cooling or liquid cooling. In addition, the optimal current for air cooling & TEC was 3A, and 5A for liquid cooling + TEC. Investigations of the simulated ambient temperature on junction temperature, forward voltage, and output light were conducted. Results indicated that the case temperature changed linear basically with the increase in heating power or the simulated ambient temperature. When the ambient temperature was within its severe level (60–65 °C), the junction temperature could be calculated to 59.5 °C, and the corresponding output light was 1607.3 lm

  12. Modelling reverse characteristics of power LEDs with thermal phenomena taken into account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ptak, Przemysław; Górecki, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    This paper refers to modelling characteristics of power LEDs with a particular reference to thermal phenomena. Special attention is paid to modelling characteristics of the circuit protecting the considered device against the excessive value of the reverse voltage and to the description of the temperature influence on optical power. The network form of the worked out model is presented and some results of experimental verification of this model for the selected diodes operating at different cooling conditions are described. The very good agreement between the calculated and measured characteristics is obtained

  13. Die attach dimension and material on thermal conductivity study for high power COB LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarukunaselan, K.; Ong, N. R.; Sauli, Z.; Mahmed, N.; Kirtsaeng, S.; Sakuntasathien, S.; Suppiah, S.; Alcain, J. B.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    High power LED began to gain popularity in the semiconductor market due to its efficiency and luminance. Nonetheless, along with the increased in efficiency, there was an increased in the junction temperature too. The alleviating junction temperature is undesirable since the performances and lifetime will be degraded over time. Therefore, it is crucial to solve this thermal problem by maximizing the heat dissipation to the ambience. Improvising the die attach (DA) layer would be the best option because this layer is sandwiched between the chip (heat source) and the substrate (channel to the ambient). In this paper, the impact of thickness and thermal conductivity onto the junction temperature and Von Mises stress is analyzed. Results obtained showed that the junction temperature is directly proportional to the thickness but the stress was inversely proportional to the thickness of the DA. The thermal conductivity of the materials did affect the junction temperature as there was not much changes once the thermal conductivity reached 20W/mK. However, no significant changes were observed on the Von Mises stress caused by the thermal conductivity. Material with the second highest thermal conductivity had the lowest stress, whereas the highest conductivity material had the highest stress value at 20 µm. Overall, silver sinter provided the best thermal dissipation compared to the other materials.

  14. Photocatalytic decomposition of selected estrogens and their estrogenic activity by UV-LED irradiated TiO_2 immobilized on porous titanium sheets via thermal-chemical oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlos, Maricor J.; Liang, Robert; Hatat-Fraile, Melisa M.; Bragg, Leslie M.; Zhou, Norman Y.; Servos, Mark R.; Andrews, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO_2 self-assembled on oxidized porous titanium sheets. • UV-LED/TiO_2 membrane treatment reduced the concentrations of estrogens. • Different pH conditions affect treatment efficiency. • The estrogenic activity removal was similar to the chemical disappearance. - Abstract: The removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) remains a big challenge in water treatment. Risks associated with these compounds are not clearly defined and it is important that the water industry has additional options to increase the resiliency of water treatment systems. Titanium dioxide (TiO_2) has potential applications for the removal of EDCs from water. TiO_2 has been immobilized on supports using a variety of synthesis methods to increase its feasibility for water treatment. In this study, we immobilized TiO_2 through the thermal-chemical oxidation of porous titania sheets. The efficiency of the material to degrade target EDCs under UV-LED irradiation was examined under a wide range of pH conditions. A yeast-estrogen screen assay was used to complement chemical analysis in assessing removal efficiency. All compounds but 17β-estradiol were degraded and followed a pseudo first-order kinetics at all pH conditions tested, with pH 4 and pH 11 showing the most and the least efficient treatments respectively. In addition, the total estrogenic activity was substantially reduced even with the inefficient degradation of 17β-estradiol. Additional studies will be required to optimize different treatment conditions, UV-LED configurations, and membrane fouling mitigation measures to make this technology a more viable option for water treatment.

  15. Conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suer, A.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study (FS) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) focusing exclusively on thermal treatment technologies for contaminated soil, sediment, or sludge remediation projects

  16. Photocatalytic decomposition of selected estrogens and their estrogenic activity by UV-LED irradiated TiO{sub 2} immobilized on porous titanium sheets via thermal-chemical oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlos, Maricor J., E-mail: mjarlos@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Liang, Robert; Hatat-Fraile, Melisa M. [Centre for Advanced Materials Joining, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Waterloo Institute of Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Bragg, Leslie M. [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Zhou, Norman Y. [Centre for Advanced Materials Joining, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Waterloo Institute of Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Servos, Mark R. [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Andrews, Susan A. [Civil Engineering Department, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A4 (Canada)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} self-assembled on oxidized porous titanium sheets. • UV-LED/TiO{sub 2} membrane treatment reduced the concentrations of estrogens. • Different pH conditions affect treatment efficiency. • The estrogenic activity removal was similar to the chemical disappearance. - Abstract: The removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) remains a big challenge in water treatment. Risks associated with these compounds are not clearly defined and it is important that the water industry has additional options to increase the resiliency of water treatment systems. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) has potential applications for the removal of EDCs from water. TiO{sub 2} has been immobilized on supports using a variety of synthesis methods to increase its feasibility for water treatment. In this study, we immobilized TiO{sub 2} through the thermal-chemical oxidation of porous titania sheets. The efficiency of the material to degrade target EDCs under UV-LED irradiation was examined under a wide range of pH conditions. A yeast-estrogen screen assay was used to complement chemical analysis in assessing removal efficiency. All compounds but 17β-estradiol were degraded and followed a pseudo first-order kinetics at all pH conditions tested, with pH 4 and pH 11 showing the most and the least efficient treatments respectively. In addition, the total estrogenic activity was substantially reduced even with the inefficient degradation of 17β-estradiol. Additional studies will be required to optimize different treatment conditions, UV-LED configurations, and membrane fouling mitigation measures to make this technology a more viable option for water treatment.

  17. Thermal treatment: The old and the new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyfantis, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    Burning of wastes as a treatment method has been with us since the beginning of time. Our ancestors, however ancient they may be, used thermal processing primarily for volume reduction with very little regard, if any, for the secondary impacts created. Our contemporaries apply the various thermal treatment methods with strong consideration of the secondary impacts. Incineration is perhaps the best known form of thermal treatment and is a method which is frequently applied in the municipal waste management arena. Volume reduction is the primary purpose of most of these systems, but energy recovery (production) is a frequent secondary useful by-product of some systems. Incineration technologies have been widely applied to treatment of hazardous wastes and soils contaminated with hazardous materials. Incineration has been quite successful in the destruction of these chemicals. This paper compares the advantages and disadvantages of different incineration technologies which are currently available. Initial data requirements are described which aid in the selection of a thermal treatment technology. Costs and secondary impacts of these technologies are also presented. New thermal treatment technologies and new applications of old technologies are being developed. The author provides a brief introduction and evaluation of new technologies such as pyrolysis, low temperature thermal desorption, and plasma arc. The advantages and disadvantages and the availability for application to today's problems are discussed

  18. Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste thermal treatment initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.; Riddelle, J.G.

    1993-03-01

    This paper is a progress report of current Westinghouse Hanford Company engineering activities related to the implementation of a program for the thermal treatment of the Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste. Topics discussed include a site-specific engineering study, the review of private sector capability in thermal treatment, and thermal treatment of some of the Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste at other US Department of Energy sites

  19. Thermal treatment of petroleum contaminated soils - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubier, T.W.; Bilello. C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal treatment is a cost-effective treatment method for removing chemicals from contaminated soils. However, detailed applicability studies are lacking. The goals of this paper are to (1) present the results of a thermal treatment study and (2) discuss the specific elements which must be evaluated prior to determining whether thermal treatment is a feasible option for a remediation project. Results of data collected during a pilot study involving thermal treatment of petroleum contaminated soils at a Marine Terminal are presented. The pilot study consisted of thermally treating the C8 through C40 + (gasoline, kerosene, diesel, motor oil, bunker fuel, etc.) hydrocarbon contaminated soils at treatment temperatures ranging from 250 degrees Fahrenheit (degree F) up to 550 degrees F. The low-temperature thermal treatment unit consisted of a rotary kiln with a temperature capacity of approximately 600 degrees F, a baghouse, and a catalytic oxidizer. The soil was monitored for concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds before and after treatment. The results of the pilot study were used to determine if thermal treatment technology is a cost-efficient and effective option of remediating the estimated 300,000 tons of petroleum contaminated soil to acceptable cleanup levels. The low-temperature thermal treatment pilot study was effective in desorbing the short chain hydrocarbons (gasoline and diesel) but was not effective in desorbing the long-chain petroleum hydrocarbons, such as motor oils and bunker fuels, from the soil. This was primarily due to the boiling points of motor oil and bunker fuels which were higher than the temperature capacity of the pilot study treatment equipment. Additional factors that influenced the effectiveness of the desorption process included configuration of the treatment equipment, soil moisture content, soil particle size, and type and concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons

  20. Converter-level FEM simulation for lifetime prediction of an LED driver with improved thermal modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, H.; Wang, H.; Ye, X.

    2017-01-01

    application. A converter-level finite element simulation (FEM) simulation is carried out to obtain the ambient temperature of electrolytic capacitors and power MOSFETs used in the LED driver, which takes into account the impact of the driver enclosure and the thermal coupling among different components....... Therefore, the proposed method bridges the link between the global ambient temperature profile outside of the enclosure and the local ambient temperature profiles of the components of interest inside the driver. A quantitative comparison of the estimated annual lifetime consumptions of MOSFETs...

  1. Physical, thermal, structural and optical properties of Dy3+ doped lithium alumino-borate glasses for bright W-LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, P.P.; Munishwar, S.R.; Gautam, S.; Gedam, R.S.

    2017-01-01

    Rare earth (RE) doped glasses have potential applications due to their emission efficiencies of 4f–4 f and 4f–5d electronic transitions. Among all the rare earths, Dy 3+ doped glasses have drawn much interest among the researchers for their intense emission in the visible region from 470 to 500 nm and around 570 to 600 nm. The physical, thermal, structural and optical properties of Dy 3+ doped lithium alumino-borate glasses (LABD glasses) have been studied for white LED (W-LED) application. The glasses were synthesized by conventional melt quench technique. X-ray diffraction spectra revealed the amorphous nature of the glass sample. An FTIR spectrum was carried out to study the glass structure and various functional groups present in the LABD glasses. Optical absorption spectra were recorded by UV–vis-NIR spectrometer. Allowed direct and indirect band gaps were obtained by Tauc's plot. Thermal parameters like glass thermal stability (∆T), Hruby's parameter (K gl ), etc. were calculated by DTA graph. Photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra's were measured at room temperature. The emission spectra shows two intense emission bands at around 482 nm (blue) and 574 nm (yellow) corresponds to the 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 15/2 and 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 13/2 transitions respectively along with one feeble band at 662 nm (red) corresponds to 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 11/2 transition. The CIE chromaticity co-ordinates were calculated for all glass samples. CIE chromaticity diagram shows glass LABD-4 containing 0.5 mol% Dy 2 O 3 with colour co-ordinates X = 0.34 and Y = 0.38 have highest emission intensity. These glasses having emission in the white region and thus can be used for bright white LED.

  2. Spatial layout optimization design of multi-type LEDs lighting source based on photoelectrothermal coupling theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lingyun; Li, Guang; Chen, Qingguang; Rao, Huanle; Xu, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Multiple LED-based spectral synthesis technology has been widely used in the fields of solar simulator, color mixing, and artificial lighting of plant factory and so on. Generally, amounts of LEDs are spatially arranged with compact layout to obtain the high power density output. Mutual thermal spreading among LEDs will produce the coupled thermal effect which will additionally increase the junction temperature of LED. Affected by the Photoelectric thermal coupling effect of LED, the spectrum of LED will shift and luminous efficiency will decrease. Correspondingly, the spectral synthesis result will mismatch. Therefore, thermal management of LED spatial layout plays an important role for multi-LEDs light source system. In the paper, the thermal dissipation network topology model considering the mutual thermal spreading effect among the LEDs is proposed for multi-LEDs system with various types of power. The junction temperature increment cased by the thermal coupling has the great relation with the spatial arrangement. To minimize the thermal coupling effect, an optimized method of LED spatial layout for the specific light source structure is presented and analyzed. The results showed that layout of LED with high-power are arranged in the corner and low-power in the center. Finally, according to this method, it is convenient to determine the spatial layout of LEDs in a system having any kind of light source structure, and has the advantages of being universally applicable to facilitate adjustment.

  3. Treatment with beta-blockers in nurse-led heart failure clinics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Schou, Morten; Videbaek, Lars

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Beta-blockers (BBs) are a cornerstone in the treatment of chronic heart failure (HF), but several surveys have documented that many patients are not offered treatment or are not titrated to target doses. In part to address this problem, specialized, nurse-led HF clinics have been......% of the patients were being treated with a BB. Mean dose (relative to target dose) was 63 (+/-35)% in patients receiving a BB and target dose was reached by 21%. Patients who were not on BBs were more often female, elderly and in NYHA class III-IV. In a multivariable model only lower age predicted BB use at three...... months (PElderly patients appear to be less likely to receive treatment....

  4. Integrated thermal treatment system sudy: Phase 2, Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study, the results of which have been published as an interim report, examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 2 systems. The assumptions and methods were the same as for the Phase 1 study. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in he Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr).

  5. Integrated thermal treatment system sudy: Phase 2, Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study, the results of which have been published as an interim report, examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 2 systems. The assumptions and methods were the same as for the Phase 1 study. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in he Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr)

  6. Development of a method for the characterization and operation of UV-LED for water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheyrandish, Ataollah; Mohseni, Madjid; Taghipour, Fariborz

    2017-10-01

    Tremendous improvements in semiconductor technology have made ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) a viable alternative to conventional UV sources for water treatment. A robust and validated experimental protocol for studying the kinetics of microorganism inactivation is key to the further development of UV-LEDs for water treatment. This study proposes a protocol to operate UV-LEDs and control their output as a polychromatic radiation source. In order to systematically develop this protocol, the results of spectral power distribution, radiation profile, and radiant power measurements of a variety of UV-LEDs are presented. A wide range of UV-LEDs was selected for this study, covering various UVA, UVB, and UVC wavelengths, viewing angles from 3.5° to 135°, and a variety of output powers. The effects of operational conditions and measurement techniques were investigated on these UV-LEDs using a specially designed and fabricated setup. Operating conditions, such as the UV-LED electrical current and solder temperature, were found to significantly affect the power and peak wavelength output. The measurement techniques and equipment, including the detector size, detector distance from the UV-LED, and potential reflection from the environment, were shown to influence the results for many of the UV-LEDs. The results obtained from these studies were analyzed and applied to the development of a protocol for UV-LED characterization. This protocol is presented as a guideline that allows the operation and control of UV-LEDs in any structure, as well as accurately measuring the UV-LED output. Such information is essential for performing a reliable UV-LED assessment for the inactivation of microorganisms and for obtaining precise kinetic data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of heat treatment temperature on binder thermal conductivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    1975-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the thermal conductivities of a pitch and a polyfurfuryl alcohol binder residue was investigated. Graphites specially prepared with these two binders were used for the experiments. Measured thermal conductivities were treated in terms of a two-component system, and the binder thermal conductivities were calculated. Both binder residues showed increased thermal conductivity with increased heat treatment temperature

  8. Quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 文婷; 卢天健; Seffen; Keith

    2008-01-01

    Skin thermal damage or skin burns are the most commonly encountered type of trauma in civilian and military communities. Besides, advances in laser, microwave and similar technologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments for disease and damage involving skin tissue, where the objective is to induce thermal damage precisely within targeted tissue structures but without affecting the surrounding, healthy tissue. Further, extended pain sensation induced by thermal damage has also brought great...

  9. Practical lighting design with LEDs

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The second edition of Practical Lighting Design with LEDs has been revised and updated to provide the most current information for developing light-emitting diodes products. The authors, noted authorities in the field, offer a review of the most relevant topics including optical performance, materials, thermal design, and modeling and measurement. Comprehensive in scope, the text covers all the information needed to design LEDs into end products.

  10. Design methodologies for reliability of SSL LED boards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Perpiñà, X.; Jorda, X.; Vellvehi, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Husák, M.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Bancken, P.; Bolt, P.J.; Gasse, A.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a comparison of various LED board technologies from thermal, mechanical and reliability point of view provided by an accurate 3-D modelling. LED boards are proposed as a possible technology replacement of FR4 LED boards used in 400 lumen retrofit SSL lamps. Presented design

  11. LED Technology for Dental Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Ou, Yiyu; Soerensen, L. H.

    LEDs have a large potential in many dental and oral applications. Areas such as photo polymerization, fluorescence imaging, photodynamic therapy, and photoactivated disinfection are important future candidates for LED based diagnostics and treatment in dentistry.......LEDs have a large potential in many dental and oral applications. Areas such as photo polymerization, fluorescence imaging, photodynamic therapy, and photoactivated disinfection are important future candidates for LED based diagnostics and treatment in dentistry....

  12. Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge—comparison of thermal pretreatments with thermal inter-stage treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment methods for improved anaerobic digestion (AD) of waste activated sludge were evaluated. Pretreatments at moderate thermal (water bath at 80 °C), high thermal (loop autoclave at 130–170 °C) and thermo-chemical (170 °C/pH 10) conditions prior to AD in batch vials (40 days/37 °....... CONCLUSION: Thermal treatment of waste activated sludge for improved anaerobic digestion seems more effective when applied as an inter-stage treatment rather than a pretreatment. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry...

  13. Nurse led, primary care based antiretroviral treatment versus hospital care: a controlled prospective study in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Kerry A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral treatment services delivered in hospital settings in Africa increasingly lack capacity to meet demand and are difficult to access by patients. We evaluate the effectiveness of nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment by comparison with usual hospital care in a typical rural sub Saharan African setting. Methods We undertook a prospective, controlled evaluation of planned service change in Lubombo, Swaziland. Clinically stable adults with a CD4 count > 100 and on antiretroviral treatment for at least four weeks at the district hospital were assigned to either nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment care or usual hospital care. Assignment depended on the location of the nearest primary care clinic. The main outcome measures were clinic attendance and patient experience. Results Those receiving primary care based treatment were less likely to miss an appointment compared with those continuing to receive hospital care (RR 0·37, p p = 0·001. Those receiving primary care based, nurse led care were more likely to be satisfied in the ability of staff to manage their condition (RR 1·23, p = 0·003. There was no significant difference in loss to follow-up or other health related outcomes in modified intention to treat analysis. Multilevel, multivariable regression identified little inter-cluster variation. Conclusions Clinic attendance and patient experience are better with nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment care than with hospital care; health related outcomes appear equally good. This evidence supports efforts of the WHO to scale-up universal access to antiretroviral treatment in sub Saharan Africa.

  14. Summary of comparative results integrated nonthermal treatment and integrated thermal treatment systems studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    In July 1994, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), under a contract from U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Environment Management Office of Science and Technology (OST, EM-50) published a report entitled open-quotes Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study - Phase 1 Resultsclose quotes (EGG-MS-11211). This report was the culmination of over a year of analysis involving scientists and engineers within the DOE complex and from private industry. The purpose of that study was open-quotes to conduct a systematic engineering evaluation of a variety of mixed low level waste (MLLW) treatment system alternatives.close quotes The study also open-quotes identified the research and development, demonstrations, and testing and evaluation needed to assure unit operability in the most promising alternative system.close quotes This study evaluated ten primary thermal treatment technologies, organized into complete open-quotes cradle-to-graveclose quotes systems (including complete engineering flow sheets), to treat DOE MLLW and calculated mass balances and 20-year total life cycle costs (TLCC) for all systems. The waste input used was a representative heterogenous mixture of typical DOE MLLW. An additional study was conducted, and then, based on response to these studies, additional work was started to investigate and evaluate non-thermal treatment options on a footing comparable to the effort devoted to thermal options. This report attempts to present a summary overview of the thermal and non-thermal treatment technologies which were examined in detail in the process of the above mentioned reviews

  15. Influence of interconnection on the long-term reliability of UV LED packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieland, S.; Mitrenga, D.; Karolewski, D.; Brodersen, O.; Ortlepp, T.

    2017-02-01

    High power LEDs have conquered the mass market in recent years. Besides the main development focus to achieve higher productivity in the field of visible semiconductor LED processing, the wavelength range is further enhanced by active research and development in the direction of UVA / UVB / UVC. UVB and UVC LEDs are new and promising due to their numerous advantages. UV LEDs emit in a near range of one single emission peak with a width (FWHM) below 15 nm compared to conventional mercury discharge lamps and xenon sources, which show broad spectrums with many emission peaks over a wide range of wavelengths. Furthermore, the UV LED size is in the range of a few hundred microns and offers a high potential of significant system miniaturization. Of course, LED efficiency, lifetime and output power have to be increased [1]. Lifetime limiting issues of UVB/UVC-LED are the very high thermal stress in the chip resulting from the higher forward voltages (6-10 V @ 350 mA), the lower external quantum efficiency, below 10 % (most of the power disappears as heat), and the thermal resistance Rth of conventional LED packages being not able to dissipate these large amounts of heat for spreading. Beside the circuit boards and submounts which should have maximum thermal conductivity, the dimension of contacts as well as the interconnection of UV LED to the submount/package determinates the resolvable amount of heat [2]. In the paper different innovative interconnection techniques for UVC-LED systems will be discussed focused on the optimization of thermal conductivity in consideration of the assembly costs. Results on thermal simulation for the optimal contact dimensions and interconnections will be given. In addition, these theoretical results will be compared with results on electrical characterization as well as IR investigations on real UV LED packages in order to give recommendations for optimal UV LED assembly.

  16. Low level mixed waste thermal treatment technical basis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Place, B.G.

    1994-12-01

    Detailed characterization of the existing and projected Hanford Site Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) inventory was initiated in 1993 (Place 1993). This report presents an analysis of the existing and projected RMW inventory. The subject characterization effort continues to be in support of the following engineering activities related to thermal treatment of Hanford Site RMW: (1) Contracting for commercial thermal treatment; (2) Installation and operation of an onsite thermal treatment facility (Project W-242); (3) Treatment at another Department of Energy (DOE) site. The collation of this characterization information (data) has emphasized the establishment of a common data base for the entire existing RMW inventory so that the specification of feed streams destined for different treatment facilities can be coordinated.

  17. Low level mixed waste thermal treatment technical basis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1994-12-01

    Detailed characterization of the existing and projected Hanford Site Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) inventory was initiated in 1993 (Place 1993). This report presents an analysis of the existing and projected RMW inventory. The subject characterization effort continues to be in support of the following engineering activities related to thermal treatment of Hanford Site RMW: (1) Contracting for commercial thermal treatment; (2) Installation and operation of an onsite thermal treatment facility (Project W-242); (3) Treatment at another Department of Energy (DOE) site. The collation of this characterization information (data) has emphasized the establishment of a common data base for the entire existing RMW inventory so that the specification of feed streams destined for different treatment facilities can be coordinated

  18. High efficiency GaN-based LEDs using plasma selective treatment of p-GaN surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Bae; Naoi, Yoshiki; Sakai, Shiro [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-josanjima, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Takaki, Ryohei; Sato, Hisao [Nitride Semiconductor Co., Ltd., 115-7 Itayajima, Akinokami, Seto-cho, Naruto, Tokushima 771-0360 (Japan)

    2003-11-01

    We have studied a new method of increasing the extraction efficiency of a GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED) using a plasma surface treatment. In this method, prior to the evaporation of a semitransparent p-metal, the surface of a p-GaN located beneath a p-pad is selectively exposed to a nitrogen plasma in a reactive ion etching (RIE) chamber. The electrical characteristics of the plasma treated p-GaN remarkably changes its resistivity into semi-insulator without any parasitic damage. Since the LEDs with a new method have no light absorption in a p-pad region, a higher optical power can be extracted compared to a conventional LEDs without plasma selective treatment on the p-GaN surface. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs.

  20. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs

  1. Thermal plasma waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, Joachim; Murphy, Anthony B

    2008-01-01

    Plasma waste treatment has over the past decade become a more prominent technology because of the increasing problems with waste disposal and because of the realization of opportunities to generate valuable co-products. Plasma vitrification of hazardous slags has been a commercial technology for several years, and volume reduction of hazardous wastes using plasma processes is increasingly being used. Plasma gasification of wastes with low negative values has attracted interest as a source of energy and spawned process developments for treatment of even municipal solid wastes. Numerous technologies and approaches exist for plasma treatment of wastes. This review summarizes the approaches that have been developed, presents some of the basic physical principles, provides details of some specific processes and considers the advantages and disadvantages of thermal plasmas in waste treatment applications. (topical review)

  2. Physical, thermal, structural and optical properties of Dy{sup 3+} doped lithium alumino-borate glasses for bright W-LED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawar, P.P.; Munishwar, S.R.; Gautam, S.; Gedam, R.S., E-mail: rupesh_gedam@rediffmail.com

    2017-03-15

    Rare earth (RE) doped glasses have potential applications due to their emission efficiencies of 4f–4 f and 4f–5d electronic transitions. Among all the rare earths, Dy{sup 3+} doped glasses have drawn much interest among the researchers for their intense emission in the visible region from 470 to 500 nm and around 570 to 600 nm. The physical, thermal, structural and optical properties of Dy{sup 3+} doped lithium alumino-borate glasses (LABD glasses) have been studied for white LED (W-LED) application. The glasses were synthesized by conventional melt quench technique. X-ray diffraction spectra revealed the amorphous nature of the glass sample. An FTIR spectrum was carried out to study the glass structure and various functional groups present in the LABD glasses. Optical absorption spectra were recorded by UV–vis-NIR spectrometer. Allowed direct and indirect band gaps were obtained by Tauc's plot. Thermal parameters like glass thermal stability (∆T), Hruby's parameter (K{sub gl}), etc. were calculated by DTA graph. Photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra's were measured at room temperature. The emission spectra shows two intense emission bands at around 482 nm (blue) and 574 nm (yellow) corresponds to the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 13/2} transitions respectively along with one feeble band at 662 nm (red) corresponds to {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 11/2} transition. The CIE chromaticity co-ordinates were calculated for all glass samples. CIE chromaticity diagram shows glass LABD-4 containing 0.5 mol% Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} with colour co-ordinates X = 0.34 and Y = 0.38 have highest emission intensity. These glasses having emission in the white region and thus can be used for bright white LED.

  3. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  4. Thermal dosimetry for bladder hyperthermia treatment. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooneveldt, Gerben; Bakker, Akke; Balidemaj, Edmond; Chopra, Rajiv; Crezee, Johannes; Geijsen, Elisabeth D; Hartmann, Josefin; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Kok, H Petra; Paulides, Margarethus M; Sousa-Escandon, Alejandro; Stauffer, Paul R; Maccarini, Paolo F

    2016-06-01

    The urinary bladder is a fluid-filled organ. This makes, on the one hand, the internal surface of the bladder wall relatively easy to heat and ensures in most cases a relatively homogeneous temperature distribution; on the other hand the variable volume, organ motion, and moving fluid cause artefacts for most non-invasive thermometry methods, and require additional efforts in planning accurate thermal treatment of bladder cancer. We give an overview of the thermometry methods currently used and investigated for hyperthermia treatments of bladder cancer, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages within the context of the specific disease (muscle-invasive or non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer) and the heating technique used. The role of treatment simulation to determine the thermal dose delivered is also discussed. Generally speaking, invasive measurement methods are more accurate than non-invasive methods, but provide more limited spatial information; therefore, a combination of both is desirable, preferably supplemented by simulations. Current efforts at research and clinical centres continue to improve non-invasive thermometry methods and the reliability of treatment planning and control software. Due to the challenges in measuring temperature across the non-stationary bladder wall and surrounding tissues, more research is needed to increase our knowledge about the penetration depth and typical heating pattern of the various hyperthermia devices, in order to further improve treatments. The ability to better determine the delivered thermal dose will enable clinicians to investigate the optimal treatment parameters, and consequentially, to give better controlled, thus even more reliable and effective, thermal treatments.

  5. Nonthermal effects in thermal treatment applications of nonionizing irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Sharon

    2005-04-01

    Several non-thermal factors influence the primary and secondary effects of interstitial thermal treatments using various types of non-ionizing irradiation. Recognition and understanding of the influences of these various factors are important in choice of energy source, the configuration of the application instrument and the design of treatments.

  6. Application of Photocatalysts and LED Light Sources in Drinking Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Achari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates a cross-section of TiO2 compositions for which existing evidence suggests the prospect of improved performance compared to standard Degussa P25. In the context of a program aimed toward a 365 nm LED based photo-reactor, the question is whether a distinctly superior photocatalyst composition for drinking water treatment is now available that would shape design choices. An answer was sought by synthesizing several photocatalysts with reported high reactivity in some context in the literature, and by performing photocatalysts reactivity tests using common pollutants of water system including Natural Organic Matter (NOM and Emerging Contaminants (ECs from the pesticide and pharmaceutical classes. 365 nm Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs were used as the irradiation source. Since LEDs are now available in the UV, we did not examine the TiO2 modifications that bring band gap excitation into the region beyond 400 nm. The results suggest that the choice of the photocatalyst should be best made to fit the reactor design and photocatalyst mounting constraints such as mass transport, reactive surface, and light field. No photocatalyst composition overall, superior for all classes emerged.

  7. Heat Transfer Characteristics in High Power LED Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hung Chung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the T3Ster transient thermal resistance measuring device to investigate the effects to heat transfer performances from different LED crystal grains, packaging methods and heat-sink substrates through the experimental method. The experimental parameters are six different types of LED modules that are made alternatively with the crystal grain structure, the die attach method and the carrying substrate. The crystal grain structure includes the lateral type, flip chip type and vertical type. The die attach method includes silver paste and the eutectic structure. The carrying substrates are aluminum oxide (Alumina and aluminum nitride (AIN ceramic substrates and metal core PCB (MCPCB. The experimental results show that, under the conditions of the same crystal grain and die attach method, the thermal resistance values for the AIN substrate and the Alumina substrate are 2.1K/W and 5.1K/W, respectively and the total thermal resistance values are 7.3K/W and 10.8K/W. Compared to the Alumina substrate, the AIN substrate can effectively lower the total thermal resistance value by 32.4%. This is because the heat transfer coefficient of the AIN substrate is higher than that of the Alumina substrate, thus effectively increasing its thermal conductivity. In addition, under the conditions of the same crystal grain and the same substrate, the packaging methods are using silver paste and the eutectic structure for die attach. Their thermal resistance values are 5.7K/W and 2.7K/W, respectively, with a variance of 3K/W. Comparisons of the crystal grain structure show that the thermal resistance for the flip chip type is lower than that of the traditional lateral type by 0.9K/W. This is because the light emitting layer of the flip chip crystal grain is closer to the heat-sink substrate, shortening the heat dissipation route, and thus lowering the thermal resistance value. For the total thermal resistance, the crystal grain structure has a lesser

  8. Thermal treatment of solid residues from WtE units: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, Daniel; Molin, Camilla; Hupa, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We review the thermal treatment methods for ashes and residues from WtE plants. • We review the results from extensive laboratory work on vitrification, melting and vaporization of ash. • We analyze the results from the extensive patent literature on thermal treatment. • We review industrial concepts for thermal treatment of ash. - Abstract: Thermal treatment methods of bottom ash, fly ash and various types of APC (air pollution control) residues from waste-to-energy plants can be used to obtain environmentally stable material. The thermal treatment processes are meant to reduce the leachability of harmful residue constituents, destroy toxic organic compounds, reduce residue volume, and produce material suitable for utilization. Fly ash and APC residues often have high levels of soluble salts, particularly chlorides, metals such as cadmium, lead, copper and zinc, and trace levels of organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans. Different thermal treatment methods can be used to either decompose or stabilize harmful elements and compounds in the ash, or separate them from the ash to get a material that can be safely stored or used as products or raw materials. In the present paper, thermal treatment methods, such as sintering, vitrification, and melting have been reviewed. In addition to a review of the scientific literature, a survey has been made of the extensive patent literature in the field

  9. Thermal treatment of solid residues from WtE units: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.lindberg@abo.fi; Molin, Camilla, E-mail: camilla.molin@abo.fi; Hupa, Mikko, E-mail: mikko.hupa@abo.fi

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • We review the thermal treatment methods for ashes and residues from WtE plants. • We review the results from extensive laboratory work on vitrification, melting and vaporization of ash. • We analyze the results from the extensive patent literature on thermal treatment. • We review industrial concepts for thermal treatment of ash. - Abstract: Thermal treatment methods of bottom ash, fly ash and various types of APC (air pollution control) residues from waste-to-energy plants can be used to obtain environmentally stable material. The thermal treatment processes are meant to reduce the leachability of harmful residue constituents, destroy toxic organic compounds, reduce residue volume, and produce material suitable for utilization. Fly ash and APC residues often have high levels of soluble salts, particularly chlorides, metals such as cadmium, lead, copper and zinc, and trace levels of organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans. Different thermal treatment methods can be used to either decompose or stabilize harmful elements and compounds in the ash, or separate them from the ash to get a material that can be safely stored or used as products or raw materials. In the present paper, thermal treatment methods, such as sintering, vitrification, and melting have been reviewed. In addition to a review of the scientific literature, a survey has been made of the extensive patent literature in the field.

  10. Processing of baby food using pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) and comparison with thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubin; Ismail, Marliya; Farid, Mohammed

    2017-10-01

    Currently baby food is sterilized using retort processing that gives an extended shelf life. However, this type of heat processing leads to reduction of organoleptic and nutrition value. Alternatively, the combination of pressure and heat could be used to achieve sterilization at reduced temperatures. This study investigates the potential of pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) technology for baby food sterilization. Here, baby food (apple puree), inoculated with Bacillus subtilis spores was treated using PATS at different operating temperatures, pressures and times and was compared with thermal only treatment. The results revealed that the decimal reduction time of B. subtilis in PATS treatment was lower than that of thermal only treatment. At a similar spore inactivation, the retention of ascorbic acid of PATS-treated sample was higher than that of thermally treated sample. The results indicated that PATS could be a potential technology for baby food processing while minimizing quality deterioration.

  11. Effects of source, water conditioning and thermal treatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at 15 % moisture content amounting to 61.3 MJ was the optimum thermal treatment for achieving germination of 69 %. R. heudelotii seeds soaked in water for 15 days at moisture content of 24 % over dry weight followed by thermal treatment improved germination by 22 %. The highest germination of 79 % was obtained for ...

  12. Quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Feng; Wen Ting; Lu Tianjian; Seffen Keith

    2008-01-01

    Skin thermal damage or skin burns are the most commonly encountered type of trauma in civilian and military communities. Besides, advances in laser, microwave and similar technologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments for disease and damage involving skin tissue, where the objective is to induce thermal damage precisely within targeted tissue structures but without affecting the surrounding, healthy tissue. Further, extended pain sensation induced by thermal damage has also brought great problem for burn patients. Thus, it is of great importance to quantify the thermal damage in skin tissue. In this paper, the available models and experimental methods for quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue are discussed.

  13. A Novel Methodology for Measurements of an LED's Heat Dissipation Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, R.-Y.; Haung, J.-H.

    2015-12-01

    Heat generation is an inevitable byproduct with high-power light-emitting diode (LED) lighting. The increase in junction temperature that accompanies the heat generation sharply degrades the optical output of the LED and has a significant negative influence on the reliability and durability of the LED. For these reasons, the heat dissipation factor, Kh, is an important factor in modeling and thermal design of LED installations. In this study, a methodology is proposed and experiments are conducted to determine LED heat dissipation factors. Experiments are conducted for two different brands of LED. The average heat dissipation factor of the Edixeon LED is 0.69, and is 0.60 for the OSRAM LED. By using the developed test method and comparing the results to the calculated luminous fluxes using theoretical equations, the interdependence of optical, electrical, and thermal powers can be predicted with a reasonable accuracy. The difference between the theoretical and experimental values is less than 9 %.

  14. Thermal energy effects on articular cartilage: a multidisciplinary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Lee D.; Ernsthausen, John; Ionescu, Dan S.; Studer, Rebecca K.; Bradley, James P.; Chu, Constance R.; Fu, Freddie H.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2002-05-01

    Partial thickness articular cartilage lesions are commonly encountered in orthopedic surgery. These lesions do not have the ability to heal by themselves, due to lack of vascular supply. Several types of treatment have addressed this problem, including mechanical debridement and thermal chondroplasty. The goal of these treatments is to provide a smooth cartilage surface and prevent propagation of the lesions. Early thermal chondroplasty was performed using lasers, and yielded very mixed results, including severe damage to the cartilage, due to poor control of the induced thermal effects. This led to the development (including commercial) of probes using radiofrequency to generate the thermal effects desired for chondroplasty. Similar concerns over the quantitative aspects and control ability of the induced thermal effects in these treatments led us to test the whole range of complex issues and parameters involved. Our investigations are designed to simultaneously evaluate clinical conditions, instrument variables for existing radiofrequency probes (pressure, speed, distance, dose) as well as the associated basic science issues such as damage temperature and controllability (down to the subcellular level), damage geometry, and effects of surrounding conditions (medium, temperature, flow, pressure). The overall goals of this work are (1) to establish whether thermal chondroplasty can be used in a safe and efficacious manner, and (2) provide a prescription for multi-variable optimization of the way treatments are delivered, based on quantitative analysis. The methods used form an interdisciplinary set, to include precise mechanical actuation, high accuracy temperature and temperature gradient control and measurement, advanced imaging approaches and mathematical modeling.

  15. Enhancing composite durability : using thermal treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy; W. Ramsay Smith

    2007-01-01

    The use of thermal treatments to enhance the moisture resistance and aboveground durability of solid wood materials has been studied for years. Much work was done at the Forest Products Laboratory in the last 15 years on the fundamental process of both short-and long-term exposure to heat on wood materials and its interaction with various treatment chemicals. This work...

  16. White LEDs with limit luminous efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisitsyn, V. M.; Stepanov, S. A., E-mail: stepanovsa@tpu.ru; Yangyang, Ju [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Av., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Lukash, V. S. [JSC Research Institute of Semiconductor Devices, 99a Krasnoarmeyskaja St., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    In most promising widespread gallium nitride based LEDs emission is generated in the blue spectral region with a maximum at about 450 nm which is converted to visible light with the desired spectrum by means of phosphor. The thermal energy in the conversion is determined by the difference in the energies of excitation and emission quanta and the phosphor quantum yield. Heat losses manifest themselves as decrease in the luminous efficacy. LED heating significantly reduces its efficiency and life. In addition, while heating, the emission generation output and the efficiency of the emission conversion decrease. Therefore, the reduction of the energy losses caused by heating is crucial for LED development. In this paper, heat losses in phosphor-converted LEDs (hereinafter chips) during spectrum conversion are estimated. The limit values of the luminous efficacy for white LEDs are evaluated.

  17. Conduction-driven cooling of LED-based automotive LED lighting systems for abating local hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saati, Ferina; Arik, Mehmet

    2018-02-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED)-based automotive lighting systems pose unique challenges, such as dual-side packaging (front side for LEDs and back side for driver electronics circuit), size, harsh ambient, and cooling. Packaging for automotive lighting applications combining the advanced printed circuit board (PCB) technology with a multifunctional LED-based board is investigated with a focus on the effect of thermal conduction-based cooling for hot spot abatement. A baseline study with a flame retardant 4 technology, commonly known as FR4 PCB, is first compared with a metal-core PCB technology, both experimentally and computationally. The double-sided advanced PCB that houses both electronics and LEDs is then investigated computationally and experimentally compared with the baseline FR4 PCB. Computational models are first developed with a commercial computational fluid dynamics software and are followed by an advanced PCB technology based on embedded heat pipes, which is computationally and experimentally studied. Then, attention is turned to studying different heat pipe orientations and heat pipe placements on the board. Results show that conventional FR4-based light engines experience local hot spots (ΔT>50°C) while advanced PCB technology based on heat pipes and thermal spreaders eliminates these local hot spots (ΔT<10°C), leading to a higher lumen extraction with improved reliability. Finally, possible design options are presented with embedded heat pipe structures that further improve the PCB performance.

  18. High-power UV-LED degradation: Continuous and cycled working condition influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arques-Orobon, F. J.; Nuñez, N.; Vazquez, M.; Segura-Antunez, C.; González-Posadas, V.

    2015-09-01

    High-power (HP) UV-LEDs can replace UV lamps for real-time fluoro-sensing applications by allowing portable and autonomous systems. However, HP UV-LEDs are not a mature technology, and there are still open issues regarding their performance evolution over time. This paper presents a reliability study of 3 W UV-LEDs, with special focus on LED degradation for two working conditions: continuous and cycled (30 s ON and 30 s OFF). Accelerated life tests are developed to evaluate the influence of temperature and electrical working conditions in high-power LEDs degradation, being the predominant failure mechanism the degradation of the package. An analysis that includes dynamic thermal and optical HP UV-LED measurements has been performed. Static thermal and stress simulation analysis with the finite element method (FEM) identifies the causes of package degradation. Accelerated life test results prove that HP UV-LEDs working in cycled condition have a better performance than those working in continuous condition.

  19. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  20. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, H.A.; Schmidt, L.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Sondreal, E.A.; Erjavec, J.; Steadman, E.N.; Fabrycky, W.J.; Wilson, J.S.; Musich, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes three systems engineering (SE) studies performed on integrated thermal treatment systems (ITTSs) and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTSs) for the remediation of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Waste Policy Institute (WPI), and Virginia Tech (VT). The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions taken in the studies might bias the resulting economic evaluations of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to produce sound SE applications.

  1. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering

  2. A Lifetime Prediction Method for LEDs Considering Real Mission Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Xiaohui; Wang, Huai; Zhan, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    operations due to the varying operational and environmental conditions during the entire service time (i.e., mission profiles). To overcome the challenge, this paper proposes an advanced lifetime prediction method, which takes into account the field operation mission profiles and also the statistical......The Light-Emitting Diode (LED) has become a very promising alternative lighting source with the advantages of longer lifetime and higher efficiency than traditional ones. The lifetime prediction of LEDs is important to guide the LED system designers to fulfill the design specifications...... properties of the life data available from accelerated degradation testing. The electrical and thermal characteristics of LEDs are measured by a T3Ster system, used for the electro-thermal modeling. It also identifies key variables (e.g., heat sink parameters) that can be designed to achieve a specified...

  3. Integrated thermal treatment systems study. Internal review panel report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudahy, J.; Escarda, T.; Gimpel, R.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) commissioned two studies to evaluate nineteen thermal treatment technologies for treatment of DOE mixed low-level waste. These studies were called the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Phase I and Phase II. With the help of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) Mixed Waste Focus Group, OTD formed an ITTS Internal Review Panel to review and comment on the ITTS studies. This Panel was composed of scientists and engineers from throughout the DOE complex, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the California EPA, and private experts. The Panel met from November 15-18, 1994 to review the ITTS studies and to make recommendations on the most promising thermal treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level wastes and on research and development necessary to prove the performance of the technologies. This report describes the findings and presents the recommendations of the Panel

  4. New dental applications with LEDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, A.; Ou, Yiyu; Petersen, Paul Michael

    Visible and ultraviolet LEDs will in the future give rise to new dental applications. Fluorescence imaging, photodynamic therapy and photoactivated disinfection are important future candidates for diagnostics and treatment in dentistry.......Visible and ultraviolet LEDs will in the future give rise to new dental applications. Fluorescence imaging, photodynamic therapy and photoactivated disinfection are important future candidates for diagnostics and treatment in dentistry....

  5. LED; Zum Thema LED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This collection of articles on the subject of light emitting diodes (LED) provides technical information on LED technology, examines latest developments and provides examples of LED use in practice. An 'ABC' of LED technology is presented and fifteen common LED mistakes are noted. The chances and risks of LED use are discussed as is the retrofitting of lighting installations with LEDs. The use of LEDs in street lighting is examined. The journal also includes interviews with architects and a lighting designer. Practical examples of the use of LEDs include the refurbished parliamentary library in Berne, their use in the bird sanctuary headquarters in Sempach, Switzerland, as well as LED use in sales outlets. Also, the use of LED lighting in a spa gazebo in Lucerne is examined.

  6. Thermal treatment technology at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillary, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Recent surveys of mixed wastes in interim storage throughout the 30-site Department of Energy complex indicate that only 12 of those sites account for 98% of such wastes by volume. Current inventories at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) account for 38% of total DOE wastes in interim storage, the largest of any single site. For a large percentage of these waste volumes, as well as the substantial amounts of buried and currently generated wastes, thermal treatment processes have been designated as the technologies of choice. Current facilities and a number of proposed strategies exist for thermal treatment of wastes of this nature at the INEL. High-level radioactive waste is solidified in the Waste Calciner Facility at the Idaho Central Processing Plant. Low-level solid wastes until recently have been processed at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF), a compaction, size reduction, and controlled air incineration facility. WERF is currently undergoing process upgrading and RCRA Part B permitting. Recent systems studies have defined effective strategies, in the form of thermal process sequences, for treatment of wastes of the complex and heterogeneous nature in the INEL inventory. This presentation reviews the current status of operating facilities, active studies in this area, and proposed strategies for thermal treatment of INEL wastes

  7. Precise Temperature Mapping of GaN-Based LEDs by Quantitative Infrared Micro-Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geon Hee Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A method of measuring the precise temperature distribution of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs by quantitative infrared micro-thermography is reported. To reduce the calibration error, the same measuring conditions were used for both calibration and thermal imaging; calibration was conducted on a highly emissive black-painted area on a dummy sapphire wafer loaded near the LED wafer on a thermoelectric cooler mount. We used infrared thermal radiation images of the black-painted area on the dummy wafer and an unbiased LED wafer at two different temperatures to determine the factors that degrade the accuracy of temperature measurement, i.e., the non-uniform response of the instrument, superimposed offset radiation, reflected radiation, and emissivity map of the LED surface. By correcting these factors from the measured infrared thermal radiation images of biased LEDs, we determined a precise absolute temperature image. Consequently, we could observe from where the local self-heat emerges and how it distributes on the emitting area of the LEDs. The experimental results demonstrated that highly localized self-heating and a remarkable temperature gradient, which are detrimental to LED performance and reliability, arise near the p-contact edge of the LED surface at high injection levels owing to the current crowding effect.

  8. Improving insomnia in primary care patients: A randomized controlled trial of nurse-led group treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlund, Christina; Hetta, Jerker; Nilsson, Gunnar H; Ekstedt, Mirjam; Westman, Jeanette

    2017-07-01

    Insomnia is a common health problem, and most people who seek help for insomnia consult primary care. In primary care, insomnia treatment typically consists of hypnotic drugs, although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia is the recommended treatment. However, such treatment is currently available to few primary care patients. To evaluate the effects of a group treatment program for insomnia led by nurses in primary care. were the Insomnia Severity Index, a 2-week sleep diary, and a questionnaire on frequency of hypnotic drug use. A randomized controlled trial with pre- and post-treatment assessment and a 1-year post-treatment follow-up of the intervention group. Routine primary health care; 7 primary care centers in Stockholm, Sweden. Patients consulting primary care for insomnia were assessed for eligibility. To be included, patients had to have insomnia disorder and be 18 years or older. Patients were excluded if they if they worked night shifts or had severe untreated somatic and/or mental illness, bipolar disorder, or untreated sleep disorder other than insomnia. One-hundred and sixty-five patients 20 to 90 years were included. Most were women, and many had co-existing somatic and/or mental health problems. The post-treatment dropout rate was 20%. The intervention was a nurse-led group treatment for insomnia based on the techniques of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. The nurses had 2days of training in how to deliver the program. Ninety patients were randomized to the intervention and 75 to the control group (treatment as usual). Data from 82 in the intervention and 71 in the control group were analyzed in accordance with intention-to-treat principles. Fifty-four of the 72 in the intervention group who participated in the group treatment program were followed up after 1year. Mean Insomnia Severity Index score decreased significantly from 18.4 to 10.7 after group treatment but remained unchanged after treatment as usual (17.0 to 16.6). The effect

  9. Magneto-LED therapy in the treatment of inflammatory lesions and erosions of the glans penis – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Pasek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Inflammatory lesions and erosions of the glans penis defined as balanitis or balanoposthitis constitute a disease in which the effectiveness of conservative treatment is not sufficient. Objective. To present the therapeutic efficacy of magneto-LED therapy in the treatment, and to present a patient with inflammatory lesions and erosions of the glans penis. Case report. The patient, 68 years old with inflammatory lesions and erosions of the glans penis of 2–4 years duration, was previously treated with various methods of local therapy without effect. As a result of a 32-week long magneto-LED therapy cycle, complete resolution of skin lesions with subsidence of the burning sensation during urination and reduced swelling and inflammatory erythema of the glans, as well as disappearance of the white coating and unpleasant smell, was achieved. Conclusions . Magneto-LED therapy is an efficient method of treatment of inflammatory lesions and erosions of the glans penis.

  10. 40 CFR 265.383 - Interim status thermal treatment devices burning particular hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... status thermal treatment devices burning particular hazardous waste. (a) Owners or operators of thermal treatment devices subject to this subpart may burn EPA Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, or... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim status thermal treatment...

  11. Using AlN-Coated Heat Sink to Improve the Heat Dissipation of LED Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Ming-Der

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study optimizes aluminum nitride (AlN ceramics, in order to enhance the thermal performance of light-emitting diode (LED packages. AlN coatings are grown on copper/ aluminum substrates as a heat interface material, using an electrostatic spraying process. The effect of the deposition parameters on the coatings is determined. The thermal performance of AlN coated Cu/Al substrates is evaluated in terms of the heat dissipated and compared by measuring the LED case temperature. The structure and properties of the coating are also examined a scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In sum, the thermal performance of the LED is increased and good heat resistance characteristics are obtained. The results show that using AlN ceramic coating on a copper/aluminum substrate increases the thermal performance.

  12. An overview of LED applications for general illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelka, David G.; Patel, Kavita

    2003-11-01

    This paper begins by reviewing the current state of development of LEDs, their existing markets as well as their potential for energy conservation and their potential for gaining market share in the general illumination market. It discusses LED metrics such as chip size, lumens per watt, thermal resistance, and the recommended maximum current rating. The paper then goes on to consider the importance of non-imaging optics for both optically efficient and extremely compact LED lighting systems. Finally, microstructures useful for controlling the fields-of-view of LED lighting systems are considered and described in some detail. An extremely efficient and cost effective microstructure, called kinoform diffusers, is shown to have very unique properties that make this technology almost ideal for shaping the output beams of LED lighting systems. It concludes by illustrating some general illumination LED lighting systems

  13. Compressive strength measurements of hybrid dental composites treated with dry heat and light emitting diodes (LED post cure treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Krisnawaty

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid composites are mostly used on large cavities as restorative dental materials, whether it is used directly or indirectly. The mechanical properties of composite resin shall increase if it is treated with post cure treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate compressive strength differences between dry heat and Light Emitting Diodes (LED treatment on the hybrid dental composite. A quasi-experimental was applied on this research with a total of 30 samples that were divided into two groups. Each sample was tested using LLOYD Universal Testing Machine with 1 mm/min speed to evaluate the compressive strength. The compressive strength results were marked when the sample was broken. The results of two groups were then analyzed using t-test statistical calculation. The results of this study show that post cure treatment on hybrid composite using LED light box (194.138 MPa was lower than dry heat treatment (227.339 MPa, which was also significantly different from statistical analysis. It can be concluded that compressive strength of LED light box was lower than dry heat post-cure treatment on the hybrid composite resin.

  14. Concentration quenching of Eu2+ in a thermal-stable yellow phosphor Ca2BO3Cl:Eu2+ for LED application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinguo; Zhang Jilin; Dong Zhiyue; Shi Jianxin; Gong Menglian

    2012-01-01

    A piece-shaped phosphor Ca 2 BO 3 Cl: Eu 2+ was synthesized by solid-state reaction method. This phosphor exhibited wide absorption in ultra-violet and visible range, and bright yellow emission band centering at 570 nm. The concentration quenching mechanism was verified to be a dipole–dipole interaction, and its critical transfer distance was about 17 Å by both calculated crystal structural method and experimental spectral method. This phosphor has a good thermal stability with a quenching temperature (T 1/2 ) of 200 °C. Yellow and white LEDs were fabricated with this phosphor and near UV chips, and the yellow LED has a high color purity of 97.0% and promising current tolerant property, while the white LED shows a luminous efficiency of 11.68 lm/W. - Highlights: ► Broadband excitable and strong yellow-emitting Ca 2 BO 3 Cl: Eu 2+ phosphor is obtained by solid state reaction. ► Concentration quenching mechanism of Ca 2 BO 3 Cl: Eu 2+ is dipole–dipole interaction. ► Quenching temperature (T 1/2 ) of Ca 2 BO 3 Cl: Eu 2+ is at 200 °C. ► As synthesized material can be used for LED phosphor application.

  15. Climate warming over the past half century has led to thermal degradation of permafrost on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Youhua; Li, Xin; Cheng, Guodong

    2018-02-01

    Air temperature increases thermally degrade permafrost, which has widespread impacts on engineering design, resource development, and environmental protection in cold regions. This study evaluates the potential thermal degradation of permafrost over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) from the 1960s to the 2000s using estimated decadal mean annual air temperatures (MAATs) by integrating remote-sensing-based estimates of mean annual land surface temperatures (MASTs), leaf area index (LAI) and fractional snow cover values, and decadal mean MAAT date from 152 weather stations with a geographically weighted regression (GWR). The results reflect a continuous rise of approximately 0.04 °C a-1 in the decadal mean MAAT values over the past half century. A thermal-condition classification matrix is used to convert modelled MAATs to permafrost thermal type. Results show that the climate warming has led to a thermal degradation of permafrost in the past half century. The total area of thermally degraded permafrost is approximately 153.76 × 104 km2, which corresponds to 88 % of the permafrost area in the 1960s. The thermal condition of 75.2 % of the very cold permafrost, 89.6 % of the cold permafrost, 90.3 % of the cool permafrost, 92.3 % of the warm permafrost, and 32.8 % of the very warm permafrost has been degraded to lower levels of thermal condition. Approximately 49.4 % of the very warm permafrost and 96 % of the likely thawing permafrost has degraded to seasonally frozen ground. The mean elevations of the very cold, cold, cool, warm, very warm, and likely thawing permafrost areas increased by 88, 97, 155, 185, 161, and 250 m, respectively. The degradation mainly occurred from the 1960s to the 1970s and from the 1990s to the 2000s. This degradation may lead to increased risks to infrastructure, reductions in ecosystem resilience, increased flood risks, and positive climate feedback effects. It therefore affects the well-being of millions of people

  16. Effects of blue diode laser (445 nm) and LED (430-480 nm) radiant heat treatments on dental glass ionomer restoratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Tolidis, Kosmas; Strakas, Dimitrios; Gerasimou, Paris; Sfeikos, Thrasyvoulos; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of two radiant heat treatments on water sorption, solubility and surface roughness of three conventional glass ionomer cements by using a blue diode laser (445 nm) and a light emitting diode (LED) unit (430-480 nm). Thirty disk-shaped specimens were prepared for each tested GIC (Equia Fil, Ketac Universal Aplicap and Riva Self Cure). The experimental groups (n = 10) of the study were as follows: Group 1 was the control group, in Group 2 the specimens were irradiated for 60 s at the top surface using a LED light-curing unit and in Group 3 the specimens were irradiated for 60 s at the top surface using a blue light diode laser. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests at a level of significance of a = 0.05. Radiant heat treatments with both laser and LED devices significantly decreased water sorption and solubility (p tested GICs. Blue diode laser treatment was seemed to be more effective compared to LED treatment for some of the tested materials. There were no changes in surface roughness of the GICs after the treatments (p > 0.05). Among the tested materials there were differences in water sorption and solubility (p 0.05). The use of the blue diode laser for this radiant heat treatment was harmless for the surface of the tested GICs and may be advantageous for the longevity of their restorations.

  17. Thermal treatment of high-caloric waste in fluidized bed incineration plants in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragossnig, A.M.

    2001-05-01

    The importance of thermal treatment of waste and residues in Austria is expected to rise due to the current changes of the legal situation in waste management. Assessing the rank order of different thermal treatment processes for waste management it has been shown that - especially caused by the rising importance of the mechanical treatment step in the mechanical-biological residual waste treatment and the subsequent necessity of the thermal treatment of a high-caloric preprocessed waste stream - the importance of the fluidized bed technology will increase. The main advantages are the high existing capacities as well as the flexibility of this technology in regard of fuel properties and further on the fact of the lacking influence of the ash towards the quality of a product. This is true although the thermal treatment in fluidized bed incinerators requires some processing of the waste. This doctoral thesis also contains a thorough physical and chemical characterization of various waste fuels - especially those which have been used during full scale incineration experiments. This characterization includes a comparison with fossil fuel. The practical part contains the documentation and balancing of full scale incineration experiments. A comparison of a reference experiment with experiments when waste fuel has been thermally utilized showed that a significant increase of emissions to the atmosphere has not been observed. Based on the incineration experiments conclusions in regard of waste fuels as well as different categories of thermal treatment plants are being stated. Finally, a recommendation of the assignation of various waste streams to different categories of thermal treatment plants is being made. (author)

  18. Dispersion of Co/CNTs via strong electrostatic adsorption method: Thermal treatment effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbarzadeh, Omid, E-mail: omid.akbarzadeh63@gmail.com; Abdullah, Bawadi, E-mail: bawadi-abdullah@petronas.com.my; Subbarao, Duvvuri, E-mail: duvvuri-subbarao@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Zabidi, Noor Asmawati Mohd, E-mail: noorasmawati-mzabidi@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The effect of different thermal treatment temperature on the structure of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Co particle dispersion on CNTs support is studied using Strong electrostatic adsorption (SEA) method. The samples tested by N{sub 2}-adsorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). N{sub 2}-adsorption results showed BET surface area increased using thermal treatment and TEM images showed that increasing the thermal treatment temperature lead to flaky CNTs and defects introduced on the outer surface and Co particle dispersion increased.

  19. Thermal treatment of solid residues from WtE units: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Daniel; Molin, Camilla; Hupa, Mikko

    2015-03-01

    Thermal treatment methods of bottom ash, fly ash and various types of APC (air pollution control) residues from waste-to-energy plants can be used to obtain environmentally stable material. The thermal treatment processes are meant to reduce the leachability of harmful residue constituents, destroy toxic organic compounds, reduce residue volume, and produce material suitable for utilization. Fly ash and APC residues often have high levels of soluble salts, particularly chlorides, metals such as cadmium, lead, copper and zinc, and trace levels of organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans. Different thermal treatment methods can be used to either decompose or stabilize harmful elements and compounds in the ash, or separate them from the ash to get a material that can be safely stored or used as products or raw materials. In the present paper, thermal treatment methods, such as sintering, vitrification, and melting have been reviewed. In addition to a review of the scientific literature, a survey has been made of the extensive patent literature in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance optimization of AlGaN-based LEDs by use of ultraviolet-transparent indium tin oxide: Effect of in situ contact treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wenbin; Chen, Zimin; Zhuo, Yi; Li, Zeqi; Ma, Xuejin; Wang, Gang

    2018-05-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) grown by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is used as the current-spreading layer for 368 nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). By performing in situ contact treatment on the LED/ITO interface, the morphology, resistivity, and contact resistance of electrodes become controllable. Resistivity of 2.64 × 10‑4 Ω cm and transmittance at 368 nm of 95.9% are realized for an ITO thin film grown with Sn-purge in situ treatment. Therefore, the high-power operating voltage decreases from 3.94 V (without treatment) to 3.83 V (with treatment). The improved performance is attributed to the lowering of the tunneling barrier at the LED/ITO interface.

  1. Recycling supercapacitors based on shredding and mild thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guozhan; Pickering, Stephen J

    2016-02-01

    Supercapacitors are widely used in electric and hybrid vehicles, wind farm and low-power equipment due to their high specific power density and huge number of charge-discharge cycles. Waste supercapacitors should be recycled according to EU directive 2002/96/EC on waste electric and electronic equipment. This paper describes a recycling approach for end-of-life supercapacitors based on shredding and mild thermal treatment. At first, supercapacitors are shredded using a Retsch cutting mill. The shredded mixture is then undergone thermal treatment at 200°C to recycle the organic solvent contained in the activated carbon electrodes. After the thermal treatment, the mixture is roughly separated using a fluidized bed method to remove the aluminium foil particles and paper particles from the activated carbon particles, which is subsequently put into water for a wet shredding into fine particles that can be re-used. The recycled activated carbon has a BET surface area of up to 1200m(2)/g and the recycled acetonitrile has a high purity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using (oxy)nitride phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, R-J; Hirosaki, N; Sakuma, K; Kimura, N

    2008-01-01

    (Oxy)nitride phosphors have attracted great attention recently because they are promising luminescent materials for phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). This paper reports the luminescent properties of (oxy)nitride phosphors in the system of M-Si-Al-O-N (M = Li, Ca or Sr), and optical properties of white LEDs using a GaN-based blue LED and (oxy)nitride phosphors. The phosphors show high conversion efficiency of blue light, suitable emission colours and small thermal quenching. The bichromatic white LEDs exhibit high luminous efficacy (∼55 lm W -1 ) and the multi-phosphor converted white LEDs show high colour rendering index (Ra 82-95). The results indicate that (oxy)nitride phosphors demonstrate their superior suitability to use as down-conversion luminescent materials in white LEDs

  3. The future of thermal waste treatment; Zukunft der thermischen Restabfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemer, K.; Kern, M. (eds.); Tappen, I.; Weber-Wied, R. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    Contents: State of the art of energy-efficient thermal waste treatment processes and practical examples; Regional and economic aspects; Licensing problems of thermal waste treatment plants. [German] Der vorliegende Tagungsband zum 2. Stassfurter Abfall- und Energieforum beschreibt den aktuellen Stand energieeffizienter thermischer Abfallbehandlungsmethoden an praktischen Beispielen und stellt den Bezug dieser Massnahmen zum raeumlich-wirtschaftlichen Umfeld dar. Darueber hinaus werden vergaberechtliche Fragen im Zusammenhang mit der europaweiten Ausschreibungspflicht fuer die Errichtung thermischer Abfallbehandlungsanlagen aufgezeigt und eroertert. (orig.)

  4. Mixed Waste Integrated Program interim evaluation report on thermal treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillins, R.L.; DeWitt, L.M.; Wollerman, A.L.

    1993-02-01

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) integrated programs established to organize and coordinate throughout the DOE complex the development of technologies for treatment of specific waste categories. The goal of the MWIP is to develop and deploy appropriate technologies for -the treatment of DOE mixed low-level and alpha-contaminated wastes in order to bring all affected DOE installations and projects into compliance with environmental laws. Evaluation of treatment technologies by the MWIP will focus on meeting waste form performance requirements for disposal. Thermal treatment technologies were an early emphasis for the MWIP because thermal treatment is indicated (or mandated) for many of the hazardous constituents in DOE mixed waste and because these technologies have been widely investigated for these applications. An advisory group, the Thermal Treatment Working Group (TTWG), was formed during the program's infancy to assist the MWIP in evaluating and prioritizing thermal treatment technologies suitable for development. The results of the overall evaluation scoring indicate that the four highest-rated technologies were rotary kilns, slagging kilns, electric-arc furnaces, and plasma-arc furnaces. The four highest-rated technologies were all judged to be applicable on five of the six waste streams and are the only technologies in the evaluation with this distinction. Conclusions as to the superiority of one technology over others are not valid based on this preliminary study, although some general conclusions can be drawn

  5. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1 -- issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2 -- issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study -- drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  6. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies. Topical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, H.A.; Schmidt, L.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Sondreal, E.A.; Erjavec, J.; Steadman, E.N.; Fabrycky, W.J.; Wilson, J.S.; Musich, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes three systems engineering (SE) studies performed on integrated thermal treatment systems (ITTSs) and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTSs) for the remediation of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Waste Policy Institute (WPI), and Virginia Tech (VT). The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions taken in the studies might bias the resulting economic evaluations of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to produce sound SE applications

  7. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1 -- issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2 -- issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study -- drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering

  8. Non-Thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-Level Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    DOE proposes to transport contact-handled LLMW from the Hanford Site to the Allied Technology Group (ATG) Mixed Waste Facility (MWF) in Richland, Washington, for non-thermal treatment and to return the treated waste to the Hanford Site for eventual land disposal. Over a 3-year period the waste would be staged to the ATG MWF, and treated waste would be returned to the Hanford Site. The ATG MWF would be located on an 18 hectare (ha) (45 acre [at]) ATG Site adjacent to ATG's licensed low-level waste processing facility at 2025 Battelle Boulevard. The ATG MWF is located approximately 0.8 kilometers (km) (0.5 miles [mi]) south of Horn Rapids Road and 1.6 km (1 mi) west of Stevens Drive. The property is located within the Horn Rapids triangle in northern Richland (Figure 2.1). The ATG MWF is to be located on the existing ATG Site, near the DOE Hanford Site, in an industrial area in the City of Richland. The effects of siting, construction, and overall operation of the MWF have been evaluated in a separate State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) EIS (City of Richland 1998). The proposed action includes transporting the LLMW from the Hanford Site to the ATG Facility, non-thermal treatment of the LLMW at the ATG MWF, and transporting the waste from ATG back to the Hanford Site. Impacts fi-om waste treatment operations would be bounded by the ATG SEPA EIS, which included an evaluation of the impacts associated with operating the non-thermal portion of the MWF at maximum design capacity (8,500 metric tons per year) (City of Richland 1998). Up to 50 employees would be required for non-thermal treatment portion of the MWF. This includes 40 employees that would perform waste treatment operations and 10 support staff. Similar numbers were projected for the thermal treatment portion of the MWF (City of Richland 1998).

  9. A new LED device used for photodynamic therapy in treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yiyun; Zhou, Guoyu; Chen, Jinan; Shen, Lingyue; Jianxin, Zhao; Xu, Qing; Zhu, Yulan

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the efficacy and safety of a newly designed LED device used in photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy of moderate to severe acne vulgaris in Chinese patients. Forty-six patients with moderate to severe facial acne showing high degrees of fluorescence by ultraviolet light examination were illuminated during ALA-PDT with two wavelengths of light (543-548 nm, and 630±6 nm, respectively) after 2 h of incubation with ALA. Each patient received treatment once every 30 days for two or three sessions. Two independent investigators assigned an acne severity score at baseline, one week after each treatment, as well as 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the completion of treatment. Adverse effects were recorded during and after each treatment. All patients rated their satisfaction with the results of treatment at a 12-week follow up visit. The ALA-PDL treatment regimen showed an overall effectiveness rate of 89.13% (41/46 patients). Some degree of clinical efficacy was seen in 71.42%, 86.67%, and 95.83% of patients with grades IV, V, and VI acne, respectively, and the rate of clinical effectiveness increased with increasing acne severity. When compared with baseline scores, significant reductions in acne scores were obtained at 8, and 12 weeks after completion of treatment. Maximum efficacy was shown at the 12 week follow up. No severe adverse events were observed. ALA-PDT administered with the newly designed LED device was an effective treatment for moderate to severe acne vulgaris, and side effects were mild and reversible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Carotenes in processed tomato after thermal treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Markovic, K.; Franko, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report adds to the ongoing vivid dispute on the fate of carotenes in tomato upon thermal processing. Although many papers dealing with changes in the raw tomatoes during industrial treatment have already appeared, data on the fate of finished, processed tomato products when they are

  11. [Impact of Thermal Treatment on Biogas Production by Anaerobic Digestion of High-solid-content Swine Manure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-ying; Wu, Jing; Wang, Shi-feng; Cao, Zhi-ping; Wang, Kai-jun; Zuo, Jian-e

    2015-08-01

    Livestock manure is a kind of waste with high organic content and sanitation risk. In order to investigate the impact of thermal treatment on the anaerobic digestion of high-solid-content swine manure, 70 degrees C thermal treatment was conducted to treat raw manure (solid content 27.6%) without any dilution. The results indicated that thermal treatment could reduce the organic matters and improve the performance of anaerobic digestion. When the thermal treatment time was 1d, 2d, 3d, 4d, the VS removal rates were 15.1%, 15.5%, 17.8% and 20.0%, respectively. The methane production rates (CH4/VSadd) were 284.4, 296.3, 309.2 and 264.4 mL x g(-1), which was enhanced by 49.7%, 55.9%, 62.7% and 39.2%, respectively. The highest methane production rate occurred when the thermal treatment time was 3d. The thermal treatment had an efficient impact on promoting the performance of methane production rate with a suitable energy consumption. On the other hand, thermal treatment could act as pasteurization. This showed that thermal treatment would be of great practical importance.

  12. Evaluation of current and temperature effects on optical performance of InGaAlP thin-film SMD LED mounted on different substrate packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raypah, Muna E.; Devarajan, Mutharasu; Sulaiman, Fauziah

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between the photometric, electric, and thermal parameters of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is important for optimizing the LED illumination design. Indium gallium aluminium phosphide (InGaAlP)-based thin-film surface-mounted device (SMD) LEDs have attracted wide attention in research and development due to their portability and miniaturization. We report the optical characterization of InGaAlP thin-film SMD LED mounted on FR4, 2 W, and 5 W aluminum (Al) packages. The optical and thermal parameters of LED are determined at different injection currents and ambient temperatures by combining the T3ster (thermal transient tester) and TeraLED (thermal and radiometric characterization of power LEDs) systems. Analysis shows that LED on a 5 W Al substrate package obtains the highest luminous and optical efficiency. (paper)

  13. Method and apparatus for a combination moving bed thermal treatment reactor and moving bed filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, Phillip C.; Dunn, Jr., Kenneth J.

    2015-09-01

    A moving bed gasification/thermal treatment reactor includes a geometry in which moving bed reactor particles serve as both a moving bed filter and a heat carrier to provide thermal energy for thermal treatment reactions, such that the moving bed filter and the heat carrier are one and the same to remove solid particulates or droplets generated by thermal treatment processes or injected into the moving bed filter from other sources.

  14. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

  15. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ''ideas''. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ''cradle-to-grave'' systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ''downselection'' of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW

  16. Advances in LEDs for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jy; Peddada, Rao; Spinger, Benno

    2016-03-01

    High power LEDs were introduced in automotive headlights in 2006-2007, for example as full LED headlights in the Audi R8 or low beam in Lexus. Since then, LED headlighting has become established in premium and volume automotive segments and beginning to enable new compact form factors such as distributed low beam and new functions such as adaptive driving beam. New generations of highly versatile high power LEDs are emerging to meet these application needs. In this paper, we will detail ongoing advances in LED technology that enable revolutionary styling, performance and adaptive control in automotive headlights. As the standards which govern the necessary lumens on the road are well established, increasing luminance enables not only more design freedom but also headlight cost reduction with space and weight saving through more compact optics. Adaptive headlighting is based on LED pixelation and requires high contrast, high luminance, smaller LEDs with high-packing density for pixelated Matrix Lighting sources. Matrix applications require an extremely tight tolerance on not only the X, Y placement accuracy, but also on the Z height of the LEDs given the precision optics used to image the LEDs onto the road. A new generation of chip scale packaged (CSP) LEDs based on Wafer Level Packaging (WLP) have been developed to meet these needs, offering a form factor less than 20% increase over the LED emitter surface footprint. These miniature LEDs are surface mount devices compatible with automated tools for L2 board direct attach (without the need for an interposer or L1 substrate), meeting the high position accuracy as well as the optical and thermal performance. To illustrate the versatility of the CSP LEDs, we will show the results of, firstly, a reflector-based distributed low beam using multiple individual cavities each with only 20mm height and secondly 3x4 to 3x28 Matrix arrays for adaptive full beam. Also a few key trends in rear lighting and impact on LED light

  17. Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios.

  18. Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios

  19. Perspective of Micro Process Engineering for Thermal Food Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Micro process engineering as a process synthesis and intensification tool enables an ultra-short thermal treatment of foods within milliseconds (ms) using very high surface-area-to-volume ratios. The innovative application of ultra-short pasteurization and sterilization at high temperatures, but with holding times within the range of ms would allow the preservation of liquid foods with higher qualities, thereby avoiding many unwanted reactions with different temperature-time characteristics. Process challenges, such as fouling, clogging, and potential temperature gradients during such conditions need to be assessed on a case by case basis and optimized accordingly. Owing to the modularity, flexibility, and continuous operation of micro process engineering, thermal processes from the lab to the pilot and industrial scales can be more effectively upscaled. A case study on thermal inactivation demonstrated the feasibility of transferring lab results to the pilot scale. It was shown that micro process engineering applications in thermal food treatment may be relevant to both research and industrial operations. Scaling of micro structured devices is made possible through the use of numbering-up approaches; however, reduced investment costs and a hygienic design must be assured.

  20. Thermal treatment and non-thermal technologies for remediation of manufactured gas plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, T.F.; Greer, B.A.; Lawless, M.

    1996-01-01

    More than 1,500 manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites exist throughout the US. Many are contaminated with coal tar from coal-fueled gas works which produced town gas from the mid-1800s through the 1950s. Virtually all old US cities have such sites. Most are in downtown areas as they were installed for central distribution of manufactured gas. While a few sites are CERCLA/Superfund, most are not. However, the contaminants and methods used for remediation are similar to those used for Superfund clean-ups of coal tar contamination from wood-treating and coke oven facilities. Clean-up of sites is triggered by regulatory pressure, property transfers and re-development as well as releases to the environment--in particular, via groundwater migration. Due to utility de-regulation, site clean-ups may also be triggered by sale of a utility or of a specific utility site to other utilities. Utilities have used two approaches in dealing with their MGP sites. The first is do nothing and hope for the best. History suggests that, sooner or later, these sites become a bigger problem via a release, citizen lawsuit or regulatory/public service commission intervention. The second, far better approach is to define the problem now and make plans /for waste treatment or immobilization. This paper describes recent experience with a high capacity/low cost thermal desorption process for this waste and reviews non-thermal technology, such as bio-treatment, capping, recycling, and dig and haul. Cost data are provided for all technologies, and a case study for thermal treatment is also presented

  1. Fuselage mounted anti-collision lights utilizing high power LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, John; Machi, Nicolo; Mangum, Scott; Singer, Jeffrey

    2005-09-01

    As LEDs continue to improve in efficacy and total light output, they are increasingly finding their way in to new applications in the aviation industry as well as adjacent markets. One function that is particularly challenging and may reap substantial benefits from this new technology is the fuselage mounted anti-collision light. Anti-collision lights provide conspicuity for the aircraft by periodically emitting bright flashes of light. The color, light distribution and intensity levels for these lights are all closely regulated through Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) documents. These lighting requirements, along with thermal, environmental and aerodynamic requirements, drive the overall design. In this paper, we will discuss the existing technologies used in anti-collision lights and the advantages and challenges associated with an LED solution. Particular attention will be given to the optical, thermal, electrical and aerodynamic aspects associated with an LED approach. A specific case study will be presented along with some of the challenges that have arisen during the design process. These challenges include the addition of an integrated covert anti-collision lighting.

  2. Application of high-brightness LEDs in aircraft position lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machi, Nicolo; Mangum, Scott; Singer, Jeffrey M.

    2004-10-01

    Solid state lighting devices have made their way into a number of niche markets and continue to make inroads into other markets as their price / performance ratios improve. One of these markets is aviation lighting. Although this paper will focus on the use of LEDs for aircraft position lights, much of the discussion is applicable to other installations on the interior and exterior of the aircraft. The color, light distribution and intensity levels for a position light are all closely regulated through Code of Federal Regulation (CFR; formerly Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR)) documents. These lighting requirements, along with harsh thermal and environmental requirements, drive the design. In this paper, we will look at these requirements and discuss what is required in order to use LEDs for this type of application. We will explore the optical, thermal and electrical issues associated with the use of LEDs for position lights and examine the specific case study of the Astreon forward position lights. Finally, we will discuss some of the challenges that we see with solid state lighting in current and future aircraft applications.

  3. Influence of ECR-RF plasma modification on surface and thermal properties of polyester copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fray Miroslawa El

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report a study on influence of radio-frequency (RF plasma induced with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR on multiblock copolymer containing butylene terephthalate hard segments (PBT and butylene dilinoleate (BDLA soft segments. The changes in thermal properties were studied by DSC. The changes in wettability of PBT-BDLA surfaces were studied by water contact angle (WCA. We found that ECR-RF plasma surface treatment for 60 s led to decrease of WCA, while prolonged exposure of plasma led to increase of WCA after N2 and N2O2 treatment up to 70°–80°. The O2 reduced the WCA to 50°–56°. IR measurements confirmed that the N2O2 plasma led to formation of polar groups. SEM investigations showed that plasma treatment led to minor surfaces changes. Collectively, plasma treatment, especially O2, induced surface hydrophilicity what could be beneficial for increased cell adhesion in future biomedical applications of these materials.

  4. Retrieval/ex situ thermal treatment scoring interaction report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raivo, B.D.; Richardson, J.G.

    1993-11-01

    A retrieval/ex situ thermal treatment technology process for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory transuranic waste pits and trenches is present. A system performance score is calculated, and assumptions, requirements, and reference baseline technologies for all subelements are included.

  5. ‘No Blue’ White LED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Corell, Dennis Dan; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    This paper explored the feasibility of making a white LED light source by color mixing method without using the blue color. This ‘no blue’ white LED has potential applications in photolithography room illumination, medical treatment and biophotonics research. A no-blue LED was designed......-2005. Even after 15 days of illumination, no effect was observed. So this LED-based solution was demonstrated to be a very promising light source for photolithography room illumination due to its better color rendering in addition to energy efficiency, long life time and design flexibility. Additionally......, and the prototype was fabricated. The spectral power distribution of both the LED bulb and the yellow fluorescent tube was measured. Based on that, colorimetric values were calculated and compared on terms of chromatic coordinates, correlated color temperature, color rendering index, and chromatic deviation...

  6. Enhancement of heat dissipation of LED module with cupric-oxide composite coating on aluminum-alloy heat sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Donghyun; Lee, Junghoon; Kim, Junho; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Chung, Wonsub

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We fabricate the CuO/resin composite coating layer on aluminum alloy heat sink. • CuO/resin coating considerably improved the surface emissivity. • The LED junction temperature was reduced by CuO/resin coated heat sink. • The thermal resistance of heat sink was decreased by CuO/resin composite coating at 200 μm thickness. - Abstract: A composite coating composed of cupric oxide (CuO) and silicon-based resin was applied to an aluminum-alloy heat sink for a light emitting diode (LED) module. The purpose of the composite coating is to improve the heat dissipation performance of heat sink by enhancing thermal radiation emission. The heat dissipation performance was investigated in terms of LED junction temperature and thermal resistance using a thermal transient method. The CuO and silicon-based resin composite coating showed higher emissivity, and the lower junction temperature and thermal resistance of the heat sink was achieved. In addition, a continuous operation test of the LED chip with the heat sink revealed that the surface treated with the CuO composite coating stably dissipated heat without degradation. In conclusion, the composite coating proposed here showed a significant improvement of the heat dissipation performance of the aluminum-alloy heat sink due to the enhanced thermal radiation property.

  7. Recycled Thermal Energy from High Power Light Emitting Diode Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jae-Hoon; Jo, GaeHun; Ha, Jae-Geun; Koo, Sang-Mo; Kamiko, Masao; Hong, JunHee; Koh, Jung-Hyuk

    2018-09-01

    In this research, the recycled electrical energy from wasted thermal energy in high power Light Emitting Diode (LED) system will be investigated. The luminous efficiency of lights has been improved in recent years by employing the high power LED system, therefore energy efficiency was improved compared with that of typical lighting sources. To increase energy efficiency of high power LED system further, wasted thermal energy should be re-considered. Therefore, wasted thermal energy was collected and re-used them as electrical energy. The increased electrical efficiency of high power LED devices was accomplished by considering the recycled heat energy, which is wasted thermal energy from the LED. In this work, increased electrical efficiency will be considered and investigated by employing the high power LED system, which has high thermal loss during the operating time. For this research, well designed thermoelement with heat radiation system was employed to enhance the collecting thermal energy from the LED system, and then convert it as recycled electrical energy.

  8. Effect of Thermal Treatments on Quality and Aroma of Watermelon Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubin Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermal treatments on the quality and aroma of watermelon juice was evaluated. Watermelon juice was pasteurized via ultrahigh temperature (UHT, pasteurized at 135°C for 2 s, low temperature long time (LTLT, pasteurized at 60°C for 30 min, and high temperature short time (HTST, pasteurized at 100°C for 5 min, respectively. UHT and LTLT reduced the total flora count and maintained the color of the pasteurized juice, while the HTST led to a significant color difference. A total of 27, 21, 22, and 21 volatiles were identified in the unpasteurized juice, UHT, LTLT, and HTST, respectively. The typical watermelon aroma, including (3Z-3-nonen-1-ol, (E-2-nonen-1-ol, 1-nonanal, (2E-2-nonenal, and (E,Z-2,6-nonadienal, was abundant in the LTLT. Consequently, the aroma of the LTLT was similar to that of unpasteurized juice. Moreover, the shelf life of the LTLT reached 101 and 14 days at 4 and 25°C, respectively. Hence, the LTLT was the best way to maintain the quality and aroma of watermelon juice.

  9. Analysis of compact and portable goniospectrometer system for test of LED lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Amdemeskel, Mekbib Wubishet; Thorseth, Anders

    2015-01-01

    measurements in a near-field goniophotometer. A collection of six different types of directional and non-directional integrated LED lamps with three samples of each were used as test devices. It is shown that the main uncertainty comes from the inadequate thermal stabilisation of the LED lamps. With pre...

  10. Thermal characterizations analysis of high-power ThinGaN cool-white light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raypah, Muna E.; Devarajan, Mutharasu; Ahmed, Anas A.; Sulaiman, Fauziah

    2018-03-01

    Analysis of thermal properties plays an important role in the thermal management of high-power (HP) lighting-emitting diodes (LEDs). Thermal resistance, thermal capacitance, and thermal time constant are essential parameters for the optimal design of the LED device and system, particularly for dynamic performance study. In this paper, thermal characterization and thermal time constant of ThinGaN HP LEDs are investigated. Three HP cool-white ThinGaN LEDs from different manufacturers are used in this study. A forward-voltage method using thermal transient tester (T3Ster) system is employed to determine the LEDs' thermal parameters at various operating conditions. The junction temperature transient response is described by a multi-exponential function model to extract thermal time constants. The transient response curve is divided into three layers and expressed by three exponential functions. Each layer is associated with a particular thermal time constant, thermal resistance, and thermal capacitance. It is found that the thermal time constant of LED package is on the order of 22 to 100 ms. Comparison between the experimental results is carried out to show the design effects on thermal performance of the LED package.

  11. Process performance assessment of advanced anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge including sequential ultrasound-thermal (55 °C) pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Patricio; Barriga, Felipe; Álvarez, Claudia; González, Zenón; Vidal, Gladys

    2018-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance and digestate quality of advanced anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge including sequential ultrasound-thermal (55 °C) pre-treatment. Both stages of pre-treatment contributed to chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, with an overall factor of 11.4 ± 2.2%. Pre-treatment led to 19.1, 24.0 and 29.9% increased methane yields at 30, 15 and 7.5 days solid retention times (SRT), respectively, without affecting process stability or accumulation of intermediates. Pre-treatment decreased up to 4.2% water recovery from the digestate, but SRT was a more relevant factor controlling dewatering. Advanced digestion showed 2.4-3.1 and 1.5 logarithmic removals of coliforms and coliphages, respectively, and up to a 58% increase in the concentration of inorganics in the digestate solids compared to conventional digestion. The COD balance of the process showed that the observed increase in methane production was proportional to the pre-treatment solubilization efficiency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. DOE evaluates nine alternative thermal technologies for treatment of mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In June 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Technology Development commissioned a study to evaluate 19 thermal technologies for treating DOE's mixed waste. The study was divided into two phases: Phase I evaluated ten conventional incineration techniques (primarily rotary kiln), and Phase II looked at nine innovative, alternative thermal treatment technologies. The treatment processes were evaluated as part of an integrated waste treatment system, which would include all of the facilities, equipment, and methods required to treat and dispose DOE mixed waste. The relative merits and life-cycle costs were then developed for each of the 19 waste treatment systems evaluated. The study also identified the additional research and development, demonstration, and testing/evaluation steps that would be necessary for the waste treatment systems to successfully treat DOE mixed waste. 3 tabs., 2 refs

  13. Comparative environmental analysis of waste brominated plastic thermal treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bientinesi, M.; Petarca, L.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research activity is to investigate the environmental impact of different thermal treatments of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), applying a life cycle assessment methodology. Two scenarios were assessed, which both allow the recovery of bromine: (A) the co-combustion of WEEE and green waste in a municipal solid waste combustion plant, and (B) the staged-gasification of WEEE and combustion of produced syngas in gas turbines. Mass and energy balances on the two scenarios were set and the analysis of the life cycle inventory and the life cycle impact assessment were conducted. Two impact assessment methods (Ecoindicator 99 and Impact 2002+) were slightly modified and then used with both scenarios. The results showed that scenario B (staged-gasification) had a potentially smaller environmental impact than scenario A (co-combustion). In particular, the thermal treatment of staged-gasification was more energy efficient than co-combustion, and therefore scenario B performed better than scenario A, mainly in the impact categories of 'fossil fuels' and 'climate change'. Moreover, the results showed that scenario B allows a higher recovery of bromine than scenario A; however, Br recovery leads to environmental benefits for both the scenarios. Finally the study demonstrates that WEEE thermal treatment for energy and matter recovery is an eco-efficient way to dispose of this kind of waste

  14. Effects of high intensity pulsed electric field and thermal treatments on a lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendicho, S; Estela, C; Giner, J; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V; Martin, O

    2002-01-01

    Milk and dairy products may contain microorganisms capable of secreting lipases that cause sensory defects and technological problems in the dairy industry. In this study, the effects of thermal and high-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) treatments on an extracellular lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens, suspended in a simulated skim milk ultrafiltrate (SMUF) have been evaluated. Heat treatments applied were up to 30 min from 50 to 90 degrees C. HIPEF treatments were carried out using pilot plant facilities in a batch or continuous flow mode, where treatment chambers consisted of parallel and coaxial configuration, respectively. Samples were subjected to up to 80 pulses at electric field intensities ranging from 16.4 to 37.3 kV/cm. This resulted in a lipase that was quite resistant to heat and also to HIPEF. High (75 degrees C-15 s) and low pasteurization treatments (63 degrees C-30 min) led to inactivations of 5 and 20%, respectively. Using the batch-mode HIPEF equipment, a 62.1% maximum activity depletion was achieved after 80 pulses at 27.4 kV/cm. However, when HIPEF treatments were applied in the continuous flow mode, an inactivation rate of just 13% was achieved, after applying 80 pulses at 37.3 kV/cm and 3.5 Hz. The results of both heat and HIPEF treatments on enzyme inactivation were adjusted with good agreement to a first-order kinetic model (R2 > 62.3%).

  15. Thermal Treatment of Hydrocarbon-Impacted Soils: A Review of Technology Innovation for Sustainable Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Vidonish

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment technologies hold an important niche in the remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and sediments due to their ability to quickly and reliably meet cleanup standards. However, sustained high temperature can be energy intensive and can damage soil properties. Despite the broad applicability and prevalence of thermal remediation, little work has been done to improve the environmental compatibility and sustainability of these technologies. We review several common thermal treatment technologies for hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, assess their potential environmental impacts, and propose frameworks for sustainable and low-impact deployment based on a holistic consideration of energy and water requirements, ecosystem ecology, and soil science. There is no universally appropriate thermal treatment technology. Rather, the appropriate choice depends on the contamination scenario (including the type of hydrocarbons present and on site-specific considerations such as soil properties, water availability, and the heat sensitivity of contaminated soils. Overall, the convergence of treatment process engineering with soil science, ecosystem ecology, and plant biology research is essential to fill critical knowledge gaps and improve both the removal efficiency and sustainability of thermal technologies.

  16. Ozonation and Thermal Pre-Treatment of Municipal Sewage Sludge-Implications for Toxicity and Methane Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, A.; Eriksson, Eva; Fick, J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine effects on methane potential and overall sludge quality from two different sludge pre-treatment technologies (ozonation high/low dosage and thermal treatment 55/70 degrees C). In general both treatments produced increased methane potential. Thermal treatment...... by ozone treatment and digestion. No statistical significant reduction in concentrations of included pharmaceuticals could be observed....

  17. 130 LPW 1000 Lm Warm White LED for Illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soer, Wouter [Philips Lumileds Lighting Company LLC, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2012-12-21

    An illumination-grade warm-white LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2700 and 3500 K and capable of producing 1000 lm output at over 130 lm/W at room temperature, has been developed in this program. The high-power warm-white LED is an ideal source for use in indoor and outdoor lighting applications. Over the two year period, we have made the following accomplishments: • Developed a low-cost high-power white LED package and commercialized a series of products with CCT ranging from 2700 to 5700 K under the product name LUXEON M; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 124.8 lm/W at a flux of 1023 lm, CCT of 3435 K and color rendering index (CRI) over 80 at room temperature in the productized package; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 133.1 lm/W at a flux of 1015 lm, CCT of 3475 K and CRI over 80 at room temperature in an R&D package. The new high-power LED package is a die-on-ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 2 mm2 InGaN pump dice, flip-chip attached to a ceramic submount in a 2x2 array configuration. The submount design utilizes a design approach that combines a high-thermal- conductivity ceramic core for die attach and a low-cost and low-thermal-conductivity ceramic frame for mechanical support and as optical lens carrier. The LED package has a thermal resistance of less than 1.25 K/W. The white LED fabrication also adopts a new batch level (instead of die-by-die) phosphor deposition process with precision layer thickness and composition control, which provides not only tight color control, but also low cost. The efficacy performance goal was achieved through the progress in following key areas: (1) high-efficiency royal blue pump LED development through active region design and epitaxial growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs); (2) improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN-die-level and package-level optical extraction efficiency; and (3) improvement in phosphor

  18. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockdale, J.A.D.; Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Lee, H.T.

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation and comparison of proposed thermal treatment systems for mixed wastes can be expedited by tests in which the radioactive components of the wastes are replaced by surrogate materials chosen to mimic, as far as is possible, the chemical and physical properties of the radioactive materials of concern. In this work, sponsored by the Mixed Waste Integrated Project of the US Department of Energy, the authors have examined reported experience with such surrogates and suggest a simplified standard list of materials for use in tests of thermal treatment systems. The chief radioactive nuclides of concern in the treatment of mixed wastes are 239 Pu, 238 U, 235 U, 137 Cs, 103 Ru, 99 Tc, and 90 Sr. These nuclides are largely by-products of uranium enrichment, reactor fuel reprocessing, and weapons program activities. Cs, Ru, and Sr all have stable isotopes that can be used as perfect surrogates for the radioactive forms. Technetium exists only in radioactive form, as do plutonium and uranium. If one wishes to preclude radioactive contamination of the thermal treatment system under trial burn, surrogate elements must be chosen for these three. For technetium, the authors suggest the use of natural ruthenium, and for both plutonium and uranium, they recommend cerium. The seven radionuclides listed can therefore be simulated by a surrogate package containing stable isotopes of ruthenium, strontium, cesium, and cerium

  19. Final treatment of spent batteries by thermal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, Anelise Leal Vieira; Machado, Marina de Medeiros; Machado, Marília de Medeiros; Dutra, Ana Regina de Aguiar; Moecke, Elisa Helena Siegel; Fiedler, Haidi D; Bueno, Priscila

    2015-08-15

    The growth in the use of wireless devices, notebooks and other electronic products has led to an ever increasing demand for batteries, leading to these products being commonly found in inappropriate locations, with adverse effects on the environment and human health. Due to political pressure and according to the environmental legislation which regulates the destination of spent batteries, in several countries the application of reverse logistics to hazardous waste is required. Thus, some processes have been developed with the aim of providing an appropriate destination for these products. In this context, a method for the treatment of spent batteries using thermal plasma technology is proposed herein. The efficiency of the method was tested through the determination of parameters, such as total organic carbon, moisture content and density, as well as analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence using samples before and after inertization. The value obtained for the density was 19.15%. The TOC results indicated 8.05% of C in the batteries prior to pyrolisis and according to the XRF analysis Fe, S, Mn and Zn were the most stable elements in the samples (highest peaks). The efficiency of the paste inertization was 97% for zinc and 99.74% for manganese. The results also showed that the most efficient reactor was that with the DC transferred arc plasma torch and quartzite sand positively influenced by the vitrification during the pyrolysis of the electrolyte paste obtain from batteries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Meeting the challenges of developing LED-based projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, Enrico

    2006-04-01

    The main challenge in developing a LED-based projection system is to meet the brightness requirements of the market. Therefore a balanced combination of optical, electrical and thermal parameters must be reached to achieve these performance and cost targets. This paper describes the system design methodology for a digital micromirror display (DMD) based optical engine using LEDs as the light source, starting at the basic physical and geometrical parameters of the DMD and other optical elements through characterization of the LEDs to optimizing the system performance by determining optimal driving conditions. LEDs have a luminous flux density which is just at the threshold of acceptance in projection systems and thus only a fully optimized optical system with a matched set of LEDs can be used. This work resulted in two projection engines, one for a compact pocket projector and the other for a rear projection television, both of which are currently in commercialization.

  1. Heavy metals dispersion during thermal treatment of plastic bags and its recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Ohidul; Wang, Sijia; Lu, Wentao

    2018-04-15

    One of the main worries for thermal treatment of plastic bag (PB) is the air pollution resulting from heavy metal (HM) evaporation and emission. The quest of the study was to investigate their fate during thermal treatment varying with temperature and atmosphere to explore the appropriate treatment technology. Four commonly consumed polymer bags such as PE, HDPE, LDPE and PVC were selected for the analysis. The elemental compositions, heating values and total metal contents of the samples were measured by an elemental analyzer, a sulphur/halogen analyzer, a bomb calorimeter and an ICP-OES, respectively. Thermal treatments of the samples were conducted in a tube furnace at 350, 550, 650, 750, and 850 °C with 1 L/min air or N 2 gas flow, respectively. 5% HNO 3 /10% H 2 O 2 solution was used for absorbing metals from gas phase, and then HM distributions both in flue gas and bottom ash were determined. Results revealed that the lower heating values of HDPE, LDPE, PVC and PE bags were 33.32, 34.28, 24.82 and 36.7 MJ/kg, respectively indicating energy recovery potential. Thermal treatment showed the maximum mass reduction (>90%) of PB at 850 °C. The higher percentage of metals was distributed in ash at initial temperature that promoted to gas with rise of temperature. The used absorption solution exhibited tremendous quantity of metals recovery. However, there was no significant difference between using air and N 2 gas flow during treatment of PB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of mixed wastes by thermal plasma discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz A, L.V.

    2007-01-01

    The present study has as purpose to apply the technology of thermal plasma in the destruction of certain type of waste generated in the ININ. As first instance, origin, classification and disposition of the radioactive waste generated in the ININ is identified. Once identified the waste, the waste to treat is determined based on: the easiness of treating him with plasma, classification and importance. Later on, a substance or compound settles down (sample model) that serves as indicative of the waste for its physical-chemical characteristics, this is made because in the Thermal Plasma Applications Laboratory is not had the license to work with radioactive material. The sample model and the material to form the vitreous matrix are characterized before and after the treatment in order to evaluating their degradation and vitrification. During the treatment by means of the thermal plasma, the appropriate conditions are determined for the degradation and vitrification of the waste. Also, it is carried out an energy balance in the system to know the capacity to fuse the material depending the transfer of existent heat between the plasma and the material to treat. Obtaining favorable results, it thought about to climb in the project and by this way to help to solve one of the environmental problems in Mexico, as they are it the mixed wastes. (Author)

  3. Projecting LED product life based on application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Nadarajah; Liu, Yi-wei; Mou, Xi; Thotagamuwa, Dinusha R.; Eshwarage, Oshadhi V. Madihe

    2016-09-01

    LED products have started to displace traditional light sources in many lighting applications. One of the commonly claimed benefits for LED lighting products is their long useful lifetime in applications. Today there are many replacement lamp products using LEDs in the marketplace. Typically, lifetime claims of these replacement lamps are in the 25,000-hour range. According to current industry practice, the time for the LED light output to reach the 70% value is estimated according to IESNA LM-80 and TM-21 procedures and the resulting value is reported as the whole system life. LED products generally experience different thermal environments and switching (on-off cycling) patterns when used in applications. Current industry test methods often do not produce accurate lifetime estimates for LED systems because only one component of the system, namely the LED, is tested under a continuous-on burning condition without switching on and off, and because they estimate for only one failure type, lumen depreciation. The objective of the study presented in this manuscript was to develop a test method that could help predict LED system life in any application by testing the whole LED system, including on-off power cycling with sufficient dwell time, and considering both failure types, catastrophic and parametric. The study results showed for the LED A-lamps tested in this study, both failure types, catastrophic and parametric, exist. The on-off cycling encourages catastrophic failure, and maximum operating temperature influences the lumen depreciation rate and parametric failure time. It was also clear that LED system life is negatively affected by on-off switching, contrary to commonly held belief. In addition, the study results showed that most of the LED systems failed catastrophically much ahead of the LED light output reaching the 70% value. This emphasizes the fact that life testing of LED systems must consider catastrophic failure in addition to lumen depreciation, and

  4. Chromium behavior during thermal treatment of MSW fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Donald W; Chan, Chris C Y; Marsh, Hilary

    2002-02-14

    Energy-from-waste incineration has been promoted as an environmentally responsible method for handling non-recyclable waste from households. Despite the benefits of energy production, elimination of organic residues and reduction of volume of waste to be landfilled, there is concern about fly ash disposal. Fly ash from an incinerator contains toxic species such as Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr which may leach into soil and ground water if landfilled. Thermal treatment of the fly ash from municipal solid waste has been tested and proposed as a treatment option for removal of metal species such as Pb, Cd and Zn, via thermal re-volatilization. However, Cr is an element that remains in the residue of the heat treated fly ash and appears to become more soluble. This Cr solubilization is of concern if it exceeds the regulatory limit for hazardous waste. Hence, this unexpected behavior of Cr was investigated. The initial work involved microscopic characterization of Cr in untreated and thermally-treated MSW fly ash. This was followed by determining leaching characteristics using standard protocol leaching tests and characterization leaching methods (sequential extraction). Finally, a mechanism explaining the increased solubilization was proposed and tested by reactions of synthetic chemicals.

  5. Developing LED UV fluorescence sensors for online monitoring DOM and predicting DBPs formation potential during water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Tao; Jin, Jing; Li, Qiang; Wu, Chen-Fei; Lu, Hai; Zhou, Qing; Li, Ai-Min

    2016-04-15

    Online monitoring dissolved organic matter (DOM) is urgent for water treatment management. In this study, high performance size exclusion chromatography with multi-UV absorbance and multi-emission fluorescence scans were applied to spectrally characterize samples from 16 drinking water sources across Yangzi River and Huai River Watersheds. The UV absorbance indices at 254 nm and 280 nm referred to the same DOM components and concentration, and the 280 nm UV light could excite both protein-like and humic-like fluorescence. Hence a novel UV fluorescence sensor was developed out using only one UV280 light-emitting diode (LED) as light source. For all samples, enhanced coagulation was mainly effective for large molecular weight biopolymers; while anion exchange further substantially removed humic substances. During chlorination tests, UVA280 and UVA254 showed similar correlations with yields of disinfection byproducts (DBPs); the humic-like fluorescence obtained from LED sensors correlated well with both trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids yields, while the correlation between protein-like fluorescence and trihalomethanes was relatively poor. Anion exchange exhibited more reduction of DBPs yields as well as UV absorbance and fluorescence signals than enhanced coagulation. The results suggest that the LED UV fluorescence sensors are very promising for online monitoring DOM and predicting DBPs formation potential during water treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. APLIKASI THERMAL PRE-TREATMENT LIMBAH TANAMAN JAGUNG (Zea mays SEBAGAI CO·SUBSTRAT PADA PROSES ANAEROBIK DIGESTI UNTUK PRODUKSI BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin Darwin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermal pre-treatment was given on corn stover in the purpose of breaking the lignin content; thus, it may help anaerobic microorganisms to convert polymer including cellulose and hemicelluloses into biogas. This study aimed to investigate the effects of thermal pre-treatment on corn stover in anaerobic digestion process related to the production of biogas as well as digestion process efficiency. This research was carried out by utilizing batch reactors where the temperature was maintained at mesophilic conditions above room temperature (33 ± 2 oC. Based on the result, it was known that thermal pre-treatment given on the corn stover may enhance anaerobic digestion process for biogas production at the first 10 days. This condition reduced the time of lag phase during anaerobic digestion. The biogas production of corn stover given thermal pre-treatment was slow at 26 days where their average total production were 12,412.5 mL,12,310 mL at 15 and 25 minutes thermal pre-treatment, respectively while biogas production of non pre-treated corn stover was 12,557 mL. The highest daily biogas production was accomplished by corn stover that was given thermal pre-treatment at 25 minutes (915 mL. Corn stover given with 15 minutes thermal pre-treatment also generated higher daily biogas production at day 9 (772.5 mL compared with corn stover that was not pre-treated (405 mL. This research also revealed that corn stover given thermal pre-treatment reached higher biogas yield compared with non pre-treated corn stover where their biogas yield were 670.39, 690.65 mL/g volatile solids added at 15 and 25 minutes thermal pre- treatment respectively, and 456.37 mL/g volatile solids added of non pre-treated corn stover. Keywords: Thermal pre-treatment, corn stover, anaerobic digestion, biogas   ABSTRAK Thermal pre-treatment diberikan pada limbah tanaman jagung dengan tujuan untuk memecahkan kandungan lignin yang terdapat pada limbah tanaman jagung sehingga memudahkan

  7. Standard guide for characterization of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes for thermal treatment

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This guide identifies methods to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes before a waste is processed at high temperatures, for example, vitrification into a homogeneous glass ,glass-ceramic, or ceramic waste form. This includes waste forms produced by ex-situ vitrification (ESV), in-situ vitrification (ISV), slagging, plasma-arc, hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) and/or cold-pressing and sintering technologies. Note that this guide does not specifically address high temperature waste treatment by incineration but several of the analyses described in this guide may be useful diagnostic methods to determine incinerator off-gas composition and concentrations. The characterization of the waste(s) recommended in this guide can be used to (1) choose and develop the appropriate thermal treatment methodology, (2) determine if waste pretreatment is needed prior to thermal treatment, (3) aid in development of thermal treatment process control, (4) develop surrogate wa...

  8. Thermal treatment of sewage sludge from waste water. Tratamiento termico de lodos procedentes de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreottola, G. (Universidad de Trento (Italy)); Canziani, R.; Ragazzi, M. (Politicnico de Milan (Italy))

    1994-01-01

    Thermal Treatment of sewage sludge can be beneficial as a pre-treatment step of many treatment/disposal options, but above all, it allows the recovery of the energetic content sludge. Energy recovery from sewage sludge can be performed in many ways; direct incineration thermal drying followed by incineration and co-combustion with municipal solid wastes or other non conventional fuels. Another option is the recovery of waste energy (e.g. from an endo thermal engine using biogas as fuel) to dry sludge wich, in turn can be used as a fuel. The paper will evaluate several options of thermal treatment of sewage sludge, with particular emphasis on the energetic yield from different processes. (Author)

  9. Lu{sub 3}(Al,Si){sub 5}(O,N){sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+} phosphors with broad emission band and high thermal stability for white LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiaqing; Wang, Xiaojun; Xuan, Tongtong; Wang, Chunbo; Li, Huili, E-mail: hlli@phy.ecnu.edu.cn; Sun, Zhuo

    2015-02-15

    A yellow-orange emitting Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5−x}Si{sub x}O{sub 12−x}N{sub x}:Ce{sup 3+} phosphor with excellent color rendering, high luminescent efficiency and high thermal stability was reported in this paper. It was synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction method. The effect of Si{sup 4+}–N{sup 3−} incorporation on the optical properties of Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+} phosphor was investigated and compared to YAG:Ce{sup 3+} with the same compositions. Similarly, the addition of α-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} leads to a distinct redshift and broadening of photoluminescent spectrum, which is assigned to the increased covalency and crystal field strength caused by N{sup 3−}. Nevertheless, an excellent thermal stability and a higher integrated intensity presented by α-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-doped LuAG:Ce{sup 3+} are distinctive. Further, the emission intensity can be greatly enhanced by adding NaF flux. Finally, the white LED flat lamp with a CRI as high as 83 and a luminous efficiency of 85 lm/W is successfully realized by using a single LuAG-based oxynitride phosphor combined with a blue LED chip, which is completely feasible for general indoor illuminations to replace the traditional fluorescent or incandescent lamps. - Highlights: • Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-doped LuAG:Ce{sup 3+} oxynitride phosphors were synthesized by a solid-state reaction. • The effect of Si{sup 4+}–N{sup 3−} incorporation on the optical properties was investigated. • The addition of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} leads to an obvious redshift of the emission spectra. • Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5−x}Si{sub x}O{sub 12−x}N{sub x}:Ce{sup 3+} shows an excellent thermal stability and a higher intensity. • A warm white LED with CRI=83 is achieved by a single oxynitride phosphor.

  10. Electroluminescence dependence of the simplified green light organic light emitting diodes on in situ thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Haichuan, E-mail: hcmu@ecust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Rao, Lu [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Li, Weiling; Wei, Bin [Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Applications, Ministry of Education, School of Mechanics Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072 (China); Wang, Keke; Xie, Haifen [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • In-situ thermal treating the organic tri-layer (CBP/CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3}/TPBi) of the green light PHOLED under various temperatures during the organic materials evaporation. • Investigating the effect of in situ thermal treatment on the electroluminescence (EL) performance of the green light PHOLED with tri-layer structures. • Provide an easy and practical way to improve the EL performance of the OLEDs without major modification of the organic materials and OLEDs structures required. - Abstract: Simplified multilayer green light phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLED) with the structure of ITO/MoO{sub 3}(1 nm)/CBP(20 nm)/CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3} (1 wt%) (15 nm)/TPBi(60 nm)/LiF(0.5 nm)/Al were fabricated via thermal evaporation and in situ thermal treatment (heating the OLED substrates to certain temperatures during the thermal evaporation of the organic materials) was performed. The effect of the in situ thermal treatment on the electroluminescence (EL) performance of the PHOLED was investigated. It was found that the OLED exhibited strong EL dependence on the thermal treatment temperatures, and their current efficiency was improved with the increasing temperature from room temperature (RT) to 69 °C and deteriorated with the further increasing temperature to 105 °C. At the brightness of 1000 cd/m{sup 2}, over 80% improvement of the current efficiency at the optimal thermal treatment temperature of 69 °C (64 cd/A) was demonstrated compared to that at RT (35 cd/A). Meanwhile, the tremendous influences of the in situ thermal treatment on the morphology of the multilayer CBP/CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3}/TPBi were also observed. At the optimal thermal treatment temperature of 69 °C, the improvement of the EL performance could be ascribed to the enhancement of the electron and hole transporting in the CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3} emitting layer, which suppressed the triplets self-quenching interactions and promoted the charge balance and excitons formation. The

  11. Review on effect of chemical, thermal, additive treatment on mechanical properties of basalt fiber and their composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Naman; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Chauhan, Sakshi

    2017-12-01

    Basalt fiber is emerging out the new reinforcing material for composites. To overcome some of the disadvantages of fibers such as poor bonding to polymers, low thermal stability and high moisture absorption fiber characteristics are modified with chemical, thermal and additive treatments. Chemical treatment corrosive resistance to alkali and acid were investigated which were used to clean and modify the surface of fiber for higher bonding with resins. To improve the thermal stability and reduce moisture uptake thermal treatment such as plasma and non thermal plasma were used which increased the surface roughness and change the chemical composition of surface of basalt fiber. Additive treatment is used to improve the mechanical properties of fibers, in basalt fiber additive treatment was done with SiO2 additive because of its chemical composition which contains major content of SiO2. In present investigation review on the effect of different treatment such as chemical, thermal and additive were studied. Effect of these treatment on chemical composition of the surface of basalt fiber and corrosion to acidic and alkali solution were studied with their effect on mechanical properties of basalt fiber and their composite.

  12. Removal of siloxanes in sewage sludge by thermal treatment with gas stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Omori, Keigo; Takaoka, Masaki; Mizuno, Tadao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new treatment of sewage sludge were studied to reduce siloxanes in biogas. • D5 of cyclic siloxane concentrations were the highest in sewage sludge. • Under optimal conditions, most of siloxanes in the sludge were removed previously. • By this treatment, CH 4 was 1.6-fold larger and siloxane in biogas 95% lower. - Abstract: In this study, thermal treatment with gas stripping of sewage sludge before anaerobic digestion to reduce siloxanes in the sludge and accelerate the anaerobic digestion was studied experimentally. Regarding siloxanes in the sludge, D5 concentrations were the highest. Siloxane concentrations in the digested sludge were decreased, versus those in thickened sludge, because siloxanes in the sludge are moved to the biogas during the anaerobic digestion. Thermal treatment and gas stripping experiments were conducted. The optimum conditions for siloxane removal from sludge were found to be thermal treatment with gas stripping at 80 °C with 0.5 L/min of air flow for 48 h. Under these conditions, approximately 90% of all siloxanes in the sludge were removed. Next, anaerobic digestion experiments were conducted with the optimally treated sludge and untreated sludge. The biogas volume of the optimally treated sludge was 1.6-fold larger than that of the untreated sludge. Furthermore, D5 contents in biogas from the optimally treated sludge were 95% lower than in biogas from untreated sludge. Thus, thermal treatment with gas stripping of sludge before anaerobic digestion was effective in increasing biogas amounts, decreasing siloxane concentrations in the biogas, and reducing the need for a siloxane removal process from the biogas

  13. Improvement of the management of residual waste in areas without thermal treatment facilities: A life cycle analysis of an Italian management district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maria, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaria@unipg.it [LAR Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Via G. Duranti 93, Perugia (Italy); Micale, Caterina; Morettini, Emanuela [LAR Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Via G. Duranti 93, Perugia (Italy); Sisani, Luciano [TSA spa, Via Case Sparse 107, Magione (Italy); Damiano, Roberto [GESENU spa, Via della Molinella 7, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • LCA analysis of two option for residual waste management. • Exploitation of mechanical physical sorting facility for extracting recyclable from RMSW. • Processing the mechanically sorted organic fraction in bioreactor landfill. • Sensitivity analysis demonstrate high influence for impact assessment of substitution ratio for recycle materials. - Abstract: Starting from an existing waste management district without thermal treatment facilities, two different management scenarios for residual waste were compared by life cycle assessment (LCA). The adoption of a bioreactor landfill for managing the mechanically sorted organic fraction instead of bio-stabilization led to reduction of global warming and fresh water eutrophication by 50% and 10%, respectively. Extraction of recyclables from residual waste led to avoided emissions for particulate matter, acidification and resource depletion impact categories. Marginal energy and the amount of energy recovered from landfill gas marginally affected the LCA results. On the contrary the quality of the recyclables extracted can significantly modify the eco profile of the management schemes.

  14. Improvement of Sol-Gel Derived PbZrxTi1-xO3 Film Properties Using Thermal Press Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Toshihiko; Kim, Joo-Nam; Tokumitsu, Eisuke; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2010-09-01

    A thermal press treatment was introduced in the sol-gel process of PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT) thin films for the first time and the crystalline and electrical characteristics of the PZT films were investigated. The thermal press treatment was applied to the amorphous PZT gel film before crystallization annealing. It is found that the crystalline orientation and grain size of the PZT film fabricated with the thermal press treatment are different from those of the film fabricated by the conventional sol-gel process without the thermal press treatment, even though the crystallization conditions are exactly the same. It is demonstrated that the electrical properties, especially leakage current density and breakdown field, are significantly improved for the PZT film fabricated with the thermal press treatment. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the fatigue property is improved by introducing the thermal press treatment.

  15. Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems study: US Department of Energy Internal Review Panel report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudahy, J.; Escarda, T.; Gimpel, R.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) commissioned two studies to uniformly evaluate nineteen thermal treatment technologies. These studies were called the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Phase I and Phase II. With the advice and guidance of the DOE Office of Environmental Management's (EM's) Mixed Waste Focus Group, OTD formed an ITTS Internal Review Panel, composed of scientists and engineers from throughout the DOE complex, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the California EPA, and private experts. The Panel met from November 15-18, 1994, to review and comment on the ITTS studies, to make recommendations on the most promising thermal treatment systems for DOE mixed low level wastes (MLLW), and to make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of the technologies on MLLW

  16. Study on luminescence and thermal stability of blue-emitting Sr_5(PO_4)_3F: Eu"2"+phosphor for application in InGaN-based LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Wu, Zhan-Chao; Wang, Fang-Fang; Li, Zhen-Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A blue phosphor Sr_5(PO_4)_3F: Eu"2"+ was prepared at low temperature of 800 °C. • The broad excitation band of the phosphor matches well with NUV LED chips. • The phosphor shows high color purity and good color stability. • A bright blue-emitting LED was fabricated with this phosphor on an InGaN chip. - Abstract: A series of blue-emitting phosphors Sr_5(PO_4)_3F: Eu"2"+ were synthesized by traditional high temperature solid-state reaction method. The micro-morphology and photoluminescence properties of the phosphors were investigated. The Sr_5(PO_4)_3F: Eu"2"+ phosphors exhibit broad excitation spectra ranging from 250 to 420 nm, and an intense asymmetric blue emission band peaking at 435 nm. Two different Eu"2"+ emission centers in Sr_5(PO_4)_3F: Eu"2"+ phosphors were confirmed via their fluorescence properties. The concentration quenching mechanism, fluorescence lifetime and thermal stability of Sr_5(PO_4)_3F: Eu"2"+ phosphors were studied in detail. The thermal stability can be improved obviously by anion substitution. The CIE chromaticity coordinates of Sr_5(PO_4)_3F: Eu"2"+ phosphors with different Eu"2"+-doped concentrations were calculated. A blue light-emitting diode was fabricated by combination of a 370 nm InGaN chip and the prepared phosphor Sr_5(PO_4)_3F: Eu"2"+. The present work suggests that Sr_5(PO_4)_3F: Eu"2"+ is a potential phosphor applied in InGaN-based LEDs.

  17. Effects of γ-irradiation and thermal treatment of crystallinity of drawn HDPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhanjun; Silverman, J.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of absorbed dose irradiated in vacuum and air on the crystallinity of drawn HDPE was studied. Experimental results show that up to 250 kGy of absorbed dose when irradiated in vacuum, the crystallinity of drawn HDPE is decreased from about 75% to about 71%, and then the increase of absorbed dose until 1000 kGy has no further effect in lowering the crystallinity; when irradiated in air, an absorbed dose of 1000 kGy has no effect on the crystallinity of drawn HDPE. The effect of temperature of thermal treatment on the crystallinity of unirradiated drawn HDPE was also investigated. At first, the crystallinity is increased with the increase of temperature of thermal treatment, at about 120 degree C, it reaches the maximum value, and then it is rapidly lowered with the further increase of temperature of thermal treatment. Based on the existence of a lot of voids and lattice defects inside the drawn HDPE, the above experimental results were explained

  18. Magneto-LED therapy in the treatment of inflammatory lesions and erosions of the glans penis – case report

    OpenAIRE

    Jarosław Pasek; Tomasz Pasek; Grzegorz Cieślar; Aleksander Sieroń

    2016-01-01

    Introduction . Inflammatory lesions and erosions of the glans penis defined as balanitis or balanoposthitis constitute a disease in which the effectiveness of conservative treatment is not sufficient. Objective. To present the therapeutic efficacy of magneto-LED therapy in the treatment, and to present a patient with inflammatory lesions and erosions of the glans penis. Case report. The patient, 68 years old with inflammatory lesions and erosions of the glans penis of 2–4 years...

  19. Dependence of adhesion strength between GaN LEDs and sapphire substrate on power density of UV laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Junsu [Department of Nano-Manufacturing Technology, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 156 Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34103 (Korea, Republic of); Sin, Young-Gwan [Department of Nano-Mechatronics, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34113 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hyun [Department of Nano-Mechanics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 156 Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34103 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jaegu, E-mail: gugu99@kimm.re.kr [Department of Nano-Manufacturing Technology, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 156 Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34103 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Fundamental relationship between laser irradiation and adhesion strength, between gallium-nitride light emitted diode and sapphire substrate, is proposed during selective laser lift-off. • Two competing mechanisms affect adhesion at the irradiated interface between the GaN LED and sapphire substrate. • Ga precipitation caused by thermal decomposition and roughened interface caused by thermal damage lead to the considerable difference of adhesion strength at the interface. - Abstract: Selective laser lift-off (SLLO) is an innovative technology used to manufacture and repair micro-light-emitting diode (LED) displays. In SLLO, laser is irradiated to selectively separate micro-LED devices from a transparent sapphire substrate. The light source used is an ultraviolet (UV) laser with a wavelength of 266 nm, pulse duration of 20 ns, and repetition rate of 30 kHz. Controlled adhesion between a LED and the substrate is key for a SLLO process with high yield and reliability. This study examined the fundamental relationship between adhesion and laser irradiation. Two competing mechanisms affect adhesion at the irradiated interface between the GaN LED and sapphire substrate: Ga precipitation caused by the thermal decomposition of GaN and roughened interface caused by thermal damage on the sapphire. The competition between these two mechanisms leads to a non-trivial SLLO condition that needs optimization. This study helps understand the SLLO process, and accelerate the development of a process for manufacturing micro-LED displays via SLLO for future applications.

  20. Effect of thermal-treatment sequence on sound absorbing and mechanical properties of porous sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chen-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to recent rapid commercial and industrial development, mechanical equipment is supplemented massively in the factory and thus mechanical operation causes noise which distresses living at home. In livelihood, neighborhood, transportation equipment, jobsite construction noises impact on quality of life not only factory noise. This study aims to preparation technique and property evaluation of porous sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites. Hollow three-dimensional crimp PET fibers blended with low-melting PET fibers were fabricated into hollow PET/low-melting PET nonwoven after opening, blending, carding, lapping and needle-bonding process. Then, hollow PET/low-melting PET nonwovens were laminated into sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites by changing sequence of needle-bonding and thermal-treatment. The optimal thermal-treated sequence was found by tensile strength, tearing strength, sound-absorbing coefficient and thermal conductivity coefficient tests of porous composites.

  1. Protection against methanol-induced retinal toxicity by LED photostimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Harry T.; Wong-Riley, Margaret T. T.; Eells, Janis T.

    2002-06-01

    We have initiated experiments designed to test the hypothesis that 670-nm Light-Emitting Diode (LED) exposure will attenuate formate-induced retinal dysfunction in a rodent model of methanol toxicity. Methanol intoxication produces toxic injury to the retina. The toxic metabolite formed in methanol intoxication is formic acid, a mitochondrial toxin known to inhibit cytochrome oxidase activity. 670-nm LED light has been hypothesized to act by stimulating cytochrome oxidase activity. To test this hypothesis, one group of animals was intoxicated with methanol, a second group was intoxicated with methanol and LED-treated and a third group was untreated. LED treatment (670 nm for 1 min 45 seconds equals 50 mW/cm2, 4 joules/cm2) was administered at 5, 25, and 50 hours after the initial dose of methanol. At 72 hours of methanol intoxication, retinal function was assessed by measurement of ERG responses and retinas were prepared for histologic analysis. ERG responses recorded in methanol-intoxicated animals revealed profound attenuation of both rod-dominated and UV-cone mediated responses. In contrast, methanol- intoxicated animals exposed to LED treatment exhibited a nearly complete recovery of rod-dominated ERG responses and a slight improvement of UV-cone mediated ERG responses. LED treatment also protected the retina against the histopathologic changes produced by formate in methanol intoxication. These data provide evidence that LED phototherapy protects the retina against the cytotoxic actions of formate and are consistent with the hypothesis that LED photostimulation improves mitochondrial respiratory chain function.

  2. A controlled trial of the Litebook light-emitting diode (LED light therapy device for treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telner John

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has emphasized that the human circadian rhythm system is differentially sensitive to short wavelength light. Light treatment devices using efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs whose output is relatively concentrated in short wavelengths may enable a more convenient effective therapy for Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD. Methods The efficacy of a LED light therapy device in the treatment of SAD was tested in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center trial. Participants aged 18 to 65 with SAD (DSM-IV major depression with seasonal pattern were seen at Baseline and Randomization visits separated by 1 week, and after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of treatment. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores (SIGH-SAD were obtained at each visit. Participants with SIGH-SAD of 20 or greater at Baseline and Randomization visits were randomized to active or control treatment: exposure to the Litebook LED treatment device (The Litebook Company Ltd., Alberta, Canada which delivers 1,350 lux white light (with spectral emission peaks at 464 nm and 564 nm at a distance of 20 inches or to an inactivated negative ion generator at a distance of 20 inches, for 30 minutes a day upon awakening and prior to 8 A.M. Results Of the 26 participants randomized, 23 completed the trial. Mean group SIGH-SAD scores did not differ significantly at randomization. At trial end, the proportions of participants in remission (SIGH-SAD less than 9 were significantly greater (Fisher's exact test, and SIGH-SAD scores, as percent individual score at randomization, were significantly lower (t-test, with active treatment than with control, both in an intent-to-treat analysis and an observed cases analysis. A longitudinal repeated measures ANOVA analysis of SIGH-SAD scores also indicated a significant interaction of time and treatment, showing superiority of the Litebook over the placebo condition. Conclusion The results of this pilot study support

  3. High-performance polyamide thin-film composite nanofiltration membrane: Role of thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baicang; Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Pingju; Liang, Heng; Zhang, Wen; Crittenden, John

    2018-03-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) membranes have many excellent applications (e.g., removing multivalent ions and pretreating water before reverse osmosis, RO), but their relatively high cost limits their application. Especially in recent years, researchers have paid substantial attention to reducing the cost of NF membranes. In this paper, high-performance NF membranes were fabricated using interfacial polymerization (IP) methods. The polymer concentration, IP solution concentration, and thermal treatment conditions were varied. The synthesized membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), a contact angle goniometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and performance tests. The results show that water flux was significantly improved using a hot-water thermal treatment method. Our fabricated thermal-treated NF membrane had an approximately 15% higher water permeability with a value of 13.6 L/(m2 h bar) than that of the commercially available GE HL membrane with a value of 11.8 L/(m2 h bar). Our membranes had the same MgSO4 rejection as that of the GE HL membrane. We found that the thermal treatment causes the NF membrane surface to be smoother and have a high crosslinking degree.

  4. Effect of electrical pulse treatment on the thermal fatigue resistance of bionic compacted graphite cast iron processed in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yan; Zhou, Hong; Su, Hang; Yang, Chunyan; Cheng, Jingyan; Zhang, Peng; Ren, Luquan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Electrical pulse treatment can reduce cracks on bionic units before thermal fatigue tests. ► Electrical pulse treatment can reduce crack sources during thermal fatigue tests. ► Thermal fatigue resistance of bionic units processed in water is enhanced. ► Thermal fatigue resistance of bionic CGI processed in water is improved. -- Abstract: In order to further enhance the thermal fatigue resistance of bionic compacted graphite cast iron (CGI) which is processed by laser in water, the electrical pulse treatment is applied to improve the thermal fatigue resistance of bionic units. The results show that the electrical pulse treatment causes the supersaturated carbon atoms located in the lattice of austenite to react with the iron atoms to form the Fe 3 C. The microstructures of the bionic units processed in water are refined by the electrical pulse treatment. The cracks on the bionic units are reduced by the electrical pulse treatment before the thermal fatigue tests; and during the tests, the thermal fatigue resistance of bionic units is therefore enhanced by reducing the crack sources. By this way, the thermal fatigue resistance of bionic CGI processed in water is improved.

  5. Recycling process for recovery of gallium from GaN an e-waste of LED industry through ball milling, annealing and leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, Basudev, E-mail: swain@iae.re.kr; Mishra, Chinmayee; Kang, Leeseung; Park, Kyung-Soo, E-mail: kspark@iae.re.kr; Lee, Chan Gi; Hong, Hyun Seon, E-mail: hshong@iae.re.kr

    2015-04-15

    Waste dust generated during manufacturing of LED contains significant amounts of gallium and indium, needs suitable treatment and can be an important resource for recovery. The LED industry waste dust contains primarily gallium as GaN. Leaching followed by purification technology is the green and clean technology. To develop treatment and recycling technology of these GaN bearing e-waste, leaching is the primary stage. In our current investigation possible process for treatment and quantitative leaching of gallium and indium from the GaN bearing e-waste or waste of LED industry dust has been developed. To recycle the waste and quantitative leaching of gallium, two different process flow sheets have been proposed. In one, process first the GaN of the waste the LED industry dust was leached at the optimum condition. Subsequently, the leach residue was mixed with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, ball milled followed by annealing, again leached to recover gallium. In the second process, the waste LED industry dust was mixed with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, after ball milling and annealing, followed acidic leaching. Without pretreatment, the gallium leaching was only 4.91 w/w % using 4 M HCl, 100 °C and pulp density of 20 g/L. After mechano-chemical processing, both these processes achieved 73.68 w/w % of gallium leaching at their optimum condition. The developed process can treat and recycle any e-waste containing GaN through ball milling, annealing and leaching. - Highlights: • Simplest process for treatment of GaN an LED industry waste developed. • The process developed recovers gallium from waste LED waste dust. • Thermal analysis and phase properties of GaN to Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GaN to NaGaO{sub 2} revealed. • Solid-state chemistry involved in this process reported. • Quantitative leaching of the GaN was achieved.

  6. Reliability test and failure analysis of high power LED packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhaohui; Zhang Qin; Wang Kai; Luo Xiaobing; Liu Sheng

    2011-01-01

    A new type application specific light emitting diode (LED) package (ASLP) with freeform polycarbonate lens for street lighting is developed, whose manufacturing processes are compatible with a typical LED packaging process. The reliability test methods and failure criterions from different vendors are reviewed and compared. It is found that test methods and failure criterions are quite different. The rapid reliability assessment standards are urgently needed for the LED industry. 85 0 C/85 RH with 700 mA is used to test our LED modules with three other vendors for 1000 h, showing no visible degradation in optical performance for our modules, with two other vendors showing significant degradation. Some failure analysis methods such as C-SAM, Nano X-ray CT and optical microscope are used for LED packages. Some failure mechanisms such as delaminations and cracks are detected in the LED packages after the accelerated reliability testing. The finite element simulation method is helpful for the failure analysis and design of the reliability of the LED packaging. One example is used to show one currently used module in industry is vulnerable and may not easily pass the harsh thermal cycle testing. (semiconductor devices)

  7. Thermal Treatment of Mercury Mine Wastes Using a Rotary Solar Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Navarro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal desorption, by a rotary kiln of mercury contaminated soil and mine wastes, has been used in order to volatilize mercury from the contaminated medium. Solar thermal desorption is an innovative treatment that uses solar energy to increase the volatility of contaminants, which are removed from a solid matrix by a controlled air flow system. Samples of soils and mine wastes used in the experiments were collected in the abandoned Valle del Azogue mine (SE, Spain, where a complex ore, composed mainly of cinnabar, arsenic minerals (realgar and orpiment and stibnite, was mined. The results showed that thermal treatment at temperatures >400 °C successfully lowered the Hg content (2070–116 ppm to <15 mg kg−1. The lowest values of mercury in treated samples were obtained at a higher temperature and exposition time. The samples that showed a high removal efficiency (>99% were associated with the presence of significant contents of cinnabar and an equivalent diameter above 0.8 mm.

  8. Surface modification of cellulose acetate membrane using thermal annealing to enhance produced water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusworo, T. D., E-mail: tdkusworo@che.undip.ac.id; Aryanti, N., E-mail: nita.aryanti@gmail.com; Firdaus, M. M. H.; Sukmawati, H. [Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Prof. Soedarto Street, Tembalang, Semarang, 50239, Phone/Fax : (024)7460058 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    This study is performed primarily to investigate the effect of surface modification of cellulose acetate using thermal annealing on the enhancement of membrane performance for produced water treatment. In this study, Cellulose Acetate membranes were casted using dry/wet phase inversion technique. The effect of additive and post-treatment using thermal annealing on the membrane surface were examined for produced water treatment. Therma annealing was subjected to membrane surface at 60 and 70 °C for 5, 10 and 15 second, respectively. Membrane characterizations were done using membrane flux and rejection with produced water as a feed, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) analysis. Experimental results showed that asymmetric cellulose acetate membrane can be made by dry/wet phase inversion technique. The results from the Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis was also confirmed that polyethylene glycol as additivie in dope solution and thermal annealing was affected the morphology and membrane performance for produced water treatment, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that the selective layer and the substructure of membrane became denser and more compact after the thermal annealing processes. Therefore, membrane rejection was significantly increased while the flux was slighty decreased, respectively. The best membrane performance is obtained on the composition of 18 wt % cellulose acetate, poly ethylene glycol 5 wt% with thermal annealing at 70° C for 15 second.

  9. Surface modification of cellulose acetate membrane using thermal annealing to enhance produced water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusworo, T. D.; Aryanti, N.; Firdaus, M. M. H.; Sukmawati, H.

    2015-01-01

    This study is performed primarily to investigate the effect of surface modification of cellulose acetate using thermal annealing on the enhancement of membrane performance for produced water treatment. In this study, Cellulose Acetate membranes were casted using dry/wet phase inversion technique. The effect of additive and post-treatment using thermal annealing on the membrane surface were examined for produced water treatment. Therma annealing was subjected to membrane surface at 60 and 70 °C for 5, 10 and 15 second, respectively. Membrane characterizations were done using membrane flux and rejection with produced water as a feed, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) analysis. Experimental results showed that asymmetric cellulose acetate membrane can be made by dry/wet phase inversion technique. The results from the Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis was also confirmed that polyethylene glycol as additivie in dope solution and thermal annealing was affected the morphology and membrane performance for produced water treatment, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that the selective layer and the substructure of membrane became denser and more compact after the thermal annealing processes. Therefore, membrane rejection was significantly increased while the flux was slighty decreased, respectively. The best membrane performance is obtained on the composition of 18 wt % cellulose acetate, poly ethylene glycol 5 wt% with thermal annealing at 70° C for 15 second

  10. Temperature increase at the light guide tip of 15 contemporary LED units and thermal variation at the pulpal floor of cavities: an infrared thermographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, M; DeVito-Moraes, A; Francci, C; Moraes, R; Pereira, T; Froes-Salgado, N; Yamazaki, L; Silva, L; Zezell, D

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a comprehensive investigation on the temperature increase at the light guide tip of several commercial light-emitting diode (LED) light-curing units (LCUs) and the associated thermal variation (ΔT) at the pulpal floor of dental cavities was carried out. In total, 15 LEDs from all generations were investigated, testing a quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) unit as a reference. The irradiance level was measured with a power meter, and spectral distribution was analyzed using a spectrometer. Temperature increase at the tip was measured with a type-K thermocouple connected to a thermometer, while ΔT at the pulpal floor was measured by an infrared photodetector in class V cavities, with a 1-mm-thick dentin pulpal floor. The relationship among measured irradiance, ΔT at the tip, and ΔT at the pulpal floor was investigated using regression analyses. Large discrepancies between the expected and measured irradiances were detected for some LCUs. Most of the LCUs showed an emission spectrum narrower than the QTH unit, with emission peaks usually between 450 and 470 nm. The temperature increase at the tip followed a logarithmic growth for LCUs with irradiance ≥1000 mW/cm(2), with ΔT at the tip following the measured irradiance linearly (R(2)=0.67). Linear temperature increase at the pulpal floor over the 40-second exposure time was observed for several LCUs, with linear association between ΔT at the pulpal floor and measured irradiance (R(2)=0.39) or ΔT at the tip (R(2)=0.28). In conclusion, contemporary LED units show varied irradiance levels that affect the temperature increase at the light guide tip and, as a consequence, the thermal variation at the pulpal floor of dental cavities.

  11. Concentration quenching of Eu{sup 2+} in a thermal-stable yellow phosphor Ca{sub 2}BO{sub 3}Cl:Eu{sup 2+} for LED application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xinguo; Zhang Jilin; Dong Zhiyue; Shi Jianxin [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Ministry of Education Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Gong Menglian, E-mail: cesgml@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Ministry of Education Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2012-04-15

    A piece-shaped phosphor Ca{sub 2}BO{sub 3}Cl: Eu{sup 2+} was synthesized by solid-state reaction method. This phosphor exhibited wide absorption in ultra-violet and visible range, and bright yellow emission band centering at 570 nm. The concentration quenching mechanism was verified to be a dipole-dipole interaction, and its critical transfer distance was about 17 A by both calculated crystal structural method and experimental spectral method. This phosphor has a good thermal stability with a quenching temperature (T{sub 1/2}) of 200 Degree-Sign C. Yellow and white LEDs were fabricated with this phosphor and near UV chips, and the yellow LED has a high color purity of 97.0% and promising current tolerant property, while the white LED shows a luminous efficiency of 11.68 lm/W. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Broadband excitable and strong yellow-emitting Ca{sub 2}BO{sub 3}Cl: Eu{sup 2+} phosphor is obtained by solid state reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concentration quenching mechanism of Ca{sub 2}BO{sub 3}Cl: Eu{sup 2+} is dipole-dipole interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quenching temperature (T{sub 1/2}) of Ca{sub 2}BO{sub 3}Cl: Eu{sup 2+} is at 200 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As synthesized material can be used for LED phosphor application.

  12. Citric acid facilitated thermal treatment: An innovative method for the remediation of mercury contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Fujun; Peng, Changsheng; Hou, Deyi; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qian; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hg content was reduced to <1.5 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C with citric acid. • The treated soil retained most of its original soil physicochemical properties. • Proton provided by citric acid facilitates thermal removal of mercury. • This thermal treatment method is expected to reduce energy input by 35%. - Abstract: Thermal treatment is a promising technology for the remediation of mercury contaminated soils, but it often requires high energy input at heating temperatures above 600 °C, and the treated soil is not suitable for agricultural reuse. The present study developed a novel method for the thermal treatment of mercury contaminated soils with the facilitation of citric acid (CA). A CA/Hg molar ratio of 15 was adopted as the optimum dosage. The mercury concentration in soils was successfully reduced from 134 mg/kg to 1.1 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C for 60 min and the treated soil retained most of its original soil physiochemical properties. During the treatment process, CA was found to provide an acidic environment which enhanced the volatilization of mercury. This method is expected to reduce energy input by 35% comparing to the traditional thermal treatment method, and lead to agricultural soil reuse, thus providing a greener and more sustainable remediation method for treating mercury contaminated soil in future engineering applications.

  13. Citric acid facilitated thermal treatment: An innovative method for the remediation of mercury contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Fujun [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Peng, Changsheng [The Key Lab of Marine Environmental Science and Ecology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Hou, Deyi [Geotechnical and Environmental Research Group, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qian; Li, Fasheng [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Gu, Qingbao, E-mail: guqb@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Hg content was reduced to <1.5 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C with citric acid. • The treated soil retained most of its original soil physicochemical properties. • Proton provided by citric acid facilitates thermal removal of mercury. • This thermal treatment method is expected to reduce energy input by 35%. - Abstract: Thermal treatment is a promising technology for the remediation of mercury contaminated soils, but it often requires high energy input at heating temperatures above 600 °C, and the treated soil is not suitable for agricultural reuse. The present study developed a novel method for the thermal treatment of mercury contaminated soils with the facilitation of citric acid (CA). A CA/Hg molar ratio of 15 was adopted as the optimum dosage. The mercury concentration in soils was successfully reduced from 134 mg/kg to 1.1 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C for 60 min and the treated soil retained most of its original soil physiochemical properties. During the treatment process, CA was found to provide an acidic environment which enhanced the volatilization of mercury. This method is expected to reduce energy input by 35% comparing to the traditional thermal treatment method, and lead to agricultural soil reuse, thus providing a greener and more sustainable remediation method for treating mercury contaminated soil in future engineering applications.

  14. Thermal modelling using discrete vasculature for thermal therapy: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, H.P.; Gellermann, J.; van den Berg, C.A.T.; Stauffer, P.R.; Hand, J.W.; Crezee, J.

    2013-01-01

    Reliable temperature information during clinical hyperthermia and thermal ablation is essential for adequate treatment control, but conventional temperature measurements do not provide 3D temperature information. Treatment planning is a very useful tool to improve treatment quality and substantial progress has been made over the last decade. Thermal modelling is a very important and challenging aspect of hyperthermia treatment planning. Various thermal models have been developed for this purpose, with varying complexity. Since blood perfusion is such an important factor in thermal redistribution of energy in in vivo tissue, thermal simulations are most accurately performed by modelling discrete vasculature. This review describes the progress in thermal modelling with discrete vasculature for the purpose of hyperthermia treatment planning and thermal ablation. There has been significant progress in thermal modelling with discrete vasculature. Recent developments have made real-time simulations possible, which can provide feedback during treatment for improved therapy. Future clinical application of thermal modelling with discrete vasculature in hyperthermia treatment planning is expected to further improve treatment quality. PMID:23738700

  15. The use of light-emitting diodes (LED in commercial layer production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Borille

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial lighting is one of the most powerful management tools available to commercial layer producers. Artificial light allows anticipating or delaying the beginning of lay, improving egg production, and optimizing feed efficiency. This study aimed at comparing the performance of commercial layers submitted to lighting using different LED colors or conventional incandescent lamps. The study was carried out in a layer house divided in isolated environments in order to prevent any influenced from the neighboring treatments. In total, 360 Isa Brown layers, with an initial age of 56 weeks, were used. The following light sources were used: blue LED, yellow LED, green LED, red LED, white LED, and 40W incandescent light. Birds in all treatment were submitted to a 17-h continuous lighting program, and were fed a corn and soybean meal-based diet. A completely randomized experimental design with subplots was applied, with 24 treatments (six light sources and four periods of three replicates. Egg production (% was significantly different (p0.05 by light source. It was concluded that the replacement of incandescent light bulbs by white and red LEDs does not cause any negative effect on the egg production of commercial layers.

  16. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  17. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering

  18. LAPAROSCOPIC NEPHRECTOMY USING RADIOFREQUENCY THERMAL ABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ya. Alekseev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide use of current diagnostic techniques, such as ultrasound study, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, has led to significantly increased detection rates for disease in its early stages. This gave rise to a change in the standards for the treatment of locally advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC. Laparoscopic nephrectomy (LN has recently become the standard treatment of locally advanced RCC in the clinics having much experience with laparoscopic surgery. The chief drawback of LN is difficulties in maintaining intraoperative hemostasis and a need for creating renal tissue ischemia. The paper gives the intermediate results of application of the new procedure of LN using radiofrequency thermal ablation in patients with non-ischemic early-stage RCC.

  19. Bonding bare die LEDs on PET foils for lighting applications: Thermal design modeling and bonding experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Kusters, R.H.L.; Cauwe, M.; Waal, A. van der; Brand, J. van den

    2012-01-01

    Integration of LEDs on flexible foil substrates is of interest for flexible lighting applications and flexible photonic devices. A matrix of LEDs on a foil combined with a diffuser can be a potential alternative for flexible OLED lighting devices. Preferably, these LEDs are integrated in an

  20. Thermal waste treatment; Thermische Abfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulstich, M.; Urban, A.I.; Bilitewski, B. [eds.

    1998-09-01

    One effect of the enactment of the new Law on Recycling and Waste Management, in conjunction with the lowering of emission limit values, has been to bring thermal water treatment more and more into the focus of the discussion on optimal water utilisation. The present volume discusses the consequences of changing waste arisings and composition for various process combinations. [Deutsch] Durch das Inkrafttreten des neuen Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetzes und strengeren Emissionsgrenzwerten rueckt immer mehr die thermische Abfallbehandlung in den Vordergrund der Diskussionen um die optimale Abfallverwertung. Die Folgen der sich veraendernden Abfallmengen und -zusammensetzungen im Hinblick auf Anlagenauslastung, Feuerungstechnik, Rueckstaende und Kosten werden eroertert. Es werden verschiedene Verfahrenskombinationen vorgestellt und diskutiert. Verschiedene Moeglichkeiten der Klaerschlammbehandlung und der Einsatz der Reststoffe Asche und Schlacke in der Bauindustrie werden behandelt. (ABI)

  1. An engineering method to estimate the junction temperatures of light-emitting diodes in multiple LED application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Xing; Hu, Run; Luo, Xiaobing

    2014-01-01

    Acquiring the junction temperature of light emitting diode (LED) is essential for performance evaluation. But it is hard to get in the multiple LED applications. In this paper, an engineering method is presented to estimate the junction temperatures of LEDs in multiple LED applications. This method is mainly based on an analytical model, and it can be easily applied with some simple measurements. Simulations and experiments were conducted to prove the feasibility of the method, and the deviations among the results obtained by the present method with those by simulation as well as experiments are less than 2% and 3%, respectively. In the final part of this study, the engineering method was used to analyze the thermal resistances of a street lamp. The material of lead frame was found to affect the system thermal resistance mostly, and the choice of solder material strongly depended on the material of the lead frame.

  2. Effect of substrate type, dopant and thermal treatment on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of substrate type, dopant and thermal treatment on physicochemical properties of TiO2–SnO2 sol–gel films. I STAMBOLOVA. ∗. , V BLASKOV, S VASSILEV†, M SHIPOCHKA and A LOUKANOV‡. Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, †Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, BAS,. Acad. G. Bonchev ...

  3. The Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on Thermal Stability of the Cured Epoxy/Layered Silicate Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Yuhana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ultrasonic treatment on thermal stability of binary systems containing epoxy and organic chemically modified montmorillonite (Cloisite 30B was studied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD analysis were utilized. The mixing of epoxy and Cloisite 30B nanocomposites was performed by mechanical stirring, followed by 1 or 3-hour ultrasonic treatment, and polyetheramine as the curing agent. Both XRD and TEM analyses confirmed that the intercalation of Cloisite 30B was achieved. The d0 spacings for silicate in cured sample prepared at 1- and 3-hour duration of ultrasonic treatment were about 21 and 18 Å, respectively. This shows that shorter duration or ultrasonic treatment may be preferable to achieve higher d0 spacing of clay. This may be attributed to the increase in viscosity as homopolymerization process occurred, which restricts silicate dispersion. The 1-hour sonicated samples seem to be more thermally stable during the glass transition, but less stable during thermal decomposition process.

  4. Effect of thermal treatment of anaerobic sludge on the bioavailability and biodegradability characteristics of the organic fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. M. Borges

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Most works reported in the literature focus on thermal treatment of waste activated sludge at temperatures in the range of 160 to 180ºC. This research aimed at evaluating the thermal treatment of excess anaerobic sludge at much lower temperatures, using biogas generated in the wastewater treatment process as the energy source for heating a simplified thermal reactor. Direct burning of the biogas allowed an increase in the sludge temperature up to values close to 75ºC, for a 7-hour heating period. Sludge samples taken at different heating times showed that the thermal disintegration of the organic fraction allowed increases in the concentration of protein, carbohydrate, lipid and COD parameters by 30 to 35 times, as well as a 50% increase in the biogas production. Moreover, the simplified thermal treatment system proved to be an effective alternative for recovering energy from biogas and for controlling methane emissions to the atmosphere.

  5. Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

    1994-07-01

    An integrated systems engineering approach is used for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for management of contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. Ten different systems encompassing several incineration design options are studied. All subsystems, including facilities, equipment, and methods needed for integration of each of the ten systems are identified. Typical subsystems needed for complete treatment of MLLW are incoming waste receiving and preparation (characterization, sorting, sizing, and separation), thermal treatment, air pollution control, primary and secondary stabilization, metal decontamination, metal melting, mercury recovery, lead recovery, and special waste and aqueous waste treatment. The evaluation is performed by developing a preconceptual design package and planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for each system. As part of the preconceptual design process, functional and operational requirements, flow sheets and mass balances, and conceptual equipment layouts are developed for each system. The PLCC components estimated are technology development, production facility construction, pre-operation, operation and maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning. Preconceptual design data and other technology information gathered during the study are examined and areas requiring further development, testing, and evaluation are identified and recommended. Using a qualitative method, each of the ten systems are ranked

  6. Selective release of phosphorus and nitrogen from waste activated sludge with combined thermal and alkali treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minwook; Han, Dong-Woo; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2015-08-01

    Selective release characteristics of phosphorus and nitrogen from waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated during combined thermal and alkali treatment. Alkali (0.001-1.0N NaOH) treatment and combined thermal-alkali treatment were applied to WAS for releasing total P(T-P) and total nitrogen(T-N). Combined thermal-alkali treatment released 94%, 76%, and 49% of T-P, T-N, and COD, respectively. Release rate was positively associated with NaOH concentration, while temperature gave insignificant effect. The ratio of T-N and COD to T-P that released with alkali treatment ranged 0.74-0.80 and 0.39-0.50, respectively, while combined thermal-alkali treatment gave 0.60-0.90 and 0.20-0.60, respectively. Selective release of T-P and T-N was negatively associated with NaOH. High NaOH concentration created cavities on the surface of WAS, and these cavities accelerated the release rate, but reduced selectivity. Selective release of P and N from sludge has a beneficial effect on nutrient recovery with crystallization processes and it can also enhance methane production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment of off-gas from lagoon sludge thermal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Oh, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Ga, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has launched a decommissioning program of the uranium conversion plant in 2001. The treatment of the sludge waste, which was generated during the operation of the plant and stored in the lagoon, is one of the most important tasks in the decommissioning program of the plant. The major compounds of the lagoon sludge are ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, calcium nitrate, calcium carbonate, and uranium compounds. The minor compounds are iron, magnesium, aluminum, silicon and phosphorus. A treatment process of the sludge was developed as figure 1 based on the results of the sludge characteristics and the developed treatment technologies. A treatment of off-gas evolved from the nitrate salts thermal decomposition is one of the important process. Off-gas treatment by using a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) method was investigated in this study

  8. Spacing optimization of high power LED arrays for solid state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Y. Sing; Lee, S. W. Ricky, E-mail: rickylee@ust.hk [Electronic Packaging Laboratory, Center for Advanced Microsystems Packaging, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong)

    2011-01-15

    This paper provides an analytical approach to determine the optimum pitch by utilizing a thermal resistance network, under the assumption of constant luminous efficiency. This work allows an LED array design which is mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB) attached with a heat sink subject to the natural convection cooling. Being validated by finite element (FE) models, the current approach can be shown as an effective method for the determination of optimal component spacing in an LED array assembly for SSL. (semiconductor devices)

  9. Treatment of hazardous wastes by DC thermal plasma arc discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toru, Iwao; Yafang, Liu; Furuta, N.; Tsuginori, Inaba

    2001-01-01

    The temperature of the DC thermal plasma arc discharge is discussed, and examples of the waste treatment for the inorganic compounds such as fly ash, asbestos, and for the organic compounds such as the toxic dioxines and TBT by using the DC plasma arc discharge are shown. In addition, the plasma treatment by using a radiant power emitted from the DC plasma arc discharge is also shown as another new kind of ones. (authors)

  10. Treatment of off-gas evolved from thermal decomposition of sludge waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doo-Seong Hwang; Yun-Dong Choi; Gyeong-Hwan Jeong; Jei-Kwon Moon

    2013-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started a decommissioning program of a uranium conversion plant. The treatment of the sludge waste, which was generated during the operation of the plant, is one of the most important tasks in the decommissioning program of the plant. The major compounds of sludge waste are nitrate salts and uranium. The sludge waste is denitrated by thermal decomposition. The treatment of off-gas evolved from the thermal decomposition of nitrate salts in the sludge waste is investigated. The nitrate salts in the sludge were decomposed in two steps: the first decomposition is due to the ammonium nitrate, and the second is due to the sodium and calcium nitrate and calcium carbonate. The components of off-gas from the decomposition of ammonium nitrate at low temperature are NH 3 , N 2 O, NO 2 , and NO. In addition, the components from the decomposition of sodium and calcium nitrate at high temperature are NO 2 and NO. Off-gas from the thermal decomposition is treated by the catalytic oxidation of ammonia and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Ammonia is converted into nitrogen oxides through the oxidation catalyst and all nitrogen oxides are removed by SCR treatment besides nitrous oxide, which is greenhouse gas. An additional process is needed to remove nitrous oxide, and the feeding rate of ammonia in SCR should be controlled properly for evolved nitrogen oxides. (author)

  11. Local thermal property analysis by scanning thermal microscopy of an ultrafine-grained copper surface layer produced by surface mechanical attrition treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, F.A. [Suzhou Institute for Nonferrous Metals Processing Technology, No. 200 Shenxu Road, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215021 (China) and Unite de Thermique et d' Analyse Physique, Laboratoire d' Energetique et d' Optique, Universite de Reims, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: guofuan@yahoo.com; JI, Y.L. [Suzhou Institute for Nonferrous Metals Processing Technology, No. 200 Shenxu Road, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215021 (China); Trannoy, N. [Unite de Thermique et d' Analyse Physique, Laboratoire d' Energetique et d' Optique, Universite de Reims, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Lu, J. [LASMIS, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 Rue Marie Curie, Troyes 10010 (France)

    2006-06-15

    Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) was used to map thermal conductivity images in an ultrafine-grained copper surface layer produced by surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). It is found that the deformed surface layer shows different thermal conductivities that strongly depend on the grain size of the microstructure: the thermal conductivity of the nanostructured surface layer decreases obviously when compared with that of the coarse-grained matrix of the sample. The role of the grain boundaries in thermal conduction is analyzed in correlation with the heat conduction mechanism in pure metal. A theoretical approach, based on this investigation, was used to calculate the heat flow from the probe tip to the sample and then estimate the thermal conductivities at different scanning positions. Experimental results and theoretical calculation demonstrate that SThM can be used as a tool for the thermal property and microstructural analysis of ultrafine-grained microstructures.

  12. Treatment of Y-12 storm sewer sediments and DARA soils by thermal desorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.; Shealy, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    The 1992 Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) listed a number of mixed wastes, subject to land disposal restrictions (LDR), for which no treatment method had been identified, and required DOE to develop strategies for treatment and ultimate disposal of those wastes. This paper presents the results of a program to demonstrate that thermal desorption can remove both organics and mercury from two mixed wastes from the DOE Y-12 facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first waste, the Y-12 Storm Sewer Sediments (SSSs) was a sediment generated from upgrades to the plant storm sewer system. This material contained over 4 percent mercury, 2 percent uranium and 350 mg/kg polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Leachable mercury exceeded toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and LDR criteria. The second waste, the Disposal Area Remedial Action (DARA) Soils, are contaminated with uranium, mercury and PCBs. This treatability study included bench-scale testing of a thermal desorption process. Results of the testing showed that, for the SSSs, total mercury could be reduced to 120 mg/kg by treatment at 600 degrees C, which is at the high end of the temperature range for typical thermal desorption systems. Leachable TCLP mercury was less than 50 μg/L and PCBs were below 2 mg/kg. Treatment of the DARA Soils at 450 degrees C for 10 minutes resulted in residual PCBs of 0.6 to 3.0 mg/kg. This is too high (goal < 2mg/kg) and higher treatment temperatures are needed. The testing also provided information on the characteristics and quantities of residuals from the thermal desorption process

  13. Treatment of nanomaterial-containing waste in thermal waste treatment facilities; Behandlung nanomaterialhaltiger Abfaelle in thermischen Abfallbehandlungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Julia; Weiss, Volker [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany); Oischinger, Juergen; Meiller, Martin; Daschner, Robert [Fraunhofer Umsicht, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    There is already a multitude of products on the market, which contain synthetic nanomaterials (NM), and for the coming years an increase of such products can be expected. Consequently, it is predictable that more nanomaterial-containing waste will occur in the residual waste that is predominately disposed in thermal waste treatment plants. However, the knowledge about the behaviour and effects of nanomaterials from nanomaterial-containing waste in this disposal route is currently still low. A research project of the German Environment Agency on the ''Investigation of potential environmental impacts when disposing nanomaterial-containing waste in waste treatment plants'' will therefore dedicate itself to a detailed examination of emission pathways in the thermal waste treatment facilities. The tests carried out i.a. on an industrial waste incineration plant and a sludge incineration plant with controlled addition of titanium dioxide at the nanoscale, showed that no increase in the emissions of NM in the exhaust gas was detected. The majority of the NM was found in the combustion residues, particularly the slag.

  14. Enhancement of discharge performance of Li/CF x cell by thermal treatment of CF x cathode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng S.; Foster, Donald; Read, Jeffrey

    In this work we demonstrate that the thermal treatment of CF x cathode material just below the decomposition temperature can enhance discharge performance of Li/CF x cells. The performance enhancement becomes more effective when heating a mixture of CF x and citric acid (CA) since CA serves as an extra carbon source. Discharge experiments show that the thermal treatment not only reduces initial voltage delay, but also raises discharge voltage. Whereas the measurement of powder impedance indicates the thermal treatment does not increase electronic conductivity of CF x material. Based on these facts, we propose that the thermal treatment results in a limited decomposition of CF x, which yields a subfluorinated carbon (CF x- δ), instead of a highly conductive carbon. In the case of CF x/AC mixture, the AC provides extra carbon that reacts with F 2 and fluorocarbon radicals generated by the thermal decomposition of CF x to form subfluorinated carbon. The process of thermal treatment is studied by thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction, and the effect of treatment conditions such as heating temperature, heating time and CF x/CA ratio on the discharge performance of CF x cathode is discussed. As an example, a Li/CF x cell using CF x treated with CA at 500 °C under nitrogen for 2 h achieved theretical specific capacity when being discharged at C/5. Impedance analysis indicates that the enhanced performance is attributed to a significant reduction in the cell reaction resistance.

  15. Effects of thermal treatment on mineralogy and heavy metal behavior in iron oxide stabilized air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Bender-Koch, C.; Starckpoole, M. M.

    2000-01-01

    Stabilization of air pollution control residues by coprecipitation with ferrous iron and subsequent thermal treatment (at 600 and 900 °C) has been examined as a means to reduce heavy metal leaching and to improve product stability. Changes in mineralogy and metal binding were analyzed using various...... analytical and environmental techniques. Ferrihydrite was formed initially but transformed upon thermal treatment to more stable and crystalline iron oxides (maghemite and hematite). For some metals leaching studies showed more substantial binding after thermal treatment, while other metals either....... Thermal treatment of the stabilized residues produced structures with an inherently better iron oxide stability. However, the concentration of metals in the leachate generally increased as a consequence of the decreased solubility of metals in the more stable iron oxide structure....

  16. Thermal treatment of moroccan phosphogypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Issiouy S.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum (PG is produced as a by-product during treatment of phosphate rock with sulphuric acid to produce phosphoric acid according to the following simplified reaction: Ca10(PO26F2+10H2SO4 + 20H2O →70 à 80°C 6H3PO4 + 2HF + 10(CaSO4.2H2O$Ca_{10} (PO_2 _6 F_2 + 10H_2 SO_4 {m{ }} + {m{ }}20H_2 O{m{ }}uildrel {70{m{ }}`a {m{ }}80^circ C} over longrightarrow {m{ }}6H_3 PO_4 {m{ }} + {m{ }}2HF{m{ }} + {m{ }}10(CaSO_4 .2H_2 O$ Minerai Phosphogypse PG is mainly CaSO4·2H2O but also contains impurities such as free phosphoric acid, phosphates, fluorides and organic matter that adhere to the surface of the gypsum crystals. Phosphogypsum is discharged directly to the Sea or into the natural evaporation ponds. Previous studies have focused on reducing impurity levels in PG. Phosphogypsum impurities can be removed by simple techniques. Washing with water removes the soluble impurities. By cons, other contaminants (radioactive elements, heavy metals ... a specific treatment method required a complex technique where the treatment is likely to be expensive. In this study, we studied purification of phosphogypsum using water and the thermal behavior of the natural gypsum and Moroccan phosphogypsum to calculation of parameters for drying and dehydration reactions. Also, the effects of different heating temperature on the course of dehydration are investigated.

  17. Effects of thermal treatment and sonication on quality attributes of Chokanan mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhirasegaram, Vicknesha; Razali, Zuliana; Somasundram, Chandran

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasonic treatment is an emerging food processing technology that has growing interest among health-conscious consumers. Freshly squeezed Chokanan mango juice was thermally treated (at 90 °C for 30 and 60s) and sonicated (for 15, 30 and 60 min at 25 °C, 40 kHz frequency, 130 W) to compare the effect on microbial inactivation, physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and other quality parameters. After sonication and thermal treatment, no significant changes occurred in pH, total soluble solids and titratable acidity. Sonication for 15 and 30 min showed significant improvement in selected quality parameters except color and ascorbic acid content, when compared to freshly squeezed juice (control). A significant increase in extractability of carotenoids (4-9%) and polyphenols (30-35%) was observed for juice subjected to ultrasonic treatment for 15 and 30 min, when compared to the control. In addition, enhancement of radical scavenging activity and reducing power was observed in all sonicated juice samples regardless of treatment time. Thermal and ultrasonic treatment exhibited significant reduction in microbial count of the juice. The results obtained support the use of sonication to improve the quality of Chokanan mango juice along with safety standard as an alternative to thermal treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS OF THERMALLY MODIFIED WOOD AND THEIR REDUCTION BY CHEMICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Peters

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment is a suitable method for improving the quality of wood types like spruce, beech or poplar, and thus to open up new fields of application that used to be limited to tropical woods or woods treated with timber preservatives. These thermally treated woods are characterized by a typical odor caused by degradation products of miscellaneous wood components. The characterization and removal of those odorous substances were investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Headspace gas chromatography (GC in combination with solid-phase microextraction (SPME was used for a qualitative analysis of volatile wood emissions, and the detectable volatiles were compared before and after solvent extraction. Wood solvent extractives were investigated by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and then evaluated in terms of changes in composition caused by the thermal treatment process.

  19. Effects of thermal treatment on the physicochemical characteristics of giant bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandivaldi Antonio Colla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite countless use possibilities for bamboo, this material has two major disadvantages. One drawback is the low natural durability of most bamboo species due to presence of starch in their parenchyma cells. The other equally important drawback is the tendency bamboo has to present dimensional variations if subjected to environmental change conditions. In an attempt to minimize these inconveniences, strips (laths of Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro were taken from different portions of the culm and subjected to several temperatures, namely 140 °C, 180 °C, 220 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C under laboratory conditions, at the ESALQ-USP college of agriculture. The thermal treatment process was conducted in noninert and inert atmospheres (with nitrogen, depending on temperature Specimens were then subjected to physicomechanical characterization tests in order to determine optimum thermal treatment conditions in which to preserve to the extent possible the original bamboo properties. Results revealed that there is an optimum temperature range, between 140 ° and 220 °C, whereby thermally treated bamboo does not significantly lose its mechanical properties while at the same time showing greater dimensional stability in the presence of moisture.

  20. Effects of thermal treatment on the anodic growth of tungsten oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Y., E-mail: yqchai85@gmail.com; Tam, C.W.; Beh, K.P.; Yam, F.K.; Hassan, Z.

    2015-08-03

    This work reports the investigation of the effects of thermal treatment on anodic growth tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}). The increase of the thermal treatment temperature above 400 °C significantly influences WO{sub 3} film where high porosity structure reduces to more compact film. As-grown film is amorphous, which transforms to monoclinic/orthorhombic phase upon annealing at 300–600 °C. With the reducing of porous structure, preferential growth of (002) plane shifts to (020) plane at 600 °C with more than twentyfold increase of peak's intensity compared to the film annealed at 500 °C. Films annealed at low thermal treatment show better ion intercalation and reversibility during electrochemical measurements; however, it has larger optical band gap. Photoelectrochemical measurement reveals that film annealed at 400 °C exhibits the best photocatalytic performance among the films annealed at 300–600 °C. - Highlights: • Porosity of the WO{sub 3} reduces as annealing temperature increases above 400 °C. • As-grown film is amorphous which transforms to monoclinic/orthorhombic upon annealing. • As-grown film shows better ion intercalation in electrochemical process. • Optical band gap of WO{sub 3} reduces as the annealing temperature increases. • Film annealed at 400 °C exhibits best photocatalytic performance.

  1. Effects of alkali treatment on the mechanical and thermal properties of Sansevieria trifasciata fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiyati, Steven, Rizkiansyah, Raden Reza; Senoaji, A.; Suratman, R.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, Sansevieria trifasciata fibers were treated by NaOH with concentration 1%,3%, and 5wt% at 100°C for 2 hours. Chesson-Datta methods was used to determine the lignocellulose content of raw sansevieria fibers and to investigate effect of alkali treatment on lignin content of the fiber. Mechanical properties and thermal properties of treated and untreated fibers were measured by means of tensile testing machine and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).The cellulose and lignin contents of raw sansevieria fiber obtained from Chesson-Datta method were 56% and 6% respectively. Mechanical testing of fibers showed the increase of tensile strength from 647 MPa for raw fibers to 902 MPa for 5wt% NaOH treated fibers. TGA result showed the alkali treatment increase the thermal resistance of fibers from 288°C for raw fibers to 307°C for 5% NaOH treated fiber. It was found that alkali treatment affect the mechanical properties and thermal properties of sansevieria fibers.

  2. Characteristics of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Released from Thermal Treatment and Open Burning of E-Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting-Yu; Zhou, Jun-Feng; Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Shi, Lei; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2018-04-17

    Primitive processing of e-waste potentially releases abundant organic contaminants to the environment, but the magnitudes and mechanisms remain to be adequately addressed. We conducted thermal treatment and open burning of typical e-wastes, that is, plastics and printed circuit boards. Emission factors of the sum of 39 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (∑ 39 PBDE) were 817-1.60 × 10 5 ng g -1 in thermal treatment and nondetected-9.14 × 10 4 ng g -1 , in open burning. Airborne particles (87%) were the main carriers of PBDEs, followed by residual ashes (13%) and gaseous constituents (0.3%), in thermal treatment, while they were 30%, 43% and 27% in open burning. The output-input mass ratios of ∑ 39 PBDE were 0.12-3.76 in thermal treatment and 0-0.16 in open burning. All PBDEs were largely affiliated with fine particles, with geometric mean diameters at 0.61-0.83 μm in thermal degradation and 0.57-1.16 μm in open burning from plastic casings, and 0.44-0.56 and nondetected- 0.55 μm, from printed circuit boards. Evaporation and reabsorption may be the main emission mechanisms for lightly brominated BDEs, but heavily brominated BDEs tend to affiliate with particles from heating or combustion. The different size distributions of particulate PBDEs in emission sources and adjacent air implicated a noteworthy redisposition process during atmospheric dispersal.

  3. Ozonation and thermal pre-treatment of municipal sewage sludge – Implications for toxicity and methane potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, A.; Eriksson, Eva; Fick, J.

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects on the methane potential and the overall sludge quality from two different sludge pre-treatment technologies (ozonation high/low dosage and thermal treatment 55/70 °C). In general both treatments gave an increased methane potential. The thermal t...... treatment resulted in higher chemical oxygen demand (COD)-solubilisation, while the highest volatile fatty acids (VFA) increase was obtained with ozonation. The sludges had inhibiting effects in a barley seed germination assay and a yeast oestrogen screen both before and after pre...

  4. Understanding and controlling chromaticity shift in LED devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Lynn; Mills, Karmann; Lamvik, Michael; Perkins, Curtis; Bobashev, Georgiy; Young, Joseph; Yaga, Robert; Johnson, Cortina

    2017-05-30

    Chromaticity shift in light-emitting diode (LED) devices arises from multiple mechanisms, and at least five different chromaticity shift modes (CSMs) have been identified to date. This paper focuses on the impacts of irreversible phosphor degradation as a cause of chromaticity shifts in LED devices. The nitride phosphors used to produce warm white LEDs are especially vulnerable to degradation due to thermal and chemical effects such as reactions with oxygen and water. As a result, LED devices utilizing these phosphors were found to undergo either a green shift or, less commonly, a red shift depending on the phosphor mix in the LED devices. These types of chromaticity shifts are classified as CSM-2 (green shift) and CSM-5 (red shift). This paper provides an overview of the kinetic processes responsible for green and red chromaticity shifts along with examples from accelerated stress testing of 6” downlights. Both CSMs appear to proceed through analogous mechanisms that are initiated at the surface of the phosphor. A green shift is produced by the surface oxidation of the nitride phosphor that changes the emission profile to lower wavelengths. As the surface oxidation reaction proceeds, reactant limitations slow the rate and bulk oxidation processes become more prevalent. We found that a red chromaticity shift arises from quenching of the green phosphor, also possibly due to surface reactions of oxygen, which shift the emission chromaticity in the red direction. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of these findings on projecting chromaticity.

  5. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  6. Thermal treatment of ashes[Fly Ash from Municipal Waste Incineration]; Termisk rening av askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus; Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordin, Anders [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Physics and Electronics

    2003-04-01

    In this project descriptions of different processes for thermal treatment of ashes have been compiled. A technical and economic evaluation of the processes has been done to identify possibilities and problems. The focus in the project lays on treatment of fly ash from municipal waste incineration but the processes can also be used to treat other ashes. When the ash is heated in the thermal treatment reactor, with or without additives, the material is sintered or vitrified and at the same time volatile substances (Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg etc.) are separated. In general the separation is more effective in processes with reducing conditions compared to oxidizing conditions. Oxidizing processes have both worse separation capacity and require more energy. The oxidizing processes are mainly used to stabilize the ash through vitrification and they are in some cases developed for management of municipal sewage sludge and bottom ash. However, these processes are often not as complex as for example an electric arc melting furnace with reducing conditions. The research today aim to develop more effective electrical melting systems with reducing conditions such as plasma melting furnaces, electric resistance melting furnaces and low frequency induction furnaces. A central question in the evaluation of different thermal treatment processes for ash is how the residues from the treatment can be used. It is not certain that the vitrified material is stable enough to get a high economic value, but it can probably be used as construction material. How the remaining metals in the ash are bound is very important in a long-time perspective. Further studies with leaching tests are necessary to clarify this issue. The heavy metal concentrate from the processes contains impurities, such as chlorine, which makes it unprofitable to obtain the metals. Instead the heavy metal concentrate has to be land filled. However, the amount of material for land filling will be much smaller if only the heavy

  7. Outcomes of Thermal Pulsation Treatment for Dry Eye Syndrome in Patients With Sjogren Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Morgan R; Stinnett, Sandra S; Gupta, Preeya K

    2018-04-26

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes of thermal pulsation treatment in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and dry eye secondary to Sjogren disease. Twenty-four eyes from 13 patients with previously diagnosed Sjogren disease who presented to our institution with dry eye symptoms and had thermal pulsation treatment were prospectively followed up. Patients underwent comprehensive slit-lamp examination, including MGD grading, gland oil flow, corneal and conjunctival staining scores, and tear break-up time (TBUT). Tear osmolarity was tested before and after treatment. The average patient age was 62.4 years (range, 31-78 yrs); 12 were women and 1 a man. The average meibomian gland oil flow score showed an increase from pretreatment 0.71 to 1.75 at 1 year posttreatment (range 9-15 months) (P = 0.001). The average corneal staining score decreased from a pretreatment grade of 1.04 to a posttreatment grade of 0.36 (P dry eye disease in patients with Sjogren disease and should not be overlooked when considering treatment options. Thermal pulsation is a therapeutic option for patients with Sjogren disease who have MGD and dry eye symptoms. After a single treatment, patients exhibited increased oil flow and tear break-up time with an associated decrease in corneal and conjunctival staining.

  8. Effect of chemical treatment on thermal properties of fibers from pineapple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Rafael I.M.; Mulinari, Daniella R.; Carvalho, Kelly C.C.; Conejo, Luiza dos Santos; Voorwald, Herman J.C.; Cioffi, Maria Odila H.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the effect of the chemical modification of natural fibres from of pineapple fibres with alkaline solution was studied. After modification the in nature and modified fibres were analyzed by XRD diffractometry and thermogravimetry with objective to evaluate influence chemical treatment in surface and in the thermal properties fibres. With the obtained results it was possible to verify an increase of 10.4 % in the crystallinity index of fibres beyond the increase around 4.5% in the degradation temperature, what it indicates an increase in the stability thermal of the fibres. (author)

  9. PENGEMBANGAN LAMPU LED DENGAN TEKNOLOGI PHOTOVOLTAIC (LED-PV SEBAGAI ALAT BANTU PENGUMPUL IKAN PADA PERIKANAN BAGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Arief Sofijanto

    2015-03-01

    mengetahui perbedaan jumlah hasil tangkapan pada bagan tancap akibat perlakuan warna lampu LED yang berbeda. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah deskriptif dan experimental fishing dimana rancangan penelitiannya adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan perlakuan warna lampu LED sebanyak 5 jenis warna yaitu merah (A, kuning (B, hijau (C, biru (D, dan putih (E dengan 6 kali ulangan. Secara deskriptif hasil penelitian menunjukkan lampu LED dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan lampu petromaks dan lampu LHE. Diperoleh 17 jenis ikan laut yang tertarik pada cahaya lampu LED yang digunakan. Hasil analisis statistik menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan nyata terhadap hasil tangkapan bagan dengan perlakuan warna lampu LED. Berdasarkan Uji Nyata Terkecil dinyatakan bahwa bagan yang menggunakan warna lampu LED biru mendapatkan hasil tangkapan tertinggi kemudian diikuti oleh warna kuning, hijau, putih dan merah.  The set ‘bagan’ (liftnet fishing gear is a kind of fishing gears which using atificial light as fishes gathering. This fishing gear uses an electric generator to turn on the energy saving lamp which hang on under the set ‘bagan’. The price of gasoline more expensive due to the Indonesia government’s fuel subsidy reduced and this make fishing operation costs more expensive for fishermen. This research using the LED lamps that do not use gasoline as fuel because the LED lamps can use the photovoltaic technology (solar cell system. The purposes of this study were: 1 to find out whether the LED lamps can replace the kerosene lamps and saving energy lamps, 2 to know the different in cath using different colours of LED lamps. The reserach methods are descriptive and experimental fishing which used Completely Randomized Design with LED lamps colour treatments i.e: red (A, yellow (B, green (C, blue (D, and white (E, the number of replications are 6 times. LED lamps can be used to replace the kerosene and saving energy lamps. There were 17 species of

  10. Integrated aerobic biological-chemical treatment of winery wastewater diluted with urban wastewater. LED-based photocatalysis in the presence of monoperoxysulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís, Rafael R; Rivas, Francisco Javier; Ferreira, Leonor C; Pirra, Antonio; Peres, José A

    2018-01-28

    The oxidation of Winery Wastewater (WW) by conventional aerobic biological treatment usually leads to inefficient results due to the presence of organic substances, which are recalcitrant or toxic in conventional procedures. This study explores the combination of biological and chemical processes in order to complete the oxidation of biodegradable and non-biodegradable compounds in two sequential steps. Thus, a biological oxidation of a diluted WW is carried out by using the activated sludge process. Activated sludge was gradually acclimated to the Diluted Winery Wastewater (DWW). Some aspects concerning the biological process were evaluated (kinetics of the oxidation and sedimentation of the sludge produced). The biological treatment of the DWW led to a 40-50% of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal in 8 h, being necessary the application of an additional process. Different chemical processes combining UVA-LEDs radiation, monoperoxysulfate (MPS) and photocatalysts were applied in order to complete the COD depletion and efficient removal of polyphenols content, poorly oxidized in the previous biological step. From the options tested, the combination of UVA, MPS and a novel LaCoO 3 -TiO 2 composite, with double route of MPS decomposition through heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis, led to the best results (95% of polyphenol degradation, and additional 60% of COD removal). Initial MPS concentration and pH effect in this process were assessed.

  11. Influence of surface modification adopting thermal treatments on dispersion of detonation nanodiamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiangyang; Yu Zhiming; Zhu Yongwei; Wang Baichun

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the dispersion of detonation nanodiamonds (ND) in aqueous and non-aqueous media, a series of thermal treatments have been conducted in air ambient to modify ND surface. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were introduced to observe the primary size of ND. Differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) methodology, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were adopted to analyze the structure, bonds at surfaces of the treated ND. Malvern instrument Zetasizer3000HS was used for measuring the surface electric potential and the size distribution of ND. As thermal treatments can cause graphitization and oxidization of functional groups at the surface, ND treated at high temperature is correspondingly more negatively charged in an aqueous medium, and the increased absolute value of zeta potential ensures the electrostatic stability of ND particles. Specially, after being treated at a temperature more than 850K, ND can be well dispersed in various media

  12. Laser treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: optical, thermal, and tissue damage simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Chang, Chun-Hung; Myers, Erinn M.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2016-02-01

    Treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) by laser thermal remodeling of subsurface tissues is studied. Light transport, heat transfer, and thermal damage simulations were performed for transvaginal and transurethral methods. Monte Carlo (MC) provided absorbed photon distributions in tissue layers (vaginal wall, endopelvic fascia, urethral wall). Optical properties (n,μa,μs,g) were assigned to each tissue at λ=1064 nm. A 5-mm-diameter laser beam and power of 5 W for 15 s was used, based on previous experiments. MC output was converted into absorbed energy, serving as input for ANSYS finite element heat transfer simulations of tissue temperatures over time. Convective heat transfer was simulated with contact cooling probe set at 0 °C. Thermal properties (κ,c,ρ) were assigned to each tissue layer. MATLAB code was used for Arrhenius integral thermal damage calculations. A temperature matrix was constructed from ANSYS output, and finite sum was incorporated to approximate Arrhenius integral calculations. Tissue damage properties (Ea,A) were used to compute Arrhenius sums. For the transvaginal approach, 37% of energy was absorbed in endopelvic fascia layer with 0.8% deposited beyond it. Peak temperature was 71°C, treatment zone was 0.8-mm-diameter, and almost all of 2.7-mm-thick vaginal wall was preserved. For transurethral approach, 18% energy was absorbed in endopelvic fascia with 0.3% deposited beyond it. Peak temperature was 80°C, treatment zone was 2.0-mm-diameter, and only 0.6 mm of 2.4-mm-thick urethral wall was preserved. A transvaginal approach is more feasible than transurethral approach for laser treatment of SUI.

  13. The nanorod approach: GaN NanoLEDs for solid state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waag, Andreas; Wang, Xue; Fuendling, Soenke; Ledig, Johannes; Erenburg, Milena; Neumann, Richard; Al Suleiman, Mohamed; Merzsch, Stephan; Wei, Jiandong; Li, Shunfeng; Wehmann, Hergo H. [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Bergbauer, Werner; Strassburg, Martin [OSRAM Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Leibnizstr. 4, 93055 Regensburg (Germany); Trampert, Achim; Jahn, Uwe; Riechert, Henning [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Vertically aligned GaN nanorods have recently obtained substantial interest as a new approach to solid state lighting. In comparison to conventional planar LEDs, 3D NanoLEDs are expected to offer substantial advantageous: very low defect density, quasi free-standing, no strain due to mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients, no substrate bending even when grown on large area silicon. Core-shell strategies are another very interesting aspect. The active LED surface per wafer could be increased by more than one order of magnitude. However, most of these advantages have not yet been proven in real devices, which would include a quantitative comparison of light emission. Related to the 3D character, there are also technological risks. In the following we will discuss the main developments which have paved the way up to this point, including a detailed discussion of possible benefits and risks connected with the NanoLED approach (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Microwave-induced titanate nanotubes and the corresponding behaviour after thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, H H; Lo, S L; Liou, Y H

    2007-01-01

    This study attempts to survey the influence of microwave irradiation on the characterizations of titanate nanotubes (TNTs) synthesized by microwave hydrothermal treatment (M-H treatment). Based on the performance of specific surface areas determined by the classic Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method (S BET ), TNTs synthesized at 130 deg. C for 1.5 h with and without 400 W irradiation presented S BET values of 256 and 76 m 2 g -1 , respectively. The result indicates that the formation kinetics of TNTs is significantly enhanced by M-H treatment. The microwave-induced TNTs are preferentially assigned for Na x H 2-x Ti 3 O 7 structure and the Na/H ratio appreciably increases with higher irradiation power. Regarding the behaviour of TNTs after thermal treatment, TNTs synthesized under 70 W presented anatase phase at 500 deg. C through rearrangement and restacking of [TiO 6 ]. Anatase-to-rutile transformation subsequently occurred at 700 deg. C. TNTs synthesized under 400 and 700 W presented a rod shape at 700 deg. C. The rod shape mainly comprise of Na 2 Ti 6 O 13 of which the (Ti 3 O 7 ) 2- layers with the topotactical connection proceed to form (Ti 6 O 13 ) 2- along the [110] direction during the thermal process

  15. Thermal treatment technology study and data base for Department of Energy mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillins, R.L.; Steverson, E.M.; Balo, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a wide variety of waste streams that must be treated to meet various regulations before final disposal. One category of technologies for treating many of these waste streams is thermal treatment. A study of known thermal treatment technologies was conducted to aid DOE in the development of strategies to meet its waste management needs. The study was specifically addressed to mixed waste, but it is also applicable to hazardous and radioactive wastes. The data collected in the study, along with other waste management data, are being included in a comprehensive data base that DOE is developing. 3 refs., 1 fig

  16. Improving the sludge disintegration efficiency of sonication by combining with alkalization and thermal pre-treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahinkaya, S; Sevimli, M F; Aygün, A

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious problems encountered in biological wastewater treatment processes is the production of waste activated sludge (WAS). Sonication, which is an energy-intensive process, is the most powerful sludge pre-treatment method. Due to lack of information about the combined pre-treatment methods of sonication, the combined pre-treatment methods were investigated and it was aimed to improve the disintegration efficiency of sonication by combining sonication with alkalization and thermal pre-treatment methods in this study. The process performances were evaluated based on the quantities of increases in soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD), protein and carbohydrate. The releases of soluble COD, carbohydrate and protein by the combined methods were higher than those by sonication, alkalization and thermal pre-treatment alone. Degrees of sludge disintegration in various options of sonication were in the following descending order: sono-alkalization > sono-thermal pre-treatment > sonication. Therefore, it was determined that combining sonication with alkalization significantly improved the sludge disintegration and decreased the required energy to reach the same yield by sonication. In addition, effects on sludge settleability and dewaterability and kinetic mathematical modelling of pre-treatment performances of these methods were investigated. It was proven that the proposed model accurately predicted the efficiencies of ultrasonic pre-treatment methods.

  17. Acceleration of Intended Pozzolanic Reaction under Initial Thermal Treatment for Developing Cementless Fly Ash Based Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Hee Kwon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Without using strong alkaline solution or ordinary Portland cement, a new structural binder consisting of fly ash and hydrated lime was hardened through an intensified pozzolanic reaction. The main experimental variables are the addition of silica fume and initial thermal treatment (60 °C for 3 days. A series of experiments consisting of mechanical testing (compressive and flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, X-ray diffraction, and measurements of the heat of hydration, pore structure, and shrinkage were conducted. These tests show that this new fly ash-based mortar has a compressive strength of 15 MPa at 91 days without any silica fume addition or initial thermal treatment. The strength increased to over 50 MPa based on the acceleration of the intensified pozzolanic reaction from the silica fume addition and initial thermal treatment. This is explained by a significant synergistic effect induced by the silica fume. It intensifies the pozzolanic reaction under thermal treatment and provides a space filling effect. This improved material performance can open a new pathway to utilize the industrial by-product of fly ash in cementless construction materials.

  18. Characterization of the solid low level mixed waste inventory for the solid waste thermal treatment activity - III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Place, B.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-24

    The existing thermally treatable, radioactive mixed waste inventory is characterized to support implementation of the commercial, 1214 thermal treatment contract. The existing thermally treatable waste inventory has been identified using a decision matrix developed by Josephson et al. (1996). Similar to earlier waste characterization reports (Place 1993 and 1994), hazardous materials, radionuclides, physical properties, and waste container data are statistically analyzed. In addition, the waste inventory data is analyzed to correlate waste constituent data that are important to the implementation of the commercial thermal treatment contract for obtaining permits and for process design. The specific waste parameters, which were analyzed, include the following: ``dose equivalent`` curie content, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content, identification of containers with PA-related mobile radionuclides (14C, 12 79Se, 99Tc, and U isotopes), tritium content, debris and non-debris content, container free liquid content, fissile isotope content, identification of dangerous waste codes, asbestos containers, high mercury containers, beryllium dust containers, lead containers, overall waste quantities, analysis of container types, and an estimate of the waste compositional split based on the thermal treatment contractor`s proposed process. A qualitative description of the thermally treatable mixed waste inventory is also provided.

  19. Thermal treatment of municipal waste: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaprasad, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    Waste generation, like a shadow accompanies all kinds of human activities. For a long time waste was ignored as of no consequence. Nevertheless in recent times the presence of Waste was felt by the adverse impact it began to have on human life. Attention was given to waste disposal. Various methods of disposal were developed. Actually a process of evolution was set in this area. Starting with Dumpsite it developed in to sanitary land fill. Adverse impact was beginning to be seen in leachate contaminating ground water, and long term emission of methane contributing to climate change. This set the thinking to seek other solutions. Waste was begun to be seen as a resource instead of a nuisance to be disposed off. Bio-methanation of waste for recovery of methane rich biogas was developed. The concept of thermal treatment of waste for disposal came in to being in order to reduce volume of disposal as only the ash will be disposed instead of the whole volume of waste when waste is subjected to thermal treatment. However, it was beset with certain pollution problems which needed to be addressed. Suitable pollution abatement systems were developed. In the meantime, with the increase in global population and lifestyle changes across the globe, demand for natural resources went up rapidly resulting in pressure on the finite resources of the earth. Emphasis shifted to recovery of value from waste while disposing. Recovery of Recyclables, and energy came in to focus. RDF technology was developed facilitating this making it possible to recover recyclables like plastics, metals etc besides generating the prepared fuel RDF for energy recovery. (Author)

  20. Study of thermal treatments and irradiation on natural amethyst by optical absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotto, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal treatment effects on the samples of amethyst from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, through optical absorption measurements, are studied. The effects of cobalt 60 gama ray radiation on the amethyst from Minas Gerais through optical absorption measurements, are studied. The optical absorption spectra shows a basic line and bands in 10,500 cm -1 (k), in 18,300 cm -1 (θ) and in 28,000 cm -1 (ζ). The correlation between thermal treatment effects and radiation effects shows that the θ and ζ bands belongs to a same center and the k band to another center. The basic line vanishes by thermal treatments at 270 0 C. The analyses of the isothermal treatment decay and dose-curve reveal a complex kinetics, suggesting that the kinetic mechanisms involve the electron (s) and hole (s) migration in the lattice. The amethyst from Minas Gerais after being discolored at 470 0 C and irradiated again shows that the optical absorption bands don't recover the original absorbance, suggesting the existence of iron diffusion mechanisms in the lattice. After being isothermally annealed the amethyst from Rio Grande do Sul above 400 0 C temperature yield a yellow-brown color, probably due to the formation of Fe 2 O 3 precipitate. We suggest the this formation is due to iron diffusion and pre-existent oxygen vacancies. This model is reinforced through the observation the amethyst from Minas Gerais, isothermally treated at 470 0 C in highly reducing, also gets a yellow-brown color. (author) [pt

  1. Fabrication of oxide-free graphene suspension and transparent thin films using amide solvent and thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Se Young; Kim, Sung Hwan; Chi, Yong Seung; Kang, Tae Jin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: New methodology for suspended graphene sheets of high-quality (oxide-free), high-yield (high concentration) using amide solvent exfoliation and thermal treatment at 800 °C. We confirmed that the van der Waals force between the graphene layers decreases as increasing thermal treatment temperatures as shown XRD data (b). Highlights: ► Propose of new methodology to prepare oxide-free graphene sheets suspension. ► The graphene suspension concentration is enhanced by thermal treatment. ► Decrease of van der Waals force between the graphene layers by high temperature and pressure. ► This method has the potential as technology for mass production. ► It could be applied in transparent and flexible electronic devices. - Abstract: High quality graphene sheets were produced from graphite by liquid phase exfoliation using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and a subsequent thermal treatment to enhance the exfoliation. The exfoliation was enhanced by treatment with organic solvent and high thermal expansion producing high yields of the high-quality and defect-free graphene sheets. The graphene was successfully deposited on a flexible and transparent polymer film using the vacuum filtration method. SEM images of thin films of graphene treated at 800 °C showed uniform structure with no defects commonly found in films made of graphene produced by other techniques. Thin films of graphene prepared at higher temperatures showed superior transmittance and conductivity. The sheet-resistance of the graphene film treated at 800 °C was 2.8 × 10 3 kΩ/□ with 80% transmittance.

  2. LED photochemotherapy against Staphylococcus aureus: an in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Susana C. P. S.; Monteiro, Juliana S. C.; Pires-Santos, Gustavo M.; Sampaio, Fernando José Pires; Soares, Luiz Guilherme P.; Soares, Amanda P.; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2018-02-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is reality and need for alternative treatments is urgent. The aim of this work was to evaluate, in vitro, the effect of LED photochemotherapy on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 23529) using 25 μg / mL of phenothiazine compound combined with LED light (λ632 +/- 2ηm) using 12 J/cm2 energy density. The experiments were carried out in triplicate and the samples were divided into groups: Control, Irradiated (treated only with light), Photosensitizer (treated only in the presence of the dye), LED-Photochemotherapy (treatment with light associated with dye). Counts of the colony forming units and the data obtained were statistically analyzed (ANOVA, Tukey's test, p<0.05). The present study demonstrated that the efficacy of LED-Photochemotherapy as the use of 25 μg/mL x 12 J/cm2 caused 91.57 % of inhibition of bacterial growth. It is concluded that using energy density of 12 J/cm2 associated to 25 μg/mL caused high in vitro inhibition of S. aureus.

  3. Thermal oxidation of nuclear graphite: A large scale waste treatment option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Abbie N.; Marsden, Barry J.

    2017-01-01

    This study has investigated the laboratory scale thermal oxidation of nuclear graphite, as a proof-of-concept for the treatment and decommissioning of reactor cores on a larger industrial scale. If showed to be effective, this technology could have promising international significance with a considerable impact on the nuclear waste management problem currently facing many countries worldwide. The use of thermal treatment of such graphite waste is seen as advantageous since it will decouple the need for an operational Geological Disposal Facility (GDF). Particulate samples of Magnox Reactor Pile Grade-A (PGA) graphite, were oxidised in both air and 60% O2, over the temperature range 400–1200°C. Oxidation rates were found to increase with temperature, with a particular rise between 700–800°C, suggesting a change in oxidation mechanism. A second increase in oxidation rate was observed between 1000–1200°C and was found to correspond to a large increase in the CO/CO2 ratio, as confirmed through gas analysis. Increasing the oxidant flow rate gave a linear increase in oxidation rate, up to a certain point, and maximum rates of 23.3 and 69.6 mg / min for air and 60% O2 respectively were achieved at a flow of 250 ml / min and temperature of 1000°C. These promising results show that large-scale thermal treatment could be a potential option for the decommissioning of graphite cores, although the design of the plant would need careful consideration in order to achieve optimum efficiency and throughput. PMID:28793326

  4. Thermal oxidation of nuclear graphite: A large scale waste treatment option.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Theodosiou

    Full Text Available This study has investigated the laboratory scale thermal oxidation of nuclear graphite, as a proof-of-concept for the treatment and decommissioning of reactor cores on a larger industrial scale. If showed to be effective, this technology could have promising international significance with a considerable impact on the nuclear waste management problem currently facing many countries worldwide. The use of thermal treatment of such graphite waste is seen as advantageous since it will decouple the need for an operational Geological Disposal Facility (GDF. Particulate samples of Magnox Reactor Pile Grade-A (PGA graphite, were oxidised in both air and 60% O2, over the temperature range 400-1200°C. Oxidation rates were found to increase with temperature, with a particular rise between 700-800°C, suggesting a change in oxidation mechanism. A second increase in oxidation rate was observed between 1000-1200°C and was found to correspond to a large increase in the CO/CO2 ratio, as confirmed through gas analysis. Increasing the oxidant flow rate gave a linear increase in oxidation rate, up to a certain point, and maximum rates of 23.3 and 69.6 mg / min for air and 60% O2 respectively were achieved at a flow of 250 ml / min and temperature of 1000°C. These promising results show that large-scale thermal treatment could be a potential option for the decommissioning of graphite cores, although the design of the plant would need careful consideration in order to achieve optimum efficiency and throughput.

  5. Long-term lumen depreciation behavior and failure modes of multi-die array LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Asiri; Marcus, Daniel; Prugue, Ximena; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2013-09-01

    One of the main advantages of multi-die array light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is their high flux density. However, a challenge for using such a product in lighting fixture applications is the heat density and the need for thermal management to keep the junction temperatures of all the dies low for long-term reliable performance. Ten multi-die LED array samples for each product from four different manufacturers were subjected to lumen maintenance testing (as described in IES-LM-80-08), and their resulting lumen depreciation and failure modes were studied. The products were tested at the maximum case (or pin) temperature reported by the respective manufacturer by appropriately powering the LEDs. In addition, three samples for each product from two different manufacturers were subjected to rapid thermal cycling, and the resulting lumen depreciation and failure modes were studied. The results showed that the exponential lumen decay model using long-term lumen maintenance data as recommended in IES TM-21 does not fit for all package types. The failure of a string of dies and single die failure in a string were observed in some of the packages.

  6. Warm white LEDs lighting over Ra=95 and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Katsuya; Taguchi, Tsunemasa

    2007-02-01

    We have for the first time developed warm white LEDs lighting using a combination of near ultraviolet LED and three-band (red, green and blue) white phosphors. This LED has the average color-rendering index Ra=96. Moreover, special color-rendering index R9 (red) and R15 (face color of Japanese) are estimated to be 95 and 97, respectively. We will describe the results of evaluation on the medical lighting applications such as operation, treatment and endoscope experiments, application to the LED fashions and application to the Japanese antique art (ink painting) lighting.

  7. The effect of thermal pre-treatment of titanium hydride (TiH2) powder in argon condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciska P., L.; Erryani, Aprilia; Annur, Dhyah; Kartika, Ika

    2018-04-01

    Titanium hydride (TiH2) powders are used to enhance the foaming process in the formation of a highly porous metallic material with a cellular structure. But, the low temperature of hydrogen release is one of its problems. The present study, different thermal pre-treatment temperatures were employed to investigate the decomposition behavior of TiH2 to retard or delay a hydrogen gas release process during foaming. As a foaming agent, TiH2 was subjected to various heat treatments prior at 450 and 500°C during 2 hours in argon condition. To study the formation mechanism, the thermal behavior of titanium hydride and hydrogen release are investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The morphology of pre-treated titanium hydride powders were examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) while unsure mapping and elemental composition of the pre-treated powders processed by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). To study the phase formation was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). In accordance with the results, an increase in pre-treatment temperature of TiH2 to higher degrees are changing the process of releasing hydrogen from titanium hydride powder. DTA/TGA results showed that thermal pre-treatment TiH2 at 450°C, released the hydrogen gas at 560°C in heat treatment when foaming process. Meanwhile, thermal pre-treatment in TiH2 at 500°C, released the hydrogen gas at 670°C when foaming process. There is plenty of direct evidence for the existence of oxide layers that showed by EDS analysis obtained in SEM. As oxygen is a light element and qualitative proof shows that the higher pre-treatment temperature produces more and thicker oxygen layers on the surface of the TiH2 powder particles. It might the thickness of oxide layer are different from different pre-treatment temperatures, which leading to the differences in the decomposition temperature. But from SEM result that oxidation of the powder does not

  8. Investigation of illumination efficiency on the LED therapy with different array types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Liou, Cheng-Jyun

    2009-08-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a major discovery in twenty-one century for its advantages including small size, long lifetime, low voltage, high response and good mechanical properties. It is an environment-friendly product and maybe becomes a lighting source in future. In the other way LED lighting also is used for the lighting source of cosmetology. LED phototherapy provided medicine with a new tool capable of delivering light deep into tissues of the body, at wavelengths that are biologically optimal for pain treatment and holistic healing. The illumination efficiency is one of the key indexes for the LED phototherapy. LEDs were arranged on a disk of diameter of 100mm with different array types: a radial, a rhombus, an octagon, and a square. Then the LEDs with view angle of 120 degree were used for the lighting sources. Trace-Pro software was used for the optical simulation. The array types of radial and square were better than those of rhombus and octagon for illumination efficiency. In the mixture efficiency of a radial array was observed by different distances from 1mm to 100mm. However lighting could reach the well mixture after the treatment distance of 30mm by optical simulation. The view angle could reach +/-60 degree at the treatment distance of 50 mm for the LED phototherapy mockup.

  9. Effect of stacking sequence and surface treatment on the thermal conductivity of multilayered hybrid nano-composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolaou, G. C.; Pappa, E. J.; Portan, D. V.; Kotrotsos, A.; Kollia, E.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of both the stacking sequence and surface treatment on the thermal conductivity of multilayered hybrid nano-composites. Four types of multilayered hybrid nanocomposites were manufactured and tested: Nitinol- CNTs (carbon nanotubes)- Acrylic resin; Nitinol- Acrylic resin- CNTs; Surface treated Nitinol- CNTs- Acrylic resin and Surface treated Nitinol- Acrylic resin- CNTs. Surface treatment of Nitinol plies was realized by means of the electrochemical anodization. Surface topography of the anodized nitinol sheets was investigated through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). It was found that the overall thermal response of the manufactured multilayered nano-composites was greatly influenced by both the anodization and the stacking sequence. A theoretical model for the prediction of the overall thermal conductivity has been developed considering the nature of the different layers, their stacking sequence as well as the interfacial thermal resistance. Thermal conductivity and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements were conducted, to verify the predicted by the model overall thermal conductivities. In all cases, a good agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental results was found.

  10. Thermal-treatment effect on the photoluminescence and gas-sensing properties of tungsten oxide nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shibin; Chang, Xueting; Li, Zhenjiang

    2010-01-01

    Single-crystalline non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide nanowires were initially prepared using a simple solvothermal method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) investigations indicate that the tungsten oxide nanowires exhibit various crystal defects, including stacking faults, dislocations, and vacancies. A possible defect-induced mechanism was proposed to account for the temperature-dependent morphological evolution of the tungsten oxide nanowires under thermal processing. Due to the high specific surface areas and non-stoichiometric crystal structure, the original tungsten oxide nanowires were highly sensitive to ppm level ethanol at room temperature. Thermal treatment under dry air condition was found to deteriorate the selectivity of room-temperature tungsten oxide sensors, and 400 o C may be considered as the top temperature limit in sensor applications for the solvothermally-prepared nanowires. The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of tungsten oxide nanowires were also strongly influenced by thermal treatment.

  11. Thermal-treatment effect on the photoluminescence and gas-sensing properties of tungsten oxide nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shibin [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, Shandong (China); Chang, Xueting [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, Shandong (China); Li, Zhenjiang, E-mail: zjli126@126.com [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, Shandong (China)

    2010-09-15

    Single-crystalline non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide nanowires were initially prepared using a simple solvothermal method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) investigations indicate that the tungsten oxide nanowires exhibit various crystal defects, including stacking faults, dislocations, and vacancies. A possible defect-induced mechanism was proposed to account for the temperature-dependent morphological evolution of the tungsten oxide nanowires under thermal processing. Due to the high specific surface areas and non-stoichiometric crystal structure, the original tungsten oxide nanowires were highly sensitive to ppm level ethanol at room temperature. Thermal treatment under dry air condition was found to deteriorate the selectivity of room-temperature tungsten oxide sensors, and 400 {sup o}C may be considered as the top temperature limit in sensor applications for the solvothermally-prepared nanowires. The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of tungsten oxide nanowires were also strongly influenced by thermal treatment.

  12. An assessment of off-gas treatment technologies for application to thermal treatment of Department of Energy wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.D.; Gillins, R.L.; Harris, T.L.; Wollerman, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe available air pollution control technologies for pollutants generated by thermal treatment of DOE wastes. A basic process for selecting air pollution control devices is summarized. Types of air pollutants generated by thermal treatment units are described, as well as the factors that influence the types and quantities of pollutants generated. This report also reviews applicable regulatory emission requirements. A listing of available and emerging air pollution control technologies and a brief introduction to the basic engineering principles involved in collecting each of the pollutants are presented. Section 7 of this report contains two types of evaluations for air pollution control devices. First, comparative evaluations of individual technologies are presented, based upon criteria generally relevant to DOE facilities. Using this evaluation system, the spray dryer absorber received the highest rating for acid-gas removal; high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters received the highest rating for particulate removal; activated carbon adsorption received the highest rating for the removal of both toxic metals and residual hydrocarbons; and selective catalytic reduction received the highest rating for nitrogen oxide abatement. Also evaluated in Sect. 7 is the expected performance of different types of pollution control systems on two hypothetical waste streams. The waste streams were defined based upon typical DOE wastes and thermal treatment technologies. Section 8 presents conclusions for this report. Two appendixes are included with this report. The first appendix contains a brief description of all the technologies evaluated and the second lists of some of the vendors for each of the technologies that was evaluated

  13. Kinetic Monte Carlo study on the evolution of silicon surface roughness under hydrogen thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Yu; Wang, Junzhuan; Pan, Lijia; Yu, Linwei; Zheng, Youdou; Shi, Yi, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • The KMC method is adopted to investigate the relationships between surface evolution and hydrogen thermal treatment conditions. • The reduction in surface roughness is divided into two stages at relatively low temperatures, both exhibiting exponential dependence on the time. • The optimized surface structure can be obtained by precisely adjusting thermal treatment temperatures and hydrogen pressures. - Abstract: The evolution of a two-dimensional silicon surface under hydrogen thermal treatment is studied by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, focusing on the dependence of the migration behaviors of surface atoms on both the temperature and hydrogen pressure. We adopt different activation energies to analyze the influence of hydrogen pressure on the evolution of surface morphology at high temperatures. The reduction in surface roughness is divided into two stages, both exhibiting exponential dependence on the equilibrium time. Our results indicate that a high hydrogen pressure is conducive to obtaining optimized surfaces, as a strategy in the applications of three-dimensional devices.

  14. The Effect of Thermal Cycling Treatments on the Thermal Stability and Mechanical Properties of a Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Bu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermal cycling treatments on the thermal stability and mechanical properties of a Ti48Zr20Nb12Cu5Be15 bulk metallic glass composite (BMGC has been investigated. Results show that moderate thermal cycles in a temperature range of −196 °C (cryogenic temperature, CT to 25 °C (room temperature, RT or annealing time at CT has not induced obvious changes of thermal stability and then it decreases slightly over critical thermal parameters. In addition, the dendritic second phases with a bcc structure are homogeneously embedded in the amorphous matrix; no visible changes are detected, which shows structural stability. Excellent mechanical properties as high as 1599 MPa yield strength and 34% plastic strain are obtained, and the yield strength and elastic modulus also increase gradually. The effect on the stability is analyzed quantitatively by crystallization kinetics and plastic-flow models, and indicates that the reduction of structural relaxation enthalpy, which is related to the degradation of spatial heterogeneity, reduces thermal stability but does not imperatively deteriorate the plasticity.

  15. A thermosyphon heat pipe cooler for high power LEDs cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Tian, Wenkai; Lv, Lucang

    2016-08-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) cooling is facing the challenge of high heat flux more seriously with the increase of input power and diode density. The proposed unique thermosyphon heat pipe heat sink is particularly suitable for cooling of high power density LED chips and other electronics, which has a heat dissipation potential of up to 280 W within an area of 20 mm × 22 mm (>60 W/cm2) under natural air convection. Meanwhile, a thorough visualization investigation was carried out to explore the two phase flow characteristics in the proposed thermosyphon heat pipe. Implementing this novel thermosyphon heat pipe heat sink in the cooling of a commercial 100 W LED integrated chip, a very low apparent thermal resistance of 0.34 K/W was obtained under natural air convection with the aid of the enhanced boiling heat transfer at the evaporation side and the enhanced natural air convection at the condensation side.

  16. Improved InGaN LED System Efficacy and Cost via Droop Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildeson, Isaac [Lumileds LLC, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2017-11-29

    Efficiency droop is a non-thermal process intrinsic to indium gallium nitride light emitting diodes (LEDs) in which the external quantum efficiency (EQE) decreases with increasing drive current density. Mitigating droop would allow one to reduce the size of LEDs driven at a given current or to drive LEDs of given size at higher current while maintaining high efficiencies. In other words, droop mitigation can lead to significant gains in light output per dollar and/or light output per watt of input power. This project set an EQE improvement goal at high drive current density which was to be attained by improving the LED active region design and growth process following a droop mitigation strategy. The interactions between LED active region design parameters and efficiency droop were studied by modeling and experiments. The crystal defects that tend to form in more complex LED designs intended to mitigate droop were studied with advanced characterization methods that provided insight into the structural and electronic properties of the material. This insight was applied to improve the epitaxy process both in terms of active region design and optimization of growth parameters. The final project goals were achieved on schedule and an epitaxy process leading to LEDs with EQE exceeding the project target was demonstrated.

  17. Oil sludge treatment using thermal and ash vitrification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohyiza Baan; Sharifah Aishah, S.A.K.; Mohamad Puad Abu; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental study of crude oil sludge terminal for volume reduction and radionuclide stability was treated by using integrated thermal treatment system. The pre-thermal treatment of oil sludge was carried out in fluidized bed combustor at temperature 500 degree Celsius, and then the ash produced from that process was vitrified in high temperature furnace at temperature above 1000 degree Celsius. The main contents of oil sludge are composed of 80% carbon, 11% sulphur, 50% volatile matter and 30% ash. The high heating value was 35,722 kJ/ kg. Analysis by gamma spectrometer was showed the radionuclide as Ra-226 (52.23 Bq/ kg), Ra-228 (47.48 Bq/ kg), K-40 (172.55 Bq/ kg), whereas analysis by neutron activation analysis (NAA) for U (0.5 μg/ g) and Th (0.5 μg/ g) was present in low concentration. Trace elements as Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, As, Pb, Al, Zn, Ni was determine by using ICPMS. Thermal analysis has shown loss of mass and residual decomposition in the TG and DTA curves. The concentration of radionuclide in ash from fluidized bed combustor process was increased for Ra-226 (264.27 Bq/ kg) and Ra-228 (253.77 Bq/ kg). The slag was produced from ash vitrification process was characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and showed that silica oxide and potassium oxide were found. The slag characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that slag composed of crystalline. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test showed that the slag resulted in very low leachability of heavy metals. Most of the toxic metals are fixed in the vitrification process and the leachate values meet the standard level of Malaysian Department of Environmental (DOE) of hazardous materials. The average concentration of each element varied between 1.5-14.0 mg/ kg. (author)

  18. Analysis of the irradiation and thermal treatment combined effect in the quality of mangoes for exportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, Marcel Wilke

    2009-01-01

    In this research the effect of the hydrothermal treatment and irradiation as a combined method of food conservation and disinfestation was studied, searching to optimize the impact over the final product desired characteristics. Tommy Atkins mangoes from Brazil were submitted to a combined treatment: thermal treatment (46 deg C, 70 min and 52 deg C, 5 min) and gamma irradiation treatment (doses 0,3 and 0,75 kGy). The fruits were stored at 11 deg C during 14 days and kept at an environmental condition for more 12 days, where their physical chemical and sensorial properties were evaluated. As predicted by Oliveira (1998) the combined method of irradiation and thermal treatment showed better results then the individual methods in increasing the shelf-life. (author)

  19. Scalable, Economical Fabrication Processes for Ultra-Compact Warm-White LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowes, Ted [Cree, Inc., Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-01-31

    total SSL luminaire cost made up by the LEDs themselves has steadily fallen over the past several years, but can still make up 30% or more of the bill of materials; the new LED design will radically lower this proportion. Ultra-compact, highly efficient LEDs with optimal distribution in the system will further benefit luminaire materials and assembly costs by reducing the complexity and volume of thermal management and optical subsystems.

  20. Transcranial LED therapy for cognitive dysfunction in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: two case reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Margaret A.; Saltmarche, Anita; Krengel, Maxine H.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Knight, Jeffrey A.

    2010-02-01

    Two chronic, traumatic brain injury (TBI) cases are presented, where cognitive function improved following treatment with transcranial light emitting diodes (LEDs). At age 59, P1 had closed-head injury from a motor vehicle accident (MVA) without loss of consciousness and normal MRI, but unable to return to work as development specialist in internet marketing, due to cognitive dysfunction. At 7 years post-MVA, she began transcranial LED treatments with cluster heads (2.1" diameter with 61 diodes each - 9x633nm, 52x870nm; 12-15mW per diode; total power, 500mW; 22.2 mW/cm2) on bilateral frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital and midline sagittal areas (13.3 J/cm2 at scalp, estimated 0.4 J/cm2 to brain cortex per area). Prior to transcranial LED, focused time on computer was 20 minutes. After 2 months of weekly, transcranial LED treatments, increased to 3 hours on computer. Performs nightly home treatments (now, 5 years, age 72); if stops treating >2 weeks, regresses. P2 (age 52F) had history of closed-head injuries related to sports/military training and recent fall. MRI shows fronto-parietal cortical atrophy. Pre-LED, was not able to work for 6 months and scored below average on attention, memory and executive function. Performed nightly transcranial LED treatments at home (9 months) with similar LED device, on frontal and parietal areas. After 4 months of LED treatments, returned to work as executive consultant, international technology consulting firm. Neuropsychological testing (post- 9 months of transcranial LED) showed significant improvement in memory and executive functioning (range, +1 to +2 SD improvement). Case 2 reported reduction in PTSD symptoms.

  1. White LEDs and modules in chip-on-board technology for general lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Paul; Wenzl, Franz P.; Sommer, Christian; Pachler, Peter; Hoschopf, Hans; Schweighart, Marko; Hartmann, Martin; Kuna, Ladislav; Jakopic, Georg; Leising, Guenther; Tasch, Stefan

    2006-08-01

    At present, light-emitting diode (LED) modules in various shapes are developed and designed for the general lighting, advertisement, emergency lighting, design and architectural markets. To compete with and to surpass the performance of traditional lighting systems, enhancement of Lumen output and the white light quality as well as the thermal management and the luminary integration are key factors for success. Regarding these issues, white LEDs based on the chip-on-board (COB) technology show pronounced advantages. State-of-the-art LEDs exploiting this technology are now ready to enter the general lighting segments. We introduce and discuss the specific properties of the Tridonic COB technology dedicated for general lighting. This technology, in combination with a comprehensive set of tools to improve and to enhance the Lumen output and the white light quality, including optical simulation, is the scaffolding for the application of white LEDs in emerging areas, for which an outlook will be given.

  2. Study on the mechanism of color coordinate shift of LED package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yunyi; Wang, Yong; Yang, Bobo; Li, Zhanguo; Yang, Lei; Zou, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In the paper, the influences of the chip, silicone and phosphors on the color coordinate shift of LED were studied. In the process of LED baking, it was found that the effect of the chip and silicone on the color coordinate drift is less than 3% through the analysis of each influencing factor. But the influence of the phosphors is large and accounted for 11.11% of the overall impact factors. Therefore, it is important to select the better green phosphors in thermal stability for the LED package and it has a guiding significance to the color coordinate of LED distribution. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11474036), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (No. 12ZR1430900), the Shanghai Institute of Technology Talents Scheme (No. YJ2014-04), the Shanghai Municipal Alliance Program (Nos. Lm201514, Lm201505, Lm201455), the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (CN) (No. 14500503300), the Shanghai Cooperative Project (No. ShanghaiCXY-2013-61), and the Jiashan County Technology Program (No. 20141316).

  3. Thermal treatment of toxic metals of industrial hazardous wastes with fly ash and clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, I.B. [Regional Research Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal 462026 (India)]. E-mail: ibsingh58@yahoo.com; Chaturvedi, K. [Regional Research Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal 462026 (India); Morchhale, R.K. [Regional Research Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal 462026 (India); Yegneswaran, A.H. [Regional Research Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal 462026 (India)

    2007-03-06

    Waste generated from galvanizing and metal finishing processes is considered to be a hazardous due to the presence of toxic metals like Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn, etc. Thermal treatment of such types of wastes in the presence of clay and fly ash can immobilizes their toxic metals to a maximum level. After treatment solidified mass can be utilized in construction or disposed off through land fillings without susceptibility of re-mobilization of toxic metals. In the present investigation locally available clay and fly ash of particular thermal power plant were used as additives for thermal treatment of both of the wastes in their different proportions at 850, 900 and 950 deg. C. Observed results indicated that heating temperature to be a key factor in the immobilization of toxic metals of the waste. It was noticed that the leachability of metals of the waste reduces to a negligible level after heating at 950 deg. C. Thermally treated solidified specimen of 10% waste and remaining clay have shown comparatively a higher compressive strength than clay fired bricks used in building construction. Though, thermally heated specimens made of galvanizing waste have shown much better strength than specimen made of metal finishing waste. The lechability of toxic metals like Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn became far below from their regulatory threshold after heating at 950 deg. C. Addition of fly ash did not show any improvement either in engineering property or in leachability of metals from the solidified mass. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the solidified product confirmed the presence of mixed phases of oxides of metals.

  4. Post-deposition control of ferroelastic stripe domains and internal electric field by thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feigl, L.; Iwanowska, M.; Sandu, C. S.; Setter, N. [Ceramics Laboratory, EPFL-Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, CH-1015 Switzerland (Switzerland); Janolin, P.-E. [Laboratoire Structures, Propriétés et Modélisation des Solides, UMR CNRS-École Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Yamada, T. [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2015-01-19

    The dependence of the formation of ferroelastic stripe domain patterns on the thermal history is investigated by detailed piezoresponse force microscopy and X-ray diffraction experiments after and during annealing of tensile strained tetragonal Pb(Ti,Zr)O{sub 3} epitaxial thin films on DyScO{sub 3} substrates. In particular, the ferroelastic pattern is reversibly interchanged between a cross-hatched and a stripe domain pattern if the films are cooled at different rates after annealing above the formation temperature of a-domains. Different types of 180° and non-180° patterns can be created, depending on the thermal treatment. The changes in the 180° domain structure and lattice parameters are attributed to a change of oxygen vacancy concentration, which results in a modification of the internal electric field and unit cell size, causing also a shift of T{sub C}. Thermal treatment is done on rhombohedral La:BiFeO{sub 3} thin films as well. It is observed that also in these films, appropriate heat treatment modifies the domain pattern and films with a stripe domain pattern can be created, confirming the general validity of the developed model.

  5. Thermal treatment and competing technologies for remediation of MGP (manufactured gas plant) sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, T.F.; Greer, B.A.; Lawless, M.

    1995-01-01

    More than 1,500 MGP (manufactured gas plant) sites exist throughout the US. Many are contaminated with coal tar from coal-fueled gas works which produced ''town gas'' from the mid-1800s through the 1950s. Virtually all old US cities have such sites. Most are in downtown areas, as they were installed for central distribution of manufactured gas. While a few sites are CERCLA/Superfund, most are not. However, the contaminants and methods used for remediation are similar to those used for Superfund cleanups of coal tar contamination from wood-treating and coke oven facilities. Clean-up of sites is triggered by property transfers and re-development as well as releases to the environment--in particular, via ground water migration. This paper describes recent experience with high capacity/low cost thermal desorption process for this waste. It also reviews competing non-thermal technology, such as bio-treatment, capping, recycling, and dig and haul. Cost data are provided for all technologies, and a case study for thermal treatment is also presented

  6. Technology assessment of thermal treatment technologies using ORWARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assefa, G.; Eriksson, O.; Frostell, B.

    2005-01-01

    A technology assessment of thermal treatment technologies for wastes was performed in the form of scenarios of chains of technologies. The Swedish assessment tool, ORWARE, was used for the assessment. The scenarios of chains of thermal technologies assessed were gasification with catalytic combustion, gasification with flame combustion, incineration and landfilling. The landfilling scenario was used as a reference for comparison. The technologies were assessed from ecological and economic points of view. The results are presented in terms of global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, consumption of primary energy carriers and welfare costs. From the simulations, gasification followed by catalytic combustion with energy recovery in a combined cycle appeared to be the most competitive technology from an ecological point of view. On the other hand, this alternative was more expensive than incineration. A sensitivity analysis was done regarding electricity prices to show which technology wins at what value of the unit price of electricity (SEK/kW h). Within this study, it was possible to make a comparison both between a combined cycle and a Rankine cycle (a system pair) and at the same time between flame combustion and catalytic combustion (a technology pair). To use gasification just as a treatment technology is not more appealing than incineration, but the possibility of combining gasification with a combined cycle is attractive in terms of electricity production. This research was done in connection with an empirical R and D work on both gasification of waste and catalytic combustion of the gasified waste at the Division of Chemical Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden

  7. Toxin production in food as influenced by pH, thermal treatment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxin production in food as influenced by pH, thermal treatment and chemical ... carrot, spinach, pepper, tomato, onion and cooked food samples (rice, yam, beans, ... on the growth rate and toxin elaboration of E. coli, K. aerogenes, C. freundii, ...

  8. Outcome of treatment seeking rural gamblers attending a nurse-led cognitive-behaviour therapy service: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Tolchard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Little is known about the differences between urban and rural gamblers in Australia, in terms of comorbidity and treatment outcome. Health disparities exist between urban and rural areas in terms of accessibility, availability, and acceptability of treatment programs for problem gamblers. However, evidence supporting cognitive-behaviour therapy as the main treatment for problem gamblers is strong. This pilot study aimed to assess the outcome of a Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT treatment program offered to urban and rural treatment-seeking gamblers. Methods: People who presented for treatment at a nurse-led Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT gambling treatment service were invited to take part in this study. A standardised clinical assessment and treatment service was provided to all participants. A series of validated questionnaires were given to all participants at (a assessment, (b discharge, (c at a one-month, and (d at a 3-month follow-up visit. Results: Differences emerged between urban and rural treatment-seeking gamblers. While overall treatment outcomes were much the same at three months after treatment, rural gamblers appeared to respond more rapidly and to have sustained improvements over time. Conclusion: This study suggests that rural problem gamblers experience different levels of co-morbid anxiety and depression from their urban counterparts, but once in treatment appear to respond quicker. ACBT approach was found to be effective in treating rural gamblers and outcomes were maintained. Ensuring better availability and access to such treatment in rural areas is important. Nurses are in a position as the majority health professional in rural areas to provide such help. Keywords: Evidence based health care, Health program evaluation, Models of care, Rural health services delivery, Rural mental health

  9. Thermal treatment to improve the hydrophobicity of ground CaCO3 particles modified with sodium stearate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yong; Yu, Keyi; Zheng, Qinzhong; Xie, Jiuren; Wang, Ting-Jie

    2018-04-01

    The surface modification of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles, which is used as a filler, significantly affects the properties of the composed materials. The effects of thermal treatment on ground calcium carbonate (GCC) particles subjected to hydrophobic modification using sodium stearate (RCOONa) were studied. The contact angle of the modified GCC particles increased from 24.7° to 118.9° when the amount of RCOONa added was increased from 0% to 5% and then decreased to 97.5° when the RCOONa content was further increased to 10%. When a large amount of RCOONa was added, RCOO- reacts with Ca2+ and generates (RCOO)2Ca nuclei, which are adsorbed on the surface of the GCC particles, forming a discontinuous (RCOO)2Ca modified layer. After thermal treatment under sealed conditions, the contact angle of the GCC particles modified using 1.5% RCOONa/GCC increased from 112.8° to 139.6°. The thermal stability of the (RCOO)2Ca modified layer was increased, with the temperature increase of the mass-loss peak from 358.0 to 463.0 °C. It is confirmed that the spreading of melted (RCOO)2Ca nuclei on the surface of the GCC particles during the thermal treatment increased the continuity of the modified layer, converting the physical adsorption of the (RCOO)2Ca nuclei into chemisorption. The grafting density of RCOO- on the GCC particle surface after thermal treatment approximates to 5.00/nm2, which is close to the single-molecular-layer grafting density of RCOO-, indicating that excellent modification was achieved.

  10. Effects of thermal desorption on the composition of two coking plant soils: Impact on solvent extractable organic compounds and metal bioavailability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biache, Coralie [G2R UMR 7566, Nancy Universite, CNRS, Boulevard des Aiguillettes B.P. 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); LIMOS UMR 7137, Nancy Universite, CNRS, Boulevard des Aiguillettes B.P. 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)], E-mail: coralie.biache@g2r.uhp-nancy.fr; Mansuy-Huault, Laurence; Faure, Pierre [G2R UMR 7566, Nancy Universite, CNRS, Boulevard des Aiguillettes B.P. 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Munier-Lamy, Colette; Leyval, Corinne [LIMOS UMR 7137, Nancy Universite, CNRS, Boulevard des Aiguillettes B.P. 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2008-12-15

    To evaluate the efficiency and the influence of thermal desorption on the soil organic compartment, contaminated soils from coking plant sites (NM and H) were compared to their counterparts treated with thermodesorption. The extractable organic matter, and the metal content and distribution with soil compartments were studied. In both thermodesorbed soils, PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) degradation exceeded 90%. However, the thermal desorption led not only to a volatilization of the organic compounds but also to the condensation of extractable organic matter. The treatments only affected the Fe and Zn distribution within the more stable fractions, whereas the organic compound degradation did not affect their mobility and availability. - Thermal desorption does not induce a metal mobilization but condensation seems to occur during the treatment.

  11. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis of composite resins with CQ and PPD as photo-initiators photoactivated by QTH and LED units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, William Cunha; Silva, Cristina Gomes; Frollini, Elisabete; Souza-Junior, Eduardo Jose Carvalho; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the thermal and mechanical properties of the composite resins containing the photo-initiators camphorquinone (CQ) and/or phenyl-propanodione (PPD) when photoactivated with halogen lamp (XL2500/3M-ESPE), monowave (UltraBlueIS/DMC) and polywave (UltraLume5/Ultradent) LED units. A blend of BisGMA, UDMA, BisEMA and TEGDMA was prepared with the same wt% of photo-initiators CQ and/or PPD and 65wt% of silaneted filler particles. Compression strength (CS), diametral tensile strength (DTS) and diametral modulus (DM) were tested. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was made and the lost residual monomer were verified. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) was used for to analyze the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the storage modulus in 37°C. Degree of conversion (DC) was accomplished in the same samples of DMA using middle-infrared spectroscopy (mid-IR). CQ, CQ/PPD and PPD obtained the same results for all mechanical properties (CS, DTS and DM), lost residual monomer and storage modulus in 37°C, regardless LCU used. The results of Tg showed that the combination PPD-UltraLume5 produced the highest values. DC showed that the combination CQ-UltraLume5 resulted in the highest values and PPD-XL2500 in the lowest DC values. The study shows that PPD is not only effective photosensitizers, but also photocrosslinking agents for dental composite resins with a similar efficiency to CQ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal management of solid state lighting module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, H.

    2014-01-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL), powered by Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs), is an energy-efficient technology for lighting systems. In contrast to incandescent lights which obtain high efficiency at high temperatures, the highest efficiency of LEDs is reached at low temperatures. The thermal management in

  13. A nurse- and pharmacist-led treatment advice clinic for patients attending an HIV outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, C; Miles, K; Aldam, D; Cornforth, D; Minton, J; Edwards, S; Williams, I

    2007-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study to map care pathways, examine the approach of different treatment advisors and explore the acceptability of a nurse- and pharmacist-led treatment advice clinic in order to aid decision-making for the future development and evaluation of the clinic. High levels of adherence to antiretroviral drugs are a prerequisite for a successful and durable virological and immunological response to HIV. Treatment guidelines acknowledge that adherence is a process, not a single event, and that adherence support must be integrated into clinical follow-up for all patients receiving these drugs. Data were collected between September 2004 and January 2005 through 17 consultation observations and 10 patient interviews in a specialist treatment advice clinic located within a central London HIV outpatient clinic providing care for over 2200 patients, of whom more than 1300 are taking highly active antiretroviral therapy. The nurses and pharmacist had similar consultation approaches, although follow-up care varied in extent. Benefits of the clinic approach included permitting patients to observe real tablets, tailoring regimens to lifestyles and telephone follow-up. These factors, particularly telephone support, were perceived by patients to assist with adherence. The role of telephone support, perceived to assist with initial adherence, requires further investigation. Future work is also needed to explore the health economics of this approach and to determine the actual impact of the clinic on clinical and adherence outcomes.

  14. Enhancing the mechanical properties of electrospun polyester mats by heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kancheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfibrous materials with a targeted design based on poly(L-lactic acid (PLA and poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL were prepared by electrospinning and by combining electrospinning and electrospraying. Several approaches were used: (i electrospinning of a common solution of the two polymers, (ii simultaneous electrospinning of two separate solutions of PLA and PCL, (iii electrospinning of PLA solution in conjunction with electrospraying of PCL solution, and (iv alternating layer-by-layer deposition by electrospinning of separate PLA and PCL solutions. The mats were heated at the melting temperature of PCL (60°", thus achieving melting of PCL fibers/particles and thermal sealing of the fibers. The mats subjected to thermal treatment were characterized by greater mean fiber diameters and reduced values of the water contact angle compared to the pristine mats. Heat treatment of the mats affected their thermal stability and led to an increase in the crystallinity degree of PLA incorporated in the mats, whereas that of PCL was reduced. All mats were characterized by enhanced mechanical properties after thermal treatment as compared to the non-treated fibrous materials.

  15. The 1996 meeting of the national technical workgroup on mixed waste thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Technical Workgroup on Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment held its annual meeting in Atlanta Georgia on March 12-14, 1996. The National Technical Workgroup (NTW) and this meeting were sponsored under an interagency agreement between EPA and DOE. The 1996 Annual Meeting was hosted by US DOE Oak Ridge Operations in conjunction with Lockheed Martin Energy Systems - Center for Waste Management. A new feature of the annual meeting was the Permit Writer Panel Session which provided an opportunity for the state and federal permit writers to discuss issues and potential solutions to permitting mixed waste treatment systems. In addition, there was substantial discussion on the impacts of the Waste Combustion Performance Standards on mixed waste thermal treatment which are expected to proposed very soon. The 1996 meeting also focussed on two draft technical resource documents produced by NTW on Waste Analysis Plans and Compliance Test Procedures. Issues discussed included public involvement, waste characterization, and emission issues

  16. Patient-led versus physician-led titration of insulin glargine in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes: a randomized multinational ATLAS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Satish K; Admane, Karim; Freemantle, Nick; Odawara, Masato; Pan, Chang-Yu; Misra, Anoop; Jarek-Martynowa, Iwona R; Abbas-Raza, Syed; Mirasol, Roberto C; Perfetti, Riccardo

    2015-02-01

    Self-adjustment of insulin dose is commonly practiced in Western patients with type 2 diabetes but is usually not performed in Asian patients. This multinational, 24-week, randomized study compared patient-led with physician-led titration of once-daily insulin glargine in Asian patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes who were on 2 oral glucose-lowering agents. Patient-led (n = 275) or physician-led (n = 277) subjects followed the same dose-titration algorithm guided by self-monitored fasting blood glucose (FBG; target, 110 mg/dL [6.1 mmol/L]). The primary endpoint was change in mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at week 24 in the patient-led versus physician-led titration groups. Patient-led titration resulted in a significantly higher drop in HbA1c value at 24 weeks when compared with physician-led titration (-1.40% vs. -1.25%; mean difference, -0.15; 95% confidence interval, -0.29 to 0.00; P = .043). Mean decrease in FBG was greatest in the patient-led group (-2.85 mmol/L vs. -2.48 mmol/L; P = .001). The improvements in HbA1c and FBG were consistent across countries, with similar improvements in treatment satisfaction in both groups. Mean daily insulin dose was higher in the patient-led group (28.9 units vs. 22.2 units; Ptitration achieved near-target blood glucose levels in Asian patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes who were on 2 oral glucose-lowering drugs, demonstrating that Asian patients can self-uptitrate insulin dose effectively when guided.

  17. Analysis of the Production Cost for Various Grades of Biomass Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, Robert S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wood, Rick A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Westover, Tyler L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Process flow sheets were developed for the thermal treatment of southern pine wood chips at four temperatures (150, 180, 230, and 270 degrees C) and two different scales (20 and 100 ton/hour). The larger capacity processes had as their primary heat source hot gas assumed to be available in quantity from an adjacent biorefinery. Mass and energy balances for these flow sheets were developed using Aspen Plus process simulation software. The hot gas demands in the larger processes, up to 1.9 million lb/hour, were of questionable feasibility because of the volume to be moved. This heat was of low utility because the torrefaction process, especially at higher temperatures, is a net heat producer if the organic byproduct gases are burned. A thermal treatment flow sheet using wood chips dried in the biorefinery to 10% moisture content (rather than 30% for green chips) with transfer of high temperature steam from the thermal treatment depot to the biorefinery was also examined. The equipment size information from all of these cases was used in several different equipment cost estimating methods to estimate the major equipment costs for each process. From these, factored estimates of other plant costs were determined, leading to estimates (± 30% accuracy) of total plant capital cost. The 20 ton/hour processes were close to 25 million dollars except for the 230 degrees C case using dried wood chips which was only 15 million dollars because of its small furnace. The larger processes ranged from 64-120 million dollars. From these capital costs and projections of several categories of operating costs, the processing cost of thermally treated pine chips was found to be $28-33 per ton depending on the degree of treatment and without any credits for steam generation. If the excess energy output of the two 20 ton/hr depot cases at 270 degrees C can be sold for $10 per million BTU, the net processing cost dropped to $13/ton product starting with green wood chips or only $3 per ton

  18. Unvented thermal process for treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.A.; Swift, W.M.

    1993-01-01

    An Unvented Thermal Process is being developed that does not release gases during the thermal treatment operation. The main unit in the process is a fluidized-bed processor containing a bed of calcined limestone (CaO), which reacts with gases given off during oxidation of organic materials. Gases that will react with CaO include CO 2 , SO 2 , HCI, HBr, and other acid gases. Water vapor formed during the oxidation process is carried off with the fluidizing gas and is removed in a condenser. Oxygen is added to the remaining gas (mainly nitrogen), which is recirculated to the oxidizer. The most flexible arrangement of equipment involves separating the processor into two units: An oxidizer, which may be any of a variety of types including standard incinerators, and a carbon dioxide sorber

  19. Development of ecologically safety technology for steam-thermal treatment of organic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juravskij, J.

    1997-01-01

    The experience on mitigation of the consequences of the Chernobyl's nuclear power station accident proves that the treatment of large amounts of organic and mixed wastes containing radionuclides is a very urgent scientific and technical problem. In this connection a search for new ideas and development of highly efficient and ecologically safety technologies for treatment of organic radioactive wastes has been undertaken. This study is based on use of physico-mechanical properties of various organic materials (wood, rubber-containing composites, plastics, biomass) subjected to thermal decomposition in the overheated water steam medium. Under such conditions, there is a possibility, under relatively low temperatures (400 - 500 deg. C), to realize thermal decomposition and considerably (in 8 - 50 times) to reduce the amount of wastes, to obtain the main concentration of radionuclides in the solid residue and to prevent releases of gaseous products containing radionuclides to the environment. (author). 5 figs, 1 tab

  20. Mid-year report: IPC liaison and chemistry of thermal reconstitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1995-05-01

    A program of investigation into the chemistry of alkaline Hanford Site tank waste is being conducted. The investigations have two main subtasks: liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences and further laboratory testing of the chemistry of thermal reconstitution of Hanford Site tank waste. Progress to date includes: (1) a technical dialogue has been established with the Institute scientists; (2) editing of a technical literature review on the chemistry of the transuranic elements and technetium in alkaline media written by researchers at the Institute is complete; (3) four tasks from the Institute have been selected for support by the US Department of Energy; (4) technical information has been supplied to the Institute describing the composition of Hanford Site tank waste; (5) tests, using genuine waste from tank 104-S (a REDOX Process sludge), comparing the performance of thermal reconstitution with enhanced sludge washing show markedly improved dissolution of aluminum achieved by the thermal treatment; (6) a reduction/coprecipitation method was tested and shown to remove plutonium, solubilized by thermal treatment, rapidly and efficiently from solution; (7) technical chemistry support was provided to calciner kinetics tests at the University of Idaho; (8) tests to determine the speciation of plutonium and neptunium solubilized by thermal treatment show dissolved Pu(V) and Np(V) hydroxide complexes are produced, a Np(V) peroxide complex also was identified; (9) recently published data on Pu(IV) carbonate complexation in moderately alkaline (pH 12 to 13) solution led to reexamination of previous investigations of plutonium complexation in highly alkaline (3 to 5 molar NaOH) solutions

  1. Impact of urban waste water treatment on sludge utilization and disposal with special emphasis on thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammeltoft, P.

    1993-01-01

    The acceptance of the European Communities Directive 9/271/CEE concerning urban waste water treatment by all the EC Member States will result in a sewage sludge production increase of 2 to 3 times the actual amounts (for the year 2000 the forecast is about 30 million tonnes per year). All the traditional sewage sludge treatment methods (agricultural, disposal, compost, thermal treatment) entail costs which are always increasing because of the stricter requirements; in addition EC policy is oriented towards the reduction of the quantity of sludge production. In some situations, drying and subseque incineration may thus be the only practicable method of disposal, particularly, in very large urban agglomerations

  2. Analysis of thermal treatment effects upon optico-luminescent and scintillation characteristics of oxide and chalcogenide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhikov, Vladimir D.; Grinyov, Boris V.; Pirogov, Evgeniy N.; Galkin, Sergey N.; Nagornaya, Lyudmila L.; Bondar, Vladimir G.; Babiychuk, Inna P.; Krivoshein, Vadim I.; Silin, Vitaliy I.; Lalayants, Alexandr I.; Voronkin, Evgeniy F.; Katrunov, Konstantin A.; Onishchenko, Gennadiy M.; Vostretsov, Yuriy Ya.; Malyi, Pavel Yu.; Lisetskaya, Elena K.; Lisetskii, Longin N.

    2005-01-01

    This work has been aimed at analyzing the effects of various thermal treatment factors upon optical-luminescent, scintillation and other functional characteristics of complex oxide and chalcogenide crystals. The crystals considered in this work are scintillators with intrinsic (PWO, CWO, BGO), activator (GSO:Ce) or complex-defect ZnSe(Te) type of luminescence. Important factors of thermal treatment are not only the temperature and its variation with time, but also the chemical composition of the annealing medium, its oxidation-reduction properties

  3. The quality study of recycled glass phosphor waste for LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Chin; Chen, Guan-Hao; Yue, Cheng-Feng; Chen, Cin-Fu; Cheng, Wood-Hi

    2017-02-01

    To study the feasibility and quality of recycled glass phosphor waste for LED packaging, the experiments were conducted to compare optical characteristics between fresh color conversion layer and that made of recycled waste. The fresh color conversion layer was fabricated through sintering pristine mixture of Y.A.G. powder [yellow phosphor (Y3AlO12 : Ce3+). Those recycled waste glass phosphor re-melted to form Secondary Molten Glass Phosphor (S.M.G.P.). The experiments on such low melting temperature glass results showed that transmission rates of S.M.G.P. are 9% higher than those of first-sintered glass phosphor, corresponding to 1.25% greater average bubble size and 36% more bubble coverage area in S.M.G.P. In the recent years, high power LED modules and laser projectors have been requiring higher thermal stability by using glass phosphor materials for light mixing. Nevertheless, phosphor and related materials are too expensive to expand their markets. It seems a right trend and research goal that recycling such waste of high thermal stability and quality materials could be preferably one of feasible cost-down solutions. This technical approach could bring out brighter future for solid lighting and light source module industries.

  4. Effects of mechanical-thermal treatments on the creep behaviour of a niobium stabilized stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of microstructural variables controlled by mechanical-thermal treatments on the creep behavior of DIN-Werkstoff Nr. 1,4981 stainless steel a material candidate for use as cladding of fast breeder reactor fuel elements, was studied. The effect of the solution treatment, predeformation, predeformation plus aging and cycles of predeformation-aging, on the creep results obtained at 990 K, for applied stresses in the range 70 MPa - 310 MPa, are analysed. The results show: this material presents a creep strength superior to that show by AISI 316 stainless steel; a transition on the creep behavior is observed at a certain stress; the mechanical-thermal treatments were seen to be ineffective on the improvement of the creep strength; the pre-deformation and pre-deformation plus aging treatments were seen to induce material embrittlement whereas the cyclic treatments induced increased ductility. Transmission electron microscopy, X ray diffraction of extracted precipitates, and microanalysis were use to characterize the microstructure of this material. (author)

  5. Developing strategies for thermal treatment technology R and D in MIREC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    2004-01-01

    The degree of the solid waste management problem in Malaysia is very crucial, needing immediate solutions. The estimated amount of MSW generated is 16,000 ton/day with the initial cost of the entire activity is estimated to worth RM35 billions. However, Malaysia is still negotiating for the best strategies to manage her MSW in the best manner - politically, economically and environmentally. A National Solid Waste Strategic Plan has been established, advocating and adopting the Integrated Solid Waste Management System (IWMS). However, choosing the right mix of the waste management hierarchy is not simple. The 3-R concept with an effective and consistent role by the society at large is still not well taken up despite of various efforts taken by the government. The role of biological treatment such as composting and bio-gasification (AD), is slowly gaining momentum, however, needed much more effort and understanding when applied to local waste and market conditions. The vigor to introduce the-state-of-the-art thermal treatment process has been done as early as in 2000, but the project has faced a severe set back with regard to public acceptance, lingering around the dioxin issues, and the resulting political consequences caused delays in implementation. Finally, there seems to be a more practical and sensible solution nationally to build more Sanitary Landfills (SLF) in various states and municipalities due to economic reasons as well as for final disposal of waste. It is therefore seen that the Mechanical / 3 -R and Biological Treatment (MBT) methods play a better role as a pretreatment process prior to landfills, environmentally speaking. In case the economics does not permit the above practice, direct land filling of the MSW should entails with the Land Fill Gas (LFG) extraction and utilization. Despite of the general trends to import foreign technologies to circumvent the unavailability of local solutions, the needs for local input cannot be denied. Hence, the R

  6. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A.

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools

  7. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A. [and others

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

  8. Fiber Optic Sensors for Temperature Monitoring during Thermal Treatments: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, Emiliano; Tosi, Daniele; Saccomandi, Paola; Lewis, Elfed; Kim, Taesung

    2016-01-01

    During recent decades, minimally invasive thermal treatments (i.e., Radiofrequency ablation, Laser ablation, Microwave ablation, High Intensity Focused Ultrasound ablation, and Cryo-ablation) have gained widespread recognition in the field of tumor removal. These techniques induce a localized temperature increase or decrease to remove the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue remains intact. An accurate measurement of tissue temperature may be particularly beneficial to improve treatment outcomes, because it can be used as a clear end-point to achieve complete tumor ablation and minimize recurrence. Among the several thermometric techniques used in this field, fiber optic sensors (FOSs) have several attractive features: high flexibility and small size of both sensor and cabling, allowing insertion of FOSs within deep-seated tissue; metrological characteristics, such as accuracy (better than 1 °C), sensitivity (e.g., 10 pm·°C−1 for Fiber Bragg Gratings), and frequency response (hundreds of kHz), are adequate for this application; immunity to electromagnetic interference allows the use of FOSs during Magnetic Resonance- or Computed Tomography-guided thermal procedures. In this review the current status of the most used FOSs for temperature monitoring during thermal procedure (e.g., fiber Bragg Grating sensors; fluoroptic sensors) is presented, with emphasis placed on their working principles and metrological characteristics. The essential physics of the common ablation techniques are included to explain the advantages of using FOSs during these procedures. PMID:27455273

  9. Fiber Optic Sensors for Temperature Monitoring during Thermal Treatments: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Schena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During recent decades, minimally invasive thermal treatments (i.e., Radiofrequency ablation, Laser ablation, Microwave ablation, High Intensity Focused Ultrasound ablation, and Cryo-ablation have gained widespread recognition in the field of tumor removal. These techniques induce a localized temperature increase or decrease to remove the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue remains intact. An accurate measurement of tissue temperature may be particularly beneficial to improve treatment outcomes, because it can be used as a clear end-point to achieve complete tumor ablation and minimize recurrence. Among the several thermometric techniques used in this field, fiber optic sensors (FOSs have several attractive features: high flexibility and small size of both sensor and cabling, allowing insertion of FOSs within deep-seated tissue; metrological characteristics, such as accuracy (better than 1 °C, sensitivity (e.g., 10 pm·°C−1 for Fiber Bragg Gratings, and frequency response (hundreds of kHz, are adequate for this application; immunity to electromagnetic interference allows the use of FOSs during Magnetic Resonance- or Computed Tomography-guided thermal procedures. In this review the current status of the most used FOSs for temperature monitoring during thermal procedure (e.g., fiber Bragg Grating sensors; fluoroptic sensors is presented, with emphasis placed on their working principles and metrological characteristics. The essential physics of the common ablation techniques are included to explain the advantages of using FOSs during these procedures.

  10. The structure-directed effect of Al-based metal–organic frameworks on fabrication of alumina by thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dandan; Dai, Fangna; Tang, Zhe; Liu, Yunqi; Liu, Chenguang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We use Al-MOFs as precursor in the fabrication process of mesoporous alumina by thermal treatment. • The obtained mesoporous alumina has dual pore system and five-fold aluminum. • The aluminum building units in the precursor show structure-directed effect on the formation of alumina. - Abstract: In this work, the block-shaped Al-based metal–organic frameworks (Al-MOFs) MIL-53 have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. To detect the correlation between the structure of Al-MOFs and the formation of alumina, the ligands are eliminated by thermal treatment. MIL-53 and the calcination products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption–desorption and solid-state 27 Al nuclear magnetic resonance ( 27 Al NMR). It was found that after calcination, the block-shaped Al-MOFs precursor turns into high-crystallinity mesoporous alumina nanosheets, and the thermal treatment product γ-alumina possesses a dual pore system and a large surface area (146 m 2 /g), with five-fold aluminum. During the thermal treatment process, the structure of MIL-53 and its secondary building units have structure-directed effect in the formation of alumina

  11. Thermal acclimation and thyroxine treatment modify the electric organ discharge frequency in an electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, K D; Ragazzi, M A

    2015-11-01

    In ectotherms, the rate of many neural processes is determined externally, by the influence of the thermal environment on body temperature, and internally, by hormones secreted from the thyroid gland. Through thermal acclimation, animals can buffer the influence of the thermal environment by adjusting their physiology to stabilize certain processes in the face of environmental temperature change. The electric organ discharge (EOD) used by weak electric fish for electrocommunication and electrolocation is highly temperature sensitive. In some temperate species that naturally experience large seasonal fluctuations in environmental temperature, the thermal sensitivity (Q10) of the EOD shifts after long-term temperature change. We examined thermal acclimation of EOD frequency in a tropical electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus that naturally experiences much less temperature change. We transferred fish between thermal environments (25.3 and 27.8 °C) and measured EOD frequency and its thermal sensitivity (Q10) over 11 d. After 6d, fish exhibited thermal acclimation to both warming and cooling, adjusting the thermal dependence of EOD frequency to partially compensate for the small change (2.5 °C) in water temperature. In addition, we evaluated the thyroid influence on EOD frequency by treating fish with thyroxine or the anti-thyroid compound propylthiouricil (PTU) to stimulate or inhibit thyroid activity, respectively. Thyroxine treatment significantly increased EOD frequency, but PTU had no effect. Neither thyroxine nor PTU treatment influenced the thermal sensitivity (Q10) of EOD frequency during acute temperature change. Thus, the EOD of Apteronotus shows significant thermal acclimation and responds to elevated thyroxine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Design of an Oximeter Based on LED-LED Configuration and FPGA Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanovic, Radovan; Karadaglic, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    A fully digital photoplethysmographic (PPG) sensor and actuator has been developed. The sensing circuit uses one Light Emitting Diode (LED) for emitting light into human tissue and one LED for detecting the reflectance light from human tissue. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to control the LEDs and determine the PPG and Blood Oxygen Saturation (SpO2). The configurations with two LEDs and four LEDs are developed for measuring PPG signal and Blood Oxygen Saturation (SpO2). N-LEDs...

  13. Construction of an array of LEDs coupled to a concentrator for phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Joana; Liang, Dawei

    2011-07-01

    The use of LED devices for phototherapy has been expanding in the last decade. This technology provides a safer emission spectrum in large target tissue areas when compared to laser emissions. For enhancing the phototherapeutic effects of red light emitted by LEDs, a simple optical concentrator capable of efficient light concentration and homogenization was developed. The LEDs wavelength of 660 nm is coincident with an absorption peak of the mitochondrial photoreceptor molecule cytochrome c oxidase. The prototype was optimized by non-sequential ray-tracing software ZEMAX, attaining both excellent light uniformity and 50mW/cm2 irradiance at the concentrator output end. Heat emanated from the LEDs source is effectively dissipated by the side walls of the concentrator, ensuring a nearly constant temperature environment for tissue treatment. The prototype was tested on cutaneous hyperpigmented marks caused by cupping in two healthy volunteers. Marks were irradiated by LEDs radiations with or without the use of concentrator respectively. Equal exposure durations and light fluences were tested. The use of the concentrator-coupled LEDs source revealed an activation of blood movement immediately after LEDs exposure, an effect not attainable by the LEDs source without the concentrator even at extended exposure time. Promising futures for the treatment of inflammation, tissue repair and skin rejuvenation could be expected by adopting this simple technique.

  14. Properties–structure relationship research on LiCaPO4:Eu2+ as blue phosphor for NUV LED application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinguo; Mo, Fuwang; Zhou, Liya; Gong, Menglian

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The graphical abstract shows the excitation and emission spectrum of LiCaPO 4 :Eu 2+ , and the CIE coordinates of LiCaPO 4 :Eu 2+ . The inset shows the photo of blue LED prepared by LiCaPO 4 :Eu 2+ and NUV chip. It indicates that this phosphor can be excited by UV light and emit strong greenish-blue light. Highlights: •Pure phase blue phosphors of LiCaPO 4 :Eu 2+ with a hexagonal structure were first prepared via solid-state method. •The crystallographic site of Eu 2+ ion in the LiCaPO 4 lattice was identified as 8-fold Ca 2+ site. •The phosphor exhibits excellent thermal stability and the corresponding mechanism was thermal assisted ionization. •Bright and high color purity blue LED prototype based on LiCaPO 4 :Eu 2+ phosphor was fabricated. -- Abstract: Blue-emitting phosphors of Eu 2+ -activated LiCaPO 4 with a hexagonal structure were prepared via a conventional solid-state method. The XRD, PL spectra and thermal quenching were applied to characterize the phosphors. The crystallographic site of Eu 2+ ion in the LiCaPO 4 lattice was identified and discussed. The optimized LiCaPO 4 :0.03Eu 2+ exhibits the bright greenish-blue emission with CIE coordinates of (0.119, 0.155) and a quantum efficiency of 52%. The critical energy-transfer distance was confirmed as ∼18 Å by both calculated crystal structure method and experimental spectral method. The thermal stability of LiCaPO 4 :Eu 2+ was evaluated by temperature-dependent PL spectra, and the thermal quenching mechanism was found to be thermal assisted ionization. Prototype blue LEDs with high color purity and good current stability were fabricated

  15. LED phototherapy in full-thickness burns induced by CO2 laser in rats skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Melo, Milene; Alves, Leandro Procópio; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Carvalho, Henrique Cunha; de Lima, Carlos José; Munin, Egberto; Gomes, Mônica Fernandes; Salgado, Miguel Angel Castillo; Zângaro, Renato Amaro

    2018-04-27

    Many studies have been conducted on the treatment of burns because they are important in morbidity and mortality. These studies are mainly focused on improving care and quality of life of patients. The aim of this study was evaluate the LED phototherapy effects in rats skin full-thickness burns induced by CO 2 laser. The animals were divided in NT group that did not received any treatment and LED group that received LED irradiation at 685 nm, 220 mW, and 4.5 J/cm 2 during 40 s by burned area. Biopsies were obtained after 7, 14, and 21 days of treatment and submitted to histological and immunohistochemical analysis. The LED phototherapy shows anti-inflammatory effects, improves angiogenesis, and stimulates the migration and proliferation of fibroblasts. The T CD8+ lymphocytes were more common in burned areas compared to T CD4+ lymphocytes since statistically significant differences were observed in the LED group compared to the NT group after 7 days of treatment. These results showed that LED phototherapy performs positive influence in full-thickness burns repair from the healing process modulated by cellular immune response. The obtained results allowed inferring that burns exhibit a characteristic cell immune response and this cannot be extrapolated to other wounds such as incision and wounds induced by punch, among others.

  16. Study on luminescence and thermal stability of blue-emitting Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F: Eu{sup 2+}phosphor for application in InGaN-based LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Zhi-Ming [State Key Laboratory Base of Eco-chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Wu, Zhan-Chao, E-mail: wuzhan_chao@163.com [State Key Laboratory Base of Eco-chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Wang, Fang-Fang [State Key Laboratory Base of Eco-chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Li, Zhen-Jiang, E-mail: zjli126@126.com [State Key Laboratory Base of Eco-chemical Engineering, College of Sino-German Science and Technology, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, 53 Zhengzhou Road, Qingdao 266042, Shandong (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • A blue phosphor Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F: Eu{sup 2+} was prepared at low temperature of 800 °C. • The broad excitation band of the phosphor matches well with NUV LED chips. • The phosphor shows high color purity and good color stability. • A bright blue-emitting LED was fabricated with this phosphor on an InGaN chip. - Abstract: A series of blue-emitting phosphors Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F: Eu{sup 2+} were synthesized by traditional high temperature solid-state reaction method. The micro-morphology and photoluminescence properties of the phosphors were investigated. The Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F: Eu{sup 2+} phosphors exhibit broad excitation spectra ranging from 250 to 420 nm, and an intense asymmetric blue emission band peaking at 435 nm. Two different Eu{sup 2+} emission centers in Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F: Eu{sup 2+} phosphors were confirmed via their fluorescence properties. The concentration quenching mechanism, fluorescence lifetime and thermal stability of Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F: Eu{sup 2+} phosphors were studied in detail. The thermal stability can be improved obviously by anion substitution. The CIE chromaticity coordinates of Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F: Eu{sup 2+} phosphors with different Eu{sup 2+}-doped concentrations were calculated. A blue light-emitting diode was fabricated by combination of a 370 nm InGaN chip and the prepared phosphor Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F: Eu{sup 2+}. The present work suggests that Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F: Eu{sup 2+} is a potential phosphor applied in InGaN-based LEDs.

  17. Biological indicators capable of assessing thermal treatment efficiency of hydrocarbon mixture-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangang; Zhan, Xinhua; Zhou, Lixiang; Lin, Yusuo

    2010-08-01

    In China, there are many special sites for recycling and washing the used drums, which release a variety of C5-C40 hydrocarbon mixture into the soil around the site. The remediation of these contaminated sites by thermal treatment is adopted ubiquitously and needs to be assessed. Here we report the feasibility of biological indicators applied to assess thermal treatment efficiency in such contaminated soil. A series of biological indicators, including seed germination index (SGI), root elongation index (REI), plant growth height, biomass, carbon dioxide evolved (CDE), soil respiration inhibition (SRI) and soil enzymatic activities, were employed to monitor or assess hydrocarbon mixture removal in thermal treated soil. The results showed that residual hydrocarbon mixture content correlated strongly negatively with SGI for sesamum (Sesamum indicum L.), plant height, and biomass for ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the concentration ranges of 0-3990, 0-3170 and 0-2910 mg kg(-1), respectively. In contrast, REI for sesamum was positively correlated with residual hydrocarbon mixture content from 0 to 1860 mg kg(-1). In addition, both CDE and SRI demonstrated that 600 mg kg(-1) of residual hydrocarbon mixture content caused the highest amount of soil carbon dioxide emission and inhabitation of soil respiration. The results of soil enzymes indicated that 1000 mg kg(-1) of residual hydrocarbon mixture content was the threshold value of stimulating or inhibiting the activities of phosphatase and catalase, or completely destroying the activities of dehydrogenase, invertase, and urease. In conclusion, these biological indicators can be used as a meaningful complementation for traditional chemical content measurement in evaluating the environmental risk of the contaminated sites before and after thermal treatment. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of ecologically safety technology for steam-thermal treatment of organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juravskij, J [Centre for Science, Technology and Industrial Applications, ` ` Tokema` ` , Minsk (Belarus)

    1997-02-01

    The experience on mitigation of the consequences of the Chernobyl`s nuclear power station accident proves that the treatment of large amounts of organic and mixed wastes containing radionuclides is a very urgent scientific and technical problem. In this connection a search for new ideas and development of highly efficient and ecologically safety technologies for treatment of organic radioactive wastes has been undertaken. This study is based on use of physico-mechanical properties of various organic materials (wood, rubber-containing composites, plastics, biomass) subjected to thermal decomposition in the overheated water steam medium. Under such conditions, there is a possibility, under relatively low temperatures (400 - 500 deg. C), to realize thermal decomposition and considerably (in 8 - 50 times) to reduce the amount of wastes, to obtain the main concentration of radionuclides in the solid residue and to prevent releases of gaseous products containing radionuclides to the environment. (author). 5 figs, 1 tab.

  19. Thermal and Hydrothermal Treatment of Silica Gels as Solid Stationary Phases in Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Yehia El-Naggar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica gel was prepared and treated thermally and hydrothermally and was characterized as solid stationary phase in gas chromatography. The characteristics have been evaluated in terms of polarity, selectivity, and separation efficiencies. These parameters were used to assess the outer silica surface contributions and the degree of surface deactivation brought about by different treatment techniques. The parent silica elutes the paraffinic hydrocarbons with high efficiency of separation and elutes aromatic hydrocarbons with nearly good separation and has bad separation of alcohols. The calcined silica at 500°C and 1000°C has a pronounced effect on the separation of aromatic hydrocarbons compared with the parent silica and hydrothermal treatment of silica. With respect to alcohols separation, the obtained bad separations using treated and untreated silica reflect the little effect of the thermal and hydrothermal treatment on the silica surface deactivation.

  20. Luminescent features of sol–gel derived rare-earth multi-doped oxyfluoride nano-structured phosphors for white LED application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouveia-Neto, A.S.; Silva, A.F. da; Bueno, L.A.; Costa, E.B. da

    2012-01-01

    Rare-earth doped oxyfluoride 75SiO 2 :25PbF 2 nano-structured phosphors for white-light-emitting diodes were synthesized by thermal treatment of precursor sol–gel derived glasses. Room temperature luminescence features of Eu 3+ , Sm 3+ , Tb 3+ , Eu 3+ /Tb 3+ , and Sm 3+ /Tb 3+ ions incorporated into low-phonon-energy PbF 2 nanocrystals dispersed in the aluminosilicate glass matrix and excited with UV light emitting diode were investigated. The luminescence spectra exhibited strong emission signals in the red (600, 610, 625, and 646 nm), green (548 and 560 nm), and blue (485 nm) wavelength regions. White-light emission was observed in Sm/Tb and Eu/Tb double-doped activated phosphors employing UV-LED excitation at 395 nm. The dependence of the luminescence emission intensities upon annealing temperature and rare-earth concentration was also examined. The results indicated that there exist optimum annealing temperature and activator ion concentration in order to obtain intense visible emission light with high color rendering index. The study suggests that the nanocomposite phosphor based upon 75SiO 2 :25PbF 2 host herein reported is a promising contender for white-light LED applications. - Highlights: ► White-light emission in double-doped activated phosphors employing UV-LED excitation. ► Luminescent features of europium, samarium, and terbium in nanocrystals dispersed in aluminosilicate glass. ► New nanocomposite phosphor host for white-light LED applications.

  1. CFD investigation of thermal-hydraulic characteristics in a PBR core using different contact treatments between pebbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferng, Y.M.; Lin, K.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • It is important to study thermal-hydraulic characteristics in a PBR for a HTGR. • A CFD model is proposed to simulate flow and heat transfer in a segment of pebbles. • Area and point contact treatments for adjacent pebbles are adopted in this study. • Predicted dependences of Nu and friction factor agree with the correlations. - Abstract: A high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) with a pebble bed core (PBR) can be considered as one of the possible energy generation sources in the incoming future due to its inherently safe performance, lower power density, and higher conversion efficiency, etc. It is important to study the thermal-hydraulic characteristics in a PBR for optimum design and safe operation of a HTGR. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology is proposed to investigate the thermal-hydraulic behavior in a segment of pebbles representing the central region of a PBR. Two kinds of contact modeling between adjacent pebbles are adopted, namely area and point contact treatments. The former contact treatment is a geometric approximation modeling. Based on the comparisons of thermal-hydraulic characteristics in the pebbles predicted by both contact treatments, no significant difference is revealed except for the near-wall secondary flow pattern. In addition, compared with the calculated results from the well-known correlations, the present predicted dependence of Nu number and friction factor on the particle Reynolds number shows good agreement qualitatively and quantitatively

  2. Effect of Thermal Fields on the Structure of Corrosion-Resistant Steels Under Different Modes of Laser Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, T. V.; Gusarov, A. V.; Protasov, K. E.; Filatova, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    The influence of temperature fields on the structure and properties of corrosion-resistant chromium steels under different modes of laser treatment is investigated. A model of heat transfer under laser impact on target is used to plot thermal fields and cycles and cooling rates. It is shown that the model used for computing thermal fields gives tentative geometric sizes of the fusion zones under laser treatment and selective laser fusion. The cooling rate is shown to have decisive influence on the structure of corrosion-resistant steels after laser treatment with surface fusion in devices for pulsed, continuous, and selective laser melting.

  3. Effect of thermal treatment conditions on properties of vanadium molybdenum oxide catalyst in acrolein oxidation reaction to acrylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkova, T.P.; Tarasova, D.V.; Olen'kova, I.P.; Andrushkevich, T.V.; Nikoro, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of thermal treatment conditions (temperature and gas medium) on properties of vanadium molybdenum oxide catalyst in acrolein oxidation reaction to acrylic acid is investigated. It is shown that active and selective catalysts are formed in the course of thermal decomposition of the drying product of ammonium metavanadate and paramolybdate under the conditions ensuring the vanadium ion reduction up to tetravalent state with conservation of molybdenum oxidation degree equal to 6. It is possible to realize it either by treatment of the catalyst calcinated in the air flow at 300 deg by the reaction mixture at the activation stage or by gas-reducer flow treatment at 280 deg. Thermal treatment in the reducing medium of the oxidized catalyst does not lead to complete regeneration of its properties

  4. Technological change in Swiss thermal waste treatment: An expert-based socio-technical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoerri, Andy; Lang, Daniel J.; Staeubli, Beat; Scholz, Roland W.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding technological change provides a crucial basis for governing sustainability transitions. In this paper we present an analysis of technological change using the example of Swiss thermal waste processing. In recent years, increased concerns about the low quality of residues from grate-firing systems led to the examination of alternative technologies. Yet despite clear indications of a potential better performance with respect to residue quality, none of these alternatives has been adopted. Based on a two-stage knowledge integration among 15 leading experts, in a retrospective analysis we identified factors that have significantly affected technological change in Swiss thermal waste processing. These factors were then related to three technological options representing different types of technological change, i.e., from incremental improvements of the existing to the implementation of a new technology. The results indicate that technological change is currently in a technological lock-in and provide detailed insights on the causes. The lock-in results in the step-wise further development of the status quo grate-firing system despite its limitations for improving the residue qualities. Almost all factors (legal, economic, societal, technological) of the existing 'thermal waste management' system have been well adapted to the cost- and energy-efficient grate-firing technology, blocking innovative technologies from entering the Swiss market. In addition, pressures from the context, e.g., societal pressure related to landfill risks, have not been strong enough to promote non-incremental change.

  5. HIGH VELOCITY THERMAL GUN FOR SURFACE PREPARATION AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Gorlach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many surface preparation and treatment processes utilise compressed air to propel particles against surfaces in order to clean and treat them. The effectiveness of the processes depends on the velocity of the particles, which in turn depends on the pressure of the compressed air. This paper describes a thermal gun built on the principles of High Velocity Air Fuel (HVAF and High Velocity Oxy Fuel (HVOF processes. The designed apparatus can be used for abrasive blasting, coating of surfaces, cutting of rocks, removing rubber from mining equipment, cleaning of contaminations etc.

  6. On improvement of scintillation characteristics of Gd2SiO5:Ce crystals by thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar, Valery G.; Grinyov, Boris V.; Katrunov, Konstantin A.; Lisetski, Longin N.; Nagornaya, Lyudmila L.; Ryzhikov, Vladimir D.; Spasov, Vladimir G.; Starzhinskiy, Nikolai; Tamulaitis, Gintautas

    2005-01-01

    Effects of thermal treatment of Gd 2 SiO 5 :Ce crystals at T∼0.7T m under low pressure on their optical and scintillation properties were studied. It is shown that thermal treatment in the atmosphere with the chemical potential of ∼40 J mol -1 decreases the absorption in the UV region and substantially improves the crystal transparency in the region of intrinsic emission peaked at 427 nm.Narrowing of the emission band due to suppression of the long-wave component in the range of 520-560 nm, light output increase by 7-10%, decrease of the emission decay time, and improvement of thermal stability of the luminescence yield were also observed. Transformations of the ensemble of structural defects in cerium-activated gadolinium oxyorthosilicate crystals are under discussion

  7. The effect of thermal treatment on antioxidant capacity and pigment contents in separated betalain fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk-Bator, Katarzyna; Pawlak, Sylwia

    2016-01-01

    Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables significantly reduces the risk of cardio-vascular disease. This beneficial effect on the human organism is ascribed to the antioxidant compounds these foods contain. Unfortunately, many products, particularly vegetables, need to be subjected to thermal processing before consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of such thermal treatment on the antioxidant capacity and pigment contents in separated fractions of violet pigments (betacyanins) and yellow pigments (betaxanthins and betacyanins). Fractions of violet and yellow pigments were obtained by separation of betalain pigments from fresh roots of 3 red beet cultivars using column chromatography and solid phase extraction (SPE). The betalain pigment content was determined in all samples before and after thermal treatment (90°C/30 min) by spectrophotometry, according to Nilsson's method [1970] and antioxidant capacity was assessed based on ABTS. Betalain pigments in the separated fractions were identified using HPLC-MS. After thermal treatment of betacyanin fractions a slight, but statistically significant degradation of pigments was observed, while the antioxidant capacity of these fractions did not change markedly. Losses of betacyanin content amounted to 13-15% depending on the cultivar, while losses of antioxidant capacity were approx. 7%. HPLC/MS analyses showed that before heating, betanin was the dominant pigment in the betacyanin fraction, while after heating it was additionally 15-decarboxy-betanin. Isolated fractions of yellow pigments in red beets are three times less heat-resistant than betacyanin fractions. At losses of yellow pigment contents in the course of thermal treatment reaching 47%, antioxidant capacity did not change markedly (a decrease by approx. 5%). In the yellow pigment fractions neobetanin was the dominant peak in the HPLC chromatogram, while vulgaxanthin was found in a much smaller area, whereas after heating

  8. Role of modification and melt thermal treatment processes on the microstructure and tensile properties of Al–Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Garza-Elizondo, G.H.; Doty, H.W.; Samuel, F.H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • High tensile strength applying the melt thermal treatment process. • Enhanced ductility by changing the Si particle morphology. • Control of the dissolution and precipitation of Mg 2 Si phase. • Establishment of the fracture mechanisms of Al–Si–Mg alloys. - Abstract: The present study was performed on an Al–7%Si–0.35%Mg alloy (A356 alloy) with the primary objective of improving the alloy performance through modification of the microstructure. Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) can be improved by the addition of strontium (Sr), superheating or Sr modified melt thermal treatment. The melt thermal treatment process alone has no apparent influence on the UTS. Both Sr-modified and Sr-modified melt thermal treatment can help to improve the percentage elongation of A356 alloy castings. A higher percentage elongation can be reached at a higher cooling rate. The effect of solution heat treatment on the tensile properties of various A356.2 alloy castings can be summed up as follows: (i) the yield strength of the A356.2 castings is significantly improved after 8 h solution heat treatment due to the precipitation of Mg 2 Si, (ii) the yield strength remains more or less the same with further increase in solution treatment time to 80 h, and (iii) the UTS is greatly improved within the first 8 h of solution heat treatment and continues up to 80 h, where this improvement is attributed to Mg 2 Si precipitation, dissolution of silicon within the Al-matrix and change in the Si particle morphology (spheroidization). The ductility of the A356.2 alloys can also be considerably enhanced with solution heat treatment (e.g. from ∼6% in the non-modified casting in the as-cast condition to ∼10% after 80 h solution treatment)

  9. Real-time temperature feedback for nanoparticles based tumor thermal treatment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Idan; Tamir, Gil; Gannot, Israel

    2017-02-01

    Systemic hyperthermia therapy exploits the fact that cancer cells are more sensitive to elevated temperatures than healthy tissue. Systemic application of hyperthermia externally usually leads to low efficiency treatment. Recently, our group and others have proposed an antibody conjugated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) approach to overcome the limitation of systemic hyperthermia. MNPs can bind specifically to the tumor sites, thus delivering internal highly effective targeted hyperthermia. However, such internal mechanism requires more complicated controls and monitoring. This current work presents a deep tissue temperature monitoring method to control hyperthermia effectiveness and minimize collateral damage to surrounding tissues. A low-frequency narrowband modulation of the RF field used for MNP heating leads to the generation of diffused thermal waves which propagate to the tissue surface and captured by a thermal camera. A Fourier domain, analytical heat transfer model is used for temperature monitoring algorithm. The ill-posed thermal inverse problem is solved efficiently by iterating over the source power until both the amplitude and phase match the recorded thermal image sequence. The narrow bandwidth thermal stimulation enables acquiring deep signals with high SNR. We show that thermal transverse resolution improves as the stimulation frequency increases even slightly above DC, enabling better heat source transverse separation and margin identification in the case of distributed tumors. These results can be used as a part of an overall image and treat system for efficient detection of tumors, manipulation of MNPs and monitoring MNP based hyperthermia.

  10. Activation of sputter-processed indium-gallium-zinc oxide films by simultaneous ultraviolet and thermal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Young Jun; Ahn, Byung Du; Park, Sung Pyo; Kim, Si Joon; Song, Ae Ran; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2016-02-23

    Indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) films, deposited by sputtering at room temperature, still require activation to achieve satisfactory semiconductor characteristics. Thermal treatment is typically carried out at temperatures above 300 °C. Here, we propose activating sputter- processed IGZO films using simultaneous ultraviolet and thermal (SUT) treatments to decrease the required temperature and enhance their electrical characteristics and stability. SUT treatment effectively decreased the amount of carbon residues and the number of defect sites related to oxygen vacancies and increased the number of metal oxide (M-O) bonds through the decomposition-rearrangement of M-O bonds and oxygen radicals. Activation of IGZO TFTs using the SUT treatment reduced the processing temperature to 150 °C and improved various electrical performance metrics including mobility, on-off ratio, and threshold voltage shift (positive bias stress for 10,000 s) from 3.23 to 15.81 cm(2)/Vs, 3.96 × 10(7) to 1.03 × 10(8), and 11.2 to 7.2 V, respectively.

  11. The effect of LED illumination on endodontic biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Merete

    Within endodontics photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been suggested as a disinfectant procedure during root canal treatment. A photoactive dye (photosensitizer), methylene blue or toluidine blue, are activated by a light source, usually lasers or light emitting diodes (LEDs), thereby forming free...

  12. The mechanisms of heavy metal immobilization by cementitious material treatments and thermal treatments: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Liu, Bo; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Shengen

    2017-05-15

    Safe disposal of solid wastes containing heavy metals is a significant task for environment protection. Immobilization treatment is an effective technology to achieve this task. Cementitious material treatments and thermal treatments are two types of attractive immobilization treatments due to that the heavy metals could be encapsulated in their dense and durable wasteforms. This paper discusses the heavy metal immobilization mechanisms of these methods in detail. Physical encapsulation and chemical stabilization are two fundamental mechanisms that occur simultaneously during the immobilization processes. After immobilization treatments, the wasteforms build up a low permeable barrier for the contaminations. This reduces the exposed surface of wastes. Chemical stabilization occurs when the heavy metals transform into more stable and less soluble metal bearing phases. The heavy metal bearing phases in the wasteforms are also reviewed in this paper. If the heavy metals are incorporated into more stable and less soluble metal bearing phases, the potential hazards of heavy metals will be lower. Thus, converting heavy metals into more stable phases during immobilization processes should be a common way to enhance the immobilization effect of these immobilization methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of a Cooling Step Treatment on a High-Voltage GaN LED During ICP Dry Etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Sheng; Hsiao, Sheng-Yu; Tseng, Chun-Lung; Shen, Ching-Hsing; Chiang, Jung-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a lower dislocation density for a GaN surface and a reduced current path are observed at the interface of a SiO2 isolation sidewall, using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. This is grown using a 3-min cooling step treatment during inductivity coupled plasma dry etching. The lower forward voltage is measured, the leakage current decreases from 53nA to 32nA, and the maximum output power increases from 354.8 W to 357.2 W for an input current of 30 mA. The microstructure and the optoelectronic properties of high-voltage light-emitting-diodes is proven to be affected by the cooling step treatment, which allows enough time to release the thermal energy of the SiO2 isolation well.

  14. Effect of Isomorphous Substitution on the Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of Hydrotalcites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Crosby

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrotalcites have many important applications in catalysis, wastewater treatment, gene delivery and polymer stabilization, all depending on preparation history and treatment scenarios. In catalysis and polymer stabilization, thermal decomposition is of great importance. Hydrotalcites form easily with atmospheric carbon dioxide and often interfere with the study of other anion containing systems, particularly if formed at room temperature. The dehydroxylation and decomposition of carbonate occurs simultaneously, making it difficult to distinguish the dehydroxylation mechanisms directly. To date, the majority of work on understanding the decomposition mechanism has utilized hydrotalcite precipitated at room temperature. In this study, evolved gas analysis combined with thermal analysis has been used to show that CO2 contamination is problematic in materials being formed at RT that are poorly crystalline. This has led to some dispute as to the nature of the dehydroxylation mechanism. In this paper, data for the thermal decomposition of the chloride form of hydrotalcite are reported. In addition, carbonate-free hydrotalcites have been synthesized with different charge densities and at different growth temperatures. This combination of parameters has allowed a better understanding of the mechanism of dehydroxylation and the role that isomorphous substitution plays in these mechanisms to be delineated. In addition, the effect of anion type on thermal stability is also reported. A stepwise dehydroxylation model is proposed that is mediated by the level of aluminum substitution.

  15. Size-controlled InGaN/GaN nanorod LEDs with an ITO/graphene transparent layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Phil; Seong, Won-Seok; Min, Jung-Hong; Kong, Duk-Jo; Seo, Dong-Ju; Kim, Hyung-jun; Lee, Dong-Seon

    2016-11-01

    We introduce ITO on graphene as a current-spreading layer for separated InGaN/GaN nanorod LEDs for the purpose of passivation-free and high light-extraction efficiency. Transferred graphene on InGaN/GaN nanorods effectively blocks the diffusion of ITO atoms to nanorods, facilitating the production of transparent ITO/graphene contact on parallel-nanorod LEDs, without filling the air gaps, like a bridge structure. The ITO/graphene layer sufficiently spreads current in a lateral direction, resulting in uniform and reliable light emission observed from the whole area of the top surface. Using KOH treatment, we reduce series resistance and reverse leakage current in nanorod LEDs by recovering the plasma-damaged region. We also control the size of the nanorods by varying the KOH treatment time and observe strain relaxation via blueshift in electroluminescence. As a result, bridge-structured LEDs with 8 min of KOH treatment show 15 times higher light-emitting efficiency than with 2 min of KOH treatment.

  16. Evaluation of thermal and radiation treatment on microstructure of low-alloyed steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.

    1998-09-01

    Eighth different types of reactor pressure vessel steels used in Eastern and Western Nuclear Power Plants were studied for their microstructural changes due to thermal-, irradiation- and postirradiation heat treatment. Methods used were positron annihilation spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy and transmission electron spectroscopy. Clear differences between Eastern- and Western reactor pressure vessel types were observed not only due to different chemical composition but also due to differences in the preparation and treatment of the investigated steels. Detailed results are presented in tables and figures. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the properties of anodized aluminum 6061 subjected to thermal cycling treatment using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Yuelong [Corrosion and Environmental Effects Laboratory (CEEL), Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0241 (United States); Shih Hong [Lam Research Corporation, 4400 Cushing Parkway, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States)], E-mail: hong.shih@lamrc.com; Daugherty, John [Lam Research Corporation, 4400 Cushing Parkway, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Mansfeld, Florian [Corrosion and Environmental Effects Laboratory (CEEL), Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0241 (United States)], E-mail: mansfeld@usc.edu

    2009-10-15

    The corrosion resistance of anodized Al 6061 produced by two different anodizing and sealing processes was evaluated for 30 days during exposure to 3.5 wt% NaCl using EIS. Thermal cycling treatments at 120, 160 and 200 deg. C have been applied for the two types of samples. The degradation of the properties of the anodized layers has been determined by thorough analysis of the EIS data for control samples and samples that had undergone thermal cycling. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to evaluate the damage to the anodized aluminum layers due to thermal cycling. It was found that the thermal treatment produced considerable damage of both the porous layer and the barrier layer. The EIS data suggest that some cracks extended into the bare metal. The damage of the oxide layers increased with increasing thermal cycling temperature for both types of samples. Self-sealing of the porous layer and the barrier layer occurred during immersion in NaCl.

  18. Antimicrobial effect and shelf-life extension by combined thermal and pulsed electric field treatment of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkling-Ribeiro, M; Noci, F; Cronin, D A; Lyng, J G; Morgan, D J

    2009-01-01

    The impact of a combined hurdle treatment of heat and pulsed electric fields (PEF) was studied on native microbiota used for the inoculation of low-fat ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk and whole raw milk. Microbiological shelf-life of the latter following hurdle treatment or thermal pasteurization was also investigated. UHT milk was preheated to 30 degrees C, 40 degrees C or 50 degrees C over a 60-s period, pulsed for 50 micros or 60 micros at a field strength of 40 kV cm(-1) or for 33 micros at 50 kV cm(-1). Heat and PEF reduced the microbial count by a maximum of 6.4 log in UHT milk (50 degrees C; 50 kV cm(-1), 33 micros) compared to 6.0 log (P > or = 0.05) obtained by thermal pasteurization (26 s, 72 degrees C). When raw milk was treated with a combination of hurdles (50 degrees C; 40 kV cm(-1), 60 micros) a 6.0 log inactivation of microbiota was achieved and microbiological milk shelf-life was extended to 21 days under refrigeration (4 degrees C) vs 14 days in thermally pasteurized milk. Native microbiota was decreased by 6.7 log following conventional pasteurization. The findings suggest that heat and PEF achieved similar inactivation of native microbiota in milk and longer stabilization of microbiological shelf-life than thermal pasteurization. A hurdle approach of heat and PEF could represent a valid milk processing alternative to conventional pasteurization. Hurdle treatment might also preserve native milk quality better due to less thermal exposure.

  19. Distribution of copper, silver and gold during thermal treatment with brominated flame retardants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleszek, Sylwia; Grabda, Mariusz; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Copper, silver and gold during thermal treatment with brominated flame retardants. • Distribution of copper, silver and gold during thermal processing. • Thermodynamic considerations of the bromination reactions. - Abstract: The growing consumption of electric and electronic equipment results in creating an increasing amount of electronic waste. The most economically and environmentally advantageous methods for the treatment and recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) are the thermal techniques such as direct combustion, co-combustion with plastic wastes, pyrolysis and gasification. Nowadays, this kind of waste is mainly thermally treated in incinerators (e.g. rotary kilns) to decompose the plastics present, and to concentrate metals in bottom ash. The concentrated metals (e.g. copper, precious metals) can be supplied as a secondary raw material to metal smelters, while the pyrolysis of plastics allows the recovery of fuel gases, volatilising agents and, eventually, energy. Indeed, WEEE, such as a printed circuit boards (PCBs) usually contains brominated flame retardants (BFRs). From these materials, hydrobromic acid (HBr) is formed as a product of their thermal decomposition. In the present work, the bromination was studied of copper, silver and gold by HBr, originating from BFRs, such as Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and Tetrabromobisphenol A-Tetrabromobisophenol A diglycidyl ether (TTDE) polymer; possible volatilization of the bromides formed was monitored using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a laboratory-scale furnace for treating samples of metals and BFRs under an inert atmosphere and at a wide range of temperatures. The results obtained indicate that up to about 50% of copper and silver can evolve from sample residues in the form of volatile CuBr and AgBr above 600 and 1000 °C, respectively. The reactions occur in the molten resin phase simultaneously with the decomposition of the brominated resin. Gold is

  20. In situ vitrification: An innovative thermal treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, V.F.; Timmerman, C.L.; Buelt, J.L.

    1987-03-01

    In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that converts contaminated soil into a chemically inert, stable glass and crystalline product. A square array of four electrodes are inserted into the ground to the desired treatment depth. Because the soil is not electrically conductive once the moisture has been driven off, a conductive mixture of flaked graphite and glass frit is placed among the electrodes to act as the starter path. An electrical potential is applied to the electrodes, which establishes an electrical current in the starter path. The resultant power heats the starter path and surrounding soil up to 3600 0 F, well above the initial melting temperature or fusion temperature of soils. The normal fusion temperature of soil ranges between 2000 and 2500 0 F. The graphite starter path is eventually consumed by oxidation, and the current is transferred to the molten soil, which is now electrically conductive. As the vitrified zone grows, it incorporates nonvolatile elements and destroys organic components by pyrolysis. The pyrolyzed byproducts migrate to the surface of the vitrified zone, where they combust in the presence of oxygen. A hood placed over the processing area provides confinement for the combustion gases, and the gases are drawn into the off-gas treatment system

  1. Carrier capture efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs: Role of high temperature annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinattieri, A.; Batignani, F.; Bogani, F.; Meneghini, M.; Meneghesso, G.; Zanoni, E.; Zhu, D.; Humphreys, C. J.

    2014-02-01

    By means of time integrated (TI), time-resolved (TR) photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation spectra, we investigate the role of an high temperature post-growth thermal annealing (TA) on a set of InGaN/GaN LED structures with different dislocation densities. We provide evidence of the nature of the radiative recombination from a wide distribution of non-interacting localised states and we show the beneficial effect of thermal annealing in reducing the contribution of non-radiative recombination in the well region.

  2. Carrier capture efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs: Role of high temperature annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinattieri, A.; Batignani, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, LENS, CNISM, Università di Firenze (Italy); Bogani, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Firenze (Italy); Meneghini, M.; Meneghesso, G.; Zanoni, E. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Università di Padova (Italy); Zhu, D.; Humphreys, C. J. [Department Materials Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-21

    By means of time integrated (TI), time-resolved (TR) photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation spectra, we investigate the role of an high temperature post-growth thermal annealing (TA) on a set of InGaN/GaN LED structures with different dislocation densities. We provide evidence of the nature of the radiative recombination from a wide distribution of non-interacting localised states and we show the beneficial effect of thermal annealing in reducing the contribution of non-radiative recombination in the well region.

  3. Head-mounted LED for optogenetic experiments of freely-behaving animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ki Yong; Gnade, Andrew G.; Rush, Alexander D.; Patten, Craig D.

    2016-03-01

    Recent developments in optogenetics have demonstrated the ability to target specific types of neurons with sub-millisecond temporal precision via direct optical stimulation of genetically modified neurons in the brain. In most applications, the beam of a laser is coupled to an optical fiber, which guides and delivers the optical power to the region of interest. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are an alternative light source for optogenetics and they provide many advantages over a laser based system including cost, size, illumination stability, and fast modulation. Their compact size and low power consumption make LEDs suitable light sources for a wireless optogenetic stimulation system. However, the coupling efficiency of an LED's output light into an optical fiber is lower than a laser due to its noncollimated output light. In typical chronic optogenetic experiment, the output of the light source is transmitted to the brain through a patch cable and a fiber stub implant, and this configuration requires two fiber-to-fiber couplings. Attenuation within the patch cable is potential source of optical power loss. In this study, we report and characterize a recently developed light delivery method for freely-behaving animal experiments. We have developed a head-mounted light source that maximizes the coupling efficiency of an LED light source by eliminating the need for a fiber optic cable. This miniaturized LED is designed to couple directly to the fiber stub implant. Depending on the desired optical power output, the head-mounted LED can be controlled by either a tethered (high power) or battery-powered wireless (moderate power) controller. In the tethered system, the LED is controlled through 40 gauge micro coaxial cable which is thinner, more flexible, and more durable than a fiber optic cable. The battery-powered wireless system uses either infrared or radio frequency transmission to achieve real-time control. Optical, electrical, mechanical, and thermal

  4. Design of an Oximeter Based on LED-LED Configuration and FPGA Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Stojanovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fully digital photoplethysmographic (PPG sensor and actuator has been developed. The sensing circuit uses one Light Emitting Diode (LED for emitting light into human tissue and one LED for detecting the reflectance light from human tissue. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA is used to control the LEDs and determine the PPG and Blood Oxygen Saturation (SpO2. The configurations with two LEDs and four LEDs are developed for measuring PPG signal and Blood Oxygen Saturation (SpO2. N-LEDs configuration is proposed for multichannel SpO2 measurements. The approach resulted in better spectral sensitivity, increased and adjustable resolution, reduced noise, small size, low cost and low power consumption.

  5. Design of an oximeter based on LED-LED configuration and FPGA technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Radovan; Karadaglic, Dejan

    2013-01-04

    A fully digital photoplethysmographic (PPG) sensor and actuator has been developed. The sensing circuit uses one Light Emitting Diode (LED) for emitting light into human tissue and one LED for detecting the reflectance light from human tissue. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to control the LEDs and determine the PPG and Blood Oxygen Saturation (S(p)O(2)). The configurations with two LEDs and four LEDs are developed for measuring PPG signal and Blood Oxygen Saturation (S(p)O(2)). N-LEDs configuration is proposed for multichannel S(p)O(2) measurements. The approach resulted in better spectral sensitivity, increased and adjustable resolution, reduced noise, small size, low cost and low power consumption.

  6. Thermal Properties of Silver Nanoparticle Sintering Bonding Paste for High-Power LED Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the preparation of low-temperature sintered nanosilver paste with inverse microemulsion method with Span-80/Triton X-100 as the mixed-surfactant and analyzes the influence of different sintering parameters (temperature, pressure on the shear properties of low-temperature sintering of nanosilver. Experimental results show that the shear strength of the low-temperature sintering of nanosilver increases as the temperature and pressure increase. But there are many pores and relative fewer cracks on the sintering layer after low-temperature sintered. The test thermal resistance of low-temperature sintered nanosilver paste is 0.795 K/W which is greater than SAC305 weld layer with a T3ster thermal analyzer. The adhesive performance and the heat dispersion of low-temperature sintered nanosilver paste need to be further researched and improved.

  7. Comparing effects of washing, thermal treatments and gamma irradiation on quality of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag Zaied, S.E.A.; Aziz, N.H.; Ali, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Samples of 5 selected spices, black pepper (Piper nigrum), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and anise (Pimpinella anisum) seeds, and turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes, obtained from the local market, were washed with pure tap water then dried at room temperature, subjected to a thermal treatment at 70 degrees C for 15 minutes or exposed to a gamma radiation source (5.0 or 10 kGy). The treatments were evaluated using microbiological and chemical studies

  8. Ascorbic acid is the only bioactive that is better preserved by high hydrostatic pressure than by thermal treatment of a vegetable beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Francisco J; Esteve, Maria J; Frigola, Ana

    2010-09-22

    Variations in levels of antioxidant compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and total carotenoids), total antioxidant capacity, and color changes in a vegetable (tomato, green pepper, green celery, onion, carrot, lemon, and olive oil) beverage treated by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) were evaluated in this work. The effects of HHP treatment, four different pressures (100, 200, 300, and 400 MPa) and four treatment times for each pressure (from 120 to 540 s) were compared with those of thermal treatment (90-98 °C for 15 and 21 s). High pressure treatment retained significantly more ascorbic acid in the vegetable beverage than thermal treatment. However, no significant changes in total phenolics were observed between HHP treated and thermally processed vegetable beverage and unprocessed beverage. Color changes (a*, b*, L, chroma, h°, and ΔE) were less for pressurized beverage than thermally treated samples compared with unprocessed beverage.

  9. A Novel, Aqueous Surface Treatment To Thermally Stabilize High Resolution Positive Photoresist Images*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, John J.; Spencer, Allen C.

    1986-07-01

    The paper describes a new approach to thermally stabilize the already imaged profile of high resolution positive photoresists such as ULTRAMAC" PR-914. ***XD-4000, an aqueous emulsion of a blend of fluorine-bearing compounds is spun on top of the developed, positive photoresist-imaged wafer, and baked. This allows the photoresist to withstand temperatures up to at least 175 deg. C. while essentially maintaining vertical edge profiles. Also, adverse effects of "outgassing" in harsh environments, ie., plasma and ion implant are greatly minimized by allowing the high resolution imaged photoresist to be post-baked at "elevated" temperatures. Another type of product that accomplishes the same effect is ***XD-4005, an aqueous emulsion of a high temperature-resistant polymer. While the exact mechanism is yet to be identified, it is postulated that absorption of the "polymeric" species into the "skin" of the imaged resist forms a temperature resistant "envelope", thereby allowing high resolution photoresists to also serve in a "high temperature" mode, without reticulation, or other adverse effects due to thermal degradation. SEM's are presented showing imaged ULTRAMAC" PR-914 and ULTRAMAC" **EPA-914 geometries coated with XD-4000 or XD-4005 and followed by plasma etched oxide,polysilicon and aluminum. Selectivity ratios are compared with and without the novel treatment and are shown to be significantly better with the treatment. The surface-treated photoresist for thermal resistance remains easily strippable in solvent-based or plasma media, unlike photoresists that have undergone "PRIST" or other gaseous thermal stabilization methods.

  10. Morphological changes induced by thermal treatment and gamma irradiation on the males' hind legs of Spodoptera littoralis (Noctuidae; Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai S. EL-Degwi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of males' hind legs of Spodoptera littoralis subjected to thermal treatment (33 °C and 37 °C or/and irradiated with substerilizing doses of gamma radiation (75, 100 and 150 Gy were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM in the parental generation. Five types of sensilla have been distinguished; three types of trichoid sensilla (T1,T2 and T3, sensilla basiconica and sensilla auricillica, which are considered as olfactory chemoreceptors. Moreover, sensilla chaetica are contact chemoreceptors, whereas sensilla styloconica are thermo–hygro/gustatory mechanoreceptors. The impact of thermal treatment or/and gamma irradiation reflect a clear morphological change in S. littoralis legs'sensilla, claws, spurs and scales. Otherwise, the degree of deformity was thermal and dose dependent, as it increased with an increase of the degree of temperature and dose of irradiation applied. Substerilizing doses 75 and 100 Gy, either alone or combined with thermal treatment 33 °C, have low undesirable effects on the hind legs with successful mobility or courtship behavior. Consequently, synergistic effect of gamma radiation and thermal stress induced successful application in the integrated pest management program for controlling S. littoralis.

  11. RESOURCE SAVING TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF LARGE-SIZE DIE THERMAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Glazkov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The given paper presents a development of a technological process pertaining to hardening large-size parts made of die steel. The proposed process applies a water-air mixture instead of a conventional hardening medium that is industrial oil.While developing this new technological process it has been necessary to solve the following problems: reduction of thermal treatment duration, reduction of power resource expense (natural gas and mineral oil, elimination of fire danger and increase of process ecological efficiency. 

  12. Percutaneous treatment of bone tumors by radiofrequency thermal ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Santiago, Fernando; Mar Castellano Garcia, Maria del; Guzman Alvarez, Luis; Martinez Montes, Jose Luis; Ruiz Garcia, Manuel; Tristan Fernandez, Juan MIguel

    2011-01-01

    We present our experience of the treatment of bone tumors with radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA). Over the past 4 years, we have treated 26 cases (22 benign and 4 malignant) using CT-guided RFTA. RFTA was the sole treatment in 19 cases and was combined with percutaneous cementation during the same session in the remaining seven cases. Our approach to the tumors was simplified, using a single point of entrance for both RFTA and percutaneous osteoplasty. In the benign cases, clinical success was defined as resolution of pain within 1 month of the procedure and no recurrence during the follow-up period. It was achieved in 19 out of the 21 patients in which curative treatment was attempted. The two non-resolved cases were a patient with osteoid osteoma who developed a symptomatic bone infarct after a symptom-free period of 2 months and another with femoral diaphysis osteoblastoma who suffered a pathological fracture after 8 months without symptoms. The procedure was considered clinically successful in the five cases (4 malign and 1 benign) in which palliative treatment was attempted, because there was a mean (±SD) reduction in visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score from 9.0 ± 0.4 before the procedure to <4 during the follow-up period.

  13. Percutaneous treatment of bone tumors by radiofrequency thermal ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Santiago, Fernando, E-mail: ferusan@ono.com [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18013 Granada (Spain); Mar Castellano Garcia, Maria del; Guzman Alvarez, Luis [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18013 Granada (Spain); Martinez Montes, Jose Luis [Department of Traumatology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18013 Granada (Spain); Ruiz Garcia, Manuel; Tristan Fernandez, Juan MIguel [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18013 Granada (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    We present our experience of the treatment of bone tumors with radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA). Over the past 4 years, we have treated 26 cases (22 benign and 4 malignant) using CT-guided RFTA. RFTA was the sole treatment in 19 cases and was combined with percutaneous cementation during the same session in the remaining seven cases. Our approach to the tumors was simplified, using a single point of entrance for both RFTA and percutaneous osteoplasty. In the benign cases, clinical success was defined as resolution of pain within 1 month of the procedure and no recurrence during the follow-up period. It was achieved in 19 out of the 21 patients in which curative treatment was attempted. The two non-resolved cases were a patient with osteoid osteoma who developed a symptomatic bone infarct after a symptom-free period of 2 months and another with femoral diaphysis osteoblastoma who suffered a pathological fracture after 8 months without symptoms. The procedure was considered clinically successful in the five cases (4 malign and 1 benign) in which palliative treatment was attempted, because there was a mean ({+-}SD) reduction in visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score from 9.0 {+-} 0.4 before the procedure to <4 during the follow-up period.

  14. Effect of ultrasound, low-temperature thermal and alkali pre-treatments on waste activated sludge rheology, hygienization and methane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Hernando, M; Martín-Díaz, J; Labanda, J; Mata-Alvarez, J; Llorens, J; Lucena, F; Astals, S

    2014-09-15

    Waste activated sludge is slower to biodegrade under anaerobic conditions than is primary sludge due to the glycan strands present in microbial cell walls. The use of pre-treatments may help to disrupt cell membranes and improve waste activated sludge biodegradability. In the present study, the effect of ultrasound, low-temperature thermal and alkali pre-treatments on the rheology, hygienization and biodegradability of waste activated sludge was evaluated. The optimum condition of each pre-treatment was selected based on rheological criteria (reduction of steady state viscosity) and hygienization levels (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and spores of sulfite-reducing clostridia). The three pre-treatments were able to reduce the viscosity of the sludge, and this reduction was greater with increasing treatment intensity. However, only the alkali and thermal conditioning allowed the hygienization of the sludge, whereas the ultrasonication did not exhibit any notorious effect on microbial indicators populations. The selected optimum conditions were as follows: 27,000 kJ/kg TS for the ultrasound, 80 °C during 15 min for the thermal and 157 g NaOH/kg TS for the alkali. Afterward, the specific methane production was evaluated through biomethane potential tests at the specified optimum conditions. The alkali pre-treatment exhibited the greatest methane production increase (34%) followed by the ultrasonication (13%), whereas the thermal pre-treatment presented a methane potential similar to the untreated sludge. Finally, an assessment of the different treatment scenarios was conducted considering the results together with an energy balance, which revealed that the ultrasound and alkali treatments entailed higher costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermal treatment to enhance saturation magnetization of superparamagnetic Ni nanoparticles while maintaining low coercive force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Toshitaka; Yatsugi, Kenichi; Akedo, Kunio

    2018-05-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles capped by insulators have the potential to decrease eddy current and hysteresis losses. However, the saturation magnetization ( M s) decreases significantly with decreasing the particle size. In this study, superparamagnetic Ni nanoparticles having the mean size of 11.6 ± 1.8 nm were synthesized from the reduction of Ni(II) acetylacetonate in oleylamine with the addition of trioctylphosphine, indicating the coercive force ( H c) less than 1 Oe. Thermal treatments of the Ni nanoparticles were investigated as a method to enhance the M s. The results indicated that the M s was enhanced by an increase of the Ni mass ratio with increasing thermal treatment temperature. However, the decomposition behavior of the capping layers indicated that their alkyl chains actively decomposed at temperatures above 523 K to form Ni3P via reaction between Ni and P, resulting in particle growth with a significant increase in the H c. Therefore, the optimal temperature was determined to be 473 K, which increased the Ni ratio without formation of Ni3P while maintaining particle sizes with superparamagnetic properties. Further, the M s could be improved by 22% (relative to the as-synthesized Ni nanoparticles) after thermal treatment at 473 K while maintaining the H c to be less than 1 Oe.

  16. A Modified Thermal Treatment Method for the Up-Scalable Synthesis of Size-Controlled Nanocrystalline Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysar Sabah Keiteb

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the increasing demand for titania nanoparticles with controlled quality for various applications, the present work reports the up-scalable synthesis of size-controlled titanium dioxide nanocrystals with a simple and convenient thermal treatment route. Titanium dioxide nanocrystals with tetragonal structure were synthesized directly from an aqueous solution containing titanium (IV isopropoxide as the main reactant, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP as the capping agent, and deionized water as a solvent. With the elimination of the drying process in a thermal treatment method, an attempt was made to decrease the synthesis time. The mixture directly underwent calcination to form titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanocrystalline powder, which was confirmed by FT-IR, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The control over the size and optical properties of nanocrystals was achieved via variation in calcination temperatures. The obtained average sizes from XRD spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM images showed exponential variation with increasing calcination temperature. The optical properties showed a decrease in the band gap energy with increasing calcination temperature due to the enlargement of the nanoparticle size. These results prove that direct calcination of reactant solution is a convenient thermal treatment route for the potential large-scale production of size-controlled Titania nanoparticles.

  17. Optical fiber biocompatible sensors for monitoring selective treatment of tumors via thermal ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Daniele; Poeggel, Sven; Dinesh, Duraibabu B.; Macchi, Edoardo G.; Gallati, Mario; Braschi, Giovanni; Leen, Gabriel; Lewis, Elfed

    2015-09-01

    Thermal ablation (TA) is an interventional procedure for selective treatment of tumors, that results in low-invasive outpatient care. The lack of real-time control of TA is one of its main weaknesses. Miniature and biocompatible optical fiber sensors are applied to achieve a dense, multi-parameter monitoring, that can substantially improve the control of TA. Ex vivo measurements are reported performed on porcine liver tissue, to reproduce radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Our measurement campaign has a two-fold focus: (1) dual pressure-temperature measurement with a single probe; (2) distributed thermal measurement to estimate point-by-point cells mortality.

  18. Effects of thermal treatment on high solid anaerobic digestion of swine manure: Enhancement assessment and kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Hu, Yu-Ying; Wang, Shi-Feng; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Li, Huai-Zhi; Fu, Xin-Mei; Wang, Kai-Jun; Zuo, Jian-E

    2017-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD), which is a process for generating biogas, can be applied to the treatment of organic wastes. Owing to its smaller footprint, lower energy consumption, and less digestate, high solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD) has attracted increasing attention. However, its biogas production is poor. In order to improve biogas production and decrease energy consumption, an improved thermal treatment process was proposed. Raw swine manure (>20% solid content) without any dilution was thermally treated at 70±1°C for different retention times, and then its effect on HSAD was investigated via batch AD experiments at 8.9% solid content. Results showed that the main organic components of swine manure hydrolyzed significantly during the thermal treatment, and HSAD's methane production rate was improved by up to 39.5%. Analysis using two kinetic models confirmed that the treatment could increase biodegradable organics (especially the readily biodegradable organics) in swine manure rather than upgrading its hydrolysis rate. It is worth noting that the superimposed first-order kinetics model was firstly applied in AD, and was a good tool to reveal the AD kinetics mechanism of substrates with complex components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of germination and thermal treatments on folates in rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariluoto, Susanna; Liukkonen, Kirsi-Helena; Myllymäki, Olavi; Vahteristo, Liisa; Kaukovirta-Norja, Anu; Piironen, Vieno

    2006-12-13

    Effects of germination conditions and thermal processes on folate contents of rye were investigated. Total folate contents were determined microbiologically with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 7469) as the growth indicator organism, and individual folates were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography after affinity chromatographic purification. Germination increased the folate content by 1.7-3.8-fold, depending on germination temperature, with a maximum content of 250 micro g/100 g dry matter. Hypocotylar roots with their notably high folate concentrations (600-1180 micro g/100 g dry matter) contributed 30-50% of the folate contents of germinated grains. Germination altered the proportions of folates, increasing the proportion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and decreasing the proportion of formylated folate compounds. Thermal treatments (extrusion, autoclaving and puffing, and IR and toasting) resulted in significant folate losses. However, folate levels in grains that were germinated and then were heat processed were higher than for native (nongerminated) grains. Opportunities to optimize rye processing to enhance folate levels in rye-based foods are discussed.

  20. Characterising and testing deep UV LEDs for use in space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollington, D; Baird, J T; Sumner, T J; Wass, P J

    2015-01-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) light sources are used to neutralise isolated test masses in highly sensitive space-based gravitational experiments. An example is the LISA Pathfinder charge management system, which uses low-pressure mercury lamps. A future gravitational-wave observatory such as eLISA will use UV light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs), which offer numerous advantages over traditional discharge lamps. Such devices have limited space heritage but are now available from a number of commercial suppliers. Here we report on a test campaign that was carried out to quantify the general properties of three types of commercially available UV LEDs and demonstrate their suitability for use in space. Testing included general electrical and UV output power measurements, spectral stability, pulsed performance and temperature dependence, as well as thermal vacuum, radiation and vibration survivability. (paper)

  1. Characterising and testing deep UV LEDs for use in space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollington, D.; Baird, J. T.; Sumner, T. J.; Wass, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) light sources are used to neutralise isolated test masses in highly sensitive space-based gravitational experiments. An example is the LISA Pathfinder charge management system, which uses low-pressure mercury lamps. A future gravitational-wave observatory such as eLISA will use UV light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs), which offer numerous advantages over traditional discharge lamps. Such devices have limited space heritage but are now available from a number of commercial suppliers. Here we report on a test campaign that was carried out to quantify the general properties of three types of commercially available UV LEDs and demonstrate their suitability for use in space. Testing included general electrical and UV output power measurements, spectral stability, pulsed performance and temperature dependence, as well as thermal vacuum, radiation and vibration survivability.

  2. Effect of thermal, chemical and thermo-chemical pre-treatments to enhance methane production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Rashad; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Murphy, Jerry D.; Kiely, Gerard [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork (Ireland); Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm [Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University (Denmark); Asam, Zaki-ul-Zaman [Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland)

    2010-12-15

    The rise in oil price triggered the exploration and enhancement of various renewable energy sources. Producing biogas from organic waste is not only providing a clean sustainable indigenous fuel to the number of on-farm digesters in Europe, but also reducing the ecological and environmental deterioration. The lignocellulosic substrates are not completely biodegraded in anaerobic digesters operating at commercial scale due to their complex physical and chemical structure, which result in meager energy recovery in terms of methane yield. The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of pre-treatments: thermal, thermo-chemical and chemical pre-treatments on the biogas and methane potential of dewatered pig manure. A laboratory scale batch digester is used for these pre-treatments at different temperature range (25 C-150 C). Results showed that thermo-chemical pretreatment has high effect on biogas and methane potential in the temperature range (25-100 C). Maximum enhancement is observed at 70 C with increase of 78% biogas and 60% methane production. Thermal pretreatment also showed enhancement in the temperature range (50-10 C), with maximum enhancement at 100 C having 28% biogas and 25% methane increase. (author)

  3. Estudo morfométrico da terapia LED de baixa potência em tendinite de ratos Morphometric study of low power LED therapy tendonitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mário Nunes da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A terapia LED de baixa potência possui efeitos analgésico e antiinflamatório. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar a ação da terapia com LED de baixa potência na reparação tendínea por meio de histologia e histomorfometria. Foram usados 25 ratos Wistar, de 220 a 250 g, divididos em três grupos experimentais avaliados no 7º e 14º dia: A, tendinite induzida sem tratamento; B, tendinite induzida tratada com LED de baixa potência, densidade de energia 4 J/cm² por 120 segundos; e C, sem indução de tendinite. A histomorfometria mostrou-se altamente significativa (p0,05. As análises histológica e histomorfométrica demonstraram qualitativo e quantitativo aumento no número de fibroblastos aos sete dias de tratamento, e das fibras colágenas, aos 14 dias, para grupo tratado com LED de baixa potência em relação ao grupo sadio (C. O mesmo não foi percebido quando relacionado ao grupo tendinite (A14.The low power LED therapy has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of this study was to analyze the action of therapy with low power LED on the tendon repair, using histology and histomorphometry. Were used 25 Wistar rats, with 220 to 250 g, divided into three experimental groups (7 and 14 days: A7 and A14 induced tendonitis without treatment; B7 and B14, induced tendinitis treated with LED low power density energy 4 J /cm² for 120 seconds; and C, without induction of tendinitis. Histomorphometry was highly significant (p 0.05. Histology and histomorphometry analysis demonstrated qualitative and quantitative increase in the number of fibroblasts to seven days of treatment, and collagen fibers at 14 days for the group treated with LED low power compared to the healthy group (C. But it is unclear even when related to the tendinitis group (A14.

  4. Testing for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems: Identification of Technologies for Effluent Treatment in Test Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Key steps to ensure identification of relevant effluent treatment technologies for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) testing include the following. 1. Review of...

  5. Fast Bragg Grating Inscription in PMMA Polymer Optical Fibres: Impact of Thermal Pre-Treatment of Preforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. F. Marques

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs were inscribed in two different undoped poly- (methyl methacrylate (PMMA polymer optical fibres (POFs using different types of UV lasers and their inscription times, temperature and strain sensitivities are investigated. The POF Bragg gratings (POFBGs were inscribed using two UV lasers: a continuous UV HeCd @325 nm laser and a pulsed UV KrF @248 nm laser. Two PMMA POFs are used in which the primary and secondary preforms (during the two-step drawing process have a different thermal treatment. The PMMA POFs drawn in which the primary or secondary preform is not specifically pre-treated need longer inscription time than the fibres drawn where both preforms have been pre-annealed at 80 °C for 2 weeks. Using both UV lasers, for the latter fibre much less inscription time is needed compared to another homemade POF. The properties of a POF fabricated with both preforms thermally well annealed are different from those in which just one preform step process is thermally treated, with the first POFs being much less sensitive to thermal treatment. The influence of annealing on the strain and temperature sensitivities of the fibres prior to FBG inscription is also discussed, where it is observed that the fibre produced from a two-step drawing process with well-defined pre-annealing of both preforms did not produce any significant difference in sensitivity. The results indicate the impact of preform thermal pre-treatment before the PMMA POFs drawing, which can be an essential characteristic in the view of developing POF sensors technology.

  6. Effect of Led Lighting Colors for Laying Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KC Nunes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Time of exposure and light intensity rearing house may affect the performance and egg quality of laying quails. This research aimed at evaluating the live performance, egg quality, biometry of the reproductive system, and the gastrointestinal tract of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica exposed to artificial light-emitting diodes (LED of different colors in comparison with fluorescent lamps. A total of 240 Japanese quails were distributed in completely randomized experimental design with four treatments (fluorescent lamp, and green, red, or blue LED lamps with six replicates of 10 birds each. Average egg weight and eggshell thickness were different (p0.05. The oviduct of 64-d-old hens exposed to green LED lighting was shorter (p<0.05 than those exposed to the fluorescent lamp. Red LED can be used to replace the fluorescent lamps, as they promote the same live performance, egg quality, and morphological development of the reproductive tract of laying Japanese quails.

  7. Investigation of Mode I fracture toughness of red Verona marble after thermal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Scorza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to assess the effect of freeze/thaw cycles on fracture behaviour of a natural stone: the red Verona marble. A wide variety of specimen types and methods to determine Mode I fracture toughness of natural stones are available in the literature and, in this context, the model originally proposed for plain concrete, i.e. the Two-Parameter Model (TPM, is adopted. Such a method is able to take into account the slow nonlinear crack growth occurring before the peak load, typical of quasi-brittle materials, with the advantage of easy specimen preparation and simple test configuration. In the present paper, the atmospheric ageing is simulated by means of thermal pre-treatments consisting of freeze/thaw cycles. Experimental tests are carried out using three-point bending Single-Edge Notched (SEN specimens, according to the TPM procedure. The effects of thermal treatment on both mechanical and fracture parameters are examined in terms of elastic modulus and fracture toughness, respectively

  8. Activation of sputter-processed indium–gallium–zinc oxide films by simultaneous ultraviolet and thermal treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Young Jun; Du Ahn, Byung; Park, Sung Pyo; Kim, Si Joon; Song, Ae Ran; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2016-01-01

    Indium–gallium–zinc oxide (IGZO) films, deposited by sputtering at room temperature, still require activation to achieve satisfactory semiconductor characteristics. Thermal treatment is typically carried out at temperatures above 300 °C. Here, we propose activating sputter- processed IGZO films using simultaneous ultraviolet and thermal (SUT) treatments to decrease the required temperature and enhance their electrical characteristics and stability. SUT treatment effectively decreased the amount of carbon residues and the number of defect sites related to oxygen vacancies and increased the number of metal oxide (M–O) bonds through the decomposition-rearrangement of M–O bonds and oxygen radicals. Activation of IGZO TFTs using the SUT treatment reduced the processing temperature to 150 °C and improved various electrical performance metrics including mobility, on-off ratio, and threshold voltage shift (positive bias stress for 10,000 s) from 3.23 to 15.81 cm2/Vs, 3.96 × 107 to 1.03 × 108, and 11.2 to 7.2 V, respectively. PMID:26902863

  9. CooLED - efficient LED bulbs with custrom optics - final report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Jesper; Corell, Dennis Dan; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    Denne rapport indeholder en beskrivelse af arbejdet udført i og resultaterne af forsknings- og udviklingsprojektet EUDP 64012-0226, CooLED – en ny generation LED Lyskilde for det tidsløse high-end marked....

  10. Radon exposure during treatment in some thermal spa centers in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolopoulos, D.; Louizi, A.; Serefoglou, A.; Georgiou, E.; Vogiannis, E.; Halvadakis, C.

    2004-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) present in the spa facilities has been identified as an agent of additional radiation burden both for bathers and the working personnel. Although some researchers have been concentrated on the health impact of radon activity transient increases due to water flow of domestically used water, limited work has been reported on this effect in spa facilities. The aim of this work was to study the exposure both of bathers and working personnel due to water flow under working conditions in some thermal spas in Greece. The spas studied were built at two locations in Greece; Lesvos Island and the city of Loutra- Edipsou. The study was performed between 1999 and 2003. Measurements involved determination of radon concentration in the waters of the thermal spas, monitoring of radon and short-lived decay product activity (both in attached and unattached form) and coarse particles (> 500 nm). Water radon concentration was measured by Alpha Guard PQ2000Pro of Genitron GmbH equipped with an appropriate unit (Aquakit). Indoor radon activity was monitored by Alpha Guard PQ2000Pro and EQF3023 of Sarad GmbH which was also used for monitoring of radon short-lived decay product activity. Coarse particle concentration measurements were performed by a GRIMM 1.104 Portable Dust Monitor. Measurements indoors were performed in the treatment room and in the reception room, if existing, under working conditions. Several procedures for bath filling and pouring out of the treatment room, during the measurements, were studied. Radon concentrations of thermal waters were found to lie in the range 1 Bq.L -1 and 304 Bq.L -1 . Some of these concentrations may be considered as elevated. Elevated (about 2-6 kBq.m -3 ) indoor radon concentrations were measured in the treatment rooms of the spas of Polichnitos, Eftalou and Loutra Edipsou. This found to be in accordance to the high radon potential of these spas, as detected out of the measurements of their thermal waters. Concentration

  11. Broadband radiometric LED measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2016-09-01

    At present, broadband radiometric LED measurements with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed.

  12. Pharmacist-led medication review in an acute admissions unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Graabæk; Bonnerup, Dorthe Krogsgaard; Kjeldsen, Lene Juel

    2015-01-01

    of principles and methodologies, and the practical procedure is seldom described in detail, which makes reproducing study findings difficult. The objective of this paper is to provide a detailed description of a procedure developed and used for pharmacist-led medication review in acute admissions units......) collection of information about the patient's medical treatment, (3) patient interview, (4) critical examination of the patient's medications and (5) recommendations for the hospital physician.Conclusions We have provided a detailed description of a procedure for pharmacist-led medication review. We do so...

  13. Are nurse-led chemotherapy clinics really nurse-led? An ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Carole; Walshe, Catherine; Molassiotis, Alex

    2017-04-01

    The number of patients requiring ambulatory chemotherapy is increasing year on year, creating problems with capacity in outpatient clinics and chemotherapy units. Although nurse-led chemotherapy clinics have been set up to address this, there is a lack of evaluation of their effectiveness. Despite a rapid expansion in the development of nursing roles and responsibilities in oncology, there is little understanding of the operational aspects of nurses' roles in nurse-led clinics. To explore nurses' roles within nurse-led chemotherapy clinics. A focused ethnographic study of nurses' roles in nurse-led chemotherapy clinics, including semi-structured interviews with nurses. Four chemotherapy units/cancer centres in the UK PARTICIPANTS: Purposive sampling was used to select four cancer centres/units in different geographical areas within the UK operating nurse-led chemotherapy clinics. Participants were 13 nurses working within nurse-led chemotherapy clinics at the chosen locations. Non-participant observation of nurse-led chemotherapy clinics, semi-structured interviews with nurse participants, review of clinic protocols and associated documentation. 61 nurse-patient consultations were observed with 13 nurses; of these 13, interviews were conducted with 11 nurses. Despite similarities in clinical skills training and prescribing, there were great disparities between clinics run by chemotherapy nurses and those run by advanced nurse practitioners. This included the number of patients seen within each clinic, operational aspects, nurses' autonomy, scope of practice and clinical decision-making abilities. The differences highlighted four different levels of nurse-led chemotherapy clinics, based on nurses' autonomy and scope of clinical practice. However, this was heavily influenced by medical consultants. Several nurses perceived they were undertaking holistic assessments, however they were using medical models/consultation styles, indicating medicalization of nurses' roles

  14. Effect of thermal oxidation treatment on pH sensitivity of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure ion-sensitive field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei; Bu, Yuyu [Institute of Science and Technology, Tokushima University, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Li, Liuan, E-mail: liliuan@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Electronics and Information Technology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Ao, Jin-Ping, E-mail: jpao@ee.tokushima-u.ac.jp [Institute of Science and Technology, Tokushima University, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • AlGaN/GaN ISFETs were fabricated and evaluated with thermal oxidation treatment. • Sensitivity was improved to 57.7 mV/pH after 700 °C treatment. • Sensitivity became poor after 800 °C treatment. • The pure α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystal phase generated on the surface of the 700 °C treatment sample. • Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase content in the metal oxide layer increased after 800 °C treatment. - Abstract: In this article, AlGaN/GaN heterostructure ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) were prepared and evaluated by thermal oxidation treatment on the AlGaN surface. The ISFETs were fabricated on the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure and then thermally oxidized with dry oxygen in 600, 700, and 800 °C, respectively. It indicates that the performance of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure ISFETs, such as noise and sensitivity, has been improved owing to the thermal oxidation treatment process at different temperatures. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that after thermal oxidation treatment at different temperatures, hydroxide who possesses high surface state density will transfer to oxide owing to the higher chemical stability of the latter. Moreover, a crystalline α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase generated at 700 °C can not only provide a relatively smooth surface, but also improve the sensitivity to 57.7 mV/pH for the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure ISFETs, which is very close to the Nernstian limit.

  15. Effect of Grinding on Chrysotile, Amosite and Crocidolite and Implications for Thermal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bloise

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to the adverse health effects associated with exposure to asbestos, its inertization is one of the most important issues of waste risk management. Based on the research line of mechano-chemical and thermal treatment of asbestos containing materials, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of dry grinding on the structure, temperature stability and fibre size of chrysotile from Balangero (Italy, as well as standard UICC (Union for International Cancer Control amosite and standard UICC (Union for International Cancer Control crocidolite. Dry grinding was accomplished in an eccentric vibration mill by varying the grinding time (30 s, 5 and 10 min. Results show a decrease in crystallinity, the formation of lattice defects and size reduction with progressive formation of agglomerates in the samples after the mechanical treatment. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM results show that the final product obtained after 10 min of grinding is composed of non-crystalline particles and a minor residue of crystalline fibres that are not regulated because they do not meet the size criteria for a regulated fibre. Grinding results in a decrease of temperature and enthalpy of dehydroxylation (ΔHdehy of chrysotile, amosite and crocidolite. This permits us to completely destroy these fibres in thermal inertization processes using a lower net thermal energy than that used for the raw samples.

  16. Evaluation of Energy Consumption in the Mercury Treatment of Phosphor Powder from Spent Fluorescent Lamps Using a Thermal Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Choi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a pilot-plant-scale thermal mercury treatment of phosphor powder from spent fluorescent lamps, energy consumption was estimated to control mercury content by the consideration of reaction kinetics. Mercury content was analyzed as a function of treatment temperature and time. The initial mercury content of the phosphor powder used in the thermal process was approximately 3500 mg/kg. The target mercury content in the phosphor powder thermal process of the phosphor powder was 5 mg/kg or less at 400 °C or higher because the target mercury content was recommended by Minamata Convention and Basel Convention. During thermal processing, the reaction rate was represented by a first order reaction with the Arrhenius equation. The reaction rate constant increased with temperature from 0.0112 min−1 at 350 °C to 0.0558 min−1 at 600 °C. The frequency factor was 2.51 min−1, and the activation energy was 6509.11 kcal/kg. Reaction rate constants were used to evaluate the treatment time required to reduce mercury content in phosphor powder to be less than 5 mg/kg. The total energy consumption in a pilot-plant-scale thermal process was evaluated to determine the optimal temperature for removing mercury in phosphor powder.

  17. Prognostic factors for the success of thermal balloon ablation in the treatment of menorrhagia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, M. Y.; Mol, B. W. J.; Brölmann, H. A. M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify predictive factors that will ensure successful menorrhagia treatment using hot fluid balloon endometrial ablation. METHODS: This is a prospective study on patients referred for menorrhagia and treated with hot fluid thermal balloon ablation. Potential prognostic factors for

  18. Final report LED solutions for public lighting; Eindrapportage LED oplossingen voor openbare verlichting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-15

    This report examines if and how LED can be used for public lighting on a large scale. Pilot projects in 29 municipalities were assessed to test the usefulness of LED lighting. This final report provides answers to the questions that relate to the feasibility of the deployment of LED in public lighting and provides some practical pointers. [Dutch] Er is onderzocht of, en zo ja op welke wijze, LED grootschalig toegepast kan worden in de openbare verlichting (OVL). In 29 gemeenten in Nederland zijn proefprojecten geevalueerd om LED verlichting te toetsen op bruikbaarheid. Deze eindrapportage geeft antwoord op vragen die betrekking hebben op de haalbaarheid van de toepassing van LED binnen de OVL en geeft wat praktische aandachtspunten.

  19. Influence of mechanical and thermal treatments on raw materials containing pyrophyllite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Soto, P. J.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work results obtained in a study on the influence of thermal, mechanical by dry grinding, and their combination, in raw materials containing pyrophyllite, are discussed. First of all, it is studied the influence of thermal treatment concerning the development and evolution of crystalline phases (mullite and cristobalite from dehydroxylated pyrophyllite. On the basis of these results, it is analyzed what happens in a natural raw mixture of pyrophyllite with kaolinite and mica (sericite submitted to thermal treatments. The raw pyrophyllite materials are altered under laboratory conditions using mechanical treatments by dry grinding. It is noted that the increase of surface area and particle size reduction is produced by grinding, but other effects are produced on the structure and properties of the solid submitted to grinding. In general, grinding leads to a progressive destruction of the original crystal structure of the present layered silicates, but it is preferentially produced along the “c” axis. In other words, mechanochemical reactions are induced by dry grinding due to the increase of reactivity of the system. Between these reactions, it is enhanced the reagglomeration process that occurs above a determinate limit of grinding time. The grinding treatment can be combined with a subsequent thermal treatment that enhances the increase of reactivity, producing the formation of crystalline phases (mullite and cristobalite at lower temperatures that in unground samples with energy saving. The results are compared taking into account the crystal structures of both kaolinite and pyrophyllite, the thermal transformation of kaolinite to mullite, and the process of grinding kaolinite because this layer silicate is present in the raw materials containing pyrophyllite.

    En el presente trabajo se exponen y discuten resultados obtenidos en el estudio de la influencia de tratamientos térmicos, tratamientos mecánicos por molienda

  20. Improving the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis using a senior-friendly peer-led community education and mentoring model: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloseck, Marita; Fitzsimmons, Deborah A; Speechley, Mark; Savundranayagam, Marie Y; Crilly, Richard G

    2017-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated a 6-month peer-led community education and mentorship program to improve the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. Ten seniors (74-90 years of age) were trained to become peer educators and mentors and deliver the intervention. In the subsequent RCT, 105 seniors (mean age =80.5±6.9; 89% female) were randomly assigned to the peer-led education and mentorship program (n=53) or control group (n=52). Knowledge was assessed at baseline and 6 months. Success was defined as discussing osteoporosis risk with their family physician, obtaining a bone mineral density assessment, and returning to review their risk profile and receive advice and/or treatment. Knowledge of osteoporosis did not change significantly. There was no difference in knowledge change between the two groups (mean difference =1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] of difference -0.76 to 3.36). More participants in the intervention group achieved a successful outcome (odds ratio 0.16, 95% CI 0.06-0.42, P seniors. This model was effective for improving osteoporosis risk assessment, diagnosis, and treatment in a community setting.

  1. The proposed combustion standards and DOE thermal treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFee, J.; Hinman, M.B.; Eaton, D.; NcNeel, K.

    1997-01-01

    Under the provisions of the Clean Air Act (CAA) concerning emission of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the proposed Revised Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors on April 19, 1996 (EPA, 1996). These standards would apply to the existing Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive and mixed waste incinerators, and may be applied to several developing alternatives to incineration. The DOE has reviewed the basis for these regulations and prepared extensive comments to present concerns about the bases and implications of the standards. DOE is now discussing compliance options with the EPA for regulation of radioactive and mixed waste thermal treatment systems

  2. The effect of thermal treatment on the fracture properties of alloy X-750 in aqueous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, R.; Elliott, C.S.; Hwang, I.S.; Prybylowski, J.

    1993-05-01

    Alloy X-750 is a high strength, age hardenable nickel-base alloy used in light water nuclear reactors. The excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature strength of alloy X-750 make it suitable for use in a variety of structure components in both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. These applications involve exposure of highly stressed material to aqueous media. Operational stresses are subject to low frequency thermally induced fluctuations and high frequency flow induced fluctuations. In general, alloy X-750 has performed well in light water reactors. However, an economically significant number of components have failed unexpectedly due to localized forms of attack such as corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking. Thermal processing history is known to play a significant role in the fracture properties of alloy X-750 in aqueous environments. While thermal treatments have been developed recently to improve performance, in many cases the reason for improved performance remains unclear. Therefore, identification of the mechanisms responsible for the degradation of fracture properties in aqueous environments is necessary. As a corollary it is necessary to achieve an understanding of how thermal treatment influences microstructure and, in turn, how microstructure influences fracture properties in aqueous environments. This report discusses five thermal treatments which were studied: (1) SA-1 hr at 1093 degree C, (2) AH - 24 hr at 885 degree C + 20 hr at 704 degree C, (3) HTH - 1 hr at 1093 degree C + 20 hr at 704 degree C, (4) AHTH - 1 hr at 1093 degree C + 24 hr at 885 degree C + 20 hr at 704 degree C, and (5) HOA - 1 hr at 1093 degree C + 100 hrs at 760 degree C. Microstructural characterization of these materials was accomplished through the use of optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy,scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray diffractometry

  3. Patterns of Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis in Thermal Laser Acupuncture Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Knee osteoarthritis (OA manifests with pain, joint stiffness, and limited function. In traditional Chinese medicine, knee OA is differentiated into three patterns: yang deficiency and cold coagulation, kidney deficiency, and blood stasis. The objective of this study was to determine whether yang deficiency cold coagulation patients respond better to thermal laser acupuncture treatment than do non-yang deficient patients. Fifty-two patients with OA were allocated to group A (yang deficient, n=26 or B (non-yang deficient, n=26. All patients received a 20-min thermal laser acupuncture treatment at acupoint Dubi (ST 35 three times a week for two weeks and twice a week for another four weeks. Outcome assessments were performed immediately after the first treatment, and at weeks 2, 6, and 10. Group A function scores were significantly better than those of Group B at weeks 2 (P=0.049, 6 (P=0.046, and 10 (P=0.042, but no significant differences were found between the two groups in pain and stiffness scores at any time point. No significant adverse effect was observed. The combined 10.6 μm–650 nm laser treatment might be most beneficial to yang deficiency cold coagulation knee OA patients, particularly in improving function.

  4. LED-roulette : LED's vervangen balletje

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, P.

    2007-01-01

    Iedereen waagt wel eens een gokje, in een loterij of misschien ook in een casino. Wie droomt er immers niet van om op een gemakkelijke manier rijk te worden? Met de hier beschreven LED-roulette valt weliswaar weinig te winnen, maar het is wel een uitstekende manier om het roulettespel thuis te

  5. Controllable laser thermal cleavage of sapphire wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiayu; Hu, Hong; Zhuang, Changhui; Ma, Guodong; Han, Junlong; Lei, Yulin

    2018-03-01

    Laser processing of substrates for light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offers advantages over other processing techniques and is therefore an active research area in both industrial and academic sectors. The processing of sapphire wafers is problematic because sapphire is a hard and brittle material. Semiconductor laser scribing processing suffers certain disadvantages that have yet to be overcome, thereby necessitating further investigation. In this work, a platform for controllable laser thermal cleavage was constructed. A sapphire LED wafer was modeled using the finite element method to simulate the thermal and stress distributions under different conditions. A guide groove cut by laser ablation before the cleavage process was observed to guide the crack extension and avoid deviation. The surface and cross section of sapphire wafers processed using controllable laser thermal cleavage were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy, and their morphology was compared to that of wafers processed using stealth dicing. The differences in luminous efficiency between substrates prepared using these two processing methods are explained.

  6. Study of Cd Te recrystallization by hydrated-CdCl_2 thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez V, C.; Albor A, M. L.; Galarza G, U.; Aguilar H, J. R.; Gonzalez T, M. A.; Flores M, J. M.; Jimenez O, D.

    2017-01-01

    Cd Te thin films solar cells are currently produced using a layer sequence of glass/FTO/CdS/Cd Te/metal contact (Cu/Ag), these films are deposited by two different techniques, chemical bath deposition (CBD) and close space vapour transport (CSVT). In order to reach reasonable conversion efficiencies, the device has to be thermally treated in a hydrated-CdCl_2 atmosphere. This study was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence, Sem-EDS, four probe method and Sims profiling of Cd Te. These analyses confirm the presence of hydrated CdCl_2 and Cd Te phases on Cd Te surface and shown a good recrystallization morphology helping to the carriers mobility along the structure. Using the thermal treatment was possible to reduce the resistivity of Cd Te thin film; it is a result to the Cl migration along the Cd Te solar cell structure, reducing the defects between CdS and Cd Te thin films. A strong Cd Te thin film recrystallization was observed by the implementation of a hydrated-CdCl_2 treatment doing to this a good candidate to Cd Te solar cells process. (Author)

  7. Upgrading Fast Pyrolysis Oil via Hydrodeoxygenation and Thermal Treatment: Effects of Catalytic Glycerol Pretreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyhanitash, Ehsan; Tymchyshyn, M.; Yuan, Zhongshun; Albion, K.; van Rossum, G.; Xu, C.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of stabilizing fast pyrolysis oil (PO) with glycerol via catalytic glycerol pretreatment on upgrading via hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) or thermal treatment (TT) were studied. Nonstabilized (original) fast pyrolysis oil was also upgraded via HDO or TT to obtain benchmarks. Generally, HDO

  8. Effect of dopants and thermal treatment on properties of Ga-Al-ZnO thin films fabricated by hetero targets sputtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, JeongSoo; Matsushita, Nobuhiro; Kim, KyungHwan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated Ga and Al doped ZnO (Ga-Al-ZnO; GAZO) thin films by using the facing targets sputtering system under various conditions such as input current and thermal treatment temperature. The properties of the as-deposited GAZO thin films were examined by four-point, UV/Vis spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The result showed that the lowest sheet resistance of the films was 59.3 ohm/sq and transmittance was about 85%. After thermal treatment, the properties of GAZO thin films were improved. The lowest sheet resistance (47.3 ohm/sq) of the GAZO thin films were obtained at thermal treatment temperature of 300 °C, considered to be the result of continuous substitutions by dopants and improved crystallinity by the thermal treatment. - Highlights: ► Ga and Al doped ZnO thin films were prepared by hetero targets sputtering system. ► Free electrons were increased due to the continuous substitutions of Ga and Al. ► Crystallinity was improved by recombination of particles with increasing of temperature

  9. Mineralogical characterization of Greda clays and monitoring of their phase transformations on thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez Panduro, E.; Bravo Cabrejos, J.

    2010-01-01

    The mineralogical characterization of two clay samples from the Central Andean Region of Peru, denominated White Greda and Red Greda, is reported. These clays contain the clay minerals mica and illite respectively. Both clays were treated thermally in an oxidising atmosphere under controlled conditions up to 1,100 deg. C with the purpose of obtaining information about structural changes that may be useful for pottery manufacture. X-ray fluorescence was used for the elemental characterization of the samples and X-ray diffractometry was used to determine the collapse and formation of the mineral phases present in the samples caused by thermal treatment. At temperatures above 1,000 deg. C it is observed the formation of spinel in the case of White Greda and of hematite, corundum and cristobalite in the case of Red Greda. Room temperature transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy allowed the monitoring of the variation of the hyperfine parameters with the thermal treatment temperature; In the case of the evolution of the quadruple splitting of the paramagnetic Fe 3+ sites with temperature, in both clays, the analyses reproduced results such as the 'camel back' curve shape, found by other workers (Wagner and Wagner, Hyperfine Interact 154:35-82, 2004; Wagner and Kyek, Hyperfine Interact 154:5-33, 2004).

  10. Mineralogical characterization of Greda clays and monitoring of their phase transformations on thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panduro, E. Chavez; Cabrejos, J. Bravo

    2010-01-01

    The mineralogical characterization of two clay samples from the Central Andean Region of Peru, denominated White Greda and Red Greda, is reported. These clays contain the clay minerals mica and illite respectively. Both clays were treated thermally in an oxidising atmosphere under controlled conditions up to 1,100°C with the purpose of obtaining information about structural changes that may be useful for pottery manufacture. X-ray fluorescence was used for the elemental characterization of the samples and X-ray diffractometry was used to determine the collapse and formation of the mineral phases present in the samples caused by thermal treatment. At temperatures above 1,000°C it is observed the formation of spinel in the case of White Greda and of hematite, corundum and cristobalite in the case of Red Greda. Room temperature transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy allowed the monitoring of the variation of the hyperfine parameters with the thermal treatment temperature; In the case of the evolution of the quadruple splitting of the paramagnetic Fe3 + sites with temperature, in both clays, the analyses reproduced results such as the “camel back” curve shape, found by other workers (Wagner and Wagner, Hyperfine Interact 154:35-82, 2004; Wagner and Kyek, Hyperfine Interact 154:5-33, 2004).

  11. Mineralogical characterization of Greda clays and monitoring of their phase transformations on thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Panduro, E., E-mail: 04130127@unmsm.edu.pe; Bravo Cabrejos, J., E-mail: jbravoc@unmsm.edu.pe [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru)

    2010-01-15

    The mineralogical characterization of two clay samples from the Central Andean Region of Peru, denominated White Greda and Red Greda, is reported. These clays contain the clay minerals mica and illite respectively. Both clays were treated thermally in an oxidising atmosphere under controlled conditions up to 1,100 deg. C with the purpose of obtaining information about structural changes that may be useful for pottery manufacture. X-ray fluorescence was used for the elemental characterization of the samples and X-ray diffractometry was used to determine the collapse and formation of the mineral phases present in the samples caused by thermal treatment. At temperatures above 1,000 deg. C it is observed the formation of spinel in the case of White Greda and of hematite, corundum and cristobalite in the case of Red Greda. Room temperature transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy allowed the monitoring of the variation of the hyperfine parameters with the thermal treatment temperature; In the case of the evolution of the quadruple splitting of the paramagnetic Fe{sup 3+} sites with temperature, in both clays, the analyses reproduced results such as the 'camel back' curve shape, found by other workers (Wagner and Wagner, Hyperfine Interact 154:35-82, 2004; Wagner and Kyek, Hyperfine Interact 154:5-33, 2004).

  12. Coherent gradient sensing method for measuring thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coherent gradient sensing (CGS method can be used to measure the slope of a reflective surface, and has the merits of full-field, non-contact, and real-time measurement. In this study, the thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating (TBC structures is measured by CGS method. Two kinds of powders were sprayed onto Ni-based alloy using a plasma spraying method to obtain two groups of film–substrate specimens. The specimens were then heated with an oxy-acetylene flame. The resulting thermal mismatch between the film and substrate led to out-of-plane deformation of the specimen. The deformation was measured by the reflective CGS method and the thermal stress field of the structure was obtained through calibration with the help of finite element analysis. Both the experiment and numerical results showed that the thermal stress field of TBC structures can be successfully measured by CGS method.

  13. The integration of InGaP LEDs with CMOS on 200 mm silicon wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Lee, Kwang Hong; Wang, Cong; Wang, Yue; Made, Riko I.; Sasangka, Wardhana Aji; Nguyen, Viet Cuong; Lee, Kenneth Eng Kian; Tan, Chuan Seng; Yoon, Soon Fatt; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.; Michel, Jurgen

    2017-02-01

    The integration of photonics and electronics on a converged silicon CMOS platform is a long pursuit goal for both academe and industry. We have been developing technologies that can integrate III-V compound semiconductors and CMOS circuits on 200 mm silicon wafers. As an example we present our work on the integration of InGaP light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with CMOS. The InGaP LEDs were epitaxially grown on high-quality GaAs and Ge buffers on 200 mm (100) silicon wafers in a MOCVD reactor. Strain engineering was applied to control the wafer bow that is induced by the mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion between III-V films and silicon substrate. Wafer bonding was used to transfer the foundry-made silicon CMOS wafers to the InGaP LED wafers. Process trenches were opened on the CMOS layer to expose the underneath III-V device layers for LED processing. We show the issues encountered in the 200 mm processing and the methods we have been developing to overcome the problems.

  14. Null bactericidal effect of ultraviolet radiation emitted by LEDs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alcántara Muñoz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research has aimed to assess the bactericidal effect of ultraviolet light emitted by LEDS on the growth on Petri dishes of microorganisms whose legal limits in foods have been established. An electrically fed apparatus has been designed with precise timing and a camera to prevent light spillage, in which two ultraviolet radiation emission devices were connected by LED technology at different wavelengths: through an array of LEDS emitting at around 350nm, and a single specific emission LED at 280nm. 1000 cfu of E. Coli and S. aureus sown on PCA were used as prototypes of gram negative and positive bacteria, respectively, onto which ultraviolet light was radiated at different time intervals, by means of both devices, with the whole experiment being carried out in triplicate . In none of the three series of treatments at the two wavelengths were reductions in microbial growth observed. The series of sowings on PCA were done on unseeded plates in order to be able to discard the likelihood of subsequent recontamination.

  15. Ex-situ activation of magnesium acceptors in InGaN/LED-structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusch, Gunnar; Frentrup, Martin; Stellmach, Joachim; Kolbe, Tim; Wernicke, Tim; Pristovsek, Markus; Kneissl, Michael [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    One of the main problems limiting the output power of group-III-nitride compound light emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LD) is the p-doping of nitrides with magnesium (Mg). During metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth of (Al)GaN:Mg magnesium acceptors are passivated by hydrogen (H). By thermal annealing under nitrogen atmosphere the Mg-H bond can be cracked, thus activating the Mg acceptor. We have investigated ex-situ Mg-activation of the p-GaN layer and p-AlGaN electron blocking layer (EBL) in LEDs grown by MOVPE. Especially the activation of the AlGaN EBL is crucial. Simulations show, that a high doping level is required for effective electron blocking and a high injection efficiency. Additionally the acceptor activation energy is expected to increase with increasing Al-content, reducing the free hole concentration in the EBL. Electroluminescence spectroscopy (EL) was performed to determine the influence of the activation on the external quantum efficiency of the LED structure. Furthermore we used CV measurements to determine the Mg-acceptor concentration.

  16. Response of Eustoma Leaf Phenotype and Photosynthetic Performance to LED Light Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zohurul Kadir Roni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In a controlled environment, light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs has been associated with affecting the leaf characteristics of Eustoma. LEDs help plant growth and development, yet little is known about photosynthetic performance and related anatomical features in the early growth stage of Eustoma leaves. In this study, we examined the effects of blue (B, red (R, and white (W LEDs on the photosynthetic performance of Eustoma leaves, as well as leaf morphology and anatomy including epidermal layer thickness, palisade cells, and stomatal characteristics. Leaves grown under B LEDs were thicker and had a higher chlorophyll content than those grown under the R and W LEDs. Leaves under B LEDs had greater net photosynthetic rates (A, stomatal conductance (gs, and transpiration rates (E, especially at a higher photon flux density (PPFD, that resulted in a decrease in the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci, than leaves under the W and R LEDs. B LEDs resulted in greater abaxial epidermal layer thickness and palisade cell length and width than the R and W LED treatments. The palisade cells also developed a more cylindrical shape in response to the B LEDs. B LED leaves also showed greater guard cell length, breadth, and area, and stomatal density, than W or R LEDs, which may contribute to increased A, gs and E at higher PPFDs.

  17. A review of technologies and performances of thermal treatment systems for energy recovery from waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, Lidia, E-mail: lidia.lombardi@unicusano.it [Niccolò Cusano University, via Don Carlo Gnocchi, 3, 00166 Rome (Italy); Carnevale, Ennio [Industrial Engineering Department, University of Florence, via Santa Marta, 3, 50129 Florence (Italy); Corti, Andrea [Department of Information Engineering and Mathematics, University of Siena, via Roma, 56, 53100 (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The topic of energy recovery from waste by thermal treatment is reviewed. • Combustion, gasification and pyrolysis were considered. • Data about energy recovery performances were collected and compared. • Main limitations to high values of energy performances were illustrated. • Diffusion of energy recovery from waste in EU, USA and other countries was discussed. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to identify the current level of energy recovery through waste thermal treatment. The state of the art in energy recovery from waste was investigated, highlighting the differences for different types of thermal treatment, considering combustion/incineration, gasification and pyrolysis. Also different types of wastes – Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) or Solid Refuse Fuels (SRF) and some typologies of Industrial Waste (IW) (sludge, plastic scraps, etc.) – were included in the analysis. The investigation was carried out mainly reviewing papers, published in scientific journals and conferences, but also considering technical reports, to gather more information. In particular the goal of this review work was to synthesize studies in order to compare the values of energy conversion efficiencies measured or calculated for different types of thermal processes and different types of waste. It emerged that the dominant type of thermal treatment is incineration associated to energy recovery in a steam cycle. When waste gasification is applied, the produced syngas is generally combusted in a boiler to generate steam for energy recovery in a steam cycle. For both the possibilities – incineration or gasification – cogeneration is the mean to improve energy recovery, especially for small scale plants. In the case of only electricity production, the achievable values are strongly dependent on the plant size: for large plant size, where advanced technical solutions can be applied and sustained from an economic point of view, net

  18. Experimental and numerical studies of various thermal sleeves subjected to severe cyclic thermal shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, J.C.; Moinereau, D.

    1990-01-01

    During the first operating years of nuclear power plants of different countries, damage was encountered on thermal sleeves used as nozzle protection. Following this discovery studies were initiated to determine the causes and to find solutions. At first a problem of vibration was found and easily solved by reducing gaps and reinforcing the welding of the sleeves. But preliminary tests with cyclic thermal shocks showed a risk of fatigue crack initiation and propagation both in the sleeve fixation and in the nozzle. Therefore a large research and development program was led principally by EDF laboratories of Les Renardieres, to demonstrate the absence of nocivity of thermal shocks during the plants life time [fr

  19. Assessment of lumen degradation and remaining useful life of LEDs using particle filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Zhang, Hao [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Davis, Lynn [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2013-07-16

    With the development of light-emitting diode (LED) technology, light emitting diodes system is becoming a popular light source in daily life and industry area. It has shown that Led from same factory and work under same working condition, may have significantly different behavior. Therefore, it is very important to learn the fail mechanisms, especially in the case of safety critical and harsh environment application. This paper focus on a prognostic health management (PHM) method based on the measurement of forward voltage and forward current of bare LED under harsh environment. In this paper, experiment has been done with ten samples. Ten pristine bare LEDs have been tested at 85°C while simultaneously being subjected to 85% humid environment. Pulse width modulation (PWM) control method has been employed to drive the bare LED in order to reduce the heat effect caused by forward current and high frequency (300HZ) data acquisition has been used to measure the peak forward voltage and forward current. Test to failure (lumen drops to 70 percent) data has been measured to study the effects of high temperature and humid environment loadings on the bare LED. Also, solid state cooling method with peltier cooler has been used to control the temperature of LED in the integrating sphere when take the measurement of lumen flux. The shift of forward voltage forward current curve and lumen degradation has been recorded to help build the fail model and predicted the remaining useful life. In this method, particle filter has been employed to predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of the bare LED and give us a whole picture how Led system fails. Result shows that predication of remaining useful life of Led, made by the particle filter model works under reasonable limit, and hence this method can be employed to predict the failure of Led caused by thermal and humid stress under harsh environment.

  20. Transition phases of zeolite Faujasite type to Sodalite by thermal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia K. Kaminishikawahara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The zeolites can have several functions as catalysts (biofuel production and molecular sieves (treatment of contaminated areas. This study aims to characterize the zeolites obtained in the transition of a Faujasite like zeolite into a Sodalite, when submitted to different thermal treatment times. The synthesized zeolites were characterized by X-ray diffraction where the crystalline phases were identified: Faujasite, Sodalite, SiO2 and amorphous material. The 4 hours heat treatment produces zeolite crystal structure similar to Faujasite, having basic sites, surface area of 552.7 m2 g-1 , and pore volume of 0.3391 cm3 g-1. With increasing time of heat treatment was observed the transition to the Sodalite phase witch containing 0.277 mmol g-1 of basic active sites with surface area of 11.38 m2 g-1 and pore volume of 0.0651 cm3 g-1. By the Rietveld method was identified and quantified the presence of Sodalite and Hidrossodalite in samples with 24 and 30 hours of reaction times.

  1. Monitoring the restoration of interfacial contact for self healing thermal interface materials for LED and microelectronic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafont, U.L.; Van Zeijl, H.W.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2013-01-01

    While conventional self healing materials focus on the restoration of mechanical properties, newer generations of self healing materials focus on the restoration of other functional (i.e. non-mechanical) properties. Thermal conductivity is an example of an important functional property of a Thermal

  2. A portable thermal imaging device as a feedback system for breast cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Oshrit A.; Ben-David, Merav A.; Katz, Eyal; Sholomov, Meny; Kelson, Itzhak; Gannot, Israel

    2018-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women in the Western world. Currently, no imaging technique assesses tumor heat generation and vasculature changes during radiotherapy in viable tumor and as adjuvant therapy. Thermography is a non-ionizing, non-invasive, portable and low-cost imaging modality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of thermography in cancer treatment monitoring for feedback purposes. Six stage-IV breast cancer patients with viable breast tumor and 8 patients (9 breasts) who underwent tumor resection were monitored by a thermal camera prior to radiotherapy sessions over several weeks of radiation treatment. The thermal changes over the treated breast were calculated and analyzed for comparison with healthy surrounded breast tissue or contralateral breast. A model of a breast with a tumor was created. The COMSOL FEM software was used to carry out the analysis. The effects of tumor metabolism and breast tissue perfusion on the temperature difference were analyzed. All patients with active tumors exhibited drops in maximal temperature of the tumor during radiation therapy. The patients who underwent radiotherapy as adjuvant treatment exhibited a rise in maximal temperature over the treated breast in correlation with skin erythema during radiation. This difference between the groups was statistically significant (P=0.001). The simulated human breast cancer models analysis showed that tumor aggressiveness reduction causes decrease in the tumor temperature. Inflammation causes vasodilatation and increases tissue perfusion, resulted in an increase in breast tissue temperature. A correlation was demonstrated between the clinical outcome and the simulation. We report a method for monitoring cancer response to radiation therapy, which measures the physiological response along with clinical response. These anticipatory efficacy evaluations of radiotherapy during treatment may further promote changes in treatment regimen

  3. Thermo-mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes and applications in thermal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Manh Hong; Thang Bui, Hung; Trinh Pham, Van; Phan, Ngoc Hong; Nguyen, Tuan Hong; Chuc Nguyen, Van; Quang Le, Dinh; Khoi Phan, Hong; Phan, Ngoc Minh

    2016-06-01

    Thanks to their very high thermal conductivity, high Young’s modulus and unique tensile strength, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have become one of the most suitable nano additives for heat conductive materials. In this work, we present results obtained for the synthesis of heat conductive materials containing CNT based thermal greases, nanoliquids and lubricating oils. These synthesized heat conductive materials were applied to thermal management for high power electronic devices (CPUs, LEDs) and internal combustion engines. The simulation and experimental results on thermal greases for an Intel Pentium IV processor showed that the thermal conductivity of greases increases 1.4 times and the saturation temperature of the CPU decreased by 5 °C by using thermal grease containing 2 wt% CNTs. Nanoliquids containing CNT based distilled water/ethylene glycol were successfully applied in heat dissipation for an Intel Core i5 processor and a 450 W floodlight LED. The experimental results showed that the saturation temperature of the Intel Core i5 processor and the 450 W floodlight LED decreased by about 6 °C and 3.5 °C, respectively, when using nanoliquids containing 1 g l-1 of CNTs. The CNTs were also effectively utilized additive materials for the synthesis of lubricating oils to improve the thermal conductivity, heat dissipation efficiency and performance efficiency of engines. The experimental results show that the thermal conductivity of lubricating oils increased by 12.5%, the engine saved 15% fuel consumption, and the longevity of the lubricating oil increased up to 20 000 km by using 0.1% vol. CNTs in the lubricating oils. All above results have confirmed the tremendous application potential of heat conductive materials containing CNTs in thermal management for high power electronic devices, internal combustion engines and other high power apparatus.

  4. Cure of malignant melanoma by single thermal neutron capture treatment using melanoma-seeking compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yutaka; Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Nakanishi, Takafumi

    1985-01-01

    Since not only malignant melanomas but also many kinds of human cancers, for example thyroid cancer and squamous cell carcinoma, synthesize their specific protein, much attention has been paid to the establishment of selective thermal neutron capture treatment of malignant melanoma as a prototype of such cancer cells. This paper presents 10 B chlorpromazine compounds and 10 B 1 -para-boronophenylalanine ( 10 B 1 -BPA) as tumor-seeking 10 B compounds which themselves possess selective affinity for the specific metabolic activity of the target cancer cells. An overview of the following studies on the effects of 10 B 1 -BPA in the thermal neutron capture treatment of melanoma is provided: 1) in vitro studies on specific enhanced melanoma cell killing effects of 10 B 1 -BPA; 2) in vivo studies on therapeutic effects of 10 B 1 -BPA using melanoma-bearing hamsters; and 3) preclinical therapeutic experiments using spontaneously occurring malignant melanoma in Duroc pig skin, including experiments in which melanoma was successfully cured. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Treatment time reduction for large thermal lesions by using a multiple 1D ultrasound phased array system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.-L.; Chen, Y.-Y.; Yen, J.-Y.; Lin, W.-L.

    2003-01-01

    To generate large thermal lesions in ultrasound thermal therapy, cooling intermissions are usually introduced during the treatment to prevent near-field heating, which leads to a long treatment time. A possible strategy to shorten the total treatment time is to eliminate the cooling intermissions. In this study, the two methods, power optimization and acoustic window enlargement, for reducing power accumulation in the near field are combined to investigate the feasibility of continuously heating a large target region (maximally 3.2 x 3.2 x 3.2 cm 3 ). A multiple 1D ultrasound phased array system generates the foci to scan the target region. Simulations show that the target region can be successfully heated without cooling and no near-field heating occurs. Moreover, due to the fact that there is no cooling time during the heating sessions, the total treatment time is significantly reduced to only several minutes, compared to the existing several hours

  6. Heavy metal vaporization and abatement during thermal treatment of modified wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, S.; Verwilghen, C.; Ramaroson, J.; Nzihou, A.; Sharrock, P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the vaporization percentage and partitioning of heavy metals Cd, Pb and Zn during thermal treatment of wastes with added PVC, heavy metals or phosphate, and the efficiency of sorbents for removal of these metallic compounds in flue gas of an industrial solid waste incinerator. Firstly, vaporization experiments were carried out to determine the behavior of heavy metals during combustion under various conditions (type of waste, temperature, presence of chloride or phosphate ...). The experimental results show relatively high vaporization percentage of metallic compounds within fly ash and limestone matrix while heavy metals within sediments treated with phosphoric acid are less volatile. Vaporization of metals increases with increasing temperature and with chloride addition. The thermal behavior of the selected heavy metals and their removal by sorbents (sodium bicarbonate, activated carbon) was also studied in an industrial solid waste incinerator. These pilot scale experiments confirm that heavy metals are concentrated in fly ashes and cyclone residues, thus effectively controlling their release to the atmosphere

  7. Numerical treatment of the unsteady hydromagnetic thermal boundary layer problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drymonitou, M.A.; Geroyannis, V.S.; Goudas, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a suitable numerical method for the treatment of the unsteady hydromagnetic thermal boundary layer problem for flows past an infinite porous flat plate, the motion of which is governed by a general time-dependent law, under the influence of a transverse externally set magnetic field. The normal velocity of suction/injection at the plate is also assumed to be time-dependent. The results obtained on the basis of numerical approximations seem to compare favourably with earlier results (Pande et al., 1976; Tokis, 1978). Analytical approximations are given for the cases of a plate (i) generally accelerated and (ii) harmonically oscillating. The direct numerical treatment is obviously advantageous since it allows handling of cases where the known methods for analytical approximations are not applicable. This problem is closely related to the motions and heat transfer occurring locally on the surfaces of stars. (orig.)

  8. Rising the exploitation of substrates by thermal digestate processing; Steigerung der Substratausnutzung durch thermische Gaerrestbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seick, Ingolf; Gebhardt, Sebastian [Hochschule Magdeburg-Stendal (Germany). Fachbereich Wasser- und Kreislaufwirtschaft

    2013-10-01

    The paper introduces a new process for biogas plants to increase the utilization of substrate and to reduce the required feeding. By a thermal treatment of a partial flow of the digestate the gas yield is increased considerably, whereupon a recirculation is carried out into the fermentation process. The digestate taken from the secondary fermenter is separated to a liquid and a solid phase. The solid phase is treated thermally and led back into the main fermenter discontinuously. The discharge of a subset of the untreated digestate shall avoid accumulation of inert fractions. Batch fermentation tests with separated digestate of a typical biogas plant have shown an increase of the VS-specific gas and methane yields, e.g. of approx. 90% after a 10-minute treatment in a lab-scale high pressure autoclave at 170 C and 8 bar. Simulations point out that a long-term use of the process in biogas plants can be possible effectively. (orig.)

  9. Monochromic radiation through light-emitting diode (LED positively augments in vitro shoot regeneration in Orchid (Dendrobium sonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandita Billore

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Monochromatic lights emitted by light-emitting diodes (LEDs have generated great interest for efficient and controlled growth in vitro, especially of plants which are endangered or require specific intensity and wavelength of light. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of monochromatic LEDs on in vitro morphogenesis: growth, proliferation of shoot cultures, and rooting of Dendrobium sonia. Different light sources viz. white LEDs (W, blue LEDs (B, yellow LEDs (Y and red LEDs (R were tested under photoperiod of 16 h of exposure and 8 h of dark. The frequency of morphogenesis depended on the wavelength of the applied monochromatic light. Higher wavelength monochromatic light (yellow light was observed to induce higher shoot proliferation (98%, early PLB (protocorm-like bodies formation, differentiation into green buds and shoot initiation as compared to red, blue and white light treatments. Yellow light also yielded higher number of shoots per explants (29 shoots/explant than red, blue and white light treatments. The results suggest that the monochromatic light sources stimulate morphogenic effects on in vitro culture of Dendrobium sonia, and that yellow light treatment can be used to enhance the efficiency of micropropagation.

  10. Parents' and children's perception of parent-led Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Alison; Dorsey, Crystal S; Swaidan, Victoria R; Storch, Eric A

    2015-02-01

    This study explored parent and child experiences of a parent-led, therapist-assisted treatment during Step One of Stepped Care Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT). Seventeen parents/guardians and 16 children who were between the ages of 8 and 12 years were interviewed after Step One and six weeks after the completion of a maintenance phase about their perceptions of the parent-led, therapist-assisted treatment. Participants were asked what they liked and disliked about the treatment as well as what they found to be most and least helpful. Generally, parents and children liked the treatment and found it helpful. In terms of treatment components, children indicated that the relaxation exercises were the most liked/helpful component (62.5%) followed by trauma narrative activities (56.3%). A few children (18.8%) did not like or found least helpful the trauma narrative component as they wanted to avoid talking or thinking about the trauma. Parents indicated that the parent-child meetings were the most liked/helpful (82.4%) followed by the Stepping Together workbook (58.8%) and relaxation exercises (52.9%). Some parents (23.5%) noted that the workbook seemed too repetitive and some parents (17.6%) at times were uncertain if they were leading the parent-child meetings the best way. Parent-led, therapist-assisted TF-CBT may be an acceptable type of service delivery for both parents and children, although more research is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Metal-Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposite Thermal Interface Materials with Ultralow Thermal Resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegin, Cengiz; Nagabandi, Nirup; Feng, Xuhui; King, Charles; Catalano, Massimo; Oh, Jun Kyun; Talib, Ansam J; Scholar, Ethan A; Verkhoturov, Stanislav V; Cagin, Tahir; Sokolov, Alexei V; Kim, Moon J; Matin, Kaiser; Narumanchi, Sreekant; Akbulut, Mustafa

    2017-03-22

    As electronic devices get smaller and more powerful, energy density of energy storage devices increases continuously, and moving components of machinery operate at higher speeds, the need for better thermal management strategies is becoming increasingly important. The removal of heat dissipated during the operation of electronic, electrochemical, and mechanical devices is facilitated by high-performance thermal interface materials (TIMs) which are utilized to couple devices to heat sinks. Herein, we report a new class of TIMs involving the chemical integration of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS), soft organic linkers, and a copper matrix-which are prepared by the chemisorption-coupled electrodeposition approach. These hybrid nanocomposites demonstrate bulk thermal conductivities ranging from 211 to 277 W/(m K), which are very high considering their relatively low elastic modulus values on the order of 21.2-28.5 GPa. The synergistic combination of these properties led to the ultralow total thermal resistivity values in the range of 0.38-0.56 mm 2 K/W for a typical bond-line thickness of 30-50 μm, advancing the current state-of-art transformatively. Moreover, its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is 11 ppm/K, forming a mediation zone with a low thermally induced axial stress due to its close proximity to the CTE of most coupling surfaces needing thermal management.

  12. Dansk LED - Museumsbelysning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Thorseth, Anders

    Projektet har til formål at anvende dansk forskning inden for optik og lys til at realisere innovative energieffektive LED lyssystemer til museumsbranchen.......Projektet har til formål at anvende dansk forskning inden for optik og lys til at realisere innovative energieffektive LED lyssystemer til museumsbranchen....

  13. Luminescence properties of Yb:Nd:Tm:KY3F10 nanophosphor and thermal treatment effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Laércio; Linhares, Horácio Marconi da Silva M.D.; Ichikawa, Rodrigo Uchida; Martinez, Luis Gallego; Ranieri, Izilda Marcia

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present the spectroscopic properties of KY 3 F 10 (KY3F) nanocrystals activated with thulium and codoped with ytterbium and neodymium ions. The most important processes that lead to the thulium upconversion emissions in the blue region were identified. A time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy technique was employed to measure the luminescence decays and to determine the most important mechanisms involved in the upconversion process that populates 1 G 4 (Tm 3+ ) excited states. Analysis of the energy-transfer processes dynamics using selective pulsed-laser excitations in Yb:Nd:Tm, Nd:KY3F nanocrystals shows that the direct energy transfer from Nd 3+ to Tm 3+ ions is the mechanism responsible for the 78% of the blue upconversion luminescence in the Yb:Nd:Tm:KY3F when compared with the Yb:Nd:Tm:KY3F bulk crystal for an laser excitation at 802 nm. An investigation of the 1 G 4 level luminescence kinetic of Tm 3+ in Yb/Nd/Tm system revealed that the luminescence efficiency ( 1 G 4 ) starts with a very low value (0.38%) for the synthesized nanocrystal (as grown) and strongly increases to 97% after thermal treatment at 550 °C for 6 h under argon flow. As a consequence of the thermal treatment at T=550 °C, the contributions of the (Nd×Tm) (Up 1 ) and (Nd×Yb×Tm) (Up 2 ) upconversion processes to the 1 G 4 luminescence are 33% (Up 1 ) and 67% for Up 2 . Up 2 process represented by Nd 3+ ( 4 F 3/2 )→Yb 3+ ( 2 F 7/2 ) followed by Yb 3+ ( 2 F 5/2 )→Tm ( 3 H 4 )→Tm 3+ ( 1 G 4 ) was previously reported as the main mechanism to produce the blue luminescence in Yb:Nd:Tm:YLiF 4 and KY 3 F 10 bulk crystals. Results of X-ray diffraction analysis of nanopowder using the Rietveld method reveled that crystallite sizes remain unchanged (12–14 nm) after thermal treatments with T≤400 °C, while the 1 G 4 luminescence efficiency strongly increases from 0.38% (T=25 °C) to 12% (T=400 °C). Results shown that the Nd 3+ ions distribution has a concentration

  14. Improving the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis using a senior-friendly peer-led community education and mentoring model: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloseck M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Marita Kloseck,1,2 Deborah A Fitzsimmons,1,3,4 Mark Speechley,5 Marie Y Savundranayagam,1 Richard G Crilly1,2 1Sam Katz Community Health and Aging Research Unit, 2Division of Geriatric Medicine, Western University, London, ON, Canada; 3School of Nursing and Allied Health, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, 4School of Health and Related Research, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 5Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Western University, London, ON, Canada Background: This randomized controlled trial (RCT evaluated a 6-month peer-led community education and mentorship program to improve the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis.Methods: Ten seniors (74–90 years of age were trained to become peer educators and mentors and deliver the intervention. In the subsequent RCT, 105 seniors (mean age =80.5±6.9; 89% female were randomly assigned to the peer-led education and mentorship program (n=53 or control group (n=52. Knowledge was assessed at baseline and 6 months. Success was defined as discussing osteoporosis risk with their family physician, obtaining a bone mineral density assessment, and returning to review their risk profile and receive advice and/or treatment.Results: Knowledge of osteoporosis did not change significantly. There was no difference in knowledge change between the two groups (mean difference =1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] of difference −0.76 to 3.36. More participants in the intervention group achieved a successful outcome (odds ratio 0.16, 95% CI 0.06–0.42, P<0.001.Conclusion: Peer-led education and mentorship can promote positive health behavior in seniors. This model was effective for improving osteoporosis risk assessment, diagnosis, and treatment in a community setting. Keywords: prevention, seniors, mentor, bone mineral density, capacity building, community knowledge translation

  15. Numerical simulation and experimental research of the integrated high-power LED radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, J. H.; Zhang, C. L.; Gan, Z. J.; Zhou, C.; Chen, C. G.; Chen, S.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal management has become an urgent problem to be solved with the increasing power and the improving integration of the LED (light emitting diode) chip. In order to eliminate the contact resistance of the radiator, this paper presented an integrated high-power LED radiator based on phase-change heat transfer, which realized the seamless connection between the vapor chamber and the cooling fins. The radiator was optimized by combining the numerical simulation and the experimental research. The effects of the chamber diameter and the parameters of fin on the heat dissipation performance were analyzed. The numerical simulation results were compared with the measured values by experiment. The results showed that the fin thickness, the fin number, the fin height and the chamber diameter were the factors which affected the performance of radiator from primary to secondary.

  16. Thermal fatigue. Fluid-structure interaction at thermal mixing events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, X.; Herter, K.H.; Moogk, S.; Laurien, E.; Kloeren, D.; Kulenovic, R.; Kuschewski, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the network research project ''Thermal Fatigue - Basics of the system-, outflow- and material-characteristics of piping under thermal fatigue'' funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) fundamental numerical and experimental investigations on the material behaviour under transient thermal-mechanical stress conditions (high cycle fatigue - HCF) are carried out. The project's background and its network of scientific working groups with their individual working tasks are briefly introduced. The main focus is especially on the joint research tasks within the sub-projects of MPA and IKE which are dealing with thermal mixing of flows in a T-junction configuration and the fluidstructure- interactions (FSI). Therefore, experiments were performed with the newly established FSI test facility at MPA which enables single-phase flow experiments of water in typical power plant piping diameters (DN40 and DN80) at high pressure (maximum 75 bar) and temperatures (maximum 280 C). The experimental results serve as validation data base for numerical modelling of thermal flow mixing by means of thermo-fluid dynamics simulations applying CFD techniques and carried out by IKE as well as for modelling of thermal and mechanical loads of the piping structure by structural mechanics simulations with FEM methods which are executed by MPA. The FSI test facility will be described inclusively the applied measurement techniques, e. g. in particular the novel near-wall LED-induced Fluorescence method for non-intrusive flow temperature measurements. First experimental data and numerical results from CFD and FEM simulations of the thermal mixing of flows in the T-junction are presented.

  17. Independent peer review panel report on the integrated nonthermal treatment systems study and the comparison of integrated thermal and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for mixed low level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) has conducted studies of integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTS) for treating contact handled, alpha and non-alpha mixed low level radioactive waste (MLLW). The MLLW in the DOE complex consists of a wide variety of organic and inorganic solids and liquids contaminated with radioactive substances. Treatment systems are needed to destroy organic material and stabilize residues prior to land disposal. In May 1996 the Deputy Assistant Secretary for OST appointed an Independent Peer Review Panel to: (1) review and comment on the INTS Study; (2) make recommendations on the most promising thermal and nonthermal treatment systems; (3) make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of nonthermal and thermal technologies; and (4) review and comment on the preliminary draft of the ITTS/INTS Comparison Report. This report presents the primary conclusions and recommendations based on the review of the INTS study and the comparison report. System selection, overviews, comparisons, cost estimations and sensitivity analyses, and recommended R and D engineering needs are then described and discussed.

  18. Independent peer review panel report on the integrated nonthermal treatment systems study and the comparison of integrated thermal and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for mixed low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) has conducted studies of integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTS) for treating contact handled, alpha and non-alpha mixed low level radioactive waste (MLLW). The MLLW in the DOE complex consists of a wide variety of organic and inorganic solids and liquids contaminated with radioactive substances. Treatment systems are needed to destroy organic material and stabilize residues prior to land disposal. In May 1996 the Deputy Assistant Secretary for OST appointed an Independent Peer Review Panel to: (1) review and comment on the INTS Study; (2) make recommendations on the most promising thermal and nonthermal treatment systems; (3) make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of nonthermal and thermal technologies; and (4) review and comment on the preliminary draft of the ITTS/INTS Comparison Report. This report presents the primary conclusions and recommendations based on the review of the INTS study and the comparison report. System selection, overviews, comparisons, cost estimations and sensitivity analyses, and recommended R and D engineering needs are then described and discussed

  19. High power solid state retrofit lamp thermal characterization and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Vladimír, J.; Husák, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED Lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount Importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D

  20. Effects of fluorine-based plasma treatment and thermal annealing on high-Al content AlGaN Schottky contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fang; Qin Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    Fluorine plasma treatment was used prior to the Schottky metal deposition on the undoped Al 0.45 Ga 0.55 N, which aimed at the solar-blind wavelength. After fluorine plasma treatment and before depositing the Ni/Au Schottky, the samples were thermal annealed in the N 2 gas at 400 °C. The reverse leakage current density of Al 0.45 Ga 0.55 N Schottky diode was reduced by 2 orders of magnitude at −10 V. The reverse leakage current density was reduced by 3 orders of magnitude after thermal annealing. Further capacitance–frequency analysis revealed that the fluorine-based plasma treatment reduces the surface states of AlGaN by one order of magnitude at different surface state energies. The capacitance–frequency analysis also proved that the concentration of carriers in AlGaN top is reduced through fluorine plasma treatment. (paper)

  1. Led spectral and power characteristics under hybrid PWM/AM dimming strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2010-01-01

    In order to dim LEDs the pulse width modulation (PWM) or amplitude modulation (AM) dimming scheme is typically used. Previous studies show that these dimming schemes can have opposite effects on diodes peak wavelength shift. An experimental study was conducted to test the behavior of InGaN diodes...... and phosphor-converted white diodes under hybrid PWM/AM modulation. Feed forward control schemes that provide stable peak wavelength position during dimming and the ability to compensate the thermally induced color shifts and the decrease of the luminous flux are investigated....

  2. OBSERVED ASTEROID SURFACE AREA IN THE THERMAL INFRARED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, C. R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Kramer, E.; Sonnett, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wright, E. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The rapid accumulation of thermal infrared observations and shape models of asteroids has led to increased interest in thermophysical modeling. Most of these infrared observations are unresolved. We consider what fraction of an asteroid’s surface area contributes the bulk of the emitted thermal flux for two model asteroids of different shapes over a range of thermal parameters. The resulting observed surface in the infrared is generally more fragmented than the area observed in visible wavelengths, indicating high sensitivity to shape. For objects with low values of the thermal parameter, small fractions of the surface contribute the majority of thermally emitted flux. Calculating observed areas could enable the production of spatially resolved thermal inertia maps from non-resolved observations of asteroids.

  3. Formation of PCDD and PCDF in the thermal treatment of footwear leather wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Marcelo; Marcilio, Nilson Romeu; Masotti, Leonardo; Martins, Celso Brisolara; Ritter, Diego Elias; Wenzel, Bruno München

    2009-08-15

    The leather waste generated by the footwear industry is considered dangerous due to the presence of trivalent chromium, derived from the salt utilized to tan hides. In Brazil, the majority of this waste is disposed on landfills and only about 3% are recycled. The thermal treatment is an alternative method for purification of such residues. By using this technique it is possible to generate energy and recover the chromium present in the ash for the production of basic chromium sulfate (tanning industry), high carbon ferrochromium or carbon-free ferrochromium (steel industry). In the last 10 years, the gasification and combustion of footwear leather waste have been intensively studied at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. The research experiment for characterization of the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) were carried out in a semi-pilot unit (350 kW(th)). From new investments the thermal capacity of the unit will increase to 600 kW(th). The unit will produce power from the heat generated in the combustion. The experimental results indicated that during the thermal treatment of footwear leather wastes, the formation mechanism of PCDD/F is the de novo synthesis. Most of PCDD/F were found in the particulate phase (>95%). A kinetic model was used for discussion of the achieved experimental results. The model is based in the carbon gasification, PCDD/F formation, desorption and degradation. From the conclusions obtained in this work will be possible minimize the PCDD/F formation in process of combustion of footwear leather wastes.

  4. Investigations of the thermal treatment effect on the generation of cadmium sulfide clusters in polymeric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanculescu, Anca; Socol, M.; Stanculescu, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the last years a special interest has been paid to the field of nanometer-sized semiconductor compound crystalline clusters synthesized in different matrix (inorganic or organic), due to their special physical and chemical properties intermediate between the molecular and bulk limits. To obtain the thin film samples of CdS particles embedded in a polymeric transparent matrix, as bisphenol A polycarbonate, we followed a process containing three important steps: preparation of the so-called 'mother solution', film deposition and thermal treatment. The samples obtained after the first two steps were heat treated at different temperatures (90 deg. C and 150 deg. C) for 0.5 h, 1 h and 1.5 h, and we have analyzed the influence of these parameters on the film quality using UV-VIS spectrophotometric methods. This paper presents a study of the influence of the thermal treatment on the CdS clusters' generation process and film quality and homogeneity. The parameters of the processing procedure of the polymeric film, as the cooling rate, have a great influence on the rate of germination and development of the crystalline phase. A slow cooling rate is a more favorable process for CdS clusters' formation, indicated .by structured features of the fundamental absorption situated between 350-450 nm. When the temperature for thermal treatment increases to 90 deg. C a sharp rise and a shift to shorter wavelengths of the absorption onset edge was observed. This shift proves the existence of a weak quantum confinement effects. We concluded that these two parameters have some equivalent effects on the CdS clusters' generation in polymeric matrix. Varying the treatment duration with a fixed temperature produces similar results as the fixed duration, varied temperature treatment. (authors)

  5. Thermal ageing and short-range ordering of Alloy 690 between 350 and 550 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouginot, Roman, E-mail: roman.mouginot@aalto.fi [Aalto University School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Otakaari 4, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Sarikka, Teemu [Aalto University School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Otakaari 4, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Heikkilä, Mikko [University of Helsinki, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, A.I.Virtasen Aukio 1, 00560 Helsinki (Finland); Ivanchenko, Mykola; Ehrnstén, Ulla [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland LTD, Kemistintie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Sung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-Daero, 989-111, Yuseong, Daejeon, 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Hänninen, Hannu [Aalto University School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Otakaari 4, 02150 Espoo (Finland)

    2017-03-15

    Thermal ageing of Alloy 690 triggers an intergranular (IG) carbide precipitation and is known to promote an ordering reaction causing lattice contraction. It may affect the long-term primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) resistance of pressurized water reactor (PWR) components. Four conditions of Alloy 690 (solution annealed, cold-rolled and/or heat-treated) were aged between 350 and 550 °C for 10 000 h and characterized. Although no direct observation of ordering was made, variations in hardness and lattice parameter were attributed to the formation of short-range ordering (SRO) in all conditions with a peak level at 420 °C, consistent with the literature. Prior heat treatment induced ordering before thermal ageing. At higher temperatures, stress relaxation, recrystallization and α-Cr precipitation were observed in the cold-worked samples, while a disordering reaction was inferred in all samples based on a decrease in hardness. IG precipitation of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides increased with increasing ageing temperature in all conditions, as well as diffusion-induced grain boundary migration (DIGM). - Highlights: • SRO was suggested in Alloy 690 with 9.18 wt% Fe after thermal ageing at 350, 420 and 475 °C. • Prior thermal treatment promoted SRO before ageing. • Cold work led to recrystallization and precipitation of α-Cr upon ageing at 550 °C. • Thermal ageing promoted IG precipitation of Cr-rich M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides and DIGM.

  6. Study of Cd Te recrystallization by hydrated-CdCl{sub 2} thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez V, C.; Albor A, M. L.; Galarza G, U.; Aguilar H, J. R. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Departamento de Fisica, San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Gonzalez T, M. A. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Computo, Nueva Industrial Vallejo, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Flores M, J. M. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas, Departamento de Ingenieria en Metalurgia y Materiales, Nueva Industrial Vallejo, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Jimenez O, D. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, SEPI, Nueva Industrial Vallejo, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-11-01

    Cd Te thin films solar cells are currently produced using a layer sequence of glass/FTO/CdS/Cd Te/metal contact (Cu/Ag), these films are deposited by two different techniques, chemical bath deposition (CBD) and close space vapour transport (CSVT). In order to reach reasonable conversion efficiencies, the device has to be thermally treated in a hydrated-CdCl{sub 2} atmosphere. This study was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence, Sem-EDS, four probe method and Sims profiling of Cd Te. These analyses confirm the presence of hydrated CdCl{sub 2} and Cd Te phases on Cd Te surface and shown a good recrystallization morphology helping to the carriers mobility along the structure. Using the thermal treatment was possible to reduce the resistivity of Cd Te thin film; it is a result to the Cl migration along the Cd Te solar cell structure, reducing the defects between CdS and Cd Te thin films. A strong Cd Te thin film recrystallization was observed by the implementation of a hydrated-CdCl{sub 2} treatment doing to this a good candidate to Cd Te solar cells process. (Author)

  7. Color homogeneity in LED spotlights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    Color variation in the light output of white LEDs is a common problem in LED lighting. We aim to design LED spotlights with a uniform color output while keeping the cost of the system low and the energy efficiency high. Therefore we design a special optic to eliminate the color variation of the LED.

  8. Effects of multiple-step thermal ageing treatment on the hardness characteristics of A356.0-type Al-Si-Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulwahab, M.; Madugu, I.A.; Yaro, S.A.; Hassan, S.B.; Popoola, A.P.I.

    2011-01-01

    The work outlined the hardness characteristics of thermally aged high chromium sodium modified A356.0-type Al-Si-Mg alloy using the multiple-step thermal ageing treatment (MSTAT) approach. This novel approach consists of double thermal ageing (DTAT) and single thermal ageing treatment (STAT). The investigation also includes the development of a new temperature-compensated-time parameter, P, for the studied alloy at different ageing temperatures and time considered. The results obtained in the DTAT developed for the A356.0-type Al-Si-Mg alloy showed an improvement in the precipitation hardening (PH) ability and hardness characteristics as compared to the convectional STAT temper. The observations were evidenced from the X-ray diffractometry (XRD) pattern indicating the possible strengthening phases. Equally, the hardness behavior was correlated with the microstructures using optical microscope (OPM) and scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectroscope (SEM-EDS).

  9. Thermally Stable Ni-rich Austenite Formed Utilizing Multistep Intercritical Heat Treatment in a Low-Carbon 10 Wt Pct Ni Martensitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Divya; Isheim, Dieter; Zhang, Xian J.; Ghosh, Gautam; Seidman, David N.

    2017-08-01

    Austenite reversion and its thermal stability attained during the transformation is key to enhanced toughness and blast resistance in transformation-induced-plasticity martensitic steels. We demonstrate that the thermal stability of Ni-stabilized austenite and kinetics of the transformation can be controlled by forming Ni-rich regions in proximity of pre-existing (retained) austenite. Atom probe tomography (APT) in conjunction with thermodynamic and kinetic modeling elucidates the role of Ni-rich regions in enhancing growth kinetics of thermally stable austenite, formed utilizing a multistep intercritical ( Quench- Lamellarization- Tempering (QLT)-type) heat treatment for a low-carbon 10 wt pct Ni steel. Direct evidence of austenite formation is provided by dilatometry, and the volume fraction is quantified by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The results indicate the growth of nm-thick austenite layers during the second intercritical tempering treatment (T-step) at 863 K (590 °C), with austenite retained from first intercritical treatment (L-step) at 923 K (650 °C) acting as a nucleation template. For the first time, the thermal stability of austenite is quantified with respect to its compositional evolution during the multistep intercritical treatment of these steels. Austenite compositions measured by APT are used in combination with the thermodynamic and kinetic approach formulated by Ghosh and Olson to assess thermal stability and predict the martensite-start temperature. This approach is particularly useful as empirical relations cannot be extrapolated for the highly Ni-enriched austenite investigated in the present study.

  10. Reversible switching of wetting properties and erasable patterning of polymer surfaces using plasma oxidation and thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Zeeshan; Atay, Ipek; Soydan, Seren; Yagci, M. Baris; Jonáš, Alexandr; Yilgor, Emel; Kiraz, Alper; Yilgor, Iskender

    2018-05-01

    Polymer surfaces reversibly switchable from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic by exposure to oxygen plasma and subsequent thermal treatment are demonstrated. Two inherently different polymers, hydrophobic segmented polydimethylsiloxane-urea copolymer (TPSC) and hydrophilic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) are modified with fumed silica nanoparticles to prepare superhydrophobic surfaces with roughness on nanometer to micrometer scale. Smooth TPSC and PMMA surfaces are also used as control samples. Regardless of their chemical structure and surface topography, all surfaces display completely reversible wetting behavior changing from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and back for many cycles upon plasma oxidation followed by thermal annealing. Influence of plasma power, plasma exposure time, annealing temperature and annealing time on the wetting behavior of polymeric surfaces are investigated. Surface compositions, textures and topographies are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and white light interferometry (WLI), before and after oxidation and thermal annealing. Wetting properties of the surfaces are determined by measuring their static, advancing and receding water contact angle. We conclude that the chemical structure and surface topography of the polymers play a relatively minor role in reversible wetting behavior, where the essential factors are surface oxidation and migration of polymer molecules to the surface upon thermal annealing. Reconfigurable water channels on polymer surfaces are produced by plasma treatment using a mask and thermal annealing cycles. Such patterned reconfigurable hydrophilic regions can find use in surface microfluidics and optofluidics applications.

  11. CALiPER Report 20.3: Robustness of LED PAR38 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poplawski, Michael E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown, Charles C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Three samples of 40 of the Series 20 PAR38 lamps underwent multi-stress testing, whereby samples were subjected to increasing levels of simultaneous thermal, humidity, electrical, and vibrational stress. The results do not explicitly predict expected lifetime or reliability, but they can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs. On average, the 32 LED lamp models tested were substantially more robust than the conventional benchmark lamps. As with other performance attributes, however, there was great variability in the robustness and design maturity of the LED lamps. Several LED lamp samples failed within the first one or two levels of the ten-level stress plan, while all three samples of some lamp models completed all ten levels. One potential area of improvement is design maturity, given that more than 25% of the lamp models demonstrated a difference in failure level for the three samples that was greater than or equal to the maximum for the benchmarks. At the same time, the fact that nearly 75% of the lamp models exhibited better design maturity than the benchmarks is noteworthy, given the relative stage of development for the technology.

  12. Chemoresistance to 5-FU inhibited by 635 nm LED irradiation in CD133+ KB cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghwi; Park, Mineon; Jang, Hyunwoong; Hyun, Hoon; Lim, Wonbong

    2018-01-01

    Consistent with cancer stem cell theory, a small fraction of cancer cells, described as cancer stem cells (CSCs), may promote tumor recurrence and anti-cancer drug resistance. Therefore, much effort has been devoted to the development of CSC targeted therapy to vanquish drug resistance. In this study, we have investigated the effect of multiple light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation treatments with conventional anti-cancer drugs on CSC-like oral cancer cells that acquired stemness by ectopic over expression of CD133. To evaluate combined LED irradiation anti-cancer drug effects, we investigated the chemosensitizing effect of 635 nm irradiation on 5-fluorouracil (5FU)-treated KB CD133+ and KB Vec cells, interrogating the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with stemness and apoptosis that are responsible for chemopreventive activity. In addition, combination therapy with LED irradiation and 5-FU treatment was carried out in KB CD133+ and KB Vec cell-inoculated mouse models. LED irradiation of 635 nm inhibited CSC-like properties consistent with a decrease in OCT4 and NANOG protein expression, reducing colony-forming ability. In addition, LED irradiation enhanced 5-FU-induced cytotoxicity and improved 5-FU chemosensitivity in KB CD133+ via enhancement of apoptosis. These findings were validated in vivo, wherein LED irradiation combined with 5-FU treatment inhibited tumor growth in KB CD133+ -inoculated mice. Collectively, our results provide novel evidence for 635 nm irradiation-induced 5-FU chemosensitization of CSC in oral cancer. In addition, this research highlights that 635 nm LED irradiation may serve as an adjunct treatment to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs in patients with oral cancer.

  13. Submerged Arc Stainless Steel Strip Cladding—Effect of Post-Weld Heat Treatment on Thermal Fatigue Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, I. C.; Chou, C. P.; Tseng, C. F.; Lee, I. K.

    2009-03-01

    Two types of martensitic stainless steel strips, PFB-132 and PFB-131S, were deposited on SS41 carbon steel substrate by a three-pass submerged arc cladding process. The effects of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) on thermal fatigue resistance and hardness were evaluated by thermal fatigue and hardness testing, respectively. The weld metal microstructure was investigated by utilizing optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results showed that, by increasing the PWHT temperature, hardness decreased but there was a simultaneous improvement in weldment thermal fatigue resistance. During tempering, carbide, such as (Fe, Cr)23C6, precipitated in the weld metals and molybdenum appeared to promote (Fe, Cr, Mo)23C6 formation. The precipitates of (Fe, Cr, Mo)23C6 revealed a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure with fine grains distributed in the microstructure, thereby effectively increasing thermal fatigue resistance. However, by adding nickel, the AC1 temperature decreased, causing a negative effect on thermal fatigue resistance.

  14. Effect of radiation-thermal treatment on the physicochemical properties of the Ni-Mo/Al2O3 hydrotreatment catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovetskij, Yu.I.; Lunin, V.V.; Miroshnichenko, I.I.

    1993-01-01

    A study was made on reasons of radiation-thermal damage by 2.0 MeV accelerated electron beams of surface and active metal phases of Al, Ni, Mo base hydrodesulfurization catalysts. Data of diffusion reflection electron spectra for coked industrial and model systems after radiation-thermal treatment are presented. 14 refs., 2 figs

  15. Effect of thermal treatment on electrical properties and varistors degradation of ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, E.R.; Cerri, J.A.; Longo, E.; Catao, P.S.P.; Varela, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    ZnO varistors obstained by conventional processing was heat treated and their electrical properties and degradation was analyzed. Infra-red spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction and current-voltage curves were used to analize the properties with type of thermal cycle. The results showed that heat treatment promote stabilization against degradation and that exist a linear dependence of leakage current with square root of time. (author) [pt

  16. Characterization of Co–Cr–Mo alloys after a thermal treatment for high wear resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagna, C.; Spriano, S.; Faga, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    The cobalt–chromium–molybdenum alloys are characterized by a high resistance to wear and corrosion, as well as good mechanical properties, allowing their use in the substitution of hip and knee joints. Five alloys were used as substrates for a coating deposition by a thermal treatment in molten salts, as reported elsewhere, in order to form a tantalum‐rich coating on the sample surface, able to improve the biocompatibility and wear resistance of the materials. However, the temperature (970 °C), reached during this process, is considered critical for the phase transformation of the Co-based alloys. The aim of this work is the evaluation of the temperature effects on the structure, microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of the considered substrates, after the removal of the coating by polishing. The substrates are characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersion spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and profilometry. The mechanical behavior is evaluated by the macro- and micro-hardness and bending tests, whereas the tribological properties are analyzed through a ball on disc test. A comparison between the as-received alloys and thermal treated substrates is reported. The biocompatibility feature is not reported in this work. The substrate crystalline structure changed during the heat treatment, inducing the formation of the hexagonal cobalt phase and the decrement of the cubic one. This crystallographic modification does not seem to influence the tribological behavior of the substrates. On the contrary, it affects the strength and ductility of the substrates. - Highlights: ► Effect of a thermal treatment on different CoCrMo alloys suitable for hip and knee joint substitution. ► The temperature induced an increment in the amount of hexagonal phase and a change in the grain size. ► The increment of the hexagonal phase decreases the hardness of the substrates but not the tribological properties.

  17. Low operation voltage of GaN-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO upper contact directly on p-type GaN without insert layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P. H.; Chen, Yu An; Chang, L. C.; Lai, W. C.; Kuo, Cheng Huang

    2015-07-01

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) film was evaporated on double-side polished sapphire, p-GaN layers, n+-InGaN-GaN short-period superlattice (SPS) structures, and GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by e-beam. The AZO film on the p-GaN layer after thermal annealing exhibited an extremely high transparency (98% at 450 nm) and a small specific contact resistance of 2.19 × 10-2 Ω cm2, which was almost the same as that of as-deposited AZO on n+-SPS structure. With 20 mA injection current, the forward voltages were 3.30 and 3.27 V, whereas the output powers were 4.32 and 4.07 mW for the LED with AZO on insert n+-SPS upper contact and the LED with AZO on p-GaN upper contact (without insert layer), respectively. The small specific contact resistance and low operation voltage of LED with AZO on p-GaN upper contact was achieved by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process.

  18. Improvements in Thermal Performance of Mango Hot-water Treatment Equipments: Data Analysis, Mathematical Modelling and Numerical-computational Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder M. Mendoza Orbegoso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mango is one of the most popular and best paid tropical fruits in worldwide markets, its exportation is regulated within a phytosanitary quality control for killing the “fruit fly”. Thus, mangoes must be subject to hot-water treatment process that involves their immersion in hot water over a period of time. In this work, field measurements, analytical and simulation studies are developed on available hot-water treatment equipment called “Original” that only complies with United States phytosanitary protocols. These approaches are made to characterize the fluid-dynamic and thermal behaviours that occur during the mangoes’ hot-water treatment process. Then, analytical model and Computational fluid dynamics simulations are developed for designing new hot-water treatment equipment called “Hybrid” that simultaneously meets with both United States and Japan phytosanitary certifications. Comparisons of analytical results with data field measurements demonstrate that “Hybrid” equipment offers a better fluid-dynamic and thermal performance than “Original” ones.

  19. Thermal plasma treatment of stormwater sediments: comparison between DC non-transferred and partially transferred arc plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, O L; Guo, Y; Chang, J S; Saito, N

    2015-01-01

    The disposal of enormous amount of stormwater sediments becomes an emerging worldwide problem. Stormwater sediments are contaminated by heavy metals, phosphorus, trace organic and hydrocarbons, and cannot be disposed without treatment. Thermal plasma decontamination technology offers a high decomposition rate in a wide range of toxic organic compound and immobilization of heavy metal. In this study, we compared the treatment results between two different modes of thermal plasma: (1) a non-transferred direct current (DC) mode and (2) a partial DC-transferred mode. The reductions of total organic carbon (TOC) were, respectively, 25% and 80% for non-transferred and partially transferred plasma, respectively. Most of the toxic organic compounds were converted majorly to CxHy. In the gaseous emission, the accumulated CxHy, CO, NO and H2S were significantly higher in partially transferred mode than in non-transferred mode. The solid analysis demonstrated that the concentrations of Ca and Fe were enriched by 500% and 40%, respectively. New chemical compositions such as KAlSi3O8, Fe3O4, NaCl and CaSO4 were formed after treatment in partially DC-transferred mode. The power inputs were 1 and 10 kW, respectively, for non-transferred DC mode and a partially DC-transferred mode. With a lower energy input, non-transferred plasma treatment can be used for decontamination of sediments with low TOC and metal concentration. Meanwhile, partially transferred thermal plasma with higher energy input is suitable for treating sediments with high TOC percentage and volatile metal concentration. The organic compounds are converted into valuable gaseous products which can be recycled as an energy source.

  20. State of affairs on pollutants and syngas removal techniques stemming from thermal treatment of waste by gasification. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megret, O.; Bequet, L.

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the current study is to outline the state of affairs related to pollutants and slaughtering techniques of syngas that result both from waste thermal treatment by gasification. The study starts by a review permitting to classify the gasification techniques applied to waste thermal treatment. This review leads to distinguish between auto-thermal and allo-thermal equipments. Furthermore, are described, in this first part, the general principles and parameters of functioning and adjustment of the factors characterizing the thermal treatment in reducing atmosphere. It is also about the composition of the syngas products according to the different driving behaviours of gasifiers. Finally, we state succinctly, on one hand, the possible promotion procedures in the frame of syngas development and, on the other hand, the thresholds that we ought to reach in order to make this promotion achievable. The second part of the study deals with the characteristics of the pollutants located in the syngas. This description took the shape of a detailed index card where pollutants are classified into minority components (including those of pollutants, those of gaseous and those of particulates) according to their concentrations, to their driving behaviours and to their thermochemical conditions of formation (temperature, pressure, response-type agents, atmosphere...). In the last part, we discuss the current and the considered types of slaughtering devices in reducing atmosphere in relation with their performance in slaughtering and regarding the departure point of syngas promotion ways. Finally, are exposed the key postures and the barricades within those technologies. Hereupon, research axes are proposed. (authors)

  1. Preparation and Performance of Poly(butyl fumarate-Based Material for Potential Application in LED Encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A UV-curable poly(butyl fumarate (PBF/poly(propylene fumarate-diacrylate (PPF-DA hybrid material with good performance for LED encapsulation is introduced in the paper. They have been prepared by radical polymerization using PBF and PPF-DA macromers with a UV curing system. PBF and PPF-DA were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR and H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR. The thermal behavior, optical and mechanical properties of the material were examined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV–vis, and a material testing system mechanical testing machine, respectively. The results indicated that the hybrid material has a suitable refractive index (n = 1.537 and high transmittance (99.64% in visible range before/after thermal aging. With the increasing of the double bond ratio from 0.5 to 2, the water absorption ratios of the prepared encapsulation material were 1.22%, 1.87% and 2.88%, respectively. The mechanical property experiments showed that bonding strength was in the range of 1.86–3.40 MPa, tensile-shear strength ranged from 0.84 MPa to 1.57 MPa, and compression strength was in the range of 5.10–27.65 MPa. The cured PBF/PPF-DA hybrid material can be used as a light-emitting diode (LED encapsulant, owing to its suitable refractive index, high transparency, excellent thermal stability, lower water absorption, and good mechanical properties.

  2. Temperature mapping and thermal dose calculation in combined radiation therapy and 13.56 MHz radiofrequency hyperthermia for tumor treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Kyung; Prasad, Bibin; Kim, Suzy

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the synergistic effect of radiotherapy and radiofrequency hyperthermia therapy in the treatment of lung and liver cancers, we studied the mechanism of heat absorption and transfer in the tumor using electro-thermal simulation and high-resolution temperature mapping techniques. A realistic tumor-induced mouse anatomy, which was reconstructed and segmented from computed tomography images, was used to determine the thermal distribution in tumors during radiofrequency (RF) heating at 13.56 MHz. An RF electrode was used as a heat source, and computations were performed with the aid of the multiphysics simulation platform Sim4Life. Experiments were carried out on a tumor-mimicking agar phantom and a mouse tumor model to obtain a spatiotemporal temperature map and thermal dose distribution. A high temperature increase was achieved in the tumor from both the computation and measurement, which elucidated that there was selective high-energy absorption in tumor tissue compared to the normal surrounding tissues. The study allows for effective treatment planning for combined radiation and hyperthermia therapy based on the high-resolution temperature mapping and high-precision thermal dose calculation.

  3. Effect of Chemical Treatment on Physical, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Ladies Finger Natural Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In present research, natural fiber obtained from ladies finger plant was chemically treated separately using alkali (2% NaOH, chromium sulfate (4% , and chromium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate (4% . Both raw and chemically treated fibers were subsequently characterized using mechanical (tensile, structural (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and thermal (thermogravimetric analysis. Fourier analysis showed the presence of (−OH group in the ladies plant fiber. Scanning electron micrographs revealed rougher surface in case of alkali treated fiber, while thin coating layer was formed on the fiber surface during other two treatments. Tensile test on ladies finger single fiber was carried out by varying span length. The tensile strength and Young's modulus values were found to be increased after chemical treatment. For both raw and chemically treated fibers, Young's modulus increased and tensile strength decreased with increase in span length. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated the same level of thermal stability for both raw and treated ladies finger fibers.

  4. Progress of Nanocomposite Membranes for Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ursino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of membrane-based technologies has been applied for water treatment applications; however, the limitations of conventional polymeric membranes have led to the addition of inorganic fillers to enhance their performance. In recent years, nanocomposite membranes have greatly attracted the attention of scientists for water treatment applications such as wastewater treatment, water purification, removal of microorganisms, chemical compounds, heavy metals, etc. The incorporation of different nanofillers, such as carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide, graphene oxide, silver and copper nanoparticles, titanium dioxide, 2D materials, and some other novel nano-scale materials into polymeric membranes have provided great advances, e.g., enhancing on hydrophilicity, suppressing the accumulation of pollutants and foulants, enhancing rejection efficiencies and improving mechanical properties and thermal stabilities. Thereby, the aim of this work is to provide up-to-date information related to those novel nanocomposite membranes and their contribution for water treatment applications.

  5. Progress of Nanocomposite Membranes for Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursino, Claudia; Castro-Muñoz, Roberto; Drioli, Enrico; Gzara, Lassaad; Albeirutty, Mohammad H; Figoli, Alberto

    2018-04-03

    The use of membrane-based technologies has been applied for water treatment applications; however, the limitations of conventional polymeric membranes have led to the addition of inorganic fillers to enhance their performance. In recent years, nanocomposite membranes have greatly attracted the attention of scientists for water treatment applications such as wastewater treatment, water purification, removal of microorganisms, chemical compounds, heavy metals, etc. The incorporation of different nanofillers, such as carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide, graphene oxide, silver and copper nanoparticles, titanium dioxide, 2D materials, and some other novel nano-scale materials into polymeric membranes have provided great advances, e.g., enhancing on hydrophilicity, suppressing the accumulation of pollutants and foulants, enhancing rejection efficiencies and improving mechanical properties and thermal stabilities. Thereby, the aim of this work is to provide up-to-date information related to those novel nanocomposite membranes and their contribution for water treatment applications.

  6. Surface modification of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds by non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air plasma treatment for improving osteoblast attachment and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yu-Ri; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Song, Doo-Hoon; Choi, Eun Ha; Lee, Yong-Keun; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn

    2013-01-01

    Surface modifications induced by non-thermal plasma have been used extensively in biomedical applications. The attachment and proliferation of osteoblast cells are important in bone tissue engineering using scaffolds. Hence the effect of non-thermal plasma on hydroxyapatite/β-tri-calcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) scaffolds in terms of improving osteoblast attachment and proliferation was investigated. Experimental groups were treated with non-thermal plasma for 10 min and 20 min and a control group was not treated with non-thermal plasma. For surface chemistry analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was carried out. The hydrophilicity was determined from contact angle measurement on the surface. Atomic force microscopy analysis (AFM) was used to test the change in surface roughness and cell attachment and proliferation were evaluated using MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells. XPS spectra revealed a decreased amount of carbon on the surface of the plasma-treated sample. The contact angle was also decreased following plasma treatment, indicating improved hydrophilicity of plasma-treated surfaces compared to the untreated disc. A significant increase in MC3T3E-1 cell attachment and proliferation was noted on plasma-treated samples as compared to untreated specimens. The results suggest that non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air plasma treatments provide beneficial surface characteristics on HA/β-TCP scaffolds. - Highlights: ► Non-thermal plasma increased OH- and decreased C on biphasic scaffold. ► Non-thermal plasma had no effect on surface roughness. ► Non-thermal plasma resulted in hydrophilic surface. ► Non-thermal plasma resulted in better cell attachment and proliferation. ► Non-thermal plasma treatment on biphasic scaffold is useful for tissue engineering

  7. Thermal Treatment of Iron Oxide Stabilized APC Residues from Waste Incineration and the Effect on Heavy Metal Binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Stackpoole, M.; Bender-Koch, C.

    2000-01-01

    Iron oxide stabilized APC residues from MSWI were heat treated at 600°C and 900°C. The thermal treatments resulted in a change in product stability by forcing a transformation in the mineralogical structures of the products. The treatments, moreover, simulated somewhat the natural aging processes...

  8. Thermal fatigue. Fluid-structure interaction at thermal mixing events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, X.; Herter, K.H.; Moogk, S. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). MPA; Laurien, E.; Kloeren, D.; Kulenovic, R.; Kuschewski, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the network research project ''Thermal Fatigue - Basics of the system-, outflow- and material-characteristics of piping under thermal fatigue'' funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) fundamental numerical and experimental investigations on the material behaviour under transient thermal-mechanical stress conditions (high cycle fatigue - HCF) are carried out. The project's background and its network of scientific working groups with their individual working tasks are briefly introduced. The main focus is especially on the joint research tasks within the sub-projects of MPA and IKE which are dealing with thermal mixing of flows in a T-junction configuration and the fluidstructure- interactions (FSI). Therefore, experiments were performed with the newly established FSI test facility at MPA which enables single-phase flow experiments of water in typical power plant piping diameters (DN40 and DN80) at high pressure (maximum 75 bar) and temperatures (maximum 280 C). The experimental results serve as validation data base for numerical modelling of thermal flow mixing by means of thermo-fluid dynamics simulations applying CFD techniques and carried out by IKE as well as for modelling of thermal and mechanical loads of the piping structure by structural mechanics simulations with FEM methods which are executed by MPA. The FSI test facility will be described inclusively the applied measurement techniques, e. g. in particular the novel near-wall LED-induced Fluorescence method for non-intrusive flow temperature measurements. First experimental data and numerical results from CFD and FEM simulations of the thermal mixing of flows in the T-junction are presented.

  9. Thermocyclic treatment of Be for higher stability of mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Papirov, I.I.; Stoev, P.I.

    2004-01-01

    The paper reports the results from studies of the effects of upper temperature and speed of thermocyclic treatment (TCT), a combined action of thermal treatment and TCT on the acoustic emission of two batches of hot-pressed beryllium having different mechanical properties. It is demonstrated that the upper temperature of treatment exerts a substantial effect on the mechanical and acoustic characteristics of hot-pressed beryllium. At an upper TCT temperature of 500degC, the materials under study exhibit the minimum activity of acoustic emission and a small total number of pulses detected. Acoustic spectra of beryllium samples were measured after the samples were subjected to the TCT with different velocity values of the process. It has been established that the treatment preceding the TCT (ageing at 650degC for 5 hours) had little effect on the mechanical and acoustic parameters of beryllium, while the treatment following the TCT (600degC, 1 hour) led to dislocation pinning and thus reduced the dislocation mobility. It has been demonstrated that the acoustic parameters can be used for choosing the optimum temperature of the TCT process, for estimating the degree of dislocation mobility and for controlling the quality of thermal treatment performed.(author)

  10. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2016-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(��) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irr...

  11. Recycling of blast furnace sludge by briquetting with starch binder: Waste gas from thermal treatment utilizable as a fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobíková, Klára; Plachá, Daniela; Motyka, Oldřich; Gabor, Roman; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Vallová, Silvie; Seidlerová, Jana

    2016-02-01

    Steel plants generate significant amounts of wastes such as sludge, slag, and dust. Blast furnace sludge is a fine-grained waste characterized as hazardous and affecting the environment negatively. Briquetting is one of the possible ways of recycling of this waste while the formed briquettes serve as a feed material to the blast furnace. Several binders, both organic and inorganic, had been assessed, however, only the solid product had been analysed. The aim of this study was to assess the possibilities of briquetting using commonly available laundry starch as a binder while evaluating the possible utilization of the waste gas originating from the thermal treatment of the briquettes. Briquettes (100g) were formed with the admixture of starch (UNIPRET) and their mechanical properties were analysed. Consequently, they were subjected to thermal treatment of 900, 1000 and 1100°C with retention period of 40min during which was the waste gas collected and its content analysed using gas chromatography. Dependency of the concentration of the compounds forming the waste gas on the temperature used was determined using Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation matrix. Starch was found to be a very good binder and reduction agent, it was confirmed that metallic iron was formed during the thermal treatment. Approximately 20l of waste gas was obtained from the treatment of one briquette; main compounds were methane and hydrogen rendering the waste gas utilizable as a fuel while the greatest yield was during the lowest temperatures. Preparation of blast furnace sludge briquettes using starch as a binder and their thermal treatment represents a suitable method for recycling of this type of metallurgical waste. Moreover, the composition of the resulting gas is favourable for its use as a fuel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hot-Dip Aluminizing on AISI F55–UNS S32760 Super Duplex Stainless Steel Properties: Effect of Thermal Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Francesco Ciuffini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of super duplex stainless steels AISI F55-UNS S32760 in hot-dip aluminizing process has been studied, investigating the influence of cold working and of different initial microstructures obtained through a preliminary thermal treatment. The microstructural features examined are the secondary austenite precipitation, the static recovery of ferrite and the thermal dissolution of austenite within ferritic matrix. The hot-dip aluminizing temperature has been optimized through sessile drop tests. The treatment has been performed at 1100 °C for 300 s, 900 s and 2700 s. A strong chemical interaction occurs, generating intermetallic compounds at the interface. Molten aluminum interacts exclusively with the ferritic phase due to its much higher diffusivity in this phase coupled with its marked ferrite-stabilizer behavior. Thus, the influence of cold working is not remarkable, since the strains are mainly allocated by austenitic phase. The diffusivity of aluminum increases due to lattice defects thermally generated and, mainly, to influence given by grain boundaries, multiplied by secondary austenite precipitation, which act as short-circuit diffusion paths. Ni and Cr contents in the ferritic matrix have an influence but not highly relevant. Then, the best starting condition of the super duplex stainless steel substrates, to obtain a thick interfacial layer, are the thermal annealing at 1080 °C for 360 s/mm after a solution thermal treatment at 1300 °C for 60 s/mm.

  13. Thermal behavior of a quantum dot nanocomposite as a color converting material and its application to white LED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Ju Yeon; Kim, Kyung Nam; Jeong, Sohee; Han, Chang-Soo, E-mail: cshan@kimm.re.kr [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), Daejeon 305343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-10

    We present a novel nanocomposite, a mixture of a CdSe/CdS/ZnS red quantum dot (QD), an Sr{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Eu green phosphor and silicone resin for a color converting material. The temperature rise and the optical characteristics of the nanocomposite due to the addition of the QD have been investigated in terms of QD content ratio and the mixing components. The experimental results suggested that a small addition of QDs generated a large amount of heat during light conversion at the wavelength of QD emission. Considering the temperature rise in a nanocomposite, we applied 0.2 wt% QDs on an InGaN blue LED chip. As a result, we could achieve a white LED device with a high color rendering index of 83.2, a high luminance of 65.86 lm W{sup -1} and a moderate temperature increase of 94 deg. C. The white LED converted by the newly developed QD-phosphor nanocomposite has great potential in future illumination.

  14. Speciation evolution of zinc and copper during pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization treatments of sewage sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rixiang; Zhang, Bei; Saad, Emily M; Ingall, Ellery D; Tang, Yuanzhi

    2018-04-01

    Thermal and hydrothermal treatments are promising techniques for sewage sludge management that can potentially facilitate safe waste disposal, energy recovery, and nutrient recovery/recycling. Content and speciation of heavy metals in the treatment products affect the potential environmental risks upon sludge disposal and/or application of the treatment products. Therefore, it is important to study the speciation transformation of heavy metals and the effects of treatment conditions. By combining synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy/microscopy analysis and sequential chemical extraction, this study systematically characterized the speciation of Zn and Cu in municipal sewage sludges and their chars derived from pyrolysis (a representative thermal treatment technique) and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC; a representative hydrothermal treatment technique). Spectroscopy analysis revealed enhanced sulfidation of Zn and Cu by anaerobic digestion and HTC treatments, as compared to desulfidation by pyrolysis. Overall, changes in the chemical speciation and matrix properties led to reduced mobility of Zn and Cu in the treatment products. These results provide insights into the reaction mechanisms during pyrolysis and HTC treatments of sludges and can help evaluate the environmental/health risks associated with the metals in the treatment products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Speciation evolution of zinc and copper during pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization treatments of sewage sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Rixiang; Zhang, Bei; Saad, Emily M.; Ingall, Ellery D.; Tang, Yuanzhi

    2018-04-01

    Thermal and hydrothermal treatments are promising techniques for sewage sludge management that can potentially facilitate safe waste disposal, energy recovery, and nutrient recovery/recycling. Content and speciation of heavy metals in the treatment products affect the potential environmental risks upon sludge disposal and/or application of the treatment products. Therefore, it is important to study the speciation transformation of heavy metals and the effects of treatment conditions. By combining synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy/microscopy analysis and sequential chemical extraction, this study systematically characterized the speciation of Zn and Cu in municipal sewage sludges and their chars derived from pyrolysis (a representative thermal treatment technique) and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC; a representative hydrothermal treatment technique). Spectroscopy analysis revealed enhanced sulfidation of Zn and Cu by anaerobic digestion and HTC treatments, as compared to desulfidation by pyrolysis. Overall, changes in the chemical speciation and matrix properties led to reduced mobility of Zn and Cu in the treatment products. These results provide insights into the reaction mechanisms during pyrolysis and HTC treatments of sludges and can help evaluate the environmental/health risks associated with the metals in the treatment products.

  16. A new water treatment scheme for thermal development : the SIBE process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedenaud, P.; Dang, F. [Total, Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    The production of extra heavy oil or bitumen through thermal methods such as steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) involves the generation and injection into the reservoir of large quantities of steam which is recirculated with the produced bitumen. It is expected that maximizing the recycling of the produced water into steam will be mandatory, because of the need to minimize fresh water consumption and the possibility of increasingly stringent environmental regulations. The SAGD water treatment scheme is complex. It depends on the water characteristics, the steam generator type selected, and the decision to completely eliminate waste water disposal or use other waste handling and disposal methods. Other challenges such as the high silica content in the produced water, are encountered with SAGD water treatment. This paper presented an overview of the current water treatment process options for SAGD, as well as a new patented process called silica inhibition and blowdown evaporation (SIBE). The paper also presented an estimate of the economic benefit of the new SIBE process relative to conventional process schemes. Treatment objectives and water characteristics and the steps involved in conventional water treatment were first outlined. It was concluded that the silica and hardness removal scheme combined with the boiler blowdown evaporator were less economical because of higher investment cost due to the evaporation unit. 1 ref., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  17. Thermal decomposition of nitrate salts liquid waste for the lagoon sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Oh, J. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Lee, K. Y.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the thermal decomposition property of nitrate salts liquid waste which is produced in a series of the processes for the sludge treatment. Thermal decomposition property was analyzed by TG/DTA and XRD. Most ammonium nitrate in the nitrate salts liquid waste was decomposed at 250 .deg. C and calcium nitrate was decomposed and converted into calcium oxide at 550 .deg. C. Sodium nitrate was decomposed at 700 .deg. C and converted into sodium oxide which reacts with water easily. But sodium oxide was able to convert into a stable compound by adding alumina. Therefore, nitrate salts liquid waste can be treated by two steps as follows. First, ammonium nitrate is decomposed at 250 .deg. C. Second, alumina is added in residual solid sodium nitrate and calcium nitrate and these are decomposed at 900 .deg. C. Final residue consists of calcium oxide and Na 2 O.Al 2 O 3 and can be stored stably

  18. LED lamp color control system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A.M.

    2013-02-05

    An LED lamp color control system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; and a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 determines whether the LED source 80 is in a feedback controllable range, stores measured optical flux for the LED source 80 when the LED source 80 is in the feedback controllable range, and bypasses storing the measured optical flux when the LED source 80 is not in the feedback controllable range.

  19. Long-term (12-month) improvement in meibomian gland function and reduced dry eye symptoms with a single thermal pulsation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Jack V

    2013-08-01

    To determine the 1-year post-treatment dry eye status of subjects with meibomian gland dysfunction and dry eye symptoms after receiving a single LipiFlow Thermal Pulsation System treatment. Single-centre, prospective, observational, open-label, 1-month-registered clinical trial with a 1-year follow-up examination. Patients with evaporative dry eye disease with meibomian gland dysfunction and dry eye symptoms who had participated in the registered 1-month clinical trial. Eighteen of 30 subjects initially enrolled were able to return for a 1-year follow-up. Both eyes of all patients were treated with a single 12-min treatment using the LipiFlow Thermal Pulsation System. Meibomian gland function, tear break-up time and dry eye symptoms were measured. Data are presented for pretreatment (baseline), and 1-month and 1-year post-treatment. Meibomian gland secretion scores, and tear break-up time and dry eye symptoms. Significant improvement in meibomian gland secretion scores from baseline measurements (4.0 ± 3.4) to 1-month post-treatment (11.3 ± 4.7; P treatment (6.0 ± 4.4). The significant improvement in symptom scores on Ocular Surface Disease Index and Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness questionnaires observed at 1-month (P Eye Dryness [P treatment with the Lipi Flow Thermal Pulsation System offers an effective treatment for evaporative dry eye and meibomian gland dysfunction resulting in significant and sustained improvement in signs and symptoms for up to 1 year. © 2012 The Author. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  20. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  1. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Muhamad Hafiz Abd; Saad, Nor Hayati; Abas, Sunhaji Kiyai; Shah, Noriyati Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  2. Quality and microbial safety evaluation of new isotonic beverages upon thermal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Huertas, Juan-Pablo; Moreno, Diego A; Periago, Paula M; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, it was evaluated how two different thermal treatments (Mild and Severe) may affect the anthocyanin content, antioxidant capacity (ABTS(+), DPPH, and FRAP), quality (CIELAB colour parameters), and microbiological safety of a new isotonic drink made of lemon and maqui berry over a commercial storage simulation using a shelf life of 56days at two preservation temperature (7°C and 37°C). Both heat treatments did not affect drastically the anthocyanins content and their percentage of retention. The antioxidant capacity, probably because of the short time, was also not affected. The CIELAB colour parameters were affected by the heat, although the isotonic drinks remained with attractive red colour during shelf life. From a microbiological point of view, the Mild heat treatment with storage at 7°C is the ideal for the preservation of microbial growth, being useful for keeping the quality and safety of beverages in commercial life. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effect of thermal treatment on potato starch evidenced by EPR, XRD and molecular weight distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidzińska, Ewa; Michalec, Marek; Pawcenis, Dominika

    2015-12-01

    Effect of heating of the potato starch on damages of its structure was investigated by quantitative electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and determination of the molecular weight distribution. The measurements were performed in the temperature range commonly used for starch modifications optimizing properties important for industrial applications. Upon thermal treatment, because of breaking of the polymer chains, diminishing of the average molecular weights occurred, which significantly influences generation of radicals, evidenced by EPR. For the relatively mild conditions, with heating parameters not exceeding temperature 230 °C and time of heating equal to 30 min a moderate changes of both the number of thermally generated radicals and the mean molecular weight of the starch were observed. After more drastic thermal treatment (e.g. 2 h at 230 °C), a rapid increase in the radical amount occurred, which was accompanied by significant reduction of the starch molecular size and crystallinity. Experimentally established threshold values of heating parameters should not be exceeded in order to avoid excessive damages of the starch structure accompanied by the formation of the redundant amount of radicals. This requirement is important for industrial applications, because significant destruction of the starch matrix might annihilate the positive influence of the previously performed intentional starch modification. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Plant growth regulation by the light of LEDs; LED ko wo tsukatta shokubutsu saibai gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H. [Mitsubishi Chemical Co., Tokyo (Japan). Yokohama Research Center

    1996-03-01

    Light Emitting Diode (LED) has not only an excellent display function for the luminescent device but also a superior feature without other lamps as light source for plant growth. It was National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to find out such merit for this light source for plant growth and try at first to use for plant growth at the space. They began to examine the LED application to the light source for the plant growth at the space since a stage at high cost of the LED, to develop some researches centered at cultivation of lettuce, wheat, and others. Finding out future possibility of cost-down of the LEDs on the cost/performance and large merits of the LEDs for control of the plant growth and plant physiology, authors have conducted some cultivation experiments of the plants using the LEDs for light source some years ago. In this papers, characterizations, actual possibility, and future developments of the LEDs for the light sources of the plant growth, are introduced. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Dependence of TL-property changes of natural quartzes on aluminium contents accompanied by thermal annealing treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Sakaue, S.; Aoki, H.; Ichino, M.

    1994-01-01

    The TL properties were investigated using both an IPDA (Intensified Photo-Diode Array) spectrometric system and a TLCI (Thermoluminescence Colour Image) method after thermal annealing treatment at several temperatures. An apparent colour change from original blue- (BTL) to red-TL(RTL) has unexpectedly occurred in a Z-cut slice of Madagascar quartz, after an annealing treatment around 1000 o C. From the TL-colour change studies of the Z-cut slice, it was confirmed that original BTL intensities are inversely proportional to the Al contents; the TLCI-patterns of the original or annealed Z-cut slice gave stripe patterns corresponding to Al impurity contents along the crystal growth direction particularly yielding an intense appearance of RTL on higher Al contents after the annealing treatment. This changeability of TL-colour towards RTL after thermal annealing treatment was found to be intimately correlated with the square of Al concentrations, although BTL clearly changed as linearly proportional to Al impurity contents. Finally, the cleavage of Al-O-Al bonds or some sites in the vicinity of Al-O-Al bonds were plausibly considered to play an important role for the formation of RTL colour centres in natural quartzes as a result of the operation of high temperature effects. (Author)

  6. Economic aspects of thermal treatment of solid waste in a sustainable WM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massarutto, Antonio

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Provides a comprehensive review of the applied economic literature dedicated to WtE. • Offers a detailed discussion of the main assumptions that characterize alternative positions. • Highlights the most robust achievements obtained by the applied economic research in this field. • Compares economic and non-economic valuation techniques. - Abstract: This paper offers a systematic review of the literature of the last 15 years, which applies economic analysis and theories to the issue of combustion of solid waste. Waste incineration has attracted the interest of economists in the first place concerning the comparative assessment of waste management options, with particular reference to external costs and benefits. A second important field of applied economic research concerns the market failures associated with the provision of thermal treatment of waste, that justify some deviation from the standard competitive market model. Our analysis discusses the most robust achievements and the more controversial areas. All in all, the economic perspective seems to confirm the desirability of assigning a prominent role to thermal treatments in an integrated waste management strategy. Probably the most interesting original contribution it has to offer concerns the refusal of categorical assumptions and too rigid priority ladders, emphasizing instead the need to consider site-specific circumstances that may favor one or another solution.

  7. Economic aspects of thermal treatment of solid waste in a sustainable WM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massarutto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Provides a comprehensive review of the applied economic literature dedicated to WtE. • Offers a detailed discussion of the main assumptions that characterize alternative positions. • Highlights the most robust achievements obtained by the applied economic research in this field. • Compares economic and non-economic valuation techniques. - Abstract: This paper offers a systematic review of the literature of the last 15 years, which applies economic analysis and theories to the issue of combustion of solid waste. Waste incineration has attracted the interest of economists in the first place concerning the comparative assessment of waste management options, with particular reference to external costs and benefits. A second important field of applied economic research concerns the market failures associated with the provision of thermal treatment of waste, that justify some deviation from the standard competitive market model. Our analysis discusses the most robust achievements and the more controversial areas. All in all, the economic perspective seems to confirm the desirability of assigning a prominent role to thermal treatments in an integrated waste management strategy. Probably the most interesting original contribution it has to offer concerns the refusal of categorical assumptions and too rigid priority ladders, emphasizing instead the need to consider site-specific circumstances that may favor one or another solution

  8. Solid-state thermal behavior and stability studies of theophylline–citric acid cocrystals prepared by neat cogrinding or thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Po-Chun; Lin, Hong-Liang; Wang, Shun-Li; Lin, Shan-Yang

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the thermal behavior of cocrystal formed between anhydrous theophylline (TP) and anhydrous citric acid (CA) by neat manual cogrinding or thermal treatment, DSC and FTIR microspectroscopy with curve-fitting analysis were applied. The physical mixture and 60-min ground mixture were stored at 55±0.5 °C/40±2% RH condition to determine their stability behavior. Typical TP–CA cocrystals were prepared by slow solvent evaporation method. Results indicate that the cogrinding process could gradually induce the cocrystal formation between TP and CA. The IR spectral peak shift from 3495 to 3512 cm −1 and the stepwise appearance of several new IR peaks at 1731, 1712, 1676, 1651, 1557 and 1265 cm −1 with cogrinding time suggest that the mechanism of TP–CA cocrystal formation was evidenced by interacting TP with CA through the intermolecular O–H···O hydrogen bonding. The stability of 60-min ground mixture of TP–CA was confirmed at 55±0.5 °C/40±2% RH condition over a storage time of 60 days. - Garphical abstract: Cogrinding, thermal and solvent-evaporation methods might easily induce the theophylline–citric acid cocrystal formation. Highlights: ► Cogrinding process could gradually induce the cocrystal formation between TP and CA. ► The TP–CA cocrystal was formed through the intermolecular O–H···O hydrogen bonding. ► The 60-min TP–CA ground mixture was similar to the solvent-evaporated cocrystal. ► The thermal-induced TP–CA cocrystal formation was confirmed by pre-heating the physical mixture to 152 °C. ► The 60-min TP–CA ground mixture was stable at accelerated condition over a storage time of 60 days.

  9. Thermal Conductivity Analysis and Lifetime Testing of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Curry

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying (SPS has become an interesting method for the production of thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine components. The development of the SPS process has led to structures with segmented vertical cracks or column-like structures that can imitate strain-tolerant air plasma spraying (APS or electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD coatings. Additionally, SPS coatings can have lower thermal conductivity than EB-PVD coatings, while also being easier to produce. The combination of similar or improved properties with a potential for lower production costs makes SPS of great interest to the gas turbine industry. This study compares a number of SPS thermal barrier coatings (TBCs with vertical cracks or column-like structures with the reference of segmented APS coatings. The primary focus has been on lifetime testing of these new coating systems. Samples were tested in thermo-cyclic fatigue at temperatures of 1100 °C for 1 h cycles. Additional testing was performed to assess thermal shock performance and erosion resistance. Thermal conductivity was also assessed for samples in their as-sprayed state, and the microstructures were investigated using SEM.

  10. Application of blue laser diodes and LEDs in phototherapy for neonatal jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Mostafa; Sayed El-Ahl, Mohammad H.; Hamza, Ahmad M.; Hamza, Aya M.; Hamza, Yahya M.

    2003-10-01

    The authors introduce the design of a compact phototherapy unit capable of fulfilling the recommendations of the clinical use of lasers and LEDs in phototherapy for the treatment of neonatal jaundice. The system keeps the duration of phototherapy to the minimum required for efficient treatment. Our leading clinical experience as well as the wavelength selection rules will be presented.

  11. Spectrally adjustable quasi-monochromatic radiance source based on LEDs and its application for measuring spectral responsivity of a luminance meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, Juha-Matti; Poikonen, Tuomas; Vaskuri, Anna; Kärhä, Petri; Ikonen, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    A spectrally adjustable radiance source based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has been constructed for spectral responsivity measurements of radiance and luminance meters. A 300 mm integrating sphere source with adjustable output port is illuminated using 30 thermally stabilized narrow-band LEDs covering the visible wavelength range of 380–780 nm. The functionality of the measurement setup is demonstrated by measuring the relative spectral responsivities of a luminance meter and a photometer head with cosine-corrected input optics. (paper)

  12. Influence of Thermal Treatment on the Antimicrobial Activity of Silver-Doped Biological Apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Cristina Liana; Ciobanu, Carmen Steluta; Voicu, Georgeta; Vasile, Eugenia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Predoi, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we report the structural and morphological properties of silver-doped hydroxyapatite (AgHAp) with a silver concentration x Ag = 0.5 before and after being thermal treated at 600 and 1000 °C. The results obtained by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy suggest that the structure of the samples changes gradually, from hydroxyapatite (AgHAp_40) to a predominant β-TCP structure (AgHAp_1000), achieved when the thermal treatment temperature is 1000 °C. In the AgHAp_600 sample, the presence of two phases, HAp and β-TCP, was highlighted. Also, scanning electron microscopy studies suggest that the shape and dimension of the nanoparticles begin to change when the temperature increases. The antimicrobial activity of the obtained compounds was evaluated against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans strains.

  13. Dentin surface treatment using a non-thermal argon plasma brush for interfacial bonding improvement in composite restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritts, Andy Charles; Li, Hao; Yu, Qingsong; Xu, Changqi; Yao, Xiaomei; Hong, Liang; Wang, Yong

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the treatment effects of non-thermal atmospheric gas plasmas on dentin surfaces for composite restoration. Extracted unerupted human third molars were used by removing the crowns and etching the exposed dentin surfaces with 35% phosphoric acid gel. The dentin surfaces were treated by using a non-thermal atmospheric argon plasma brush for various durations. The molecular changes of the dentin surfaces were analyzed using FTIR/ATR and an increase in carbonyl groups on dentin surfaces was detected with plasma treated dentin. Adper Single Bond Plus adhesive and Filtek Z250 dental composite were applied as directed. To evaluate the dentin/composite interfacial bonding, the teeth thus prepared were sectioned into micro-bars as the specimens for tensile test. Student Newman Keuls tests showed that the bonding strength of the composite restoration to peripheral dentin was significantly increased (by 64%) after 30 s plasma treatment. However, the bonding strength to plasma treated inner dentin did not show any improvement. It was found that plasma treatment of peripheral dentin surface up to 100 s gave an increase in interfacial bonding strength, while a prolong plasma treatment of dentin surfaces, e.g., 5 min treatments, showed a decrease in interfacial bonding strength. PMID:20831586

  14. Effect of thermal treatment on TL response of CaSO₄:Dy obtained using a new preparation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, P R; Cruz-Zaragoza, E; Furetta, C; Azorín, J; Alcántara, B C

    2013-05-01

    We report the effect of thermal treatment on thermoluminescent (TL) sensitivity property of CaSO4:Dy obtained by a new preparation method at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) of Mexico. Samples of phosphor powder were subjected to different thermal treatments respectively at 773, 873, 973 and 1,173K for 1h and then irradiated from 0.1 to 1,000 Gy gamma doses. Low energy dependence was analyzed too by irradiating with X-rays in the range of 16-145 keV. The results were normalized to the energy (1,252 keV) of (60)Co and they were compared with those obtained using the commercial dosimeters TLD-100. Also the kinetic parameters were determined by deconvolution of glow curve. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermal modelling using discrete vasculature for thermal therapy: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, H. Petra; Gellermann, Johanna; van den Berg, Cornelis A. T.; Stauffer, Paul R.; Hand, Jeffrey W.; Crezee, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Reliable temperature information during clinical hyperthermia and thermal ablation is essential for adequate treatment control, but conventional temperature measurements do not provide 3D temperature information. Treatment planning is a very useful tool to improve treatment quality, and substantial

  16. Color homogeneity in LED spotlights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, C.R.; Tukker, T.W.; IJzerman, W.L.; Thije Boonkkamp, ten J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    LED is a rising technology in the field of lighting. Halogen spotlights are nowadays replaced by LED spotlights because of their energy efficiency and long lifetime. However, color variation in the light output is a common problem. Poorly designed LED spotlights tend to have yellowish or bluish

  17. Thermal-mechanical deformation modelling of soft tissues for thermal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhong, Yongmin; Jazar, Reza; Subic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Modeling of thermal-induced mechanical behaviors of soft tissues is of great importance for thermal ablation. This paper presents a method by integrating the heating process with thermal-induced mechanical deformations of soft tissues for simulation and analysis of the thermal ablation process. This method combines bio-heat transfer theories, constitutive elastic material law under thermal loads as well as non-rigid motion dynamics to predict and analyze thermal-mechanical deformations of soft tissues. The 3D governing equations of thermal-mechanical soft tissue deformation are discretized by using the finite difference scheme and are subsequently solved by numerical algorithms. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively predict the thermal-induced mechanical behaviors of soft tissues, and can be used for the thermal ablation therapy to effectively control the delivered heat energy for cancer treatment.

  18. LED lamp power management system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A. M.

    2013-03-19

    An LED lamp power management system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 reduces power loss in one of the channel switch 62 and the shunt switch 68 when LED lamp electronics power loss (P.sub.loss) exceeds an LED lamp electronics power loss limit (P.sub.lim); and each of the channel switches 62 receives a channel switch control signal 63 from the LED controller 58 and each of the shunt switches 68 receives a shunt switch control signal 69 from the LED controller 58.

  19. Thermal Treatment Technologies: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    With contributions from: Gorm Heron, Ralph Baker, and Gregory Crisp (TerraTherm) Greg Smith (Thermal Remediation Services, Inc.) Phil La Mori...vapor is generated by boiling, and leaves the volume, carrying contaminant vapors H O H O2 2( )1 1c cw w w g w g d M C dM C dt dt   rate of change

  20. Comparison of the thermal neutron scattering treatment in MCNP6 and GEANT4 codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, H. N.; Marchix, A.; Letourneau, A.; Darpentigny, J.; Menelle, A.; Ott, F.; Schwindling, J.; Chauvin, N.

    2018-06-01

    To ensure the reliability of simulation tools, verification and comparison should be made regularly. This paper describes the work performed in order to compare the neutron transport treatment in MCNP6.1 and GEANT4-10.3 in the thermal energy range. This work focuses on the thermal neutron scattering processes for several potential materials which would be involved in the neutron source designs of Compact Accelerator-based Neutrons Sources (CANS), such as beryllium metal, beryllium oxide, polyethylene, graphite, para-hydrogen, light water, heavy water, aluminium and iron. Both thermal scattering law and free gas model, coming from the evaluated data library ENDF/B-VII, were considered. It was observed that the GEANT4.10.03-patch2 version was not able to account properly the coherent elastic process occurring in crystal lattice. This bug is treated in this work and it should be included in the next release of the code. Cross section sampling and integral tests have been performed for both simulation codes showing a fair agreement between the two codes for most of the materials except for iron and aluminium.

  1. Non-invasive thermal IR detection of breast tumor development in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jason R.; Young, Madison A.; Dréau, D.; Trammell, Susan R.

    2015-03-01

    Lumpectomy coupled with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy comprises the treatment of breast cancer for many patients. We are developing an enhanced thermal IR imaging technique that can be used in real-time to guide tissue excision during a lumpectomy. This novel enhanced thermal imaging method is a combination of IR imaging (8- 10 μm) and selective heating of blood (~0.5 °C) relative to surrounding water-rich tissue using LED sources at low powers. Post-acquisition processing of these images highlights temporal changes in temperature and is sensitive to the presence of vascular structures. In this study, fluorescent and enhanced thermal imaging modalities were used to estimate breast cancer tumor volumes as a function of time in 19 murine subjects over a 30-day study period. Tumor volumes calculated from fluorescent imaging follow an exponential growth curve for the first 22 days of the study. Cell necrosis affected the tumor volume estimates based on the fluorescent images after Day 22. The tumor volumes estimated from enhanced thermal imaging show exponential growth over the entire study period. A strong correlation was found between tumor volumes estimated using fluorescent imaging and the enhanced IR images, indicating that enhanced thermal imaging is capable monitoring tumor growth. Further, the enhanced IR images reveal a corona of bright emission along the edges of the tumor masses. This novel IR technique could be used to estimate tumor margins in real-time during surgical procedures.

  2. Characterization of curing behavior of UV-curable LSR for LED embedded injection mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae, Joon-Sung; Yim, Kyung-Gyu; Rhee, Byung-Ohk; Kwak, Jae B.

    2016-11-01

    For many applications, liquid silicone rubber (LSR) injection molding is widely used for their great design flexibility and high productivity. In particular, a sealing part for a mobile device such as smartphone and watch has been produced by injection molding. While thermally curable LSR causes deformation problem due to a high mold temperature, UV-curable LSR can be molded at room temperature, which has advantages for over-molding with inserts of temperature-sensitive materials. Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have advantages such as a longer service life, a lower heat dissipation, and smaller size to equip into the mold than conventional halogen or mercury UV lamps. In this work, rheological behavior of UV-curable LSR during curing process was analyzed by UV LEDs available in the market. UV-LEDs of various wave lengths and intensities were tested. The steady shear test was applied to find the starting time of curing and the SAOS was applied to find the ending time of curing to estimate processing time. In addition, the hardness change with irradiation energy was compared with the rheological data to confirm the reliability of the rheological test.

  3. Pediatric Thermal Burns and Treatment: A Review of Progress and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Mathias

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a devastating critical care problem. In children, burns continue to be a major epidemiologic problem around the globe resulting in significant morbidity and death. Apparently, treating these burn injuries in children and adults remains similar, but there are significant physiological and psychological differences. The dermal layer of the skin is generally thinner in neonates, infants, and children than in adults. Enhanced evaporative loss and need for isotonic fluids increases the risk of hypothermia in the pediatric population. The pain management of the children with major burns challenges the skills of the personnel of every unit. Managing these wounds requires intensive therapeutic treatment for multi-organ dysfunction, and surgical treatment to prevent sepsis and other complications that further delay wound closure. Alternatives to the practice of donor site harvest and autografting for the treatment of severe burns and other complex skin defects are urgently needed for both adult and pediatric populations. This review article focuses on thermal burn pathophysiology and pain management and provides an overview of currently approved products used for the treatment of pediatric burn wounds. A new promising approach has been presented as a first-line therapy in the treatment of burns to reduce surgical autografting in pediatric patients.

  4. Integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment technology and subsystem cost sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvego, L.A.; Schafer, J.J.

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) authorized studies on alternative systems for treating contact-handled DOE mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW). The on-going Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems' (ITTS) and the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems' (INTS) studies satisfy this request. EM-50 further authorized supporting studies including this technology and subsystem cost sensitivity analysis. This analysis identifies areas where technology development could have the greatest impact on total life cycle system costs. These areas are determined by evaluating the sensitivity of system life cycle costs relative to changes in life cycle component or phase costs, subsystem costs, contingency allowance, facility capacity, operating life, and disposal costs. For all treatment systems, the most cost sensitive life cycle phase is the operations and maintenance phase and the most cost sensitive subsystem is the receiving and inspection/preparation subsystem. These conclusions were unchanged when the sensitivity analysis was repeated on a present value basis. Opportunity exists for technology development to reduce waste receiving and inspection/preparation costs by effectively minimizing labor costs, the major cost driver, within the maintenance and operations phase of the life cycle

  5. Characterization of Hf/Mg co-doped ZnO thin films after thermal treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chih-Hung; Chung, Hantsun [Graduate Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jian-Zhang, E-mail: jchen@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Cheng, I-Chun, E-mail: iccheng@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    Rf-sputtered Mg{sub 0.05}Zn{sub 0.95}O thin films become amorphous/nanocrystalline with the addition of hafnium oxide. All films (thickness: ∼ 100 nm) sputter-deposited from Hf{sub x}Mg{sub 0.05}Zn{sub 0.95−x}O targets are highly transparent (> 80%) from 400 to 800 nm. The Tauc bandgap ΔE (eV) increases with the Hf content. However, the bandgap decreases after thermal treatment. The reduction in the bandgap is positively correlated with the Hf content and annealing temperature. The residual stresses of films sputtered from Mg{sub 0.05}Zn{sub 0.95}O and Hf{sub 0.025}Mg{sub 0.05}Zn{sub 0.925}O targets are determined based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) data using a bi-axial stress model. The residual stresses of as-deposited films are compressive. As the annealing temperature increases, the residual stresses are relaxed and even become tensile. The bandgap narrowing after thermal treatment is attributed to the stress relaxation that changes the repulsion between the oxygen 2p and zinc 4s bands. Slight grain growth may also result in bandgap reduction because bandgap modification caused by the quantum confinement effect becomes significant in amorphous/nanocrystalline materials. The amorphous thin films reveal good thermal stability after 600 °C annealing for up to 2 h, as evidenced by the XRD and transmission spectra. - Highlights: • Thin films are sputtered from Hf{sub x}Mg{sub 0.05}Zn{sub 0.95−x}O targets at room temperature. • Bandgap increases with Hf content but decreases with post-annealing temperature. • Bandgap narrowing after annealing partly results from the relaxation of stresses. • Bandgap narrowing partly results from quantum confinement effect by nanomaterials. • Hf doping increases resistivity due to the lattice disorder and enlarged bandgap.

  6. Are nurse-led chemotherapy clinics really nurse-led? : an ethnographic study

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Carole; Walshe, Catherine Elizabeth; Molassiotis, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Background: The number of patients requiring ambulatory chemotherapy is increasing year on year, creating problems with capacity in outpatient clinics and chemotherapy units. Although nurse-led chemotherapy clinics have been set up to address this, there is a lack of evaluation of their effectiveness. Despite a rapid expansion in the development of nursing roles and responsibilities in oncology, there is little understanding of the operational aspects of nurses’ roles in nurse-led clinics. Ob...

  7. Thermal cycling behaviour and thermal stability of uranium-molybdenum alloys of low molybdenum content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decours, J.; Fabrique, B.; Peault, O.

    1963-01-01

    We have studied the behaviour during thermal cycling of as-cast U-Mo alloys whose molybdenum content varies from 0.5 to 3 per cent; results are given concerning grain stability during extended heat treatments and the effect of treatments combining protracted heating with thermal cycling. The thermal cycling treatments were carried out at 550, 575, 600 and 625 deg C for 1000 cycles; the protracted heating experiments were done at 550, 575, 600 and 625 deg C for 2000 hours (4000 hrs at 625 deg C). The 0.5 per cent alloy resists much better to the thermal cycling than does the non-alloyed uranium. This resistance is, however, much lower than that of alloys containing over l per cent, even at 550 deg C it improves after a heat treatment for grain-refining. Alloys of over 1.1 per cent have a very good resistance to a cycling treatment even at 625 deg C, and this behaviour improves with increasing concentrations up to 3 per cent. An increase in the temperature up to the γ-phase has few disadvantages provided that it is followed by rapid cooling (50 to 100 deg C/min). The α grain is fine, the γ-phase is of the modular form, and the behaviour during a thermal cycling treatment is satisfactory. If this cooling is slow (15 deg /hr) the α-grain is coarse and cycling treatment behaviour is identical to that of the 0.5 per cent alloy. The protracted heat treatments showed that the α-grain exhibits satisfactory stability after 2000 hours at 575, 600 and 625 deg C, and after 4000 hours at 625 deg C. A heat cycling treatment carried out after these tests affects only very little the behaviour of these alloys during cycling. (authors) [fr

  8. FORMING OF MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SLUGS OF TITANIC ALLOY BT23 AT THERMAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Fedulov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Тhе changings of the initial plate structure of alloy BT23 at running of high-temperature thermal treatment of large-sized slugs with heating up to 650- 950 eC and cooling on air and in water and their influence on forming of complex of mechanical characteristics are examined.

  9. Treatment for meibomian gland dysfunction and dry eye symptoms with a single-dose vectored thermal pulsation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackie, Caroline A; Carlson, Alan N; Korb, Donald R

    2015-07-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is understood to be a highly prevalent, chronic progressive disease and the leading cause of dry eye. All available published peer-reviewed results of the novel vectored thermal pulsation therapy for patients with MGD are investigated. The PubMed and meeting abstract search revealed a total of 31 peer-reviewed reports on vectored thermal pulsation therapy at the time of the search (eight manuscripts and 23 meeting abstracts). All manuscripts evidence a significant increase in meibomian gland function (∼3×) and symptom improvement post a single 12-min treatment. Additional reported objective measures such as osmolarity, tear break-up time, or lipid layer thickness also increased as a result of the therapy; however, not all findings were statistically significant. The randomized controlled studies evidence sustained gland function and symptom relief lasting out to 12 months. The uncontrolled case series evidence significantly longer duration of effect. A single 12 minute vectored thermal pulsation treatment allows for reducing dry eye symptoms, improving meibomian gland function and other correlates of the ocular surface health.

  10. Computational thermal analysis of cylindrical fin design parameters and a new methodology for defining fin structure in LED automobile headlamp cooling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sökmen, Kemal Furkan; Yürüklü, Emrah; Yamankaradeniz, Nurettin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • In the study, cooling of LED headlamps in automotive is investigated. • The study is based on free convection cooling of LED module. • Besides free convection, Monte Carlo model is used as radiation model as well. • A new algorithm is presented for designing optimum fin structure. • Suggested algorithm for optimum design is verified by various simulations. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of fin design, fin material, and free and forced convection on junction temperature in automotive headlamp cooling applications of LED lights are researched by using ANSYS CFX 14 software. Furthermore a new methodology is presented for defining the optimum cylindrical fin structure within the given limits. For measuring the performance of methodology, analyses are carried out for various ambient temperatures (25 °C, 50 °C and 80 °C) and different LED power dissipations (0.5 W, 0.75 W, 1 W and 1.25 W). Then, analyses are repeated at different heat transfer coefficients and different fin materials in order to calculate LED junction temperature in order to see if the fin structure proposed by the methodology is appropriate for staying below the given safety temperature limit. As a result, the suggested method has always proposed proper fin structures with optimum characteristics for given LED designs. As another result, for safe junction temperature ranges, it is seen that for all LED power dissipations, adding aluminum or copper plate behind the printed circuit board at low ambient temperatures is sufficient. Also, as the ambient temperature increases, especially in high powered LED lights, addition of aluminum is not sufficient and fin usage becomes essential. High heat transfer coefficient and using copper fin affect the junction temperature positively.

  11. Effect of LED irradiation on the ripening and nutritional quality of postharvest banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Yi; Xu, Fengying; Zhou, Weibiao

    2018-04-24

    With the ability to tailor wavelengths necessary to the photosynthetically active radiation spectrum of plant pigments, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offer vast possibilities in horticultural lighting. The influence of LED light irradiation on major postharvest features of banana was investigated. Mature green bananas were treated daily with selected blue (464-474 nm), green (515-525 nm) and red (617-627 nm) LED lights for 8 days, and compared with non-illuminated control. The positive effect of LED lighting on the acceleration of ripening in bananas was greatest for blue, followed by red and green. Under the irradiation of LED lights, faster peel de-greening and flesh softening, and increased ethylene production and respiration rate in bananas were observed during storage. Furthermore, the accumulations of ascorbic acid, total phenols, and total sugars in banana fruit were enhanced by LED light exposure. LED light treatment can induce the ripening of bananas and improve their quality and nutrition potential. These findings might provide new chemical-free strategies to shorten the time to ripen banana after harvest by using LED light source. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of the energy potential of municipal solid waste for the thermal treatment technology development in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midor, Katarzyna; Jąderko, Karolina

    2017-11-01

    The problem of overproduction of waste has been a local issue for many years. Since the new environment law came into effect, the current approach to waste management has changed significantly. The accessible technological possibilities of thermal waste treatment with the energy recovery set a new area of research over the process of choosing effective and rational way of calorific waste management. The objective of this article is to provide assessment results of the analysed energy potential in waste management system in the form of calorific waste stream. In includes all the activities and actions required to manage municipal solid waste from its inception to its final disposal i.e. collection, transport, treatment and disposal. The graphical representation of waste flow indicates the lost opportunities of waste energy recovery. Visual research method was supported and founded on value stream mapping. On the basis of the results were presented the directions of further improvement of calorific waste stream mapping for the purposes of implementation the thermal treatment technology in the selected waste management region.

  13. Photometric and Colorimetric Assessment of LED Chip Scale Packages by Using a Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Test (SSADT) Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Cheng; Fan, Jiajie; Fang, Jiayi; Yu, Chaohua; Ren, Yi; Fan, Xuejun; Zhang, Guoqi

    2017-10-16

    By solving the problem of very long test time on reliability qualification for Light-emitting Diode (LED) products, the accelerated degradation test with a thermal overstress at a proper range is regarded as a promising and effective approach. For a comprehensive survey of the application of step-stress accelerated degradation test (SSADT) in LEDs, the thermal, photometric, and colorimetric properties of two types of LED chip scale packages (CSPs), i.e., 4000 °K and 5000 °K samples each of which was driven by two different levels of currents (i.e., 120 mA and 350 mA, respectively), were investigated under an increasing temperature from 55 °C to 150 °C and a systemic study of driving current effect on the SSADT results were also reported in this paper. During SSADT, junction temperatures of the test samples have a positive relationship with their driving currents. However, the temperature-voltage curve, which represents the thermal resistance property of the test samples, does not show significant variance as long as the driving current is no more than the sample's rated current. But when the test sample is tested under an overdrive current, its temperature-voltage curve is observed as obviously shifted to the left when compared to that before SSADT. Similar overdrive current affected the degradation scenario is also found in the attenuation of Spectral Power Distributions (SPDs) of the test samples. As used in the reliability qualification, SSADT provides explicit scenes on color shift and correlated color temperature (CCT) depreciation of the test samples, but not on lumen maintenance depreciation. It is also proved that the varying rates of the color shift and CCT depreciation failures can be effectively accelerated with an increase of the driving current, for instance, from 120 mA to 350 mA. For these reasons, SSADT is considered as a suitable accelerated test method for qualifying these two failure modes of LED CSPs.

  14. Photometric and Colorimetric Assessment of LED Chip Scale Packages by Using a Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Test (SSADT) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chaohua; Fan, Xuejun; Zhang, Guoqi

    2017-01-01

    By solving the problem of very long test time on reliability qualification for Light-emitting Diode (LED) products, the accelerated degradation test with a thermal overstress at a proper range is regarded as a promising and effective approach. For a comprehensive survey of the application of step-stress accelerated degradation test (SSADT) in LEDs, the thermal, photometric, and colorimetric properties of two types of LED chip scale packages (CSPs), i.e., 4000 °K and 5000 °K samples each of which was driven by two different levels of currents (i.e., 120 mA and 350 mA, respectively), were investigated under an increasing temperature from 55 °C to 150 °C and a systemic study of driving current effect on the SSADT results were also reported in this paper. During SSADT, junction temperatures of the test samples have a positive relationship with their driving currents. However, the temperature-voltage curve, which represents the thermal resistance property of the test samples, does not show significant variance as long as the driving current is no more than the sample’s rated current. But when the test sample is tested under an overdrive current, its temperature-voltage curve is observed as obviously shifted to the left when compared to that before SSADT. Similar overdrive current affected the degradation scenario is also found in the attenuation of Spectral Power Distributions (SPDs) of the test samples. As used in the reliability qualification, SSADT provides explicit scenes on color shift and correlated color temperature (CCT) depreciation of the test samples, but not on lumen maintenance depreciation. It is also proved that the varying rates of the color shift and CCT depreciation failures can be effectively accelerated with an increase of the driving current, for instance, from 120 mA to 350 mA. For these reasons, SSADT is considered as a suitable accelerated test method for qualifying these two failure modes of LED CSPs. PMID:29035300

  15. Thermally induced growth of ZnO nanocrystals on mixed metal oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayat, Alexandra; Makky, Ayman; Giraldo, Jose; Kuhnt, Andreas; Busse, Corinna; Schwieger, Wilhelm

    2014-06-23

    An in situ method for the growth of ZnO nanocrystals on Zn/Al mixed metal oxide (MMO) surfaces is presented. The key to this method is the thermal treatment of Zn/Al layered double hydroxides (Zn/Al LDHs) in the presence of nitrate anions, which results in partial demixing of the LDH/MMO structure and the subsequent crystallization of ZnO crystals on the surface of the forming MMO layers. In a first experimental series, thermal treatment of Zn/Al LDHs with different fractions of nitrate and carbonate in the interlayer space was examined by thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry (TG-MS) and in situ XRD. In a second experimental series, Zn/Al LDHs with only carbonate in the interlayer space were thermally treated in the presence of different amounts of an external nitrate source (NH4NO3). All obtained Zn/Al MMO samples were analysed by electron microscopy, nitrogen physisorption and powder X-ray diffraction. The gas phase formed during nitrate decomposition turned out to be responsible for the formation of crystalline ZnO nanoparticles. Accordingly, both interlayer nitrate and the presence of ammonium nitrate led to the formation of supported ZnO nanocrystals with mean diameters between 100 and 400 nm, and both methods offer the possibility to tailor the amount and size of the ZnO crystals by means of the amount of nitrate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Effect of radiation sickness on the progress and treatment of mechanical and thermal injuries. [In German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, K

    1964-04-01

    It has been estimated that 70 or 75% of persons exposed to atomic weapons would suffer mechanical and thermal injuries, and that 30% receive radiation injuries. Of the total persons injured, 75% would suffer combinations of these injuries. As a result the various injurious agents, complexes of injury conditions, would be observed. These include leukopenia and impaired resistance to infection, shortened delay in appearance o irradiation symptoms, intensified evidence of shock, and an increased tendency toward hemorrhage, with increased sensitivity to blood loss. The author discusses a wide range of general and specific medical procedures and drugs that can be used to treat and support recovery of persons with combined radiation and mechanical or thermal injuries. Some general treatment procedures include absolute isolation and rest, special dietetic supplementation, strict medical supervision to prevent acute hemorrhage or circulatory failure, and parenteral administration of fluids. Other special measures include treatment of the primary reactions to injury by antihistamines, sedatives, antibiotics, hormones, support of circulation, blood transfusions, etc.

  17. Fourier diffraction theorem for diffusion-based thermal tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baddour, Natalie

    2006-01-01

    There has been much recent interest in thermal imaging as a method of non-destructive testing and for non-invasive medical imaging. The basic idea of applying heat or cold to an area and observing the resulting temperature change with an infrared camera has led to the development of rapid and relatively inexpensive inspection systems. However, the main drawback to date has been that such an approach provides mainly qualitative results. In order to advance the quantitative results that are possible via thermal imaging, there is interest in applying techniques and algorithms from conventional tomography. Many tomography algorithms are based on the Fourier diffraction theorem, which is inapplicable to thermal imaging without suitable modification to account for the attenuative nature of thermal waves. In this paper, the Fourier diffraction theorem for thermal tomography is derived and discussed. The intent is for this thermal-diffusion based Fourier diffraction theorem to form the basis of tomographic reconstruction algorithms for quantitative thermal imaging

  18. Improving “color rendering” of LED lighting for the growth of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tao; Vaganov, Vitaliy; Cao, Shixiu; Li, Qiang; Ling, Lili; Cheng, Xiaoyao; Peng, Lingling; Zhang, Congzhi; Yakovlev, Alexey N.; Zhong, Yang; Tu, Mingjing

    2017-04-01

    Light plays a vital role on the growth and development of plant. On the base of white light with high color rendering to the benefit of human survival and life, we proposed to improve “color rendering” of LED lighting for accelerating the growth of lettuce. Seven spectral LED lights were adopted to irradiate the lettuces under 150 μmol·m-2·s-1 for a 16 hd-1 photoperiod. The leaf area and number profiles, plant biomass, and photosynthetic rate under the as-prepared LED light treatments were investigated. We let the absorption spectrum of fresh leaf be the emission spectrum of ideal light and then evaluate the “color rendering” of as-prepared LED lights by the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient and CIE chromaticity coordinates. Under the irradiation of red-yellow-blue light with high correlation coefficient of 0.587, the dry weights and leaf growth rate are 2-3 times as high as the sharp red-blue light. The optimized LED light for lettuce growth can be presumed to be limited to the angle (about 75°) between the vectors passed through the ideal light in the CIE chromaticity coordinates. These findings open up a new idea to assess and find the optimized LED light for plant growth.

  19. Failure at Zainsk thermal power station: lesson for thermal and nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derkach, A.L.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Fedorenko, G.M.; Kuz'min, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    An account of system failure at Zainsk Thermal PS on January 1-st, 1979 is given. The cause of failure - sudden unauthorized energizing of block transformer which led to a direct asynchronous start of 200 MW turbine generator from grid. The failure resulted in the explosion and fire in generator, shaft destruction, and the damage of the machine hall's roof. The core roots of the failure have been scrutinised

  20. Effect of thermal treatment on the quality of cloudy apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapfenbauer, Gottfried; Kinner, Mathias; Gössinger, Manfred; Schönlechner, Regine; Berghofer, Emmerich

    2006-07-26

    Apple juice from eight different varieties of apples was heated at high-temperature (60-90 degrees C) and short-time (20-100 s) (HTST) combinations. To determine the effect of heating conditions on enzymatic browning and cloud stability in apple juices, the activity of polyphenol oxidase and pectinesterase was analyzed and correlated with the thermal treatment conditions and the quality of the juice. Additional investigations included the measurement of pH value, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, color, and turbidity after 3 and 6 months. The results showed that HTST treatment at 80 degrees C already inactivated polyphenol oxidase, whereas pectinesterase activity was reduced to half and could even at 90 degrees C not be inactivated completely. In fact, highest residual pectinesterase activity was found at 60 degrees C. Heating at 70 degrees C caused stable pectinesterase activity and even a slight increase for 50 and 100 s heating times. Turbidity and lightness increased after HTST treatment. In particular, differences in cloud stability between the varieties were measured. HTST parameters did not correlate with the residual cloud stability after 6 months. The sensory evaluation revealed that only a few combinations were distinguishable. The best stability of cloud and color in relation to heat impact was achieved by HTST treatment between 70 degrees C/100 s and 80 degrees C/20 s.

  1. Thermal treatments of solid wastes. Different strategies for related pollutant management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolella, C.; Convertti, A.; Rovatti, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy); Boschi, R.; Cozzani, V.; Tognotti, L. [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Thermal treatment of solid wastes present different advantages/disadvantages as far as recovery and emissions concerns. They provide a captive energy source; reduce the quantity of waste to be landfilled; there are limited by-product and pollutant generating problems. Combined treatment of solid wastes (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification) have been considered to evaluate the energy recovery as well as the quality and the amount of pollutants potentially generated by the combined processes. Direct incineration of MSW, RDF or specific industrial wastes represents a viable, definitive, low environmental impact solution for most refuses. Treatment of emissions can be efficiently achieved by dry or wet processes. Nowadays abatement technologies are able to provide emissions within the guidelines of EEC countries. Problems arise when wastes contain large amount of chlorinated compounds (for example PVC) and/or heavy rentals: incineration may be not best way to be pursued. The general aim of the research program carried out by ISTIC (Genova), and Department of Chemical Engineering (Pisa) is to gain fundamental information on pyrolysis of refuse materials and to study the possible industrial application of these processes. Possible solutions have been studied in terms of material and energy balances, in order to verify the feasibility of combined treatments. Here, preliminary results are given on a two-stage process (low temperature pyrolysis (LTP) followed by incineration or gasification/pyrolysis) for treating specific wastes. (author)

  2. Thermal treatments of solid wastes. Different strategies for related pollutant management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolella, C; Convertti, A; Rovatti, M [Genoa Univ. (Italy); Boschi, R; Cozzani, V; Tognotti, L [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry Engineering

    1996-12-31

    Thermal treatment of solid wastes present different advantages/disadvantages as far as recovery and emissions concerns. They provide a captive energy source; reduce the quantity of waste to be landfilled; there are limited by-product and pollutant generating problems. Combined treatment of solid wastes (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification) have been considered to evaluate the energy recovery as well as the quality and the amount of pollutants potentially generated by the combined processes. Direct incineration of MSW, RDF or specific industrial wastes represents a viable, definitive, low environmental impact solution for most refuses. Treatment of emissions can be efficiently achieved by dry or wet processes. Nowadays abatement technologies are able to provide emissions within the guidelines of EEC countries. Problems arise when wastes contain large amount of chlorinated compounds (for example PVC) and/or heavy rentals: incineration may be not best way to be pursued. The general aim of the research program carried out by ISTIC (Genova), and Department of Chemical Engineering (Pisa) is to gain fundamental information on pyrolysis of refuse materials and to study the possible industrial application of these processes. Possible solutions have been studied in terms of material and energy balances, in order to verify the feasibility of combined treatments. Here, preliminary results are given on a two-stage process (low temperature pyrolysis (LTP) followed by incineration or gasification/pyrolysis) for treating specific wastes. (author)

  3. Plant growth with Led lighting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiotti, C.A.; Bernardini, A.; Di Carlo, F.; Scoccianti, M.; Alonzo, G.; Carlino, M.; Dondi, F.; Bibbiani, C.

    2009-01-01

    Leds lighting is highly relevant for the horticultural industry. Compared to other light sources used for plant production, leds have several properties which are potentially useful in relation to horticulture. However, although LEDs technology has raised strong interest in research for extraterrestrial agriculture, current LEDs panel costs are still too high for commercial adoption in greenhouse sector, and their electrical efficacies do not compete with those of high-pressure sodium lamps, but several manufactures are working to address these issues. When LEDs become practical, their ability to based light sources specifically suitable for photosynthesis and other horticulturally relevant plant properties (i.e. low radiated heat; lighting from within the canopy) will render the narrow band spectrum of LEDs of particular interest for providing light to greenhouse horticulture. A general description of LEDs application and their technical characteristics is briefly reported. [it

  4. Thermal treatment of medical waste in a rotary kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak, J

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of an experimental system with thermal treatment (incineration) of medical waste conducted at a large complex of hospital facilities. The studies were conducted for a period of one month. The processing system was analysed in terms of the energy, environmental and economic aspects. A rotary combustion chamber was designed and built with the strictly assumed length to inner diameter ratio of 4:1. In terms of energy, the temperature distribution was tested in the rotary kiln, secondary combustion (afterburner) chamber and heat recovery system. Calorific value of medical waste was 25.0 MJ/kg and the thermal efficiency of the entire system equalled 66.8%. Next, measurements of the pollutant emissions into the atmosphere were performed. Due to the nature of the disposed waste, particular attention was paid to the one-minute average values of carbon oxide and volatile organic compounds as well as hydrochloride, hydrogen fluoride, sulphur dioxide and total dust. Maximum content of non-oxidized organic compounds in slag and bottom ash were also verified during the analyses. The best rotary speed for the combustion chamber was selected to obtain proper afterburning of the bottom slag. Total organic carbon content was 2.9%. The test results were used to determine the basic economic indicators of the test system for evaluating the profitability of its construction. Simple payback time (SPB) for capital expenditures on the implementation of the project was 4 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Perceived learning effectiveness of a course Facebook page: teacher-led versus student-led approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Orten Tugrul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to compare the perceived effectiveness of teacher -led and student-led content management approaches embraced in a course Facebook page designed to enhance traditional classroom learning. Eighty-five undergraduate marketing course students voluntarily completed a questionnaire composed of two parts; a depiction of a course Facebook page where both teacher and students can share instructional contents, and questions about perceived learning effectiveness. The findings indicate that students have more favorable evaluations of a student-led approach in sharing instructional contents on a course Facebook Page than a teacher-led approach. Additionally, it is shown that instructional contents posted by both teacher and students enhance the overall learning effectiveness of a course Facebook page incorporated into a traditional classroom teaching.

  6. Thermal-hydraulic analyses of pressurized-thermal-shock-induced vessel ruptures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobranich, D.

    1982-05-01

    A severe overcooling transient was postulated to produce vessel wall temperatures below the nil-ductility transition temperature which in conjunction with system repressurization, led to vessel rupture at the core midplane. Such transients are referred to as pressurized-thermal-shock transients. A wide range of vessel rupture sizes were investigated to assess the emergency system's ability to cool the fuel rods. Ruptures greater than approximately 0.015 m 2 produced flows greater than those of the emergency system and resulted in core uncovery and subsequent core damage

  7. Effect of thermal protectants on the stability of bovine milk immunoglobulin G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C. C. [National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, H. M.

    1998-09-15

    pH stability, thermal stability, and the effect of homogenization and ultrasonic treatment on the stability of bovine milk immunoglobulin G (IgG) in model systems was studied. Separated IgG (0.02 mg/mL) was found to be unstable and susceptible to denaturation when incubated at pH 4 or 10 or thermally treated at temperature 75 degrees C. IgG in the colostrum, on the other hand, was found to be much more stable than in whey or in PBS when thermally treated at temperatures in the range of 75-100 degrees C. The residual IgC content reduced more sharply with increasing heating times, and almost no IgG content was detected when IgG in PBS (0.15 M NaCl/0.01 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0) was heated at 95 degrees C for 15 s, whereas the corresponding residual IgG contents in whey and colostrum were found to be 42 and 59%, respectively. For IgG in PBS heated at 95 degrees C for 15 s, addition of 5% fructose or maltose displayed most remarkable protection effects by raising the residual IgG content to 31%, followed by sucrose, lactose, glucose, and galactose. However, extravagant addition ( 30%) to IgG in PBS led to a decline in residual IgG content. Addition of 0.4% glutamic acid and 2% glycine to IgG in PBS heated at 95 degrees C for 15 s also remarkably improved the residual IgG content by 13.5 and 26.7%, respectively. Glycerol and sugar alcohol, such as sorbitol, stabilized IgG during the thermal treatment.

  8. Effect of thermal protectants on the stability of bovine milk immunoglobulin G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.C.; Chang, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    pH stability, thermal stability, and the effect of homogenization and ultrasonic treatment on the stability of bovine milk immunoglobulin G (IgG) in model systems was studied. Separated IgG (0.02 mg/mL) was found to be unstable and susceptible to denaturation when incubated at pH 4 or 10 or thermally treated at temperature 75 degrees C. IgG in the colostrum, on the other hand, was found to be much more stable than in whey or in PBS when thermally treated at temperatures in the range of 75-100 degrees C. The residual IgC content reduced more sharply with increasing heating times, and almost no IgG content was detected when IgG in PBS (0.15 M NaCl/0.01 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0) was heated at 95 degrees C for 15 s, whereas the corresponding residual IgG contents in whey and colostrum were found to be 42 and 59%, respectively. For IgG in PBS heated at 95 degrees C for 15 s, addition of 5% fructose or maltose displayed most remarkable protection effects by raising the residual IgG content to 31%, followed by sucrose, lactose, glucose, and galactose. However, extravagant addition ( 30%) to IgG in PBS led to a decline in residual IgG content. Addition of 0.4% glutamic acid and 2% glycine to IgG in PBS heated at 95 degrees C for 15 s also remarkably improved the residual IgG content by 13.5 and 26.7%, respectively. Glycerol and sugar alcohol, such as sorbitol, stabilized IgG during the thermal treatment

  9. Processes for CO2 capture. Context of thermal waste treatment units. State of the art. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, A.; Roizard, D.; Favre, E.; Dufour, A.

    2013-01-01

    For most of industrial sectors, Greenhouse Gases (GHG) such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) are considered as serious pollutants and have to be controlled and treated. The thermal waste treatment units are part of industrial CO 2 emitters, even if they represent a small part of emissions (2,5 % of GHG emissions in France) compared to power plants (13 % of GHG emissions in France, one third of worldwide GHG emissions) or shaper industries (20 % of GHG emissions in France). Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) can be a solution to reduce CO 2 emissions from industries (power plants, steel and cement industries...). The issues of CCS applied to thermal waste treatment units are quite similar to those related to power plants (CO 2 flow, flue gas temperature and pressure conditions). The problem is to know if the CO 2 produced by waste treatment plants can be captured thanks to the processes already available on the market or that should be available by 2020. It seems technically possible to adapt CCS post-combustion methods to the waste treatment sector. But on the whole, CCS is complex and costly for a waste treatment unit offering small economies of scale. However, regulations concerning impurities for CO 2 transport and storage are not clearly defined at the moment. Consequently, specific studies must be achieved in order to check the technical feasibility of CCS in waste treatment context and clearly define its cost. (authors)

  10. LED phototherapy on midpalatal suture after rapid maxilla expansion: a Raman spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Cristiane B.; Habib, Fernando Antonio L.; de Araújo, Telma M.; dos Santos, Jean N.; Cangussu, Maria Cristina T.; Barbosa, Artur Felipe S.; de Castro, Isabele Cardoso V.; Soares, Luiz Guilherme P.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.

    2015-03-01

    A quick bone formation after maxillary expansion would reduce treatment timeand the biomodulating effects of LED light could contribute for it. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of LED phototherapy on the acceleration of bone formation at the midpalatal suture after maxilla expansion. Thirty rats divided into 6 groups were used on the study at 2 time points - 7 days: Control; Expansion; and Expansion + LED; and 14 days: Expansion; Expansion + LED in the first week; Expansion and LED in the first and second weeks. LED irradiation occurred at every 48 h during 2 weeks. Expansion was accomplished using a spatula and maintained with a triple helicoid of 0.020" stainless steel orthodontic wire. A LED light (λ850 ± 10nm, 150mW ± 10mW, spot of 0.5cm2, t=120 sec, SAEF of 18J/cm2) was applied in one point in the midpalatal suture immediately behind the upper incisors. Near infrared Raman spectroscopic analysis of the suture region was carried and data submitted to statistical analyzes (p≤0.05). Raman spectrum analysis demonstrated that irradiation increased hydroxyapatite in the midpalatal suture after expansion. The results of this indicate that LED irradiation; have a positive biomodulation contributing to the acceleration of bone formation in the midpalatal suture after expansion procedure.

  11. Demulsification based on the thermal treatment (cooling and heating of W/O emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaković Vladana N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An important step in waste water treatment is the removal of oil from an O/W emulsion and the separation of oil and water into two phases, a process usually called demulsification. Modern methods of oil removal from waste water were described in the present study. Typical demulsification techniques include thermal, electrical, chemical, acoustic, or mechanical methods of emulsion treatment. The freeze/thaw process was found to be very effective for demulsification. In the freeze/thaw process, water removal from the W/O emulsion depends on the initial oil content, freezing temperature, freezing time, thawing rate and temperature. The described method is a non-destructive and physical method of emulsion treatment and because there is no addition of chemical agents there is no problem of further waste water treatment, which usually exists when chemicals are applied for demulsification. Different methods for oil content determination in the O/W emulsion were also applied and compared in this study (gravimetric, volumetric, measurement of oxygen consumption and emulsion pH, IR analysis of the emulsion, electro analytical measurement.

  12. Photobiomodulation versus light-emitting diode (LED) therapy in the treatment of temporomandibular disorder: study protocol for a randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langella, Luciana G; Silva, Paula F C; Costa-Santos, Larissa; Gonçalves, Marcela L L; Motta, Lara J; Deana, Alessandro M; Fernandes, Kristianne P S; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel A; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2018-01-26

    Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is described as a subgroup of orofacial pain with a set of signs and symptoms that involve the temporomandibular joint, masticatory muscles, ears, and neck. TMD can occur unilaterally or bilaterally and approximately 70% of the population is affected with at least one sign. The disorder progresses with orofacial pain, muscle pain involving the masticatory and cervical muscles, joint noises (clicks and pops), joint block, mandibular dysfunction, and headache. The etiology can be abnormal occlusion and/or posture, trauma involving local tissues, repetitive microtrauma, parafunctional habits, and an increase in emotional stress. Studies have demonstrated that phototherapy is an efficient option for the treatment of TMD, leading to improvements in pain and orofacial function. The aim of the proposed study is to compare the effects of two sources of photobiomodulation in individuals with TMD. A randomized, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial is proposed, which will involve 80 individuals aged 18-65 years allocated to either a laser group or light-emitting diode (LED) group submitted to 12 sessions of phototherapy. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMDs will be used to evaluate all participants. Pain will be measured using the visual analog scale and maximum vertical mandibular movement will be determined with the aid of digital calipers. This study compares the effects of two modalities of laser therapy on the pain and orofacial function of patients with TMD dysfunction. Photobiomodulation and LED therapy are treatment options for reducing the inflammatory process and pain as well as inducing the regeneration of the target tissue. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03257748 . Registered on 8 August 2017.

  13. THE PHOTODYNAMIC EFFECT OF LED-MAGNETIC EXPOSURE TO PHOTOINACTIVATION OF AEROBIC PHOTOSYNTETIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryani Dyah Astuti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All photosynthetic bacteria have a major pigment of bacteriochlorophyl and accessor pigment e.g. the carotenoids, which both have an important role in photosynthesis process. This study aim to explore the exogenous organic photosensitizer from photosyntetic bacteria for photodynamic therapy application. This study is an experimental research aiming to test the potential illumination ofLED with wavelength 409, 430, 528 and 629 n