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Sample records for thermal site descriptive

  1. Thermal site descriptive model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations - version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Sundberg, Jan [Geo Innova AB (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    This report presents a strategy for describing, predicting and visualising the thermal aspects of the site descriptive model. The strategy is an updated version of an earlier strategy applied in all SDM versions during the initial site investigation phase at the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The previous methodology for thermal modelling did not take the spatial correlation fully into account during simulation. The result was that the variability of thermal conductivity in the rock mass was not sufficiently well described. Experience from earlier thermal SDMs indicated that development of the methodology was required in order describe the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity in the rock mass in a sufficiently reliable way, taking both variability within rock types and between rock types into account. A good description of the thermal conductivity distribution is especially important for the lower tail. This tail is important for the design of a repository because it affects the canister spacing. The presented approach is developed to be used for final SDM regarding thermal properties, primarily thermal conductivity. Specific objectives for the strategy of thermal stochastic modelling are: Description: statistical description of the thermal conductivity of a rock domain. Prediction: prediction of thermal conductivity in a specific rock volume. Visualisation: visualisation of the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity. The thermal site descriptive model should include the temperature distribution and thermal properties of the rock mass. The temperature is the result of the thermal processes in the repository area. Determination of thermal transport properties can be made using different methods, such as laboratory investigations, field measurements, modelling from mineralogical composition and distribution, modelling from density logging and modelling from temperature logging. The different types of data represent different scales, which has to be

  2. Thermal site descriptive model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations - version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Sundberg, Jan

    2007-09-01

    This report presents a strategy for describing, predicting and visualising the thermal aspects of the site descriptive model. The strategy is an updated version of an earlier strategy applied in all SDM versions during the initial site investigation phase at the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The previous methodology for thermal modelling did not take the spatial correlation fully into account during simulation. The result was that the variability of thermal conductivity in the rock mass was not sufficiently well described. Experience from earlier thermal SDMs indicated that development of the methodology was required in order describe the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity in the rock mass in a sufficiently reliable way, taking both variability within rock types and between rock types into account. A good description of the thermal conductivity distribution is especially important for the lower tail. This tail is important for the design of a repository because it affects the canister spacing. The presented approach is developed to be used for final SDM regarding thermal properties, primarily thermal conductivity. Specific objectives for the strategy of thermal stochastic modelling are: Description: statistical description of the thermal conductivity of a rock domain. Prediction: prediction of thermal conductivity in a specific rock volume. Visualisation: visualisation of the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity. The thermal site descriptive model should include the temperature distribution and thermal properties of the rock mass. The temperature is the result of the thermal processes in the repository area. Determination of thermal transport properties can be made using different methods, such as laboratory investigations, field measurements, modelling from mineralogical composition and distribution, modelling from density logging and modelling from temperature logging. The different types of data represent different scales, which has to be

  3. Thermal Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations. Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, Jan

    2003-04-01

    Site investigations are in progress for the siting of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. As part of the planning work, strategies are developed for site descriptive modelling regarding different disciplines, amongst them the thermal conditions. The objective of the strategy for a thermal site descriptive model is to guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the site investigations. It is understood that further development may be needed. The model describes the thermal properties and other thermal parameters of intact rock, fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The methodology is based on estimation of thermal properties of intact rock and discontinuities, using both empirical and theoretical/numerical approaches, and estimation of thermal processes using mathematical modelling. The methodology will be used and evaluated for the thermal site descriptive modelling at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

  4. Thermal properties. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Wrafter, John; Sundberg, Jan; Rosen, L ars

    2007-09-01

    The lithological data acquired from boreholes and mapping of the rock surface need to be reclassified into thermal rock classes, TRCs. The main reason is to simplify the simulations. The lithological data are used to construct models of the transition between different TRCs, thus describing the spatial statistical structure of each TRC. The result is a set of transition probability models that are used in the simulation of TRCs. The intermediate result of this first stochastic simulation is a number of realisations of the geology, each one equally probable. Based on the thermal data, a spatial statistical thermal model is constructed for each TRC. It consists of a statistical distribution and a variogram for each TRC. These are used in the stochastic simulation of thermal conductivity and the result is a number of equally probable realisations of thermal conductivity for the domain. In the next step, the realisations of TRCs (lithology) and thermal conductivity are merged, i.e. each realisation of geology is filled with simulated thermal conductivity values. The result is a set of realisations of thermal conductivity that considers both the difference in thermal properties between different TRCs, and the variability within each TRC. If the result is desired in a scale different from the simulation scale, i.e. the canister scale, upscaling of the realisations can be performed. The result is a set of equally probable realisations of thermal properties. The presented methodology was applied to rock domain RFM029 and RFM045. The main results are sets of realisations of thermal properties that can be used for further processing, most importantly for statistical analysis and numerical temperature simulations for the design of repository layout (distances between deposition holes). The main conclusions of the thermal modelling are: The choice of scale has a profound influence on the distribution of thermal conductivity values. The variance decreases and the lower tail

  5. Thermal properties. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Wrafter, John; Sundberg, Jan [Geo Innova AB (Sweden); Rosen, L ars [Sweco Viak AB (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    The lithological data acquired from boreholes and mapping of the rock surface need to be reclassified into thermal rock classes, TRCs. The main reason is to simplify the simulations. The lithological data are used to construct models of the transition between different TRCs, thus describing the spatial statistical structure of each TRC. The result is a set of transition probability models that are used in the simulation of TRCs. The intermediate result of this first stochastic simulation is a number of realisations of the geology, each one equally probable. Based on the thermal data, a spatial statistical thermal model is constructed for each TRC. It consists of a statistical distribution and a variogram for each TRC. These are used in the stochastic simulation of thermal conductivity and the result is a number of equally probable realisations of thermal conductivity for the domain. In the next step, the realisations of TRCs (lithology) and thermal conductivity are merged, i.e. each realisation of geology is filled with simulated thermal conductivity values. The result is a set of realisations of thermal conductivity that considers both the difference in thermal properties between different TRCs, and the variability within each TRC. If the result is desired in a scale different from the simulation scale, i.e. the canister scale, upscaling of the realisations can be performed. The result is a set of equally probable realisations of thermal properties. The presented methodology was applied to rock domain RFM029 and RFM045. The main results are sets of realisations of thermal properties that can be used for further processing, most importantly for statistical analysis and numerical temperature simulations for the design of repository layout (distances between deposition holes). The main conclusions of the thermal modelling are: The choice of scale has a profound influence on the distribution of thermal conductivity values. The variance decreases and the lower tail

  6. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Bengtsson, Anna; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Forsmark area, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at canister scale has been modelled for two different lithological domains (RFM029 and RFM012, both dominated by granite to granodiorite (101057)). A main modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Two alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological model for the Forsmark area, version 1.2 together with rock type models constituted from measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. Results indicate that the mean of thermal conductivity is expected to exhibit a small variation between the different domains, 3.46 W/(mxK) for RFM012 to 3.55 W/(mxK) for RFM029. The spatial distribution of the thermal conductivity does not follow a simple model. Lower and upper 95% confidence limits are based on the modelling results, but have been rounded of to only two significant figures. Consequently, the lower limit is 2.9 W/(mxK), while the upper is 3.8 W/(mxK). This is applicable to both the investigated domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 10.0% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominating rock type. There are a number of important uncertainties associated with these results. One of the uncertainties considers the representative scale for the canister. Another important uncertainty is the methodological uncertainties associated with the upscaling of thermal conductivity from cm-scale to canister scale. In addition, the representativeness of rock samples is

  7. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Simpevarp subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Bengtsson, Anna; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-08-15

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at possible canister scale has been modelled for four different lithological domains (RSMA01 (Aevroe granite), RSMB01 (Fine-grained dioritoid), RSMC01 (mixture of Aevroe granite and Quartz monzodiorite), and RSMD01 (Quartz monzodiorite)). A main modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Three alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models constituted from measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, the Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings within the specific rock type has also been used in the domain modelling in order to consider the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to the presented relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the mean of thermal conductivity is expected to exhibit only a small variation between the different domains, from 2.62 W/(m.K) to 2.80 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered and for the canister scale it is expected to range from 0.20 to 0.28 W/(m.K). Consequently, the lower confidence limit (95% confidence) for the canister scale is within the range 2.04-2.35 W/(m.K) for the different domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-3.4% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominating rock

  8. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Simpevarp subarea - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Bengtsson, Anna; Laendell, Maerta

    2005-08-01

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at possible canister scale has been modelled for four different lithological domains (RSMA01 (Aevroe granite), RSMB01 (Fine-grained dioritoid), RSMC01 (mixture of Aevroe granite and Quartz monzodiorite), and RSMD01 (Quartz monzodiorite)). A main modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Three alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models constituted from measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, the Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings within the specific rock type has also been used in the domain modelling in order to consider the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to the presented relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the mean of thermal conductivity is expected to exhibit only a small variation between the different domains, from 2.62 W/(m.K) to 2.80 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered and for the canister scale it is expected to range from 0.20 to 0.28 W/(m.K). Consequently, the lower confidence limit (95% confidence) for the canister scale is within the range 2.04-2.35 W/(m.K) for the different domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-3.4% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominating rock

  9. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Wrafter, John; Back, Paer-Erik; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Laxemar subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at canister scale has been modelled for five different lithological domains: RSMA (Aevroe granite), RSMBA (mixture of Aevroe granite and fine-grained dioritoid), RSMD (quartz monzodiorite), RSME (diorite/gabbro) and RSMM (mix domain with high frequency of diorite to gabbro). A base modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Four alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological domain model for the Laxemar subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models based on measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings have also been used in the domain modelling in order to evaluate the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to an established relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the means of thermal conductivity for the various domains are expected to exhibit a variation from 2.45 W/(m.K) to 2.87 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered, and for the 0.8 m scale it is expected to range from 0.17 to 0.29 W/(m.K). Estimates of lower tail percentiles for the same scale are presented for all five domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-5.3% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominant rock types. There are a number of important uncertainties associated with these

  10. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

  11. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  12. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties

  13. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties.

  14. Olkiluoto site description 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, J.; Ahokas, H.; Hudson, J.A.

    2007-03-01

    This second version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2004 (Posiva 2005) with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2005. The main product of the modelling has been to develop a descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model), i.e. a model describing the geometry, properties of the bedrock and the water and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. For practical reasons, the Site Descriptive Model is divided into five parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry, which are presented in individual chapters. Four separated models are presented: the geological, rock mechanics, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical models. The consistency between the hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical models is assessed in a joint chapter. Chapter 1 presents an outline of the report, explains the background to its development and sets out its objectives and scope. It is also introduces and explains the integrated modelling methodology, the nomenclature used in the descriptions of the models and the prediction/outcome studies. Chapter 2 provides a brief overview of the data used for producing the Site Description. Chapters 3 to 8 present the descriptive modelling, which involves interpreting data, interpolating or extrapolating between measurement points and calibrating the model against data, based on the various assumptions made about each conceptual model. Chapter 9 presents the results of the prediction/outcome studies performed during 2005 and Chapter 10 the overall consistency and confidence assessment. Overall conclusions are provided in Chapter 11. The main advances since Site Report 2004 are: A new geological model is presented in Chapter 4, representing a significant change from Bedrock Model 2003/1. There has been extensive use of geological data, whereas hydrogeological data have deliberately not been used and more

  15. Site descriptive modelling - strategy for integrated evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2003-02-01

    The current document establishes the strategy to be used for achieving sufficient integration between disciplines in producing Site Descriptive Models during the Site Investigation stage. The Site Descriptive Model should be a multidisciplinary interpretation of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, transport properties and ecosystems using site investigation data from deep bore holes and from the surface as input. The modelling comprise the following iterative steps, evaluation of primary data, descriptive and quantitative modelling (in 3D), overall confidence evaluation. Data are first evaluated within each discipline and then the evaluations are checked between the disciplines. Three-dimensional modelling (i.e. estimating the distribution of parameter values in space and its uncertainty) is made in a sequence, where the geometrical framework is taken from the geological model and in turn used by the rock mechanics, thermal and hydrogeological modelling etc. The three-dimensional description should present the parameters with their spatial variability over a relevant and specified scale, with the uncertainty included in this description. Different alternative descriptions may be required. After the individual discipline modelling and uncertainty assessment a phase of overall confidence evaluation follows. Relevant parts of the different modelling teams assess the suggested uncertainties and evaluate the feedback. These discussions should assess overall confidence by, checking that all relevant data are used, checking that information in past model versions is considered, checking that the different kinds of uncertainty are addressed, checking if suggested alternatives make sense and if there is potential for additional alternatives, and by discussing, if appropriate, how additional measurements (i.e. more data) would affect confidence. The findings as well as the modelling results are to be documented in a Site Description

  16. Hydrogeological Site Descriptive Model - a strategy for its development during Site Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhen, Ingvar [SWECO VIAK AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The report is to present a strategy for the development of the Site Descriptive Hydrogeological Model within the SKB Site Investigation Programme. The report, and similar reports from the Geology, Rock Mechanics, Thermal properties, Hydrogeochemistry, Transport Properties and Surface Ecosystem disciplines are intended to guide SKB Site Descriptive Modelling but also to provide the authorities with an overview of how the modelling should be performed. Thus the objectives of this report are to: provide guidelines for the modelling of different sites resulting in consistent handling of modelling issues during the Site Investigations, provide a structure for the modelling sequence that is suitable for the establishment of a Site Descriptive model and provide some necessary details that should be considered in a Site Descriptive model.

  17. Hydrogeological Site Descriptive Model - a strategy for its development during Site Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhen, Ingvar; Follin, Sven; Hermanson, Jan

    2003-04-01

    The report is to present a strategy for the development of the Site Descriptive Hydrogeological Model within the SKB Site Investigation Programme. The report, and similar reports from the Geology, Rock Mechanics, Thermal properties, Hydrogeochemistry, Transport Properties and Surface Ecosystem disciplines are intended to guide SKB Site Descriptive Modelling but also to provide the authorities with an overview of how the modelling should be performed. Thus the objectives of this report are to: provide guidelines for the modelling of different sites resulting in consistent handling of modelling issues during the Site Investigations, provide a structure for the modelling sequence that is suitable for the establishment of a Site Descriptive model and provide some necessary details that should be considered in a Site Descriptive model

  18. Confidence assessment. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this report is to assess the confidence that can be placed in the Forsmark site descriptive model, based on the information available at the conclusion of the surface-based investigations (SDM-Site Forsmark). In this exploration, an overriding question is whether remaining uncertainties are significant for repository engineering design or long-term safety assessment and could successfully be further reduced by more surface based investigations or more usefully by explorations underground made during construction of the repository. The confidence in the Forsmark site descriptive model, based on the data available at the conclusion of the surface-based site investigations, have been assessed by exploring: Confidence in the site characterisation data base; Key remaining issues and their handling; Handling of alternative models; Consistency between disciplines; and, Main reasons for confidence and lack of confidence in the model. It is generally found that the key aspects of importance for safety assessment and repository engineering of the Forsmark site descriptive model are associated with a high degree of confidence. Because of the robust geological model that describes the site, the overall confidence in Forsmark site descriptive model is judged to be high. While some aspects have lower confidence this lack of confidence is handled by providing wider uncertainty ranges, bounding estimates and/or alternative models. Most, but not all, of the low confidence aspects have little impact on repository engineering design or for long-term safety. Poor precision in the measured data are judged to have limited impact on uncertainties on the site descriptive model, with the exceptions of inaccuracy in determining the position of some boreholes at depth in 3-D space, as well as the poor precision of the orientation of BIPS images in some boreholes, and the poor precision of stress data determined by overcoring at the locations where the pre

  19. Transport properties site descriptive model. Guidelines for evaluation and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, Sten; Selroos, Jan-Olof

    2004-04-01

    This report describes a strategy for the development of Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models within the SKB Site Investigation programme. Similar reports have been produced for the other disciplines in the site descriptive modelling (Geology, Hydrogeology, Hydrogeochemistry, Rock mechanics, Thermal properties, and Surface ecosystems). These reports are intended to guide the site descriptive modelling, but also to provide the authorities with an overview of modelling work that will be performed. The site descriptive modelling of transport properties is presented in this report and in the associated 'Strategy for the use of laboratory methods in the site investigations programme for the transport properties of the rock', which describes laboratory measurements and data evaluations. Specifically, the objectives of the present report are to: Present a description that gives an overview of the strategy for developing Site Descriptive Models, and which sets the transport modelling into this general context. Provide a structure for developing Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models that facilitates efficient modelling and comparisons between different sites. Provide guidelines on specific modelling issues where methodological consistency is judged to be of special importance, or where there is no general consensus on the modelling approach. The objectives of the site descriptive modelling process and the resulting Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models are to: Provide transport parameters for Safety Assessment. Describe the geoscientific basis for the transport model, including the qualitative and quantitative data that are of importance for the assessment of uncertainties and confidence in the transport description, and for the understanding of the processes at the sites. Provide transport parameters for use within other discipline-specific programmes. Contribute to the integrated evaluation of the investigated sites. The site descriptive modelling of

  20. System design description PFP thermal stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a system design description and design basis for the Plutonium Finishing P1ant (PFP) Thermal Stabilization project. The sources of material for this project are residues scraped from glovebox floors and materials already stored in vault storage that need further stabilizing to meet the 3013 storage requirements. Stabilizing this material will promote long term storage and reduced worker exposure. This document addresses: function design, equipment, and safety requirements for thermal stabilization of plutonium residues and oxides

  1. System Design Description PFP Thermal Stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a system design description (SDD) and design basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Thermal Stabilization project. The chief objective of the SDD is to document the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) that establish and maintain the facility Safety Envelope necessary for normal safe operation of the facility; as identified in the FSAR, the OSRs, and Safety Assessment Documents (SADs). This safety equipment documentation should satisfy guidelines for the SDD given in WHC-SD-CP-TI-18 1, Criteria for Identification and Control of Equipment Necessary for Preservation of the Safety Envelope and Safe Operation of PFP. The basis for operational, alarm response, maintenance, and surveillance procedures are also identified and justified in this document. This document and its appendices address the following elements of the PFP Thermal Stabilization project: Functional and design requirements; Design description; Safety Envelope Analysis; Safety Equipment Class; and Operational, maintenance and surveillance procedures

  2. Site description of Laxemar at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the SDM is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model of geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site Laxemar, presents an integrated understanding of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area (with special emphasis on the Laxemar subarea) at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted during the period 2002 to 2007. A summary is also provided of the abundant underlying data and the discipline specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details of the data analyses and modelling of the different disciplines. The Laxemar-Simpevarp area is located in the province of Smaaland within the municipality of Oskarshamn, about 230 km south of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of the strait of Kalmarsund, within a 1.8 billion year old suite of well preserved bedrock belonging to the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt formed during

  3. Site description of Laxemar at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the SDM is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model of geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site Laxemar, presents an integrated understanding of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area (with special emphasis on the Laxemar subarea) at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted during the period 2002 to 2007. A summary is also provided of the abundant underlying data and the discipline specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details of the data analyses and modelling of the different disciplines. The Laxemar-Simpevarp area is located in the province of Smaaland within the municipality of Oskarshamn, about 230 km south of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of the strait of Kalmarsund, within a 1.8 billion year old suite of well preserved bedrock belonging to the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt formed during

  4. Site description of Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the model is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model for geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site, presents an integrated understanding of the Forsmark area at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted at Forsmark during the period 2002 to 2007. It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details in data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. The Forsmark area is located in northern Uppland within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, within the north-western part of a major tectonic lens that formed between 1.87 and 1.85 billion years ago during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The candidate area is approximately 6 km long and 2 km wide. The

  5. Site description of Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the model is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model for geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site, presents an integrated understanding of the Forsmark area at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted at Forsmark during the period 2002 to 2007. It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details in data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. The Forsmark area is located in northern Uppland within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, within the north-western part of a major tectonic lens that formed between 1.87 and 1.85 billion years ago during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The candidate area is approximately 6 km long and 2 km wide. The

  6. Forsmark - site descriptive model version 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    During 2002, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is starting investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian basement of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Forsmark, which lies in the municipality of Oesthammar, on the east coast of Sweden, about 150 kilometres north of Stockholm. The site description should present all collected data and interpreted parameters of importance for the overall scientific understanding of the site, for the technical design and environmental impact assessment of the deep repository, and for the assessment of long-term safety. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. The site descriptive models are devised and stepwise updated as the site investigations proceed. The point of departure for this process is the regional site descriptive model, version 0, which is the subject of the present report. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. This information, with the exception of data from tunnels and drill holes at the sites of the Forsmark nuclear reactors and the underground low-middle active radioactive waste storage facility, SFR, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. For this reason, the Forsmark site descriptive model, version 0, as detailed in the present report, has been developed at a regional scale. It covers a rectangular area, 15 km in a southwest-northeast and 11 km in a northwest-southeast direction, around the

  7. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description Simpevarp sub area - Version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias [ed.

    2005-03-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is currently conducting site characterisation in the Simpevarp area. The area is divided into two subareas, the Simpevarp and the Laxemar subarea. The two subareas are surrounded by a common regional model area, the Simpevarp area. This report describes both the regional area and the subareas. This report is an interim version (model version 1.2) of the description of the surface systems at the Simpevarp area, and should be seen as a background report to the site description of the Simpevarp area, version 1.2, SKB-R--05-08. The basis for this description is quality-assured field data available in the SKB SICADA and GIS databases, together with generic data from the literature. The Surface system, here defined as everything above the bedrock, comprises a number of separate disciplines (e.g. hydrology, geology, topography, oceanography and ecology). Each discipline has developed descriptions and models for a number of properties that together represent the site description. The current methodology for developing the surface system description and the integration to ecosystem models is documented in a methodology strategy report SKB-R--03-06. The procedures and guidelines given in that report were followed in this report. Compared with version 1.1 of the surface system description SKB-R--04-25, this report presents considerable additional features, especially in the ecosystem description (Chapter 4) and in the description of the surface hydrology (Section 3.4). A first attempt has also been made to connect the flow of matter (carbon) between the different ecosystems into an overall ecosystem model at a landscape level. A summarised version of this report is also presented in SKB-R--05-08 together with geological-, hydrogeological-, transport properties-, thermal properties-, rock mechanics- and hydrogeochemical descriptions.

  8. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description Simpevarp sub area - Version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias

    2005-03-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is currently conducting site characterisation in the Simpevarp area. The area is divided into two subareas, the Simpevarp and the Laxemar subarea. The two subareas are surrounded by a common regional model area, the Simpevarp area. This report describes both the regional area and the subareas. This report is an interim version (model version 1.2) of the description of the surface systems at the Simpevarp area, and should be seen as a background report to the site description of the Simpevarp area, version 1.2, SKB-R--05-08. The basis for this description is quality-assured field data available in the SKB SICADA and GIS databases, together with generic data from the literature. The Surface system, here defined as everything above the bedrock, comprises a number of separate disciplines (e.g. hydrology, geology, topography, oceanography and ecology). Each discipline has developed descriptions and models for a number of properties that together represent the site description. The current methodology for developing the surface system description and the integration to ecosystem models is documented in a methodology strategy report SKB-R--03-06. The procedures and guidelines given in that report were followed in this report. Compared with version 1.1 of the surface system description SKB-R--04-25, this report presents considerable additional features, especially in the ecosystem description (Chapter 4) and in the description of the surface hydrology (Section 3.4). A first attempt has also been made to connect the flow of matter (carbon) between the different ecosystems into an overall ecosystem model at a landscape level. A summarised version of this report is also presented in SKB-R--05-08 together with geological-, hydrogeological-, transport properties-, thermal properties-, rock mechanics- and hydrogeochemical descriptions

  9. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, Kristina [ed.

    2005-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, the Forsmark and Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. An integrated component in the characterisation work is the development of a site descriptive model that constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere as well as those ongoing natural processes that affect their long-term evolution. The present report documents the site descriptive modelling activities (version 1.2) for the Forsmark area. The overall objectives of the version 1.2 site descriptive modelling are to produce and document an integrated description of the site and its regional environments based on the site-specific data available from the initial site investigations and to give recommendations on continued investigations. The modelling work is based on primary data, i.e. quality-assured, geoscientific and ecological field data available in the SKB databases SICADA and GIS, available July 31, 2004. The work has been conducted by a project group and associated discipline-specific working groups. The members of the project group represent the disciplines of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, transport properties and surface ecosystems (including overburden, surface hydrogeochemistry and hydrology). In addition, some group members have specific qualifications of importance in this type of project e.g. expertise in RVS (Rock Visualisation System) modelling, GIS-modelling and in statistical data analysis. The overall strategy to achieve a site description is to develop discipline-specific models by interpretation and analyses of the primary data. The different discipline-specific models are then integrated into a site description. Methodologies for developing the discipline-specific models are documented in

  10. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, Kristina

    2005-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, the Forsmark and Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. An integrated component in the characterisation work is the development of a site descriptive model that constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere as well as those ongoing natural processes that affect their long-term evolution. The present report documents the site descriptive modelling activities (version 1.2) for the Forsmark area. The overall objectives of the version 1.2 site descriptive modelling are to produce and document an integrated description of the site and its regional environments based on the site-specific data available from the initial site investigations and to give recommendations on continued investigations. The modelling work is based on primary data, i.e. quality-assured, geoscientific and ecological field data available in the SKB databases SICADA and GIS, available July 31, 2004. The work has been conducted by a project group and associated discipline-specific working groups. The members of the project group represent the disciplines of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, transport properties and surface ecosystems (including overburden, surface hydrogeochemistry and hydrology). In addition, some group members have specific qualifications of importance in this type of project e.g. expertise in RVS (Rock Visualisation System) modelling, GIS-modelling and in statistical data analysis. The overall strategy to achieve a site description is to develop discipline-specific models by interpretation and analyses of the primary data. The different discipline-specific models are then integrated into a site description. Methodologies for developing the discipline-specific models are documented in

  11. Olkiluoto site description 2008. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    This third version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2006 (Andersson et al. 2007) with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2007. The main product of the modelling has been to develop an updated version of the descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model), i.e. a model describing the geometry, properties of the bedrock and the water and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The Site Descriptive Model is divided into six parts: the surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and migration, which are presented in individual chapters. Five separated models are presented: the geological, rock mechanics, hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical and migration models. The main advances since Site Report 2006 are: (1) The geological model has been revised according to new data and interpretations. This has improved the consistency between the locations of the deformation zones in the geological model and the hydraulic zones in the hydrogeological model, (2) New 3D seismic data have been incorporated within the geological model and an initial model for the eastern part of the Island is presented. Site-scale brittle deformation zones are extrapolated to intersect the surrounding regional lineaments, unless prohibited by direct observations to the contrary. The alteration model has been revised, showing a clear correspondence between the illitisation and the sitescale fault zones, (3) A first account of the development of the brittle deformation history of the site is provided, (4) A new geological DFN model has been developed, that considers mapped fracture traces from both the surface and the ONKALO, (5) A new stress state model and fracture and fracture zone properties are presented, (6) A new hydrogeological DFN model has been developed, (7) An updated site scale (EPM) flow model has been developed, (8) There has been an

  12. Simpevarp - site descriptive model version 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    During 2002, SKB is starting detailed investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian rocks of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Simpevarp, which lies in the municipality of Oskarshamn, on the southeast coast of Sweden, about 250 kilometres south of Stockholm. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. SKB maintains two main databases at the present time, a site characterisation database called SICADA and a geographic information system called SKB GIS. The site descriptive model will be developed and presented with the aid of the SKB GIS capabilities, and with SKBs Rock Visualisation System (RVS), which is also linked to SICADA. The version 0 model forms an important framework for subsequent model versions, which are developed successively, as new information from the site investigations becomes available. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. In the case of Simpevarp, this is essentially the information which was compiled for the Oskarshamn feasibility study, which led to the choice of that area as a favourable object for further study, together with information collected since its completion. This information, with the exception of the extensive data base from the nearby Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. Against this background, the present report consists of the following components: an overview of the present content of the databases

  13. Forsmark - site descriptive model version 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    During 2002, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is starting investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian basement of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Forsmark, which lies in the municipality of Oesthammar, on the east coast of Sweden, about 150 kilometres north of Stockholm. The site description should present all collected data and interpreted parameters of importance for the overall scientific understanding of the site, for the technical design and environmental impact assessment of the deep repository, and for the assessment of long-term safety. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. The site descriptive models are devised and stepwise updated as the site investigations proceed. The point of departure for this process is the regional site descriptive model, version 0, which is the subject of the present report. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. This information, with the exception of data from tunnels and drill holes at the sites of the Forsmark nuclear reactors and the underground low-middle active radioactive waste storage facility, SFR, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. For this reason, the Forsmark site descriptive model, version 0, as detailed in the present report, has been developed at a regional scale. It covers a rectangular area, 15 km in a southwest-northeast and 11 km in a northwest-southeast direction, around the

  14. Simpevarp - site descriptive model version 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    During 2002, SKB is starting detailed investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian rocks of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Simpevarp, which lies in the municipality of Oskarshamn, on the southeast coast of Sweden, about 250 kilometres south of Stockholm. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. SKB maintains two main databases at the present time, a site characterisation database called SICADA and a geographic information system called SKB GIS. The site descriptive model will be developed and presented with the aid of the SKB GIS capabilities, and with SKBs Rock Visualisation System (RVS), which is also linked to SICADA. The version 0 model forms an important framework for subsequent model versions, which are developed successively, as new information from the site investigations becomes available. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. In the case of Simpevarp, this is essentially the information which was compiled for the Oskarshamn feasibility study, which led to the choice of that area as a favourable object for further study, together with information collected since its completion. This information, with the exception of the extensive data base from the nearby Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. Against this background, the present report consists of the following components: an overview of the present content of the databases

  15. Confidence assessment. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess the confidence that can be placed in the Laxemar site descriptive model, based on the information available at the conclusion of the surface-based investigations (SDM-Site Laxemar). In this exploration, an overriding question is whether remaining uncertainties are significant for repository engineering design or long-term safety assessment and could successfully be further reduced by more surface-based investigations or more usefully by explorations underground made during construction of the repository. Procedures for this assessment have been progressively refined during the course of the site descriptive modelling, and applied to all previous versions of the Forsmark and Laxemar site descriptive models. They include assessment of whether all relevant data have been considered and understood, identification of the main uncertainties and their causes, possible alternative models and their handling, and consistency between disciplines. The assessment then forms the basis for an overall confidence statement. The confidence in the Laxemar site descriptive model, based on the data available at the conclusion of the surface based site investigations, has been assessed by exploring: - Confidence in the site characterization data base, - remaining issues and their handling, - handling of alternatives, - consistency between disciplines and - main reasons for confidence and lack of confidence in the model. Generally, the site investigation database is of high quality, as assured by the quality procedures applied. It is judged that the Laxemar site descriptive model has an overall high level of confidence. Because of the relatively robust geological model that describes the site, the overall confidence in the Laxemar Site Descriptive model is judged to be high, even though details of the spatial variability remain unknown. The overall reason for this confidence is the wide spatial distribution of the data and the consistency between

  16. Confidence assessment. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    The objective of this report is to assess the confidence that can be placed in the Laxemar site descriptive model, based on the information available at the conclusion of the surface-based investigations (SDM-Site Laxemar). In this exploration, an overriding question is whether remaining uncertainties are significant for repository engineering design or long-term safety assessment and could successfully be further reduced by more surface-based investigations or more usefully by explorations underground made during construction of the repository. Procedures for this assessment have been progressively refined during the course of the site descriptive modelling, and applied to all previous versions of the Forsmark and Laxemar site descriptive models. They include assessment of whether all relevant data have been considered and understood, identification of the main uncertainties and their causes, possible alternative models and their handling, and consistency between disciplines. The assessment then forms the basis for an overall confidence statement. The confidence in the Laxemar site descriptive model, based on the data available at the conclusion of the surface based site investigations, has been assessed by exploring: - Confidence in the site characterization data base, - remaining issues and their handling, - handling of alternatives, - consistency between disciplines and - main reasons for confidence and lack of confidence in the model. Generally, the site investigation database is of high quality, as assured by the quality procedures applied. It is judged that the Laxemar site descriptive model has an overall high level of confidence. Because of the relatively robust geological model that describes the site, the overall confidence in the Laxemar Site Descriptive model is judged to be high, even though details of the spatial variability remain unknown. The overall reason for this confidence is the wide spatial distribution of the data and the consistency between

  17. Bedrock hydrogeology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling, SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 concept. Site characterisation should provide all data required for an integrated evaluation of the suitability of the investigated site and an important component in the characterisation work is the development of a hydrogeological model. The hydrogeological model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It also provides input to the safety assessment. Another important use of the hydrogeological model is in the environmental impact assessment. This report presents the understanding of the hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock at Forsmark reached following the completion of the surface-based investigations and provides a summary of the bedrock hydrogeological model and the underlying data supporting its development. It constitutes the main reference on bedrock hydrogeology for the site descriptive model concluding the surface-based investigations at Forsmark, SDM-site, and is intended to describe the hydraulic properties and hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock at the site and to give the information essential for demonstrating understanding

  18. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005, Attachment A - Site Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2006-01-01

    This appendix to the ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005'', dated October 2006 (DOE/NV/11718--1214; DOE/NV/25946--007) expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction. Included are subsections that summarize the site?s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This appendix complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report

  19. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005, Attachment A - Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2006-10-01

    This appendix to the ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005'', dated October 2006 (DOE/NV/11718--1214; DOE/NV/25946--007) expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction. Included are subsections that summarize the site?s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This appendix complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  20. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills

    2008-09-01

    This appendix expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], 2008). Included are subsections that summarize the site's geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  1. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2009a). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  2. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009, Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009. Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  3. Site descriptive modeling as a part of site characterization in Sweden - Concluding the surface based investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Winberg, Anders; Skagius, Kristina; Stroem, Anders; Lindborg, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, is currently finalizing its surface based site investigations for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel in the municipalities of Oestharmnar (the Forsmark area) and Oskarshamn (the Simpevar/Laxemar area). The investigation data are assessed into a Site Descriptive Model, constituting a synthesis of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydro-geochemistry, transport properties and a surface system description. Site data constitute a wide range of different measurement results. These data both need to be checked for consistency and to be interpreted into a format more amenable for three-dimensional modeling. The three-dimensional modeling (i.e. estimating the distribution of parameter values in space) is made in a sequence where the geometrical framework is taken from the geological models and in turn used by the rock mechanics, thermal and hydrogeological modeling. These disciplines in turn are partly interrelated, and also provide feedback to the geological modeling, especially if the geological description appears unreasonable when assessed together with the other data. Procedures for assessing the uncertainties and the confidence in the modeling have been developed during the course of the site modeling. These assessments also provide key input to the completion of the site investigation program. (authors)

  4. Site investigations: Strategy for rock mechanics site descriptive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Christiansson, Rolf; Hudson, John

    2002-05-01

    As a part of the planning work for the Site Investigations, SKB has developed a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Modelling Strategy. Similar strategies are being developed for other disciplines. The objective of the strategy is that it should guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the Site Investigations. It is also understood that further development may be needed. This methodology enables the crystalline rock mass to be characterised in terms of the quality at different sites, for considering rock engineering constructability, and for providing the input to numerical models and performance assessment calculations. The model describes the initial stresses and the distribution of deformation and strength properties of the intact rock, of fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The rock mass mechanical properties are estimated by empirical relations and by numerical simulations. The methodology is based on estimation of mechanical properties using both empirical and heroretical/numerical approaches; and estimation of in situ rock stress using judgement and numerical modelling, including the influence of fracture zones. These approaches are initially used separately, and then combined to produce the required characterisation estimates. The methodology was evaluated with a Test Case at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The quality control aspects are an important feature of the methodology: these include Protocols to ensure the structure and coherence of the procedures used, regular meetings to enhance communication, feedback from internal and external reviewing, plus the recording of an audit trail of the development steps and decisions made. The strategy will be reviewed and, if required, updated as appropriate

  5. Site investigations: Strategy for rock mechanics site descriptive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hudson, John [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    As a part of the planning work for the Site Investigations, SKB has developed a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Modelling Strategy. Similar strategies are being developed for other disciplines. The objective of the strategy is that it should guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the Site Investigations. It is also understood that further development may be needed. This methodology enables the crystalline rock mass to be characterised in terms of the quality at different sites, for considering rock engineering constructability, and for providing the input to numerical models and performance assessment calculations. The model describes the initial stresses and the distribution of deformation and strength properties of the intact rock, of fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The rock mass mechanical properties are estimated by empirical relations and by numerical simulations. The methodology is based on estimation of mechanical properties using both empirical and heroretical/numerical approaches; and estimation of in situ rock stress using judgement and numerical modelling, including the influence of fracture zones. These approaches are initially used separately, and then combined to produce the required characterisation estimates. The methodology was evaluated with a Test Case at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The quality control aspects are an important feature of the methodology: these include Protocols to ensure the structure and coherence of the procedures used, regular meetings to enhance communication, feedback from internal and external reviewing, plus the recording of an audit trail of the development steps and decisions made. The strategy will be reviewed and, if required, updated as appropriate.

  6. Bedrock hydrogeochemistry Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus [Geopoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Partille (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica, Graabo (Sweden); Gimeno, Maria [Univ. of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain); Hallbeck, Lotta [Microbial Analytics, Goeteborg (Sweden); Molinero, Jorge [Amphos XXI Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain); Waber, Nick [Univ. of Bern, Bern (Switzerland)

    2008-12-15

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical site description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site, and to use this understanding to develop models that address the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and porewater and their evolution with time. The specific aims of the hydrogeochemical work were: To document the hydrogeochemistry at the Forsmark site with focus on the development of conceptual models to describe and visualise the site. To provide relevant parameter values to be used for safety assessment calculations. To provide the hydrogeochemical basis for the modelling work by other teams, in particular hydrogeology. To take account of the feedback from the SR-Can safety assessment work that bears relevance to the hydrogeochemical modelling work. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. In this report, the groundwaters have been interpreted in relation to their origin, evolution and composition, which require close integration with geological, climatological and hydrogeological information. Past climate changes are one of the major driving forces for long-term hydrogeochemical changes (hundreds to thousands of years) and are, therefore, of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the Fennoscandian crystalline bedrock. In contrast, redox buffer capacity of the bedrock will minimise the effects on changes in alkalinity and redox at repository depths, therefore limiting the variations in pH and Eh significantly, regardless of major changes in groundwater composition. There is

  7. Bedrock hydrogeochemistry Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus; Smellie, John; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Gimeno, Maria; Hallbeck, Lotta; Molinero, Jorge; Waber, Nick

    2008-12-01

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical site description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site, and to use this understanding to develop models that address the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and porewater and their evolution with time. The specific aims of the hydrogeochemical work were: To document the hydrogeochemistry at the Forsmark site with focus on the development of conceptual models to describe and visualise the site. To provide relevant parameter values to be used for safety assessment calculations. To provide the hydrogeochemical basis for the modelling work by other teams, in particular hydrogeology. To take account of the feedback from the SR-Can safety assessment work that bears relevance to the hydrogeochemical modelling work. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. In this report, the groundwaters have been interpreted in relation to their origin, evolution and composition, which require close integration with geological, climatological and hydrogeological information. Past climate changes are one of the major driving forces for long-term hydrogeochemical changes (hundreds to thousands of years) and are, therefore, of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the Fennoscandian crystalline bedrock. In contrast, redox buffer capacity of the bedrock will minimise the effects on changes in alkalinity and redox at repository depths, therefore limiting the variations in pH and Eh significantly, regardless of major changes in groundwater composition. There is

  8. Surface system Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias

    2008-12-01

    SKB has undertaken site characterization of two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to find a suitable location for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report focuses on the site descriptive modelling of the surface system at Forsmark. The characterization of the surface system at the site was primarily made by identifying and describing important properties in different parts of the surface system, properties concerning e.g. hydrology and climate, Quaternary deposits and soils, hydrochemistry, vegetation, ecosystem functions, but also current and historical land use. The report presents available input data, methodology for data evaluation and modelling, and resulting models for each of the different disciplines. Results from the modelling of the surface system are also integrated with results from modelling of the deep bedrock system. The Forsmark site is located within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The investigated area is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, a funnel-shaped bay of the Baltic Sea. The area is characterized by small-scale topographic variations and is almost entirely located at altitudes lower than 20 metres above sea level. The Quaternary deposits in the area are dominated by till, characterized by a rich content of calcite which was transported by the glacier ice to the area from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. As a result, the surface waters and shallow groundwater at Forsmark are characterized by high pH values and high concentrations of certain major constituents, especially calcium and bicarbonate. The annual precipitation and runoff are 560 and 150 mm, respectively. The lakes are small and shallow, with mean and maximum depths ranging from approximately 0.1 to 1 m and 0.4 to 2 m. Sea water flows into the most low-lying lakes during events giving rise to very high sea levels. Wetlands are frequent and cover 25 to 35

  9. A description of LUSTRA's common field sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berggren, Dan; Bergkvist, Bo; Johansson, Maj-Britt; Melkerud, Per-Arne; Nilsson, Aake; Olsson, Mats; Langvall, Ola; Majdi, Hooshang; Weslien, Per

    2004-01-01

    arena, and thus LUSTRA has gradually put more focus on the Kyoto process. LUSTRA was evaluated during spring 2002 and the general overall statement was that 'The ambitious goals of the LUSTRA program are very good and seem to be well understood by the participating researchers. However, for a second phase a focus on synthesis and synergy is recommended'. In LUSTRA we are performing integrated research on C fluxes at three common field sites (CFS) situated in a south-north transect in Sweden: Asa, Knottaasen and Flakaliden. Measurements started summer 2000. The intention was to establish a climate gradient through Sweden but keep other environmental parameters rather similar. Also within each site the ambition was to get a hydrological gradient going from dry, over mesic to moist conditions, i.e. from deep lying ground water level to shallow groundwater. According to the advises by the reviewers of LUSTRA phase 1, more focus will be on syntheses during LUSTRA phase 2 (2003-2006). However, measurements at the CFS will be continued during 2003 and 2004. The objectives of this paper are (i) to give a general description of the sites, (ii) to describe the abiotic measurements made at the different sites, including the data base, (iii) to describe the methods used to obtain background information about soils and vegetation (C pools and fluxes) and (iv) to present the background information about soils and vegetation

  10. Preliminary site description. Simpevarp area - version 1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, Anders

    2004-08-01

    resolution. The lithology model includes four interpreted rock domains. The deformation zone model includes 14 zones of interpreted high confidence (of existence). A discrete fracture network model has also been developed where attempts are made to assess effects on fracturing imposed by interpreted deformation zones. Furthermore, the validity of extrapolating surface fracture statistics to larger depths was explored. The rock mechanics strength model is based on information from the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and an empirical, mechanical classification of data from KSH01A and at outcrops. A first model of thermal properties of the rock has been developed largely based on data from Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, and projections based on density and mineral content. Overall the rock at Simpevarp is characterised by a low thermal conductivity. A consequence of the planned delay in parts of the geological model is that the hydrogeological description is based solely on the version 0 regional structural model. The regional flow pattern is found to be governed by the geometry of the interpreted deformation zones in relation to the acting hydraulic gradient. Hydrogeological simulations of the groundwater evolution since the last glaciation were compared with the developed hydrogeochemical conceptual model. The conceptual model of the development of post-glacial hydrogeochemistry was updated. Also, the salinity distribution, mixing processes and the major reactions altering the groundwater composition were described down to a depth of 300 m. A first model of the transport properties of the rock was presented, although still rather immature due to lack of site-specific data in support of the model. For the near-surface, the Simpevarp subarea is characterised by a large portion of outcrop rock. There is information regarding the distribution of Quaternary deposits, and some information about the stratigraphy of the till, the latter found to be of small thickness, generally 1-3 m

  11. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    , mechanical classification by depth at KFM01A and at outcrops. A first model of thermal properties of the rock has been developed, although still rather immature due to few site-specific data in support of the model. The hydrogeological description is based on the new geological (structure) model and the fracture transmissivity distribution of the DFN model is based on the data from depth (cored borehole KFM01A). The fracture intensity and permeability are very low below 400 m depth. Hydrogeological simulations of the groundwater evolution since the last glaciation have been performed and compared with the hydrogeochemical conceptual model. The conceptual model of the development of post-glacial hydro geochemistry has been updated. Also, the salinity distribution, mixing processes and the major reactions altering the groundwaters have been described down to a depth of 200 m. A first model of the transport properties of the rock has been presented, although still rather immature due to lack of site-specific data in support of the model. For the near-surface, there is additional information regarding the stratigraphic distribution of glacial till and water-laid sediment, with related updates in the description. There is much uncertainty in version 1.1 of the site descriptive model, but the main uncertainties have been identified, some are also quantified and others are left as input to alternative hypotheses. However, since a main reason for uncertainty in version 1.1 is lack of data and poor data density and as much more data are expected in coming data freezes, it has not been judged meaningful to carry the uncertainty quantification or the alternative model generation too far. Advances have been made on some of the important site specific questions that were formulated in planning the execution programme for the Forsmark area. Concerning the shape of the tectonic lens, the understanding of the three dimensional shape of the rock domains in the local model area is now fair

  12. Surface system Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias [ed.

    2008-12-15

    SKB has undertaken site characterization of two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to find a suitable location for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report focuses on the site descriptive modelling of the surface system at Forsmark. The characterization of the surface system at the site was primarily made by identifying and describing important properties in different parts of the surface system, properties concerning e.g. hydrology and climate, Quaternary deposits and soils, hydrochemistry, vegetation, ecosystem functions, but also current and historical land use. The report presents available input data, methodology for data evaluation and modelling, and resulting models for each of the different disciplines. Results from the modelling of the surface system are also integrated with results from modelling of the deep bedrock system. The Forsmark site is located within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The investigated area is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, a funnel-shaped bay of the Baltic Sea. The area is characterized by small-scale topographic variations and is almost entirely located at altitudes lower than 20 metres above sea level. The Quaternary deposits in the area are dominated by till, characterized by a rich content of calcite which was transported by the glacier ice to the area from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. As a result, the surface waters and shallow groundwater at Forsmark are characterized by high pH values and high concentrations of certain major constituents, especially calcium and bicarbonate. The annual precipitation and runoff are 560 and 150 mm, respectively. The lakes are small and shallow, with mean and maximum depths ranging from approximately 0.1 to 1 m and 0.4 to 2 m. Sea water flows into the most low-lying lakes during events giving rise to very high sea levels. Wetlands are frequent and cover 25 to 35

  13. Geology Laxemar. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Curtis, Philip; Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Drake, Henrik (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Juhlin, Christopher (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    The geological work during the SDM Site Laxemar modelling stage has involved the continued development of deterministic models for rock domains (RSM) and deformation zones (ZSM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FSM), and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network (DFN) modelling). The geological DFN model addresses fractures/structures with a size of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off of structures included in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local scale model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid only within specific fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model volume. The geological and geophysical data that constitute the basis for the SDM-Site Laxemar modelling work comprise all data that have been acquired from Laxemar, i.e. all data that were available at the data freeze for SDM-Site Laxemar at August 31, 2007. Selected quality controlled data from the complementary cored borehole KLX27A have also been utilised in the modelling work. Data from the following investigations were acquired during the complete site investigation between the data freezes for Laxemar 1.2 and SDM-Site Laxemar as defined above: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 40 new cored boreholes and 14 percussion boreholes. Sampling and subsequent modal and geochemical analytical work of bedrock samples taken in connection with excavations in southern Laxemar. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along 10 trench excavations and 2 large surface exposures (drill sites for KLX09 and KLX11A/KLX20A). Special studies involving more detailed characterisation of deformation zones identified in the geological single-hole interpretation

  14. Geology Laxemar. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric; Curtis, Philip; Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola; Oehman, Johan; Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul; Drake, Henrik; Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans; Juhlin, Christopher

    2008-11-01

    The geological work during the SDM Site Laxemar modelling stage has involved the continued development of deterministic models for rock domains (RSM) and deformation zones (ZSM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FSM), and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network (DFN) modelling). The geological DFN model addresses fractures/structures with a size of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off of structures included in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local scale model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid only within specific fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model volume. The geological and geophysical data that constitute the basis for the SDM-Site Laxemar modelling work comprise all data that have been acquired from Laxemar, i.e. all data that were available at the data freeze for SDM-Site Laxemar at August 31, 2007. Selected quality controlled data from the complementary cored borehole KLX27A have also been utilised in the modelling work. Data from the following investigations were acquired during the complete site investigation between the data freezes for Laxemar 1.2 and SDM-Site Laxemar as defined above: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 40 new cored boreholes and 14 percussion boreholes. Sampling and subsequent modal and geochemical analytical work of bedrock samples taken in connection with excavations in southern Laxemar. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along 10 trench excavations and 2 large surface exposures (drill sites for KLX09 and KLX11A/KLX20A). Special studies involving more detailed characterisation of deformation zones identified in the geological single-hole interpretation

  15. Preliminary site description. Simpevarp area - version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberg, Anders [ed.

    2004-08-01

    resolution. The lithology model includes four interpreted rock domains. The deformation zone model includes 14 zones of interpreted high confidence (of existence). A discrete fracture network model has also been developed where attempts are made to assess effects on fracturing imposed by interpreted deformation zones. Furthermore, the validity of extrapolating surface fracture statistics to larger depths was explored. The rock mechanics strength model is based on information from the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and an empirical, mechanical classification of data from KSH01A and at outcrops. A first model of thermal properties of the rock has been developed largely based on data from Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, and projections based on density and mineral content. Overall the rock at Simpevarp is characterised by a low thermal conductivity. A consequence of the planned delay in parts of the geological model is that the hydrogeological description is based solely on the version 0 regional structural model. The regional flow pattern is found to be governed by the geometry of the interpreted deformation zones in relation to the acting hydraulic gradient. Hydrogeological simulations of the groundwater evolution since the last glaciation were compared with the developed hydrogeochemical conceptual model. The conceptual model of the development of post-glacial hydrogeochemistry was updated. Also, the salinity distribution, mixing processes and the major reactions altering the groundwater composition were described down to a depth of 300 m. A first model of the transport properties of the rock was presented, although still rather immature due to lack of site-specific data in support of the model. For the near-surface, the Simpevarp subarea is characterised by a large portion of outcrop rock. There is information regarding the distribution of Quaternary deposits, and some information about the stratigraphy of the till, the latter found to be of small thickness, generally 1-3 m

  16. Temporal description of thermal quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezawa, H.; Yamanaka, Y.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, making use of time-dependent Bogoliubov transformations, the authors develop a calculation technique for time-dependent non-equilibrium systems of quantum fields in a time-representation (t-representation). The corrected one-body propagator in the t-representation turns out to have the form B - 1 (diagonal matrix) B (B being a thermal Bogoliubov matrix). Applying the usual on-shell concept to the diagonal matrix part of the self-energy, we formulate a self-consistent renormalization scheme. This renormalization determines the vacuum and leads to a kinetic equation for the number density parameter, which reduces to the Boltzmann equation in the lowest approximation. This gives the authors the increasing entropy in time (the second law of thermodynamics)

  17. GAPCON-THERMAL-3 code description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanning, D.D.; Mohr, C.L.; Panisko, F.E.; Stewart, K.B.

    1978-01-01

    GAPCON-3 is a computer program that predicts the thermal and mechanical behavior of an operating fuel rod during its normal lifetime. The code calculates temperatures, dimensions, stresses, and strains for the fuel and the cladding in both the radial and axial directions for each step of the user specified power history. The method of weighted residuals is for the steady state temperature calculation, and is combined with a finite difference approximation of the time derivative for transient conditions. The stress strain analysis employs an iterative axisymmetric finite element procedure that includes plasticity and creep for normal and pellet-clad mechanical interaction loads. GAPCON-3 can solve steady state and operational transient problems. Comparisons of GAPCON-3 predictions to both closed form analytical solutions and actual inpile instrumented fuel rod data have demonstrated the ability of the code to calculate fuel rod behavior. GAPCON-3 features a restart capability and an associated plot package unavailable in previous GAPCON series codes

  18. GAPCON-THERMAL-3 code description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanning, D.D.; Mohr, C.L.; Panisko, F.E.; Stewart, K.B.

    1978-01-01

    GAPCON-3 is a computer program that predicts the thermal and mechanical behavior of an operating fuel rod during its normal lifetime. The code calculates temperatures, dimensions, stresses, and strains for the fuel and the cladding in both the radial and axial directions for each step of the user specified power history. The method of weighted residuals is for the steady state temperature calculation, and is combined with a finite difference approximation of the time derivative for transient conditions. The stress strain analysis employs an iterative axisymmetric finite element procedure that includes plasticity and creep for normal and pellet-clad mechanical interaction loads. GAPCON-3 can solve steady state and operational transient problems. Comparisons of GAPCON-3 predictions to both closed form analytical solutions and actual inpile instrumented fuel rod data have demonstrated the ability of the code to calculate fuel rod behavior. GAPCON-3 features a restart capability and an associated plot package unavailable in previous GAPCON series codes.

  19. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    , mechanical classification by depth at KFM01A and at outcrops. A first model of thermal properties of the rock has been developed, although still rather immature due to few site-specific data in support of the model. The hydrogeological description is based on the new geological (structure) model and the fracture transmissivity distribution of the DFN model is based on the data from depth (cored borehole KFM01A). The fracture intensity and permeability are very low below 400 m depth. Hydrogeological simulations of the groundwater evolution since the last glaciation have been performed and compared with the hydrogeochemical conceptual model. The conceptual model of the development of post-glacial hydro geochemistry has been updated. Also, the salinity distribution, mixing processes and the major reactions altering the groundwaters have been described down to a depth of 200 m. A first model of the transport properties of the rock has been presented, although still rather immature due to lack of site-specific data in support of the model. For the near-surface, there is additional information regarding the stratigraphic distribution of glacial till and water-laid sediment, with related updates in the description. There is much uncertainty in version 1.1 of the site descriptive model, but the main uncertainties have been identified, some are also quantified and others are left as input to alternative hypotheses. However, since a main reason for uncertainty in version 1.1 is lack of data and poor data density and as much more data are expected in coming data freezes, it has not been judged meaningful to carry the uncertainty quantification or the alternative model generation too far. Advances have been made on some of the important site specific questions that were formulated in planning the execution programme for the Forsmark area. Concerning the shape of the tectonic lens, the understanding of the three dimensional shape of the rock domains in the local model area is now fair

  20. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area Version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias [ed.

    2005-06-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) started site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel in 2002 at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn. The investigations should provide necessary information for a license application aimed at starting underground exploration. For this reason, ecosystem data need to be interpreted and assessed into site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for environmental impact assessment. Descriptions of the surface system are also needed for further planning of the site investigations. This report describes the surface ecosystems of the Forsmark site (e.g. hydrology, Quaternary deposits, chemistry, vegetation, animals and the human land use). The ecosystem description is an integration of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the biosphere as well as the ongoing natural processes affecting the longterm development. Improving the descriptions is important during both the initial and the complete site investigation phase. Before starting of the initial phase in Forsmark, version 0 of the site descriptive model was developed. The results of the initial site investigation phase is compiled into a preliminary site description of Forsmark (version 1.2) in June 2005. This report provides the major input and background to the biosphere description, in the 1.2 version of the Forsmark site description. The basis for this interim version is quality-assured field data from the Forsmark sub area and regional area, available in the SKB SICADA, and GIS data bases as of July 31th 2004 as well as version 1.1 of the Site Descriptive Model. To achieve an ecosystem site description there is a need to develop discipline-specific models by interpreting and analysing primary data. The different discipline-specific models are then integrated into a system describing interactions and flows and stocks of matter between and within functional units in

  1. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area Version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias

    2005-06-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) started site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel in 2002 at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn. The investigations should provide necessary information for a license application aimed at starting underground exploration. For this reason, ecosystem data need to be interpreted and assessed into site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for environmental impact assessment. Descriptions of the surface system are also needed for further planning of the site investigations. This report describes the surface ecosystems of the Forsmark site (e.g. hydrology, Quaternary deposits, chemistry, vegetation, animals and the human land use). The ecosystem description is an integration of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the biosphere as well as the ongoing natural processes affecting the longterm development. Improving the descriptions is important during both the initial and the complete site investigation phase. Before starting of the initial phase in Forsmark, version 0 of the site descriptive model was developed. The results of the initial site investigation phase is compiled into a preliminary site description of Forsmark (version 1.2) in June 2005. This report provides the major input and background to the biosphere description, in the 1.2 version of the Forsmark site description. The basis for this interim version is quality-assured field data from the Forsmark sub area and regional area, available in the SKB SICADA, and GIS data bases as of July 31th 2004 as well as version 1.1 of the Site Descriptive Model. To achieve an ecosystem site description there is a need to develop discipline-specific models by interpreting and analysing primary data. The different discipline-specific models are then integrated into a system describing interactions and flows and stocks of matter between and within functional units in

  2. Hanford Site existing irradiated fuel storage facilities description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, W.L.

    1995-01-11

    This document describes facilities at the Hanford Site which are currently storing spent nuclear fuels. The descriptions provide a basis for the no-action alternatives of ongoing and planned National Environmental Protection Act reviews.

  3. Preliminary site description Simpevarp subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberg, Anders [ed.

    2005-04-01

    The objectives of the version 1.2 site descriptive modelling (SDM) of the Simpevarp subarea are to produce and document an integrated description of the site and its regional environments based on the site-specific data available from the initial site investigations and to give recommendations on continued investigations on a continuous basis. The modelling work is based on primary data available at the time of the data freeze for Simpevarp 1.2, April 1, 2004. The local scale model area (24 km{sup 2}) for the Simpevarp 1.2 modelling encompasses both the Simpevarp and Laxemar subareas. The local model area is located in the centre of a regional scale model area (273 km{sup 2}). Surface ecosystem models in terms of pools and fluxes of carbon have been developed for the terrestrial (e.g. plants and animals) and limnic (e.g. algae and fish) systems using the Lake Frisksjoen drainage area. Furthermore, a first marine ecosystem model has been developed for the Basin Borholmsfjaerden. Three principal lithological domains have been defined in the subarea, an A domain that is dominated by the Aevroe granite, a domain B that is dominated by the fine-grained dioritoid, a C domain that is characterised by a mixture of of Aevroe granite and quartz monzodiorite. A fourth domain is made up a few scattered domains of diorite to gabbro. In total, 22 deformation zones with high confidence of occurrence have been interpreted in the local scale model area. The understanding of the interpreted deformation zones of the Simpevarp subarea is considered adequate to make a preliminary assessment of available storage volumes for a deep repository. High rock stresses do not appear to be a major concern for the Simpevarp subarea. The magnitude of the maximum principal stress at 500 m in the Simpevarp subarea is estimated at 10-22 MPa. The analysis of the thermal conductivity has developed considerably since Simpevarp 1.1. In terms of interpreted mean values for the identified lithological

  4. Preliminary site description Simpevarp subarea - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, Anders

    2005-04-01

    The objectives of the version 1.2 site descriptive modelling (SDM) of the Simpevarp subarea are to produce and document an integrated description of the site and its regional environments based on the site-specific data available from the initial site investigations and to give recommendations on continued investigations on a continuous basis. The modelling work is based on primary data available at the time of the data freeze for Simpevarp 1.2, April 1, 2004. The local scale model area (24 km 2 ) for the Simpevarp 1.2 modelling encompasses both the Simpevarp and Laxemar subareas. The local model area is located in the centre of a regional scale model area (273 km 2 ). Surface ecosystem models in terms of pools and fluxes of carbon have been developed for the terrestrial (e.g. plants and animals) and limnic (e.g. algae and fish) systems using the Lake Frisksjoen drainage area. Furthermore, a first marine ecosystem model has been developed for the Basin Borholmsfjaerden. Three principal lithological domains have been defined in the subarea, an A domain that is dominated by the Aevroe granite, a domain B that is dominated by the fine-grained dioritoid, a C domain that is characterised by a mixture of of Aevroe granite and quartz monzodiorite. A fourth domain is made up a few scattered domains of diorite to gabbro. In total, 22 deformation zones with high confidence of occurrence have been interpreted in the local scale model area. The understanding of the interpreted deformation zones of the Simpevarp subarea is considered adequate to make a preliminary assessment of available storage volumes for a deep repository. High rock stresses do not appear to be a major concern for the Simpevarp subarea. The magnitude of the maximum principal stress at 500 m in the Simpevarp subarea is estimated at 10-22 MPa. The analysis of the thermal conductivity has developed considerably since Simpevarp 1.1. In terms of interpreted mean values for the identified lithological domains, the

  5. Analysis of laparoscopic port site complications: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Somu; Augustine, Alfred Joseph; Shibumon, Mundunadackal Madhavan; Pai, Manohar Varadaraya

    2013-04-01

    The rate of port site complications following conventional laparoscopic surgery is about 21 per 100,000 cases. It has shown a proportional rise with increase in the size of the port site incision and trocar. Although rare, complications that occur at the port site include infection, bleeding, and port site hernia. To determine the morbidity associated with ports at the site of their insertion in laparoscopic surgery and to identify risk factors for complications. Prospective descriptive study. In the present descriptive study, a total of 570 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgeries for various ailments between August 2009 and July 2011 at our institute were observed for port site complications prospectively and the complications were reviewed. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. The statistical software, namely, SPSS 15.0 was used for the analysis of the data. Of the 570 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, 17 (3%) had developed complications specifically related to the port site during a minimum follow-up of three months; port site infection (PSI) was the most frequent (n = 10, 1.8%), followed by port site bleeding (n = 4, 0.7%), omentum-related complications (n = 2; 0.35%), and port site metastasis (n = 1, 0.175%). Laparoscopic surgeries are associated with minimal port site complications. Complications are related to the increased number of ports. Umbilical port involvement is the commonest. Most complications are manageable with minimal morbidity, and can be further minimized with meticulous surgical technique during entry and exit.

  6. Site descriptive modelling during characterization for a geological repository for nuclear waste in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, A.; Andersson, J.; Skagius, K.; Winberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish programme for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel is approaching major milestones in the form of permit applications for an encapsulation plant and a deep geologic repository. This paper presents an overview of the bedrock and surface modelling work that comprises a major part of the on-going site characterization in Sweden and that results in syntheses of the sites, called site descriptions. The site description incorporates descriptive models of the site and its regional setting, including the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere as well as natural processes affecting long-term evolution. The site description is intended to serve the needs of both repository engineering with respect to layout and construction, and safety assessment, with respect to long-term performance. The development of site-descriptive models involves a multi-disciplinary interpretation of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, transport properties and ecosystems using input in the form of available data for the surface and from deep boreholes

  7. Analysis of laparoscopic port site complications: A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somu Karthik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The rate of port site complications following conventional laparoscopic surgery is about 21 per 100,000 cases. It has shown a proportional rise with increase in the size of the port site incision and trocar. Although rare, complications that occur at the port site include infection, bleeding, and port site hernia. Aims: To determine the morbidity associated with ports at the site of their insertion in laparoscopic surgery and to identify risk factors for complications. Settings and Design: Prospective descriptive study. Materials and Methods: In the present descriptive study, a total of 570 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgeries for various ailments between August 2009 and July 2011 at our institute were observed for port site complications prospectively and the complications were reviewed. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. The statistical software, namely, SPSS 15.0 was used for the analysis of the data. Results: Of the 570 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, 17 (3% had developed complications specifically related to the port site during a minimum follow-up of three months; port site infection (PSI was the most frequent (n = 10, 1.8%, followed by port site bleeding (n = 4, 0.7%, omentum-related complications (n = 2; 0.35%, and port site metastasis (n = 1, 0.175%. Conclusions: Laparoscopic surgeries are associated with minimal port site complications. Complications are related to the increased number of ports. Umbilical port involvement is the commonest. Most complications are manageable with minimal morbidity, and can be further minimized with meticulous surgical technique during entry and exit.

  8. Analysis of laparoscopic port site complications: A descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Somu; Augustine, Alfred Joseph; Shibumon, Mundunadackal Madhavan; Pai, Manohar Varadaraya

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: The rate of port site complications following conventional laparoscopic surgery is about 21 per 100,000 cases. It has shown a proportional rise with increase in the size of the port site incision and trocar. Although rare, complications that occur at the port site include infection, bleeding, and port site hernia. AIMS: To determine the morbidity associated with ports at the site of their insertion in laparoscopic surgery and to identify risk factors for complications. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present descriptive study, a total of 570 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgeries for various ailments between August 2009 and July 2011 at our institute were observed for port site complications prospectively and the complications were reviewed. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. The statistical software, namely, SPSS 15.0 was used for the analysis of the data. RESULTS: Of the 570 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, 17 (3%) had developed complications specifically related to the port site during a minimum follow-up of three months; port site infection (PSI) was the most frequent (n = 10, 1.8%), followed by port site bleeding (n = 4, 0.7%), omentum-related complications (n = 2; 0.35%), and port site metastasis (n = 1, 0.175%). CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic surgeries are associated with minimal port site complications. Complications are related to the increased number of ports. Umbilical port involvement is the commonest. Most complications are manageable with minimal morbidity, and can be further minimized with meticulous surgical technique during entry and exit. PMID:23741110

  9. The Agincourt demographic and health study - site description ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Agincourt demographic and health study - site description, baseline findings and implications. Stephen M Tollman, Kobus Herbst, Michel Garenne, John S.S. Gear, KathJeen Kahn. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  10. A proposed descriptive methodology for environmental geologic (envirogeologic) site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, D.L.; Snyder, W.S.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a descriptive methodology for use in environmental geologic (envirogeologic) site characterization. The method uses traditional sedimentologic descriptions augmented by environmental data needs, and facies analysis. Most other environmental methodologies for soil and sediment characterization use soil engineering and engineering geology techniques that classify by texture and engineering properties. This technique is inadequate for envirogeologic characterization of sediments. In part, this inadequacy is due to differences in the grain-size between the Unified soil Classification and the Udden-Wentworth scales. Use of the soil grain-size classification could easily cause confusion when attempting to relate descriptions based on this classification to our basic understanding of sedimentary depositional systems. The proposed envirogeologic method uses descriptive parameters to characterize a sediment sample, suggests specific tests on samples for adequate characterization, and provides a guidelines for subsurface facies analysis, based on data retrieved from shallow boreholes, that will allow better predictive models to be developed. This methodology should allow for both a more complete site assessment, and provide sufficient data for selection of the appropriate remediation technology, including bioremediation. 50 refs

  11. Probabilistic Description of a Clay Site using CPTU tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sarah; Lauridsen, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2012-01-01

    A clay site at the harbour of Aarhus, where numerous cone penetration tests have been conducted, is assessed. The upper part of the soil deposit is disregarded, and only the clay sections are investigated. The thickness of the clay deposit varies from 5 to 6 meters, and is sliced into sections of...... a geotechnical assessment of a site, using both the method for classifying soil behaviour types and applying statistics, yield a new level of information, and certainty about the estimates of the strength parameters which are the important outcome of such a site description.......A clay site at the harbour of Aarhus, where numerous cone penetration tests have been conducted, is assessed. The upper part of the soil deposit is disregarded, and only the clay sections are investigated. The thickness of the clay deposit varies from 5 to 6 meters, and is sliced into sections of 1...... meter in thickness. For each slice, a map of the variation of the undrained shear strength is created through Kriging and the probability of finding weak zones in the deposit is calculated. This results in a description of the spatial variation of the undrained shear strength at the site. Making...

  12. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Laxemar site. Site Descriptive Modelling. SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Pointe, Paul; Fox, Aaron (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modelling team in the production of the SDM-Site Laxemar geological discrete-fracture network (DFN) model. The DFN builds upon the work of other geological models, including the deformation zone and rock domain models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones at a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within six distinct fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model subarea: FSM{sub C}, FSM{sub E}W007, FSM{sub N}, FSM{sub N}E005, FSM{sub S}, and FSM{sub W}. The models are built using data from detailed surface outcrop maps, geophysical lineament maps, and the cored borehole record at Laxemar. The conceptual model for the SDM-Site Laxemar geological DFN model revolves around the identification of fracture domains based on relative fracture set intensities, orientation clustering, and the regional tectonic framework (including deformation zones). A single coupled fracture size/fracture intensity concept (the Base Model) based on a Pareto (power-law) distribution for fracture sizes was chosen as the recommended parameterisation. A slew of alternative size-intensity models were also carried through the fracture analyses and into the uncertainty and model verification analyses. Uncertainty is modelled by analysing the effects on fracture intensity (P32) that alternative model cases can have. Uncertainty is parameterised as a ratio between the P32 of the

  13. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Laxemar site. Site Descriptive Modelling. SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Pointe, Paul; Fox, Aaron; Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan

    2008-10-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modelling team in the production of the SDM-Site Laxemar geological discrete-fracture network (DFN) model. The DFN builds upon the work of other geological models, including the deformation zone and rock domain models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones at a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within six distinct fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model subarea: FSM C , FSM E W007, FSM N , FSM N E005, FSM S , and FSM W . The models are built using data from detailed surface outcrop maps, geophysical lineament maps, and the cored borehole record at Laxemar. The conceptual model for the SDM-Site Laxemar geological DFN model revolves around the identification of fracture domains based on relative fracture set intensities, orientation clustering, and the regional tectonic framework (including deformation zones). A single coupled fracture size/fracture intensity concept (the Base Model) based on a Pareto (power-law) distribution for fracture sizes was chosen as the recommended parameterisation. A slew of alternative size-intensity models were also carried through the fracture analyses and into the uncertainty and model verification analyses. Uncertainty is modelled by analysing the effects on fracture intensity (P32) that alternative model cases can have. Uncertainty is parameterised as a ratio between the P32 of the alternative model and the P

  14. Description of regolith at Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohlenius, Gustav; Hedenstroem, Anna

    2008-11-01

    This report compiles all known available information regarding the regolith in the Laxemar-Simpevarp regional model area. Regolith refers to the loose deposits overlying the bedrock. In the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, all known regolith was deposited during the Quaternary period and is consequently often referred to as Quaternary deposits (QD). In the terrestrial areas the uppermost part of the regolith, which has been affected by climate and vegetation, is referred to as soil. The geographical and stratigraphical distributions of the regolith have been used to construct a model showing the distribution of regolith depths in the whole model area. The stratigraphical units shown in the regolith depth and stratigraphy model have been characterised with respect to physical and chemical properties. Most of the data used for that characterisation have been obtained from the site investigation but some data were taken from the literature. All QD in the Laxemar area have most probably been deposited during or after the latest deglaciation. The ice sheet in the area moved from the north-west during the latest ice age. The Baltic Sea completely covered the investigated area after the latest deglaciation c 12,000 BC. Land uplift was fastest during the first few thousand years following the deglaciation and has subsequently decreased to the present value of 1 mm/year. Older QD have been eroded in areas exposed to waves and currents and the material has later been redeposited. Fine-grained sediments have been deposited on the floor of bays and in other sheltered positions. Peat has accumulated in many of the wetlands situated in topographically low positions. The groundwater table in many of the former wetlands has been artificially lowered to obtain land for forestry and agriculture, which has caused the peat to partly or completely oxidise. As land uplift proceeds, some new areas are being subjected to erosion at the same time as other new areas are becoming lakes and sheltered

  15. Description of regolith at Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohlenius, Gustav; Hedenstroem, Anna (Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    This report compiles all known available information regarding the regolith in the Laxemar-Simpevarp regional model area. Regolith refers to the loose deposits overlying the bedrock. In the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, all known regolith was deposited during the Quaternary period and is consequently often referred to as Quaternary deposits (QD). In the terrestrial areas the uppermost part of the regolith, which has been affected by climate and vegetation, is referred to as soil. The geographical and stratigraphical distributions of the regolith have been used to construct a model showing the distribution of regolith depths in the whole model area. The stratigraphical units shown in the regolith depth and stratigraphy model have been characterised with respect to physical and chemical properties. Most of the data used for that characterisation have been obtained from the site investigation but some data were taken from the literature. All QD in the Laxemar area have most probably been deposited during or after the latest deglaciation. The ice sheet in the area moved from the north-west during the latest ice age. The Baltic Sea completely covered the investigated area after the latest deglaciation c 12,000 BC. Land uplift was fastest during the first few thousand years following the deglaciation and has subsequently decreased to the present value of 1 mm/year. Older QD have been eroded in areas exposed to waves and currents and the material has later been redeposited. Fine-grained sediments have been deposited on the floor of bays and in other sheltered positions. Peat has accumulated in many of the wetlands situated in topographically low positions. The groundwater table in many of the former wetlands has been artificially lowered to obtain land for forestry and agriculture, which has caused the peat to partly or completely oxidise. As land uplift proceeds, some new areas are being subjected to erosion at the same time as other new areas are becoming lakes and sheltered

  16. Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste thermal treatment initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.; Riddelle, J.G.

    1993-03-01

    This paper is a progress report of current Westinghouse Hanford Company engineering activities related to the implementation of a program for the thermal treatment of the Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste. Topics discussed include a site-specific engineering study, the review of private sector capability in thermal treatment, and thermal treatment of some of the Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste at other US Department of Energy sites

  17. LANL environmental restoration site ranking system: System description. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkhofer, L.; Kann, A.; Voth, M. [Applied Decision Analysis, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1992-10-13

    The basic structure of the LANL Environmental Restoration (ER) Site Ranking System and its use are described in this document. A related document, Instructions for Generating Inputs for the LANL ER Site Ranking System, contains detailed descriptions of the methods by which necessary inputs for the system will be generated. LANL has long recognized the need to provide a consistent basis for comparing the risks and other adverse consequences associated with the various waste problems at the Lab. The LANL ER Site Ranking System is being developed to help address this need. The specific purpose of the system is to help improve, defend, and explain prioritization decisions at the Potential Release Site (PRS) and Operable Unit (OU) level. The precise relationship of the Site Ranking System to the planning and overall budget processes is yet to be determined, as the system is still evolving. Generally speaking, the Site Ranking System will be used as a decision aid. That is, the system will be used to aid in the planning and budgetary decision-making process. It will never be used alone to make decisions. Like all models, the system can provide only a partial and approximate accounting of the factors important to budget and planning decisions. Decision makers at LANL will have to consider factors outside of the formal system when making final choices. Some of these other factors are regulatory requirements, DOE policy, and public concern. The main value of the site ranking system, therefore, is not the precise numbers it generates, but rather the general insights it provides.

  18. LANL environmental restoration site ranking system: System description. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkhofer, L.; Kann, A.; Voth, M.

    1992-01-01

    The basic structure of the LANL Environmental Restoration (ER) Site Ranking System and its use are described in this document. A related document, Instructions for Generating Inputs for the LANL ER Site Ranking System, contains detailed descriptions of the methods by which necessary inputs for the system will be generated. LANL has long recognized the need to provide a consistent basis for comparing the risks and other adverse consequences associated with the various waste problems at the Lab. The LANL ER Site Ranking System is being developed to help address this need. The specific purpose of the system is to help improve, defend, and explain prioritization decisions at the Potential Release Site (PRS) and Operable Unit (OU) level. The precise relationship of the Site Ranking System to the planning and overall budget processes is yet to be determined, as the system is still evolving. Generally speaking, the Site Ranking System will be used as a decision aid. That is, the system will be used to aid in the planning and budgetary decision-making process. It will never be used alone to make decisions. Like all models, the system can provide only a partial and approximate accounting of the factors important to budget and planning decisions. Decision makers at LANL will have to consider factors outside of the formal system when making final choices. Some of these other factors are regulatory requirements, DOE policy, and public concern. The main value of the site ranking system, therefore, is not the precise numbers it generates, but rather the general insights it provides

  19. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  20. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2006-03-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  1. Preliminary Hydrogeochemical Site Description SFR (version 0.2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin (Geosigma AB, Uppaala (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)); Smellie, John (Conterra AB, Partille (Sweden))

    2010-05-15

    The final repository for low and intermediate level radioactive operational waste, SFR, located about 150 km north of Stockholm, is to undergo a future extension. The present on-going project, scheduled from 2007 to 2011, is to define and characterise a suitable bedrock volume for the extended repository. This will include the drilling and geoscientific evaluation of seven core-drilled and four percussion boreholes as well as subsequent interpretation and modelling based on the obtained results in order to provide the necessary information for safety assessment and repository design. This report presents a preliminary hydrogeochemical site description for the SFR site and should be considered as an early progress report rather than a complete hydrochemical site descriptive model. The completed hydrogeochemical field investigations have yielded chemical data from a total of 12 borehole sections in five boreholes and additional data from the entire length of two open boreholes in connection with hydraulic tests. These data, together with data from a total of 18 early boreholes in the present SFR tunnel system, were used in the interpretation work. The main part of the data consisted of basic groundwater analyses including major ions and isotopes. Some sporadic gas, microbe and measured redox data are available, but these are either not treated in this report, or are only briefly discussed. This was due to time constraints since special care is needed when interpreting few data of varying quality. The groundwaters in the SFR dataset cover a maximum depth down to about .400 masl and represent a relatively limited salinity range (1,500 to 5,500 mg/L chloride). However, the delta18O values show a wide variation (-1.55 to -0.75% V-SMOW) similar to that reported from the Forsmark site investigations. At the SFR, marine indicators such as Mg/Cl, K/Cl and Br/Cl also show relatively large variations considering the limited salinity range. From very few measured Eh values, and

  2. Preliminary Hydrogeochemical Site Description SFR (version 0.2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Smellie, John

    2010-05-01

    The final repository for low and intermediate level radioactive operational waste, SFR, located about 150 km north of Stockholm, is to undergo a future extension. The present on-going project, scheduled from 2007 to 2011, is to define and characterise a suitable bedrock volume for the extended repository. This will include the drilling and geoscientific evaluation of seven core-drilled and four percussion boreholes as well as subsequent interpretation and modelling based on the obtained results in order to provide the necessary information for safety assessment and repository design. This report presents a preliminary hydrogeochemical site description for the SFR site and should be considered as an early progress report rather than a complete hydrochemical site descriptive model. The completed hydrogeochemical field investigations have yielded chemical data from a total of 12 borehole sections in five boreholes and additional data from the entire length of two open boreholes in connection with hydraulic tests. These data, together with data from a total of 18 early boreholes in the present SFR tunnel system, were used in the interpretation work. The main part of the data consisted of basic groundwater analyses including major ions and isotopes. Some sporadic gas, microbe and measured redox data are available, but these are either not treated in this report, or are only briefly discussed. This was due to time constraints since special care is needed when interpreting few data of varying quality. The groundwaters in the SFR dataset cover a maximum depth down to about .400 masl and represent a relatively limited salinity range (1,500 to 5,500 mg/L chloride). However, the δ 18 O values show a wide variation (-1.55 to -0.75% V-SMOW) similar to that reported from the Forsmark site investigations. At the SFR, marine indicators such as Mg/Cl, K/Cl and Br/Cl also show relatively large variations considering the limited salinity range. From very few measured Eh values, and

  3. Description of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Per-Olof

    2008-12-01

    This report describes the modelling of the surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology that was performed for the final site descriptive model of Forsmark produced in the site investigation stage, SDM-Site Forsmark. The comprehensive investigation and monitoring programme forms a strong basis for the developed conceptual and descriptive model of the hydrological and near-surface hydrological system of the site investigation area. However, there are some remaining uncertainties regarding the interaction of deep and near-surface groundwater and surface water of importance for the understanding of the system: The groundwaters in till below Lake Eckarfjaerden, Lake Gaellbotraesket, Lake Fiskarfjaerden and Lake Bolundsfjaerden have high salinities. The hydrological and hydrochemical interpretations indicate that these waters are relict waters of mainly marine origin. From the perspective of the overall water balance, the water below the central parts of the lakes can be considered as stagnant. However, according to the hydrochemical interpretation, these waters also contain weak signatures of deep saline water. Rough chloride budget calculations for the Gaellbotraesket depression also raise the question of a possible upward flow of deep groundwater. No absolute conclusion can be drawn from the existing data analyses regarding the key question of whether there is a small ongoing upward flow of deep saline water. However, Lake Bolundsfjaerden is an exception where the clear downward flow gradient from the till to the bedrock excludes the possibility of an active deep saline source. The available data indicate that there are no discharge areas for flow systems involving deep bedrock groundwater in the northern part of the tectonic lens, where the repository is planned to be located (the so-called 'target area'). However, it can not be excluded that such discharge areas exist. Data indicate that the prevailing downward vertical flow gradients from the QD to the bedrock

  4. Description of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof (Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This report describes the modelling of the surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology that was performed for the final site descriptive model of Forsmark produced in the site investigation stage, SDM-Site Forsmark. The comprehensive investigation and monitoring programme forms a strong basis for the developed conceptual and descriptive model of the hydrological and near-surface hydrological system of the site investigation area. However, there are some remaining uncertainties regarding the interaction of deep and near-surface groundwater and surface water of importance for the understanding of the system: The groundwaters in till below Lake Eckarfjaerden, Lake Gaellbotraesket, Lake Fiskarfjaerden and Lake Bolundsfjaerden have high salinities. The hydrological and hydrochemical interpretations indicate that these waters are relict waters of mainly marine origin. From the perspective of the overall water balance, the water below the central parts of the lakes can be considered as stagnant. However, according to the hydrochemical interpretation, these waters also contain weak signatures of deep saline water. Rough chloride budget calculations for the Gaellbotraesket depression also raise the question of a possible upward flow of deep groundwater. No absolute conclusion can be drawn from the existing data analyses regarding the key question of whether there is a small ongoing upward flow of deep saline water. However, Lake Bolundsfjaerden is an exception where the clear downward flow gradient from the till to the bedrock excludes the possibility of an active deep saline source. The available data indicate that there are no discharge areas for flow systems involving deep bedrock groundwater in the northern part of the tectonic lens, where the repository is planned to be located (the so-called 'target area'). However, it can not be excluded that such discharge areas exist. Data indicate that the prevailing downward vertical flow gradients from the QD to

  5. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011 Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2012-09-12

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011. Included are subsections that summarize the site's geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  6. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011 Attachment A: Site Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011. Included are subsections that summarize the site's geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  7. Rock mechanics site descriptive model-theoretical approach. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, Anders; Olofsson, Isabelle [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-12-15

    The present report summarises the theoretical approach to estimate the mechanical properties of the rock mass in relation to the Preliminary Site Descriptive Modelling, version 1.2 Forsmark. The theoretical approach is based on a discrete fracture network (DFN) description of the fracture system in the rock mass and on the results of mechanical testing of intact rock and on rock fractures. To estimate the mechanical properties of the rock mass a load test on a rock block with fractures is simulated with the numerical code 3DEC. The location and size of the fractures are given by DFN-realisations. The rock block was loaded in plain strain condition. From the calculated relationship between stresses and deformations the mechanical properties of the rock mass were determined. The influence of the geometrical properties of the fracture system on the mechanical properties of the rock mass was analysed by loading 20 blocks based on different DFN-realisations. The material properties of the intact rock and the fractures were kept constant. The properties are set equal to the mean value of each measured material property. The influence of the variation of the properties of the intact rock and variation of the mechanical properties of the fractures are estimated by analysing numerical load tests on one specific block (one DFN-realisation) with combinations of properties for intact rock and fractures. Each parameter varies from its lowest values to its highest values while the rest of the parameters are held constant, equal to the mean value. The resulting distribution was expressed as a variation around the value determined with mean values on all parameters. To estimate the resulting distribution of the mechanical properties of the rock mass a Monte-Carlo simulation was performed by generating values from the two distributions independent of each other. The two values were added and the statistical properties of the resulting distribution were determined.

  8. Rock mechanics site descriptive model-theoretical approach. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksson, Anders; Olofsson, Isabelle

    2005-12-01

    The present report summarises the theoretical approach to estimate the mechanical properties of the rock mass in relation to the Preliminary Site Descriptive Modelling, version 1.2 Forsmark. The theoretical approach is based on a discrete fracture network (DFN) description of the fracture system in the rock mass and on the results of mechanical testing of intact rock and on rock fractures. To estimate the mechanical properties of the rock mass a load test on a rock block with fractures is simulated with the numerical code 3DEC. The location and size of the fractures are given by DFN-realisations. The rock block was loaded in plain strain condition. From the calculated relationship between stresses and deformations the mechanical properties of the rock mass were determined. The influence of the geometrical properties of the fracture system on the mechanical properties of the rock mass was analysed by loading 20 blocks based on different DFN-realisations. The material properties of the intact rock and the fractures were kept constant. The properties are set equal to the mean value of each measured material property. The influence of the variation of the properties of the intact rock and variation of the mechanical properties of the fractures are estimated by analysing numerical load tests on one specific block (one DFN-realisation) with combinations of properties for intact rock and fractures. Each parameter varies from its lowest values to its highest values while the rest of the parameters are held constant, equal to the mean value. The resulting distribution was expressed as a variation around the value determined with mean values on all parameters. To estimate the resulting distribution of the mechanical properties of the rock mass a Monte-Carlo simulation was performed by generating values from the two distributions independent of each other. The two values were added and the statistical properties of the resulting distribution were determined

  9. Technical know-how of site descriptive modeling for site characterization - 59089

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Onoe, Hironori; Doke, Ryosuke; Niizato, Tadafumi; Yasue, Ken-ichi

    2012-01-01

    The site descriptive model covering the current status of characteristics of geological environment and the site evolution model for estimation of the long-term evolution of site conditions are used to integrate multi-disciplinary investigation results. It is important to evaluate uncertainties in the models, to specify issues regarding the uncertainties and to prioritize the resolution of specified issues, for the planning of site characterization. There is a large quantity of technical know-how in the modeling process. It is important to record the technical know-how with transparency and traceability, since site characterization projects generally need long duration. The transfer of the technical know-how accumulated in the research and development (R and D) phase to the implementation phase is equally important. The aim of this study is to support the planning of initial surface-based site characterizations based on the technical know-how accumulated from the underground research laboratory projects. These projects are broad scientific studies of the deep geological environment and provide a technical basis for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. In this study, a comprehensive task flow from acquisition of existing data to planning of field investigations through the modeling has been specified. Specific task flow and decision-making process to perform the tasks have been specified. (authors)

  10. Hydrogeochemical site descriptive model - a strategy for the model development during site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, John; Laaksoharju, Marcus; Tullborg, Eva-Lena

    2002-12-01

    In 2002, SKB commenced site characterisation investigations using deep boreholes at different sites. As an integral part of the planning work SKB has prepared a strategy to develop a Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model; similar strategies have been developed for the other major geoscience disciplines. The main objectives of the Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model are to describe the chemistry and distribution of the groundwater in the bedrock and overburden and the hydrogeochemical processes involved in its origin and evolution. This description is based primarily on measurements of the groundwater composition but incorporates the use of available geological and hydrogeological site descriptive models. The SKB hydrogeochemistry programme is planned to fulfil two basic requirements: 1) to provide representative and quality assured data for use as input parameter values in calculating long-term repository safety, and 2) to understand the present undisturbed hydrogeochemical conditions and how these conditions will change in the future. Parameter values for safety analysis include pH, Eh, S, SO 4 , HCO 3 , HPO 4 and TDS (mainly cations), together with colloids, fulvic and humic acids, other organics, bacteria and nitrogen. These values will be used to characterise the groundwater environment at, above and below repository depths. In the hydrogeochemical site investigation programme the number and location of the sampling points will be constrained by: a) geology (e.g. topography, overburden types, bedrock structures etc), b) hydrogeology (e.g. groundwater recharge/discharge areas, residence times), c) reliability (e.g. undisturbed vs disturbed groundwater chemical conditions), and d) resources (e.g. number and type of samples, and also available personnel, may be restricted by budgetary and schedule concerns). Naturally a balance is required between these constraints and the scientific aims of the programme. The constraints should never detrimentally affect

  11. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012 Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, Cathy A

    2013-09-11

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2013). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  12. Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, P.L.; Legeay, A.J.; Pesce, D.S.; Stanley, A.M.

    1995-11-01

    This report, Site Descriptions of Environmental Restoration Units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is being prepared to assimilate information on sites included in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program of the K-25 Site, one of three major installations on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) built during World War III as part of the Manhattan Project. The information included in this report will be used to establish program priorities so that resources allotted to the K-25 ER Program can be best used to decrease any risk to humans or the environment, and to determine the sequence in which any remedial activities should be conducted. This document will be updated periodically in both paper and Internet versions. Units within this report are described in individual data sheets arranged alphanumerically. Each data sheet includes entries on project status, unit location, dimensions and capacity, dates operated, present function, lifecycle operation, waste characteristics, site status, media of concern, comments, and references. Each data sheet is accompanied by a photograph of the unit, and each unit is located on one of 13 area maps. These areas, along with the sub-area, unit, and sub-unit breakdowns within them, are outlined in Appendix A. Appendix B is a summary of information on remote aerial sensing and its applicability to the ER program

  13. Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, P.L.; Legeay, A.J.; Pesce, D.S.; Stanley, A.M.

    1995-11-01

    This report, Site Descriptions of Environmental Restoration Units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is being prepared to assimilate information on sites included in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program of the K-25 Site, one of three major installations on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) built during World War III as part of the Manhattan Project. The information included in this report will be used to establish program priorities so that resources allotted to the K-25 ER Program can be best used to decrease any risk to humans or the environment, and to determine the sequence in which any remedial activities should be conducted. This document will be updated periodically in both paper and Internet versions. Units within this report are described in individual data sheets arranged alphanumerically. Each data sheet includes entries on project status, unit location, dimensions and capacity, dates operated, present function, lifecycle operation, waste characteristics, site status, media of concern, comments, and references. Each data sheet is accompanied by a photograph of the unit, and each unit is located on one of 13 area maps. These areas, along with the sub-area, unit, and sub-unit breakdowns within them, are outlined in Appendix A. Appendix B is a summary of information on remote aerial sensing and its applicability to the ER program.

  14. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2016, Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, Cathy [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2016 (prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2017). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological settings and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  15. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2013 Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, C.

    2014-09-09

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2013). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  16. Human population and activities in Forsmark. Site description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced.The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations.The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (Environmental Impact Assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments.The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Forsmark area', an area of 19.5 km{sup 2} near Forsmark nuclear power plant. The land use in the Forsmark area differs notably from the land use in Uppsala laen (laen = county). Only 0.04% of the total area is developed (built-up) compared to 4.9% in Uppsala laen and only 4% is agricultural land compared to 25% in the county. Furthermore, there are far more forest, wetlands and water areas in the Forsmark area. The forest area represents as much as 72.5% of the total area.The Forsmark area is uninhabited, and its surroundings are very sparsely populated. In 2002, the population density in Forsmark was 1.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, which was 24 times lower than in Uppsala laen. The population density in the

  17. Human population and activities in Forsmark. Site description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced.The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations.The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (Environmental Impact Assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments.The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Forsmark area', an area of 19.5 km 2 near Forsmark nuclear power plant. The land use in the Forsmark area differs notably from the land use in Uppsala laen (laen = county). Only 0.04% of the total area is developed (built-up) compared to 4.9% in Uppsala laen and only 4% is agricultural land compared to 25% in the county. Furthermore, there are far more forest, wetlands and water areas in the Forsmark area. The forest area represents as much as 72.5% of the total area.The Forsmark area is uninhabited, and its surroundings are very sparsely populated. In 2002, the population density in Forsmark was 1.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, which was 24 times lower than in Uppsala laen. The population density in the parish has been

  18. Geological Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, Raymond; Stenberg, Leif; Stanfors, Roy; Milnes, Allan Geoffrey; Hermanson, Jan; Triumf, Carl-Axel

    2003-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is at present conducting site investigations as a preliminary to building an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. This report presents a methodology for constructing, visualising and presenting 3-dimensional geological models, based on data from the site investigations. The methodology integrates with the overall work-flow of the site investigations, from the collection of raw data to the complete site description, as proposed in several earlier technical reports. Further, it is specifically designed for interaction with SICADA - SKB's Site Characterisation Database - and RVS - SKB's Rock Visualisation System. This report is one in a series of strategy documents intended to demonstrate how modelling is to be performed within each discipline. However, it also has a wider purpose, since the geological site descriptive model provides the basic geometrical framework for all the other disciplines. Hence, the wider aim is to present a practical and clear methodology for the analysis and interpretation of input data for use in the construction of the geology-based 3D geometrical model. In addition to the various aspects of modelling described above, the methodology presented here should therefore also provide: guidelines and directives on how systematic interpretation and integration of geo-scientific data from the different investigation methods should be carried out; guidelines on how different geometries should be created in the geological models; guidelines on how the assignment of parameters to the different geological units in RVS should be accomplished; guidelines on the handling of uncertainty at different points in the interpretation process. In addition, it should clarify the relation between the geological model and other models used in the processes of site characterisation, repository layout and safety analysis. In particular, integration and transparency should be promoted. The

  19. Geological Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond; Stenberg, Leif [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Stanfors, Roy [Roy Stanfors Consulting, Lund (Sweden); Milnes, Allan Geoffrey [GEA Consulting, Uppsala (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden); Triumf, Carl-Axel [Geovista, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is at present conducting site investigations as a preliminary to building an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. This report presents a methodology for constructing, visualising and presenting 3-dimensional geological models, based on data from the site investigations. The methodology integrates with the overall work-flow of the site investigations, from the collection of raw data to the complete site description, as proposed in several earlier technical reports. Further, it is specifically designed for interaction with SICADA - SKB's Site Characterisation Database - and RVS - SKB's Rock Visualisation System. This report is one in a series of strategy documents intended to demonstrate how modelling is to be performed within each discipline. However, it also has a wider purpose, since the geological site descriptive model provides the basic geometrical framework for all the other disciplines. Hence, the wider aim is to present a practical and clear methodology for the analysis and interpretation of input data for use in the construction of the geology-based 3D geometrical model. In addition to the various aspects of modelling described above, the methodology presented here should therefore also provide: guidelines and directives on how systematic interpretation and integration of geo-scientific data from the different investigation methods should be carried out; guidelines on how different geometries should be created in the geological models; guidelines on how the assignment of parameters to the different geological units in RVS should be accomplished; guidelines on the handling of uncertainty at different points in the interpretation process. In addition, it should clarify the relation between the geological model and other models used in the processes of site characterisation, repository layout and safety analysis. In particular, integration and transparency should be

  20. Thermal interaction effect on nucleation site distribution in subcooled boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Ling; Jones, Barclay

    2012-01-01

    An experimental work on subcooled boiling of refrigerant, R134a, to examine nucleation site distributions on both copper and stainless steel heating surfaces was performed. In order to obtain high fidelity active nucleation site density and distribution data, a high-speed digital camera was utilized to record bubble emission images from a view normal to heating surfaces. Statistical analyses on nucleation site data were done and their statistical distributions were obtained. Those experimentally observed nucleation site distributions were compared to the random spatial Poisson distribution. The comparisons showed that, rather than purely random, active nucleation site distributions on boiling surfaces are relatively more uniform. Experimental results also showed that on the copper heating surface, nucleation site distributions are slightly more uniform than on the stainless steel surface. This was concluded as the results of thermal interactions between nucleation sites with different solid thermal conductivities. A two dimensional thermal interaction model was then developed to quantitatively examine the thermal interactions between nucleation sites. The results give a reasonable explanation to the experimental observation on nucleation site distributions.

  1. Geological evolution, palaeoclimate and historical development of the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederbaeck, Bjoern [ed.

    2008-06-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site investigations started in 2002 and were completed in 2007. The analysis and modelling of data from the site investigations, which have taken place during and after these investigations, provide a foundation for the development of an integrated, multidisciplinary site descriptive model (SDM) for each of the two sites. A site descriptive model constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere, as well as those natural processes that affect or have affected their long-term development. Hitherto, a number of reports presenting preliminary site descriptive models for Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp have been published. In these reports, the evolutionary and historical aspects of the site were included in a separate chapter. The present report comprises a further elaboration of the evolutionary and historical information included in the preliminary SDM reports, but presented here in a separate, supplementary report to the final site description, SDM-Site. The report is common to the two investigated areas, and the overall objective is to describe the long-term geological evolution, the palaeoclimate, and the post-glacial development of ecosystems and of the human population at the two sites. The report largely consists of a synthesis of information derived from the scientific literature and other sources not related to the site investigations. However, considerable information from the site investigations that has contributed to our understanding of the past development at each site is also included. This unique synthesis of both published information in a regional perspective and new site-specific information breaks new ground in our understanding

  2. Geological evolution, palaeoclimate and historical development of the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederbaeck, Bjoern

    2008-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site investigations started in 2002 and were completed in 2007. The analysis and modelling of data from the site investigations, which have taken place during and after these investigations, provide a foundation for the development of an integrated, multidisciplinary site descriptive model (SDM) for each of the two sites. A site descriptive model constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere, as well as those natural processes that affect or have affected their long-term development. Hitherto, a number of reports presenting preliminary site descriptive models for Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp have been published. In these reports, the evolutionary and historical aspects of the site were included in a separate chapter. The present report comprises a further elaboration of the evolutionary and historical information included in the preliminary SDM reports, but presented here in a separate, supplementary report to the final site description, SDM-Site. The report is common to the two investigated areas, and the overall objective is to describe the long-term geological evolution, the palaeoclimate, and the post-glacial development of ecosystems and of the human population at the two sites. The report largely consists of a synthesis of information derived from the scientific literature and other sources not related to the site investigations. However, considerable information from the site investigations that has contributed to our understanding of the past development at each site is also included. This unique synthesis of both published information in a regional perspective and new site-specific information breaks new ground in our understanding

  3. Hydrogeochemical site descriptive model - a strategy for the model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Laaksoharju, Marcus [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    In 2002, SKB commenced site characterisation investigations using deep boreholes at different sites. As an integral part of the planning work SKB has prepared a strategy to develop a Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model; similar strategies have been developed for the other major geoscience disciplines. The main objectives of the Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model are to describe the chemistry and distribution of the groundwater in the bedrock and overburden and the hydrogeochemical processes involved in its origin and evolution. This description is based primarily on measurements of the groundwater composition but incorporates the use of available geological and hydrogeological site descriptive models. The SKB hydrogeochemistry programme is planned to fulfil two basic requirements: 1) to provide representative and quality assured data for use as input parameter values in calculating long-term repository safety, and 2) to understand the present undisturbed hydrogeochemical conditions and how these conditions will change in the future. Parameter values for safety analysis include pH, Eh, S, SO{sub 4}, HCO{sub 3}, HPO{sub 4} and TDS (mainly cations), together with colloids, fulvic and humic acids, other organics, bacteria and nitrogen. These values will be used to characterise the groundwater environment at, above and below repository depths. In the hydrogeochemical site investigation programme the number and location of the sampling points will be constrained by: a) geology (e.g. topography, overburden types, bedrock structures etc), b) hydrogeology (e.g. groundwater recharge/discharge areas, residence times), c) reliability (e.g. undisturbed vs disturbed groundwater chemical conditions), and d) resources (e.g. number and type of samples, and also available personnel, may be restricted by budgetary and schedule concerns). Naturally a balance is required between these constraints and the scientific aims of the programme. The constraints should never

  4. Human population and activities at Simpevarp. Site description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced. The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations. The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (environmental impacts assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments. The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Simpevarp area', an area of 127.0 km 2 near Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. The land use in Simpevarp area differs notably from the land use in Kalmar laen. The forest area is far more dominating in Simpevarp area than in Kalmar laen and it represents as much as 89% compared to 63% of the total area. Only 4.4% of the area is arable land compared to 11.6% in Kalmar laen and only 0.3% is of other type (wetlands, bare rock, quarries, pites etc) compared to 15.6% in the county. The main observation is that Simpevarp area is a sparsely populated area located in a relatively lightly populated county. In 2002, the population density was 7.4 inhabitants/km 2 , three times lower than in Kalmar laen. The demography statistics show

  5. Human population and activities at Simpevarp. Site description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced. The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations. The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (environmental impacts assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments. The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Simpevarp area', an area of 127.0 km{sup 2} near Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. The land use in Simpevarp area differs notably from the land use in Kalmar laen. The forest area is far more dominating in Simpevarp area than in Kalmar laen and it represents as much as 89% compared to 63% of the total area. Only 4.4% of the area is arable land compared to 11.6% in Kalmar laen and only 0.3% is of other type (wetlands, bare rock, quarries, pites etc) compared to 15.6% in the county. The main observation is that Simpevarp area is a sparsely populated area located in a relatively lightly populated county. In 2002, the population density was 7.4 inhabitants/km{sup 2}, three times lower than in Kalmar laen. The

  6. Description of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    The background and the results to date of the Department of Energy program to identify and evaluate the radiological conditions at sites formerly utilized by the Corps of Engineers' Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) are summarized. The sites of concern were federally, privately, and institutionally owned and were used primarily for research, processing, and storage of uranium and thorium ores, concentrates, or residues. Some sites were subsequently released for other purposes without radiological restriction. Surveys have been conducted since 1974 to document radiological conditions at such sites. Based on radiological surveys, sites are identified in this document that require, or are projected to require, remedial action to remove potential restrictions on the use of the property due to the presence of residual low-level radioactive contamination. Specific recommendations for each site will result from more detailed environmental and engineering surveys to be conducted at those sites and, if necessary, an environmental impact assessment or environmental impact statement will be prepared. Section 3.0 describes the current standards and guidelines now being used to conduct remedial actions. Current authority of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to proceed with remedial actions and the new authority required are summarized. A plan to implement the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in accordance with the new authority is presented, including the objectives, scope, general approach, and a summary schedule. Key issues affecting schedule and cost are discussed

  7. Description of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    The background and the results to date of the Department of Energy program to identify and evaluate the radiological conditions at sites formerly utilized by the Corps of Engineers' Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) are summarized. The sites of concern were federally, privately, and institutionally owned and were used primarily for research, processing, and storage of uranium and thorium ores, concentrates, or residues. Some sites were subsequently released for other purposes without radiological restriction. Surveys have been conducted since 1974 to document radiological conditions at such sites. Based on radiological surveys, sites are identified in this document that require, or are projected to require, remedial action to remove potential restrictions on the use of the property due to the presence of residual low-level radioactive contamination. Specific recommendations for each site will result from more detailed environmental and engineering surveys to be conducted at those sites and, if necessary, an environmental impact assessment or environmental impact statement will be prepared. Section 3.0 describes the current standards and guidelines now being used to conduct remedial actions. Current authority of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to proceed with remedial actions and the new authority required are summarized. A plan to implement the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in accordance with the new authority is presented, including the objectives, scope, general approach, and a summary schedule. Key issues affecting schedule and cost are discussed.

  8. Hydrogeological DFN modelling using structural and hydraulic data from KLX04. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden); Stigsson, Martin [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Svensson, Urban [Computer-aided Fluid Engineering AB, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    SKB is conducting site investigations for a high-level nuclear waste repository in fractured crystalline rocks at two coastal areas in Sweden. The two candidate areas are named Forsmark and Simpevarp. The site characterisation work is divided into two phases, an initial site investigation phase (ISI) and a complete site investigation phase (CSI). The results of the ISI phase are used as a basis for deciding on the subsequent CSI phase. On the basis of the CSI investigations a decision is made as to whether detailed characterisation will be performed (including sinking of a shaft). An integrated component in the site characterisation work is the development of site descriptive models. These comprise basic models in three dimensions with an accompanying text description. Central in the modelling work is the geological model which provides the geometrical context in terms of a model of deformation zones and the less fractured rock mass between the zones. Using the geological and geometrical description models as a basis, descriptive models for other disciplines (surface ecosystems, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, rock mechanics, thermal properties and transport properties) will be developed. Great care is taken to arrive at a general consistency in the description of the various models and assessment of uncertainty and possible needs of alternative models. The main objective of this study is to support the development of a hydrogeological DFN model (Discrete Fracture Network) for the Preliminary Site Description of the Laxemar area on a regional-scale (SDM version L1.2). A more specific objective of this study is to assess the propagation of uncertainties in the geological DFN modelling reported for L1.2 into the groundwater flow modelling. An improved understanding is necessary in order to gain credibility for the Site Description in general and the hydrogeological description in particular. The latter will serve as a basis for describing the present

  9. Hydrogeological DFN modelling using structural and hydraulic data from KLX04. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follin, Sven; Stigsson, Martin; Svensson, Urban

    2006-04-01

    SKB is conducting site investigations for a high-level nuclear waste repository in fractured crystalline rocks at two coastal areas in Sweden. The two candidate areas are named Forsmark and Simpevarp. The site characterisation work is divided into two phases, an initial site investigation phase (ISI) and a complete site investigation phase (CSI). The results of the ISI phase are used as a basis for deciding on the subsequent CSI phase. On the basis of the CSI investigations a decision is made as to whether detailed characterisation will be performed (including sinking of a shaft). An integrated component in the site characterisation work is the development of site descriptive models. These comprise basic models in three dimensions with an accompanying text description. Central in the modelling work is the geological model which provides the geometrical context in terms of a model of deformation zones and the less fractured rock mass between the zones. Using the geological and geometrical description models as a basis, descriptive models for other disciplines (surface ecosystems, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, rock mechanics, thermal properties and transport properties) will be developed. Great care is taken to arrive at a general consistency in the description of the various models and assessment of uncertainty and possible needs of alternative models. The main objective of this study is to support the development of a hydrogeological DFN model (Discrete Fracture Network) for the Preliminary Site Description of the Laxemar area on a regional-scale (SDM version L1.2). A more specific objective of this study is to assess the propagation of uncertainties in the geological DFN modelling reported for L1.2 into the groundwater flow modelling. An improved understanding is necessary in order to gain credibility for the Site Description in general and the hydrogeological description in particular. The latter will serve as a basis for describing the present

  10. Description of floodplains and wetlands, Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Floodplains and wetlands are important features of the Texas Panhandle landscape, and are found on the Deaf Smith County site and in its vicinity. Use or disturbance of floodplains and wetlands in relation to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is subject to environmental review requirements implementing two Executive Orders. This report provides general information on playa wetlands in the Texas Panhandle, and describes and maps floodplains and wetlands on the Deaf Smith site and in its vicinity. The report is based on the published literature, with information from limited field reconnaissance included

  11. Standarized input for Hanford environmental impact statements. Part II: site description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, J.D.

    1982-07-01

    Information is presented under the following section headings: summary description; location and physiography; geology; seismology; hydrology; meteorology; ecology; demography and land use; and radiological condition. Five appendixes are included on the 100N, 200 east, 200 west, 300, and 400 areas. This report is intended to provide a description of the Hanford Site against which the environmental impacts of new projects at Hanford can be assessed. It is expected that the summary description amplified with material from the appropriate appendix, will serve as the basic site description section of environmental impact statements prepared to address the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act

  12. Standarized input for Hanford environmental impact statements. Part II: site description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, J.D.

    1982-07-01

    Information is presented under the following section headings: summary description; location and physiography; geology; seismology; hydrology; meteorology; ecology; demography and land use; and radiological condition. Five appendixes are included on the 100N, 200 east, 200 west, 300, and 400 areas. This report is intended to provide a description of the Hanford Site against which the environmental impacts of new projects at Hanford can be assessed. It is expected that the summary description amplified with material from the appropriate appendix, will serve as the basic site description section of environmental impact statements prepared to address the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).

  13. SITE GENERATED RADIOLOGICAL WASTE HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. C. Khamankar

    2000-06-20

    The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System handles radioactive waste products that are generated at the geologic repository operations area. The waste is collected, treated if required, packaged for shipment, and shipped to a disposal site. Waste streams include low-level waste (LLW) in solid and liquid forms, as-well-as mixed waste that contains hazardous and radioactive constituents. Liquid LLW is segregated into two streams, non-recyclable and recyclable. The non-recyclable stream may contain detergents or other non-hazardous cleaning agents and is packaged for shipment. The recyclable stream is treated to recycle a large portion of the water while the remaining concentrated waste is packaged for shipment; this greatly reduces the volume of waste requiring disposal. There will be no liquid LLW discharge. Solid LLW consists of wet solids such as ion exchange resins and filter cartridges, as-well-as dry active waste such as tools, protective clothing, and poly bags. Solids will be sorted, volume reduced, and packaged for shipment. The generation of mixed waste at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) is not planned; however, if it does come into existence, it will be collected and packaged for disposal at its point of occurrence, temporarily staged, then shipped to government-approved off-site facilities for disposal. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System has equipment located in both the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) and in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). All types of liquid and solid LLW are processed in the WTB, while wet solid waste from the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is packaged where received in the WHB. There is no installed hardware for mixed waste. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System receives waste from locations where water is used for decontamination functions. In most cases the water is piped back to the WTB for processing. The WTB and WHB provide staging areas for storing and shipping LLW

  14. SITE GENERATED RADIOLOGICAL WASTE HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. C. Khamankar

    2000-01-01

    The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System handles radioactive waste products that are generated at the geologic repository operations area. The waste is collected, treated if required, packaged for shipment, and shipped to a disposal site. Waste streams include low-level waste (LLW) in solid and liquid forms, as-well-as mixed waste that contains hazardous and radioactive constituents. Liquid LLW is segregated into two streams, non-recyclable and recyclable. The non-recyclable stream may contain detergents or other non-hazardous cleaning agents and is packaged for shipment. The recyclable stream is treated to recycle a large portion of the water while the remaining concentrated waste is packaged for shipment; this greatly reduces the volume of waste requiring disposal. There will be no liquid LLW discharge. Solid LLW consists of wet solids such as ion exchange resins and filter cartridges, as-well-as dry active waste such as tools, protective clothing, and poly bags. Solids will be sorted, volume reduced, and packaged for shipment. The generation of mixed waste at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) is not planned; however, if it does come into existence, it will be collected and packaged for disposal at its point of occurrence, temporarily staged, then shipped to government-approved off-site facilities for disposal. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System has equipment located in both the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) and in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). All types of liquid and solid LLW are processed in the WTB, while wet solid waste from the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is packaged where received in the WHB. There is no installed hardware for mixed waste. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System receives waste from locations where water is used for decontamination functions. In most cases the water is piped back to the WTB for processing. The WTB and WHB provide staging areas for storing and shipping LLW

  15. Site description of the SFR area at Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-PSU Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    The site descriptive model (SDM) presented in this report is an integrated model for bedrock geology, rock mechanics, bedrock hydrogeology and bedrock hydrogeochemistry of the site investigated in the SFR extension project (PSU). A description of the surface system is also included in the report. However, the surface system is not integrated with the other disciplines as new data regarding the surface system will not be available until after the completion of SDM-PSU. It is noted that SDM-PSU does not include all disciplines handled in SDM-Site Forsmark (SKB 2008b), the focus is to produce a site description that meets the needs of the SFR extension project. The overall objective of the SFR extension project is to have the application for the extension ready by 2013. This report presents an integrated site model incorporating the historic data acquired from the investigations for and construction of the existing SFR facility (1980-1986), as well as from the recent investigations for the planned extension of SFR (2008-2009). It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the integrated site model. The description relies heavily on background reports concerning detailed data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. It is noteworthy that the investigations conducted during the SFR extension project were guided by the choice of site prior to the investigations, which was based on the experience gained during the construction of the existing SFR facility.

  16. Site description of the SFR area at Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-PSU Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-05-01

    The site descriptive model (SDM) presented in this report is an integrated model for bedrock geology, rock mechanics, bedrock hydrogeology and bedrock hydrogeochemistry of the site investigated in the SFR extension project (PSU). A description of the surface system is also included in the report. However, the surface system is not integrated with the other disciplines as new data regarding the surface system will not be available until after the completion of SDM-PSU. It is noted that SDM-PSU does not include all disciplines handled in SDM-Site Forsmark (SKB 2008b), the focus is to produce a site description that meets the needs of the SFR extension project. The overall objective of the SFR extension project is to have the application for the extension ready by 2013. This report presents an integrated site model incorporating the historic data acquired from the investigations for and construction of the existing SFR facility (1980-1986), as well as from the recent investigations for the planned extension of SFR (2008-2009). It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the integrated site model. The description relies heavily on background reports concerning detailed data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. It is noteworthy that the investigations conducted during the SFR extension project were guided by the choice of site prior to the investigations, which was based on the experience gained during the construction of the existing SFR facility

  17. Validation of coastal oceanographic models at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engqvist, Anders (A och I Engqvist Konsult HB, Vaxholm (SE)); Andrejev, Oleg (Finnish Inst. of Marine Research, Helsinki (FI))

    2008-01-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, the Forsmark and the Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The characterisation work is divided into an initial site investigation phase and a complete site investigation phase. In this context, the water exchange of the coastal zone is one link of the chain of possible nuclide transport mechanisms that must be assessed in the site description of potential repository areas. For the purpose of validating the pair of nested 3D-models employed to simulate the water exchange in the near-shore coastal zone in the Forsmark area, an encompassing measurement program entailing six stations has been performed. The design of this program was to first assess to what degree the forcing of the fine resolution (FR) model of the Forsmark study area at its interfacial boundary to the coarse resolution (CR) model of the entire Baltic was reproduced. In addition to this scrutiny it is of particular interest how the time-varying density-determining properties, salinity and temperature, at the borders are propagated into the FR-domain, since this corresponds to the most efficient mode of water exchange. An important part of the validation process has been to carefully evaluate which measurement data that can be considered reliable. The result was that several periods of foremost near-surface salinity data had to be discarded due to growth of algae on the conductivity sensors. Lack of thorough absolute calibration of the salinity meters also necessitates dismissal of measurement data. Relative the assessed data that can be accepted as adequate, the outcome of the validation can be summarized in five points: (i) The surface-most salinity of the CR-model drifts downward a little less than one practical salinity unit (psu) per year, requiring that the ensuing correlation analysis be subdivided into periods of a

  18. Validation of coastal oceanographic models at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engqvist, Anders; Andrejev, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, the Forsmark and the Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The characterisation work is divided into an initial site investigation phase and a complete site investigation phase. In this context, the water exchange of the coastal zone is one link of the chain of possible nuclide transport mechanisms that must be assessed in the site description of potential repository areas. For the purpose of validating the pair of nested 3D-models employed to simulate the water exchange in the near-shore coastal zone in the Forsmark area, an encompassing measurement program entailing six stations has been performed. The design of this program was to first assess to what degree the forcing of the fine resolution (FR) model of the Forsmark study area at its interfacial boundary to the coarse resolution (CR) model of the entire Baltic was reproduced. In addition to this scrutiny it is of particular interest how the time-varying density-determining properties, salinity and temperature, at the borders are propagated into the FR-domain, since this corresponds to the most efficient mode of water exchange. An important part of the validation process has been to carefully evaluate which measurement data that can be considered reliable. The result was that several periods of foremost near-surface salinity data had to be discarded due to growth of algae on the conductivity sensors. Lack of thorough absolute calibration of the salinity meters also necessitates dismissal of measurement data. Relative the assessed data that can be accepted as adequate, the outcome of the validation can be summarized in five points: (i) The surface-most salinity of the CR-model drifts downward a little less than one practical salinity unit (psu) per year, requiring that the ensuing correlation analysis be subdivided into periods of a

  19. Comparison of site descriptive models for Olkiluoto, Finland and Forsmark, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, J.; Bath, A.; Stephansson, O.; Luukkonen, A.

    2012-08-15

    The proposed high-level radioactive waste repository sites at Olkiluoto and Forsmark share broadly similar geologic histories and regional settings. Despite differences in lithology, rock strength and patterns of brittle deformation, the sites show similarities in terms of hydrogeochemistry and hydrogeology. These similarities reflect a dominating influence of saline and brackish water intrusion during inundation by the postglacial Littorina Sea and Baltic Sea, followed by exposure to meteoric waters following postglacial uplift and transition to a Baltic coastal setting. Both sites also contain deep bedrock saline groundwater, though this is more evident at Olkiluoto than at Forsmark. A comparative study of site descriptive models for the two sites identifies the following key differences that could potentially impact safety of a repository: (1) Redox controls, buffering and biogeochemistry at proposed repository depths; (2) Salinity gradients at and below proposed repository depths; (3) Methane concentrations at and below proposed repository depths; (4) Depths to which glacial water and Littorina water penetrated; (5) Cation hydrogeochemistry and water-rock reaction; (6) Pore water compositions in rock matrix; (7) Rock fabric, secondary minerals and alteration with respect to radionuclide retention; (8) Brittle deformation fabric differences on multiple scales that affect vertical hydraulic conductivity; (9) Differences in apparent frequency of encountering water-conducting networks at proposed repository depths; (10) Shallow bedrock hydraulic properties; (11) Unique intrusive or dissolution features; (12) Connectivity of site-scale models to regional-scale features; (13) Mesoproterozoic rocks in vicinity and possibilities for human-intrusion scenarios; (14) Rock stresses and bedrock strength and deformability at proposed repository depths; (15) Thermal anisotropy. These differences are all potentially significant to safety functions, but none are so severe that

  20. Geology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc (United States); Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Isaksson, Hans [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-10-15

    The geological work during stage 2.2 has involved the development of deterministic models for rock domains (RFM) and deformation zones (ZFM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FFM) inside the candidate volume, i.e. the parts of rock domains that are not affected by deformation zones, and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network modelling or geological DFN modelling). The geological DFN model addresses brittle structures at a scale of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid within specific fracture domains inside the north-western part of the candidate volume, including the target volume. The geological modelling work has evaluated and made use of: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 21 cored boreholes and 33 percussion boreholes. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along nine excavations or large surface outcrops. Data bearing on the characterisation (including kinematics) of deformation zones. Complementary geochronological and other rock and fracture analytical data. Lineaments identified on the basis of airborne and high-resolution ground magnetic data. A reprocessing of both surface and borehole reflection seismic data. Seismic refraction data. The outputs of the deterministic modelling work are geometric models in RVS format and detailed property tables for rock domains and deformation zones, and a description of fracture domains. The outputs of the geological DFN modelling process are recommended parameters or statistical distributions that describe fracture set orientations, radius sizes, volumetric intensities

  1. Geology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul; Simeonov, Assen; Isaksson, Hans; Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan

    2007-10-01

    The geological work during stage 2.2 has involved the development of deterministic models for rock domains (RFM) and deformation zones (ZFM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FFM) inside the candidate volume, i.e. the parts of rock domains that are not affected by deformation zones, and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network modelling or geological DFN modelling). The geological DFN model addresses brittle structures at a scale of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid within specific fracture domains inside the north-western part of the candidate volume, including the target volume. The geological modelling work has evaluated and made use of: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 21 cored boreholes and 33 percussion boreholes. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along nine excavations or large surface outcrops. Data bearing on the characterisation (including kinematics) of deformation zones. Complementary geochronological and other rock and fracture analytical data. Lineaments identified on the basis of airborne and high-resolution ground magnetic data. A reprocessing of both surface and borehole reflection seismic data. Seismic refraction data. The outputs of the deterministic modelling work are geometric models in RVS format and detailed property tables for rock domains and deformation zones, and a description of fracture domains. The outputs of the geological DFN modelling process are recommended parameters or statistical distributions that describe fracture set orientations, radius sizes, volumetric intensities

  2. A descriptive ecosystem model - a strategy for model development during site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, Anders

    2003-09-01

    This report describes a strategy for the development of a site descriptive model for the surface ecosystem on the potential deep repository sites. The surface ecosystem embraces many disciplines, and these have to be identified, described and integrated in order to construct a descriptive ecosystem model that describes and quantifies biotic and abiotic patterns and processes of importance for the ecosystem on the site. The descriptive model includes both present day conditions and historical information. The descriptive ecosystem model will be used to supply input data for the safety assessment and to serve as the baseline model for devising a monitoring program to detect short-term disturbances caused first by the site investigations and later by the construction of the deep repository. Furthermore, it will serve as a reference for future comparisons to determine more long-term effects or changes caused by the deep repository. The report adopts a non-site-specific approach focusing on the following aims: 1. To present and define the properties that will constitute the descriptive ecosystem model. 2. To present a methodology for determining those properties. 3. To describe and develop the framework for the descriptive ecosystem model by integrating the different properties. 4. To present vital data from other site descriptive models such as those for geology or hydrogeology that interacts with and affects the descriptive ecosystem model. The properties are described under four different sections: general physical properties of the landscape, the terrestrial system, the limnic system and the marine system. These headings are further subdivided into entities that integrate properties in relation to processes

  3. A descriptive ecosystem model - a strategy for model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Anders [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Lindborg, Tobias [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    This report describes a strategy for the development of a site descriptive model for the surface ecosystem on the potential deep repository sites. The surface ecosystem embraces many disciplines, and these have to be identified, described and integrated in order to construct a descriptive ecosystem model that describes and quantifies biotic and abiotic patterns and processes of importance for the ecosystem on the site. The descriptive model includes both present day conditions and historical information. The descriptive ecosystem model will be used to supply input data for the safety assessment and to serve as the baseline model for devising a monitoring program to detect short-term disturbances caused first by the site investigations and later by the construction of the deep repository. Furthermore, it will serve as a reference for future comparisons to determine more long-term effects or changes caused by the deep repository. The report adopts a non-site-specific approach focusing on the following aims: 1. To present and define the properties that will constitute the descriptive ecosystem model. 2. To present a methodology for determining those properties. 3. To describe and develop the framework for the descriptive ecosystem model by integrating the different properties. 4. To present vital data from other site descriptive models such as those for geology or hydrogeology that interacts with and affects the descriptive ecosystem model. The properties are described under four different sections: general physical properties of the landscape, the terrestrial system, the limnic system and the marine system. These headings are further subdivided into entities that integrate properties in relation to processes.

  4. Description of the Northwest hazardous waste site data base and preliminary analysis of site characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, D.L.; Hartz, K.E.; Triplett, M.B.

    1988-08-01

    The Northwest Hazardous Waste RD and D Center (the Center) conducts research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities for hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste technologies applicable to remediating sites in the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. To properly set priorities for these RD and D activities and to target development efforts it is necessary to understand the nature of the sites requiring remediation. A data base of hazardous waste site characteristics has been constructed to facilitate this analysis. The data base used data from EPA's Region X Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) and from Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/SI) forms for sites in Montana. The Center's data base focuses on two sets of sites--those on the National Priorities List (NPL) and other sites that are denoted as ''active'' CERCLIS sites. Active CERCLIS sites are those sites that are undergoing active investigation and analysis. The data base contains information for each site covering site identification and location, type of industry associated with the site, waste categories present (e.g., heavy metals, pesticides, etc.), methods of disposal (e.g., tanks, drums, land, etc.), waste forms (e.g., liquid, solid, etc.), and hazard targets (e.g., surface water, groundwater, etc.). As part of this analysis, the Northwest region was divided into three geographic subregions to identify differences in disposal site characteristics within the Northwest. 2 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Validation of coastal oceanographic models at Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engqvist, Anders; Andrejev, Oleg

    2008-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, the Forsmark and the Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The characterization work is divided into an initial site investigation phase and a complete site investigation phase. In this context, the water exchange of the coastal zone is one link of the chain of possible nuclide transport mechanisms that must be assessed in the site description of potential repository areas. For the purpose of validating the pair of nested 3D-models and the coupled discrete basin (CDB-) model employed to simulate the water exchange in the near-shore coastal zone in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, an encompassing measurement program entailing data from six stations (of which two are close) has been performed. The design of this program was to first assess to what degree the forcing of the fine resolution (FR-) model of the Laxemar- Simpevarp study area at its interfacial boundary to the coarse resolution (CR-) model of the entire Baltic was reproduced. In addition to this, it is of particular interest how the time-varying density-determining properties, salinity and temperature, at the borders are propagated into the FR-domain and further influence the water exchange with the interior, more secluded, basins. An important part of the validation process has been to carefully evaluate which measurement data that can be considered reliable. The result was that some periods of foremost near-surface salinity data had to be discarded due to growth of algae on the conductivity sensors. Interference with ship traffic and lack of absolute calibration of the salinity meters necessitated dismissal of measurement data too. In this study so-called Mesan data have been consistently used for the meteorological forcing of the 3D-models. Relative the assessed data that can be accepted as adequate, the outcome of the

  6. Validation of coastal oceanographic models at Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engqvist, Anders (A och I Engqvist Konsult HB, Vaxholm (SE)); Andrejev, Oleg (Finnish Inst. of Marine Research, Helsinki (FI))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, the Forsmark and the Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The characterization work is divided into an initial site investigation phase and a complete site investigation phase. In this context, the water exchange of the coastal zone is one link of the chain of possible nuclide transport mechanisms that must be assessed in the site description of potential repository areas. For the purpose of validating the pair of nested 3D-models and the coupled discrete basin (CDB-) model employed to simulate the water exchange in the near-shore coastal zone in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, an encompassing measurement program entailing data from six stations (of which two are close) has been performed. The design of this program was to first assess to what degree the forcing of the fine resolution (FR-) model of the Laxemar- Simpevarp study area at its interfacial boundary to the coarse resolution (CR-) model of the entire Baltic was reproduced. In addition to this, it is of particular interest how the time-varying density-determining properties, salinity and temperature, at the borders are propagated into the FR-domain and further influence the water exchange with the interior, more secluded, basins. An important part of the validation process has been to carefully evaluate which measurement data that can be considered reliable. The result was that some periods of foremost near-surface salinity data had to be discarded due to growth of algae on the conductivity sensors. Interference with ship traffic and lack of absolute calibration of the salinity meters necessitated dismissal of measurement data too. In this study so-called Mesan data have been consistently used for the meteorological forcing of the 3D-models. Relative the assessed data that can be accepted as adequate, the outcome of the

  7. Site and Regional Data for Biosphere Assessment BSA-2009 Supplement to Olkiluoto Biosphere Description 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aro, L.; Haapanen, R.; Puhakka, L.; Hjerpe, T.; Kirkkala, T.; Koivunen, S.; Lahdenperae, A.-M.; Salo, T.; Ikonen, A.T.K.; Helin, J.

    2010-06-01

    The safety case for a spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto includes a computational safety assessment. A site-specific biosphere assessment is an integral part of them both. In 2009 an assessment was conducted to demonstrate preparedness to apply for construction license to the repository in 2012. As a part of the biosphere assessment, the present conditions at the site are described in Olkiluoto biosphere description report for an analogue of the future conditions being simulated in the safety assessment. This report is a supplement to the biosphere description report of 2009 and documents the site and regional data used in the biosphere assessment 'BSA-2009' with respective rationales. (orig.)

  8. Assessment of social values in thermal plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of the project is to develop a method for combining social values with techno-economic data for better decision making in thermal nuclear power plant siting. Quantified technical impact data which is socially weighted will allow for the optimal choice of site/design alternatives. In this phase, a study of community leadership in energy/environment issues was conducted in a town familiar with a (nuclear) thermal power plant. Secondly, a linear composite analysis of the measurement problems associated with combining diverse scales of impacts was completed. Third, a revision of the social values instrument used in a previous phase of the study was initiated. Finally, liaison activities with utilities were undertaken. Quantification of three of the technical impact factors is currently underway

  9. Regional hydrogeological simulations for Forsmark - numerical modelling using CONNECTFLOW. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Lee; Cox, Ian; Hunter, Fiona; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steve; Swift, Ben [Serco Assurance, Risley (United Kingdom); Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) carries out site investigations in two different candidate areas in Sweden with the objective of describing the in-situ conditions for a bedrock repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site characterisation work is divided into two phases, an initial site investigation phase (IPLU) and a complete site investigation phase (KPLU). The results of IPLU are used as a basis for deciding on a subsequent KPLU phase. On the basis of the KPLU investigations a decision is made as to whether detailed characterisation will be performed (including sinking of a shaft). An integrated component in the site characterisation work is the development of site descriptive models. These comprise basic models in three dimensions with an accompanying text description. Central in the modelling work is the geological model, which provides the geometrical context in terms of a model of deformation zones and the rock mass between the zones. Using the geological and geometrical description models as a basis, descriptive models for other geo-disciplines (hydrogeology, hydro-geochemistry, rock mechanics, thermal properties and transport properties) will be developed. Great care is taken to arrive at a general consistency in the description of the various models and assessment of uncertainty and possible needs of alternative models. Here, a numerical model is developed on a regional-scale (hundreds of square kilometres) to understand the zone of influence for groundwater flow that affects the Forsmark area. Transport calculations are then performed by particle tracking from a local-scale release area (a few square kilometres) to identify potential discharge areas for the site and using greater grid resolution. The main objective of this study is to support the development of a preliminary Site Description of the Forsmark area on a regional-scale based on the available data of 30 June 2004 and the previous Site Description. A more specific

  10. Depth and stratigraphy of regolith. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, Helena; Sohlenius, Gustav; Stroemgren, Maarten; Brydsten, Lars

    2008-06-01

    At the Laxemar-Simpevarp site, numerical and descriptive modelling are performed both for the deep bedrock and for the surface systems. The surface geology and regolith depth are important parameters for e.g. hydrogeological and geochemical modelling and for the over all understanding of the area. Regolith refers to all the unconsolidated deposits overlying the bedrock. The regolith depth model (RDM) presented here visualizes the stratigraphical distribution of the regolith as well as the elevation of the bedrock surface. The model covers 280 km 2 including both terrestrial and marine areas. In the model the stratigraphy is represented by six layers (Z1-Z6) that corresponds to different types of regolith. The model is geometric and the properties of the layers are assigned by the user according to the purpose. The GeoModel program, which is an ArcGIS extension, was used for modelling the regolith depths. A detailed topographical Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and a map of Quaternary deposits were used as input to the model. Altogether 319 boreholes and 440 other stratigraphical observations were also used. Furthermore a large number of depth data interpreted from geophysical investigations were used; refraction seismic measurements from 51 profiles, 11,000 observation points from resistivity measurements and almost 140,000 points from seismic and sediment echo sounding data. The results from the refraction seismic and resistivity measurements give information about the total regolith depths, whereas most other data also give information about the stratigraphy of the regolith. Some of the used observations did not reach the bedrock surface. They do, however, describe the minimum regolith depth at each location and were therefore used where the regolith depth would have been thinner without using the observation point. A large proportion of the modelled area has a low data density and the area was therefore divided into nine domains. These domains were defined based

  11. Depth and stratigraphy of regolith. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, Helena (SWECO Position, Stockholm (Sweden)); Sohlenius, Gustav (Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), Uppsala (Sweden)); Stroemgren, Maarten; Brydsten, Lars (Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    At the Laxemar-Simpevarp site, numerical and descriptive modelling are performed both for the deep bedrock and for the surface systems. The surface geology and regolith depth are important parameters for e.g. hydrogeological and geochemical modelling and for the over all understanding of the area. Regolith refers to all the unconsolidated deposits overlying the bedrock. The regolith depth model (RDM) presented here visualizes the stratigraphical distribution of the regolith as well as the elevation of the bedrock surface. The model covers 280 km2 including both terrestrial and marine areas. In the model the stratigraphy is represented by six layers (Z1-Z6) that corresponds to different types of regolith. The model is geometric and the properties of the layers are assigned by the user according to the purpose. The GeoModel program, which is an ArcGIS extension, was used for modelling the regolith depths. A detailed topographical Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and a map of Quaternary deposits were used as input to the model. Altogether 319 boreholes and 440 other stratigraphical observations were also used. Furthermore a large number of depth data interpreted from geophysical investigations were used; refraction seismic measurements from 51 profiles, 11,000 observation points from resistivity measurements and almost 140,000 points from seismic and sediment echo sounding data. The results from the refraction seismic and resistivity measurements give information about the total regolith depths, whereas most other data also give information about the stratigraphy of the regolith. Some of the used observations did not reach the bedrock surface. They do, however, describe the minimum regolith depth at each location and were therefore used where the regolith depth would have been thinner without using the observation point. A large proportion of the modelled area has a low data density and the area was therefore divided into nine domains. These domains were defined based on

  12. Hanford Site Composite Analysis Technical Approach Description: Hanford Site Disposition Baseline.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, M. A. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Dockter, R. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-10-02

    The permeability of ground surfaces within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Site strongly influences boundary conditions when simulating the movement of groundwater using the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases model. To conduct site-wide modeling of cumulative impacts to groundwater from past, current, and future waste management activities, a site-wide assessment of the permeability of surface conditions is needed. The surface condition of the vast majority of the Hanford Site has been and continues to be native soils vegetated with dryland grasses and shrubs.

  13. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 and Site Description (Volume 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills

    2007-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of nonradiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, a summary of compliance with environmental regulations, pollution prevention and waste minimization accomplishments, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2006 produced to be a more cost-effective means of distributing information contained in the NTSER to interested DOE stakeholders.

  14. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 and Site Description (Volume 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathy Wills

    2007-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of nonradiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, a summary of compliance with environmental regulations, pollution prevention and waste minimization accomplishments, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2006 produced to be a more cost-effective means of distributing information contained in the NTSER to interested DOE stakeholders

  15. Thermal treatment and non-thermal technologies for remediation of manufactured gas plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, T.F.; Greer, B.A.; Lawless, M.

    1996-01-01

    More than 1,500 manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites exist throughout the US. Many are contaminated with coal tar from coal-fueled gas works which produced town gas from the mid-1800s through the 1950s. Virtually all old US cities have such sites. Most are in downtown areas as they were installed for central distribution of manufactured gas. While a few sites are CERCLA/Superfund, most are not. However, the contaminants and methods used for remediation are similar to those used for Superfund clean-ups of coal tar contamination from wood-treating and coke oven facilities. Clean-up of sites is triggered by regulatory pressure, property transfers and re-development as well as releases to the environment--in particular, via groundwater migration. Due to utility de-regulation, site clean-ups may also be triggered by sale of a utility or of a specific utility site to other utilities. Utilities have used two approaches in dealing with their MGP sites. The first is do nothing and hope for the best. History suggests that, sooner or later, these sites become a bigger problem via a release, citizen lawsuit or regulatory/public service commission intervention. The second, far better approach is to define the problem now and make plans /for waste treatment or immobilization. This paper describes recent experience with a high capacity/low cost thermal desorption process for this waste and reviews non-thermal technology, such as bio-treatment, capping, recycling, and dig and haul. Cost data are provided for all technologies, and a case study for thermal treatment is also presented

  16. Testing the methodology for site descriptive modelling. Application for the Laxemar area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Berglund, Johan; Follin, Sven; Hakami, Eva; Halvarson, Jan; Hermanson, Jan; Laaksoharju, Marcus; Rhen, Ingvar; Wahlgren, C.H.

    2002-08-01

    A special project has been conducted where the currently available data from the Laxemar area, which is part of the Simpevarp site, have been evaluated and interpreted into a Site Descriptive Model covering: geology, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and rock mechanics. Description of the surface ecosystem has been omitted, since it was re-characterised in another, parallel, project. Furthermore, there has been no evaluation of transport properties. The project is primarily a methodology test. The lessons learnt will be implemented in the Site Descriptive Modelling during the coming site investigation. The intent of the project has been to explore whether available methodology for Site Descriptive Modelling based on surface and borehole data is adequate and to identify potential needs for development and improvement in the methodology. The project has developed, with limitations in scope, a Site Descriptive Model in local scale, corresponding to the situation after completion of the Initial Site Investigations for the Laxemar area (i.e. 'version 1.2' using the vocabulary of the general execution program for the site investigations). The Site Descriptive Model should be reasonable, but should not be regarded as a 'real' model. There are limitations both in input data and in the scope of the analysis. The measured (primary) data constitute a wide range of different measurement results including data from two deep core drilled boreholes. These data both need to be checked for consistency and to be interpreted into a format more amenable for three-dimensional modelling. Examples of such evaluations are estimation of surface geology, lineament interpretation, geological single hole interpretation, hydrogeological single hole interpretation and assessment of hydrogeochemical data. Furthermore, while cross discipline interpretation is encouraged there is also a need for transparency. This means that the evaluations first are made within each discipline and after this

  17. Hanford Site Composite Analysis Technical Approach Description: Radionuclide Inventory and Waste Site Selection Process.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Will E.; Mehta, Sunil

    2017-09-13

    The updated Hanford Site Composite Analysis will provide an all-pathways dose projection to a hypothetical future member of the public from all planned low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities and potential contributions from all other projected end-state sources of radioactive material left at Hanford following site closure. Its primary purpose is to support the decision-making process of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under DOE O 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management (DOE, 2001), related to managing low-level waste disposal facilities at the Hanford Site.

  18. Preliminary interpretation of thermal data from the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sass, J.H.; Lachenbruch, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of data from 60 wells in and around the Nevada Test Site, including 16 in the Yucca Mountain area, indicates a thermal regime characterized by large vertical and lateral gradients in heat flow. Estimates of heat flow indicate considerable variation on both regional and local scales. The variations are attributable primarily to hydrologic processes involving interbasin flow with a vertical component of (seepage) velocity (volume flux) of a few mm/yr. Apart from indicating a general downward movement of water at a few mm/yr, the reults from Yucca Mountain are as yet inconclusive. The purpose of the study was to determine the suitability of the area for proposed repository sites

  19. Rock Mechanics Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glamheden, Rune; Fredriksson, Anders (Golder Associates AB (SE)); Roeshoff, Kennert; Karlsson, Johan (Berg Bygg Konsult AB (SE)); Hakami, Hossein (Itasca Geomekanik AB (SE)); Christiansson, Rolf (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE))

    2007-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar/Simpevarp, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The characterisation of a site is an integrated work carried out by several disciplines including geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and surface systems. This report presents the rock mechanics model of the Forsmark site up to stage 2.2. The scope of work has included compilation and analysis of primary data of intact rock and fractures, estimation of the rock mass mechanical properties and estimation of the in situ state of stress at the Forsmark site. The laboratory results on intact rock and fractures in the target volume demonstrate a good quality rock mass that is strong, stiff and relatively homogeneous. The homogeneity is also supported by the lithological and the hydrogeological models. The properties of the rock mass have been initially estimated by two separate modelling approaches, one empirical and one theoretical. An overall final estimate of the rock mass properties were achieved by integrating the results from the two models via a process termed 'Harmonization'. Both the tensile tests, carried out perpendicular and parallel to the foliation, and the theoretical analyses of the rock mass properties in directions parallel and perpendicular to the major principal stress, result in parameter values almost independent of direction. This indicates that the rock mass in the target volume is isotropic. The rock mass quality in the target volume appears to be of high and uniform quality. Those portions with reduced rock mass quality that do exist are mainly related to sections with increased fracture frequency. Such sections are associated with deformation zones according to the geological description. The results of adjacent rock domains and fracture domains of the target

  20. The terrestrial ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Anders [EcoAnalytica, Haegersten (Sweden); ed.

    2008-12-15

    This report describes the terrestrial ecosystems in the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas by summarizing ecological data and data from disciplines such as hydrology, quaternary geology and chemistry. The description therefore includes a number of different processes that drive element fluxes in the ecosystems, such as net primary production, heterotrophic respiration, transpiration, and horizontal transport from land to streams and lakes. Moreover, the human appropriation of the landscape is described with regard to land use and potential and actual utilization of food resources both today and in a historical perspective

  1. The terrestrial ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, Anders

    2008-12-01

    This report describes the terrestrial ecosystems in the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas by summarizing ecological data and data from disciplines such as hydrology, quaternary geology and chemistry. The description therefore includes a number of different processes that drive element fluxes in the ecosystems, such as net primary production, heterotrophic respiration, transpiration, and horizontal transport from land to streams and lakes. Moreover, the human appropriation of the landscape is described with regard to land use and potential and actual utilization of food resources both today and in a historical perspective

  2. Application of the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model to Ecological Site Descriptions and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utility of Ecological Site Descriptions (ESDs) and State-and-Transition Models (STMs) concepts in guiding rangeland management hinges on their ability to accurately describe and predict community dynamics and the associated consequences. For many rangeland ecosystems, plant community dynamics ar...

  3. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2010, Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Wills, ed.

    2011-09-13

    Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2010. Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  4. Testing the methodology for site descriptive modelling. Application for the Laxemar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Berglund, Johan [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF Geologic AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Hakami, Eva [Itasca Geomekanik AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Halvarson, Jan [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Laaksoharju, Marcus [Geopoint (Sweden); Rhen, Ingvar [Sweco VBB/VIAK, Stockholm (Sweden); Wahlgren, C.H. [Sveriges Geologiska Undersoekning, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    A special project has been conducted where the currently available data from the Laxemar area, which is part of the Simpevarp site, have been evaluated and interpreted into a Site Descriptive Model covering: geology, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and rock mechanics. Description of the surface ecosystem has been omitted, since it was re-characterised in another, parallel, project. Furthermore, there has been no evaluation of transport properties. The project is primarily a methodology test. The lessons learnt will be implemented in the Site Descriptive Modelling during the coming site investigation. The intent of the project has been to explore whether available methodology for Site Descriptive Modelling based on surface and borehole data is adequate and to identify potential needs for development and improvement in the methodology. The project has developed, with limitations in scope, a Site Descriptive Model in local scale, corresponding to the situation after completion of the Initial Site Investigations for the Laxemar area (i.e. 'version 1.2' using the vocabulary of the general execution program for the site investigations). The Site Descriptive Model should be reasonable, but should not be regarded as a 'real' model. There are limitations both in input data and in the scope of the analysis. The measured (primary) data constitute a wide range of different measurement results including data from two deep core drilled boreholes. These data both need to be checked for consistency and to be interpreted into a format more amenable for three-dimensional modelling. Examples of such evaluations are estimation of surface geology, lineament interpretation, geological single hole interpretation, hydrogeological single hole interpretation and assessment of hydrogeochemical data. Furthermore, while cross discipline interpretation is encouraged there is also a need for transparency. This means that the evaluations first are made within each discipline

  5. Site descriptions for preliminary radiological assessments of low-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, W.E.; Jones, C.H.; Sumerling, T.J.; Ashton, J.

    1988-07-01

    The environmental contexts of four sites, previously under investigation by UK Nirex Ltd. as potential locations for low-level waste disposal facilities, are described. Information on geographical setting, climate, surface hydrology, land use, agriculture, fisheries, geology and hydrogeology is presented. The geological and hydrogeological data are interpreted with the support of deterministic modelling of groundwater conditions. The routes by which radionuclides may migrate from the site are identified and reduced to 1D statistical descriptions suitable for use in probabilistic risk assessments. Additional data required to improve the assessment of the performance of the site are identified. (author)

  6. Description of radiological problems at inactive uranium mill sites and formerly utilized MED/AEC sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Dickson, H.W.

    1979-02-01

    During the early years of development of the nuclear program in the United States, more than a hundred sites were used by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), and/or its uranium suppliers. Many of these sites are no longer used for such activities, but in many cases, the real estate remains contaminated with radioactivity and can be a potential source of exposure to members of the general public. In addition, 22 inactive uranium mill tailings sites exist in the western part of the United States. Radioactive contamination conditions range from slight contamination on the surfaces of buildings and equipment to extensive contamination of the subsoil. The Department of Energy is conducting a program to assure that adequate precautions are taken in the management of these properties to provide the cost-effective protection of public health while permitting further use of land and other resources. Several issues which should be considered in the development of an effective policy for long-term management of such properties are identified

  7. Description of radiological problems at inactive uranium mill sites and formerly utilized MED/AEC sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Dickson, H.W.

    1979-02-01

    During the early years of development of the nuclear program in the United States, more than a hundred sites were used by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), and/or its uranium suppliers. Many of these sites are no longer used for such activities, but in many cases, the real estate remains contaminated with radioactivity and can be a potential source of exposure to members of the general public. In addition, 22 inactive uranium mill tailings sites exist in the western part of the United States. Radioactive contamination conditions range from slight contamination on the surfaces of buildings and equipment to extensive contamination of the subsoil. The Department of Energy is conducting a program to assure that adequate precautions are taken in the management of these properties to provide the cost-effective protection of public health while permitting further use of land and other resources. Several issues which should be considered in the development of an effective policy for long-term management of such properties are identified.

  8. Developing methodology for description of biosphere evolution at Olkiluoto disposal site utilising forest studies at other land uplift sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikondn, A.T.K.; Afo, L.

    2004-01-01

    In Finland, Olkiluoto Island has been selected as the site for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, in addition to the existing repository for low and intermediate level waste. When creating biosphere models for safety assessments, local main features and processes need to be taken into account. A special characteristic of the site, as well as the coastal area of the Gulf of Bothnia in general, is the land uplift (6-9 mm/a). This continuously exposes new land to soil-formation processes and provides surfaces for colonization by plant communities. The forest vegetation succession on stony, fine-grained till soils starts from deciduous shoreline vegetation and ends in almost pure Norway spruce forests. This has enabled to study ecological and microbiological processes in soils and forests of different developmental stages, to monitor forest condition and the factors affecting it in sites locating close to each other. It has also made possible gradient studies of the succession of boreal mire ecosystems without a need to wait thousands of years. Applying a methodology described in the full paper, a descriptive model on the evolution of the biosphere will be established to indicate possible ecosystem distributions and main characteristics on the area on the basis of above-mentioned studies carried out by Finnish Forest Research Institute, and of results of the site investigations at Olkiluoto. In future, the evolution description will be used as a basis for selection of appropriate ecosystem modules and parameter values in the subsequent coupled assessment model systems. (author)

  9. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Station and Site Description Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, site inspection trips were carried out by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Risø DTU in April and June of 2011. A total of 10 sites featuring instrumented 60-m masts were visited; the present report summarises...... the findings of the site inspection teams. The main results are descriptions and documentation of the meteorological masts, instruments and site conditions. For each site, the location and magnetic declination have been determined, as well as the sensor boom directions on the mast. Elevation maps have been...... constructed to show the surrounding terrain and photos taken to document the land cover. Finally, the observed wind roses and wind speed distribution as of 1 October 2013 are shown....

  10. Study on the methodology for hydrogeological site descriptive modelling by discrete fracture networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tatsuya; Ando, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Shuuji; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Takeuchi, Shinji; Amano, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to establish comprehensive techniques for site descriptive modelling considering the hydraulic heterogeneity due to the Water Conducting Features in fractured rocks. The WCFs was defined by the interpretation and integration of geological and hydrogeological data obtained from the deep borehole investigation campaign in the Mizunami URL project and Regional Hydrogeological Study. As a result of surface based investigation phase, the block-scale hydrogeological descriptive model was generated using hydraulic discrete fracture networks. Uncertainties and remaining issues associated with the assumption in interpreting the data and its modelling were addressed in a systematic way. (author)

  11. The limnic ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norden, Sara; Soederbaeck, Bjoern [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Eva [SWECO, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-11-15

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a thorough description of the limnic ecosystems at both Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. This information may be used in the Safety Assessment and as a basis for the Environmental Impact Assessment. Three aims were set up for the report: 1) to characterize and describe the limnic ecosystems today and in the past in the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas and compare these ecosystems with limnic ecosystems in other areas; 2) to evaluate and visualize major pools, fluxes and sinks of elements within the limnic ecosystems; and finally 3) to describe human impact on the limnic ecosystems. The report includes a thorough description of the lakes and streams in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp and covers the following areas: catchment area characteristics, hydrology, climate, sediment characteristics, physical characteristics of streams, habitat distribution in lakes, biotic components, water chemistry, comparisons with other lakes and streams in the region, and a historical description. Ecosystem models for carbon and mass balances for a number of elements have been calculated to further improve the understanding of the lake ecosystems. Important processes for the safety assessment are described and evaluated in the report. The Forsmark regional model area contains more than 20 permanent lakes and pools. All lakes are small and shallow, and are characterized as oligotrophic hardwater lakes. Calcareous soils in the area give rise to high calcium concentrations in the surface water, which in turn leads to high pH and low nutrient concentrations in water as phosphorus often co-precipitates with calcium. The shallow depths and moderate water colour permit photosynthesis in the entire benthic habitat of the lakes, and the bottoms are covered by dense stands of the macroalgae Chara sp. Moreover, many of the lakes also have a thick microbial mat (>10 cm), consisting of cyanobacteria and diatoms, in the benthic habitat. Fish in

  12. The limnic ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norden, Sara; Soederbaeck, Bjoern; Andersson, Eva

    2008-11-01

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a thorough description of the limnic ecosystems at both Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. This information may be used in the Safety Assessment and as a basis for the Environmental Impact Assessment. Three aims were set up for the report: 1) to characterize and describe the limnic ecosystems today and in the past in the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas and compare these ecosystems with limnic ecosystems in other areas; 2) to evaluate and visualize major pools, fluxes and sinks of elements within the limnic ecosystems; and finally 3) to describe human impact on the limnic ecosystems. The report includes a thorough description of the lakes and streams in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp and covers the following areas: catchment area characteristics, hydrology, climate, sediment characteristics, physical characteristics of streams, habitat distribution in lakes, biotic components, water chemistry, comparisons with other lakes and streams in the region, and a historical description. Ecosystem models for carbon and mass balances for a number of elements have been calculated to further improve the understanding of the lake ecosystems. Important processes for the safety assessment are described and evaluated in the report. The Forsmark regional model area contains more than 20 permanent lakes and pools. All lakes are small and shallow, and are characterized as oligotrophic hardwater lakes. Calcareous soils in the area give rise to high calcium concentrations in the surface water, which in turn leads to high pH and low nutrient concentrations in water as phosphorus often co-precipitates with calcium. The shallow depths and moderate water colour permit photosynthesis in the entire benthic habitat of the lakes, and the bottoms are covered by dense stands of the macroalgae Chara sp. Moreover, many of the lakes also have a thick microbial mat (>10 cm), consisting of cyanobacteria and diatoms, in the benthic habitat. Fish in

  13. Regional hydrogeological simulations. Numerical modelling using ConnectFlow. Preliminary site description Simpevarp sub area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Lee; Hoch, Andrew; Hunter, Fiona; Jackson, Peter [Serco Assurance, Risley (United Kingdom); Marsic, Niko [Kemakta Konsult, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) carries out site investigations in two different candidate areas in Sweden with the objective of describing the in situ conditions for a bedrock repository for spent nuclear fuel. The two candidate areas are named Forsmark and Simpevarp. The site characterisation work is divided into two phases, an initial site investigation phase (IPLU) and a complete site investigation phase (KPLU). The results of IPLU are used as a basis for deciding on a subsequent KPLU phase. On the basis of the KPLU investigations a decision is made as to whether detailed characterisation will be performed (including sinking of a shaft).An integrated component in the site characterisation work is the development of site descriptive models. These comprise basic models in three dimensions with an accompanying text description. Central in the modelling work is the geological model which provides the geometrical context in terms of a model of deformation zones and the rock mass between the zones. Using the geological and geometrical description models as a basis, descriptive models for other geo-disciplines (hydrogeology, hydro-geochemistry, rock mechanics, thermal properties and transport properties) will be developed. Great care is taken to arrive at a general consistency in the description of the various models and assessment of uncertainty and possible needs of alternative models.Here, a numerical model is developed on a regional-scale (hundreds of square kilometres) to understand the zone of influence for groundwater flow that effects the Simpevarp area. Transport calculations are then performed by particle tracking from a local-scale release area (tens of square kilometres) to identify potential discharge areas for the site. The transport from the two site-scale release areas (a few square kilometres) at the Simpevarp site and the Laxemar site are also considered more specifically and using greater grid resolution.The main

  14. Case study of manufactured gas plant site remediations using thermal desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, R.G.; Hayes, T.; Slimon, K.F.; Unites, D. [Southern California Gas Company, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Southern California Gas Company (SoCal Gas) has recently remediated five of its former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites using on-site and off-site thermal desorption. This technology has proven effective in the treatment of PAH-contaminated soils with widely variable concentrations. At two of the five sites, MGP-contaminated materials were excavated and thermally treated on site. At the other sites, MGP-contaminated materials were excavated and transported directly to an off-site thermal desorber. Much of the production was of oil-gas, giving lampblack contamination, but some coal tar was also present.

  15. Hydrochemistry in surface water and shallow groundwater. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troejbom, Mats (Mopelikan, Norrtaelje (SE)); Soederbaeck, Bjoern (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE)); Johansson, Per-Olof (Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Taeby (SE))

    2007-10-15

    With a mathematical/statistical approach, a large number of visualisations and models reflect the hydrochemistry in the Forsmark area, with the intention to give an understanding of important processes and factors that affect the hydrochemistry in the surface systems. In order to widen the perspective, all data from the Forsmark 2.2 stage including observations from different levels of the bedrock, as well as hydrological measurements and characterisations of the Quaternary deposits, have been included in the analyses. The purpose of this report is to give a general understanding of the site and to explain observed overall patterns as well as anomalies, and, ultimately, to present a conceptual model that explains the present hydrochemistry in the surface system in the light of the past. The report may also function as a basis for further evaluation and testing of scenarios, and may be regarded as an intermediate step between raw data compilations from the vast SICADA database and specialised expert models. The flat topography and the recent withdrawal of the Baltic Sea due to the isostatic land-uplift are two important factors determining the hydrochemistry in the Forsmark area. Marine remnants in the Quaternary deposits, as well as modern sea water intrusions, are therefore strongly influencing the hydrochemistry, especially in areas at low altitude close to the coast. Large-scale marine gradients in the surface system are consistent with the conceptual model that describes the hydrochemical evolution in a paleo-hydrologic perspective. The Forsmark area is covered by glacial remnants, mostly in the form of a till layer, which was deposited during the Weichselian glaciation and deglaciation. When the ice cover retreated about 11,000 years ago, these deposits were exposed on the sea floor. This till layer is characterized by a rich content of calcite, originating from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. The dissolution of this

  16. Hydrochemistry in surface water and shallow groundwater. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troejbom, Mats (Mopelikan, Norrtaelje (Sweden)); Soederbaeck, Bjoern; Kalinowski, Birgitta (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    Based on a mathematical/statistical approach, a large number of visualisations and models reflect the hydrochemistry of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, with the intention of providing an understanding of important processes and factors that affect the hydrochemistry of the surface systems. In order to widen the perspective, all data from Laxemar stage 2.3, including observations from different levels of the bedrock, as well as hydrological measurements and characterisations of the Quaternary deposits, have been included in the analyses. The purpose of this report is to provide a general understanding of the site and to explain observed overall patterns and anomalies, and ultimately to present a conceptual model that explains the present hydrochemistry of the surface system in the light of the past. The report may also serve as a basis for further evaluation and testing of scenarios, and may be regarded as an intermediate step between raw data compilations from the vast Sicada database and specialised expert models. The topography in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area is characterised by elevated areas covered by thin or no Quaternary deposits, intersected by deep fissure valleys filled with thick sediments. This topography, in combination with the withdrawal of the Baltic Sea due to isostatic land uplift, are two important factors determining the hydrochemistry of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area. Furthermore, marine remnants in the Quaternary deposits influence the hydrochemistry in areas at low elevation close to the coast, whereas higher-lying areas are mostly influenced by atmospheric deposition and weathering processes. The vegetation cover has also great impact on the hydrochemistry of the surface system. Degradation of biogenic carbon generates large numbers of H+ ions, which drive weathering processes in the Quaternary deposits as well as in the upper parts of the bedrock. The present situation in the surface system is a consequence of the palaeohydrological past. In higher

  17. Hydrochemistry in surface water and shallow groundwater. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troejbom, Mats; Soederbaeck, Bjoern; Kalinowski, Birgitta

    2008-10-01

    Based on a mathematical/statistical approach, a large number of visualisations and models reflect the hydrochemistry of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, with the intention of providing an understanding of important processes and factors that affect the hydrochemistry of the surface systems. In order to widen the perspective, all data from Laxemar stage 2.3, including observations from different levels of the bedrock, as well as hydrological measurements and characterisations of the Quaternary deposits, have been included in the analyses. The purpose of this report is to provide a general understanding of the site and to explain observed overall patterns and anomalies, and ultimately to present a conceptual model that explains the present hydrochemistry of the surface system in the light of the past. The report may also serve as a basis for further evaluation and testing of scenarios, and may be regarded as an intermediate step between raw data compilations from the vast Sicada database and specialised expert models. The topography in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area is characterised by elevated areas covered by thin or no Quaternary deposits, intersected by deep fissure valleys filled with thick sediments. This topography, in combination with the withdrawal of the Baltic Sea due to isostatic land uplift, are two important factors determining the hydrochemistry of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area. Furthermore, marine remnants in the Quaternary deposits influence the hydrochemistry in areas at low elevation close to the coast, whereas higher-lying areas are mostly influenced by atmospheric deposition and weathering processes. The vegetation cover has also great impact on the hydrochemistry of the surface system. Degradation of biogenic carbon generates large numbers of H + ions, which drive weathering processes in the Quaternary deposits as well as in the upper parts of the bedrock. The present situation in the surface system is a consequence of the palaeohydrological past. In higher

  18. Hydrochemistry in surface water and shallow groundwater. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troejbom, Mats; Soederbaeck, Bjoern; Johansson, Per-Olof

    2007-10-01

    With a mathematical/statistical approach, a large number of visualisations and models reflect the hydrochemistry in the Forsmark area, with the intention to give an understanding of important processes and factors that affect the hydrochemistry in the surface systems. In order to widen the perspective, all data from the Forsmark 2.2 stage including observations from different levels of the bedrock, as well as hydrological measurements and characterisations of the Quaternary deposits, have been included in the analyses. The purpose of this report is to give a general understanding of the site and to explain observed overall patterns as well as anomalies, and, ultimately, to present a conceptual model that explains the present hydrochemistry in the surface system in the light of the past. The report may also function as a basis for further evaluation and testing of scenarios, and may be regarded as an intermediate step between raw data compilations from the vast SICADA database and specialised expert models. The flat topography and the recent withdrawal of the Baltic Sea due to the isostatic land-uplift are two important factors determining the hydrochemistry in the Forsmark area. Marine remnants in the Quaternary deposits, as well as modern sea water intrusions, are therefore strongly influencing the hydrochemistry, especially in areas at low altitude close to the coast. Large-scale marine gradients in the surface system are consistent with the conceptual model that describes the hydrochemical evolution in a paleo-hydrologic perspective. The Forsmark area is covered by glacial remnants, mostly in the form of a till layer, which was deposited during the Weichselian glaciation and deglaciation. When the ice cover retreated about 11,000 years ago, these deposits were exposed on the sea floor. This till layer is characterized by a rich content of calcite, originating from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. The dissolution of this

  19. Description of climate, surface hydrology, and near-surface hydrogeology. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof [Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Werner, Kent [SWECO VIAK AB/Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Bosson, Emma; Berglund, Sten [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Juston, John [DBE Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-06-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is conducting site investigations at two different locations, the Forsmark and Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The results from the investigations at the sites are used as a basic input to the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDM). The SDM shall summarise the current state of knowledge of the site, and provide parameters and models to be used in further analyses within Safety Assessment, Repository Design and Environmental Impact Assessment. The present report is a background report describing the meteorological conditions and the modelling of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology in support of the Forsmark version 1.2 SDM based on the data available in the Forsmark 1.2 'data freeze' (July 31, 2004). The groundwater is very shallow, with groundwater levels within one meter below ground as an annual mean for almost all groundwater monitoring wells. Also, the annual groundwater level amplitude is less than 1.5 m for most wells. The shallow groundwater levels mean that there is a strong interaction between evapotranspiration, soil moisture and groundwater. In the modelling, surface water and near-surface groundwater divides are assumed to coincide. The small-scale topography implies that many local, shallow groundwater flow systems are formed in the Quaternary deposits, overlaying more large-scale flow systems associated with groundwater flows at greater depths. Groundwater level time series from wells in till and bedrock within the same areas show a considerably higher groundwater level in the till than in the bedrock. The observed differences in levels are not fully consistent with the good hydraulic contact between overburden and bedrock indicated by the hydraulic tests in the Quaternary deposits. However, the relatively lower groundwater levels in the bedrock may be caused by the horizontal to sub-horizontal highly

  20. Ecosystem description of a drainage area - a strategy in biosphere descriptions during site investigations for a repository of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, T.; Lofgren, A.

    2004-01-01

    During the next few years the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) performs site investigations at two sites in Sweden for a future repository of spent nuclear fuel. Novel methods based on systems and landscape ecology are developed to understand and model the radionuclide flow in the biosphere using site specific data for a safety assessment. This work describes the strategy for development of a descriptive ecosystem model for the surface ecosystem. The site description is needed to: a) perform a safety assessment that describes and analyzes different scenarios for radionuclide releases into the ecosystem and possible pathways for dispersal or accumulation radionuclides in the ecosystem, b) detect changes caused by the construction of a repository, c) establish a baseline for detecting long-term effects of the repository. The description adopts a site-specific approach focusing on the quantification of the properties that will constitute the descriptive model. The aim is also to present the methodology for determining the properties, to describe the development of the framework for the descriptive ecosystem models by integrating use of different properties, and finally, to present vital data from other site descriptive models such as those for geology or hydrogeology. The safety assessment will use an approach, among other methods, where transport and accumulation of radionuclides will be modelled by quantifying biogeochemical pathways of matter. The descriptive ecosystem model applied to the site was therefore built to describe and quantify processes affecting i.e. turnover of matter in a drainage area. The conclusions from applying this approach was that by have estimating the flow of matter the ecological and physical constrains on the system reduces the potential variations in outcome of future states of the ecosystem and thus also reduces the uncertainties in estimating radionuclide flow and consequences to humans and the environment. (author)

  1. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Simpevarp subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    and this affects key safety aspects, like the probability of large fractures intersecting deposition holes, the upscaling of the hydraulic properties and the resulting transport resistance along migration paths from potentially breached canisters. Efforts need to be spent on reducing these uncertainties during the Site Investigation Phase both in terms of acquiring new data and from improved site modelling. Current uncertainties in the stress regime and intact rock properties are sufficiently low from the construction point of view. Still, the issue of spalling due to the thermal load may require additional analyses, as already envisaged for the full safety assessment SR-Can. This may also lead to additional data demands. The thermal conductivity is relatively low and shows rather high and uncertain spatial variability. Unless these uncertainties are reduced, the design would need to consider relatively large canister separations in order to ensure that the temperature requirements on canister and buffer are met. Between 60 and 80 percent of blocks at the 20 m scale are estimated to have an effective hydraulic conductivity K -8 m/s. The rather high hydraulic conductivity, as well as the uncertainty in the spatial variation and upscaling warrant further studies. In order to evaluate the redox buffering capacity of the geosphere, detailed mineralogical data on Fe(II) and sulphide content of the rock and fracture minerals would be needed. The evaluation of flow-related transport parameters conducted with the regional groundwater flow model shows that both the preferences for Darcy velocity and the transport resistance F are met for almost all potential migration paths. However, the analysis has not been made with sufficient resolution for this conclusion to be robust and there are also substantial uncertainties with respect to the channelling of individual fractures. Further attention to modelling, with different alternatives and careful scrutiny of assumptions, would

  2. Radiological investigations at the 'Taiga' nuclear explosion site: Site description and in situ measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramzaev, V., E-mail: V.Ramzaev@mail.ru [Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Mira str. 8, 197101 St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Repin, V.; Medvedev, A.; Khramtsov, E.; Timofeeva, M.; Yakovlev, V. [Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Mira str. 8, 197101 St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    In the summer of 2009, we performed a field survey of the 'Taiga' peaceful underground nuclear explosion site, the Perm region, Russia (61.30{sup o} N, 56.60{sup o} E). The explosion was carried out by the USSR in 1971. This paper provides an extended summary of the available published data on the 'Taiga' experiment. A detailed description of the site is illustrated by original aerial and ground-level photos. A large artificial lake (700 m long and 350 m wide) currently occupies the central area of the experimental site. The ground lip surrounding the lake is covered by a newly grown mixed forest. In situ measurements, performed in August 2009, revealed elevated levels of the {gamma}-ray dose rate in air on the banks of the lake 'Taiga'. Two hot spots were detected on the eastern bank of the lake. The excess of the {gamma}-ray radiation is attributable to the man-made radionuclides {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. The current external {gamma}-ray dose rate to a human from the contaminations associated with the 'Taiga' experiment was between 9 and 70 {mu}Sv per week. Periodic monitoring the site is recommended. - Highlights: > We studied a radiation anomaly at the 'Taiga' underground nuclear explosion site. > The anomaly currently has an area of approximately 1 km{sup 2}. > The excess of {gamma}-ray radiation at the site is mainly attributable to {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. > The external effective dose may currently exceed the negligible value of 10 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}.

  3. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Forsmark area. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2005-08-01

    robust estimates of the intensity of large fractures and features, e.g. as characterised by the k parameter in the power-law distribution and further efforts should be spent on providing good support for the possible range of this parameter. Considering the high and uncertain stress levels that have been observed, further reduction of the uncertainties in stress and rock mechanics properties is needed. Also, the issue of spalling due to the thermal load originating from the waste may require additional analyses and lead to additional data demands. Even though the thermal requirements and preferences are met, further reduction of uncertainties in the spatial variability and scaling of thermal conductivity would allow for a more efficient (compact) design. Issues worth considering include assessing the potential anisotropy of the thermal data and the size distribution of the subordinate rock types within RFM029. The current model indicates very low hydraulic conductivities at potential repository depth, but additional site data are needed in order to confirm the extent of the low permeability volumes. The uncertainties in the spatial variation and upscaling of the hydraulic properties warrant further studies. Furthermore, reducing the uncertainty in hydraulics of the fracture network would allow for much less pessimistic handling of the transport resistance in the rock mass. The groundwater composition meets all requirements and preferences, but further reduction of uncertainties would improve the basis for assessing the future evolution of the groundwater composition. For example, a more definite explanation of the high uranium content found at depth is needed. In order to have a full evaluation of the redox buffering capacity of the geosphere, more mineralogical data, Fe(II) and sulphide content of the rock and amount of fracture minerals in contact with the flowing water would be needed. There is a need, if possible, to reduce the uncertainty in characterising the

  4. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Forsmark area. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    provide robust estimates of the intensity of large fractures and features, e.g. as characterised by the k parameter in the power-law distribution and further efforts should be spent on providing good support for the possible range of this parameter. Considering the high and uncertain stress levels that have been observed, further reduction of the uncertainties in stress and rock mechanics properties is needed. Also, the issue of spalling due to the thermal load originating from the waste may require additional analyses and lead to additional data demands. Even though the thermal requirements and preferences are met, further reduction of uncertainties in the spatial variability and scaling of thermal conductivity would allow for a more efficient (compact) design. Issues worth considering include assessing the potential anisotropy of the thermal data and the size distribution of the subordinate rock types within RFM029. The current model indicates very low hydraulic conductivities at potential repository depth, but additional site data are needed in order to confirm the extent of the low permeability volumes. The uncertainties in the spatial variation and upscaling of the hydraulic properties warrant further studies. Furthermore, reducing the uncertainty in hydraulics of the fracture network would allow for much less pessimistic handling of the transport resistance in the rock mass. The groundwater composition meets all requirements and preferences, but further reduction of uncertainties would improve the basis for assessing the future evolution of the groundwater composition. For example, a more definite explanation of the high uranium content found at depth is needed. In order to have a full evaluation of the redox buffering capacity of the geosphere, more mineralogical data, Fe(II) and sulphide content of the rock and amount of fracture minerals in contact with the flowing water would be needed. There is a need, if possible, to reduce the uncertainty in characterising

  5. Bedrock transport properties. Preliminary site description Simpevarp subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byegaard, Johan; Gustavsson, Eva [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden); Berglund, Sten [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    This report presents the site descriptive model of transport properties developed as a part of the Simpevarp 1.2 site description. The main parameters included in the model, referred to as retardation parameters, are the matrix porosity and diffusivity, and the matrix sorption coefficient K{sub d}. The model is based on the presently available site investigation data, mainly obtained from laboratory investigations of core samples from boreholes within the Simpevarp subarea, and on data from previous studies at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (Aespoe HRL). The modelling is a first attempt, based on limited data, to obtain a description of the retardation parameters. Further refinement of the model is foreseen when more data becomes available for future versions of the Simpevarp site description. The modelling work included descriptions of rock mass geology, the fractures and deformation zones, the hydrogeochemistry and also the available results from the site specific porosity, sorption and diffusivity measurements. The description of the transport related aspects of the data and models presented by other modelling disciplines is an important part of the transport description. In accordance with the strategy for the modelling of transport properties, the results are presented as a 'retardation model', in which a summary of the transport data for the different geological compartments is given. Concerning the major rock types, Aevroe granite, quartz monzodiorite and fine-grained dioritoid are identified as the rock types dominating the main rock domains identified and described in the site descriptive model of the bedrock geology. However, relatively large parts of the rock consist of altered rock and the open fracture frequency appears to be correlated to the altered/oxidised parts of the rock. This implies that transport in open fractures to a large extent takes place in the altered parts of the rock. For the fracture mineralogy, it is found that the

  6. Explorative analysis of microbes, colloids and gases together with microbial modelling. Site description model SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta; Pedersen, Karsten (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-08-15

    The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate changes are the major driving force for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes of copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Laxemar site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and Univ. researchers with expertise in geochemistry, hydrochemistry, hydrogeochemistry, microbiology, geomicrobiology, analytical chemistry etc. The resulting site descriptive model version, mainly based on available primary data from the extended data freeze L2.3 (Nov 2007). This report focuses on microbiology, colloids and gases. Several methods must be used to characterise active microbial communities in groundwater. Microbial parameters of interest are the total number of cells (TNC) and the presence of various metabolic groups of

  7. Explorative analysis of microbes, colloids and gases together with microbial modelling. Site description model SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallbeck, Lotta; Pedersen, Karsten

    2008-08-01

    The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate changes are the major driving force for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes of copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Laxemar site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and Univ. researchers with expertise in geochemistry, hydrochemistry, hydrogeochemistry, microbiology, geomicrobiology, analytical chemistry etc. The resulting site descriptive model version, mainly based on available primary data from the extended data freeze L2.3 (Nov 2007). This report focuses on microbiology, colloids and gases. Several methods must be used to characterise active microbial communities in groundwater. Microbial parameters of interest are the total number of cells (TNC) and the presence of various metabolic groups of

  8. Description of climate, surface hydrology, and near-surface hydrogeology. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Per-Olof; Werner, Kent; Bosson, Emma; Berglund, Sten; Juston, John

    2005-06-01

    chloride content has been found below Lake Bolundsfjaerden, Lake Eckarfjaerden and Lake Gaellsbotraesket. The relations between the sea water level and the water levels in Lake Norra Bassaengen, Lake Bolundsfjaerden and Lake Lillfjaerden show that inflow of sea water can occur during periods of high sea water levels. The results from the hydrological GIS modelling support the assumptions and conclusions in the descriptive model. The flow model is highly sensitive to the topography, as this is the only parameter determining the flow pattern. Consequently, the simulated locations of recharge and discharge areas are strongly influenced by the local topography. In addition, the flat topography implies that small errors in the topographical model (the Digital Elevation Model, DEM) may have large effects on the modelled flow pattern. Ditches, diverted water courses and other human impacts on the system are important in some parts of the model area. These and other types of ''man-made structures'' are not fully considered in the DEM. The water balance for the Forsmark area, as calculated with the MIKE SHE modelling tool, agrees with the presented conceptual and descriptive models of the flow system. The transient model simulations for the selected reference year (1988) result in an annual total runoff of 226 mm and a total actual evapotranspiration of 441 mm. These values, which are average values for the considered model area, are considered to be reasonable for the Forsmark area. At present, however, they cannot be tested against site-specific measurements. The MIKE SHE model produces a shallow groundwater table, which approximately agrees with the groundwater level measurements within the area, and with the overall conceptualisation of the system. However, no detailed model calibration has been performed. The modelling results show that most of the groundwater flow occurs in the Quaternary deposits. The results also illustrate the importance of the fracture zones for the

  9. Preliminary thermal/thermomechanical analyses of the Site Characterization Plan's Conceptual Design for a repository containing horizontally emplaced waste packages at the Deaf Smith County site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghantous, N.Y.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-10-01

    This report presents thermal/thermomechanical analyses of the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design for horizontal package emplacement at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. The repository was divided into three geometric regions. Then two-dimensional finite-element models were set up to approximate the three-dimensional nature of each region. Thermal and quasistatic thermomechanical finite-element analyses were performed to evaluate the thermal/thermomechanical responses of the three regions. The exponential-time creep law was used to represent the creep behavior of salt rock. The repository design was evaluated by comparing the thermal/thermomechanical responses obtained for the three regions with interim performance constraints. The preliminary results show that all the performance constraints are met except for those of the waste package. The following factors were considered in interpreting these results: (1) the qualitative description of the analytical responses; (2) the limitations of the analyses; and (3) either the conclusions based on overall evaluation of limitations and analytical results or the conclusions based on the fact that the repository design may be evaluated only after further analyses. Furthermore, a parametric analysis was performed to estimate the effect of material parameters on the predicted thermal/thermomechanical response. 23 refs., 34 figs., 9 tabs

  10. Phonon transmission and thermal conductance in one-dimensional system with on-site potential disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Songshan; Xu Hui; Deng Honggui; Yang Bingchu

    2011-01-01

    The role of on-site potential disorder on phonon transmission and thermal conductance of one-dimensional system is investigated. We found that the on-site potential disorder can lead to the localization of phonons, and has great effect on the phonon transmission and thermal conductance of the system. As on-site potential disorder W increases, the transmission coefficients decrease, and approach zero at the band edges. Corresponding, the thermal conductance decreases drastically, and the curves for thermal conductance exhibit a series of steps and plateaus. Meanwhile, when the on-site potential disorder W is strong enough, the thermal conductance decreases dramatically with the increase of system size N. We also found that the efficiency of reducing thermal conductance by increasing the on-site potential disorder strength is much better than that by increasing the on-site potential's amplitude. - Highlights: → We studied the effect of on-site potential disorder on thermal transport. → Increasing disorder will decrease thermal transport. → Increasing system size will also decrease its thermal conductance. → Increasing disorder is more efficient than other in reducing thermal conductance.

  11. Thermal efficiencies and OTEC potentials at some offshore sites along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshBabu, V.; Sathe, P.V.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    The annual variation of thermal efficiency of closed OTEC power cycle at some selected offshore sites along the Indian coast is presented. OTEC potentials at these sites have been evaluated in order to identify promising locations for exploration...

  12. The SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS): Technical description: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    Socioeconomic impacts must be assessed both for the near term and for the future. One means of addressing the need for the assessment of such impacts has been through the development of the computerized socioeconomic assessment model called the SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS) model. The SEARS model was developed for the Battelle Project Management Division. It was refined and adapted from state-of-the-art computerized projection models and thoroughly validated and is now available for use in projecting the likely socioeconomic impacts of a repository facility. This Technical Description is one of six major products that describe the SEARS modeling system. 61 refs., 11 figs., 9 tabs

  13. Descriptions of representative contaminated sites and facilities within the DOE complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, S.M.; Buck, J.W.; Clark, L.L.; Fletcher, J.F.; Glantz, C.S.; Holdren, G.R.; Huesties, L.R.; Williams, M.D.; Oates, L.

    1994-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated efforts to prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) that will analyze the existing environmental restoration and waste management program and evaluate alternatives for an integrated program. The alternatives being evaluated include (1) a open-quotes No Actionclose quotes alternative as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), (2) an Applicable, Relevant, and Appropriate Requirements (ARAR)-driven alternative, (3) a land-use-driven alternative, (4) a health-risk-driven alternative, and (5) a combination land-use and health-risk-driven alternative. The analytical approach being taken to evaluate each of these alternatives is to perform a remedial engineering analysis and human health and ecosystem effects analyses on every contaminated site and facility in the DOE complex. One of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) roles in this approach has been to compile the source term and environmental setting data needed to drive each of these analyses. To date, over 10,000 individual contaminated sites and facilities located throughout the DOE complex of installations have been identified and at least some minimal data compiled on each. The PEIS analyses have been appreciably simplified by categorizing all of these contaminated sites and facilities into six broad categories: (1) contaminated buildings, (2) contaminated soils, (3) solid waste sites (e.g., burial grounds), (4) liquid containment structures (e.g., tanks), (5) surface water sites, and (6) contaminated groundwater sites. A report containing a complete description of each of these thousands of contaminated sites and facilities would be tremendously large and unwildy, as would separate reports describing the application of the analytical methodologies to each

  14. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. Development and testing of the theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, Isabelle; Fredriksson, Anders; Outters, Nils [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    In the purpose of studying the possibilities of a Deep Repository for spent fuel, the Swedish Nuclear and Fuel Management Company (SKB) is currently planning for Site Investigations. Data collected from these Site Investigations are interpreted and analysed to achieve the full Site Description, which is built up of models from all the disciplines that are considered of importance for the Site Description. One of these models is the Rock Mechanical Descriptive Model,which would be developed for any site in hard crystalline rock, and is a combination and evaluation of the characterisation of rock mass by means of empirical relationships and a theoretical approach based on numerical modelling. The present report describes the theoretical approach. The characterisation of the mechanical properties of the rock mass, viewed as a unit consisting of intact rock and fractures, is achieved by numerical simulations with following input parameters: initial stresses, fracture geometry, distribution of rock mechanical properties, such as deformation and strength parameters, for the intact rock and for the fractures. The numerical modelling was performed with the two-dimensional code UDEC, and the rock block models were generated from 2D trace sections extracted from the 3D Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) model. Assumptions and uncertainties related to the set-up of the model are considered. The numerical model was set-up to simulate a plain strain-loading test. Different boundary conditions were applied on the model for simulating stress conditions (I) in the undisturbed rock mass, and (II) at the proximity of a tunnel. In order to assess the reliability of the model sensitivity analyses have been conducted on some rock block models for defining the dependency of mechanical properties to in situ stresses, the influence of boundary conditions, rock material and joint constitutive models used to simulate the behaviour of intact rock and fractures, domain size and anisotropy. To

  15. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. Development and testing of the theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub, Isabelle; Fredriksson, Anders; Outters, Nils

    2002-05-01

    In the purpose of studying the possibilities of a Deep Repository for spent fuel, the Swedish Nuclear and Fuel Management Company (SKB) is currently planning for Site Investigations. Data collected from these Site Investigations are interpreted and analysed to achieve the full Site Description, which is built up of models from all the disciplines that are considered of importance for the Site Description. One of these models is the Rock Mechanical Descriptive Model,which would be developed for any site in hard crystalline rock, and is a combination and evaluation of the characterisation of rock mass by means of empirical relationships and a theoretical approach based on numerical modelling. The present report describes the theoretical approach. The characterisation of the mechanical properties of the rock mass, viewed as a unit consisting of intact rock and fractures, is achieved by numerical simulations with following input parameters: initial stresses, fracture geometry, distribution of rock mechanical properties, such as deformation and strength parameters, for the intact rock and for the fractures. The numerical modelling was performed with the two-dimensional code UDEC, and the rock block models were generated from 2D trace sections extracted from the 3D Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) model. Assumptions and uncertainties related to the set-up of the model are considered. The numerical model was set-up to simulate a plain strain-loading test. Different boundary conditions were applied on the model for simulating stress conditions (I) in the undisturbed rock mass, and (II) at the proximity of a tunnel. In order to assess the reliability of the model sensitivity analyses have been conducted on some rock block models for defining the dependency of mechanical properties to in situ stresses, the influence of boundary conditions, rock material and joint constitutive models used to simulate the behaviour of intact rock and fractures, domain size and anisotropy. To

  16. Factors affecting thermal infrared images at selected field sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisson, J.B.; Ferguson, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    A thermal infrared (TIR) survey was conducted to locate surface ordnance in and around the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area, and a thermal anomaly was found. This report documents studies conducted to identify the position of cause of the thermal anomaly. Also included are results of a long path Fourier transform infrared survey, soil sampling activities, soil gas surveys, and buried heater studies. The results of these studies indicated that the thermal anomaly was caused by a gravel pad, which had thermal properties different than those of the surrounding soil. Results from this investigation suggest that TIR is useful for locating surface objects having a high thermal inertia compared to the surrounding terrain, but TIR is of very limited use for characterizing buried waste or other similar buried objects at the INEL

  17. Preliminary site description: Groundwater flow simulations. Simpevarp area (version 1.1) modelled with CONNECTFLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, Lee; Worth, David; Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko; Holmen, Johan

    2004-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess the role of known and unknown hydrogeological conditions for the present-day distribution of saline groundwater at the Simpevarp and Laxemar sites. An improved understanding of the paleo-hydrogeology is necessary in order to gain credibility for the Site Descriptive Model in general and the Site Hydrogeological Description in particular. This is to serve as a basis for describing the present hydrogeological conditions as well as predictions of future hydrogeological conditions. This objective implies a testing of: geometrical alternatives in the structural geology and bedrock fracturing, variants in the initial and boundary conditions, and parameter uncertainties (i.e. uncertainties in the hydraulic property assignment). This testing is necessary in order to evaluate the impact on the groundwater flow field of the specified components and to promote proposals of further investigations of the hydrogeological conditions at the site. The general methodology for modelling transient salt transport and groundwater flow using CONNECTFLOW that was developed for Forsmark has been applied successfully also for Simpevarp. Because of time constraints only a key set of variants were performed that focussed on the influences of DFN model parameters, the kinematic porosity, and the initial condition. Salinity data in deep boreholes available at the time of the project was too limited to allow a good calibration exercise. However, the model predictions are compared with the available data from KLX01 and KLX02 below. Once more salinity data is available it may be possible to draw more definite conclusions based on the differences between variants. At the moment though the differences should just be used understand the sensitivity of the models to various input parameters

  18. Withdrawal-associated injury site pain (WISP): a descriptive case series of an opioid cessation phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieb, Launette Marie; Norman, Wendy V; Martin, Ruth Elwood; Berkowitz, Jonathan; Wood, Evan; McNeil, Ryan; Milloy, M-J

    2016-12-01

    Withdrawal pain can be a barrier to opioid cessation. Yet, little is known about old injury site pain in this context. We conducted an exploratory mixed-methods descriptive case series using a web-based survey and in-person interviews with adults recruited from pain and addiction treatment and research settings. We included individuals who self-reported a past significant injury that was healed and pain-free before the initiation of opioids, which then became temporarily painful upon opioid cessation-a phenomenon we have named withdrawal-associated injury site pain (WISP). Screening identified WISP in 47 people, of whom 34 (72%) completed the descriptive survey, including 21 who completed qualitative interviews. Recalled pain severity scores for WISP were typically high (median: 8/10; interquartile range [IQR]: 2), emotionally and physically aversive, and took approximately 2 weeks to resolve (median: 14; IQR: 24 days). Withdrawal-associated injury site pain intensity was typically slightly less than participants' original injury pain (median: 10/10; IQR: 3), and more painful than other generalized withdrawal symptoms which also lasted approximately 2 weeks (median: 13; IQR: 25 days). Fifteen surveyed participants (44%) reported returning to opioid use because of WISP in the past. Participants developed theories about the etiology of WISP, including that the pain is the brain's way of communicating a desire for opioids. This research represents the first known documentation that previously healed, and pain-free injury sites can temporarily become painful again during opioid withdrawal, an experience which may be a barrier to opioid cessation, and a contributor to opioid reinitiation.

  19. Regional hydrogeological simulations using CONECTFLOW. Preliminary site description. Laxemar sub area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Lee; Hunter, Fiona; Jackson, Peter; McCarthy, Rachel [Serco Assurance, Risley (United Kingdom); Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    The main objective of this study is to support the development of a preliminary Site Description of the Laxemar subarea on a regional-scale based on the available data of November 2004 (Data Freeze L1.2). A more specific objective of this study is to assess the role of both known and less quantified hydrogeological conditions in determining the present-day distribution of saline groundwater in the Laxemar subarea on a regional-scale. An improved understanding of the palaeo-hydrogeology is necessary in order to gain credibility for the Site Description in general and the hydrogeological description in particular. This is to serve as a basis for describing the present hydrogeological conditions on a local-scale, as well as predictions of future hydrogeological conditions. Another objective is to assess the flow-paths from the local-scale model domain, based on the present-day flow conditions, to assess the distribution of discharge and recharge areas connected to the flow at the approximate repository depth to inform the Preliminary Safety Evaluation. Significant new features incorporated in the modelling include: a depth variation in hydraulic properties within the deformation zones; a dependence on rock domain and depth in the rock mass properties in regional-scale models; a more detailed model of the overburden in terms of a layered system of spatially variable thickness made up of several different types of Quaternary deposits has been implemented; and several variants on the position of the watertable have been tried. The motivation for introducing a dependence on rock domain was guided by the hydrogeological interpretation with the aim of honouring the observed differences in hydraulic properties measured at the boreholes.

  20. Regional hydrogeological simulations using CONECTFLOW. Preliminary site description. Laxemar sub area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, Lee; Hunter, Fiona; Jackson, Peter; McCarthy, Rachel; Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko

    2006-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to support the development of a preliminary Site Description of the Laxemar subarea on a regional-scale based on the available data of November 2004 (Data Freeze L1.2). A more specific objective of this study is to assess the role of both known and less quantified hydrogeological conditions in determining the present-day distribution of saline groundwater in the Laxemar subarea on a regional-scale. An improved understanding of the palaeo-hydrogeology is necessary in order to gain credibility for the Site Description in general and the hydrogeological description in particular. This is to serve as a basis for describing the present hydrogeological conditions on a local-scale, as well as predictions of future hydrogeological conditions. Another objective is to assess the flow-paths from the local-scale model domain, based on the present-day flow conditions, to assess the distribution of discharge and recharge areas connected to the flow at the approximate repository depth to inform the Preliminary Safety Evaluation. Significant new features incorporated in the modelling include: a depth variation in hydraulic properties within the deformation zones; a dependence on rock domain and depth in the rock mass properties in regional-scale models; a more detailed model of the overburden in terms of a layered system of spatially variable thickness made up of several different types of Quaternary deposits has been implemented; and several variants on the position of the watertable have been tried. The motivation for introducing a dependence on rock domain was guided by the hydrogeological interpretation with the aim of honouring the observed differences in hydraulic properties measured at the boreholes

  1. Reliable Refuge: Two Sky Island Scorpion Species Select Larger, Thermally Stable Retreat Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jamie E; Brown, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Sky island scorpions shelter under rocks and other surface debris, but, as with other scorpions, it is unclear whether these species select retreat sites randomly. Furthermore, little is known about the thermal preferences of scorpions, and no research has been done to identify whether reproductive condition might influence retreat site selection. The objectives were to (1) identify physical or thermal characteristics for retreat sites occupied by two sky island scorpions (Vaejovis cashi Graham 2007 and V. electrum Hughes 2011) and those not occupied; (2) determine whether retreat site selection differs between the two study species; and (3) identify whether thermal selection differs between species and between gravid and non-gravid females of the same species. Within each scorpion's habitat, maximum dimensions of rocks along a transect line were measured and compared to occupied rocks to determine whether retreat site selection occurred randomly. Temperature loggers were placed under a subset of occupied and unoccupied rocks for 48 hours to compare the thermal characteristics of these rocks. Thermal gradient trials were conducted before parturition and after dispersal of young in order to identify whether gravidity influences thermal preference. Vaejovis cashi and V. electrum both selected larger retreat sites that had more stable thermal profiles. Neither species appeared to have thermal preferences influenced by reproductive condition. However, while thermal selection did not differ among non-gravid individuals, gravid V. electrum selected warmer temperatures than its gravid congener. Sky island scorpions appear to select large retreat sites to maintain thermal stability, although biotic factors (e.g., competition) could also be involved in this choice. Future studies should focus on identifying the various biotic or abiotic factors that could influence retreat site selection in scorpions, as well as determining whether reproductive condition affects thermal

  2. ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR ON SITE EVALUATION OF THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Janković

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal transmittance or U-value is an indicator of the building envelope thermal properties and a key parameter for evaluation of heat losses through the building elements due to heat transmission. It can be determined by calculation based on thermal characteristics of the building element layers. However, this value does not take into account the effects of irregularities and degradation of certain elements of the envelope caused by aging, which may lead to errors in calculation of the heat losses. An effective and simple method for determination of thermal transmittance is in situ measurement, which is governed by the ISO 9869-1:2014 that defines heat flow meter method. This relatively expensive method leaves marks and damages surface of the building element. Furthermore, the final result is not always reliable, in particular when the building element is light or when the weather conditions are not suitable. In order to avoid the above mentioned problems and to estimate the real thermal transmittance value an alternative experimental method, here referred as the natural convection and radiation method, is proposed in this paper. For determination of thermal transmittance, this method requires only temperatures of inside and outside air, as well as the inner wall surface temperature. A detailed statistical analysis, performed by the software package SPSS ver. 20, shows several more advantages of this method comparing to the standard heat flow meter one, besides economic and non-destructive benefits.

  3. Numerical modelling of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosson, Emma (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran; Sassner, Mona (DHI Sverige AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    SKB is currently performing site investigations at two potential sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report presents results of water flow and solute transport modelling of the Forsmark site. The modelling reported in this document focused on the near-surface groundwater, i.e. groundwater in Quaternary deposits and shallow rock, and surface water systems, and was performed using the MIKE SHE tool. The most recent site data used in the modelling were delivered in the Forsmark 2.3 dataset, which had its 'data freeze' on March 31, 2007. The present modelling is performed in support of the final version of the Forsmark site description that is produced during the site investigation phase. In this work, the hydrological modelling system MIKE SHE has been used to describe near-surface groundwater flow and the contact between groundwater and surface water at the Forsmark site. The surface water system at Forsmark is described with the one-dimensional 'channel flow' modelling tool MIKE 11, which is fully and dynamically integrated with MIKE SHE. The MIKE SHE model was updated with data from the F2.3 data freeze. The main updates concerned the geological description of the saturated zone and the time series data on water levels and surface water discharges. The time series data used as input data and for calibration and validation was extended until the Forsmark 2.3 data freeze (March 31, 2007). The present work can be subdivided into the following four parts: 1. Update of the numerical flow model. 2. Sensitivity analysis and calibration of the model parameters. 3. Validation of the calibrated model, followed by evaluation and identification of discrepancies between measurements and model results. 4. Additional sensitivity analysis and calibration in order to resolve the problems identified in point three above. The main actions taken during the calibration can be summarised as follows: 1. The potential evapotranspiration was

  4. Description of recommended non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This document contains description of the technologies selected for inclusions in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Study. The purpose of these descriptions is to provide a more complete description of the INTS technologies. It supplements the summary descriptions of candidate nonthermal technologies that were considered for the INTS

  5. Description of recommended non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document contains description of the technologies selected for inclusions in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Study. The purpose of these descriptions is to provide a more complete description of the INTS technologies. It supplements the summary descriptions of candidate nonthermal technologies that were considered for the INTS.

  6. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus

    2006-04-01

    groups of groundwaters have been identified. Characterisation of pore water in core samples from the Laxemar borehole, KLX03, shows that chemical and isotopic pore water signatures have a characteristic variation of groundwater composition with rock type and depth that is in close agreement with the general trends in hydrochemistry of the adjacent formation (fracture) groundwaters. There is little apparent evidence of a glacial melt signature in the pore waters. Pore waters at depth show an affinity with deep brine evolution. Steady state conditions between pore water and formation groundwaters in the fractures are essentially only developed in the shallow zone of the Aevroe granite, while at depths greater than 450 m the chemical and isotopic composition of the pore water differs markedly from that of the fracture groundwaters in fractures. Diffusion between rock pore water and adjacent fracture groundwaters is identified as the dominant transport process; calculated diffusion coefficients agree well with current knowledge of conditions in the Laxemar site. In this report the models and the site understanding have been consolidated. Despite relatively few new data from depth, the models have been updated and the further understanding gained of groundwater origin, groundwater evolution, reactions, studies of interaction between shallow and deep groundwater, pore water composition in bedrock, microbial depth variation, uncertainties of the mixing calculations, tritium variations with time and 3D visualisation of the spatial variability of groundwater properties. An updated Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model version 1.2 for Laxemar subarea has evolved. The resulting description has improved compared with the 1.2 version for Simpevarp subarea by producing a more detailed process modelling, uncertainty analysis and 3D visualisation. The microbial characterisation gives direct support to, for example, the redox modelling. The coupled transport modelling can address

  7. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    hydrochemical groups of groundwaters have been identified. Characterisation of pore water in core samples from the Laxemar borehole, KLX03, shows that chemical and isotopic pore water signatures have a characteristic variation of groundwater composition with rock type and depth that is in close agreement with the general trends in hydrochemistry of the adjacent formation (fracture) groundwaters. There is little apparent evidence of a glacial melt signature in the pore waters. Pore waters at depth show an affinity with deep brine evolution. Steady state conditions between pore water and formation groundwaters in the fractures are essentially only developed in the shallow zone of the Aevroe granite, while at depths greater than 450 m the chemical and isotopic composition of the pore water differs markedly from that of the fracture groundwaters in fractures. Diffusion between rock pore water and adjacent fracture groundwaters is identified as the dominant transport process; calculated diffusion coefficients agree well with current knowledge of conditions in the Laxemar site. In this report the models and the site understanding have been consolidated. Despite relatively few new data from depth, the models have been updated and the further understanding gained of groundwater origin, groundwater evolution, reactions, studies of interaction between shallow and deep groundwater, pore water composition in bedrock, microbial depth variation, uncertainties of the mixing calculations, tritium variations with time and 3D visualisation of the spatial variability of groundwater properties. An updated Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model version 1.2 for Laxemar subarea has evolved. The resulting description has improved compared with the 1.2 version for Simpevarp subarea by producing a more detailed process modelling, uncertainty analysis and 3D visualisation. The microbial characterisation gives direct support to, for example, the redox modelling. The coupled transport modelling can

  8. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology, with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate the U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts (Wolsko et al. 1991). The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were then subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the ORGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use, socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3. Following the site description and additional data requirements, Sec. 4 provides a short, qualitative assessment of potential environmental issues. 37 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology, with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate the U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts (Wolsko et al. 1991). The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were then subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the ORGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use, socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3. Following the site description and additional data requirements, Sec. 4 provides a short, qualitative assessment of potential environmental issues. 37 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs

  10. Hydrogeochemical evaluation for Simpevarp model version 1.2. Preliminary site description of the Simpevarp area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus

    2004-12-01

    to Type C groundwaters. Main reactions involve water/rock interaction for long residence non-marine brines driven by diffusion. A modelling approach was used to simulate the composition of the highly saline or brine groundwaters and, in the Simpevarp area, concluded that mixing is the main irreversible process. It controls chloride concentration that, in turn, determines the re-equilibrium path (water-rock interaction) triggered by mixing. Coupled transport modelling was used to model the groundwater age, tritium content and calcite dissolution/precipitation processes at shallow groundwater depths at both Laxemar and Simpevarp. The modelled results provide additional support to hydrogeological models by using independent hydrochemical information and added support to the general hydrogeochemical understanding of the site. In this evaluation the groundwater model has been updated, the salinity distribution, mixing processes and the major reactions altering the groundwaters have been modelled down to a depth of 1000 m, and an updated Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model version 1.2 has been produced. More groundwater and isotopic data, together with microbial information, colloids and gases, provided additional site descriptive information. Finally, the introduction of coupled modelling provided additional possibilities to address independently the various processes in question

  11. THEAP-I: A computer program for thermal hydraulic analysis of a thermally interacting channel bundle of complex geometry. Code description and user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzis, J G; Megaritou, A; Belessiotis, V

    1987-09-01

    THEAP-I is a computer code developed in NRCPS `DEMOCRITUS` with the aim to contribute to the safety analysis of the open pool research reactors. THEAP-I is designed for three dimensional, transient thermal/hydraulic analysis of a thermally interacting channel bundle totally immersed into water or air, such as the reactor core. In the present report the mathematical and physical models and methods of the solution are given as well as the code description and the input data. A sample problem is also included, refering to the Greek Research Reactor analysis, under an hypothetical severe loss of coolant accident.

  12. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Filley, T.H.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3

  13. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Filley, T.H.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3.

  14. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Yuen, C.R.; Cleland, J.H. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs.

  15. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Yuen, C.R.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs

  16. Hydrogeochemical evaluation for Simpevarp model version 1.2. Preliminary site description of the Simpevarp area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    process. It controls chloride concentration that, in turn, determines the re-equilibrium path (water-rock interaction) triggered by mixing. Coupled transport modelling was used to model the groundwater age, tritium content and calcite dissolution/precipitation processes at shallow groundwater depths at both Laxemar and Simpevarp. The modelled results provide additional support to hydrogeological models by using independent hydrochemical information and added support to the general hydrogeochemical understanding of the site. In this evaluation the groundwater model has been updated, the salinity distribution, mixing processes and the major reactions altering the groundwaters have been modelled down to a depth of 1000 m, and an updated Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model version 1.2 has been produced. More groundwater and isotopic data, together with microbial information, colloids and gases, provided additional site descriptive information. Finally, the introduction of coupled modelling provided additional possibilities to address independently the various processes in question.

  17. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus

    2005-03-01

    bedrock is estimated to be less than in other investigated sites such as Simpevarp and Laxemar, where the presence of Quaternary overburden is less important. The hydrogeologic behaviour of the Quaternary overburden in Forsmark provides a plausible explanation for the preservation of Littorina Sea signatures found in several groundwater samples, even at very shallow depths. Other (and complementary) explanations can be related with the flat topography, as well as with the fact that the Forsmark site has emerged over the sea level more recently than other investigated sites. The modelling indicates also that the groundwater composition at repository depths is such that the representative samples from KFM02A: 509-516 m and KFM03A: 448-453 m can meet the SKB chemical stability criteria for Eh, pH, TDS, DOC and Ca+Mg. In this evaluation the groundwater flow model has been updated, the salinity distribution, mixing processes and the major reactions altering the groundwaters have been modelled down to a depth of 1,000 m, and an updated Hydrogeochemical site descriptive model version 1.2 has been produced. More groundwater and isotopic data, together with microbial information, colloids and gases, provided additional site descriptive information. Finally, the introduction of coupled modelling provided further possibilities to address independently the various processes in question

  18. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-03-15

    effective recharge into the granitic bedrock is estimated to be less than in other investigated sites such as Simpevarp and Laxemar, where the presence of Quaternary overburden is less important. The hydrogeologic behaviour of the Quaternary overburden in Forsmark provides a plausible explanation for the preservation of Littorina Sea signatures found in several groundwater samples, even at very shallow depths. Other (and complementary) explanations can be related with the flat topography, as well as with the fact that the Forsmark site has emerged over the sea level more recently than other investigated sites. The modelling indicates also that the groundwater composition at repository depths is such that the representative samples from KFM02A: 509-516 m and KFM03A: 448-453 m can meet the SKB chemical stability criteria for Eh, pH, TDS, DOC and Ca+Mg. In this evaluation the groundwater flow model has been updated, the salinity distribution, mixing processes and the major reactions altering the groundwaters have been modelled down to a depth of 1,000 m, and an updated Hydrogeochemical site descriptive model version 1.2 has been produced. More groundwater and isotopic data, together with microbial information, colloids and gases, provided additional site descriptive information. Finally, the introduction of coupled modelling provided further possibilities to address independently the various processes in question.

  19. Non-Thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-Level Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    DOE proposes to transport contact-handled LLMW from the Hanford Site to the Allied Technology Group (ATG) Mixed Waste Facility (MWF) in Richland, Washington, for non-thermal treatment and to return the treated waste to the Hanford Site for eventual land disposal. Over a 3-year period the waste would be staged to the ATG MWF, and treated waste would be returned to the Hanford Site. The ATG MWF would be located on an 18 hectare (ha) (45 acre [at]) ATG Site adjacent to ATG's licensed low-level waste processing facility at 2025 Battelle Boulevard. The ATG MWF is located approximately 0.8 kilometers (km) (0.5 miles [mi]) south of Horn Rapids Road and 1.6 km (1 mi) west of Stevens Drive. The property is located within the Horn Rapids triangle in northern Richland (Figure 2.1). The ATG MWF is to be located on the existing ATG Site, near the DOE Hanford Site, in an industrial area in the City of Richland. The effects of siting, construction, and overall operation of the MWF have been evaluated in a separate State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) EIS (City of Richland 1998). The proposed action includes transporting the LLMW from the Hanford Site to the ATG Facility, non-thermal treatment of the LLMW at the ATG MWF, and transporting the waste from ATG back to the Hanford Site. Impacts fi-om waste treatment operations would be bounded by the ATG SEPA EIS, which included an evaluation of the impacts associated with operating the non-thermal portion of the MWF at maximum design capacity (8,500 metric tons per year) (City of Richland 1998). Up to 50 employees would be required for non-thermal treatment portion of the MWF. This includes 40 employees that would perform waste treatment operations and 10 support staff. Similar numbers were projected for the thermal treatment portion of the MWF (City of Richland 1998).

  20. Hanford site as it relates to an alternative site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: an environmental description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, K.R. (ed.)

    1978-12-01

    The use of basalt at Hanford as an alternative for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) would require that the present Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) at Hanford be expanded to incorporate the planned WIPP functions, namely the permanent storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This report discusses: program costs, demography, ecology, climatology, physiography, hydrology, geology, seismology, and historical and archeological sites. (DLC)

  1. Hanford site as it relates to an alternative site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: an environmental description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.

    1978-12-01

    The use of basalt at Hanford as an alternative for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) would require that the present Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) at Hanford be expanded to incorporate the planned WIPP functions, namely the permanent storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This report discusses: program costs, demography, ecology, climatology, physiography, hydrology, geology, seismology, and historical and archeological sites

  2. Outdoor comfort study in Rio de Janeiro: site-related context effects on reported thermal sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, E.; Drach, P.; Broede, P.

    2017-03-01

    Aimed at climate-responsive urban design for tropical areas, the paper attempts to answer the question whether the site-related context affects in some way the perceptual assessment of the microclimate by users of outdoor spaces. Our hypothesis was that visual cues resulting from urban design are important components of the outdoor thermal perception. Monitoring was carried out alongside the administration of standard comfort questionnaires throughout summer periods in 2012-2015 in pedestrian areas of downtown Rio de Janeiro (22° 54 10 S, 43° 12 27 W), Brazil. Campaigns took place at different points, pre-defined in respect of urban geometry attributes. For the measurements, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station was employed to which a gray globe thermometer was attached. Two thermal indices were used for assessing the overall meteorological conditions and comfort levels in the outdoor locations: physiological equivalent temperature (PET) and universal thermal climate index (UTCI). Our results suggest that thermal sensation in Rio depends to a large extent on the thermal environment as described by air temperature, PET, or UTCI, and that urban geometry (expressed by the sky-view factor (SVF)) may modify this relationship with increased building density associated to warmer sensation votes under moderate heat stress conditions. This relationship however reverses under strong heat stress with warmer sensations in less obstructed locations, and disappears completely under still higher heat stress, where meteorological conditions, and not the site's SVF, will drive thermal sensation.

  3. Outdoor comfort study in Rio de Janeiro: site-related context effects on reported thermal sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, E; Drach, P; Broede, P

    2017-03-01

    Aimed at climate-responsive urban design for tropical areas, the paper attempts to answer the question whether the site-related context affects in some way the perceptual assessment of the microclimate by users of outdoor spaces. Our hypothesis was that visual cues resulting from urban design are important components of the outdoor thermal perception. Monitoring was carried out alongside the administration of standard comfort questionnaires throughout summer periods in 2012-2015 in pedestrian areas of downtown Rio de Janeiro (22° 54 10 S, 43° 12 27 W), Brazil. Campaigns took place at different points, pre-defined in respect of urban geometry attributes. For the measurements, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station was employed to which a gray globe thermometer was attached. Two thermal indices were used for assessing the overall meteorological conditions and comfort levels in the outdoor locations: physiological equivalent temperature (PET) and universal thermal climate index (UTCI). Our results suggest that thermal sensation in Rio depends to a large extent on the thermal environment as described by air temperature, PET, or UTCI, and that urban geometry (expressed by the sky-view factor (SVF)) may modify this relationship with increased building density associated to warmer sensation votes under moderate heat stress conditions. This relationship however reverses under strong heat stress with warmer sensations in less obstructed locations, and disappears completely under still higher heat stress, where meteorological conditions, and not the site's SVF, will drive thermal sensation.

  4. Regional siting survey for thermal power plants in the state of Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkins, M.L.; DiNunno, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    The selection and evaluation of sites for power plants have become increasingly difficult in recent years as pressures from various societal segments have resulted in government restraints on selection and burning of fossil fuels, on methods of heat dissipation, on acquisition of transmission line rights-of-way, and on environmental impact in general. The key elements in successful application of power plant siting technology are the development of the proper balance among the basic siting considerations and the understanding that level of detail in a study varies in an inverse relationship with the siting area under examination. As the first step in the process of selection and eventual licensing of new thermal power plant sites for a utility in the State of Ohio, the entire state was screened to determine promising candidate regions large enough to offer several possible candidate sites for thermal power plants. Because of the size of the area under consideration and the advantages of developing sites with an ultimate capacity for more than one power plant, sites with an installed capacity of 1100 to 4400 MW(e) were considered for this study. As a result of the preliminary screening conducted in four distinct steps, three candidate regions showed the best overall promise for either nuclear or fossil-fueled power plant development. Tentative identification was made of candidate sites within these candidate regions, and follow-on studies conducted in an increasing level of detail are presently in progress to determine the candidate site(s) most promising for power plant siting. (U.S.)

  5. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. Development and testing of the empirical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeshoff, Kennert; Lanaro, Flavio; Lanru Jing

    2002-05-01

    This report presents the results of one part of a wide project for the determination of a methodology for the determination of the rock mechanics properties of the rock mass for the so-called Aespoe Test Case. The Project consists of three major parts: the empirical part dealing with the characterisation of the rock mass by applying empirical methods, a part determining the rock mechanics properties of the rock mass through numerical modelling, and a third part carrying out numerical modelling for the determination of the stress state at Aespoe. All Project's parts were performed based on a limited amount of data about the geology and mechanical tests on samples selected from the Aespoe Database. This Report only considers the empirical approach. The purpose of the project is the development of a descriptive rock mechanics model for SKBs rock mass investigations for a final repository site. The empirical characterisation of the rock mass provides correlations with some of the rock mechanics properties of the rock mass such as the deformation modulus, the friction angle and cohesion for a certain stress interval and the uniaxial compressive strength. For the characterisation of the rock mass, several empirical methods were analysed and reviewed. Among those methods, some were chosen because robust, applicable and widespread in modern rock mechanics. Major weight was given to the well-known Tunnel Quality Index (Q) and Rock Mass Rating (RMR) but also the Rock Mass Index (RMi), the Geological Strength Index (GSI) and Ramamurthy's Criterion were applied for comparison with the two classical methods. The process of: i) sorting the geometrical/geological/rock mechanics data, ii) identifying homogeneous rock volumes, iii) determining the input parameters for the empirical ratings for rock mass characterisation; iv) evaluating the mechanical properties by using empirical relations with the rock mass ratings; was considered. By comparing the methodologies involved by the

  6. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. Development and testing of the empirical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeshoff, Kennert; Lanaro, Flavio [Berg Bygg Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lanru Jing [Royal Inst. of Techn., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Engineering Geology

    2002-05-01

    This report presents the results of one part of a wide project for the determination of a methodology for the determination of the rock mechanics properties of the rock mass for the so-called Aespoe Test Case. The Project consists of three major parts: the empirical part dealing with the characterisation of the rock mass by applying empirical methods, a part determining the rock mechanics properties of the rock mass through numerical modelling, and a third part carrying out numerical modelling for the determination of the stress state at Aespoe. All Project's parts were performed based on a limited amount of data about the geology and mechanical tests on samples selected from the Aespoe Database. This Report only considers the empirical approach. The purpose of the project is the development of a descriptive rock mechanics model for SKBs rock mass investigations for a final repository site. The empirical characterisation of the rock mass provides correlations with some of the rock mechanics properties of the rock mass such as the deformation modulus, the friction angle and cohesion for a certain stress interval and the uniaxial compressive strength. For the characterisation of the rock mass, several empirical methods were analysed and reviewed. Among those methods, some were chosen because robust, applicable and widespread in modern rock mechanics. Major weight was given to the well-known Tunnel Quality Index (Q) and Rock Mass Rating (RMR) but also the Rock Mass Index (RMi), the Geological Strength Index (GSI) and Ramamurthy's Criterion were applied for comparison with the two classical methods. The process of: i) sorting the geometrical/geological/rock mechanics data, ii) identifying homogeneous rock volumes, iii) determining the input parameters for the empirical ratings for rock mass characterisation; iv) evaluating the mechanical properties by using empirical relations with the rock mass ratings; was considered. By comparing the methodologies involved

  7. Theoretical description of the photopyroelectric technique in the slanted detector configuration for thermal diffusivity measurements in fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Trigos, J.B.; Marín, E.; Mansanares, A.M.; Cedeño, E.; Juárez-Gracia, G.; Calderón, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A model for photopyroelectric thermal characterization of fluids is presented. • A slanted detector configuration is considered with a finite measurement cell. • The mean temperature distribution in the photopyroelectric detector, as function of the beam spot position, is calculated. • The influence of the excitation beam spot size, the thermal diffusion length and size of the sample is discussed. • The high lateral resolution of the method observed in experiments is explain. - Abstract: This work presents an extended description about the theoretical aspects related to the generation of the photopyroelectric signal in a recently proposed wedge-like heat transmission detection configuration, which recreates the well-known Angstrom method (widely used for solid samples) for accurate thermal diffusivity measurement in gases and liquids. The presented model allows for the calculation of the temperature profile detected by the pyroelectric sensor as a function of the excitation beam position, and the study of the influence on it of several parameters, such as spot size, thermal properties of the absorber layer, and geometrical parameters of the measurement cell. Through computer simulations, it has been demonstrated that a narrow temperature distribution is created at the sensor surface, independently of the lateral diffusion of heat taking place at the sample's surface

  8. A method for site-dependent planning and its application to the preselection of sites for thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.

    1979-01-01

    In the first part of the paper a computer-aided method for dealing with the problems of site-dependent planning is described. By means of the modular program system COPLAN complex conjunction between locally varying data can be performed rapidly and accurately with respect to spatial orientation. The system consists of data input, numerous ways of processing, and graphical representation of the results. The second part shows the application of the system to preselection of sites for thermal power plants. By means of a method analyzing its usefulness, the suitability of each point in (the German Federal State of) Baden-Wuerttemberg as a power plant site is determined. Compared with the currently used methods of preliminary site selection the present method is distinguished by area-covering calculation, the possibility of balancing up advantages and disadvantages, as well as transparency and suitability for being checked up. The paper establishes and considers criteria from the fields of operational economy, safety, ecology, and district planning. The computations are performed for different orders of preference. It is shown that there are regions of sites which are acceptable with respect to a large spectrum of object systems. (orig.) [de

  9. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Station and Site Description Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, site inspection trips were carried out by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Risø DTU in April and June of 2011. A total of 10 sites featuring instrumented 60-m masts were visited; the present report summarises...

  10. Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEROSA, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    This document describes process and operational options for retrieval of the contact-handled suspect transuranic waste drums currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site. Retrieval processes and options discussed include excavation, container retrieval, venting, non-destructive assay, criticality avoidance, incidental waste handling, site preparation, equipment, and shipping

  11. Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DEROSA, D.C.

    2000-01-13

    This document describes process and operational options for retrieval of the contact-handled suspect transuranic waste drums currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site. Retrieval processes and options discussed include excavation, container retrieval, venting, non-destructive assay, criticality avoidance, incidental waste handling, site preparation, equipment, and shipping.

  12. Site-specific investigations of aquifer thermal energy storage for space and process cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) that has completed three preliminary site-specific feasibility studies that investigated aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) for reducing space and process cooling costs. Chilled water stored in an ATES system could be used to meet all or part of the process and/or space cooling loads at the three facilities investigated. Seasonal or diurnal chill ATES systems could be significantly less expensive than a conventional electrically-driven, load-following chiller system at one of the three sites, depending on the cooling water loop return temperature and presumed future electricity escalation rate. For the other two sites investigated, a chill ATES system would be economically competitive with conventional chillers if onsite aquifer characteristics were improved. Well flow rates at one of the sites were adequate, but the expected thermal recovery efficiency was too low. The reverse of this situation was found at the other site, where the thermal recovery efficiency was expected to be adequate, but well flow rates were too low

  13. A site study of the multiple effects of thermal releases on the aquatic life in an estuarine area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgese, D.; Dinelli, G.; Guzzi, L.; Smedile, E.

    1975-01-01

    The estuarine area of a river represents a typical site where different factors have to be considered when trying to assess the actual impact on the aquatic life of industrial thermal releases. These factors may be physical (river flow, sea currents, tides, residence time of waters in marshes and lagoons), biological (bio-mass production, mutual organic matter exchange between fresh and sea waters) and economic such as the commercial importance of fishing. In this respect the siting of a large power station in the Po river delta may cause serious problems for the conservation of the existing ecosystem. Thus a multidisciplinary approach with a view to predicting the final thermal impact of a power station on the environment seems fully justified despite its complexity. Therefore a detailed research programme has been established in order to study the following main points: (a) structure of the plant and animal populations; (b) primary production and bacterial activity; (c) physical and chemical characteristics of estuarine waters; (d) coastal characterization; (e) thermal effects on the biocenosis entering the condenser of existing plants operating under similar conditions. Together with conventional experimental techniques, airborne infra-red (IR) and multi-spectra (MS) surveys are planned as, according to preliminary investigations, they provide essential information for the recognition of water flow patterns and aquatic plant growth. The behaviour of the particular ecosystem will be simulated using mathematical models defined on a system theory approach, where the descriptive functions and rate constants come from experimental studies conducted in situ and with laboratory tests. In fact results of preliminary airborne scanning IR and MS surveys combined with biological studies confirm the need for systematic research on the Po river delta. (author)

  14. Geostatistical characterisation of geothermal parameters for a thermal aquifer storage site in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, J.; Li, T.; Grathwohl, P.; Blum, P.; Bayer, P.

    2009-04-01

    The design of geothermal systems such as aquifer thermal energy storage systems (ATES) must account for a comprehensive characterisation of all relevant parameters considered for the numerical design model. Hydraulic and thermal conductivities are the most relevant parameters and its distribution determines not only the technical design but also the economic viability of such systems. Hence, the knowledge of the spatial distribution of these parameters is essential for a successful design and operation of such systems. This work shows the first results obtained when applying geostatistical techniques to the characterisation of the Esseling Site in Germany. In this site a long-term thermal tracer test (> 1 year) was performed. On this open system the spatial temperature distribution inside the aquifer was observed over time in order to obtain as much information as possible that yield to a detailed characterisation both of the hydraulic and thermal relevant parameters. This poster shows the preliminary results obtained for the Esseling Site. It has been observed that the common homogeneous approach is not sufficient to explain the observations obtained from the TRT and that parameter heterogeneity must be taken into account.

  15. Numerical modelling of solute transport at Forsmark with MIKE SHE. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran; Sassner, Mona (DHI Sverige AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Bosson, Emma (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site investigations at two different locations in Sweden, referred to as the Forsmark and Laxemar areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for high-level radioactive waste. Data from the site investigations are used in a variety of modelling activities. This report presents model development and results of numerical transport modelling based on the numerical flow modelling of surface water and near-surface groundwater at the Forsmark site. The numerical modelling was performed using the modelling tool MIKE SHE and is based on the site data and conceptual model of the Forsmark areas. This report presents solute transport applications based on both particle tracking simulations and advection-dispersion calculations. The MIKE SHE model is the basis for the transport modelling presented in this report. Simulation cases relevant for the transport from a deep geological repository have been studied, but also the pattern of near surface recharge and discharge areas. When the main part of the modelling work presented in this report was carried out, the flow modelling of the Forsmark site was not finalised. Thus, the focus of this work is to describe the sensitivity to different transport parameters, and not to point out specific areas as discharge areas from a future repository (this is to be done later, within the framework of the safety assessment). In the last chapter, however, results based on simulations with the re-calibrated MIKE SHE flow model are presented. The results from the MIKE SHE water movement calculations were used by cycling the calculated transient flow field for a selected one-year period as many times as needed to achieve the desired simulation period. The solute source was located either in the bedrock or on top of the model. In total, 15 different transport simulation cases were studied. Five of the simulations were particle tracking simulations, whereas the rest

  16. Numerical modelling of solute transport at Forsmark with MIKE SHE. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran; Sassner, Mona; Bosson, Emma

    2008-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site investigations at two different locations in Sweden, referred to as the Forsmark and Laxemar areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for high-level radioactive waste. Data from the site investigations are used in a variety of modelling activities. This report presents model development and results of numerical transport modelling based on the numerical flow modelling of surface water and near-surface groundwater at the Forsmark site. The numerical modelling was performed using the modelling tool MIKE SHE and is based on the site data and conceptual model of the Forsmark areas. This report presents solute transport applications based on both particle tracking simulations and advection-dispersion calculations. The MIKE SHE model is the basis for the transport modelling presented in this report. Simulation cases relevant for the transport from a deep geological repository have been studied, but also the pattern of near surface recharge and discharge areas. When the main part of the modelling work presented in this report was carried out, the flow modelling of the Forsmark site was not finalised. Thus, the focus of this work is to describe the sensitivity to different transport parameters, and not to point out specific areas as discharge areas from a future repository (this is to be done later, within the framework of the safety assessment). In the last chapter, however, results based on simulations with the re-calibrated MIKE SHE flow model are presented. The results from the MIKE SHE water movement calculations were used by cycling the calculated transient flow field for a selected one-year period as many times as needed to achieve the desired simulation period. The solute source was located either in the bedrock or on top of the model. In total, 15 different transport simulation cases were studied. Five of the simulations were particle tracking simulations, whereas the rest

  17. Classification and Probabilistic Description of a Sand Site Based on CPTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Kristoffer; Andersen, Sarah; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    A sand site at the harbour of Frederikshavn, where numerous cone penetration tests (CPT) have been conducted, is considered. Methods for interpreting CPT´s and strength parameters are assessed, and compared to the results of a set of laboratory tests. The raw cone penetration measurements...... at varying locations the correlation between these are compared. Thereby assessing how the correlation at the sand site is affected by spatial distances....

  18. The Moulded Site Data (MSD) wind correlation method: description and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, C.; Hurley, B.

    2004-12-01

    The long-term wind resource at a potential windfarm site may be estimated by correlating short-term on-site wind measurements with data from a regional meteorological station. A correlation method developed at Airtricity is described in sufficient detail to be reproduced. An assessment of its performance is also described; the results may serve as a guide to expected accuracy when using the method as part of an annual electricity production estimate for a proposed windfarm. (Author)

  19. Thermal and microstructural properties of fine-grained material at the Viking Lander 1 site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, M. D.; Harri, A.-M.; Savijärvi, H.; Mäkinen, T.; Hagermann, A.; Kemppinen, O.; Johnston, A.

    2016-06-01

    As Viking Lander 1 touched down on Mars one of its footpads fully penetrated a patch of loose fine-grained drift material. The surrounding landing site, as observed by VL-1, was found to exhibit a complex terrain consisting of a crusted surface with an assortment of rocks, large dune-like drifts and smaller patches of drift material. We use a temperature sensor attached to the buried footpad and covered in fine-grained material to determine the thermal properties of drift material at the VL-1 site. The thermal properties are used to investigate the microstructure of the drift material and understand its relevance to surface-atmosphere interactions. We obtained a thermal inertia value of 103 ± 22 tiu. This value is in the upper range of previous thermal inertia estimates of martian dust as measured from orbit and is significantly lower than the regional thermal inertia of the VL-1 site, of around 283 tiu, obtained from orbit. We estimate a thermal inertia of around 263 ± 29 tiu for the duricrust at the VL-1 site. It was noted the patch of fine-grained regolith around the footpad was about 20-30 K warmer compared to similar material beyond the thermal influence of the lander. An effective diameter of 8 ± 5 μm was calculated for the particles in the drift material. This is larger than atmospheric dust and large compared to previous estimates of the drift material particle diameter. We interpret our results as the presence of a range of particle sizes, <8 μm, in the drift material with the thermal properties being controlled by a small amount of large particles (∼8 μm) and its cohesion being controlled by a large amount of smaller particles. The bulk of the particles in the drift material are therefore likely comparable in size to that of atmospheric dust. The possibility of larger particles being locked into a fine-grained material has implications for understanding the mobilisation of wind blown materials on Mars.

  20. Thermal treatment and competing technologies for remediation of MGP (manufactured gas plant) sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, T.F.; Greer, B.A.; Lawless, M.

    1995-01-01

    More than 1,500 MGP (manufactured gas plant) sites exist throughout the US. Many are contaminated with coal tar from coal-fueled gas works which produced ''town gas'' from the mid-1800s through the 1950s. Virtually all old US cities have such sites. Most are in downtown areas, as they were installed for central distribution of manufactured gas. While a few sites are CERCLA/Superfund, most are not. However, the contaminants and methods used for remediation are similar to those used for Superfund cleanups of coal tar contamination from wood-treating and coke oven facilities. Clean-up of sites is triggered by property transfers and re-development as well as releases to the environment--in particular, via ground water migration. This paper describes recent experience with high capacity/low cost thermal desorption process for this waste. It also reviews competing non-thermal technology, such as bio-treatment, capping, recycling, and dig and haul. Cost data are provided for all technologies, and a case study for thermal treatment is also presented

  1. Description of the behavior of an aquifer by using continuous radon monitoring in a thermal spa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainz, Carlos; Rábago, Daniel; Fuente, Ismael; Celaya, Santiago; Quindós, Luis Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) levels in air and water have been analyzed continuously for almost a year in Las Caldas de Besaya thermal spa, north Spain. Radon is a naturally occurring noble gas from the decay of radium ( 226 Ra) both constituents of radioactive uranium 238 series. It has been recognized as a lung carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Furthermore the Royal Decree R.D 1439/2010 of November, 2010 establishes the obligation to study occupational activities where workers and, where appropriate, members of the public are exposed to inhalation of radon in workplaces such as spas. Together with radon measures several physico-chemical parameters were obtained such as pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity and air and water temperature. The devices used for the study of the temporal evolution of radon concentration have been the RTM 2100, the Radon Scout and gamma spectrometry was complementarily used to determine the transfer factor of the silicone tubes in the experimental device. Radon concentrations obtained in water and air of the spa are high, with an average of 660 Bq/l and 2900 Bq/m 3 respectively, where water is the main source of radon in the air. Radiation dose for workers and public was estimated from these levels of radon. The data showed that the thermal processes can control the behavior of radon which can be also influenced by various physical and chemical parameters such as pH and redox potential. - Highlights: • Radon in water is the major source of indoor air radon concentration in thermal facilities. • Radon in water has been used to characterize the origin of water used for treatments in a spa. • Preliminary dose assessment from radon exposure has been performed.

  2. Description of the behavior of an aquifer by using continuous radon monitoring in a thermal spa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainz, Carlos, E-mail: sainzc@unican.es; Rábago, Daniel; Fuente, Ismael; Celaya, Santiago; Quindós, Luis Santiago

    2016-02-01

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn) levels in air and water have been analyzed continuously for almost a year in Las Caldas de Besaya thermal spa, north Spain. Radon is a naturally occurring noble gas from the decay of radium ({sup 226}Ra) both constituents of radioactive uranium 238 series. It has been recognized as a lung carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Furthermore the Royal Decree R.D 1439/2010 of November, 2010 establishes the obligation to study occupational activities where workers and, where appropriate, members of the public are exposed to inhalation of radon in workplaces such as spas. Together with radon measures several physico-chemical parameters were obtained such as pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity and air and water temperature. The devices used for the study of the temporal evolution of radon concentration have been the RTM 2100, the Radon Scout and gamma spectrometry was complementarily used to determine the transfer factor of the silicone tubes in the experimental device. Radon concentrations obtained in water and air of the spa are high, with an average of 660 Bq/l and 2900 Bq/m{sup 3} respectively, where water is the main source of radon in the air. Radiation dose for workers and public was estimated from these levels of radon. The data showed that the thermal processes can control the behavior of radon which can be also influenced by various physical and chemical parameters such as pH and redox potential. - Highlights: • Radon in water is the major source of indoor air radon concentration in thermal facilities. • Radon in water has been used to characterize the origin of water used for treatments in a spa. • Preliminary dose assessment from radon exposure has been performed.

  3. Description of a Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex for the Hanford Site's radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, D.H.; Wolfe, B.A.; Hoertkorn, T.R.

    1993-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site has changed from defense nuclear materials production to that of waste management/disposal and environmental restoration. ne Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex (MPSC) is being designed to process discarded waste tank internal hardware contaminated with mixed wastes, failed melters from the vitrification plant, and other Hanford Site high-level solid waste. The MPSC also will provide interim storage of other radioactive materials (irradiated fuel, canisters of vitrified high-level waste [HLW], special nuclear material [SNM], and other designated radioactive materials)

  4. The thermal-spike model description of the ion-irradiated polyimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Youmei; Zhang Chonghong; Zhu Zhiyong; Wang Zhiguang; Jin Yunfan; Liu Jie; Wang Ying

    2004-01-01

    To describe the role of electronic energy loss (dE/dX) e for chemical modification of polyimide (PI), multi-layer stacks (corresponding to different dE/dX) were irradiated by different swift heavy ions (1.158 GeV Fe 56 and 1.755 GeV Xe 136 ) under vacuum and at room temperature. Chemical changes of modified PI films were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The chain disruption rate of PI was investigated in the fluence range from 1 x 10 11 to 6 x 10 12 ions/cm 2 and a wider energy stopping power range (2.2-5.1 keV/nm for Fe 56 ions and 8.6-11.5 keV/nm for Xe 136 ions). Alkyne formation was observed over the electronic energy loss range of interest. By applying the saturated track model assumption (the damage process only occur in a cylinder of area σ), the mean degradation and alkyne formation radii in tracks were induced for Fe and Xe ion irradiation, respectively. The results were validated by the thermal-spike model. The analysis of the irradiated PI films shows that the predictions of the thermal-spike model of Szenes are in qualitative agreement with the curve shape of experimental results

  5. Description of age, sex and site distribution of large bowel cancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims/Objective: To determine the distribution of bowel cancer with special emphasis on age, sex and site. Methods: One hundred and sixty cases of histologically confirmed large bowel cancers at Jos University Teaching Hospital between January 1991 – December 2000 were reviewed. The records were collected from the ...

  6. Ecosystem site description - an approach to quantify transport and accumulation of matter in a drainage area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderback, B.; Kautsky, U.; Lindborg, T.

    2004-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) presently perform site investigations at two sites in Sweden for a future repository of spent nuclear fuel. The safety assessment of a potential repository will, among other methods, use an approach where transport and accumulation of radionuclides is modelled by quantifying the pathways of carbon/nitrogen/phosphorous in the ecosystem. Since water is the most important medium for transportation of matter, the obvious delimitation of an area for quantification of matter transport is the drainage area. This study describes how site-specific data on surface water chemistry and hydrology, measured at several points along the flow paths of a drainage area, can be used to describe and quantify the flow of matter in terms of transport or accumulation. The approach was applied to the drainage area of Lake Eckarfjaerden, investigated as part of the site investigation programme at Forsmark in central Sweden. By using data from inlet and outlet of the lake, together with data from the lake itself, we quantified the flow of matter in the drainage area, and also developed mass-balance budgets for important elements. The results were used to validate process oriented terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem models, developed for the same drainage area in parallel to the present study. In conclusion, applying this approach will contribute substantially to our understanding of the processes controlling transport and accumulation of matter in a drainage area, and thereby reduce the uncertainties in estimating radionuclide flow and consequences to humans and the environment. (author)

  7. Strategy for a numerical Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. Further development of the theoretical/numerical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsson, Isabelle; Fredriksson, Anders

    2005-05-01

    The Swedish Nuclear and Fuel Management Company (SKB) is conducting Preliminary Site Investigations at two different locations in Sweden in order to study the possibility of a Deep Repository for spent fuel. In the frame of these Site Investigations, Site Descriptive Models are achieved. These products are the result of an interaction of several disciplines such as geology, hydrogeology, and meteorology. The Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model constitutes one of these models. Before the start of the Site Investigations a numerical method using Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) models and the 2D numerical software UDEC was developed. Numerical simulations were the tool chosen for applying the theoretical approach for characterising the mechanical rock mass properties. Some shortcomings were identified when developing the methodology. Their impacts on the modelling (in term of time and quality assurance of results) were estimated to be so important that the improvement of the methodology with another numerical tool was investigated. The theoretical approach is still based on DFN models but the numerical software used is 3DEC. The main assets of the programme compared to UDEC are an optimised algorithm for the generation of fractures in the model and for the assignment of mechanical fracture properties. Due to some numerical constraints the test conditions were set-up in order to simulate 2D plane strain tests. Numerical simulations were conducted on the same data set as used previously for the UDEC modelling in order to estimate and validate the results from the new methodology. A real 3D simulation was also conducted in order to assess the effect of the '2D' conditions in the 3DEC model. Based on the quality of the results it was decided to update the theoretical model and introduce the new methodology based on DFN models and 3DEC simulations for the establishment of the Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. By separating the spatial variability into two parts, one

  8. Vascular patterns in the heads of crocodilians: blood vessels and sites of thermal exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William Ruger; Sedlmayr, Jayc C; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2016-12-01

    Extant crocodilians are a highly apomorphic archosaur clade that is ectothermic, yet often achieve large body sizes that can be subject to higher heat loads. Therefore, the anatomical and physiological roles that blood vessels play in crocodilian thermoregulation need further investigation to better understand how crocodilians establish and maintain cephalic temperatures and regulate neurosensory tissue temperatures during basking and normal activities. The cephalic vascular anatomy of extant crocodilians, particularly American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection technique and high resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT). Blood vessels were digitally isolated to create representations of vascular pathways. The specimens were then dissected to confirm CT results. Sites of thermal exchange, consisting of the oral, nasal, and orbital regions, were given special attention due to their role in evaporative cooling and cephalic thermoregulation in other diapsids. Blood vessels to and from sites of thermal exchange were studied to detect conserved vascular patterns and to assess their ability to deliver cooled blood to neurosensory tissues. Within the orbital region, both the arteries and veins demonstrated consistent branching patterns, with the supraorbital, infraorbital, and ophthalmotemporal vessels supplying and draining the orbit. The venous drainage of the orbital region showed connections to the dural sinuses via the orbital veins and cavernous sinus. The palatal region demonstrated a vast plexus that comprised both arteries and veins. The most direct route of venous drainage of the palatal plexus was through the palatomaxillary veins, essentially bypassing neurosensory tissues. Anastomotic connections with the nasal region, however, may provide an alternative route for palatal venous blood to reach neurosensory tissues. The nasal region in crocodilians is probably the most

  9. Influence of site on thermal design of a two floor ZEH in the desert

    KAUST Repository

    Serag-Eldin, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    The paper presents the results of investigating the effect of Latitude angle and environmental temperature on the thermal behavior and performance of a fully equipped, air-conditioned, zero energy house located in a desert residential compound. It makes use of the thermal design and analysis tools presented in other work and extends the investigation to include different site environmental characteristics. Data from eight different meteorological sites in the KSA where considered. It is demonstrated that for the same house and occupancy profile, the PV modules, battery storage, and air-conditioning equipment requirements can differ markedly depending on local environment properties. During Summer and Spring the main heat load is due to cooling, but during winter season the load can vary from full cooling, to mixed cooling and heating, to even full heating; the heating load sometimes dictating the size of the required equipment. © 2010 IEEE.

  10. Influence of site on thermal design of a two floor ZEH in the desert

    KAUST Repository

    Serag-Eldin, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the results of investigating the effect of Latitude angle and environmental temperature on the thermal behavior and performance of a fully equipped, air-conditioned, zero energy house located in a desert residential compound. It makes use of the thermal design and analysis tools presented in other work and extends the investigation to include different site environmental characteristics. Data from eight different meteorological sites in the KSA where considered. It is demonstrated that for the same house and occupancy profile, the PV modules, battery storage, and air-conditioning equipment requirements can differ markedly depending on local environment properties. During Summer and Spring the main heat load is due to cooling, but during winter season the load can vary from full cooling, to mixed cooling and heating, to even full heating; the heating load sometimes dictating the size of the required equipment. © 2010 IEEE.

  11. Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhaida, A.J. Jr.; Parker, A.F.

    1997-02-01

    This report provides summary information on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) sites as listed in the Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), dated January 1, 1992, Appendix C. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory was built in 1943 as part of the World War II Manhattan Project. The original mission of ORNL was to produce and chemically separate the first gram-quantities of plutonium as part of the national effort to produce the atomic bomb. The current mission of ORNL is to provide applied research and development in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in nuclear fusion and fission, energy conservation, fossil fuels, and other energy technologies and to perform basic scientific research in selected areas of the physical, life, and environmental sciences. ER is also tasked with clean up or mitigation of environmental impacts resulting from past waste management practices on portions of the approximately 37,000 acres within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Other installations located within the ORR are the Gaseous Diffusion Plant (K-25) and the Y-12 plant. The remedial action strategy currently integrates state and federal regulations for efficient compliance and approaches for both investigations and remediation efforts on a Waste Area Grouping (WAG) basis. As defined in the ORR FFA Quarterly Report July - September 1995, a WAG is a grouping of potentially contaminated sites based on drainage area and similar waste characteristics. These contaminated sites are further divided into four categories based on existing information concerning whether the data are generated for scoping or remedial investigation (RI) purposes. These areas are as follows: (1) Operable Units (OU); (2) Characterization Areas (CA); (3) Remedial Site Evaluation (RSE) Areas; and (4) Removal Site Evaluation (RmSE) Areas.

  12. Fuel Assemblies Thermal Analysis in the New Spent Fuel Storage Facility at Inshass Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, M.; Mariy, Ahmed

    1999-01-01

    New Wet Storage Facility (NSF) is constructed at Inshass site to solve the problem of spent fuel storage capacity of ETRR-1 reactor . The Engineering Safety Heat Transfer Features t hat characterize the new facility are presented. Thermal analysis including different scenarios of pool heat load and safety limits are discussed . Cladding temperature limit during handling and storage process are specified for safe transfer of fuel

  13. Idaho National Laboratory Ten-Year Site Plan Project Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed

    2012-03-01

    This document describes the currently active and proposed infrastructure projects listed in Appendix B of the Idaho National Laboratory 2013-2022 Ten Year Site Plan (DOE/ID-11449). It was produced in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List I.06. The projects delineated in this document support infrastructure needs at INL's Research and Education Campus, Materials and Fuels Complex, Advanced Test Reactor Complex and the greater site-wide area. The projects provide critical infrastructure needed to meet current and future INL opereational and research needs. Execution of these projects will restore, rebuild, and revitalize INL's physical infrastructure; enhance program execution, and make a significant contribution toward reducing complex-wide deferred maintenance.

  14. Multivariate approach to assessing ecotoxicity on abandoned oil refinery environments: Study site description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochmiller, R.L.; Yates, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Ecology risk assessment requires a clear understanding of how complex mixtures of environmental contaminants impact terrestrial ecosystems. This assessment process could be more universally applied to terrestrial ecosystems with better defined assay systems for evaluating impacts of exposure on organisms, populations, and communities. The authors objective was to define and assess the efficacy of a battery of assays incorporating both standard biological toxicity test and in situ biomonitors for evaluating ecological risks on terrestrial environments contaminated with complex mixtures of petrochemicals on a 160 acre abandoned oil refinery in central Oklahoma. Three suspected contaminated and three uncontaminated reference sites were selected for intensive study. Habitat on each study site is representative of disturbed tall-grass prairie and supports dense, diverse small mammal communities. Soil samples were subjected to aqueous extraction and resulting leachates analyzed for heavy metals, selected ions, and organics. Analytical results support their initial assessment that toxic study sites were contaminated with complex mixtures including lead, zinc, arsenic, chloride, sulfate, potassium, and complex mixtures of polar and non-polar organics

  15. Verification study on technology for site investigation for geological disposal. Confirmation of the applicability of survey methods through establishing site descriptive models in accordance with stepwise investigation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Koichi; Hasegawa, Takuma; Hamada, Takaomi; Yoshimura, Kimitaka

    2014-01-01

    The Yokosuka Demonstration and Validation Project, which uses the Yokosuka Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) site, a Neogene sedimentary and coastal environment, has been conducted since the 2006 fiscal year as a cooperative research project between NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) and CRIEPI. The objectives of this project were to examine and refine the basic methodology of the investigation and assessment in accordance with the conditions of geological environment at each stage of investigations from the surface (Preliminary Investigation and the first half of Detailed Investigation conducted by NUMO) for high level radioactive waste geological disposal. Within investigation technologies at these early stages, a borehole survey is an important means of directly obtaining various properties of the deep geological environment. On the other hand, surface geophysical prospecting data provide information about the geological and resistivity structures at depth for planning borehole surveys. During the 2006-2009 fiscal years, a series of on-site surveys and tests, including borehole surveys of YDP-1 (depth: 350 m) and YDP-2 (depth: 500 m), were conducted in this test site. Furthermore, seismic surveys (including seismic reflection method) and electromagnetic surveys (including magnetotelluric method) were conducted within the expanded CRIEPI site in the 2010 fiscal year to obtain information about the geological structure, and the resistivity structure reflecting the distribution of the salt water/fresh water boundary, respectively, to a depth of over several hundred meters. The validity of existing survey and testing methods for stepwise investigations (from surface to borehole surveys) for obtaining properties of the geological environment (in various conditions relating to differences in the properties of the Miura and the Hayama Groups at this site) was confirmed through establishing site descriptive models based on

  16. Description of source term data on contaminated sites and buildings compiled for the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement (WMPEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, S.M.; Smith, D.E.; Hill, J.G.; Lerchen, M.E.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have historically had responsibility for carrying out various national missions primarily related to nuclear weapons development and energy research. Recently, these missions have been expanded to include remediation of sites and facilities contaminated as a result of past activities. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy announced that DOE would prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement on the DOE's environmental restoration and waste management program; the primary focus was the evaluation of (1) strategies for conducting remediation of all DOE contaminated sites and facilities and (2) potential configurations for waste management capabilities. Several different environmental restoration strategies were identified for evaluation, ranging from doing no remediation to strategies where the level of remediation was driven by such factors as final land use and health effects. A quantitative assessment of the costs and health effects of remediation activities and residual contamination levels associated with each remediation strategy was made. These analyses required that information be compiled on each individual contaminated site and structure located at each DOE installation and that the information compiled include quantitative measurements and/or estimates of contamination levels and extent of contamination. This document provides a description of the types of information and data compiled for use in the analyses. Also provided is a description of the database used to manage the data, a detailed discussion of the methodology and assumptions used in compiling the data, and a summary of the data compiled into the database as of March 1995. As of this date, over 10,000 contaminated sites and structures and over 8,000 uncontaminated structures had been identified across the DOE complex of installations

  17. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. A test case based on data from the Aespoe HRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, John A

    2002-06-01

    In anticipation of the SKB Site Investigations for radioactive waste disposal, an approach has been developed for the Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. This approach was tested by predicting the rock mechanics properties of a 600 m x 180 m x 120 m rock volume at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) using limited borehole data of the type typically obtained during a site investigation. These predicted properties were then compared with 'best estimate' properties obtained from a study of the test rock volume using additional information, mainly tunnel data. The exercise was known as the Test Case, and is the subject of this Report. Three modelling techniques were used to predict the rock properties: the 'empirical approach' - the rock properties were estimated using rock mass classification schemes and empirical correlation formulae; the 'theoretical approach' - the rock properties were estimated using numerical modelling techniques; and the 'stress approach' - the rock stress state was estimated using primary data and numerical modelling. These approaches are described separately and respectively. Following an explanation of the context for the Test Case within the strategy for developing the Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model, conditions at the Aespoe HRL are described in Chapter 2. The Test Case organization and the suite of nine Protocols used to ensure that the work was appropriately guided and co-ordinated are described in Chapter 3. The methods for predicting the rock properties and the rock stress, and comparisons with the 'best estimate' properties of the actual conditions, are presented in Chapters 4 and 5. Finally, the conclusions from this Test Case exercise are given in Chapter 6. General recommendations for the management of this type of Test Case are also included

  18. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. A test case based on data from the Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, John A (ed.) [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City (United Kingdom)

    2002-06-01

    In anticipation of the SKB Site Investigations for radioactive waste disposal, an approach has been developed for the Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. This approach was tested by predicting the rock mechanics properties of a 600 m x 180 m x 120 m rock volume at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) using limited borehole data of the type typically obtained during a site investigation. These predicted properties were then compared with 'best estimate' properties obtained from a study of the test rock volume using additional information, mainly tunnel data. The exercise was known as the Test Case, and is the subject of this Report. Three modelling techniques were used to predict the rock properties: the 'empirical approach' - the rock properties were estimated using rock mass classification schemes and empirical correlation formulae; the 'theoretical approach' - the rock properties were estimated using numerical modelling techniques; and the 'stress approach' - the rock stress state was estimated using primary data and numerical modelling. These approaches are described separately and respectively. Following an explanation of the context for the Test Case within the strategy for developing the Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model, conditions at the Aespoe HRL are described in Chapter 2. The Test Case organization and the suite of nine Protocols used to ensure that the work was appropriately guided and co-ordinated are described in Chapter 3. The methods for predicting the rock properties and the rock stress, and comparisons with the 'best estimate' properties of the actual conditions, are presented in Chapters 4 and 5. Finally, the conclusions from this Test Case exercise are given in Chapter 6. General recommendations for the management of this type of Test Case are also included.

  19. Description of the two-loop RELAP5 model of the L-Reactor at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzuol, J.M.; Davis, C.B.

    1989-12-01

    A two-loop RELAP5 input model of the L-Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS) was developed to support thermal-hydraulic analysis of SRS reactors. The model was developed to economically evaluate potential design changes. The primary simplifications in the model were in the number of loops and the detail in the moderator tank. The six loops in the reactor were modeled with two loops, one representing a single loop and the other representing five combined loops. The model has undergone a quality assurance review. This report describes the two-loop model, its limitations, and quality assurance. 29 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs

  20. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    The Laxemar subarea is the focus for the complete site investigations in the Simpevarp area. The south and southwestern parts of the subarea (the so-called 'focused area') have been designated for focused studies during the remainder of the site investigations. This area, some 5.3 square kilometres in size, is characterised on the surface by an arc shaped body of quartz monzodiorite gently dipping to the north, flanked in the north and south by Aevroe granite. The current report documents work conducted during stage 2.1 of the site-descriptive modelling of the Laxemar subarea. The primary objective of the work performed is to provide feedback to the site investigations at Laxemar to ensure that adequate and timely data and information are obtained during the remaining investigation stage. The work has been conducted in cooperation with the site investigation team at Laxemar and representatives from safety assessment and repository engineering. The principal aim of this joint effort has been to safeguard that adequate data are collected that resolve the remaining issues/uncertainties which are of importance for repository layout and long-term safety. The proposed additional works presented in this report should be regarded as recommended additions and/or modifications in relation to the CSI programme published early 2006. The overall conclusion of the discipline-wise review of critical issues is that the CSI programme overall satisfies the demands to resolve the remaining uncertainties. This is interpreted to be partly a result of the close interaction between the site modelling team, site investigation team and the repository engineering teams, which has been in operation since early 2005. In summary, the performed interpretations and modelling have overall confirmed the version 1.2 results. The exception being Hydrogeology where the new Laxemar 2.1 borehole data suggest more favourable conditions in the south and west parts of the focused area compared

  1. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    The Laxemar subarea is the focus for the complete site investigations in the Simpevarp area. The south and southwestern parts of the subarea (the so-called 'focused area') have been designated for focused studies during the remainder of the site investigations. This area, some 5.3 square kilometres in size, is characterised on the surface by an arc shaped body of quartz monzodiorite gently dipping to the north, flanked in the north and south by Aevroe granite. The current report documents work conducted during stage 2.1 of the site-descriptive modelling of the Laxemar subarea. The primary objective of the work performed is to provide feedback to the site investigations at Laxemar to ensure that adequate and timely data and information are obtained during the remaining investigation stage. The work has been conducted in cooperation with the site investigation team at Laxemar and representatives from safety assessment and repository engineering. The principal aim of this joint effort has been to safeguard that adequate data are collected that resolve the remaining issues/uncertainties which are of importance for repository layout and long-term safety. The proposed additional works presented in this report should be regarded as recommended additions and/or modifications in relation to the CSI programme published early 2006. The overall conclusion of the discipline-wise review of critical issues is that the CSI programme overall satisfies the demands to resolve the remaining uncertainties. This is interpreted to be partly a result of the close interaction between the site modelling team, site investigation team and the repository engineering teams, which has been in operation since early 2005. In summary, the performed interpretations and modelling have overall confirmed the version 1.2 results. The exception being Hydrogeology where the new Laxemar 2.1 borehole data suggest more favourable conditions in the south and west parts of the focused area compared with the

  2. Vascular Patterns in Iguanas and Other Squamates: Blood Vessels and Sites of Thermal Exchange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ruger Porter

    Full Text Available Squamates use the circulatory system to regulate body and head temperatures during both heating and cooling. The flexibility of this system, which possibly exceeds that of endotherms, offers a number of physiological mechanisms to gain or retain heat (e.g., increase peripheral blood flow and heart rate, cooling the head to prolong basking time for the body as well as to shed heat (modulate peripheral blood flow, expose sites of thermal exchange. Squamates also have the ability to establish and maintain the same head-to-body temperature differential that birds, crocodilians, and mammals demonstrate, but without a discrete rete or other vascular physiological device. Squamates offer important anatomical and phylogenetic evidence for the inference of the blood vessels of dinosaurs and other extinct archosaurs in that they shed light on the basal diapsid condition. Given this basal positioning, squamates likewise inform and constrain the range of physiological thermoregulatory mechanisms that may have been found in Dinosauria. Unfortunately, the literature on squamate vascular anatomy is limited. Cephalic vascular anatomy of green iguanas (Iguana iguana was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection (DCDVI technique and high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT. Blood vessels were digitally segmented to create a surface representation of vascular pathways. Known sites of thermal exchange, consisting of the oral, nasal, and orbital regions, were given special attention due to their role in brain and cephalic thermoregulation. Blood vessels to and from sites of thermal exchange were investigated to detect conserved vascular patterns and to assess their ability to deliver cooled blood to the dural venous sinuses. Arteries within sites of thermal exchange were found to deliver blood directly and through collateral pathways. The venous drainage was found to have multiple pathways that could influence neurosensory

  3. Vascular Patterns in Iguanas and Other Squamates: Blood Vessels and Sites of Thermal Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William Ruger; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2015-01-01

    Squamates use the circulatory system to regulate body and head temperatures during both heating and cooling. The flexibility of this system, which possibly exceeds that of endotherms, offers a number of physiological mechanisms to gain or retain heat (e.g., increase peripheral blood flow and heart rate, cooling the head to prolong basking time for the body) as well as to shed heat (modulate peripheral blood flow, expose sites of thermal exchange). Squamates also have the ability to establish and maintain the same head-to-body temperature differential that birds, crocodilians, and mammals demonstrate, but without a discrete rete or other vascular physiological device. Squamates offer important anatomical and phylogenetic evidence for the inference of the blood vessels of dinosaurs and other extinct archosaurs in that they shed light on the basal diapsid condition. Given this basal positioning, squamates likewise inform and constrain the range of physiological thermoregulatory mechanisms that may have been found in Dinosauria. Unfortunately, the literature on squamate vascular anatomy is limited. Cephalic vascular anatomy of green iguanas (Iguana iguana) was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection (DCDVI) technique and high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT). Blood vessels were digitally segmented to create a surface representation of vascular pathways. Known sites of thermal exchange, consisting of the oral, nasal, and orbital regions, were given special attention due to their role in brain and cephalic thermoregulation. Blood vessels to and from sites of thermal exchange were investigated to detect conserved vascular patterns and to assess their ability to deliver cooled blood to the dural venous sinuses. Arteries within sites of thermal exchange were found to deliver blood directly and through collateral pathways. The venous drainage was found to have multiple pathways that could influence neurosensory tissue temperature

  4. Description of INR-Pitesti own strategy for on site radioactive solid waste storage concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuturici, I.L.; Toma, V.; Bujoreanu, D.; Prava, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Post Irradiation Examination Laboratory (PIEL) produces and will produce the majority of institute's alpha-contaminated solid radioactive waste, generated by the process of examination of irradiated CANDU-600 type nuclear fuel. The wastes will be divided into three categories: low-level, medium-level, and high-level general process trash (LLGPT, MLGPT, and HLGPT). The paper describes the strategy adopted for immobilization, conditioning and on-site long-term storage of these wastes. The proposed strategy is based on the best experience acquired by other nuclear centers, confronted with same problems. (Author)

  5. Hanford Site Composite Analysis Technical Approach Description: Groundwater Pathway Dose Calculation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgans, D. L. [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Lindberg, S. L. [Intera Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-09-20

    The purpose of this technical approach document (TAD) is to document the assumptions, equations, and methods used to perform the groundwater pathway radiological dose calculations for the revised Hanford Site Composite Analysis (CA). DOE M 435.1-1, states, “The composite analysis results shall be used for planning, radiation protection activities, and future use commitments to minimize the likelihood that current low-level waste disposal activities will result in the need for future corrective or remedial actions to adequately protect the public and the environment.”

  6. Geostatistical description of geological heterogeneity in clayey till as input for improved characterization of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Klint, K.E.S.; Renard, P.

    2010-01-01

    In low-permeability clay tills subsurface transport is governed by preferential flow in sand lenses and fractures. A proper geological model requires the integration of these features, i.e. the spatial distribution of the geological heterogeneities. Detailed mapping of sand lenses has been done...... at a clay till outcrop in Denmark to characterise the shapes and the spatial variability. Further, geostatistics were applied to simulate the distribution and to develop a heterogeneity model that can be incorporated into an existing geological model of, for example, a contaminated site....

  7. Statistics of modelled conductive fractures based on Laxemar and Forsmark. Site descriptive model data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stigsson, Martin

    2009-12-15

    The objectives of this report is to investigate the frequency of fractures assumed to be water conductive, i.e. open or partly open and directly or indirectly connected to a source. Also the distribution of total transmissivity in 100 m and 20 m horizontal sections and 8 m vertical sections is calculated. The report is only intended to serve as input to the SER, Site Engineering Report, at Laxemar and Forsmark. The input data for the analyses is taken, as is, from the Discrete Fracture Network sections in published reports. No evaluation that the model parameters are appropriate for the task or sensitivity analysis is performed. The tunnels and deposition holes are modelled as scanlines which is a very coarse approximation, but it may give some rough estimation of the frequency of the water bearing features, especially for the larger ones, and the total transmissivity in a section

  8. Statistics of modelled conductive fractures based on Laxemar and Forsmark. Site descriptive model data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stigsson, Martin

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this report is to investigate the frequency of fractures assumed to be water conductive, i.e. open or partly open and directly or indirectly connected to a source. Also the distribution of total transmissivity in 100 m and 20 m horizontal sections and 8 m vertical sections is calculated. The report is only intended to serve as input to the SER, Site Engineering Report, at Laxemar and Forsmark. The input data for the analyses is taken, as is, from the Discrete Fracture Network sections in published reports. No evaluation that the model parameters are appropriate for the task or sensitivity analysis is performed. The tunnels and deposition holes are modelled as scanlines which is a very coarse approximation, but it may give some rough estimation of the frequency of the water bearing features, especially for the larger ones, and the total transmissivity in a section

  9. Thermal desorption remediation in relation to landfill disposal at isolated sites in northern Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.; Henze, M.; Fernuik, N.; MacKinnon, B.; Nelson, D.

    2005-01-01

    Thermal desorption (TD) involves the application of heat to organic-contaminated soil to release and thermally destruct contaminants using high temperatures. An overview of the technique used in the remediation of diesel-contaminated sites was presented. The paper was divided into 2 parts, the first of which provided an overview of TD at 2 electric company sites with a total of 29,000 tonnes of diesel-contaminated soil. Site contamination occurred mainly through the loading, storage and dispensing of diesel fuel. Petroleum lubricants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), glycols and metals were among the other contaminants. Remediation work was comprised of dig and dump (DD) or thermal desorption (TD) treatment of contaminated soils as well as the removal of underground facilities including concrete foundations, screw anchors, storage tanks, pipelines and grounding grids. The TD process, and productivity with both clay and sand soil types was reviewed, and an analysis of direct, indirect and total costs was presented. Issues concerning planning, production rates, practical field experience and quality control procedures were discussed, in addition to limitations such the treatment's inability to remediate metals, sensitivity to soil water content, and water demands for soil processing. The second section described the role of TD in a staged remediation for 46,000 tonnes of diesel-contaminated soil at Fox Lake, a remote northern community accessible by winter road and ice bridges. The challenges of ice bridge construction and maintenance, excavation backfilling and soil transport at low temperature were reviewed. An outline of consultation processes with First Nations was presented, as well as details of site operations and soil hauling, truck restrictions and coordination over the ice bridge, alternate backfill sources, and TD soil treatment of the contaminated soil. 2 tabs

  10. Field-based description of rhyolite lava flows of the Calico Hills Formation, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Bova, Shiera C.

    2015-01-01

    Contaminants introduced into the subsurface of Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, by underground nuclear testing are of concern to the U.S. Department of Energy and regulators responsible for protecting human health and safety. The potential for contaminant movement away from the underground test areas at Pahute Mesa and into the accessible environment is greatest by groundwater transport through fractured volcanic rocks. The 12.9 Ma (mega-annums, million years) Calico Hills Formation, which consists of a mixture of rhyolite lava flows and intercalated nonwelded and bedded tuff and pyroclastic flow deposits, occurs in two areas of the Nevada National Security Site. One area is north of the Rainier Mesa caldera, buried beneath Pahute Mesa, and serves as a heterogeneous volcanic-rock aquifer but is only available to study through drilling and is not described in this report. A second accumulation of the formation is south of the Rainier Mesa caldera and is exposed in outcrop along the western boundary of the Nevada National Security Site at the Calico Hills near Yucca Mountain. These outcrops expose in three dimensions an interlayered sequence of tuff and lava flows similar to those intercepted in the subsurface beneath Pahute Mesa. Field description and geologic mapping of these exposures described lithostratigraphic variations within lava flows and assisted in, or at least corroborated, conceptualization of the rhyolite lava-bearing parts of the formation.

  11. A descriptive study of pressure pain threshold at 2 standardized sites in people with acute or subacute neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, David M; Macdermid, Joy C; Nielson, Warren; Teasell, Robert W; Nailer, Tamara; Maheu, Phillippe

    2011-09-01

    Cross-sectional convenience sample. To describe the distribution of scores for pressure pain threshold (PPT) at 2 standardized testing sites in people with neck pain of less than 90 days' duration: the angle of the upper trapezius and the belly of the tibialis anterior. A secondary objective was to identify important influences on PPT. PPT may be a valuable assessment and prognostic indicator for people with neck pain. However, to facilitate interpretation of scores, knowledge of means and variance for the target population, as well as factors that might influence scores, is needed. Participants were recruited from community-based physiotherapy clinics and underwent PPT testing using a digital algometer and standardized protocol. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviations, quartiles, skewness, and kurtosis) were calculated for the 2 sites. Simple bivariate tests of association were conducted to explore potential moderators. A positively skewed distribution was described for the 2 standardized sites. Significant moderators were sex (male higher than female), age (r = 0.22), and self-reported pain intensity (r = -0.24). Neither litigation status nor most symptomatic/least symptomatic side influenced PPT. This manuscript presents information regarding the expected scores for PPT testing in people with acute or subacute neck pain. Clinicians can compare the results of individual patients against these population values, and researchers can incorporate the significant confounders of age, sex, and self-reported pain intensity into future research designs.

  12. Determination of α and f for k0-NAA in irradiation sites with high thermalized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Manh Dung; Fumio Sasajima

    2003-01-01

    At the irradiation sites in a research reactor where neutrons are well thermalized, the 'bare' irradiation methods for α and f determinations that are incorporated in the KAYZERO R /SOLCOI R v4.0 package seem to be unworkable. It is a fact that when carrying out the determination of α and f at the PN-3 irradiation site of the JRR-3M research reactor (Tokai, Japan) using the KAYZERO software, unacceptable results were obtained from experiment to experiment for α ranging from 0.10 to 0.999 and f ranging from 70 to 9999. The 'Cd ratio' for a gold monitor in the PN-3 site is about 300. These unacceptable results have indicated the need for the application of Cd methods that are based on 'Cd-covered' irradiation and 'Cd-ratio' measurements at certain suitable and available monitors. Such Cd methods have not been incorporated into the KAYZERO v4.0 software. Therefore, computational and experimental procedures of the 'Cd-covered' method for α and the 'Cd-ratio' method for f determination have been presented in this paper. The PN-2 irradiation site of the JRR-3M reactor where the neutron thermalization is not high has a Cd ratio for gold of about 26. The commonly used 'bare' irradiation methods can be applied together with the Cd methods so that all results may be presented as comparable data. The results of α and f determinations that were carried out in the PN-2 and PN-3 irradiation sites are presented. (author)

  13. Mechanical modelling of the Singoe deformation zone. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark stage 2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glamheden, Rune; Maersk Hansen, Lars; Fredriksson, Anders; Bergkvist, Lars; Markstroem, Ingemar; Elfstroem, Mats [Golder Associates AB (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    This project aims at demonstrating the theoretical approach developed by SKB for determination of mechanical properties of large deformation zones, in particular the Singoe deformation zone. Up to now, only bedrock and minor deformation zones have been characterized by means of this methodology, which has been modified for this project. The Singoe deformation zone is taken as a reference object to get a more comprehensive picture of the structure, which could be incorporated in a future version of the SDM of Forsmark. Furthermore, the Singoe Zone has been chosen because of available data from four tunnels. Scope of work has included compilation and analysis of geological information from site investigations and documentation of existing tunnels. Results have been analyzed and demonstrated by means of RVS-visualization. Numerical modelling has been used to obtain mechanical properties. Numerical modelling has also been carried out in order to verify the results by comparison of calculated and measured deformations. Compilation of various structures in the four tunnels coincides largely with a magnetic anomaly and also with the estimated width. Based on the study it is clear that the Singoe deformation zone has a heterogeneous nature. The number of fracture zones associated with the deformation zone varies on either side of the zone, as does the transition zone between host rock and the Singoe zone. The overall impression from the study is that the results demonstrate that the methodology used for simulating of equivalent mechanical properties is an applicable and adequate method, also in case of large deformation zones. Typical rock mechanical parameters of the Singoe deformations that can be used in the regional stress model considering the zone to be a single fracture are: 200 MPa/m in normal stiffness, 10-15 MPa/m in shear stiffness, 0.4 MPa in cohesion and 31.5 degrees in friction angle.

  14. Mechanical modelling of the Singoe deformation zone. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark stage 2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glamheden, Rune; Maersk Hansen, Lars; Fredriksson, Anders; Bergkvist, Lars; Markstroem, Ingemar; Elfstroem, Mats

    2007-02-01

    This project aims at demonstrating the theoretical approach developed by SKB for determination of mechanical properties of large deformation zones, in particular the Singoe deformation zone. Up to now, only bedrock and minor deformation zones have been characterized by means of this methodology, which has been modified for this project. The Singoe deformation zone is taken as a reference object to get a more comprehensive picture of the structure, which could be incorporated in a future version of the SDM of Forsmark. Furthermore, the Singoe Zone has been chosen because of available data from four tunnels. Scope of work has included compilation and analysis of geological information from site investigations and documentation of existing tunnels. Results have been analyzed and demonstrated by means of RVS-visualization. Numerical modelling has been used to obtain mechanical properties. Numerical modelling has also been carried out in order to verify the results by comparison of calculated and measured deformations. Compilation of various structures in the four tunnels coincides largely with a magnetic anomaly and also with the estimated width. Based on the study it is clear that the Singoe deformation zone has a heterogeneous nature. The number of fracture zones associated with the deformation zone varies on either side of the zone, as does the transition zone between host rock and the Singoe zone. The overall impression from the study is that the results demonstrate that the methodology used for simulating of equivalent mechanical properties is an applicable and adequate method, also in case of large deformation zones. Typical rock mechanical parameters of the Singoe deformations that can be used in the regional stress model considering the zone to be a single fracture are: 200 MPa/m in normal stiffness, 10-15 MPa/m in shear stiffness, 0.4 MPa in cohesion and 31.5 degrees in friction angle

  15. Implementation of Malaria Dynamic Models in Municipality Level Early Warning Systems in Colombia. Part I: Description of Study Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Daniel; Cerón, Viviana; Molina, Adriana M.; Quiñónes, Martha L.; Jiménez, Mónica M.; Ahumada, Martha; Gutiérrez, Patricia; Osorio, Salua; Mantilla, Gilma; Connor, Stephen J.; Thomson, Madeleine C.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Integrated National Adaptation Pilot project and the Integrated Surveillance and Control System, the Colombian National Institute of Health is working on the design and implementation of a Malaria Early Warning System framework, supported by seasonal climate forecasting capabilities, weather and environmental monitoring, and malaria statistical and dynamic models. In this report, we provide an overview of the local ecoepidemiologic settings where four malaria process-based mathematical models are currently being implemented at a municipal level. The description includes general characteristics, malaria situation (predominant type of infection, malaria-positive cases data, malaria incidence, and seasonality), entomologic conditions (primary and secondary vectors, mosquito densities, and feeding frequencies), climatic conditions (climatology and long-term trends), key drivers of epidemic outbreaks, and non-climatic factors (populations at risk, control campaigns, and socioeconomic conditions). Selected pilot sites exhibit different ecoepidemiologic settings that must be taken into account in the development of the integrated surveillance and control system. PMID:24891460

  16. Technology overview: assessment of social values in thermal power plant siting, social impact methodology evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    A methodology was developed to facilitate the selection of favorable thermal power plant site and design alternatives from the community perspective. A two-stage, multicriteria decision technique was employed to combine technical assessments of effects of the proposed site/design alternatives with corresponding community values. In the first stage, submodels are used to develop indices of plant impact on each of ten decision criteria. These criteria include effects on aesthetics, water quality, cost of power, air quality, ecology, social quality, local economy, recreational opportunities, cultural resources, and human health and safety. In the second stage, each of the impact indices is weighted by corresponding community values and then summed to provide an overall index of plant acceptability

  17. Methodology for geometric modelling. Presentation and administration of site descriptive models; Metodik foer geometrisk modellering. Presentation och administration av platsbeskrivande modeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    This report presents a methodology to construct, visualise and present geoscientific descriptive models based on data from the site investigations, which the SKB currently performs, to build an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. It is designed for interaction with SICADA (SKB:s site characterisation database) and RVS (SKB:s Rock Visualisation System). However, the concepts of the methodology are general and can be used with other tools capable of handling 3D geometries and parameters. The descriptive model is intended to be an instrument where site investigation data from all disciplines are put together to form a comprehensive visual interpretation of the studied rock mass. The methodology has four main components: 1. Construction of a geometrical model of the interpreted main structures at the site. 2. Description of the geoscientific characteristics of the structures. 3. Description and geometrical implementation of the geometric uncertainties in the interpreted model structures. 4. Quality system for the handling of the geometrical model, its associated database and some aspects of the technical auditing. The geometrical model forms a basis for understanding the main elements and structures of the investigated site. Once the interpreted geometries are in place in the model, the system allows for adding descriptive and quantitative data to each modelled object through a system of intuitive menus. The associated database allows each geometrical object a complete quantitative description of all geoscientific disciplines, variabilities, uncertainties in interpretation and full version history. The complete geometrical model and its associated database of object descriptions are to be recorded in a central quality system. Official, new and old versions of the model are administered centrally in order to have complete quality assurance of each step in the interpretation process. The descriptive model is a cornerstone in the understanding of the

  18. About the nature of regional thermal anomaly in the Semipalatinsk Test Site region revealed basing on remote space sensing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melent'ev, M.I.; Velikanov, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    A thermal anomaly, (more than 20,000 sq. km) discovered in the Semipalatinsk Test Site region in the pictures from space, is observed every year on certain days mainly in winter-spring season. Appearance of the thermal anomaly often coincides with days of intensive fall of atmospheric precipitation and possible thawing of snow cover together with decreasing of ozone concentration in atmosphere. The explanation of thermal anomaly in the Semipalatinsk Test Site region due to nuclear reaction caused by the energy of radionuclide radioactive decay deposited in a soil layer after ground and air nuclear explosions and radiolysis processes in soil solutions is given in this article. (author)

  19. Interim oceanographic description of the North-East Atlantic site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbutt, P.A.; Dickson, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Within the terms of the Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Wastes, NEA is requested to assess the suitability of dumping sites proposed by Participating countries and to keep under review those previously thought suitable. The aim of this volume is to provide a further interim description of the North-East Atlantic dumpsite itself. Quantities of known wastes dumpings are summarized. A review of the available data on sediment distribution in the area is presented. The flow field at the site is described so that an experiment to determine the influence on the deep flow of large scale topographic features at the dumpsite. The tide gauge results are briefly presented. The state of knowledge of the hydrographic and chemical conditions prior to 1977 is reviewed; recent results are added. The results of the radioactivity determination in the surface layer (3cm thick) of box cored sediments and the vertical radioactivity profiles are presented in tables. Some results on adsorption and geochemical partitioning of long-lived radionuclides on dumpsite sediments are briefly reviewed. Biological studies have been undertaken: concentration of radionuclides in biological materials, radiation effects on the dumpsite fauna. A dose-limit (critical group) calculation model is presented. Collective dose commitment and mass transfer are briefly discussed. The concentration of radionuclides in sediments and some organisms of the Bay of Biscay has been evaluated. Some isopycnal data for the eastern Atlantic, windstress and stratification are briefly mentioned

  20. Less is more: Strategic scale site suitability for concentrated solar thermal power in Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, Lucas; Schlyter, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Concentrated Solar Thermal Power (CSP) represents a technology with a great deal of promise for low-emissions electricity generation. Several recent studies have identified large swathes of the world’s ‘sunbelt’ as technically suitable for the technology, but current estimates grossly overestimate site suitability for CSP. There is a need for more realistic suitability estimations in order to provide a more accurate basis for policy and investment decisions. This paper establishes a generally applicable GIS-based methodology to better enable identification of CSP-suitable sites at the continental scale. We test the methodology, identifying a large number of CSP suitable sites in Western Australia (WA). Our results indicate a 99.4% reduction from technically suitable areas to areas showing medium-to-very-high suitability in the current and near term in WA. The availability of infrastructure is critical to site suitability and the introduction of new major loads and infrastructure in currently under-developed regions is likely to open up further areas with medium to very high suitability. Despite the fact that current global/continental scale estimates of CSP potentials are likely overestimated by at least two orders of magnitude, truly CSP-suitable areas remain more than sufficient to motivate investment in utility-scale CSP and power potentials from this technology remain enormous. - Highlights: ► 1.78 million km 2 of Western Australia is identified as technically suitable. ► Hypothetical production potential of technically suitable area ≈908,000 TW h/year. ► Only 0.6% of technically suitable areas considered to be medium-very highly suitable. ► Site suitability highly dependent on availability of infrastructure and load. ► Suitable areas still more than sufficient to motivate CSP production.

  1. In Situ Thermal NAPL Remediation at the Northeast Site Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhlin, R.; Butherus, M.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting thermal remediation to remove non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from the subsurface at the Northeast Site that is part of the Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project. The Northeast Site is located on the Young - Rainey Science, Technology, and Research (STAR) Center in Largo, Florida. The STAR Center was formerly a DOE facility. The NAPL remediation was performed at Area A and is currently being performed at Area B at the Northeast Site. The remediation at Area A was completed in 2003 and covered an area of 900 m 2 (10,000 ft 2 ) and a depth of remediation that extended to 10.7 m (35 ft) below ground surface. Cleanup levels achieved were at or below maximum contaminant levels in almost all locations. The remediation project at Area B is ongoing and covers an area of 3,240 m 2 (36,000 ft 2 ), a volume of 41,300 m (54,000 yd 3), and a depth of remediation to 12 m (40 ft) below ground surface. In addition, a portion of the subsurface under an occupied building in Area B is included in the remediation. The cleanup levels achieved from this remediation will be available in the Area B Final Report that will be posted on the DOE Office of Legacy Management web site (www.lm.doe.gov/land/sites/fl/ pinellas/pinellas.htm) in January 2007. Electrical resistive heating and steam were the chosen remediation methods at both areas. Lessons learned from the Area A remediation were incorporated into the Area B remediation and could benefit managers of similar remediation projects. (authors)

  2. New interpretations of the Fort Clark State Historic Site based on aerial color and thermal infrared imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Andrew Roland

    The Fort Clark State Historic Site (32ME2) is a well known site on the upper Missouri River, North Dakota. The site was the location of two Euroamerican trading posts and a large Mandan-Arikara earthlodge village. In 2004, Dr. Kenneth L. Kvamme and Dr. Tommy Hailey surveyed the site using aerial color and thermal infrared imagery collected from a powered parachute. Individual images were stitched together into large image mosaics and registered to Wood's 1993 interpretive map of the site using Adobe Photoshop. The analysis of those image mosaics resulted in the identification of more than 1,500 archaeological features, including as many as 124 earthlodges.

  3. Morphological description and comparison of the dental remains from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos site (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinón-Torres, María; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Gómez-Robles, Aida; Prado-Simón, Leyre; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2012-01-01

    The systematic excavation of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) site in Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) has yielded the largest hominin collection worldwide for the Middle Pleistocene. The dental sample now consists of more than 500 teeth that provide exceptional opportunities to define the dental morphological pattern of a Middle Pleistocene population as well as develop hypotheses about the origins of the Neanderthals. The dental collection has now increased to over 533 specimens (525 permanent and 8 deciduous teeth), necessitating new morphological assessments. Thus, we present a detailed morphological description of the SH permanent dentition recovered up to 2007, accomplishing comparisons with European Middle Pleistocene hominins, Neanderthals, and early and contemporary Homo sapiens. We find that SH dentitions present all the morphological traits that, either in their degree of expression, frequency, or particular combination, are usually considered as typical of Homo neanderthalensis. This study ratifies the deep roots of the Neanderthal lineage in the Middle Pleistocene of Europe. In addition, SH teeth are morphologically "more Neanderthal" than other penecontemporaneous Middle Pleistocene samples such as Mauer or Arago, and even more derived than some classic Neanderthal samples. Thus, our study would not sustain the linearity of the accretion process hypothesized for the origins of the Neanderthals, and we suggest that other evolutionary models and scenarios should be explored for the Middle and Upper Pleistocene of Europe. We propose that more than one hominin lineage may have coexisted during the Middle Pleistocene in Europe. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. Development and testing of an approach to modelling the state of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakami, Eva; Hakami, Hossein [Itasca Geomekanik AB, Solna (Sweden); Cosgrove, John [Imperial College of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    The overall objective of this project has been to develop, test and establish a method for creating a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model for a site considered in the site investigation programme. The work was divided into three parts, the empirical and theoretical 'property models' and the 'stress model'. The work on the stress model is presented in this report. The work consisted of i) a literature review about geological factors controlling in situ stress and a review about the use of numerical models for this subject, ii) the development of recommendations on the methodology to be applied during a site investigation and iii) the Test Case exercise, where the suggested methods were tested. The main mechanism controlling the in situ stress magnitudes in Sweden is plate tectonics causing the stress field to show similarities in most parts of north-western Europe, having a NW-SE trend of the maximum principal stress. The orientation of the stress field is largely determined by the relative movements by the plates. However, the stress orientation may also be influenced by the presence of large regional weak zones, such as the Tornquist deformation zone that lies between Sweden and Denmark. The strike of the Tornquist deformation zone is parallel to the maximum principal stress as observed in central and southern Sweden. The magnitude of the stress is more difficult to estimate, but the general pattern is an increase in magnitude with depth, at least for the upper kilometres. To determine the stress magnitude at a certain site and depth, with reasonable certainty, stress measurement should be used. A methodology for building a stress model has been proposed. It involves different steps starting with a preliminary stress estimation, followed by steps for interpreting site-specific information. If the stress pattern and structural geology of the site are complex, including major fracture zones intersecting the area, numerical analyses of the

  5. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. Development and testing of an approach to modelling the state of stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakami, Eva; Hakami, Hossein; Cosgrove, John

    2002-05-01

    The overall objective of this project has been to develop, test and establish a method for creating a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model for a site considered in the site investigation programme. The work was divided into three parts, the empirical and theoretical 'property models' and the 'stress model'. The work on the stress model is presented in this report. The work consisted of i) a literature review about geological factors controlling in situ stress and a review about the use of numerical models for this subject, ii) the development of recommendations on the methodology to be applied during a site investigation and iii) the Test Case exercise, where the suggested methods were tested. The main mechanism controlling the in situ stress magnitudes in Sweden is plate tectonics causing the stress field to show similarities in most parts of north-western Europe, having a NW-SE trend of the maximum principal stress. The orientation of the stress field is largely determined by the relative movements by the plates. However, the stress orientation may also be influenced by the presence of large regional weak zones, such as the Tornquist deformation zone that lies between Sweden and Denmark. The strike of the Tornquist deformation zone is parallel to the maximum principal stress as observed in central and southern Sweden. The magnitude of the stress is more difficult to estimate, but the general pattern is an increase in magnitude with depth, at least for the upper kilometres. To determine the stress magnitude at a certain site and depth, with reasonable certainty, stress measurement should be used. A methodology for building a stress model has been proposed. It involves different steps starting with a preliminary stress estimation, followed by steps for interpreting site-specific information. If the stress pattern and structural geology of the site are complex, including major fracture zones intersecting the area, numerical analyses of the stress field is

  6. The 10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant: Solar facilities design integration. Pilot-plant station manual (RADL Item 2-1). Volume 1: System description

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    The complete Barstow Solar Pilot Plant is described. The plant requirements and general description are presented, the mechanical, electric power, and control and instrumentation systems as well as civil engineering and structural aspects and the station buildings are described. Included in the mechanical systems are the heliostats, receiver, thermal storage system, beam characterization system, steam, water, nitrogen, and compressed air systems, chemical feed system, fire protection system, drains, sumps and the waste disposal systems, and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems.

  7. A description of LUSTRA's common field sites[Forestry land use and greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, Dan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences; Bergkvist, Bo [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology; Johansson, Maj-Britt; Melkerud, Per-Arne; Nilsson, Aake; Olsson, Mats [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Soils; Langvall, Ola [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Lammhult (Sweden). Asa Experimental Forest; Majdi, Hooshang [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research; Weslien, Per [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Botanical Inst.

    2004-07-01

    participate on the global arena, and thus LUSTRA has gradually put more focus on the Kyoto process. LUSTRA was evaluated during spring 2002 and the general overall statement was that 'The ambitious goals of the LUSTRA program are very good and seem to be well understood by the participating researchers. However, for a second phase a focus on synthesis and synergy is recommended'. In LUSTRA we are performing integrated research on C fluxes at three common field sites (CFS) situated in a south-north transect in Sweden: Asa, Knottaasen and Flakaliden. Measurements started summer 2000. The intention was to establish a climate gradient through Sweden but keep other environmental parameters rather similar. Also within each site the ambition was to get a hydrological gradient going from dry, over mesic to moist conditions, i.e. from deep lying ground water level to shallow groundwater. According to the advises by the reviewers of LUSTRA phase 1, more focus will be on syntheses during LUSTRA phase 2 (2003-2006). However, measurements at the CFS will be continued during 2003 and 2004. The objectives of this paper are (i) to give a general description of the sites, (ii) to describe the abiotic measurements made at the different sites, including the data base, (iii) to describe the methods used to obtain background information about soils and vegetation (C pools and fluxes) and (iv) to present the background information about soils and vegetation.

  8. Alaska Open-File Report 127 Assessment of Thermal Springs Sites in Southern Southeastern Alaska - Preliminary Results and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, Roman J.; Moorman, Mary A.; Reeder, John W.

    1980-06-01

    Information has been gathered on 13 reported thermal-spring sites, 12 in southern Southeastern Alaska and one in western British Columbia. Five of the reported sites could not be substantiated by DGGS. The eight known thermal spring sites are associated with grainitic terrain and, except for Baker Island Hot Springs, occur within or near intensively fractured Cretaceous-age pluons of the Coast Range Batholith. Thermal-spring surface temperatures range from 21 C (Twin Lakes) to 91.5 C (Bailey Bay). The greatest discharge occurs at Chief Shakes hot springs (450 1pm). Bell Island Hot Springs, which has about a 100-1 pm discharge and a 70 C temperature, has had the most development. Two previously unreported thermal-spring sites, Barnes Lake warm springs and Bradfield hot springs, have a low rate of discharge and respective surface temperatures of about 25 and 54 C. The known thermal springs probably originate from circulation of meteoric waters through deep-seated fracture and fault systems. The chemical constituents of the alkali-sulfate to alkali-chloride thermal waters are probably derived from interaction of the deeply circulating meteoric waters with the granitic wall rocks. Chemical geothermometry suggests subsurface temperatures of 55 to 151 C. If waters are being heated solely by conduction from wall rocks, circulation depths must be about 1.5 to 5 km, assuming geothermal gradients of 30 to 50 C/km. Variations in temperature, discharge, and chemistry were noted at several thermal springs for which previous records are available. A major decrease in silica and potassium concentrations at Chief Shakes hot springs is suggested by comparing recent analyses of water chemistry to Waring's (1917) original analysis. The rate of discharge at Bell Island Hot Springs may have increased by a factor of two since Waring's visit to the springs. Subsurface reservoirs associated with thermal springs in southern Southeastern Alaska are of low temperature and are

  9. Geophysical logging and thermal imaging near the Hemphill Road TCE National Priorities List Superfund site near Gastonia, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolino, Dominick J.; Chapman, Melinda J.

    2017-03-27

    Borehole geophysical logs and thermal imaging data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey near the Hemphill Road TCE (trichloroethylene) National Priorities List Superfund site near Gastonia, North Carolina, during August 2014 through February 2015. In an effort to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the development of a conceptual groundwater model for the assessment of current contaminant distribution and future migration of contaminants, surface geological mapping and borehole geophysical log and thermal imaging data collection, which included the delineation of more than 600 subsurface features (primarily fracture orientations), was completed in five open borehole wells and two private supply bedrock wells. In addition, areas of possible groundwater discharge within a nearby creek downgradient of the study site were determined based on temperature differences between the stream and bank seepage using thermal imagery.

  10. Updated strategy and test of new concepts for groundwater flow modelling in Forsmark in preparation of site descriptive modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB (Sweden); Johansson, Per-Olof [Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB (Sweden); Leven, Jakob [Geosigma AB (Sweden); Hartley, Lee; Holton, David; McCarthy, Rachel; Roberts, David [Serco Assurance (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    As part of the preliminary Site Descriptive Modelling (SDM version 1.2) for the Initial Site Investigation (ISI) stage at Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar, a methodology was developed for constructing hydrogeological models of the crystalline bedrock. The methodology achieved reasonable success given the restricted amounts and types of data available at the time. Notwithstanding, several issues of concern have surfaced following the reviews of the preliminary site descriptions of the three sites. Possible solutions to parts of the problems have been discussed internally for a longer time and an integrated view and strategy forward has been formulated. The 'new strategy' is not a complete shift in methodology, however, but a refocusing on and clarification of the key aspects that the hydrogeological SDM needs to accomplish. In broad terms the basic principle of the 'new strategy' suggested is to develop an overall conceptual model that first establishes the major flowing deformation zones, and then gradually approaches determination of the hydraulic properties of the bedrock outside these zones in the potential repository volume. On each scale, the focus of the description should be on features/structures of significance on that scale. Clearly, a detailed (although statistical) description of the repository and canister deposition hole scale is the end goal, but this approach (which also is more the traditional approach in hydrogeology) is judged to provide a much better motivated overall geometrical description. Furthermore, the 'new strategy' puts more emphasis on field testing (e.g. interference tests) and data analyses and less on numerical simulation and calibration. That is, before extensive (and costly) simulations and model calibrations are made it needs to be clearly understood what could be the potential gains of carrying them out. This report presents the conceptual model development for Forsmark in preparation of the site

  11. "Why not bathe the baby today?": A qualitative study of thermal care beliefs and practices in four African sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa Aderonke; Bee, Margaret Helen; Amare, Yared; Omotara, Babatunji Abayomi; Iganus, Ruth Buus; Manzi, Fatuma; Shamba, Donat Dominic; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Odebiyi, Adetanwa; Hill, Zelee Elizabeth

    2015-10-14

    Recommendations for care in the first week of a newborn's life include thermal care practices such as drying and wrapping, skin to skin contact, immediate breastfeeding and delayed bathing. This paper examines beliefs and practices related to neonatal thermal care in three African countries. Data were collected in the same way in each site and included 16-20 narrative interviews with recent mothers, eight observations of neonatal bathing, and in-depth interviews with 12-16 mothers, 9-12 grandmothers, eight health workers and 0-12 birth attendants in each site. We found similarities across sites in relation to understanding the importance of warmth, a lack of opportunities for skin to skin care, beliefs about the importance of several baths per day and beliefs that the Vernix caseosa was related to poor maternal behaviours. There was variation between sites in beliefs and practices around wrapping and drying after delivery, and the timing of the first bath with recent behavior change in some sites. There was near universal early bathing of babies in both Nigerian sites. This was linked to a deep-rooted belief about body odour. When asked about keeping the baby warm, respondents across the sites rarely mentioned recommended thermal care practices, suggesting that these are not perceived as salient. More effort is needed to promote appropriate thermal care practices both in facilities and at home. Programmers should be aware that changing deep rooted practices, such as early bathing in Nigeria, may take time and should utilize the current beliefs in the importance of neonatal warmth to facilitate behaviour change.

  12. Site descriptions: Cypress Creek, Davis Canyon, Deaf Smith, Hanford Reference, Lavender Canyon, Richton Dome, Swisher, Vacherie Dome, Yucca Mountain. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    The following information is given about the various sites: location (state and county), terrain, climate, weather, endangered plants and animals; nearest town, population, nearest railway, nearest interstate highway, economy, density within 50 miles, owners, and historical sites. (LM)

  13. Regional hydrogeological simulations for Forsmark - numerical modelling using DarcyTools. Preliminary site description Forsmark area version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follin, Sven; Stigsson, Martin; Svensson, Urban

    2005-12-01

    A numerical model is developed on a regional-scale (hundreds of square kilometres) to study the zone of influence for variable-density groundwater flow that affects the Forsmark area. Transport calculations are performed by particle tracking from a local-scale release area (a few square kilometres) to test the sensitivity to different hydrogeological uncertainties and the need for far-field realism. The main objectives of the regional flow modelling were to achieve the following: I. Palaeo-hydrogeological understanding: An improved understanding of the palaeohydrogeological conditions is necessary in order to gain credibility for the site descriptive model in general and the hydrogeological description in particular. This requires modelling of the groundwater flow from the last glaciation up to present-day with comparisons against measured TDS and other hydro-geochemical measures. II. Simulation of flow paths: The simulation and visualisation of flow paths from a tentative repository area is a means for describing the role of the current understanding of the modelled hydrogeological conditions in the target volume, i.e. the conditions of primary interest for Safety Assessment. Of particular interest here is demonstration of the need for detailed far-field realism in the numerical simulations. The motivation for a particular model size (and resolution) and set of boundary conditions for a realistic description of the recharge and discharge connected to the flow at repository depth is an essential part of the groundwater flow path simulations. The numerical modelling was performed by two separate modelling teams, the ConnectFlow Team and the DarcyTools Team. The work presented in this report was based on the computer code DarcyTools developed by Computer-aided Fluid Engineering. DarcyTools is a kind of equivalent porous media (EPM) flow code specifically designed to treat flow and salt transport in sparsely fractured crystalline rock intersected by transmissive

  14. Regional hydrogeological simulations for Forsmark - numerical modelling using DarcyTools. Preliminary site description Forsmark area version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    A numerical model is developed on a regional-scale (hundreds of square kilometres) to study the zone of influence for variable-density groundwater flow that affects the Forsmark area. Transport calculations are performed by particle tracking from a local-scale release area (a few square kilometres) to test the sensitivity to different hydrogeological uncertainties and the need for far-field realism. The main objectives of the regional flow modelling were to achieve the following: I. Palaeo-hydrogeological understanding: An improved understanding of the palaeohydrogeological conditions is necessary in order to gain credibility for the site descriptive model in general and the hydrogeological description in particular. This requires modelling of the groundwater flow from the last glaciation up to present-day with comparisons against measured TDS and other hydro-geochemical measures. II. Simulation of flow paths: The simulation and visualisation of flow paths from a tentative repository area is a means for describing the role of the current understanding of the modelled hydrogeological conditions in the target volume, i.e. the conditions of primary interest for Safety Assessment. Of particular interest here is demonstration of the need for detailed far-field realism in the numerical simulations. The motivation for a particular model size (and resolution) and set of boundary conditions for a realistic description of the recharge and discharge connected to the flow at repository depth is an essential part of the groundwater flow path simulations. The numerical modelling was performed by two separate modelling teams, the ConnectFlow Team and the DarcyTools Team. The work presented in this report was based on the computer code DarcyTools developed by Computer-aided Fluid Engineering. DarcyTools is a kind of equivalent porous media (EPM) flow code specifically designed to treat flow and salt transport in sparsely fractured crystalline rock intersected by transmissive

  15. A standard description and costing methodology for the balance-of-plant items of a solar thermal electric power plant. Report of a multi-institutional working group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Standard descriptions for solar thermal power plants are established and uniform costing methodologies for nondevelopmental balance of plant (BOP) items are developed. The descriptions and methodologies developed are applicable to the major systems. These systems include the central receiver, parabolic dish, parabolic trough, hemispherical bowl, and solar pond. The standard plant is defined in terms of four categories comprising (1) solar energy collection, (2) power conversion, (3) energy storage, and (4) balance of plant. Each of these categories is described in terms of the type and function of components and/or subsystems within the category. A detailed description is given for the BOP category. BOP contains a number of nondevelopmental items that are common to all solar thermal systems. A standard methodology for determining the costs of these nondevelopmental BOP items is given. The methodology is presented in the form of cost equations involving cost factors such as unit costs. A set of baseline values for the normalized cost factors is also given.

  16. Hybrid model predictive control of a residential HVAC system with on-site thermal energy generation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorentini, Massimo; Wall, Josh; Ma, Zhenjun; Braslavsky, Julio H.; Cooper, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive approach to managing thermal energy in residential buildings. • Solar-assisted HVAC system with on-site energy generation and storage. • Mixed logic-dynamical building model identified using experimental data. • Design and implementation of a logic-dynamical model predictive control strategy. • MPC applied to the Net-Zero Energy house winner of the Solar Decathlon China 2013. - Abstract: This paper describes the development, implementation and experimental investigation of a Hybrid Model Predictive Control (HMPC) strategy to control solar-assisted heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems with on-site thermal energy generation and storage. A comprehensive approach to the thermal energy management of a residential building is presented to optimise the scheduling of the available thermal energy resources to meet a comfort objective. The system has a hybrid nature with both continuous variables and discrete, logic-driven operating modes. The proposed control strategy is organized in two hierarchical levels. At the high-level, an HMPC controller with a 24-h prediction horizon and a 1-h control step is used to select the operating mode of the HVAC system. At the low-level, each operating mode is optimised using a 1-h rolling prediction horizon with a 5-min control step. The proposed control strategy has been practically implemented on the Building Management and Control System (BMCS) of a Net Zero-Energy Solar Decathlon house. This house features a sophisticated HVAC system comprising of an air-based photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector and a phase change material (PCM) thermal storage integrated with the air-handling unit (AHU) of a ducted reverse-cycle heat pump system. The simulation and experimental results demonstrated the high performance achievable using an HMPC approach to optimising complex multimode HVAC systems in residential buildings, illustrating efficient selection of the appropriate operating modes

  17. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

  18. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ''ideas''. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ''cradle-to-grave'' systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ''downselection'' of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW

  19. TASAC a computer program for thermal analysis of severe accident conditions. Version 3/01, Dec 1991. Model description and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stempniewicz, M.; Marks, P.; Salwa, K.

    1992-06-01

    TASAC (Thermal Analysis of Severe Accident Conditions) is computer code developed in the Institute of Atomic Energy written in FORTRAN 77 for the digital computer analysis of PWR rod bundle behaviour during severe accident conditions. The code has the ability to model an early stage of core degradation including heat transfer inside the rods, convective and radiative heat exchange as well as cladding interactions with coolant and fuel, hydrogen generation, melting, relocations and refreezing of fuel rod materials with dissolution of UO 2 and ZrO 2 in liquid phase. The code was applied for the simulation of International Standard Problem number 28, performed on PHEBUS test facility. This report contains the program physical models description, detailed description of input data requirements and results of code verification. The main directions for future TASAC code development are formulated. (author). 20 refs, 39 figs, 4 tabs

  20. TASAC a computer program for thermal analysis of severe accident conditions. Version 3/01, Dec 1991. Model description and user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stempniewicz, M; Marks, P; Salwa, K

    1992-06-01

    TASAC (Thermal Analysis of Severe Accident Conditions) is computer code developed in the Institute of Atomic Energy written in FORTRAN 77 for the digital computer analysis of PWR rod bundle behaviour during severe accident conditions. The code has the ability to model an early stage of core degradation including heat transfer inside the rods, convective and radiative heat exchange as well as cladding interactions with coolant and fuel, hydrogen generation, melting, relocations and refreezing of fuel rod materials with dissolution of UO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} in liquid phase. The code was applied for the simulation of International Standard Problem number 28, performed on PHEBUS test facility. This report contains the program physical models description, detailed description of input data requirements and results of code verification. The main directions for future TASAC code development are formulated. (author). 20 refs, 39 figs, 4 tabs.

  1. Thermal mapping studies at Kadra reservoir near Kaiga generating station site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi, P.M.; Nayak, P.D.; Sudhakar, J.; Mishra, D.G.; Hegde, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    An inherent problem in nuclear and thermal power plants are the release of heat energy into the environment through cooling system to water bodies such as lakes, rivers, estuaries and oceans. Two NPPs of Kaiga Generating Station, discharge the thermal effluent to the nearby Kadra reservoir. This paper presents the results of three year long comprehensive thermal mapping studies conducted by ESL, KGS as part of the Thermal Ecological Studies sponsored by Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS), Department of Atomic Energy. Present studies clearly demonstrate that the thermally influenced zone in the reservoir is limited to a small volume of the reservoir and is not likely to lead any irreversible adverse impact on the ecosystem of the reservoir. (author)

  2. Tests of the geometrical description of blood vessels in a thermal model using counter-current geometries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, G. M.; Kotte, A. N.; Crezee, J.; Lagendijk, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a thermal model, for use in hyperthermia treatment planning, in which blood vessels are described as geometrical objects; 3D curves with associated diameters. For the calculation of the heat exchange with the tissue an analytic result is used. To arrive at this result some

  3. Site-specific Pt deposition and etching on electrically and thermally isolated SiO2 micro-disk surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraf, Laxmikant V

    2010-01-01

    Electrically and thermally isolated surfaces are crucial for improving the detection sensitivity of microelectronic sensors. The site-specific in situ growth of Pt nano-rods on thermally and electrically isolated SiO 2 micro-disks using wet chemical etching and a focused ion/electron dual beam (FIB-SEM) is demonstrated. Fabrication of an array of micro-cavities on top of a micro-disk is also demonstrated. The FIB source is utilized to fabricate through-holes in the micro-disks. Due to the amorphous nature of SiO 2 micro-disks, the Ga implantation possibly modifies through-hole sidewall surface chemistry rather than affecting its transport properties. Some sensor design concepts based on micro-fabrication of SiO 2 micro-disks utilizing thermally and electrically isolated surfaces are discussed from the viewpoint of applications in photonics and bio-sensing.

  4. Description of Work for Drilling at the 183-DR Site in Support of the In Situ Gaseous Reduction Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Edward C.; Olsen, Khris B.; Schalla, Ronald

    2000-06-26

    In Situ Gaseous Reduction is a technology currently being developed by DOE for the remediation of soil waste sites contaminated with hexavalent chromium. Prior work suggests that a candidate for application of this approach is the 183-DR site at Hanford. However, deep vadose zone drilling is needed to verify the presence of a hexavalent chromium source and to determine the concentration levels and spatial distribution of contamination. This document presents the requirements associated with drilling one to two vadose zone boreholes at the 183-DR site to obtain this information. If hexavalent chromium is determined to be present at levels of at least 10 ppm in the vadose zone in one of the initial boreholes, this hole will be completed for gas injection and six additional gas extraction boreholes will be drilled and completed. This network will be used as a flowcell for performing a gas treatment test at the site.

  5. Theoretical investigations on the fragmentation of drops of melt with respect to the description of thermal detonations (vapor explosions) and their application in the code Frademo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, M.; Carachalios, C.; Kim, D.S.; Unger, H.

    1986-01-01

    Vapor explosions caused by the contact of molten core material with coolant are an important issue within reactor safety analysis, because they could produce an early threat to the containment during a core melt accident. The case of steady-state propagation of a detonation wave through a coarse premixture of melt and coolant represents the most severe case of a large scale vapor explosion under reactor conditions with the highest rate and largest heat release and therefore also the highest yield of mechanical energy. The present contribution starts with the description of the integral model of the detonation wave. The fragmentation processes, which are decisive for these exchange terms and the detonation process as a whole, are dealt with also. Hydrodynamic fragmentation processes as well as a thermally induced one are considered. The processes which take place inside a detonation wave, especially the fragmentation of the drops of melt and the velocity equilibration between the melt and the coolant, determine the behavior of the wave. In the present model these processes are described within a three-phase approach, considering the drops of melt, the fragments and the coolant as separate flow phases. In the frame of this work, the computer code FRADEMO has been developed. It consists of an overall description of the processes inside a steady-state detonation wave in combination with a full description of the detailed models on hydrodynamic and thermal fragmentation presented in this report. Some useful information for the potential code user is given in the appendix of the detailed report also

  6. Interim oceanographic description of the North-East-Atlantic site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, R.R.; Gurbutt, P.A.; Kershaw, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The NEA Co-ordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme (CRESP) related to sea disposal of radioactive waste was started in 1981 following a recommendation of the Group of experts convened every five years by NEA to review the continued suitability of the dumping site for radioactive waste in the North-East Atlantic. The objective of CRESP is to increase the available scientific data base related to the oceanographic and biological characteristics of the dump site and elaborate a site specific model of the transfers of radionuclides to human populations. Volume one of the ''Interim Oceanographic Description of the North-East Atlantic Site for the Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste'' was published in early 1983. It was an attempt to identify remaining gaps in current knowledge of conditions at the site and relate these conditions to the physical environment of the North-East Atlantic Ocean as a whole. The amount of data obtained by the CRESP Programme is now sufficient to justify publication of this second volume. Scientists present results of research which is of direct relevance to a better assessment of the impact from dumping radioactive waste in the North-East Atlantic, in particular an evaluation of the potential radiation doses to man. These two volumes represent part of the scientific contribution of the CRESP Programme to the 1985 Review of the Continued Suitability of the North-East Atlantic dump site

  7. Hanford National Environmental Research Park (NERP): a descriptive summary of the site and site-related research programs, 1952--1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, B.E.; Rickard, W.H.

    1977-11-01

    The Hanford National Environmental Research Park site is described in general terms and major plant communities and special habitats are discussed. Important bird, mammal, and fish populations are listed. Current research programs on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and radioecology are reviewed briefly. A list is included of some 100 publications that report results of research studies in detail

  8. Alaska Open-file Report 144 Assessment of Thermal Springs Sites Aleutian Arc, Atka Island to Becherof Lake -- Preliminary Results and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, R.J.; Moorman, M.A.; Liss, S.A.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty of more than 30 thermal spring areas reported to exist in the Aleutian arc extending from Atka Island to Becherof Lake were investigated during July and August, 1980. Thermal activity of three of these sites had diminished substantially or no longer existed. At least seven more sites where thermal-spring activity is probable or certain were not visited because of their remoteness or because of time constraints. The existence of several other reported thermal spring sites could not be verified; these sites are considered questionable. On the basis of geothermometry, subsurface reservoir temperatures in excess of 150 C are estimated for 10 of the thermal spring sites investigated. These sites all occur in or near regions of Recent volcanism. Five of the sites are characterized by fumaroles and steaming ground, indicating the presence of at least a shallow vapor-dominated zone. Two, the Makushin Valley and Glacier Valley thermal areas, occur on the flanks of active Mukushin Volcano located on Unalaska Island, and may be connected to a common source of heat. Gas geothermometry suggests that the reservoir feeding the Kliuchef thermal field, located on the flanks of Kliuchef volcano of northeast Atka Island, may be as high as 239 C.

  9. Improving the effectiveness of ecological site descriptions: General state-and-transition models and the Ecosystem Dynamics Interpretive Tool (EDIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Williamson, Jeb C.; Talbot, Curtis J.; Cates, Greg W.; Duniway, Michael C.; Brown, Joel R.

    2016-01-01

    State-and-transition models (STMs) are useful tools for management, but they can be difficult to use and have limited content.STMs created for groups of related ecological sites could simplify and improve their utility. The amount of information linked to models can be increased using tables that communicate management interpretations and important within-group variability.We created a new web-based information system (the Ecosystem Dynamics Interpretive Tool) to house STMs, associated tabular information, and other ecological site data and descriptors.Fewer, more informative, better organized, and easily accessible STMs should increase the accessibility of science information.

  10. Determination of P3HT Trap Site Energies by Thermally Stimulated Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, J. F. P.; Serbena, J. P. M.; Kowalski, E. L.; Akcelrud, L. C.

    2018-02-01

    The thermal, electrical and morphological characterization of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5diyl) (P3HT) is presented and discussed. Thermal analyses revealed high glass transition, melting and degradation temperatures, indicating high stability of the polymer to annealings in the range 25-200°C. Electrical measurements were performed in spin-coated devices constructed using indium tin oxide (ITO) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) in the sandwich structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT/Al. The devices were thermally treated at 25°C, 100°C, 150°C, and 200°C prior to the measurements. Characteristic curves of current density versus voltage showed that the injection of charge carriers is governed by tunneling at high electric fields. Hole mobility was estimated by impedance spectroscopy, showing a maximum value of 8.6 × 10-5 cm2/Vs for annealed films at 150°C. A thermally stimulated current technique was used to analyze the trap density in the P3HT and its respective energies for all devices, presenting the lowest trap density for annealed films at 150°C. Morphological features observed by atomic force microscopy showed that the 150°C thermally treated film presents the best interface condition of the four investigated annealing temperatures.

  11. Paleo-Productivity across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Walvis Ridge Transect (ODP Sites 1262, 1263, and 1266)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, C. O.; Delaney, M. L.; Zachos, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    Walvis Ridge transect (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 208) provides the first high-resolution depth-transect of deep-sea sediments recovered from the south Atlantic across the P/E boundary. A geographically restricted depth transect (~ 2.2 km, water depths between 2500 and 4770 m) allows us to constrain the surface waters by assuming marine productivity conditions in the overlying water column are similar across all sites. The sediment record will reveal variations for processes that are water-depth dependent. We use the geochemical tracers; biogenic barium, phosphorus, calcium carbonate, and the redox sensitive trace elements manganese and uranium, to reconstruct nutrient burial, paleoproductivity, and bottom water redox chemistry across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). We calculate our concentrations on a calcium carbonate-free basis to account for dilution by non-carbonate sediments. Trace metal enrichment factors (EFs) are calculated relative to bulk crustal averages. We chose three sites from the depth transect: the shallowest (Site 1263, 2717 m water depth), an intermediate site (Site 1266, 3798 m water depth), and the deepest site (Site 1262, 4755 m water depth). We sampled each site at a sample resolution of ~ 1-2 kyr for 5 m.y. centered at 55 Ma. Uranium EFs at the shallow site exhibits values ~ 5 pre-event and drop to values near crustal averages during and after the carbon isotope excursion (CIE). No dramatic changes in U EFs across the P/E boundary are recorded at the deep and intermediate sites. Mn EFs range between 2.9 -8.6 prior to the event across all three sites, suggesting an oxygenated depositional environment. At the boundary, Mn EFs drop to crustal averages at all sites, then gradually return to pre-event values, indicating more reducing environments during the CIE, a possible explanation for the benthic extinction event (BEE) observed across this transect. Ba excess and reactive phosphorus exhibit decreased concentrations during

  12. Project description: ORNL PWR blowdown heat transfer separate-effects program, Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    The ORNL Pressurized-Water Reactor Blowdown Heat Transfer (PWR-BDHT) Program is an experimental separate-effects study of the relations among the principal variables that can alter the rate of blowdown, the presence of flow reversal and rereversal, time delay to critical heat flux, the rate at which dryout progresses, and similar time-related functions that are important to LOCA analysis. Primary test results will be obtained from the Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF), a large nonnuclear pressurized-water loop that incorporates a 49-rod electrically heated bundle. Supporting experiments will be carried out in two additional test loops - the Forced Convection Test Facility (FCTF), a small high-pressure facility in which single heater rods can be tested in annular geometry; and an air-water loop which is used to evaluate two-phase flow-measuring instrumentation

  13. Longitudinal study of urban malaria in a cohort of Ugandan children: description of study site, census and recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staedke Sarah G

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of malaria in well-defined cohorts offer important data about the epidemiology of this complex disease, but few have been done in urban African populations. To generate a sampling frame for a longitudinal study of malaria incidence and treatment in Kampala, Uganda, a census, mapping and survey project was conducted. Methods All households in a geographically defined area were enumerated and mapped. Probability sampling was used to recruit a representative sample of children and collect baseline descriptive data for future longitudinal studies. Results 16,172 residents living in 4931 households in a densely-populated community (18,824 persons/km2 were enumerated. A total of 582 households were approached with at least one child less than 10 years of age in order to recruit 601 children living in 322 households. At enrollment, 19% were parasitaemic, 24% were anaemic, 43% used bednets, and 6% used insecticide-treated nets. Low G6PD activity (OR = 0.33, P = 0.009 and bednet use (OR = 0.64, P = 0.045 were associated with a decreased risk of parasitaemia. Increasing age (OR = 0.62 for each year, P Conclusion Detailed surveys of target populations in urban Africa can provide valuable descriptive data and provide a sampling frame for recruitment of representative cohorts for longitudinal studies. Plans to use a multi-disciplinary approach to improve the understanding of the distribution and determinants of malaria incidence and response to therapy in this population are discussed.

  14. Los Alamos National Laboratory Site Integrated Management plan, uranium 233 storage and disposition. Volume 1: Project scope and description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, J.B.; Erickson, R.

    1997-01-01

    This Site Integration Management plan provides the Los Alamos Response to the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 97-1. This recommendation addresses the safe storage and management of the Departments uranium 233 ( 233 U) inventory. In the past, Los Alamos has used 233 U for a variety of different weapons related projects. The material was used at a variety of sites in varying quantities. Now, there is a limited need for this material and the emphasis has shifted from use to storage and disposition of the material. The Los Alamos program to address the DNFSB Recommendation 97-1 has two emphases. First, take corrective action to address near term deficiencies required to provide safe interim storage of 233 U. Second, provide a plan to address long term storage and disposition of excess inventory at Los Alamos

  15. Open challenges in structure-based virtual screening: Receptor modeling, target flexibility consideration and active site water molecules description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrakis, Francesca; Cavasotto, Claudio N

    2015-10-01

    Structure-based virtual screening is currently an established tool in drug lead discovery projects. Although in the last years the field saw an impressive progress in terms of algorithm development, computational performance, and retrospective and prospective applications in ligand identification, there are still long-standing challenges where further improvement is needed. In this review, we consider the conceptual frame, state-of-the-art and recent developments of three critical "structural" issues in structure-based drug lead discovery: the use of homology modeling to accurately model the binding site when no experimental structures are available, the necessity of accounting for the dynamics of intrinsically flexible systems as proteins, and the importance of considering active site water molecules in lead identification and optimization campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS): Technical Documentation: Volume 1, Description of code and files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiel, B.; Parpia, B.; Murdock, S.; Hamm, R.; Fannin, D.; Ransom-Nelson, W.; Leistritz, F.L.

    1985-05-01

    The SEARS Model is a comprehensive, highly flexible, user-oriented system for projecting economic, demographic, public service and fiscal impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository siting. Both baseline and project-related impact projections may be performed for regions, counties, municipalities, and school districts. It is an interactive APL model requiring comprehensive data bases and parameters to generate the outputs desired. 75 refs., 24 figs., 14 tabs

  17. Overview of the Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory: site description and selected science results from 2008 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, J.; Turnipseed, A.; Guenther, A. B.; Karl, T. G.; Day, D. A.; Gochis, D.; Huffman, J. A.; Prenni, A. J.; Levin, E. J. T.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; DeMott, P. J.; Tobo, Y.; Patton, E. G.; Hodzic, A.; Cui, Y. Y.; Harley, P. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Apel, E. C.; Monson, R. K.; Eller, A. S. D.; Greenberg, J. P.; Barth, M. C.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Palm, B. B.; Jimenez, J. L.; Aiken, A. C.; Dubey, M. K.; Geron, C.; Offenberg, J.; Ryan, M. G.; Fornwalt, P. J.; Pryor, S. C.; Keutsch, F. N.; DiGangi, J. P.; Chan, A. W. H.; Goldstein, A. H.; Wolfe, G. M.; Kim, S.; Kaser, L.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Hansel, A.; Cantrell, C. A.; Mauldin, R. L.; Smith, J. N.

    2014-06-01

    The Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen (BEACHON) project seeks to understand the feedbacks and inter-relationships between hydrology, biogenic emissions, carbon assimilation, aerosol properties, clouds and associated feedbacks within water-limited ecosystems. The Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory (MEFO) was established in 2008 by the National Center for Atmospheric Research to address many of the BEACHON research objectives, and it now provides a fixed field site with significant infrastructure. MEFO is a mountainous, semi-arid ponderosa pine-dominated forest site that is normally dominated by clean continental air but is periodically influenced by anthropogenic sources from Colorado Front Range cities. This article summarizes the past and ongoing research activities at the site, and highlights some of the significant findings that have resulted from these measurements. These activities include - soil property measurements; - hydrological studies; - measurements of high-frequency turbulence parameters; - eddy covariance flux measurements of water, energy, aerosols and carbon dioxide through the canopy; - determination of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compound emissions and their influence on regional atmospheric chemistry; - aerosol number and mass distributions; - chemical speciation of aerosol particles; - characterization of ice and cloud condensation nuclei; - trace gas measurements; and - model simulations using coupled chemistry and meteorology. In addition to various long-term continuous measurements, three focused measurement campaigns with state-of-the-art instrumentation have taken place since the site was established, and two of these studies are the subjects of this special issue: BEACHON-ROCS (Rocky Mountain Organic Carbon Study, 2010) and BEACHON-RoMBAS (Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study, 2011).

  18. Overview of the Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory: site description and selected science results from 2008-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, J.; Turnipseed, A.; Guenther, A. B.; Karl, T. G.; Day, D. A.; Gochis, D.; Huffman, J. A.; Prenni, A. J.; Levin, E. J. T.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; DeMott, P. J.; Tobo, Y.; Patton, E. G.; Hodzic, A.; Cui, Y.; Harley, P. C.; Hornbrook, R. H.; Apel, E. C.; Monson, R. K.; Eller, A. S. D.; Greenberg, J. P.; Barth, M.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Palm, B. B.; Jimenez, J. L.; Aiken, A. C.; Dubey, M. K.; Geron, C.; Offenberg, J.; Ryan, M. G.; Fornwalt, P. J.; Pryor, S. C.; Keutsch, F. N.; DiGangi, J. P.; Chan, A. W. H.; Goldstein, A. H.; Wolfe, G. M.; Kim, S.; Kaser, L.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Hansel, A.; Cantrell, C. A.; Mauldin, R. L., III; Smith, J. N.

    2014-01-01

    The Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen (BEACHON) project seeks to understand the feedbacks and inter-relationships between hydrology, biogenic emissions, carbon assimilation, aerosol properties, clouds and associated feedbacks within water-limited ecosystems. The Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory (MEFO) was established in 2008 by the National Center for Atmospheric Research to address many of the BEACHON research objectives, and it now provides a fixed field site with significant infrastructure. MEFO is a mountainous, semi-arid ponderosa pine-dominated forest site that is normally dominated by clean continental air, but is periodically influenced by anthropogenic sources from Colorado Front Range cities. This article summarizes the past and ongoing research activities at the site, and highlights some of the significant findings that have resulted from these measurements. These activities include: - soil property measurements, - hydrological studies, - measurements of high-frequency turbulence parameters, - eddy covariance flux measurements of water, energy, aerosols and carbon dioxide through the canopy, - biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compound emissions and their influence on regional atmospheric chemistry, - aerosol number and mass distributions, - chemical speciation of aerosol particles, - characterization of ice and cloud condensation nuclei, - trace gas measurements, and - model simulations using coupled chemistry and meteorology. In addition to various long-term continuous measurement, three focused measurement campaigns with state-of-the-art instrumentation have taken place since the site was established, and two of these are the subjects of this special issue: BEACHON-ROCS (Rocky Mountain Organic Carbon Study, 2010) and BEACHON-RoMBAS (Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study, 2011).

  19. China action of "Cleanup Plan for Polychlorinated Biphenyls Burial Sites": emissions during excavation and thermal desorption of a capacitor-burial site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Zhou, Lingli; Xue, Nandong; Li, Fasheng; Wu, Guanglong; Ding, Qiong; Yan, Yunzhong; Liu, Bo

    2013-10-01

    Scarce data are available so far on emissions in a given scenario for excavation and thermal desorption, a common practice, of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). As part of China action of "Cleanup Plan for PCBs Burial Sites", this study roughly estimated PCBs emissions in the scenario for a capacitor-burial site. The concentrations of total PCBs (22 congeners) in soils were in the range of 2.1-16,000μg/g with a mean of 2300μg/g, among the same order of magnitude as the highest values obtained in various PCBs-contaminated sites. Only six congeners belonging to Di-, Tri-, and Tetra-CBs were observed above limits of detection in air samples in the scenario, partially which can be estimated by the USEPA air emission model. Comparing concentrations and composition profiles of PCBs in the soil and air samples further indicated a leaked source of commercial PCBs formulations of trichlorobiphenyl (China PCB no. 1). The measures taken if any to mitigate the volatilization and movement of PCBs and to minimize worker exposure were discussed for improvements of the excavation practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mathematical description of drug-target interactions: application to biologics that bind to targets with two binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibiansky, Leonid; Gibiansky, Ekaterina

    2018-02-01

    The emerging discipline of mathematical pharmacology occupies the space between advanced pharmacometrics and systems biology. A characteristic feature of the approach is application of advance mathematical methods to study the behavior of biological systems as described by mathematical (most often differential) equations. One of the early application of mathematical pharmacology (that was not called this name at the time) was formulation and investigation of the target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) model and its approximations. The model was shown to be remarkably successful, not only in describing the observed data for drug-target interactions, but also in advancing the qualitative and quantitative understanding of those interactions and their role in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of biologics. The TMDD model in its original formulation describes the interaction of the drug that has one binding site with the target that also has only one binding site. Following the framework developed earlier for drugs with one-to-one binding, this work aims to describe a rigorous approach for working with similar systems and to apply it to drugs that bind to targets with two binding sites. The quasi-steady-state, quasi-equilibrium, irreversible binding, and Michaelis-Menten approximations of the model are also derived. These equations can be used, in particular, to predict concentrations of the partially bound target (RC). This could be clinically important if RC remains active and has slow internalization rate. In this case, introduction of the drug aimed to suppress target activity may lead to the opposite effect due to RC accumulation.

  1. Rock thermal property measurements with the Posiva TERO56 drill hole device in the forsmark study site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkonen, I.; Suppala, I.; Korpisalo, A.

    2007-10-01

    Thermal properties were measured in situ in Forsmark at the SKB study site constructed for large-scale thermal conductivity investigations in an outcrop of anisotropic granite. The Posiva TERO56 drill hole tool was used for in situ measurements in four 20 m deep boreholes KFM90C, D, E and F located within very short distances of each other (less than 2.3 m). Measurements were done at depths of 10-18 m in water-filled holes. The bedrock is granite with thin amphibolite and pegmatite layers and thin felsic veins. The measurement principle of the TERO56 logging device is based on conduction of heat from a cylindrical source placed in a borehole and the thermal parameter values are calculated with a least squares inversion algorithm. Measurements in Forsmark consisted typically of 6 hours heating time followed by 10 hours cooling time, but in one measurement the heating time was reduced to of 2 h 45 min and the cooling time to 5 hours. Average thermal conductivity values range from 3.37 to 3.91 W m -1 K -1 with standard deviations between 0.01 and 0.04 W m -1 K -1 . The result is plausible considering the quite homogeneous target geology and short distances between different experiment stations. Diffusivity values, however, vary much more, and averages range from 0.68 to 2.08 A 10 -6 m 2 s -1 with standard deviations ranging from 0.04 to 0.09 A 10 -6 m 2 s -1 . Variations may be attributed to small flow effects or time-dependent temperature trends related to thermal equilibration of the probe. (orig.)

  2. Measurement of the thermal neutron self shielding coefficient in the Syrian miniature neutron source reactor inner irradiation site using the dy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.; Khamis, I.

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of the thermal self shielding coefficient ( Gth ) in the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) inner irradiation site using Dy foils is presented in this paper. The thermal self shielding coefficient is measured as a function of the foil thickness or numbers. The mathematical equation which calculates the average relative radioactivity (Bq/g) versus the foil number is found as well.

  3. ANALYSIS OF SUFFICIENCY OF THE BEARING CAPACITY OF BUILDING STRUCTURES OF OPERATING SITES OF MAIN BUILDINGS OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekseeva Ekaterina Leonidovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Upon examination of eleven main buildings of power plants, analysis of defects and damages of building structures was performed. Thereafter, the damageability of principal bearing structures of main buildings of thermal plants was analyzed. It was identified that the fastest growing defects and damages were concentrated in the structures of operating sites. The research of the rate of development of the most frequent damages and defects made it possible to conclude that internal corrosion of the reinforcing steel was the most dangerous defect, as far as the reinforced concrete elements of operating sites were concerned. Methods of mathematical statistics were applied to identify the reinforcing steel development pattern inside reinforced concrete elements of floors of operating sites. It was identified that the probability of corrosion of reinforced concrete elements of operating sites was distributed in accordance with the demonstrative law. Based on these data, calculation of strength of reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams was performed in terms of their regular sections, given the natural loads and the realistic condition of structures. As a result, dependence between the bearing capacity reserve ratio and the corrosion development pattern was identified for reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams of operating sites. In order to analyze the sufficiency of the bearing capacity of building structures of operating sites in relation to their time in commission, equations were derived to identify the nature of dependence between the sufficiency of the bearing capacity of reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams of the operating sites and their time in commission.

  4. Evolution of coal ash solidification properties with disposal site depth and age, 'Gacko' Thermal power plant case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Dinko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ash with high calcium content is produced by coal combusting in 'Gacko' thermal power plant (Bosnia and Herzegovina. Result of controlled mixture of water and ash is spontaneous ash solidification on disposal site. Speed and solidification efficiency depends on content of calcium-oxide in ash and water: ash mass ratio, which was determined by previous research. Mass ratio that was chosen as the most suitable ratio for industrial usage (roughly was 1:1. Samples of ash of different age were taken after 6.5 years of exploitation and their chemical, physical, mineralogical and geotechnical characteristics were analyzed. Disposed ash was stratified and very heterogeneous. It was shown that great impact on solidification process in practice have climate conditions, proper handling slurry processing, work continuity and disposal site preparation. Great impact of water is noticed which is, because of its water permeability filtrated into lower layers and significantly alters it characteristic.

  5. RACLETTE: a model for evaluating the thermal response of plasma facing components to slow high power plasma transients. Part I: Theory and description of model capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffray, A. René; Federici, Gianfranco

    1997-04-01

    RACLETTE (Rate Analysis Code for pLasma Energy Transfer Transient Evaluation), a comprehensive but relatively simple and versatile model, was developed to help in the design analysis of plasma facing components (PFCs) under 'slow' high power transients, such as those associated with plasma vertical displacement events. The model includes all the key surface heat transfer processes such as evaporation, melting, and radiation, and their interaction with the PFC block thermal response and the coolant behaviour. This paper represents part I of two sister and complementary papers. It covers the model description, calibration and validation, and presents a number of parametric analyses shedding light on and identifying trends in the PFC armour block response to high plasma energy deposition transients. Parameters investigated include the plasma energy density and deposition time, the armour thickness and the presence of vapour shielding effects. Part II of the paper focuses on specific design analyses of ITER plasma facing components (divertor, limiter, primary first wall and baffle), including improvements in the thermal-hydraulic modeling required for better understanding the consequences of high energy deposition transients in particular for the ITER limiter case.

  6. RACLETTE: a model for evaluating the thermal response of plasma facing components to slow high power plasma transients. Pt. I. Theory and description of model capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffray, A.R.; Federici, G.

    1997-01-01

    For pt.II see ibid., p.101-30, 1997. RACLETTE (Rate Analysis Code for pLasma Energy Transfer Transient Evaluation), a comprehensive but relatively simple and versatile model, was developed to help in the design analysis of plasma facing components (PFCs) under 'slow' high power transients, such as those associated with plasma vertical displacement events. The model includes all the key surface heat transfer processes such as evaporation, melting, and radiation, and their interaction with the PFC block thermal response and the coolant behaviour. This paper represents part I of two sister and complementary papers. It covers the model description, calibration and validation, and presents a number of parametric analyses shedding light on and identifying trends in the PFC armour block response to high plasma energy deposition transients. Parameters investigated include the plasma energy density and deposition time, the armour thickness and the presence of vapour shielding effects. Part II of the paper focuses on specific design analyses of ITER plasma facing components (divertor, limiter, primary first wall and baffle), including improvements in the thermal-hydraulic modeling required for better understanding the consequences of high energy deposition transients in particular for the ITER limiter case. (orig.)

  7. Compilation of data used for the analysis of the geological and hydrogeological DFN models. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanson, Jan; Fox, Aaron; Oehman, Johan; Rhen, Ingvar

    2008-08-01

    This report provides an overview and compilation of the various data that constitutes the basis for construction of the geological and hydrogeological discrete feature network (DFN) models as part of model version SDM-Site Laxemar. This includes a review of fracture data in boreholes and in outcrop. Furthermore, the basis for the construction of lineament maps is given as well as a review of the hydraulic test data from cored and percussion-drilled boreholes. An emphasis is put on graphical representation of borehole logs in the form of composites of geological, hydrogeological and even hydrogeochemical data in the case of cored boreholes. One major contribution is a compilation of characteristics of minor local deformation zones (MDZs) identified in cored boreholes. Basic orientation data and fracture intensity data are presented as a function of depth for individual boreholes. The coupling between hydrogeological data and geological data is further refined in plots of Posiva flow log (PFL) data vs. geological single hole interpretation data

  8. Core Description and a Preliminarily Sedimentology Study of Site 1202D, Leg 195, in the Southern Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yue Huang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available ODP Site 1202 of Leg 195 was designed primarily for a high-resolution study of the paleoceanography of the Kuroshio Current in the southern Okinawa Trough off NE Taiwan. Four holes were drilled in which Hole 1202D is described in detail in this study for an assessment of core quality for paleoceanography study and understanding of sedimentological features, especially turbidite sedimentation and the sediment provenances during the Late Quaternary in the southern Okinawa Trough. Pelagic mud with insignificant silt or sand layers is observed from the core top down to 133 m (mbsf; Marine Isotope Stages 1-3, but the silt-sand layer ratio (SLR: total thickness of silt and sand layers / 1.5 m of core increases gradually from a value of 50 % between 223 and 279 m, followed by decreases to values 250 _ Slate fragments are commonly found in fine-grained turbidite dominant intervals (160 - 280 m, while mica flakes can be observed in the muds throughout the core. The major detrital components were derived primarily from the Miocene slate belt of the pre-collision accretionary prism of the Central Range in northern Taiwan. The occurrence of volcanics could represent submarine volcanic activity in the active-opening Okinawa Trough back-arc basin off NE Taiwan. Shallow-marine fossils including benthic foraminifers, echinoids, bryozoans and mollusks are also found in the fine-grained turbidite dominant intervals. These fossil assemblages could have been deposited in the shallow shelf and then transported to the depositional site along with voluminous terrigenous materials derived from Taiwan, via submarine channels or by slope failures due to frequent earthquakes induced by plate convergence/collision and extension in the southwestern Okinawa Trough off NE Taiwan. It is concluded that the top 133 m of the core is better suited for paleoceanographic reconstruction.

  9. Meteorological, hydrological and hydrogeological monitoring data and near-surface hydrogeological properties data from Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Kent; Oehman, Johan; Holgersson, Bjoern; Roennback, Kristoffer; Marelius, Fredrick

    2008-12-01

    This report presents and analyses meteorological, hydrological and hydrogeological time-series data and near-surface hydrogeological properties data from the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, available in SKB's Sicada database at time of the Laxemar 2.3 data freeze (Aug. 31, 2007). The meteorological data set includes data from two local stations, located on the island of Aespoe and at Plittorp, located further inland. In addition, the data evaluation uses a longer-term data set from 7 surrounding stations, operated by SMHI. As part of this study, a time series is constructed of the water content of snow. According to the data evaluation, the site-average annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration can be estimated to be on the order of 600 and 535 mm, respectively. In particular, precipitation demonstrates a near-coastal gradient, with less precipitation at the coast compared to areas further inland. The surface-water level data set includes data from 4 lake-level gauging stations and 3 sea-level gauging stations. All lakes are located above sea level, including the near-coastal Lake Soeraa. Hence, no intrusion of sea water to lakes takes place. There is a strong co-variation among the monitored lake-water levels, typically with maxima during spring and minima during late summer and early autumn. Concerning the sea as a hydraulic boundary, the maximum and minimum sea levels (daily averages) during the site-investigation period were -0.52 and 0.71 metres above sea level, respectively, whereas the average sea level was 0.03 metres above sea level (RHB 70). The data set on stream discharge, surface-water temperature and electrical conductivity includes data from 9 discharge-gauging stations in 7 streams. Based on the discharge data, the site-average specific discharge for the years 2005-2007 can be estimated to 165 mm/y, which is within the interval of the estimated long-term average. Overall, discharge-data errors are likely to be small. The hydrogeological time

  10. Meteorological, hydrological and hydrogeological monitoring data and near-surface hydrogeological properties data from Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent (EmpTec, Taeby (Sweden)); Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Holgersson, Bjoern (SWECO VIAK, Stockholm (Sweden)); Roennback, Kristoffer (Aqualog AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Marelius, Fredrick (WSP Sverige, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This report presents and analyses meteorological, hydrological and hydrogeological time-series data and near-surface hydrogeological properties data from the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, available in SKB's Sicada database at time of the Laxemar 2.3 data freeze (Aug. 31, 2007). The meteorological data set includes data from two local stations, located on the island of Aespoe and at Plittorp, located further inland. In addition, the data evaluation uses a longer-term data set from 7 surrounding stations, operated by SMHI. As part of this study, a time series is constructed of the water content of snow. According to the data evaluation, the site-average annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration can be estimated to be on the order of 600 and 535 mm, respectively. In particular, precipitation demonstrates a near-coastal gradient, with less precipitation at the coast compared to areas further inland. The surface-water level data set includes data from 4 lake-level gauging stations and 3 sea-level gauging stations. All lakes are located above sea level, including the near-coastal Lake Soeraa. Hence, no intrusion of sea water to lakes takes place. There is a strong co-variation among the monitored lake-water levels, typically with maxima during spring and minima during late summer and early autumn. Concerning the sea as a hydraulic boundary, the maximum and minimum sea levels (daily averages) during the site-investigation period were -0.52 and 0.71 metres above sea level, respectively, whereas the average sea level was 0.03 metres above sea level (RHB 70). The data set on stream discharge, surface-water temperature and electrical conductivity includes data from 9 discharge-gauging stations in 7 streams. Based on the discharge data, the site-average specific discharge for the years 2005-2007 can be estimated to 165 mm/y, which is within the interval of the estimated long-term average. Overall, discharge-data errors are likely to be small. The hydrogeological

  11. Thermal conductivity of rocksalt and other geologic materials from the site of the proposed waste isolation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, J.N.; McCreight, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    The measurements first reported by Acton on the thermal conductivity of samples taken from a borehole at the site of the proposed nuclear waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM, have been extended to include additional samples and higher temperature measurements. Samples for our measurements were taken from several depths of three wells, including the well AEC 8 from which Acton obtained his samples. These samples ranged from relatively pure rocksalt (NaCl) with small amounts of interstitial anhydrite to essentially nonsalt samples composed of gypsum or clay. The measurements in this latest series were conducted at Sandia using the longitudinal heat flow apparatus described by Acton, at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) using a transient line source technique, and at Dynatech Corp., Cambridge, MA using a linear heat flow comparative technique. On the basis of these experiments, we have concluded that the thermal conductivity of materials found at the site can be predicted to an accuracy approx. +- 30% from knowledge of the composition and grain size of these materials

  12. Thermal conductivity of rocksalt and other geologic materials from the site of the proposed waste isolation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, J.N.; McCreight, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The measurements first reported by Acton on the thermal conductivity of samples taken from a borehole at the site of the proposed nuclear waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM, have been extended to include additional samples and higher temperature measurements. Samples for measurements were taken from several depths of three wells, including the well AEC 8 from which Acton obtained his samples. These samples ranged from relatively pure rocksalt (NaCl) with small amounts of interstitial anhydrite to essentially nonsalt samples composed of gypsum or clay. The measurements in this latest series were conducted at Sandia, the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), and at Dynatech Corp. In general, the data from the three laboratories agreed reasonably well for similar coarse grained translucent rock salt samples, with the LASL and Sandia results typically being about 20% higher than those of Dynatceh. On the basis of these experiments, it is concluded that the thermal conductivity of materials found at the site can be predicted to an accuracy +-30% from knowledge of the composition and grain size of these materials

  13. Statistical analysis of results from the quantitative mapping of fracture minerals in Laxemar. Site descriptive modelling - complementary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Martin (Niressa AB, Norsborg (Sweden)); Sidborn, Magnus (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    Within the Laxemar site investigation campaign, quantitative mapping of different fracture minerals has been performed. This has been done by studying fracture surfaces of drill core sections from many different boreholes at the Laxemar site /Eklund and Mattsson 2008/. The drill core mapping was focused on the rock in the vicinity of flow anomalies detected by the Posiva Flow Log (PFL). The quantitative mapping was performed only on open fractures. The fracture minerals that were mapped are calcite, chlorite, clay minerals (as a group), hematite, and pyrite. In this present report, data from the quantitative mineral mapping campaign are refined, sorted into different data subsets, and analysed by parametric and non-parametric statistical methods. The data subsets are associated with 17 different rock volumes, representing different elevations, rock domains, fracture domains, and groups of deformation zones. In total 1,852 fractures were mapped at the site, and the most frequent mineral was calcite. Its amount could be quantitatively estimated in 51% of the mapped fractures. Of the other minerals, chlorite was quantitatively estimated in 46%, pyrite in 19%, clay minerals in 16%, and hematite in 0.05% of the mapped fractures. For fractures where the averaged fracture mineral thickness, d{sub mean} [mm], and visible coverage, C{sub vis} [%], could be quantitatively estimated, the following arithmetic means were found: calcite = 0.25 mm and 22%, chlorite = 0.29 mm and 41%, pyrite =1.3 mum and 0.2%, and clay minerals = 0.15 mm and 35%. These quantities are based on visual inspection of fracture surfaces and do not include the contribution from non-consolidated fracture fillings. It is shown that there is significant spatial variability of d{sub mean} and C{sub vis} within the examined rock volumes. Furthermore, the non-parametric analyses indicate that there are differences in d{sub mean} and C{sub vis} between the different rock volumes. Even so, the differences are

  14. Statistical analysis of results from the quantitative mapping of fracture minerals in Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling - complementary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Martin (Niressa AB, Norsborg (Sweden)); Sidborn, Magnus (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    Within the Forsmark site investigation campaign, quantitative mapping of different fracture minerals has been performed. This has been done by studying fracture surfaces of drill core sections from many different boreholes at the Forsmark site /Eklund and Mattsson 2009/. The drill core mapping was focused on the rock in the vicinity of flow anomalies detected by the Posiva Flow Log (PFL). The quantitative mapping was performed only on open fractures. The fracture minerals that were mapped are calcite, chlorite, clay minerals (as a group), hematite, and pyrite. In this present report, data from the quantitative mineral mapping campaign are refined, sorted into different data subsets, and analysed by parametric and non-parametric statistical methods. The data subsets are associated with 21 different rock volumes, representing different elevations, rock domains, fracture domains, and groups of deformation zones. In total 2,071 fractures were mapped at the site, and the most frequent mineral was calcite. Its amount could be quantitatively estimated in 32% of the mapped fractures. Of the other minerals, chlorite was quantitatively estimated in 24%, clay minerals in 11%, pyrite in 10%, and hematite in 0.4% of the mapped fractures. For fractures where the averaged fracture mineral thickness, d{sub mean} [mm], and visible coverage, C{sub vis} [%], could be quantitatively estimated, the following arithmetic means were found: calcite = 0.11 mm and 18%, chlorite = 0.22 mm and 38%, clay minerals = 0.14 mm and 40%, pyrite = 2.3 mum and 0.5%, hematite = 19 mum and 14%. These quantities are based on visual inspection of fracture surfaces and do not include the contribution from non-consolidated fracture fillings. It is shown that there is significant spatial variability of d{sub mean} and C{sub vis} within the examined rock volumes. Furthermore, the non-parametric analyses indicate that there are differences in d{sub mean} and C{sub vis} between the different rock volumes. Even

  15. History of the 185-/189-D thermal hydraulics laboratory and its effects on reactor operations at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1994-09-01

    The 185-D deaeration building and the 189-D refrigeration building were constructed at Hanford during 1943 and 1944. Both buildings were constructed as part of the influent water cooling system for D reactor. The CMS studies eliminated the need for 185-D function. Early gains in knowledge ended the original function of the 189-D building mission. In 1951, 185-D and 189-D were converted to a thermal-hydraulic laboratory. The experiments held in the thermal-hydraulic lab lead to historic changes in Hanford reactor operations. In late 1951, the exponential physics experiments were moved to the 189-D building. In 1958, new production reactor experiments were begun in 185/189-D. In 1959, Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor experiments were added to the 185/189-D facility. By 1960, the 185/189-D thermal hydraulics laboratory was one of the few full service facilities of its type in the nation. During the years 1961--1963 tests continued in the facility in support of existing reactors, new production reactors, and the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor. In 1969, Fast Flux Test Facility developmental testings began in the facility. Simulations in 185/189-D building aided in the N Reactor repairs in the 1980's. In 1994 the facility was nominated to the National Register of Historic Places, because of its pioneering role over many years in thermal hydraulics, flow studies, heat transfer, and other reactor coolant support work. During 1994 and 1995 it was demolished in the largest decontamination and decommissioning project thus far in Hanford Site history

  16. Verification study on technology for preliminary investigation for HLW geological disposal. Part 2. Verification of surface geophysical prospecting through establishing site descriptive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Koichi; Hasegawa, Takuma; Goto, Keiichiro; Yoshimura, Kimitaka; Muramoto, Shigenori

    2012-01-01

    The Yokosuka demonstration and validation project using Yokosuka CRIEPI site has been conducted since FY 2006 as a cooperative research between NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) and CRIEPI. The objectives of this project are to examine and to refine the basic methodology of the investigation and assessment of properties of geological environment in the stage of Preliminary Investigation for HLW geological disposal. Within Preliminary Investigation technologies, surface geophysical prospecting is an important means of obtaining information from deep geological environment for planning borehole surveys. In FY 2010, both seismic prospecting (seismic reflection and vertical seismic profiling methods) for obtaining information about geological structure and electromagnetic prospecting (magneto-telluric and time domain electromagnetic methods) for obtaining information about resistivity structure reflecting the distribution of salt water/fresh water boundary to a depth of over several hundred meters were conducted in the Yokosuka CRIEPI site. Through these surveys, the contribution of geophysical prospecting methods in the surface survey stage to improving the reliability of site descriptive models was confirmed. (author)

  17. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Stadler, Michael; Aki, Hirohisa; Firestone, Ryan; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-01-01

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g., PV, fuel cells, reciprocating engines or microturbines operating with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and carbon emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that has the minimization of annual energy costs as its objective function. By implementing this approach in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), the problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, such as schools and nursing homes, to obtain not only the level of technology investment, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in DER optimization on a building level, with example applications for commercial buildings. Preliminary analysis indicates that storage technologies respond effectively to time-varying electricity prices, i.e., by charging batteries during periods of low electricity prices and discharging them during peak hours. The results also indicate that storage technologies significantly alter the residual load profile, which can contribute to lower carbon emissions depending on the test site, its load profile, and its adopted DER technologies

  18. Statistical model of fractures and deformations zones for Forsmark. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Pointe, Paul R. [Golder Associate Inc., Redmond, WA (United States); Olofsson, Isabelle; Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    different high and low fracture intensity intervals in order to capture the variation of this parameter in the model volume. The fracture intensity P32 has been derived by means of simulations for each rock domain and each fracture type, and is expressed as a mean value, and if possible standard deviation and span. The uncertainty in the model has been quantified: for the different geometrical parameters by providing ranges of variations and studying relevant distribution models, by conducting sensitivity analysis on some input data: the effect of truncation of lineaments at the border of the regional model volume and the impact of truncation in outcrop mapping. An alternative conceptual model is under study which is based on the identified deterministic deformation zones, and not on lineaments. An important issue using this model is the bias of information and the limited amount of structures. The current DFN model still contains significant uncertainties which need to be resolved in order to be able to produce a final site DFN model. Three main issues are listed below: The definition of the subhorizontal fracture set in terms of geological processes and tectonics. The size distribution is a critical issue for the hydrogeology of the site. The variation of the fracture intensity by rock domain has been identified but the variation pattern and the spatial distribution within an individual domain are still sufficiently unpredictable that the fracture network permeability structure within a rock domain is uncertain from a conceptual perspective, not just a data uncertainty perspective. Moreover, many rock domains have not yet been sampled by boreholes or outcrops, and thus their fracture properties remain highly uncertain. Validation of the DFN models will require resolution of these two issues, and may also require the drilling of highly inclined or horizontal boreholes. Near-vertical boreholes and the mapping protocol to only map fracture traces in outcrop greater than 0

  19. Statistical model of fractures and deformations zones for Forsmark. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Pointe, Paul R.; Olofsson, Isabelle; Hermanson, Jan

    2005-04-01

    different high and low fracture intensity intervals in order to capture the variation of this parameter in the model volume. The fracture intensity P32 has been derived by means of simulations for each rock domain and each fracture type, and is expressed as a mean value, and if possible standard deviation and span. The uncertainty in the model has been quantified: for the different geometrical parameters by providing ranges of variations and studying relevant distribution models, by conducting sensitivity analysis on some input data: the effect of truncation of lineaments at the border of the regional model volume and the impact of truncation in outcrop mapping. An alternative conceptual model is under study which is based on the identified deterministic deformation zones, and not on lineaments. An important issue using this model is the bias of information and the limited amount of structures. The current DFN model still contains significant uncertainties which need to be resolved in order to be able to produce a final site DFN model. Three main issues are listed below: The definition of the subhorizontal fracture set in terms of geological processes and tectonics. The size distribution is a critical issue for the hydrogeology of the site. The variation of the fracture intensity by rock domain has been identified but the variation pattern and the spatial distribution within an individual domain are still sufficiently unpredictable that the fracture network permeability structure within a rock domain is uncertain from a conceptual perspective, not just a data uncertainty perspective. Moreover, many rock domains have not yet been sampled by boreholes or outcrops, and thus their fracture properties remain highly uncertain. Validation of the DFN models will require resolution of these two issues, and may also require the drilling of highly inclined or horizontal boreholes. Near-vertical boreholes and the mapping protocol to only map fracture traces in outcrop greater than 0

  20. Thermal infrared remote sensing in assessing groundwater and surface-water resources related to Hannukainen mining development site, northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, Anne B.; Korkka-Niemi, Kirsti I.; Salonen, Veli-Pekka

    2018-02-01

    Mining development sites occasionally host complicated aquifer systems with notable connections to natural surface water (SW) bodies. A low-altitude thermal infrared (TIR) imaging survey was conducted to identify hydraulic connections between aquifers and rivers and to map spatial surface temperature patterns along the subarctic rivers in the proximity of the Hannukainen mining development area, northern Finland. In addition to TIR data, stable isotopic compositions ( δ 18O, δD) and dissolved silica concentrations were used as tracers to verify the observed groundwater (GW) discharge into the river system. Based on the TIR survey, notable GW discharge into the main river channel and its tributaries (61 km altogether) was observed and over 500 GW discharge sites were located. On the basis of the survey, the longitudinal temperature patterns of the studied rivers were found to be highly variable. Hydrological and hydrogeological information is crucial in planning and siting essential mining operations, such as tailing areas, in order to prevent any undesirable environmental impacts. The observed notable GW discharge was taken into consideration in the planning of the Hannukainen mining development area. The results of this study support the use of TIR imagery in GW-SW interaction and environmental studies in extensive and remote areas with special concerns for water-related issues but lacking the baseline research.

  1. Thorium-230 dating of thermal waters in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, R.W.; Carilli, J.T.; Faller, S.H.; Liu, C.K.; Kuroda, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    Radiochemical measurements of the concentrations of thorium and uranium isotopes were carried out for a total of 10 samples of hot springs, mineral springs, and lakes collected in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site. The uranium-to-thorium ratios in the water samples were found to be generally much greater than those in soils and in rain water. The apparent (230)Th ages calculated from the (230)Th/(232)Th and (234)U/(238)U ratios for most of these water samples were less than 100 years

  2. Thermal-aging evaluation of on site aged cast duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takuyo; Fujii, Katsuhiko; Aoki, Masanori; Arioka, Koji

    2013-01-01

    In this study, thermal-aging evaluation has been performed using service aged elbow pipe in PWR plant, aged at 320degC for 196,500h. As a result, micro Vickers hardness of ferrite in service material (SCS14A), HV(0.025) was 616∼630. Since micro Vickers hardness of un-aged ferrite phase is about HV(0.025)=300 in commercial SCS14A, the increasing of ferrite hardness during aging was 300. Cr-rich and Fe-rich regions were observed in the ferrite phase using Atom-probe analysis. In addition, Ni, Si and Mo clustering were also observed in the ferrite phase. So the ferrite phase was hardened caused by these micro-structural changes. Micro Vickers hardness of austenite phase, HV(0.025) was 155∼180. Since micro Vickers hardness of un-aged austenite phase is about HV(0.025)=180∼200, and no micro-structural change was observed in the austenite phase, so on change was observed in the austenite phase during aging. To compare the micro Vickers hardness of ferrite in service and accelerated materials using activation energy, Q=100 kJ/mol, the ferrite hardness of in service material was very low rather than predictive line. This seems the activation energy was too conservative. (author)

  3. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark, stage 2.2. A fracture domain concept as a basis for the statistical modelling of fractures and minor deformation zones, and interdisciplinary coordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olofsson, Isabelle; Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Manageme nt Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Stephens, Michael [Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), U ppsala (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden); Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin [G eosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Roeshoff, Kennert; Lindberg, Ulrika; Lanaro, Flavio [Bergbygg konsult AB, Haesselby (Sweden); Fredriksson, Anders; Persson, Lars [Golder Associat es AB (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Simpevarp/Laxemar, with the objective of siting a final waste repository at depth for spent nuclear fuel. The programme is built upon the development of site descriptive models after each data freeze. This report describes the first attempt to define fracture domains for the Forsmark site modelling in stage 2.2. Already during model version 1.2 at Forsmark, significant spatial variability in the fracture pattern was observed. The variability appeared to be so significant that it provoked the need for a subdivision of the model volume for the treatment of geological and hydrogeological data into sub-volumes. Subsequent analyses of data collected up to data freeze 2.1 led to a better understanding of the site and a concept for the definition of fracture domains based on geological characteristics matured. The main objectives of this report are to identify and describe fracture domains at the site on the basis of geological data and to compile hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical and rock mechanics data within each fracture domain and address the implications of this integration activity. On the basis of borehole data, six fracture domains (FFM01-FFM06) have been recognized inside and immediately around the candidate volume. Three of these domains (FFM01, FFM02 and FFM06) lie inside the target volume for a potential repository in the northwestern part of the candidate area, and need to be addressed in the geological DFN modelling work. The hydrogeological data support the subdivision of the bedrock into fracture domains FFM01, FFM02 and FFM03. Few or no data are available for the other three domains. The hydrogeochemical data also support the subdivision into fracture domains FFM01 and FFM02. Since few data are available from the bedrock between deformation zones inside FFM03, there is little information on the hydrogeochemical

  4. Thermal and Physical Property Determinations for Ionsiv IE-911 Crystalline Silicotitanate and Savannah River Site Waste Simulant Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, D.T.; Steele, W.V.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes physical and thermophysical property determinations that were made in order to resolve questions associated with the decontamination of Savannah River Site (SRS) waste streams using ion exchange on crystalline silicotitanate (CST). The research will aid in the understanding of potential issues associated with cooling of feed streams within SRS waste treatment processes. Toward this end, the thermophysical properties of engineered CST, manufactured under the trade name, Ionsivereg s ign IE-911 by UOP, Mobile, AL, were determined. The heating profiles of CST samples from several manufacturers' production runs were observed using differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) measurements. DSC data were obtained over the region of 10 to 215 C to check for the possibility of a phase transition or any other enthalpic event in that temperature region. Finally, the heat capacity, thermal conductivity, density, viscosity, and salting-out point were determined for SRS waste simulants designated as Average, High NO 3 - and High OH - simulants

  5. Heat propagation in and around the deep repository. Thermal calculations applied to three hypothetical sites: Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageskog, L.; Jansson, Patrik

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the modelling of the thermal process in and around the deep repository for spent fuel. The model was developed in the general finite element program ANSYS and applied to the three hypothetical sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg included in the SR 97 analyse system. The canister emplacement in the repository was analysed based on certain criteria regarding the temperature on the canister surface. This was done with consideration to natural deviations in various thermal parameters as well as to the risk of a gap opening up between the canister surface and the bentonite buffer. The consequence of the latter was analysed separately as part of the study. The heat load in the model was applied stepwise, following an assumed time schedule for the actual deposition work. The calculations were extended to 1,000 years after the commencement of the deposition work. The outcome of the calculation is presented as coloured prints of isotherms in and around the repository at certain time intervals

  6. Field Demonstration of Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump Part I. Technology and Field Demo System/Site Descriptions, and Preliminary Summer/Fall Performance Analysis for One Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gehl, Anthony C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The field study is planned to continue through the 2016 cooling season with the draft final project report due by September 30, 2016. This report provides a description of both installations and preliminary 2015 cooling and fall season performance results for the Knoxville site. For the August 18 through December 14 period, the Knoxville site GS-IHP provided 53.6% total source energy savings compared to a baseline electric RTU/heat pump and electric WH. Peak demand savings ranged from 33% to 59% per month. Energy cost savings of 53.1% have been achieved to date with more than half of that coming from reduced demand charges. Data on installation and maintenance costs are being collected and will be combined with total test period energy savings data for a payback analysis to be included in the project final report. The GS-IHP also saved a significant amount of carbon emissions. The total emission savings for the Knoxville site for the August-December 2015 period were ~0.8 metric tons. If trading for carbon credits ever becomes a reality, additional cost savings would be realized.

  7. A Descriptive Study Assessing Quality of Life for Adults With a Permanent Ostomy and the Influence of Preoperative Stoma Site Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydick, Diane

    2016-05-01

    Diseases or anomalies of the genitourinary or gastrointestinal tract often require removal of organs and creation of an artificial opening (stoma) to allow for elimination of urine or stool. Preoperative stoma site marking can affect quality of life (QoL). A descriptive study was conducted to assess the relationship between QoL and preoperative stoma site marking in adults with a permanent ostomy. Using convenience sampling methods, 230 eligible participants attending a United Ostomy Association of America conference were invited to complete a survey of demographics regarding age, gender, time since surgeries, and ostomy type and the City of Hope National Medical Center Quality of Life Ostomy Questionnaire. The latter contains 2 sections of 30 and 43 items each that address life impact and quality of life, respectively. The researcher explained the study and provided a study packet to volunteers who were interested in participating. Volunteers were to complete the surveys over a 4-day period while at the conference; the investigator collected all study materials. Inclusion criteria stipulated study participants must be English writing/reading persons at least 18 years of age with a colostomy, ileostomy, or urostomy. All descriptive statistics (means, standard deviation, frequency, and percents) used to describe demographic and surgical history and quantitative data (logistic regression, cross-tabulation, Pearson product moment correlations, and analysis of covariance) used to determine relationships among factors were entered and analyzed using a computer software program. Of the 140 participants who met inclusion criteria and provided data, the majority (85, 60.7%) had their stoma site marked by a wound, ostomy, continence (WOC) nurse. WOC nurse marking was more likely in recent years, and WOC nurse marking was 1.03 times more likely for each year since stoma surgery (M = 13.44, SD = 13.48). Mean QoL was 7.56 (SD = 1.59, range 3.84-10.00) and was positively

  8. Past climate changes and permafrost depth at the Lake El'gygytgyn site: implications from data and thermal modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mottaghy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the temperature field observed in boreholes drilled as part of interdisciplinary scientific campaign targeting the El'gygytgyn Crater Lake in NE Russia. Temperature data are available from two sites: the lake borehole 5011-1 located near the center of the lake reaching 400 m depth, and the land borehole 5011-3 at the rim of the lake, with a depth of 140 m. Constraints on permafrost depth and past climate changes are derived from numerical simulation of the thermal regime associated with the lake-related talik structure. The thermal properties of the subsurface needed for these simulations are based on laboratory measurements of representative cores from the quaternary sediments and the underlying impact-affected rock, complemented by further information from geophysical logs and data from published literature. The temperature observations in the lake borehole 5011-1 are dominated by thermal perturbations related to the drilling process, and thus only give reliable values for the lowermost value in the borehole. Undisturbed temperature data recorded over more than two years are available in the 140 m deep land-based borehole 5011-3. The analysis of these observations allows determination of not only the recent mean annual ground surface temperature, but also the ground surface temperature history, though with large uncertainties. Although the depth of this borehole is by far too insufficient for a complete reconstruction of past temperatures back to the Last Glacial Maximum, it still affects the thermal regime, and thus permafrost depth. This effect is constrained by numerical modeling: assuming that the lake borehole observations are hardly influenced by the past changes in surface air temperature, an estimate of steady-state conditions is possible, leading to a meaningful value of 14 ± 5 K for the post-glacial warming. The strong curvature of the temperature data in shallower depths around 60 m can be explained by a

  9. Nuclear Energy Center: upper St. Lawrence region. Part I. Siting. Part II. Fort Drum surrogate site, description and impact assessment. Part III. Dispersed sites impact assessment and comparison with the NEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merry, P.A.; Luner, C.; Hong, S.W.; Canham, H.O.; Boggs, J.F.; McCool, T.P.

    1976-12-01

    This report is one of many supporting documents used by the Nuclear Regulatory commission in the preparation of the Nuclear Energy Center Site Survey (NECSS) mandated by Congress. While the overall study focuses on the feasibility and practicability of nuclear energy centers (NECs), this report is directed towards choosing a suitable surrogate site in the upper St. Lawrence region of New York State, assessing the probable impacts associated with construction and operation of the NEC, and comparing these impacts with those associated with small dispersed nuclear power stations. The upper St. Lawrence region is surveyed to identify a specific site that might be suitable for a surrogate NEC. Several assumptions about the basic design of an NEC are delineated, and a general overview of the characteristics of the region is given. The Fort Drum Military Reservation is chosen as a suitable surrogate site. Fort Drum and the surrounding area are described in terms of land use and population patterns, terrestrial and aquatic ecology, water use and quality, meteorology, institutional framework, and socioeconomic structure. The impacts associated with NEC development are assessed. Then the impacts associated with smaller dispersed nuclear power stations located throughout New York State are assessed and compared with the impacts associated with the NEC. Finally, the impacts due to development of the transmission line networks associated with the NEC and with the dispersed power stations are assessed and compared.

  10. Steam and hot air injection for thermal rehabilitation of contaminated sites; Wasserdampf- und Heissluftinjektion zur thermischen Sanierung kontaminierter Standorte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R

    2001-07-01

    Thermal in situ rehabilitation technologies are a promising alternative to conventional methods of cleaning up contaminated sites. The fact that an increase in temperature changes the physical properties of materials makes it possible, in principle, to release large quantities of pollutants within short time periods. The use of pure steam or steam/air mixtures as fluid thermal carriers permits converting subterranean non-aqueous-phase pollutants into the gas phase through increased vapour pressure and transporting them to the surface by means of soil air aspiration for further treatment. The purpose of the present two-stage research project was to systematically develop a thermal in situ rehabilitation technology using steam as fluid heat carrier and use it for land rehabilitation operations on a pilot basis. In the first, fundamental project phase aspects of heat transport (Faerber, 1997) and pollutant behaviour (Betz, 1998)in homogenous porous media upon pure steam injection were explored at a laboratory and technical scale using containers of different sizes (1D, 2D, 3D). The results were used to derive application criteria for this technology. [German] Thermische In-situ-Sanierungstechnologien stellen bei der Reinigung kontaminierter Standorte eine vielversprechende Alternative zu konventionellen Verfahren dar. Die Veraenderung physikalischer Stoffeigenschaften mit steigender Temperatur ermoeglicht grundsaetzlich hohe Schadstoffaustraege innerhalb kurzer Zeitraeume. Beim Einsatz von reinem Wasserdampf oder Wasserdampf-Luft-Gemischen als Waermetraegerfluid koennen im Untergrund in nicht waessriger Phase vorliegende Schadstoffe hauptsaechlich wegen der erhoehten Dampfdruecke in die Gasphase ueberfuehrt, ueber eine Bodenluftabsaugung an die Oberflaeche transportiert und dann einer weiteren Behandlung zugefuehrt werden. Zielsetzung eines zweistufigen Forschungsvorhabens war die systematische Entwicklung einer thermischen In-situ-Sanierungstechnologie unter

  11. Thermal decay of rhodopsin: role of hydrogen bonds in thermal isomerization of 11-cis retinal in the binding site and hydrolysis of protonated Schiff base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Liu, Monica Yun; Nguyen, Jennifer B; Bhagat, Aditi; Mooney, Victoria; Yan, Elsa C Y

    2009-07-01

    Although thermal stability of the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin is directly related to its extremely low dark noise level and has recently generated considerable interest, the chemistry behind the thermal decay process of rhodopsin has remained unclear. Using UV-vis spectroscopy and HPLC analysis, we have demonstrated that the thermal decay of rhodopsin involves both hydrolysis of the protonated Schiff base and thermal isomerization of 11-cis to all-trans retinal. Examining the unfolding of rhodopsin by circular dichroism spectroscopy and measuring the rate of thermal isomerization of 11-cis retinal in solution, we conclude that the observed thermal isomerization of 11-cis to all-trans retinal happens when 11-cis retinal is in the binding pocket of rhodopsin. Furthermore, we demonstrate that solvent deuterium isotope effects are involved in the thermal decay process by decreasing the rates of thermal isomerization and hydrolysis, suggesting that the rate-determining step of these processes involves breaking hydrogen bonds. These results provide insight into understanding the critical role of an extensive hydrogen-bonding network on stabilizing the inactive state of rhodopsin and contribute to our current understanding of the low dark noise level of rhodopsin, which enables this specialized protein to function as an extremely sensitive biological light detector. Because similar hydrogen-bonding networks have also been suggested by structural analysis of two other GPCRs, beta1 and beta2 adrenergic receptors, our results could reveal a general role of hydrogen bonds in facilitating GPCR function.

  12. Thermal calculations for the design, construction, operation, and evaluation of the Spent Fuel Test - Climax, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montan, D.N.; Patrick, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is a test of retrievable deep geologic storage of commercially generated spent nuclear reactor fuel in granitic rock. Eleven spent fuel assemblies, together with six electrical simulators and 20 guard heaters, are emplaced 420 m below the surface in the Climax granite at the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site. On June 2, 1978 LLNL secured funding for the SFT-C, and completed spent fuel emplacement May 28, 1980. This report documents a series of thermal calculations that were performed in support of the SFT-C. Early calculations employed analytical solutions to address such design and construction issues as drift layout and emplacement hole spacings. Operational aspects of the test required more detailed numerical solutions dealing with ventilation and guard-heater power levels. The final set of calculations presented here provides temperature histories throughout the test facility for evaluation of the response of the SFT-C and for comparison of calculations with acquired data. This final set of calculations employs the as-built test geometry and best-available material properties

  13. Magmatic tectonic effects of high thermal regime at the site of active ridge subduction: the Chile Triple Junction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagabrielle, Yves; Guivel, Christèle; Maury, René C.; Bourgois, Jacques; Fourcade, Serge; Martin, Hervé

    2000-11-01

    High thermal gradients are expected to be found at sites of subduction of very young oceanic lithosphere and more particularly at ridge-trench-trench (RTT) triple junctions, where active oceanic spreading ridges enter a subduction zone. Active tectonics, associated with the emplacement of two main types of volcanic products, (1) MORB-type magmas, and (2) calc-alkaline acidic magmas in the forearc, also characterize these plate junction domains. In this context, MORB-type magmas are generally thought to derive from the buried active spreading center subducted at shallow depths, whereas the origin of calc-alkaline acidic magmas is more problematic. One of the best constrained examples of ridge-trench interaction is the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ) located southwest of the South American plate at 46°12'S, where the active Chile spreading center enters the subduction zone. In this area, there is a clear correlation between the emplacement of magmatic products and the migration of the triple junction along the active margin. The CTJ lava population is bimodal, with mafic to intermediate lavas (48-56% SiO 2) and acidic lavas ranging from dacites to rhyolites (66-73% SiO 2). Previous models have shown that partial melting of oceanic crust plus 10-20% of sediments, leaving an amphibole- and plagioclase-rich residue, is the only process that may account for the genesis of acidic magmas. Due to special plate geometry in the CTJ area, a given section of the margin may be successively affected by the passage of several ridge segments. We emphasize that repeated passages will lead to the development of very high thermal gradients allowing melting of rocks of oceanic origin at temperatures of 800-900°C and low pressures, corresponding to depths of 10-20 km depth only. In addition, the structure of the CTJ forearc domain is dominated by horizontal displacements and tilting of crustal blocks along a network of strike-slip faults. The occurrence of such a deformed domain implies

  14. Exploration of peptides that fit into the thermally vibrating active site of cathepsin K protease by alternating artificial intelligence and molecular simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Katsuhiko

    2017-08-01

    Eighteen tripeptides that fit into the thermally vibrating active site of cathepsin K were discovered by alternating artificial intelligence and molecular simulation. The 18 tripeptides fit the active site better than the cysteine protease inhibitor E64, and a better inhibitor of cathepsin K could be designed considering these tripeptides. Among the 18 tripeptides, Phe-Arg-Asp and Tyr-Arg-Asp fit the active site the best and their structural similarity should be considered in the design process. Interesting factors emerged from the structure of the decision tree, and its structural information will guide exploration of potential inhibitor molecules for proteases.

  15. Variable-density groundwater flow simulations and particle tracking. Numerical modelling using DarcyTools. Preliminary site description of the Simpevarp area, version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Stigsson, Martin; Berglund, Sten [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Svensson, Urban [Computer-aided Fluid Engineering AB, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    SKB is conducting site investigations for a high-level nuclear waste repository in fractured crystalline rocks at two coastal areas in Sweden, Forsmark and Simpevarp. The investigations started in 2002 and have been planned since the late 1990s. The work presented here investigates the possibility of using hydrogeochemical measurements in deep boreholes to reduce parameter uncertainty in a regional modelling of groundwater flow in fractured rock. The work was conducted with the aim of improving the palaeohydrogeological understanding of the Simpevarp area and to give recommendations to the preparations of the next version of the Preliminary Site Description (1.2). The study is based on a large number of numerical simulations of transient variable density groundwater flow through a strongly heterogeneous and anisotropic medium. The simulations were conducted with the computer code DarcyTools, the development of which has been funded by SKB. DarcyTools is a flexible porous media code specifically designed to treat groundwater flow and salt transport in sparsely fractured crystalline rock and it is noted that some of the features presented in this report are still under development or subjected to testing and verification. The simulations reveal the sensitivity of the results to different hydrogeological modelling assumptions, e.g. the sensitivity to the initial groundwater conditions at 10,000 BC, the size of the model domain and boundary conditions, and the hydraulic properties of deterministically and stochastically modelled deformation zones. The outcome of these simulations was compared with measured salinities and calculated relative proportions of different water types (mixing proportions) from measurements in two deep core drilled boreholes in the Laxemar subarea. In addition to the flow simulations, the statistics of flow related transport parameters were calculated for particle flowpaths from repository depth to ground surface for two subareas within the

  16. Variable-density groundwater flow simulations and particle tracking. Numerical modelling using DarcyTools. Preliminary site description of the Simpevarp area, version 1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follin, Sven; Stigsson, Martin; Berglund, Sten; Svensson, Urban

    2004-12-01

    SKB is conducting site investigations for a high-level nuclear waste repository in fractured crystalline rocks at two coastal areas in Sweden, Forsmark and Simpevarp. The investigations started in 2002 and have been planned since the late 1990s. The work presented here investigates the possibility of using hydrogeochemical measurements in deep boreholes to reduce parameter uncertainty in a regional modelling of groundwater flow in fractured rock. The work was conducted with the aim of improving the palaeohydrogeological understanding of the Simpevarp area and to give recommendations to the preparations of the next version of the Preliminary Site Description (1.2). The study is based on a large number of numerical simulations of transient variable density groundwater flow through a strongly heterogeneous and anisotropic medium. The simulations were conducted with the computer code DarcyTools, the development of which has been funded by SKB. DarcyTools is a flexible porous media code specifically designed to treat groundwater flow and salt transport in sparsely fractured crystalline rock and it is noted that some of the features presented in this report are still under development or subjected to testing and verification. The simulations reveal the sensitivity of the results to different hydrogeological modelling assumptions, e.g. the sensitivity to the initial groundwater conditions at 10,000 BC, the size of the model domain and boundary conditions, and the hydraulic properties of deterministically and stochastically modelled deformation zones. The outcome of these simulations was compared with measured salinities and calculated relative proportions of different water types (mixing proportions) from measurements in two deep core drilled boreholes in the Laxemar subarea. In addition to the flow simulations, the statistics of flow related transport parameters were calculated for particle flowpaths from repository depth to ground surface for two subareas within the

  17. THM-issues in repository rock. Thermal, mechanical, thermo-mechanical and hydro-mechanical evolution of the rock at the Forsmark and Laxemar sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekmark, Harald; Loennqvist, Margareta; Faelth, Billy (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-05-15

    The present report addresses aspects of the Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) evolution of the repository host rock that are of potential importance to the SR-Site safety assessment of a KBS-3 type spent nuclear fuel repository. The report covers the evolution of rock temperatures, rock stresses, pore pressures and fracture transmissivities during the excavation and operational phase, the temperate phase and a glacial cycle on different scales. The glacial cycle is assumed to include a period of pre-glacial permafrost with lowered temperatures and with increased pore pressures in the rock beneath the impermeable permafrost layer. The report also addresses the question of the peak temperature reached during the early temperate phase in the bentonite buffer surrounding the spent fuel canisters. The main text is devoted exclusively to the projected THM evolution of the rock at the Forsmark site in central Sweden. The focus is on the potential for stress-induced failures, i.e. spalling, in the walls of the deposition holes and on changes in the transmissivity of fractures and deformation zones. All analyses are conducted by a combination of numerical tools (3DEC) and analytical solutions. All phases are treated separately and independently of each other, although in reality construction will overlap with heat generation because of the step-by-step excavation/deposition approach with some 50 years between deposition of the first and last canisters. It is demonstrated here that the thermal and thermo-mechanical evolution of the near-field will be independent of heat generated by canisters that were deposited in the past, provided that deposition is made in an orderly fashion, deposition area by deposition area. Peak temperatures and near-field stresses can, consequently, be calculated as if all canisters were deposited simultaneously. The canister and tunnel spacing is specified such that the peak buffer temperature will not exceed 100 deg C in any deposition hole, i.e. not

  18. In-Flight Validation of Mid and Thermal Infrared Remotely Sensed Data Using the Lake Tahoe and Salton Sea Automated Validation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Simon J.

    2008-01-01

    The presentation includes an introduction, Lake Tahoe site layout and measurements, Salton Sea site layout and measurements, field instrument calibration and cross-calculations, data reduction methodology and error budgets, and example results for MODIS. Summary and conclusions are: 1) Lake Tahoe CA/NV automated validation site was established in 1999 to assess radiometric accuracy of satellite and airborne mid and thermal infrared data and products. Water surface temperatures range from 4-25C.2) Salton Sea CA automated validation site was established in 2008 to broaden range of available water surface temperatures and atmospheric water vapor test cases. Water surface temperatures range from 15-35C. 3) Sites provide all information necessary for validation every 2 mins (bulk temperature, skin temperature, air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, net radiation, relative humidity). 4) Sites have been used to validate mid and thermal infrared data and products from: ASTER, AATSR, ATSR2, MODIS-Terra, MODIS-Aqua, Landsat 5, Landsat 7, MTI, TES, MASTER, MAS. 5) Approximately 10 years of data available to help validate AVHRR.

  19. Evaluating the performance of coupled snow-soil models in SURFEXv8 to simulate the permafrost thermal regime at a high Arctic site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrere, Mathieu; Domine, Florent; Decharme, Bertrand; Morin, Samuel; Vionnet, Vincent; Lafaysse, Matthieu

    2017-09-01

    Climate change projections still suffer from a limited representation of the permafrost-carbon feedback. Predicting the response of permafrost temperature to climate change requires accurate simulations of Arctic snow and soil properties. This study assesses the capacity of the coupled land surface and snow models ISBA-Crocus and ISBA-ES to simulate snow and soil properties at Bylot Island, a high Arctic site. Field measurements complemented with ERA-Interim reanalyses were used to drive the models and to evaluate simulation outputs. Snow height, density, temperature, thermal conductivity and thermal insulance are examined to determine the critical variables involved in the soil and snow thermal regime. Simulated soil properties are compared to measurements of thermal conductivity, temperature and water content. The simulated snow density profiles are unrealistic, which is most likely caused by the lack of representation in snow models of the upward water vapor fluxes generated by the strong temperature gradients within the snowpack. The resulting vertical profiles of thermal conductivity are inverted compared to observations, with high simulated values at the bottom of the snowpack. Still, ISBA-Crocus manages to successfully simulate the soil temperature in winter. Results are satisfactory in summer, but the temperature of the top soil could be better reproduced by adequately representing surface organic layers, i.e., mosses and litter, and in particular their water retention capacity. Transition periods (soil freezing and thawing) are the least well reproduced because the high basal snow thermal conductivity induces an excessively rapid heat transfer between the soil and the snow in simulations. Hence, global climate models should carefully consider Arctic snow thermal properties, and especially the thermal conductivity of the basal snow layer, to perform accurate predictions of the permafrost evolution under climate change.

  20. Premodelling of the importance of the location of the upstream hydraulic boundary of a regional flow model of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmen, Johan G.

    2008-03-01

    The location of the westernmost hydraulic boundary of a regional groundwater flow model representing the Laxemar investigation area is of importance as the regional flow of groundwater is primarily from the west towards the sea (as given by the regional topography). If the westernmost boundary condition of a regional flow model is located to close to the investigation area, the regional flow model may underestimate the magnitude of the regional groundwater flow (at the investigation area), as well as overestimate breakthrough times of flow paths from the repository area, etc. Groundwater flows have been calculated by use of two mathematical (numerical) models: A very large groundwater flow model, much larger than the regional flow model used in the Laxemar site description version 1.2, and a smaller flow model that is of a comparable size to the regional model used in the site description. The models are identical except for the different horizontal extensions of the models; the large model extends to the west much further than the small model. The westernmost lateral boundary of the small model is a topographic water divide approx. 7 km from the central parts of the Laxemar investigation area, and the westernmost lateral boundary of the large model is a topographic water divide approx. 40 km from the central parts of the Laxemar investigation area. In the models the lateral boundaries are defined as no-flow boundaries. The objective of the study is to calculate and compare the groundwater flow properties at a tentative repository area at Laxemar; by use of a large flow model and a small flow model. The comparisons include the following three parameters: - Length of flow paths from the tentative repository area. - Advective breakthrough time for flow paths from the tentative repository area. - Magnitude of flow at the tentative repository area. The comparisons demonstrated the following considering the median values of the obtained distributions of flow paths

  1. Osiris reactor descriptive report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    OSIRIS is a swimming pool reactor of 70 MW thermal power. Its main purpose is the irradiation of reactor materials in high neutron flux. A description is given of the air conditioning, ventilation, and radioactive gas removal system. (R.L.)

  2. REVIEW REPORT: BUILDING C-400 THERMAL TREATMENT 90 PERCENT REMEDIAL DESIGN REPORT AND SITE INVESTIGATION, PGDP, PADUCAH, KENTUCKY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B; Jed Costanza, J; Eva Davis, E; Joe Rossabi, J; Lloyd Stewart, L; Hans Stroo, H

    2007-01-01

    On 9 April 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Office of Soil and Groundwater Remediation (EM-22) initiated an Independent Technical Review (ITR) of the 90% Remedial Design Report (RDR) and Site Investigation (RDSI) for thermal treatment of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the soil and groundwater in the vicinity of Building C-400 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The general ITR goals were to assess the technical adequacy of the 90% RDSI and provide recommendations sufficient for DOE to determine if modifications are warranted pertaining to the design, schedule, or cost of implementing the proposed design. The ultimate goal of the effort was to assist the DOE Paducah/Portsmouth Project Office (PPPO) and their contractor team in ''removing'' the TCE source zone located near the C-400 Building. This report provides the ITR findings and recommendations and supporting evaluations as needed to facilitate use of the recommendations. The ITR team supports the remedial action objective (RAO) at C-400 to reduce the TCE source area via subsurface Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH). Further, the ITR team commends PPPO, their contractor team, regulators, and stakeholders for the significant efforts taken in preparing the 90% RDR. To maximize TCE removal at the target source area, several themes emerge from the review which the ITR team believes should be considered and addressed before implementing the thermal treatment. These themes include the need for: (1) Accurate and site-specific models as the basis to verify the ERH design for full-scale implementation for this challenging hydrogeologic setting; (2) Flexible project implementation and operation to allow the project team to respond to observations and data collected during construction and operation; (3) Defensible performance metrics and monitoring, appropriate for ERH, to ensure sufficient and efficient clean-up; and (4) Comprehensive (creative and diverse) contingencies to address the

  3. Temperature-dependent thermal conductivities of one-dimensional nonlinear Klein-Gordon lattices with a soft on-site potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linlin; Li, Nianbei; Li, Baowen

    2014-12-01

    The temperature-dependent thermal conductivities of one-dimensional nonlinear Klein-Gordon lattices with soft on-site potential (soft-KG) are investigated systematically. Similarly to the previously studied hard-KG lattices, the existence of renormalized phonons is also confirmed in soft-KG lattices. In particular, the temperature dependence of the renormalized phonon frequency predicted by a classical field theory is verified by detailed numerical simulations. However, the thermal conductivities of soft-KG lattices exhibit the opposite trend in temperature dependence in comparison with those of hard-KG lattices. The interesting thing is that the temperature-dependent thermal conductivities of both soft- and hard-KG lattices can be interpreted in the same framework of effective phonon theory. According to the effective phonon theory, the exponents of the power-law dependence of the thermal conductivities as a function of temperature are only determined by the exponents of the soft or hard on-site potentials. These theoretical predictions are consistently verified very well by extensive numerical simulations.

  4. Temperature-dependent thermal conductivities of one-dimensional nonlinear Klein-Gordon lattices with a soft on-site potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linlin; Li, Nianbei; Li, Baowen

    2014-12-01

    The temperature-dependent thermal conductivities of one-dimensional nonlinear Klein-Gordon lattices with soft on-site potential (soft-KG) are investigated systematically. Similarly to the previously studied hard-KG lattices, the existence of renormalized phonons is also confirmed in soft-KG lattices. In particular, the temperature dependence of the renormalized phonon frequency predicted by a classical field theory is verified by detailed numerical simulations. However, the thermal conductivities of soft-KG lattices exhibit the opposite trend in temperature dependence in comparison with those of hard-KG lattices. The interesting thing is that the temperature-dependent thermal conductivities of both soft- and hard-KG lattices can be interpreted in the same framework of effective phonon theory. According to the effective phonon theory, the exponents of the power-law dependence of the thermal conductivities as a function of temperature are only determined by the exponents of the soft or hard on-site potentials. These theoretical predictions are consistently verified very well by extensive numerical simulations.

  5. An experimental study of the thermal conductivity: application of EST 205 borehole of Meuse/Haute Marne site (ANDRA); Etude experimentale de la conductivite thermique: application au forage EST 205 du site de Meuse/Haute Marne (ANDRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorand, R

    2006-10-15

    The determination of the thermal properties of clayey rocks is fundamental for predicting the behaviour a radioactive waste geological repository, and geothermal and oil reservoirs. The main objectives of this thesis work were to 1) better understand the effects of the parameters controlling the thermal conductivity, 2) study to which extent the laboratory measurements can be extrapolated to the field, and 3) find relationships between the thermal conductivity and other quantities easier to measure on the field, e.g. the P- and S- wave velocities. The study was conducted on 24 cores of marls carbonates and argillites coming from the EST205 borehole of the M/HM site (ANDRA). After a complete characterisation of the samples, their thermal conductivities were measured using a stationary method. The borehole was drilled with a special oil-based mud to avoid damaging the argillites, and many logs were available. Hence, it is ideal to study the properties of clayey rocks and compare them with field data. The results show the major effect of the microstructure (mainly the particles orientation), which causes the important anisotropy of the thermal conductivity in the marls and argillites. For all lithologies, linear relationships between the conductivity and the P- and S- wave velocities were obtained. The application of this experimental law to the sonic log helped building a synthetic log of thermal conductivity. Finally, we developed a heat probe, which allows measurements in function of temperature and saturation. We showed with this method that the thermal conductivity increases quasi-linearly with the saturation in a sandstone and a carbonate samples. (author)

  6. Enhanced bioremediation as a cost effective approach following thermally enhanced soil vapour extraction for sites requiring remediation of chlorinated solvents - 16296

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowska, Anna-Maria; Kahlon, Manjit S.; Langford, Steve R.; Williams, Haydn G.

    2009-01-01

    Thermally enhanced bioremediation can be a more cost-effective alternative to full scale in-situ thermal treatment especially for sites contaminated with chlorinated solvents, where reductive dechlorination is or might be a dominant biological step. The effect of Thermally Enhanced Soil Vapour Extraction (TESVE) on indigenous microbial communities and the potential for subsequent biological polishing of chlorinated solvents was investigated in field trials at the Western Storage Area (WSA) - RSRL (formerly United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority - UKAEA) Oxfordshire, UK. The WSA site had been contaminated with various chemicals including mineral oil, chloroform, trichloroethane (TCA), carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethene (PCE). The contamination had affected the unsaturated zone, groundwater in the chalk aquifer and was a continuing source of groundwater contamination below the WSA. During TESVE the target treatment zone was heated to above the boiling point of water increasing the degree of volatilization of contaminants of concern (CoC), which were mobilised and extracted in the vapour phase. A significant reduction of concentrations of chlorinated solvent in the unsaturated zone was achieved by the full-scale application of TESVE - In Situ Thermal Desorption (ISTD) technology. The rock mass temperature within target treatment zone remained in the range of 35 deg. - 44 deg. C, 6 months after cessation of heating. The concentration of chlorinated ethenes and other CoC were found to be significantly lower adjacent to the thermal treatment area and 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower within the thermal treatment zone. Samples were collected within and outside the thermal treatment zone using BioTraps R (passive, in- situ microbial samplers) from which the numbers of specific bacteria were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods of analysis. High populations of reductive de-chlorinators such as Dechalococcoides spp. and Dehalobacter spp

  7. Description of Some Ecological Factors in Three Forest Sites in Lorestan Province and Their Impact on Myrtle (Myrtus communis L. Essential Oil Yield and Chemical Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Mir-Azadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the side effects of chemical drugs, special attention is given recently to pharmaceutical plants. Myrtle (Myrtus communis L. is one of the valuable pharmaceutical plants, which is distributed over the vast areas of Iran. Yield and components of essential oil of this plant is dependent on ecological and genetic factors. In order to describe some ecological factors that affect myrtle in Lorestan province, three forest sites (Sepiddasht, Chame-moord, and Hamzeh Camp were selected. Some effective ecological factors on type of essential oil were measured and compared among the sites. To compare the yield and components of essential oil, myrtle leaves were collected during flowering stage in each site. Leaves were dried in open air conditions and the oil was extracted by distillation. Yield of essential oil was calculated and its components were identified by GC and GC/MS. Results showed that maximum yield belongs to Sepiddasht site. The altitude and soil Na, P, and organic carbon content of this site is quite different from other two sites. The main components of essential oils of these three sites had considerable differences. The amount of 9,10 anthracenedione was 29.1% in Sepiddasht site, while it was not found in the oil of Chame-moord site. It seems that differences in ecological and soil properties of the tree sites could have major effect on essential oil yield and its composition.

  8. Thermal regime at the Upper Stillwater dam site, Uinta mountains, Utah: Implications for terrain, microclimate and structural corrections in heat flow studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Michael S.; Chapman, David S.

    1986-08-01

    A detailed study of the subsurface thermal regime at the Upper Stillwater dam site, Uinta Mountains, northeast Utah, has been made. Temperature measurements were made in 36 drillholes located within a 1 km 2 area and ranging in depth from 20 to 97 m. Holes less than about 40 m deep were used only to obtain information about spatial variations in mean annual surface temperature. Several holes in or near talus slopes at the sides of the canyons have temperature minima approaching 0°C between 10 and 20 m indicating the presence of year-round ice at the base of the talus. Another set of holes show transient thermal effects of surface warming resulting from clearing of a construction site 3.5 years prior to our measurements. Most of the remaining holes show conductive behavior and have gradients ranging from 13° to 17°C km -1. Measurements made on 44 core samples yield a thermal conductivity of 5.6 (std. dev. 0.35) W m -1 K -1 for the Precambrian quartzite present. Surface heat flow estimates for these holes range from 70 to 100 mW m -2. However, the local disturbance of the thermal field by topography and microclimate is considerable. A finite difference method used to model these effects yielded a locally corrected Upper Stillwater heat flow of about 75 mW m -2. A final correction to account for the effects of refraction of heat from the low conductivity sedimentary rocks in the Uinta Basin into the high conductivity quartzite at the dam site, produced a regionally corrected Upper Stillwater heat flow between 60 and 65 mW m -2. This value is consistent with the observed heat flow of 60 mW m -2 in the Green River Basin to the north and the Uinta Basin to the south.

  9. Thermally induced A'-A site exchange in novel layered perovskites Ag2[Ca1.5M3O10] (M = Nb, Ta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S P; Woodward, Patrick M

    2002-12-04

    We have synthesized and characterized new layered perovskites Ag2[A1.5M3O10] (A = Ca, M = Nb, Ta), from their lithium analogues, by soft-chemical ion exchange. These oxides show topotactic irreversible thermally induced A'-A site exchange, resulting in Ag1.1Ca0.9[Ca0.6Ag0.9M3O10], conferred from our high-temperature X-ray and ionic conductivity studies. The latter phases are the first compounds where Ag+ ions reside in both A' and A sites in layered perovskites. The absence of similar phase transition for A = Sr suggests that these transitions strongly depend on the size, charge, and the coordination preference of A' and A cations. This result provides a new synthetic tool for modifying the occupation of the 12-coordinate A site of layered perovskites using soft chemical routes.

  10. Descriptive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Descriptive research is described by Lathom-Radocy and Radocy (1995) to include Survey research, ex post facto research, case studies and developmental studies. Descriptive research also includes a review of the literature in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence of the effect...... starts will allow effect size calculations to be made in order to evaluate effect over time. Given the difficulties in undertaking controlled experimental studies in the creative arts therapies, descriptive research methods offer a way of quantifying effect through descriptive statistical analysis...

  11. Factors affecting the thermal environment of Agassiz’s Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) cover sites in the Central Mojave Desert during periods of temperature extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Jeremy S.; Berry, Kristin H.; Miller, David; Carlson, Andrea S.

    2015-01-01

    Agassiz's Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) spend >95% of their lives underground in cover sites that serve as thermal buffers from temperatures, which can fluctuate >40°C on a daily and seasonal basis. We monitored temperatures at 30 active tortoise cover sites within the Soda Mountains, San Bernardino County, California, from February 2004 to September 2006. Cover sites varied in type and structural characteristics, including opening height and width, soil cover depth over the opening, aspect, tunnel length, and surficial geology. We focused our analyses on periods of extreme temperature: in summer, between July 1 and September 1, and winter, between November 1 and February 15. With the use of multivariate regression tree analyses, we found cover-site temperatures were influenced largely by tunnel length and subsequently opening width and soil cover. Linear regression models further showed that increasing tunnel length increased temperature stability and dampened seasonal temperature extremes. Climate change models predict increased warming for southwestern North America. Cover sites that buffer temperature extremes and fluctuations will become increasingly important for survival of tortoises. In planning future translocation projects and conservation efforts, decision makers should consider habitats with terrain and underlying substrate that sustain cover sites with long tunnels and expanded openings for tortoises living under temperature extremes similar to those described here or as projected in the future.

  12. Effect of surgical drill guide and irrigans temperature on thermal bone changes during drilling implant sites - thermographic analysis on bovine ribs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Aleksa; Lazić, Zoran; Mišić, Tijana; Šćepanović, Miodrag; Todorović, Aleksandar; Thakare, Kaustubh; Janjić, Bojan; Vlahović, Zoran; Glišić, Mirko

    2016-08-01

    During drilling implant sites, mechanical energy is converted into thermal one resulting in transient rise in temperature of surrounding bone. The temperature of 47°C exeeding one minute impairs osseointegration, compromises mechanical properties of the local bone and could cause early implant failure. This in vitro study aimed to assess the effect of surgical drill guide and temperature of irrigans on thermal changes of the local bone during drilling implant sites, and to test the influence of irrigans temperature on the temperature of surgical drill guide. A total of 48 specimens obtained from bovine ribs were randomly allocated to four experimental conditions according to the 2 x 2 factorial design: drill guide (with or without) and saline (at 25°C or 5°C). Real-time infrared thermography was used as a method for temperature measurement. The primary outcome was bone temperature change during drilling implant sites measured at 3 osteotomy depths, whereas the second one was change in the temperature of the drill guide. Data were analyzed by Brunner and Langer nonparametric analysis and Wilcoxon test. The effect of drill guide on the changes of bone temperature was significant at the entrance of osteotomy, whereas the effect of saline temperature was significant at all osteotomy levels (p 0.05). Guided surgery and irrigation with saline at 25°C were associated with the highest bone temperature increase. Increase in drill guide temperature was significantly higher when saline at 25°C was used (p < 0.001). Guided implant site preparation generates higher temperature of the local bone than conventional drilling, not exceeding the threshold for thermal bone necrosis. Although saline at room temperature provides sufficient heat control during drilling, cooled saline is more effective regardless the use of surgical drill guide.

  13. Effect of surgical drill guide and irrigans temperature on thermal bone changes during drilling implant sites - thermographic analysis on bovine ribs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Aleksa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. During drilling implant sites, mechanical energy is converted into thermal one resulting in transient rise in temperature of surrounding bone. The temperature of 47°C exeeding one minute impairs osseointegration, compromises mechanical properties of the local bone and could cause early implant failure. This in vitro study aimed to assess the effect of surgical drill guide and temperature of irrigans on thermal changes of the local bone during drilling implant sites, and to test the influence of irrigans temperature on the temperature of surgical drill guide. Methods. A total of 48 specimens obtained from bovine ribs were randomly allocated to four experimental conditions according to the 2 x 2 factorial design: drill guide (with or without and saline (at 25°C or 5°C. Real-time infrared thermography was used as a method for temperature measurement. The primary outcome was bone temperature change during drilling implant sites measured at 3 osteotomy depths, whereas the second one was change in the temperature of the drill guide. Data were analyzed by Brunner and Langer nonparametric analysis and Wilcoxon test. Results. The effect of drill guide on the changes of bone temperature was significant at the entrance of osteotomy, whereas the effect of saline temperature was significant at all osteotomy levels (p 0.05. Guided surgery and irrigation with saline at 25°C were associated with the highest bone temperature increase. Increase in drill guide temperature was significantly higher when saline at 25°C was used (p < 0.001. Conclusion. Guided implant site preparation generates higher temperature of the local bone than conventional drilling, not exceeding the threshold for thermal bone necrosis. Although saline at room temperature provides sufficient heat control during drilling, cooled saline is more effective regardless the use of surgical drill guide.

  14. Emplacement mechanisms and structural influences of a younger granite intrusion into older wall rocks - a principal study with application to the Goetemar and Uthammar granites. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruden, Alexander R.

    2008-12-01

    The c. 1.80 Ga old bedrock in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, which is the focus of the site investigation at Oskarshamn, is dominated by intrusive rocks belonging to the c. 1.86-1.65 Ga Transscandinavian Igneous Belt (TIB). However, the site investigation area is situated in between two c. 1.45 Ga old anorogenic granites, the Goetemar granite in the north and the Uthammar granite in the south. This study evaluates the emplacement mechanism of these intrusions and their structural influence on the older bedrock. Field observations and structural measurements indicate that both the Goetemar and the Uthammar granites are discordant and have not imposed any significant ductile deformation on their wall-rocks. The apparent conformity of geological contacts and fabrics in the wall rocks and the southern margin of the Goetemar granite is coincidental and inherited from the pattern of Svecokarelian deformation of the TIB. However, interpretation of regional aeromagnetic data suggests that the granites occur within a broad, NNE-SSW trending linear belt, pointing to deep seated tectonic control on their generation, ascent and emplacement. Thermochronology indicates that the granites were emplaced at depths between 4 and 8 km into brittle wall rocks. The 3-D shape of the Goetemar and Uthammar plutons has been investigated by 2.75D forward modelling of the residual gravity anomalies due to both granites. Both granites are associated with strong residual gravity anomalies of up to -10 mgal. Constraints on the geometry of the plutons at the surface are provided from surface geology maps and several deep boreholes located on or close to the model profiles. A further variable in the gravity modelling is introduced by either allowing the upper contact of the plutons to assume the most suitable orientation to produce the best fit between the modelled and observed gravity ('unconstrained models') or by forcing the near surface orientation of the contacts to be vertical ('constrained

  15. Emplacement mechanisms and structural influences of a younger granite intrusion into older wall rocks - a principal study with application to the Goetemar and Uthammar granites. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruden, Alexander R. (Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Toronto (Canada))

    2008-12-15

    The c. 1.80 Ga old bedrock in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, which is the focus of the site investigation at Oskarshamn, is dominated by intrusive rocks belonging to the c. 1.86-1.65 Ga Transscandinavian Igneous Belt (TIB). However, the site investigation area is situated in between two c. 1.45 Ga old anorogenic granites, the Goetemar granite in the north and the Uthammar granite in the south. This study evaluates the emplacement mechanism of these intrusions and their structural influence on the older bedrock. Field observations and structural measurements indicate that both the Goetemar and the Uthammar granites are discordant and have not imposed any significant ductile deformation on their wall-rocks. The apparent conformity of geological contacts and fabrics in the wall rocks and the southern margin of the Goetemar granite is coincidental and inherited from the pattern of Svecokarelian deformation of the TIB. However, interpretation of regional aeromagnetic data suggests that the granites occur within a broad, NNE-SSW trending linear belt, pointing to deep seated tectonic control on their generation, ascent and emplacement. Thermochronology indicates that the granites were emplaced at depths between 4 and 8 km into brittle wall rocks. The 3-D shape of the Goetemar and Uthammar plutons has been investigated by 2.75D forward modelling of the residual gravity anomalies due to both granites. Both granites are associated with strong residual gravity anomalies of up to -10 mgal. Constraints on the geometry of the plutons at the surface are provided from surface geology maps and several deep boreholes located on or close to the model profiles. A further variable in the gravity modelling is introduced by either allowing the upper contact of the plutons to assume the most suitable orientation to produce the best fit between the modelled and observed gravity ('unconstrained models') or by forcing the near surface orientation of the contacts to be vertical (&apos

  16. Managing the nation's nuclear waste. Site descriptions: Cypress Creek, Davis Canyon, Deaf Smith, Hanford Reference, Lavender Canyon, Richton Dome, Swisher, Vacherie Dome, and Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    In 1982, the Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Public Law 97-425), which established a comprehensive national program directed toward siting, constructing, and operating geologic repositories for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. In February 1983, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) identified the nine referenced repository locations as potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository. These sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. The DOE findings and determinations are based on the evaluations contained in the draft Environmental Assessments (EA). A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received on the draft EA. The purpose of this document is to provide the public with specific site information on each potential repository location

  17. Heat flow study at the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling site: Borehole temperature, thermal conductivity, and radiogenic heat production

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lijuan; Hu, Shengbiao; Huang, Shaopeng; Yang, Wencai; Wang, Jiyang; Yuan, Yusong; Yang, Shuchun

    2008-02-01

    The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) Project offers a unique opportunity for studying the thermal regime of the Dabie-Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt. In this paper, we report measurements of borehole temperature, thermal conductivity, and radiogenic heat production from the 5158 m deep main hole (CCSD MH). We have obtained six continuous temperature profiles from this borehole so far. The temperature logs show a transient mean thermal gradient that has increased from 24.38 to 25.28 K km-1 over a period of about 1.5 years. We measured thermal conductivities and radiogenic heat productions on more than 400 core samples from CCSD MH. The measured thermal conductivities range between 1.71 and 3.60 W m-1 K-1, and the radiogenic heat productions vary from 0.01 μW m-3 to over 5.0 μW m-3, with a mean value of 1.23 ± 0.82 μW m-3 for the upper 5-km layer of the crust. The heat productions in CCSD MH appear to be more rock-type than depth-dependent and, over the depth range of CCSD MH, do not fit the popular model of heat production decreasing exponentially with increasing depth. The measured heat flow decreases with depth from ˜75 mW m-2 near the surface to ˜66 mW m-2 at a depth of 4600 m. High heat flow anomalies occur at ˜1000 and ˜2300 m, and low anomalies occur at 3300-4000 m. A preliminary two-dimensional numerical model suggests that both radiogenic heat production and thermal refraction due to structural heterogeneity are at least partially responsible for the vertical variation of heat flow in CCSD MH.

  18. (Ca,Mg)-Carbonate and Mg-Carbonate at the Phoenix Landing Site: Evaluation of the Phoenix Lander's Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) Data Using Laboratory Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, B.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.; Niles, P. B.; Morris, R. V.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium carbonate (4.5 wt. %) was detected in the soil at the Phoenix Landing site by the Phoenix Lander s The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer [1]. TEGA operated at 12 mbar pressure, yet the detection of calcium carbonate is based on interpretations derived from thermal analysis literature of carbonates measured under ambient (1000 mbar) and vacuum (10(exp -3) mbar) conditions [2,3] as well as at 100 and 30 mbar [4,5] and one analysis at 12 mbar by the TEGA engineering qualification model (TEGA-EQM). Thermodynamics (Te = H/ S) dictate that pressure affects entropy ( S) which causes the temperature (Te) of mineral decomposition at one pressure to differ from Te obtained at another pressure. Thermal decomposition analyses of Fe-, Mg-, and Ca-bearing carbonates at 12 mbar is required to enhance the understanding of the TEGA results at TEGA operating pressures. The objectives of this work are to (1) evaluate the thermal and evolved gas behavior of a suite of Fe-, Mg-, Ca-carbonate minerals at 1000 and 12 mbar and (2) discuss possible emplacement mechanisms for the Phoenix carbonate.

  19. The effect of load on heat production, thermal effects and expenditure of time during implant site preparation - an experimental ex vivo comparison between piezosurgery and conventional drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Florian; Frenkel, Carsten; Riemann, Max; Knipfer, Christian; Stockmann, Philipp; Nkenke, Emeka

    2014-02-01

    Piezoelectric surgery (PS) is meant to be a gentle osteotomy method. The aim of this study was to compare piezosurgical vs. conventional drilling methods for implant site preparation (ISP) - focusing on load-dependent thermal effect on hard tissue and the expenditure of ISP time. Three hundred and sixty ISP were performed on ex vivo pig heads using piezosurgery, spiral burs (SB) and trephine burs (TB). The load applied was increased from 0 to 1000 g in 100-g intervals. Temperature within the bone was measured with a thermocouple, and duration was recorded with a stop watch. Thermal effects were histomorphometrically analysed. Twelve ISPs per technique were performed at the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus. PS yields the highest mean temperatures (48.6 ± 3.4°C) and thermal effects (200.7 ± 44.4 μm), both at 900-1000 g. Duration is reduced with a plus of load and significantly longer in either case for PS (P < 0.05). There is a correlation of the applied load with all other examined factors for PS and TB. Temperature and histological effects decrease for SB beyond 500 g. PS yields significantly higher temperatures and thermal tissue alterations on load levels higher than 500 g and is significantly slower for ISP compared to SB and TB. For ISP with PS, a maximum load of 400 g should be maintained. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Statistical analysis of parameters of river waters of Tikara and Brahmani near the proposed super thermal power plant site at Talcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, G.E.; Muthu Kumar, M.

    1997-01-01

    A detailed study on water quality was conducted on rivers Tikara and Brahmani one of which (Brahmani) is the source of water for super thermal power plant in Talcher, Orissa. Four sites were selected for study, 2 in Tikara and the rest in Brahmani. Person's correlation coefficient was worked for all the water quality parameters. High correlations were observed between conductivity with TDS, calcium and chlorides. High correlations were also observed between hardness with chlorides and calcium, and it has been concluded that the result will help in the calculation of some of the parameters without experimental determination. The analyses, show that there is no appreciable pollution in these rivers. However, flyash and pollutants from thermal plant might pollute these rivers. Suggestions have been given to abate pollution. (author)

  1. Feasibility of and methodology for thermal annealing an embrittled reactor vessel. Volume 2. Detailed technical description of the work. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mager, T.R.

    1982-11-01

    Program materials were three weldments fabricated from A533 Grade B class 1 plate material and Mn Mo Ni weld wire. Specimens fabricated from the three submerged arc weldments included Type A Charpy V-notch impact, small size tensile, and 1/2T compact tension specimens. After encapsulation, the specimens were irradiated at the UVAR to two fluence levels, 8 x 10 18 n/cm 2 and 1.5 x 10 19 n/cm 2 (E > 1 MeV). Specimens were subjected to sequences of irradiation and anneals and then tested. Metallurgial/mechanistic analyses were also performed. It was concluded that excellent recovery of all properties could be achieved by annealing at greater than or equal to 850 0 F (454 0 C) for 168 hours. Such an annealing resulted in ductile-brittle transition temperature shift recovery of 80 to 100%, and reirradiation after this annealing indicated that the ductile-brittle transition temperature shift appears to continue at the expected rate. Several drawbacks were identified for wet thermal annealing. A conceptual dry in-situ thermal annealing procedure was developed for thermal annealing embrittled reactor vessels

  2. Preliminary analysis of effects of thermal loading on gas and heat flow within the framework of the LBNL/USGS site-scale model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.S.; Chen, G.; Bodvarsson, G.

    1995-12-01

    The US Department of Energy is performing detailed site characterization studies at Yucca Mountain to determine its suitability as a geological repository site for high level nuclear wastes. As part of these research efforts, a three-dimensional, site-scale unsaturated-zone model has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in collaboration with the US Geological Survey (USGS). The primary objectives of developing the 3-D site-scale model are to predict the ambient hydrogeological conditions and the movement of moisture and gas within the unsaturated zone of the mountain. In addition, the model has the capability of modeling non-isothermal flow and transport phenomena at the mountain. Applications of such a site-scale model should include evaluation of effects of thermal loading on heated gas and heat flow through the mountain for long-term performance assessment of the repository. Emplacement of heat-generating, high-level nuclear wastes at Yucca Mountain would create complex multiphase fluid flow and heat transfer processes. The physical mechanisms include conductive and convective heat transfer, phase change phenomena (vaporization and condensation), flow of liquid and gas phases under variably-saturated condition, diffusion and dispersion of vapor and gas, vapor sorption, and vapor-pressure lowering effects. The heterogeneity of complicated geological setting at Yucca Mountain, such as alternating, layers of porous-fractured rocks, will significantly affect the processes of fluid and heat flow

  3. Thermal and physical property determination for IONSIV/256 IE-911 crystalline silicotitanate and Savannah River Site waste simulant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes physical and thermophysical property determinations that were made in order to resolve questions associated with the decontamination of Savannah River Site waste streams using ion exchange on crystalline silicotitanate

  4. Evaluating the uncertainties of thermal catalytic conversion in measuring atmospheric nitrogen dioxide at four differently polluted sites in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Wang, Tao; Xue, L. K.; Louie, Peter K. K.; Luk, Connie W. Y.; Gao, J.; Wang, S. L.; Chai, F. H.; Wang, W. X.

    2013-09-01

    A widely used method for measuring nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the atmosphere is the conversion of NO2 to nitric oxide (NO) on the hot surface of a molybdenum oxide (MoO) catalyst followed by the chemiluminescence detection of NO. Although it has long been recognized that this type of conversion may suffer from the positive interference of other oxidized nitrogen compounds, evaluations of such interference in the atmosphere are scarce, thus rendering it difficult to make use of a large portion of the NO2 or NOx data obtained via this method (often denoted as NO2* or NOx*). In the present study, we compared the MoO converter with a selective, more accurate photolytic approach at four differently polluted sites in China. The converter worked well at the urban site, which was greatly affected by fresh emissions, but, on average, overestimated NO2 by 30%-50% at the two suburban sites and by more than 130% at the mountain-top site during afternoon hours, with a much larger positive bias seen during the top 10% of ozone events. The degree of overestimation depended on both air-parcel age and the composition of the oxidation products/intermediates of NOx (NOz). We attempted to derive an empirical formula to correct for this overestimation using concurrently measured O3, NO, and NO2* at the two suburban sites. Although the formula worked well at each individual site, the different NOz partitions at the sites made it difficult to obtain a universal formula. In view of the difficulty of assessing the uncertainties of the conventional conversion method, thus limiting the usability of data obtained via this method in atmospheric research, we suggest that, in areas away from fresh NOx emission sources, either a more selective NO2 measurement method or a NOy (NOx and its reaction products and intermediates) instrument should be adopted.

  5. The University of Minnesota aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) field test facility -- system description, aquifer characterization, and results of short-term test cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, M.; Hoyer, M.C.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Holm, N.L.; Holm, T.R.; Kanivetsky, R.; Jirsa, M.A.; Lee, H.C.; Lauer, J.L.; Miller, R.T.; Norton, J.L.; Runke, H. (Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, MN (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Phase 1 of the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) Project at the University of Minnesota was to test the feasibility, and model, the ATES concept at temperatures above 100{degrees}C using a confined aquifer for the storage and recovery of hot water. Phase 1 included design, construction, and operation of a 5-MW thermal input/output field test facility (FTF) for four short-term ATES cycles (8 days each of heat injection, storage, and heat recover). Phase 1 was conducted from May 1980 to December 1983. This report describes the FTF, the Franconia-Ironton-Galesville (FIG) aquifer used for the test, and the four short-term ATES cycles. Heat recovery; operational experience; and thermal, chemical, hydrologic, and geologic effects are all included. The FTF consists of monitoring wells and the source and storage well doublet completed in the FIG aquifer with heat exchangers and a fixed-bed precipitator between the wells of the doublet. The FIG aquifer is highly layered and a really anisotropic. The upper Franconia and Ironton-Galesville parts of the aquifer, those parts screened, have hydraulic conductivities of {approximately}0.6 and {approximately}1.0 m/d, respectively. Primary ions in the ambient ground water are calcium and magnesium bicarbonate. Ambient temperature FIG ground water is saturated with respect to calcium/magnesium bicarbonate. Heating the ground water caused most of the dissolved calcium to precipitate out as calcium carbonate in the heat exchanger and precipitator. Silica, calcium, and magnesium were significantly higher in recovered water than in injected water, suggesting dissolution of some constituents of the aquifer during the cycles. Further work on the ground water chemistry is required to understand water-rock interactions.

  6. Thermal interactions of the AD79 Vesuvius pyroclastic density currents and their deposits at Villa dei Papiri (Herculaneum archaeological site, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, G.; Zanella, E.; Trolese, M.; Baffioni, C.; Vona, A.; Caricchi, C.; De Benedetti, A. A.; Corrado, S.; Romano, C.; Sulpizio, R.; Geshi, N.

    2018-05-01

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) can have devastating impacts on urban settlements, due to their dynamic pressure and high temperatures. Our degree of understanding of the interplay between these hot currents and the affected infrastructures is thus fundamental not only to implement our strategies for risk reduction, but also to better understand PDC dynamics. We studied the temperature of emplacement of PDC deposits that destroyed and buried the Villa dei Papiri, an aristocratic Roman edifice located just outside the Herculaneum city, during the AD79 plinian eruption of Mt Vesuvius (Italy) by using the thermal remanent magnetization of embedded lithic clasts. The PDC deposits around and inside the Villa show substantial internal thermal disequilibrium. In areas affected by convective mixing with surface water or with collapsed walls, temperatures average at around 270 °C (min 190 °C, max 300 °C). Where the deposits show no evidence of mixing with external material, the temperature is much higher, averaging at 350 °C (min 300 °C; max 440 °C). Numerical simulations and comparison with temperatures retrieved at the very same sites from the reflectance of charcoal fragments indicate that such thermal disequilibrium can be maintained inside the PDC deposit for time-scales well over 24 hours, i.e. the acquisition time of deposit temperatures for common proxies. We reconstructed in detail the history of the progressive destruction and burial of Villa dei Papiri and infer that the rather homogeneous highest deposit temperatures (average 350 °C) were carried by the ash-sized fraction in thermal equilibrium with the fluid phase of the incoming PDCs. These temperatures can be lowered on short time- (less than hours) and length-scales (meters to tens of meters) only where convective mixing with external materials or fluids occurs. By contrast, where the Villa walls remained standing the thermal exchange was only conductive and very slow, i.e. negligible at 50 cm

  7. Comparative Analysis of Site-Selection Process for Power Plants in Korea: Cases of Thermal, Nuclear, and Renewable Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, M.; Lee, M.; Yoon, J. W.; Choi, H. C.; Chu, C.; Lee, H.; Park, J.

    2017-01-01

    There are various conflicts related to power generation facilities; however, the conflicts that arise during the process of luring facilities or site selection, as in the previous cases, can eventually influence greatly the implementation of the national energy policy or strategy. This study analyzed the conflict phenomenon that occurred in the site selection policy of the power generation facilities through the case studies. We selected the most recent conflict cases by each energy source, identified the qualitative context characteristics of the cases and tried to suggest the policy leverages. In this study, it is concluded that the cause of conflicts in decision making system for site selection of power plants is insufficient yet due to the variable circumstances such as environmental events, stakeholder range, etc. However, the conclusions obtained from the case study are difficult generalization without specific prescription books, so further studies for those areas are required.

  8. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 2-B: Resource description, program history, wells tested, university and company based research, site restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Design well program; LaFourche Crossing; MG-T/DOE Amoco Fee No. 1 (Sweet Lake); Environmental monitoring at Sweet Lake; Air quality; Water quality; Microseismic monitoring; Subsidence; Dow/DOE L.R. Sweezy No. 1 well; Reservoir testing; Environmental monitoring at Parcperdue; Air monitoring; Water runoff; Groundwater; Microseismic events; Subsidence; Environmental consideration at site; Gladys McCall No. 1 well; Test results of Gladys McCall; Hydrocarbons in production gas and brine; Environmental monitoring at the Gladys McCall site; Pleasant Bayou No. 2 well; Pleasant Bayou hybrid power system; Environmental monitoring at Pleasant Bayou; and Plug abandonment and well site restoration of three geopressured-geothermal test sites. 197 figs., 64 tabs.

  9. The efficacy of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and morbidity in western Kenya I. Development of infrastructure and description of study site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Alaii, Jane A.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Gimnig, John E.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; Kachur, S. Patrick; Hightower, Allen W.; Lal, Altaf A.; Schoute, Erik; Oloo, Aggrey J.; Hawley, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials in sub-Saharan Africa have shown that permethrin-treated bed nets and curtains reduce all-cause child mortality by 15-33% in areas with low or high but seasonal malaria transmission. This report describes the study site for a community-based, group-randomized, controlled

  10. Nociceptive thermal threshold testing in horses – effect of neuroleptic sedation and neuroleptanalgesia at different stimulation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aim of the study was to compare the effect of neuroleptic sedation with acepromazine and neuroleptanalgesia with acepromazine and buprenorphine on thermal thresholds (TT) obtained at the nostrils and at the withers. The study was carried out as a randomized, blinded, controlled trial with cross-over design. Thermal thresholds were determined by incremental contact heat applied to the skin above the nostril (N) or the withers (W). Eleven horses were treated with saline (S), acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg) (ACE) or acepromazine and buprenorphine (0.0075 mg/kg) (AB) intravenously (IV). Single stimulations were performed 15 minutes prior and 15, 45, 75, 105, 165, 225, 285, 405 and 525 minutes after treatment. Sedation score, gastrointestinal auscultation score and occurrence of skin lesions were recorded. Data were analysed with analysis of variance for repeated measurements. Results There were no significant differences in TT between N and W with all treatments. The TT remained constant after S and there was no difference in TT between S and ACE. After AB there was a significant increase above baseline in TT until 405 minutes after treatment. Restlessness occurred 30–90 minutes after AB in 7 horses. All horses had reduced to absent borborygmi after AB administration for 165 to 495 minutes. Conclusion Thermal stimulation at both described body areas gives comparable results in the assessment of cutaneous anti-nociception in horses. There is no differential influence of neuroleptic sedation or neuroleptanalgesia on TTs obtained at N or W. Buprenorphine combined with acepromazine has a long lasting anti-nociceptive effect associated with the typical opioid induced side effects in horses. PMID:23837730

  11. Predicting ambient aerosol thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) measurements from infrared spectra: extending the predictions to different years and different sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggente, Matteo; Dillner, Ann M.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) are major components of atmospheric particulate matter (PM), which has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, climate change, and reduced visibility. Typically OC and EC concentrations are measured using thermal-optical methods such as thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) from samples collected on quartz filters. In this work, we estimate TOR OC and EC using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE Teflon) filters using partial least square regression (PLSR) calibrated to TOR OC and EC measurements for a wide range of samples. The proposed method can be integrated with analysis of routinely collected PTFE filter samples that, in addition to OC and EC concentrations, can concurrently provide information regarding the functional group composition of the organic aerosol. We have used the FT-IR absorbance spectra and TOR OC and EC concentrations collected in the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network (USA). We used 526 samples collected in 2011 at seven sites to calibrate the models, and more than 2000 samples collected in 2013 at 17 sites to test the models. Samples from six sites are present both in the calibration and test sets. The calibrations produce accurate predictions both for samples collected at the same six sites present in the calibration set (R2 = 0.97 and R2 = 0.95 for OC and EC respectively), and for samples from 9 of the 11 sites not included in the calibration set (R2 = 0.96 and R2 = 0.91 for OC and EC respectively). Samples collected at the other two sites require a different calibration model to achieve accurate predictions. We also propose a method to anticipate the prediction error; we calculate the squared Mahalanobis distance in the feature space (scores determined by PLSR) between new spectra and spectra in the calibration set. The squared Mahalanobis distance provides a crude method for assessing the

  12. An extended collection length model for the description of keV-electron induced degradation and thermal recovery of p-i-n solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, U.; Schroder, B.

    1990-01-01

    The results of keV-electron degradation and annealing experiments obtained on a-Si:H based p-i-n solar cells are interpretated under inclusion of models developed earlier for the degradation of a-Si:H films and are placed in the framework of an extended collection length model. The strong degradation of the cell parameters j sc and FF due to considerable keV-electron irradiation can be explained quantitatively. This enables a crucial test of the validity of the mathematical models for the keV-electron induced effects developed so far. Furthermore the results of a detailed investigation of the thermal recovery of electron-degraded solar cells can be cleared up consistently. Some unresolved issues are discussed, and experiments to resolve these questions are proposed

  13. Grid Connected Integrated Community Energy System. Volume 1. Summary and demonstration site description. Final report, Phase I, February 1, 1977-May 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderberg, W.E.; O' Gara, J.C.; Reid, R.A.; Lewis, R.; Ervasti, M.; Pearce, J.

    1977-06-01

    The University of Minnesota and its partners - St. Mary's and Fairview hospitals, Augsburg College, Northern States Power Company, and possibly some small add-on customers - will develop the feasibility of a Grid-Connected Integrated Community Energy System utilizing cogeneration of electricity as a byproduct of steam in an educational, residential, hospital, and commercial community. An overview of the site is given. The geographical location, spatial data topographical data, and modes of transportation to and from the site are given. Environmental data (geology, surficial geology, regional watershed, trees, building shadows, climatological data, environmental quality data, and the microclimate) are discussed. The open space, outdoor use, and wildlife habitat are assessed. Information on the building sectors includes sector energy density, night time usage, building construction, steam adsorption air conditioning, electric air conditioning, and University Hospital air conditioning. The building sector energy profiles and the special service sectors are described. (MCW)

  14. mHealth Series: mHealth project in Zhao County, rural China – Description of objectives, field site and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Helena van Velthoven

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We set up a collaboration between researchers in China and the UK that aimed to explore the use of mHealth in China. This is the first paper in a series of papers on a large mHealth project part of this collaboration. This paper included the aims and objectives of the mHealth project, our field site, and the detailed methods of two studies.

  15. Descriptive statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, Todd G

    2007-01-01

    Statistics is defined by the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) thesaurus as the science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The two broad categories of summarizing and analyzing data are referred to as descriptive and inferential statistics. This chapter considers the science and art of summarizing data where descriptive statistics and graphics are used to display data. In this chapter, we discuss the fundamentals of descriptive statistics, including describing qualitative and quantitative variables. For describing quantitative variables, measures of location and spread, for example the standard deviation, are presented along with graphical presentations. We also discuss distributions of statistics, for example the variance, as well as the use of transformations. The concepts in this chapter are useful for uncovering patterns within the data and for effectively presenting the results of a project.

  16. Springtime carbon emission episodes at the Gosan background site revealed by total carbon, stable carbon isotopic composition, and thermal characteristics of carbonaceous particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jung

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the emission of carbonaceous aerosols at the Gosan background super-site (33.17° N, 126.10° E in East Asia, total suspended particles (TSP were collected during spring of 2007 and 2008 and analyzed for particulate organic carbon, elemental carbon, total carbon (TC, total nitrogen (TN, and stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C of TC. The stable carbon isotopic composition of TC (δ13CTC was found to be lowest during pollen emission episodes (range: −26.2‰ to −23.5‰, avg. −25.2 ± 0.9‰, approaching those of the airborne pollen (−28.0‰ collected at the Gosan site. Based on a carbon isotope mass balance equation, we found that ~42% of TC in the TSP samples during the pollen episodes was attributed to airborne pollen from Japanese cedar trees planted around tangerine farms in Jeju Island. A negative correlation between the citric acid-carbon/TC ratios and δ13CTC was obtained during the pollen episodes. These results suggest that citric acid emitted from tangerine fruit may be adsorbed on the airborne pollen and then transported to the Gosan site. Thermal evolution patterns of organic carbon during the pollen episodes were characterized by high OC evolution in the OC2 temperature step (450 °C. Since thermal evolution patterns of organic aerosols are highly influenced by their molecular weight, they can be used as additional information on the formation of secondary organic aerosols and the effect of aging of organic aerosols during the long-range atmospheric transport and sources of organic aerosols.

  17. Alternative body sites for heat stress measurement in milking cows under tropical conditions and their relationship to the thermal discomfort of the animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, Luciane S.; Savastano Junior, Holmer; Silva, Saulo L.; Balieiro, Júlio Cesar C.

    2010-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship among temperatures measured at different anatomical sites of the animal body and their daily pattern as indicative of the thermal stress in lactating dairy cows under tropical conditions. Environmental dry bulb (DBT) and black globe (BGT) temperatures and relative humidity (RH) were recorded. Rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), body surface (BST), internal base of tail (TT), vulva (VT) and auricular temperatures (AT) were collected, from 37 Black and White Holstein cows at 0700, 1300 and 1800 hours. RT showed a moderately and positive correlations with all body temperatures, ranging from 0.59 with TT to 0.64 with BST. Correlations among AT, VT and TT with RF were very similar (from 0.63 to 0.64) and were greater than those observed for RF with RT (0.55) or with BST (0.54). RF and RT were positively correlated to TT (0.63 and 0.59, respectively), AT (r = 0.63 for both) and VT ( r = 0.64 and 0.63, respectively). Positive and very high correlations were observed among AT, VT and TT (from 0.94 to 0.97) indicating good association of temperatures measured in these anatomical sites. Correlations of BST with AT and VT were positive and very similar (0.71 and 0.72, respectively) and lower with TT (0.66). The AT, TT, VT and BST presented similar patterns and follow the variations of DBT through the day. Temperatures measured at different anatomical sites of the animal body have the potential to be used as indicative of the thermal stress in lactating dairy cows.

  18. Changes in luminescence properties induced by thermal treatments; a case study at Si pan and Trujillo Moche sites (Peru)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roque, Celine; Guibert, Pierre E-mail: guibert@u-bordeaux3.fr; Vartanian, Mmanuel; Vieillevigne, Emmanuelle; Bechtel, Francoise

    2004-02-01

    TL-dating studies were carried out on pre hispanic pottery attributed to he Moche culture of Peru (from BC 200 to AD 800 according to the previously known chronology). A greater than expected scatter in ages was found for samples known, from archaeological considerations, to have been contemporaneous. This was related to applying a fixed, but inappropriate, annealing temperature to the grains prior to their irradiation to regenerate he TL growth curve. The dependence of growth of TL and equivalent dose valuation on this annealing temperature was tested in the range 400-1000 eg. C. A combined cathodoluminescence/TL study was used to select the appropriate thermal treatment for evaluation of the final equivalent dose. his procedure, which we suggest can be generally applied in pottery dating, resulted in a reduction of age dispersion when applied to groups of contemporaneous ceramics.

  19. Changes in luminescence properties induced by thermal treatments; a case study at Si pan and Trujillo Moche sites (Peru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roque, Celine; Guibert, Pierre; Vartanian, Mmanuel; Vieillevigne, Emmanuelle; Bechtel, Francoise

    2004-01-01

    TL-dating studies were carried out on pre hispanic pottery attributed to he Moche culture of Peru (from BC 200 to AD 800 according to the previously known chronology). A greater than expected scatter in ages was found for samples known, from archaeological considerations, to have been contemporaneous. This was related to applying a fixed, but inappropriate, annealing temperature to the grains prior to their irradiation to regenerate he TL growth curve. The dependence of growth of TL and equivalent dose valuation on this annealing temperature was tested in the range 400-1000 eg. C. A combined cathodoluminescence/TL study was used to select the appropriate thermal treatment for evaluation of the final equivalent dose. his procedure, which we suggest can be generally applied in pottery dating, resulted in a reduction of age dispersion when applied to groups of contemporaneous ceramics

  20. Site decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicker, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Among the several DOE sites that have been radiologically decontaminated under the auspices of the Nevada Operations Office are three whose physical characteristics are unique. These are the Tatum Dome Test Site (TDTS) near Hattiesburg, Mississippi; a location of mountainous terrain (Pahute Mesa) on the Nevada Test Site; and the GNOME site near Carlsbad, New Mexico. In each case the contamination, the terrain, and the climate conditions were different. This presentation includes a brief description of each site, the methods used to perform radiological surveys, the logistics required to support the decontamination (including health physics and sample analysis), and the specific techniques used to reduce or remove the contamination

  1. Totally extraperitoneal (TEP) bilateral hernioplasty using the Single Site® robotic da Vinci platform (DV-SS TEP): description of the technique and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestari, A; Galli, A C; Sangalli, M N; Zanoni, M; Ferrari, M; Roviaro, G

    2017-06-01

    Laparoendoscopic single site totally extraperitoneal (TEP) hernia repair showed to be a feasible alternative to conventional laparoscopic hernia repair; nevertheless single site surgery, with the loss of instruments triangulation can be a demanding procedure. To overcome those hurdles, the Single Site® (SS) platform of the da Vinci (DV) Si robotic system enables to perform surgical procedures through a 25-mm skin incision, with a stable 3D vision and restoring an adequate triangulation of the surgical instruments. We present in details the technique and the preliminary results of DV-SS TEP, to our knowledge the first cases reported in literature. In March 2016, three consecutive male patients (mean age 46.6 years-mean BMI 25.3) with bilateral symptomatic inguinal hernia were submitted to DV-SS TEP in our institutions. Feasibility, codification of the technique, operative time and perioperative outcomes were recorded. All the procedures were completed as scheduled, with no conversion to other techniques. Mean operative time was 98.6 min, ranging between 155 and 55 min, reflecting the learning curve of the operating room team on this new procedure. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were experienced and all the patients were discharged within 24 h after surgery. Patients reported satisfactory postoperative course, with no recurrence of inguinal hernia and satisfaction in cosmetic result at 6-month follow-up. DV-SS TEP inguinal hernia repair showed to be feasible and effective surgical option for bilateral groin hernia repair. Patients' outcome was uneventful, with optimal cosmetic results. Further studies comparing this innovative technique to TEP or LESS TEP should be promoted.

  2. mHealth Series: mHealth project in Zhao County, rural China – Description of objectives, field site and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Li, Ye; Wang, Wei; Du, Xiaozhen; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Li; Majeed, Azeem; Rudan, Igor; Zhang, Yanfeng; Car, Josip

    2013-01-01

    Background We set up a collaboration between researchers in China and the UK that aimed to explore the use of mHealth in China. This is the first paper in a series of papers on a large mHealth project part of this collaboration. This paper included the aims and objectives of the mHealth project, our field site, and the detailed methods of two studies. Field site The field site for this mHealth project was Zhao County, which lies 280 km south of Beijing in Hebei Province, China. Methods We described the methodology of two studies: (i) a mixed methods study exploring factors influencing sample size calculations for mHealth–based health surveys and (ii) a cross–over study determining validity of an mHealth text messaging data collection tool. The first study used mixed methods, both quantitative and qualitative, including: (i) two surveys with caregivers of young children, (ii) interviews with caregivers, village doctors and participants of the cross–over study, and (iii) researchers’ views. We combined data from caregivers, village doctors and researchers to provide an in–depth understanding of factors influencing sample size calculations for mHealth–based health surveys. The second study, a cross–over study, used a randomised cross–over study design to compare the traditional face–to–face survey method to the new text messaging survey method. We assessed data equivalence (intrarater agreement), the amount of information in responses, reasons for giving different responses, the response rate, characteristics of non–responders, and the error rate. Conclusions This paper described the objectives, field site and methods of a large mHealth project part of a collaboration between researchers in China and the UK. The mixed methods study evaluating factors that influence sample size calculations could help future studies with estimating reliable sample sizes. The cross–over study comparing face–to–face and text message survey data collection

  3. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 2-A: Resource description, program history, wells tested, university and company based research, site restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Geopressured-geothermal resource description; Resource origin and sediment type; Gulf Coast resource extent; Resource estimates; Project history; Authorizing legislation; Program objectives; Perceived constraints; Program activities and structure; Well testing; Program management; Program cost summary; Funding history; Resource characterization; Wells of opportunity; Edna Delcambre No. 1 well; Edna Delcambre well recompletion; Fairfax Foster Sutter No. 2 well; Beulah Simon No. 2 well; P.E. Girouard No. 1 well; Prairie Canal No. 1 well; Crown Zellerbach No. 2 well; Alice C. Plantation No. 2 well; Tenneco Fee N No. 1 well; Pauline Kraft No. 1 well; Saldana well No. 2; G.M. Koelemay well No. 1; Willis Hulin No. 1 well; Investigations of other wells of opportunity; Clovis A. Kennedy No. 1 well; Watkins-Miller No. 1 well; Lucien J. Richard et al No. 1 well; and the C and K-Frank A. Godchaux, III, well No. 1.

  4. Intracrystalline fractionation of oxygen isotopes between hydroxyl and non-hydroxyl sites in kaolinite measured by thermal dehydroxylation and partial fluorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Jean-Pierre; Savin, Samuel M.

    1996-02-01

    Thermal dehydroxylation and partial fluorination techniques were used to measure intracrystalline fractionation of oxygen isotopes between hydroxyl and non-hydroxyl sites in kaolinite. Several aliquots of a well characterized, fine-grained (rates, and target temperatures. Measured δ18O values of both the liberated water and the dehydroxylated residue are consistent over a wide range of temperatures (550 850°C) when dehydroxylation is performed in a single-step fashion at a rapid heating rate (>50°C/min.). Similar dehydroxylation experiments indicate that brucite dehydroxylation occurs without any significant isotopic fractionation of the oxygen isotopes. By extrapolation we postulate that no significant fractionation occurs during single-step thermal dehydroxylation of fine-grained kaolinite, provided that dehydroxylation is performed under well controlled conditions. In contrast, gibbsite dehydroxylation is accompanied by substantial isotopic fractionation. This is probably the result of the complex, multi-pathway dehydroxylation reaction of this mineral. Similarly, thermal dehydroxylation of coarsegrained (>1 μm) kaolinites and dickites of weathering and hydrothermal origin yield results that are dependent on the temperature of dehydroxylation. We suggest that this effect may be caused by isotopic exchange during diffusion of water molecules through coarse particles. Partial fluorination of fine-grained kaolinite in the presence of excess F2 at low temperatures (rate of reaction of hydroxyl oxygen than of non-hydroxyl oxygen, but examination of the isotopic data as well as XRD and IR analyses of the residues after partial fluorination indicates that the separation between the two types of oxygen is not complete. The results, therefore, do not yield a reliable δ18O value of the hydroxyl oxygen. The results of this study suggest that the thermal dehydroxylation technique may be appropriate for analysis of OH groups in fine-grained kaolinite. The partial

  5. Thermal treatment of simulant plutonium contaminated materials from the Sellafield site by vitrification in a blast-furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyatt, N.C., E-mail: n.c.hyatt@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Schwarz, R.R.; Bingham, P.A.; Stennett, M.C.; Corkhill, C.L.; Heath, P.G.; Hand, R.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); James, M.; Pearson, A. [Sellafield Ltd., Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Morgan, S. [Sellafield Ltd., Hinton House, Risley, Warrington WA3 6GR (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Storage of 200 L drums of PCM waste at the Sellafield site, UK. Abstract: Four waste simulants, representative of Plutonium Contaminated Materials (PCMs) at the Sellafield site, were vitrified through additions of Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS). Ce (as a Pu surrogate) was effectively partitioned into the slag product, enriched in an amorphous CaO–Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} phase when other crystalline phases were also present. Ce L{sub 3} edge XANES data demonstrated Ce to be present as trivalent species in the slag fraction, irrespective of the waste type. Estimated volume reductions of ca. 80–95% were demonstrated, against a baseline of uncompacted 200 L PCM waste drums. The dissolution behaviour of PCM slag wasteforms was investigated at 50 °C in saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution under N{sub 2} atmosphere, to simulate the hyperalkaline anoxic environment of a cementitious UK Geological Disposal Facility for Intermediate Level Waste (ILW). These experiments demonstrated the performance of the slag wasteforms to be comparable to that of other vitrified ILW materials considered potentially suitable for geological disposal.

  6. Performance model to assist solar thermal power plant siting in northern Chile based on backup fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrain, Teresita; Escobar, Rodrigo; Vergara, Julio [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Metalurgica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-08-15

    In response to environmental awareness, Chile introduced sustainability goals in its electricity law. Power producers must deliver 5% from renewable sources by 2010 and 10% by 2024. The Chilean desert has a large available surface with one of the highest radiation levels and clearest skies in the World. These factors imply that solar power is an option for this task. However, a commercial plant requires a fossil fuel system to backup the sunlight intermittency. The authors developed a thermodynamical model to estimate the backup fraction needed in a 100 MW hybrid -solar-fossil- parabolic trough power plant. This paper presents the model aiming to predicting the performance and exploring its usefulness in assisting site selection among four locations. Since solar radiation data are only available in a monthly average, we introduced two approaches to feed the model. One data set provided an average month with identical days throughout and the other one considered an artificial month of different daylight profiles on an hourly basis for the same monthly average. We recommend a best plant location based on minimum fossil fuel backup, contributing to optimal siting from the energy perspective. Utilities will refine their policy goals more closely when a precise solar energy data set becomes available. (author)

  7. The IAEA Coordinated Research Program on HTGR Reactor Physics, Thermal-hydraulics and Depletion Uncertainty Analysis: Description of the Benchmark Test Cases and Phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederik Reitsma; Gerhard Strydom; Bismark Tyobeka; Kostadin Ivanov

    2012-10-01

    The continued development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) requires verification of design and safety features with reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes. The uncertainties in the HTR analysis tools are today typically assessed with sensitivity analysis and then a few important input uncertainties (typically based on a PIRT process) are varied in the analysis to find a spread in the parameter of importance. However, one wish to apply a more fundamental approach to determine the predictive capability and accuracies of coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and depletion simulations used for reactor design and safety assessment. Today there is a broader acceptance of the use of uncertainty analysis even in safety studies and it has been accepted by regulators in some cases to replace the traditional conservative analysis. Finally, there is also a renewed focus in supplying reliable covariance data (nuclear data uncertainties) that can then be used in uncertainty methods. Uncertainty and sensitivity studies are therefore becoming an essential component of any significant effort in data and simulation improvement. In order to address uncertainty in analysis and methods in the HTGR community the IAEA launched a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the HTGR Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling early in 2012. The project is built on the experience of the OECD/NEA Light Water Reactor (LWR) Uncertainty Analysis in Best-Estimate Modelling (UAM) benchmark activity, but focuses specifically on the peculiarities of HTGR designs and its simulation requirements. Two benchmark problems were defined with the prismatic type design represented by the MHTGR-350 design from General Atomics (GA) while a 250 MW modular pebble bed design, similar to the INET (China) and indirect-cycle PBMR (South Africa) designs are also included. In the paper more detail on the benchmark cases, the different specific phases and tasks and the latest

  8. A description of teaching methods using an on-site instructor versus a distant site instructor to train laryngoscopy to medical students in Hanoi, Vietnam, from Omaha, Nebraska, by video communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeger, Wesley G; Branecki, Chad E; Nguyen, Thang T; Hall, Todd; Boedeker, Ben; Boedeker, David; Wadman, Michael C

    2015-12-01

    This study demonstrated a method to train medical students at Hanoi Medical School in airway management from Omaha, Nebraska, using tele-mentoring techniques. Correct placement of the endotracheal tube was documented by tele-broncoscopy following intubation. This technology may increase medical training capabilities in remote or developing areas of the world. Medical care delivery could be performed using this technology by tele-mentoring a lesser trained medical provider at a distant site enabling them to accomplish complex medical tasks.

  9. Thermal evaluation by infrared measurement of implant site preparation between single and gradual drilling in artificial bone blocks of different densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhlhenrich, S C; Abouridouane, M; Heussen, N; Hölzle, F; Klocke, F; Modabber, A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of bone density and drilling protocol on heat generation during implant bed preparation. Ten single and 10 gradual implant sites with diameters of 2.8, 3.5, and 4.2mm were prepared in four artificial bone blocks (density types I-IV; D1-D4). Drilling was done at constant speed (1500rpm) and with external irrigation (50ml/min); vertical speed was set at 2mm/s. An infrared camera was used for temperature measurements. Significantly higher temperatures for single drilling were found between 2.8-mm drills in D1 (P=0.0014) and D4 (P<0.0001) and between 3.5-mm drills in D3 (P=0.0087) and D4 (P<0.0001), as well as between 4.2-mm drills in D1 (P<0.0001) and D4 (P=0.0014). Low bone density led to a thermal decrease after single drilling and a thermal increase after gradual drilling. Burs with a large diameter always showed a higher temperature generation. In comparisons between 2.8- and 4.2-mm diameters for both single and gradual drills, significant differences (P<0.001) were noted for bone types II, III, and IV. Single drilling could generate more heat than traditional sequential drilling, and bone density, as well as drill diameter, influenced thermal increases. Particularly in lower-density bone, conventional sequential drilling seems to raise the temperature less. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The etiology, risk factors, and interactions of enteric infections and malnutrition and the consequences for child health and development study (MAL-ED): description of the Tanzanian site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mduma, Estomih R; Gratz, Jean; Patil, Crystal; Matson, Kristine; Dakay, Mary; Liu, Sarah; Pascal, John; McQuillin, Lauren; Mighay, Emmanuel; Hinken, Elizabeth; Ernst, Alexandra; Amour, Caroline; Mvungi, Regisiana; Bayyo, Eliwaza; Zakaria, Yeconia; Kivuyo, Sokoine; Houpt, Eric R; Svensen, Erling

    2014-11-01

    The Haydom, Tanzania, site (TZH) of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) Study is in north-central Tanzania, 300 km from the nearest urban center. TZH is in a remote rural district where most of the population are agropastoralists and grow maize as the staple food. The average household size is 7. The average woman achieves a parity of 6 and has 1 child death. Socioeconomic indicators are poor, with essentially no household having access to electricity, piped water, or improved sanitary facilities (compared with 14%, 7%, and 12%, respectively, reported nationally). The Demographic Health Survey Tanzania 2004 indicated that the region had high rates of stunting and underweight (40% and 31% of children aged child mortality rate of 5.8%. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence among 18-month-old children is rural African population with profound poverty and malnutrition, but a strong community-based research infrastructure. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Thermal impact of a small alas-valley river in a continuous permafrost area - insights and issues raised from a field monitoring Site in Syrdakh (Central Yakutia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Christophe; Nicolas, Roux; Fedorov, Alexander; Konstantinov, Pavel; Séjourné, Antoine; Costard, François; Marlin, Christelle; Khristoforov, Ivan; Saintenoy, Albane

    2017-04-01

    river, in the atmosphere and into boreholes in the permafrost, at different locations and various distances from the river and the upstream lake. Hydrological information was collected as well (e.g. water temperature, electrical conductivity, pH and isotopic profiles; river flow rates). Soil properties were studied in pits (e.g. thermal conductivity, soil humidity and temperature measurements). More recently GPR studies were conducted along river profiles complementing the dataset. This new study site is introduced and the major results are presented as well as the main issues raised and future perspectives.

  12. Cadmium safety rod thermal tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Iyer, N.C.; Peacock, H.B.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal testing of cadmium safety rods was conducted as part of a program to define the response of Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactor core components to a hypothetical LOCA leading to a drained reactor tank. The safety rods are present in the reactor core only during shutdown and are not used as a control mechanism during operation; thus, their response to the conditions predicted for the LOCA is only of interest to the extent that it could impact the progression of the accident. This document provides a description of this testing

  13. Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.L. Linden

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to develop a Subsurface Facility layout that is capable of accommodating the statutory capacity of 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU), as well as an option to expand the inventory capacity, if authorized, to 97,000 MTU. The layout configuration also requires a degree of flexibility to accommodate potential changes in site conditions or program requirements. The objective of this analysis is to provide a conceptual design of the Subsurface Facility sufficient to support the development of the Subsurface Facility System Description Document (CRWMS M andO 2000e) and the ''Emplacement Drift System Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 2000i). As well, this analysis provides input to the Site Recommendation Consideration Report. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Evaluation of the existing facilities and their integration into the Subsurface Facility design. (2) Identification and incorporation of factors influencing Subsurface Facility design, such as geological constraints, thermal loading, constructibility, subsurface ventilation, drainage control, radiological considerations, and the Test and Evaluation Facilities. (3) Development of a layout showing an available area in the primary area sufficient to support both the waste inventories and individual layouts showing the emplacement area required for 70,000 MTU and, if authorized, 97,000 MTU

  14. Site-specific transition metal occupation in multicomponent pyrophosphate for improved electrochemical and thermal properties in lithium battery cathodes: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Rana A; Kim, Heejin; Cho, Woosuk; Lim, Soo Yeon; Song, Hannah; Lee, Jung Woo; Kang, Jeung Ku; Kim, Yong-Tae; Jung, Yousung; Choi, Jang Wook

    2012-07-18

    As an attempt to develop lithium ion batteries with excellent performance, which is desirable for a variety of applications including mobile electronics, electrical vehicles, and utility grids, the battery community has continuously pursued cathode materials that function at higher potentials with efficient kinetics for lithium insertion and extraction. By employing both experimental and theoretical tools, herein we report multicomponent pyrophosphate (Li(2)MP(2)O(7), M = Fe(1/3)Mn(1/3)Co(1/3)) cathode materials with novel and advantageous properties as compared to the single-component analogues and other multicomponent polyanions. Li(2)Fe(1/3)Mn(1/3)Co(1/3)P(2)O(7) is formed on the basis of a solid solution among the three individual transition-metal-based pyrophosphates. The unique crystal structure of pyrophosphate and the first principles calculations show that different transition metals have a tendency to preferentially occupy either octahedral or pyramidal sites, and this site-specific transition metal occupation leads to significant improvements in various battery properties: a single-phase mode for Li insertion/extraction, improved cell potentials for Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) (raised by 0.18 eV) and Co(2+)/Co(3+) (lowered by 0.26 eV), and increased activity for Mn(2+)/Mn(3+) with significantly reduced overpotential. We reveal that the favorable energy of transition metal mixing and the sequential redox reaction for each TM element with a sufficient redox gap is the underlying physical reason for the preferential single-phase mode of Li intercalation/deintercalation reaction in pyrophosphate, a general concept that can be applied to other multicomponent systems. Furthermore, an extremely small volume change of ~0.7% between the fully charged and discharged states and the significantly enhanced thermal stability are observed for the present material, the effects unseen in previous multicomponent battery materials.

  15. High field 27Al MAS NMR and TPD studies of active sites in ethanol dehydration using thermally treated transitional aluminas as catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Xu, Suochang; Kwak, Ja Hun; Hu, Mary Y.; Wan, Chuan; Zhao, Zhenchao; Szanyi, Janos; Bao, Xinhe; Han, Xiuwen; Wang, Yong; Peden, Charles H. F.

    2016-04-01

    Gamma-, sigma- and theta-Al2O3 are well known metastable “transitional” alumina structural polymorphs. Upon heating, Al2O3 transitions to the so-called and Al2O3 polymorphs and finally forms the thermally stable Al2O3. The poorly developed crystallinity and co-existence of the , , and Al2O3 prior to forming all Al2O3, making it difficult to characterize the structures as well as to quantify the various phases of the transition alumina. As a result, there are significant controversies in the literatures. In this work, a detailed NMR analysis was carried out at high magnetic field on three special aluminum oxide samples where the, , , Al2O3 phases are made dominant, respectively, by controlling the synthesis conditions. The goal is to simplify, including making unambiguous, spectral assignments in 27Al MAS NMR spectra of transition alumina that have not yet been commonly agreed previously. Specifically, quantitative 1D 27Al MAS NMR was used to quantify the ratios of the different alumina structural units, 2D MQMAS 27Al MAS was used for obtaining the highest spectral resolution to guide the analysis of the 1D spectrum, and a saturation pulse sequence was integrated into the 1D NMR to select the amorphous structures, including obtain spectra where the penta-coordinate sites are observed with enhanced relative intensity. Collectively, this study uniquely assigns Al-peaks (both octahedral and tetrahedral) to the Al2O3 and the Al2O3 phases and offers a new way of understanding, including quantifying, the different structural units and sites in transition alumina samples.

  16. Management control system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bence, P. J.

    1990-10-01

    This Management Control System (MCS) description describes the processes used to manage the cost and schedule of work performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Richland, Washington. Westinghouse Hanford will maintain and use formal cost and schedule management control systems, as presented in this document, in performing work for the DOE-RL. This MCS description is a controlled document and will be modified or updated as required. This document must be approved by the DOE-RL; thereafter, any significant change will require DOE-RL concurrence. Westinghouse Hanford is the DOE-RL operations and engineering contractor at the Hanford Site. Activities associated with this contract (DE-AC06-87RL10930) include operating existing plant facilities, managing defined projects and programs, and planning future enhancements. This document is designed to comply with Section I-13 of the contract by providing a description of Westinghouse Hanford's cost and schedule control systems used in managing the above activities. 5 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Long-term impacts of prescribed burns on soil thermal conductivity and soil heating at a Colorado Rocky Mountain site: a data/model fusion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Massman; J. M. Frank; N. B. Reisch

    2008-01-01

    Heating any soil during a sufficiently intense wild fire or prescribed burn can alter that soil irreversibly, resulting in many significant, and well studied, long-term biological, chemical, and hydrological effects. On the other hand, much less is known about how fire affects the thermal properties and the long-term thermal regime of soils. Such knowledge is important...

  18. Preliminary evaluation of thermal and nonthermal waters at selected sites in Panama, Central America. Evaluacion preliminar de aguas termales y no termales de sitios seleccionados en Panama, Centroamerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevenell, L.

    1989-11-01

    Thirty-one thermal and nonthermal water samples were collected in Panama by the Instituto de Recursos Hidraulicos y Electrificacion and analyzed by the Earth and Space Sciences Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory to evaluate the geothermal potential of four different areas. Chemical and isotopic analyses were performed on each sample. Because samples from several areas were submitted, the chemistry of the samples is varied, with total dissolved solids of thermal fluids ranging from 900 to nearly 10,000 mg/{ell}. All water samples studied are meteoric in origin, and none of the thermal waters exhibit an {sup 18}O enrichment, which is characteristic of high-temperature isotopic, exchange between water and rock. At all four areas, calculated geothermometer temperatures within a reservoir of less than 160{degrees}C. 4 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Olkiluoto biosphere description 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, R.; Aro, L.; Ilvesniemi, H.; Kareinen, T.; Kirkkala, T.; Mykrae, S.; Turkki, H.; Lahdenperae, A.-M.; Ikonen, A.T.K.

    2007-02-01

    This report summarises the current knowledge of the biosphere of Olkiluoto, and it is the first Biosphere Description Report. The elements considered were climate, topography, land use, overburden, terrestrial vegetation and fauna and sea flora, fauna and water. The principal aim was to present a synthesis of the present state (now to 2020) and the main features of past evolution of the biosphere at the site using currently available data. The lack of site specific parameters and their importance was discussed. Conceptual ecosystem models are presented for land and sea. Currently available data made it possible to calculate the biomass of the terrestrial vegetation and further convert it to carbon. In the case of terrestrial animals, preliminary figures are given for moose alone due to lack of sitespecific data. For the same reason, the sea ecosystem model was not quantified within this work. The ecosystems on Olkiluoto do not deviate from the surrounding areas. Since mires are few on Olkiluoto, forests are the most important land ecosystem. However, coastal areas are the transition zones between land and sea, and also potential sites for deep groundwater discharge. The major interest concerning aquatic ecosystems was laid on four future lakes potentially developing from the sea due to the land up-lift. Current sea sediments near Olkiluoto are future land areas, and thus very important. Spatially, the forest ecosystems of Olkiluoto are now most comprehensively covered, while the temporal coverage is highest in sea ecosystems. Lack of data is greatest in terrestrial fauna and sea sediments. During this work, the system boundaries were crossed and the use of data over disciplines was started. The data were mostly in agreement, but some discrepancies were detected. To solve these, and to supplement the existing data, some recommendations were given. (orig.)

  20. ThermalTracker Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-08-10

    The software processes recorded thermal video and detects the flight tracks of birds and bats that passed through the camera's field of view. The output is a set of images that show complete flight tracks for any detections, with the direction of travel indicated and the thermal image of the animal delineated. A report of the descriptive features of each detected track is also output in the form of a comma-separated value text file.

  1. Guidelines for Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, P.; Horsman, Peter; Kühnel, Karsten; Priddy, M.; Reijnhoudt, Linda; Merenmies, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Guidelines follow the conceptual metadata model (deliverable 17.2). They include guidelines for description of collection-holding institutions, document collections, organisations, personalities, events, camps and ghettos. As much as possible the guidelines comply with the descriptive standards

  2. Experimental and numerical study of the stability of phyllosilicates in a strong thermal gradient. Test in the geothermal site of Soultz-sous-Forets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldeyrou-Bailly, A.

    2003-01-01

    Thermodynamic data of hydrated phyllosilicates, in particular clay minerals are not well known. The stability fields of these minerals are not well determined; following some authors they even do not exist. We have developed an experimental approach, in which a sequence of local equilibrium states between a fluid and minerals take place in a closed gold cell along a strong thermal gradient. The experiments were conducted in the chemical systems: Mg-Al-Si-H 2 O (MASH), K-Al-Si-H 2 O (KASH), and K-Mg-Al-Si-H 2 O (KMASH). The sequences of crystallization observed along the thermal gradient are the same if one exchanges the position of the cells containing the initial reacting materials with respect to the thermal gradient end-members. The crystallization sequences correspond to local equilibrium states. Following the temperature increase (from 200 to 350 C) one observes the following sequences: di-octahedral smectite? tri-octahedral smectite; kaolinite? donbassite? tri-octahedral chlorite; smectite? illite? muscovite; or even kaolinite? illite + smectite? donbassite; commonly observed in hydrothermal systems. They allow to develop a thermodynamic model for hydrated phyllosilicates, taking into account their hydration state as a function of temperature. This model shows the stability fields of clay minerals between 200 and 350 C.The chemical and mineralogical dynamics showed in these experimental systems has been applied to predict the possible dissolutions and/or precipitations which may take place between the circulated hot fluid and the geothermal granitic reservoir in the geothermal system at Soultz-sous-Forets. These processes may affect the duration of the geothermal reservoir, as a function of evolution in the morphology of the porosity. Our experimental approach shows that feldspars and smectites are forming the major part of the total volume of silicates which may precipitate in addition to carbonates already described in previous studies. (author)

  3. Hydrogeological pre-modelling exercises. Assessment of impact of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Sensitivities of palaeo-hydrogeology. Development of a local near-surface Hydro-DFN for KLX09B-F. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, Lee; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steve; Roberts, David; Shevelan, John; Swift, Ben; Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko; Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan

    2007-12-01

    Numerical modelling has been used to investigate the potential impact of the Aespoe HRL on regional groundwater flow and hydro-geochemistry in the Laxemar study area. The numerical models have been adapted for this application from the ones use in the site-descriptive modelling (SDM) and SR-Can assessment modelling based on Laxemar version 1.2. In order to test the robustness of the simulation results, sensitivities were studied with respect to different flow boundary conditions and the hydraulic properties of the Quaternary deposits, particularly those beneath the sea around the Aespoe island. The simulations show that the Aespoe HRL has a local effect on the groundwater situation. Typically, in the simulations, the rock under the Aespoe island, the bays around it and the Aevroe area (mainly western part of the islands of Aevroe, Mjaelen and Haaloe) are influenced. In the sensitivity study, visualisations of the drawdown caused by the HRL tunnel system show small differences in the results for head versus flux top boundary conditions, little sensitivity to a change in the surface infiltration rate, but most sensitivity to the contact between the sea and the bedrock beneath the seabed sediments. For all simulation cases considered, results suggest that the Aespoe HRL has not been in operation sufficiently long to have affected the chemistry of samples collected at Laxemar and Simpevarp, though there is some possibility that Aevroe samples have been altered, at least for boreholes in the western part of Aevroe, Mjaelen and Haaloe. The distribution of flow and discharge areas around the bay at Aespoe is clearly affected by the HRL for all cases. Using the drawdown in percussion drilled boreholes around Aespoe as an interference test suggests that there is a partial reduction in the hydraulic contact between the sea and the groundwater system in the bedrock beneath. It is recommended that the conclusions about appropriate hydraulic properties for Quaternary sediments

  4. Hydrogeological pre-modelling exercises. Assessment of impact of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Sensitivities of palaeo-hydrogeology. Development of a local near-surface Hydro-DFN for KLX09B-F. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Lee; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steve; Roberts, David; Shevelan, John; Swift, Ben (Serco Assurance, Harwell (GB)); Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (SE)); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan (Golders Associates (SE))

    2007-12-15

    Numerical modelling has been used to investigate the potential impact of the Aespoe HRL on regional groundwater flow and hydro-geochemistry in the Laxemar study area. The numerical models have been adapted for this application from the ones use in the site-descriptive modelling (SDM) and SR-Can assessment modelling based on Laxemar version 1.2. In order to test the robustness of the simulation results, sensitivities were studied with respect to different flow boundary conditions and the hydraulic properties of the Quaternary deposits, particularly those beneath the sea around the Aespoe island. The simulations show that the Aespoe HRL has a local effect on the groundwater situation. Typically, in the simulations, the rock under the Aespoe island, the bays around it and the Aevroe area (mainly western part of the islands of Aevroe, Mjaelen and Haaloe) are influenced. In the sensitivity study, visualisations of the drawdown caused by the HRL tunnel system show small differences in the results for head versus flux top boundary conditions, little sensitivity to a change in the surface infiltration rate, but most sensitivity to the contact between the sea and the bedrock beneath the seabed sediments. For all simulation cases considered, results suggest that the Aespoe HRL has not been in operation sufficiently long to have affected the chemistry of samples collected at Laxemar and Simpevarp, though there is some possibility that Aevroe samples have been altered, at least for boreholes in the western part of Aevroe, Mjaelen and Haaloe. The distribution of flow and discharge areas around the bay at Aespoe is clearly affected by the HRL for all cases. Using the drawdown in percussion drilled boreholes around Aespoe as an interference test suggests that there is a partial reduction in the hydraulic contact between the sea and the groundwater system in the bedrock beneath. It is recommended that the conclusions about appropriate hydraulic properties for Quaternary sediments

  5. Matching indices taking the dynamic hybrid electrical and thermal grids information into account for the decision-making of nZEB on-site renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Sunliang; Sirén, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Use dynamic hourly-based grid information (PEF/CEF/tariffs) in nZEB control. • Hourly dynamic primary energy factor, CO 2 factor and tariffs for hybrid grids. • Methodology which links the on-site matching with dynamic grid information. • Multi-objective control indicators reflects both matching and grid information. • The influence of the dynamic grid information on the energy/environment/cost. - Abstract: Future nearly-zero energy buildings (nZEBs) will be involved with the twofold problem of on-site matching and hybrid–grid interactions. Theoretically, the hybrid grids’ information is dynamic, such as primary energy factors, equivalent CO 2 emission factors, and grid tariffs. Regarding primary energy consumption, equivalent CO 2 emissions or the grid cost of the nZEB, the significance of specific aspects of the matching capability, such as on-site energy faction (OEF) and on-site energy matching (OEM), will also become dynamic and variable with respect to the evolution of the grid information. Therefore, the primary goal is to develop a methodology as a multi-objective control criterion for the nZEB energy system, which can reflect both the on-site matching capability and dynamic grid information of environmental or economic impacts. The developed methodology is to quantitatively link the dynamic grid information with the weighting factors of the weighted matching index (WMI), following the monotone relationships between the extended matching indices and grid information. The methodology is implemented in this study to control an nZEB energy system with hybrid grid connections. The results show that the developed methodology can seek an optimised balance between the objectives of maximising the matching capability and minimising the environmental/economic load

  6. Thermal history of the multi-well experiment (MWX) site, Piceance Creek Basin, Northwestern Colorado, derived from fission-track analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, S.A.; Blackwell, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    Fission-track analysis of apatite and zircon from 19 depth intervals in two drill holes at the MWX site in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, is used to determine the burial and subsequent cooling history of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and the Paleocene Wasatch Formation. The fission-track data, as well as available temperature, vitrinite reflectance, and geological information, indicate that the sampled sediments attained maximum burial at approximately 10 Ma, with maximum temperatures in the 150-200 0 C range. After 10 Ma the sediments began to cool during erosion related to the downcutting of the Colorado River, which lies just to the north of the MWX site. The heat flow in this area has remained relatively constant for the past 10 Ma. (author)

  7. Review of prediction for thermal contact resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical prediction research on thermal contact resistance is reviewed in this paper. In general, modeling or simulating the thermal contact resistance involves several aspects, including the descriptions of surface topography, the analysis of micro mechanical deformation, and the thermal models. Some key problems are proposed for accurately predicting the thermal resistance of two solid contact surfaces. We provide a perspective on further promising research, which would be beneficial to understanding mechanisms and engineering applications of the thermal contact resistance in heat transport phenomena.

  8. Mitsui model with diagonal strains: A unified description of external pressure effect and thermal expansion of Rochelle salt NaKC4H4O6·4H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Zachek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We elaborate a modification of the deformable two-sublattice Mitsui model of [Levitskii R.R. et al., Phys. Rev. B. 2003, Vol. 67, 174112] and [Levitskii R.R. et al., Condens. Matter Phys., 2005, Vol. 8, 881] that consistently takes into account diagonal components of the strain tensor, arising either due to external pressures or due to thermal expansion. We calculate the related to those strains thermal, piezoelectric, and elastic characteristics of the system. Using the developed fitting procedure, a set of the model parameters is found for the case of Rochelle salt crystals, providing a satisfactory agreement with the available experimental data for the hydrostatic and uniaxial pressure dependences of the Curie temperatures, temperature dependences of spontaneous diagonal strains, linear thermal expansion coefficients, elastic constants cijE and ci4E, piezoelectric coefficients d1i and g1i (i=1,2,3. The hydrostatic pressure variation of dielectric permittivity is described using a derived expression for the permittivity of a partially clamped crystal. The dipole moments and the asymmetry parameter of Rochelle salt are found to increase with hydrostatic pressure.

  9. High field 27Al MAS NMR and TPD studies of active sites in ethanol dehydration using thermally treated transitional aluminas as catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Xu, Suochang; Kwak, Ja Hun; Hu, Mary Y.; Wan, Chuan; Zhao, Zhenchao; Szanyi, Janos; Bao, Xinhe; Han, Xiuwen; Wang, Yong; Peden, Charles H. F.

    2016-04-01

    High field quantitative 27Al MAS NMR and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ethanol are used to study the surface and phase transformation of gamma-Al2O3 during calcination in the temperature range of 500 to 1300 degrees C. Following ethanol adsorption, ethylene is generated during TPD with a desorption temperature > 200 degrees C. With increasing calcination temperature prior to TPD, the amount of ethylene produced decreases monotonically. Significantly, 27Al MAS NMR reveals that the amount of penta-coordinate Al3+ ions (Lewis acid sites) also decreases with increasing calcination temperature. In fact, a strong correlation between the amount of penta-coordinate Al3+ ions and the amount of strongly adsorbed ethanol molecules (i.e., the ones that convert to ethylene during TPD) is obtained. This result indicates that the penta-coordinate aluminum sites are the catalytic active sites on alumina surfaces during ethanol dehydration reaction across the entire course of gamma- to alpha-Al2O3 phase transformations.

  10. Fluctuating local field method probed for a description of small classical correlated lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsov, Alexey N.

    2018-05-01

    Thermal-equilibrated finite classical lattices are considered as a minimal model of the systems showing an interplay between low-energy collective fluctuations and single-site degrees of freedom. Standard local field approach, as well as classical limit of the bosonic DMFT method, do not provide a satisfactory description of Ising and Heisenberg small lattices subjected to an external polarizing field. We show that a dramatic improvement can be achieved within a simple approach, in which the local field appears to be a fluctuating quantity related to the low-energy degree(s) of freedom.

  11. Site Environmental Report, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, ``General Environmental Protection Program.`` This 1993 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site`s progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in the Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish to read more detailed descriptions of the information than those which are presented here.

  12. Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    From 1975 to 1991 the Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites (HPADS) were used for demolition events. These demolition events were a form of thermal treatment for spent or abandoned chemical waste. Because the HPADS will no longer be used for this thermal activity, the sites will be closed. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 and 40 CFR 270.1. Closure also will satisfy closure requirements of WAC 173-303-680 and for the thermal treatment closure requirements of 40 CFR 265.381. This closure plan presents a description of the HPADS, the history of the waste treated, and the approach that will be followed to close the HPADS. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of WAC 173-303 or of this closure plan. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge where appropriate. Only dangerous constituents derived from HPADS operations will be addressed in this closure plan in accordance with WAC 173-303-610(2)(b)(i). The HPADS are actually two distinct soil closure areas within the Hanford Patrol Academy training area

  13. Database Description - PSCDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase Description General information of database Database name PSCDB Alternative n...rial Science and Technology (AIST) Takayuki Amemiya E-mail: Database classification Structure Databases - Protein structure Database...554-D558. External Links: Original website information Database maintenance site Graduate School of Informat...available URL of Web services - Need for user registration Not available About This Database Database Descri...ption Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Database Description - PSCDB | LSDB Archive ...

  14. SNF AGING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L.L. Swanson

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this system description document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) aging system and associated bases, which will allow the design effort to proceed. This SDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This SDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD reflects the current results of the design process. Throughout this SDD, the term aging cask applies to vertical site-specific casks and to horizontal aging modules. The term overpack is a vertical site-specific cask that contains a dual-purpose canister (DPC) or a disposable canister. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system were obtained from ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F andOR) (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557]). Other requirements that support the design process were taken from documents such as ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (BSC 2004 [DES 171599]), ''Site Fire Hazards Analyses'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172174]), and ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 171512]). The documents address requirements in the ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275]). This SDD includes several appendices. Appendix A is a Glossary; Appendix B is a list of key system charts, diagrams, drawings, lists and additional supporting information; and Appendix C is a list of

  15. The transportation operations system: A description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, R.E.; Danese, F.L.; Dixon, L.D.; Peterson, R.W.; Pope, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a description of the system for transporting radioactive waste that may be deployed to accomplish the assigned system mission, which includes accepting spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from waste generator sites and transporting them to the FWMS destination facilities. The system description presented here contains, in part, irradiated fuel and waste casks, ancillary equipments, truck, rail, and barge transporters, cask and vehicle traffic management organizations, maintenance facilities, and other operations elements. The description is for a fully implemented system, which is not expected to be achieved, however, until several years after initial operations. 6 figs

  16. 1995 Baseline solid waste management system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.S.; Konynenbelt, H.S.

    1995-09-01

    This provides a detailed solid waste system description that documents the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) strategy for managing Hanford's solid low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, transuranic and transuranic mixed waste, and greater-than-Class III waste. This system description is intended for use by managers of the solid waste program, facility and system planners, as well as system modelers. The system description identifies the TSD facilities that constitute the solid waste system and defines these facilities' interfaces, schedules, and capacities. It also provides the strategy for treating each of the waste streams generated or received by the Hanford Site from generation or receipt through final destination

  17. Security report on Siloe - the descriptive part. (1963); Rapport de surete de Siloe - partie descriptive (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageron, P; Chatoux, J; Denielou, G; Jacquemain, M; Mitault, G; Robien, E de; Rossillon, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This report is a full description of the site, the reactor, the building and the experimental facilities. It gives the nuclear, thermodynamic and hydrodynamic characteristics of the core. (authors) [French] Ce rapport decrit completement le site, le reacteur, les batiments et les installations experimentales. Il donne les caracteristiques nucleaires, thermodynamiques et hydrodynamiques du coeur. (auteurs)

  18. Descriptive set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakis, YN

    1987-01-01</