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Sample records for thermal plasma sintering

  1. Temperature-dependent thermal properties of spark plasma sintered alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saheb Nouari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report temperature-dependent thermal properties of alumina powder and bulk alumina consolidated by spark plasma sintering method. The properties were measured between room temperature and 250ºC using a thermal constants analyzer. Alumina powder had very low thermal properties due to the presence of large pores and absence of bonding between its particles. Fully dense alumina with a relative density of 99.6 % was obtained at a sintering temperature of 1400°C and a holding time of 10 min. Thermal properties were found to mainly dependent on density. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat of the fully dense alumina were 34.44 W/mK, 7.62 mm2s-1, and 1.22 J/gK, respectively, at room temperature. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity decreased while specific heat increased with the increase in temperature from room temperature to 250ºC.

  2. High Temperature Oxidation of Spark Plasma Sintered and Thermally Sprayed FeAl-Based Iron Aluminides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haušild, P.; Karlík, M.; Skiba, T.; Sajdl, P.; Dubský, Jiří; Palm, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2012), s. 465-468 ISSN 0587-4246. [International Symposium on Physics of Materials (ISPMA)/12./. Prague, 04.09.2011-08.09.2011] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : thermal spraying * plasma sintering Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.531, year: 2012

  3. THERMAL AND ELECTRIC FIELDS AT SPARK PLASMA SINTERING OF THERMOELECTRIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Bulat

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Improvement of thermoelectric figure of merit is connected with the usage of nanostructured thermoelectric materials fabricated from powders by the spark plasma sintering (SPS method. Preservation of powder nanostructure during sintering is possible at optimum temperature modes of thermoelectrics fabrication. The choice of these modes becomes complicated because of anisotropic properties of semiconductor thermoelectric materials. The decision of the given problem by sintering process simulation demands the competent approach to the problem formulation, a correct specification of thermoelectric properties, the properties of materials forming working installation, and also corrects boundary conditions. The paper deals with the efficient model for sintering of thermoelectrics. Methods. Sintering process of the bismuth telluride thermoelectric material by means of SPS-511S installation is considered. Temperature dependences of electric and thermal conductivities of bismuth telluride, and also temperature dependences of installation elements materials are taken into account. It is shown that temperature distribution in the sample can be defined within the limits of a stationary problem. The simulation is carried out in the software product Comsol Multiphysics. Boundary conditions include convective heat exchange and also radiation under Stefan-Boltzmann law. Results. Computer simulation of electric and thermal processes at spark plasma sintering is carried out. Temperature and electric potential distributions in a sample are obtained at the sintering conditions. Determinative role of graphite compression mould in formation of the temperature field in samples is shown. The influence of geometrical sizes of a graphite compression mould on sintering conditions of nanostructured thermoelectrics is analyzed. Practical importance. The optimum sizes of a cylindrical compression mould for fabrication of volume homogeneous samples based on

  4. Spark Plasma Sintered AlN-BN Composites and Its Thermal Conductivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao Haiyang, [No Value; Wang Weimin, [No Value; Wang Hao, [No Value; Fu Zhengyi, [No Value

    2008-01-01

    A series of samples of hexagonal boron nitride-aluminum nitride ceramic composites with different amounts of CaF(2) as sintering aid were prepared by spark plasma sintered at 1700-1850 degrees C for 5 min. The addition of CaF(2) effectively lowered the sintering temperature and promoted the

  5. Effect of porosity on thermal and electrical properties of polycrystalline bulk ZrN prepared by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Jun; Kurosaki, Ken; Uno, Masayoshi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2007-01-01

    Two kinds of polycrystalline zirconium nitride (ZrN) pellets were prepared by a spark plasma sintering (SPS). Thermal and electrical properties were measured from room temperature to 1473 and 1000 K, respectively. Thermal expansion is almost independent of porosity. On the other hand, electrical and thermal conductivities systematically decreased with increasing porosity. Porosity dependences of electrical and thermal conductivities are studied through the Maxwell-Eucken's equation

  6. Thermal Conductivity and Microstructure of Copper Coated Graphite Composite by Spark Plasma Sintering Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park S.H.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the fabrication of thermal management material for power electronics applications using graphite flake reinforced copper composites. The manufacturing route involved electroless plating of copper in the graphite flake and sintering process are optimized. The microstructures, interface, thermal properties, and relative density of graphite/Cu composites are investigated. The relative density of the composites shows 99.5% after sintering. Thermal conductivities and coefficients of thermal expansion of this composites were 400-480 Wm−1K−1 and 8 to 5 ppm k−1, respectively. Obtained graphite nanoplatelets-reinforced composites exhibit excellent thermo-physical properties to meet the heat dispersion and matching requirements of power electronic devices to the packaging materials.

  7. Master Sintering Surface: A practical approach to its construction and utilization for Spark Plasma Sintering prediction

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    Pouchly V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The sintering is a complex thermally activated process, thus any prediction of sintering behaviour is very welcome not only for industrial purposes. Presented paper shows the possibility of densification prediction based on concept of Master Sintering Surface (MSS for pressure assisted Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS. User friendly software for evaluation of the MSS is presented. The concept was used for densification prediction of alumina ceramics sintered by SPS.

  8. Zirconium Carbide Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering and Hot Pressing: Densification Kinetics, Grain Growth, and Thermal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xialu Wei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spark plasma sintering (SPS has been employed to consolidate a micron-sized zirconium carbide (ZrC powder. ZrC pellets with a variety of relative densities are obtained under different processing parameters. The densification kinetics of ZrC powders subjected to conventional hot pressing and SPS are comparatively studied by applying similar heating and loading profiles. Due to the lack of electric current assistance, the conventional hot pressing appears to impose lower strain rate sensitivity and higher activation energy values than those which correspond to the SPS processing. A finite element simulation is used to analyze the temperature evolution within the volume of ZrC specimens subjected to SPS. The control mechanism for grain growth during the final SPS stage is studied via a recently modified model, in which the grain growth rate dependence on porosity is incorporated. The constant pressure specific heat and thermal conductivity of the SPS-processed ZrC are determined to be higher than those reported for the hot-pressed ZrC and the benefits of applying SPS are indicated accordingly.

  9. Thermal Conductivity and Sintering Behavior of Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Advanced thermal barrier coatings, having significantly reduced long-term thermal conductivities, are being developed using an approach that emphasizes real-time monitoring of thermal conductivity under conditions that are engine-like in terms of temperatures and heat fluxes. This is in contrast to the traditional approach where coatings are initially optimized in terms of furnace and burner rig durability with subsequent measurement in the as-processed or furnace-sintered condition. The present work establishes a laser high-heat-flux test as the basis for evaluating advanced plasma-sprayed and physical vapor-deposited thermal barrier coatings under the NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program. The candidate coating materials for this program are novel thermal barrier coatings that are found to have significantly reduced thermal conductivities due to an oxide-defect-cluster design. Critical issues for designing advanced low conductivity coatings with improved coating durability are also discussed.

  10. TiO2 doped UO2 fuels sintered by spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tiankai; Scott, Spencer M.; Xin, Guoqing; Lian, Jie

    2016-02-01

    UO2 fuels doped with oxide additives Cr2O3 and TiO2 display larger grain size, improving fission product retention capability and thus accident tolerance. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was applied to consolidate TiO2-doped UO2 fuel pellets with 0.5 wt % dopant concentration, above its solubility, in order to induce eutectic phase formation and promote sintering kinetics. The grain size can reach 80 μm by sintering at 1700 °C for 20 min, and liquid U-Ti-O eutectic phase occurs at the triple junction of grain boundaries and significantly improves grain growth during sintering. The oxide additive also impedes the reduction of the initial hyperstoichiometric fuel powders to more stoichiometric fuel pellets upon SPS process. Thermal-mechanical properties of the sintered doped fuel pellets including thermal conductivity and hardness are measured and compared with undoped fuel pellets. The enlarged grain size (80 μm) and densification within short sintering duration highlight the immense possibility of SPS in fabricating large grained UO2 fuel pellets to improve fuel performance.

  11. NEUTRON IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON SPARK PLASMA SINTERED BORON CARBIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Buyuk, Bulent; Cengiz, Meral; Tugrul, A. Beril

    2015-01-01

    In this study, spark plasma sintered boron carbide (B4C) was examined against neutrons. The specimens were irradiated by reactor neutrons (include both thermal and fast neutrons) up to fluence of 1.37x1021n m-2. Thermal and fast neutrons cause swelling by different interactions with boron (10B) atoms in the related materials. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were investigated for initial and irradiated samples. In addition, lattice parameters and ...

  12. Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Ramesh; Seth, Brij B.

    2004-06-29

    A device (10) is made, having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10), is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16) and is applied by a process that is not an electron beam physical vapor deposition process.

  13. Alternative sintering methods compared to conventional thermal sintering for inkjet printed silver nanoparticle ink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niittynen, J.; Abbel, R.; Mäntysalo, M.; Perelaer, J.; Schubert, U.S.; Lupo, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution several alternative sintering methods are compared to traditional thermal sintering as high temperature and long process time of thermal sintering are increasing the costs of inkjet-printing and preventing the use of this technology in large scale manufacturing. Alternative

  14. Phase characterisation in spark plasma sintered TiPt alloy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chikosha, S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions drawn from this presentation are that Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of equiatomic BE TiPt powder produces fully sintered specimens, with incomplete homogenisation. There is a need for improved furnace atmosphere control so...

  15. Nanostructured CoSi Obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhin, Marco; Viennois, Romain; Ravot, Didier; Robin, Jean-Jacques; Villeroy, Benjamin; Vaney, Jean-Baptiste; Candolfi, Christophe; Lenoir, Bertrand; Papet, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Cobalt monosilicide is a cheap, environmentally friendly thermoelectric material for medium temperatures (200-700°C). While its power factor is similar to the state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials, its thermal conductivity is too large to reach high ZT values. Nanostructuring might be an interesting strategy to reduce the phonon mean free path thereby improving the thermoelectric performance. In this paper, we report on a 35% reduction of the thermal conductivity of n-type CoSi by a nanostructuring approach. CoSi nanostructured powders were synthesized by arc melting, followed by 4° h mechanical milling. By optimizing the spark plasma sintering thermal and pressure cycle, pellets with 5â€"10% porosity were obtained. During sintering, a small amount of Co2Si extra phase appeared and grains coarsened. After sintering, the pellets remained nanostructured, with an averaged grain size of 70 nm. The reduction of thermal conductivity is ascribed to a decrease in both the electronic and lattice contributions. The former is directly related to a decrease in the electrical conductivity, which appears to be the limiting factor preventing nanostructured CoSi from reaching enhanced thermoelectric performances.

  16. Spark plasma sintering of hydrothermally synthesized bismuth ferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Branković

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth ferrite, BiFeO3 (BFO, powder was synthesized by hydrothermal method from Bi(NO33·5 H2O and Fe(NO33·9 H2O as precursors. The synthesized powder was further sintered using spark plasma sintering (SPS. The sintering conditions were optimized in order to achieve high density, minimal amount of secondary phases and improved ferroelectric and magnetic properties. The optimal structure and properties were achieved after spark plasma sintering at 630 °C for 20 min, under uniaxial pressure of 90 MPa. The composition, microstructure, ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the SPS samples were characterized and compared to those of conventionally sintered ceramics obtained from the same powder. Although the samples sintered using conventional method showed slightly lower amount of secondary phases, the spark plasma sintered samples exhibited favourable microstructure and better ferroelectric properties.

  17. Calcium Hex aluminate reaction sintering by Spark Plasma Sintering; Sinterizacion reactiva de Hexaluminato de Calcio mediante Spark Plasma Sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesia, P. G. de la; Garcia-Moreno, O.; Torrecillas, R.; Menendez, J. L.

    2012-11-01

    Calcium hex aluminate (CaAl{sub 1}2O{sub 1}9) is the most alumina-rich intermediate compound of the CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. The formation of this aluminate is produced by the reaction between calcium oxide and alumina with the consequent formation of intermediates compounds with lower alumina content with increasing temperature (CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, CaAl4O{sub 7}). In this study we studied the variation of sintering parameters for obtaining dense and pure calcium hex aluminate by reaction sintering by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). A mixing of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaCO{sub 3} were used as reactive. Final densities close to the theoretical and phase transformation over 93% were achieved by this method. (Author) 22 refs.

  18. Thermal Analysis of Sintered Silver Nanoparticles Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Keikhaie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin bonded films have many applications in antireflection and reflection coating, insulating and conducting films and semiconductor industries. Thermal conductivity is one of the most important parameter for power packaging since the thermal resistance of the interconnections is directly related to the heat removal capability and thermal management of the power package. The defects in materials play very important role on the effective thermal conductivity. In this paper, finite element method (FEM was utilized to simulate the effect of pores on the effective thermal conductivity of sintered silver nanoparticles film. The simulation results indicate that the effective thermal conductivity of film is different at different directions and would be enhanced when the pore angle is 90. The simulation results will help us to further understand the heat transfer process across highly porous structures and will provide us a powerful guide to design coating with high thermal insulation or conductor property. Because of there is no similar experimental data for this simulation results, this paper is a comparative work among three different models.

  19. Neutron irradiation effects on spark plasma sintered boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buyuk, B.; Cengiz, M.; Tugrul, A.; Ozer, S.; Yucel, O.; Goller, G.; Sahin, F.C.; Lastovski, S.B.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, spark plasma sintered boron carbide (B 4 C) was examined against neutrons. The specimens were ir-radiated by reactor neutrons (include both thermal and fast neutrons) up to fluence of 1.37x10 21 n*m -2 . Thermal and fast neutrons cause swelling by different interactions with boron ( 10 B) atoms in the related materials. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were investigated for initial and irradiated samples. In addition, lattice parameters and unit cell volumes were calculated for the samples. The swelling percentages were calculated to be within a range of 0.49-3.80 % (average 1.70 %) for the outer surface of the materials for applied neutron irradiation doses. (authors)

  20. Sintering of Fine Particles in Suspension Plasma Sprayed Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latka, Leszek; Goryachev, Sergey B; Kozerski, Stefan; Pawlowski, Lech

    2010-07-01

    Suspension plasma spraying is a process that enables the production of finely grained nanometric or submicrometric coatings. The suspensions are formulated with the use of fine powder particles in water or alcohol with some additives. Subsequently, the suspension is injected into plasma jet and the liquid additives evaporate. The remaining fine solids are molten and subsequently agglomerate or remain solid, depending on their trajectory in the plasma jet. The coating's microstructure results from these two groups of particles arriving on a substrate or previously deposited coating. Previous experimental studies carried out for plasma sprayed titanium oxide and hydroxyapatite coatings enabled us to observe either a finely grained microstructure or, when a different suspension injection mode was used, to distinguish two zones in the microstructure. These two zones correspond to the dense zone formed from well molten particles, and the agglomerated zone formed from fine solid particles that arrive on the substrate in a solid state. The present paper focuses on the experimental and theoretical analysis of the formation process of the agglomerated zone. The experimental section establishes the heat flux supplied to the coating during deposition. In order to achieve this, calorimetric measurements were made by applying experimental conditions simulating the real coatings' growth. The heat flux was measured to be in the range from 0.08 to 0.5 MW/m²,depending on the experimental conditions. The theoretical section analyzes the sintering during the coating's growth, which concerns the fine particles arriving on the substrate in the solid state. The models of volume, grain boundary and surface diffusion were analyzed and adapted to the size and chemistry of the grains, temperature and time scales corresponding to the suspension plasma spraying conditions. The model of surface diffusion was found to best describe the sintering during suspension plasma spraying. The formation

  1. Sintering of Fine Particles in Suspension Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Latka

    2010-07-01

    plasma spraying. The formation of necks having the relative size equal to 10% of particle diameter was found to be possible during the thermal cycles occurring at the coatings’ deposition. Transmission electron microscopic observations of the agglomerated zone hydroxyapatite coating confirm the sintering of some of the fine grains.

  2. Full densification of inkjet-printed copper conductive tracks on a flexible substrate utilizing a hydrogen plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young-Tae [Department of Fusion Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young-In [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 01811 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seil [Department of Fusion Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kun-Jae [Department of Energy Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116 (Korea, Republic of); Choa, Yong-Ho, E-mail: choa15@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Fusion Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Hydrogen thermally- and plasma- treatments are applied to reduce and sinter the inkjet-printed copper patterns at low temperature. • Plasma sintered Cu patterns have fully densified microstructure with the resistivity of 3.23 μW cm. • Cu conductive track with dense microstructure remains its electrical resistivity after 1 month. • Thermal sintered Cu patterns show a relatively poor microstructure and high resistivity. - Abstract: Low temperature sintering techniques are crucial in developing flexible printed electronics. In this work, we demonstrate a novel hydrogen plasma sintering method that achieves a full reduction and densification of inkjet-printed patterns using a copper complex ion ink. After inkjet printing on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, both hydrogen plasma and conventional hydrogen thermal treatment were employed to compare the resulting microstructures, electrical properties and anti-oxidation behavior. The plasma treated pattern shows a fully densified microstructure with a resistivity of 3.23 μΩ cm, while the thermally treated pattern shows a relatively poor microstructure and high resistivity. In addition, the hydrogen plasma-treated copper pattern retains its electrical resistivity for one month without any significant decrease. This novel hydrogen plasma sintering technique could be used to produce conductive patterns with excellent electrical properties, allowing for highly reliable flexible printed electronics.

  3. Fabrication of 200 mm Diameter Sintering Body of Skutterudite Thermoelectric Material by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomida, T.; Sumiyoshi, A.; Nie, G.; Ochi, T.; Suzuki, S.; Kikuchi, M.; Mukaiyama, K.; Guo, J. Q.

    2017-05-01

    Filled skutterudite is a promising material for thermoelectric power generation because its ZT value is relatively high. However, mass production of high-performance thermoelectric materials remains a challenge. This study focused on the sintering process of thermoelectric materials. Large-diameter n-type (Yb or La, Ca, Al, Ga, In)0.8(Co, Fe)4Sb12 skutterudite sintering bodies with a small thickness were successfully produced by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. When direct current flows through the thermoelectric sintering body during the SPS pulse, the Peltier effect causes a temperature difference within the sintering body. To eliminate the Peltier effect, an electrical insulating material was inserted between the punch (electrode) and the sintering body. In this way, an n-type La-filled skutterudite sample with a diameter of 200 mm, thickness of 21 mm, and weight of 5 kg was successfully produced. The thermoelectric properties and microstructures of the sample were almost the same throughout the whole sintering body, and the dimensionless figure of merit reached 1.0 at 773 K.

  4. Sintering and microstructure evolution in columnar thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, Ramanathan; Srolovitz, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Sintering of thermal barrier coatings changes their key properties, such as thermal conductivity and thermal shock resistance, thus adversely impacting their reliability. We present a novel modeling approach to study the evolution of coating structure during sintering. We model the sintering of individual columns using a thermodynamic principle, and incorporate the center-to-center approach rates for the columns calculated using this principle in a larger scale discrete dynamics model for the evolution of a large number of columns. Surface energies, grain boundary energies and strain energies associated with the deformation of the columns are all included in this framework, while sintering is assumed to occur by the concerted action of surface and grain boundary diffusion. Two sets of initial conditions corresponding to different extents of pre-sintering among neighboring columns are considered. When the extent of pre-sintering is small, we observe that small clusters containing 5-20 columns are formed. In contrast, where a larger amount of pre-sintering exists, we observe, especially at large column densities, that clusters containing 50-100 columns separated by large inter-cluster pores/channels that appear to organize themselves into a network are formed. These observations are in good agreement with recently published experimental observations. We also explain how these results can explain the development of a 'mud-crack'-like pattern

  5. Low temperature spark plasma sintering of YIG powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Garcia, L.; Suarez, M.; Menendez, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    A transition from a low to a high spin state in the magnetization saturation between 1000 and 1100 o C calcination temperature is observed in YIG powders prepared by oxides mixture. Spark plasma sintering of these powders between 900 and 950 o C leads to dense samples with minimal formation of YFeO 3 , opening the way to co-sintering of YIG with metals or metallic alloys. The optical properties depend on the sintering stage: low (high) density samples show poor (bulk) optical absorption.

  6. Manufacturing of metal supported BSCF membranes by spark plasma sintering

    OpenAIRE

    Laptev, Alexander; Bram, Martin; Zivcec, Maria; Baumann, Stefan; Jarligo, Maria Ophelia; Sebold, Doris; Pfaff, Ewald; Broeckmann, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS), also known as field assisted sintering technique (FAST), is a relatively new method for rapid consolidation of metallic or ceramic powders. In the present work, its suitability for the manufacturing of metal supported Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) based membrane by co-sintering of functional ceramic BSCF layer and porous metallic support has been investigated. The BSCF based membranes are highly attractive for oxygen separation from air due to mixed ionic and e...

  7. Low temperature spark plasma sintering of YIG powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Garcia, L. [Department of Nanostructured Materials, Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN). Principado de Asturias - Consejo superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) - Universidad de Oviedo - UO, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera, Asturias (Spain); Suarez, M., E-mail: m.suarez@cinn.e [Department of Nanostructured Materials, Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN). Principado de Asturias - Consejo superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) - Universidad de Oviedo - UO, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera, Asturias (Spain); Fundacion ITMA, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428, Llanera (Spain); Menendez, J.L. [Department of Nanostructured Materials, Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN). Principado de Asturias - Consejo superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) - Universidad de Oviedo - UO, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera, Asturias (Spain)

    2010-07-16

    A transition from a low to a high spin state in the magnetization saturation between 1000 and 1100 {sup o}C calcination temperature is observed in YIG powders prepared by oxides mixture. Spark plasma sintering of these powders between 900 and 950 {sup o}C leads to dense samples with minimal formation of YFeO{sub 3}, opening the way to co-sintering of YIG with metals or metallic alloys. The optical properties depend on the sintering stage: low (high) density samples show poor (bulk) optical absorption.

  8. Quartz crystal reinforced quartz glass by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torikai, D.; Barazani, B.; Ono, E.; Santos, M.F.M.; Suzuki, C.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Spark Plasma Sintering presents fast processing time when compared to conventional sintering techniques. This allows to control the grain growth during sintering as well as the diffusion rate of a multi-material compounds, and make possible obtainment of functionally graded materials and nanostructured compounds. Powders of high purity silica glass and crystalline silica were sintered in a SPS equipment at temperatures around 1350° C, i.e., above the softening temperature of silica glass and below the melting temperature of quartz crystal. As a result, glass ceramics with pure silica glass matrix reinforced with crystalline alpha-quartz grains were fabricated at almost any desired range of composition, as well as controlled size of the crystalline reinforcement. X-ray diffraction and density measurements showed the possibility to manufacture a well controlled density and crystallinity glass-ceramic materials. (author)

  9. Formation and properties of two-phase bulk metallic glasses by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guoqiang, E-mail: xiegq@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Inoue, Akihisa [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: > Two-phase bulk metallic glasses with high strength and good soft magnetic properties as well as satisfying large-size requirements were produced by spark plasma sintering. > Effects of sintering temperature on thermal stability, microstructure, mechanical and magnetic properties were investigated. > Densified samples were obtained by the spark plasma sintering at above 773 K. - Abstract: Using a mixture of the gas-atomized Ni{sub 52.5}Nb{sub 10}Zr{sub 15}Ti{sub 15}Pt{sub 7.5} and Fe{sub 73}Si{sub 7}B{sub 17}Nb{sub 3} glassy alloy powders, we produced the two-phase bulk metallic glass (BMG) with high strength and good soft magnetic properties as well as satisfying large-size requirements by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) process. Two kinds of glassy particulates were homogeneously dispersed each other. With an increase in sintering temperature, density of the produced samples increased, and densified samples were obtained by the SPS process at above 773 K. Good bonding state among the Ni- and Fe-based glassy particulates was achieved.

  10. Full densification of inkjet-printed copper conductive tracks on a flexible substrate utilizing a hydrogen plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Tae; Lee, Young-In; Kim, Seil; Lee, Kun-Jae; Choa, Yong-Ho

    2017-02-01

    Low temperature sintering techniques are crucial in developing flexible printed electronics. In this work, we demonstrate a novel hydrogen plasma sintering method that achieves a full reduction and densification of inkjet-printed patterns using a copper complex ion ink. After inkjet printing on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, both hydrogen plasma and conventional hydrogen thermal treatment were employed to compare the resulting microstructures, electrical properties and anti-oxidation behavior. The plasma treated pattern shows a fully densified microstructure with a resistivity of 3.23 μΩ cm, while the thermally treated pattern shows a relatively poor microstructure and high resistivity. In addition, the hydrogen plasma-treated copper pattern retains its electrical resistivity for one month without any significant decrease. This novel hydrogen plasma sintering technique could be used to produce conductive patterns with excellent electrical properties, allowing for highly reliable flexible printed electronics.

  11. Oxidation behavior of plasma sintered beryllium–titanium intermetallic compounds as an advanced neutron multiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Nakamichi, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Beryllium intermetallic compounds (beryllides) such as Be 12 Ti are very promising candidates for advanced neutron multiplier materials in a demonstration fusion power reactor (DEMO). However, beryllides are too brittle to be fabricated either into pebble-type or rod-type shapes via conventional methods (i.e. arc melting and hot isostatic pressing). We have proposed a plasma sintering technique as a new method for beryllide fabrication, and our studies on the properties of plasma sintered beryllides are ongoing. In the present work, the oxidation properties of plasma sintered beryllides were investigated at 1273 K for 24 h in a dry air atmosphere to evaluate the high temperature properties of this material. Thermal gravimetry measurements indicate that specimens with larger fractions of Be 12 Ti phase corresponding to samples that have been sintered for longer time periods, exhibit superior oxidation properties. Our evaluation of the oxidation behavior of each phase in our beryllide samples is as follows: Be 12 Ti and Be 17 Ti 2 both have good oxidation resistance, owing to the formation of dense and protective scales, while the Be and Be 2 Ti phases are mainly responsible for thermal-gravimetry (TG) weight gains, which is indicative of severe oxidation. We attribute the degradation in oxidation resistance specifically to Be 2 Ti that transforms into TiO 2 , and also find this phase to be the cause of deterioration in the mechanical properties of samples, owing to cracks near Be 2 Ti phase conglomerates

  12. Joining of β-SiC by spark plasma sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grasso, S.; Tatarko, Peter; Rizzo, S.; Porwal, H.; Hu, Ch.; Katoh, Y.; Salvo, M.; Reece, M. J.; Ferraris, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 7 (2014), s. 1681-1686 ISSN 0955-2219 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 264526 - GLACERCO Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : β-SiC * joining * Spark plasma sintering Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 2.947, year: 2014

  13. Effects of sintering temperature on the mechanical properties of sintered NdFeB permanent magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.P.; Liu, W.Q.; Huang, Y.L.; Ma, S.C.; Zhong, Z.C.

    2014-01-01

    Sintered NdFeB-based permanent magnets were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and a conventional method to investigate the mechanical and magnetic properties. The experimental results showed that sintered NdFeB magnet prepared by the spark plasma sintering (SPS NdFeB) possesses a better mechanical properties compared to the conventionally sintered one, of which the maximum value of bending strength and Vickers hardness was 402.3 MPa and 778.1 MPa, respectively. The effects of sintering temperature on bending strength and Vickers hardness were investigated. It was shown that the bending strength firstly increases to the maximum value and then decreases with the increase of sintering temperature in a certain range. The investigations of microstructures and mechanical properties indicated that the unique sintering mechanism in the SPS process is responsible for the improvement of mechanical properties of SPS NdFeB. Furthermore, the relations between the mechanical properties and relevant microstructure have been analyzed based on the experimental fact. - Highlights: • Studied the sintering temperature effect on strengthening mechanism of NdFeB magnet firstly. • It showed that sintering temperature may effectively affect the mechanical properties. • The maximum bending strength and Vickers hardness was 402.3 MPa and 778.1 MPa, respectively

  14. Effects of sintering temperature on the mechanical properties of sintered NdFeB permanent magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.P., E-mail: wgp@jxnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Communication Electronics, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022 (China); Liu, W.Q. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China); Huang, Y.L.; Ma, S.C.; Zhong, Z.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Sintered NdFeB-based permanent magnets were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and a conventional method to investigate the mechanical and magnetic properties. The experimental results showed that sintered NdFeB magnet prepared by the spark plasma sintering (SPS NdFeB) possesses a better mechanical properties compared to the conventionally sintered one, of which the maximum value of bending strength and Vickers hardness was 402.3 MPa and 778.1 MPa, respectively. The effects of sintering temperature on bending strength and Vickers hardness were investigated. It was shown that the bending strength firstly increases to the maximum value and then decreases with the increase of sintering temperature in a certain range. The investigations of microstructures and mechanical properties indicated that the unique sintering mechanism in the SPS process is responsible for the improvement of mechanical properties of SPS NdFeB. Furthermore, the relations between the mechanical properties and relevant microstructure have been analyzed based on the experimental fact. - Highlights: • Studied the sintering temperature effect on strengthening mechanism of NdFeB magnet firstly. • It showed that sintering temperature may effectively affect the mechanical properties. • The maximum bending strength and Vickers hardness was 402.3 MPa and 778.1 MPa, respectively.

  15. Measurement and model on thermal properties of sintered diamond composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, Tala; Garnier, Bertrand; Peerhossaini, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermal properties of sintered diamond used for grinding is studied. ► Flash method with infrared temperature measurement is used to investigate. ► Thermal conductivity increases with the amount of diamond. ► It is very sensitive to binder conductivity. ► Results agree with models assuming imperfect contact between matrix and particles. - Abstract: A prelude to the thermal management of grinding processes is measurement of the thermal properties of working materials. Indeed, tool materials must be chosen not only for their mechanical properties (abrasion performance, lifetime…) but also for thermal concerns (thermal conductivity) for efficient cooling that avoids excessive temperatures in the tool and workpiece. Sintered diamond is currently used for grinding tools since it yields higher performances and longer lifetimes than conventional materials (mineral or silicon carbide abrasives), but its thermal properties are not yet well known. Here the thermal conductivity, heat capacity and density of sintered diamond are measured as functions of the diamond content in composites and for two types of metallic binders: hard tungsten-based and soft cobalt-based binders. The measurement technique for thermal conductivity is derived from the flash method. After pulse heating, the temperature of the rear of the sample is measured with a noncontact method (infrared camera). A parameter estimation method associated with a three-layer nonstationary thermal model is used to obtain sample thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficient and absorbed energy. With the hard metallic binder, the thermal conductivity of sintered diamond increased by up to 64% for a diamond content increasing from 0 to 25%. The increase is much less for the soft binder: 35% for diamond volumes up to 25%. In addition, experimental data were found that were far below the value predicted by conventional analytical models for effective thermal conductivity. A possible explanation

  16. Preparation of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy by spark plasma sintering method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salvetr, P.; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Novák, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2016), s. 804-808 ISSN 1213-2489 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Ni-Ti alloy * Powder metallurgy * Reactive sintering * Spark plasma sintering Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials

  17. Consolidation of copper and aluminium powders by spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiprasad, M.; Atchayakumar, R.; Thiruppathi, K.; Raghuraman, S.

    2016-09-01

    Processing in the powder metallurgy route has emerged as an economical process for the production of near net shaped components with a wide range of desired mechanical properties suitable for various applications of industrial needs. This research work was conducted with an objective of studying the improvisation of density and hardness of Copper-Aluminium alloy prepared by spark plasma sintering. Cu-Al alloy with a composition of 95% copper and 5% aluminium was prepared by SPS process. SPS is a low voltage, DC pulse current activated, pressure-assisted sintering, which enables sintering at lower temperatures and shorter durations. The combination offered by Cu-Al alloy of high strength and high corrosion resistance results their applications under a wide variety of conditions. The density and hardness of the prepared sample were measured by conducting appropriate tests. Apparently, the values of hardness and density of the specimen prepared by SPS seemed to be better than that of conventional sintering. The experimental procedure, testing methodologies and analysis are presented.

  18. Surface martensitization of Carbon steel using Arc Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, Haris; Dimyati, Arbi; Sebayang, Darwin

    2018-03-01

    In this paper new technology of surface structure modification of steel by short plasma exposure in Arc Plasma Sintering (APS) device is presented. APS is an apparatus working based on plasma generated by DC pulsed current originally used for synthesizing materials via sintering and melting. Plasma exposure in APS was applied into the specimens for 1 and 3 seconds which generate temperature approximately about 1300-1500°C. The SUP9, pearlitic carbon steel samples were used. The hardness, hardening depth and microstructure of the specimens have been investigated by Vickers micro hardness test and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) supported by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX). The results have showed that the mechanical property was significantly improved due to the formation of single martensitic structures as identified by SEM. The hardness of treated surface evaluated by Vickers hardness test showed significant improvement nearly three time from 190 VHN before to 524 VHN after treatment. Furthermore, EDX confirmed that the formation of martensite layer occurred without altering its composition. The APS also produced uniform hardened layer up to 250 μm. The experiment has demonstrated that arc plasma process was successfully improved the mechanical properties of steel in relatively very short time.

  19. Microstructure and thermal properties of Cu-SiC composite materials depending on the sintering technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewski Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper investigates the relationship between the microstructure and thermal properties of copper-silicon carbide composites obtained through hot pressing (HP and spark plasma sintering (SPS techniques. The microstructural analysis showed a better densification in the case of composites sintered in the SPS process. TEM investigations revealed the presence of silicon in the area of metallic matrix in the region close to metal-ceramic boundary. It is the product of silicon dissolving process in copper occurring at an elevated temperature. The Cu-SiC interface is significantly defected in composites obtained through the hot pressing method, which has a major influence on the thermal conductivity of materials.

  20. Determination of optimum thermal debinding and sintering process parameters using Taguchi Method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seerane, M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available on the basis of obtaining a defect-free part after sintering and also determining a sintering time that gives high sintering density. Thermal debinding was conducted after solvent debinding. The feedstock used to produce green compacts composed of Ti6Al4V... International Light Metals Technology Conference (LMT 2015), Port Elizabeth, South Africa, July 27-29 Determination of Optimum Process for Thermal Debinding and Sintering using Taguchi Method SEERANE Mandya,*, CHIKWANDA Hildab, MACHAKA Ronaldc CSIR...

  1. Properties of sintered glass-ceramics prepared from plasma vitrified air pollution control residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roether, J A; Daniel, D J; Rani, D Amutha; Deegan, D E; Cheeseman, C R; Boccaccini, A R

    2010-01-15

    Air pollution control (APC) residues, obtained from a major UK energy from waste (EfW) plant, processing municipal solid waste, have been blended with silica and alumina and melted using DC plasma arc technology. The glass produced was crushed, milled, uni-axially pressed and sintered at temperatures between 750 and 1150 degrees C, and the glass-ceramics formed were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mechanical properties assessed included Vickers's hardness, flexural strength, Young's modulus and thermal shock resistance. The optimum sintering temperature was found to be 950 degrees C. This produced a glass-ceramic with high density (approximately 2.58 g/cm(3)), minimum water absorption (approximately 2%) and relatively high mechanical strength (approximately 81+/-4 MPa). Thermal shock testing showed that 950 degrees C sintered samples could withstand a 700 degrees C quench in water without micro-cracking. The research demonstrates that glass-ceramics can be readily formed from DC plasma treated APC residues and that these have comparable properties to marble and porcelain. This novel approach represents a technically and commercially viable treatment option for APC residues that allow the beneficial reuse of this problematic waste.

  2. O2 plasma sintering study of TiO2 photoelectrodes in dye solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, R. S.; Gonçalves, A. D.; Stegemann, C.; da Silva Sobrinho, A. S.; Miyakawa, W.; Massi, M.

    2017-08-01

    The development of more efficient photoelectrochemical solar cells has been, over the years, the subject of many scientific researches. In this paper a methodology was established to carry out the sintering process of nanoporous TiO2 layer by using plasma, which was compared with sintered layers made by the conventional sintering process in a furnace. The TiO2 commercial paste was spread by doctor-blading technique and subjected to different sintering processes. Porous layer samples were subjected to structural and morphological analyses. Then photoelectrodes dye-loading was measured by optical spectrophotometry. The quality of the layers under plasma sintering process in terms of weight loss and removal of organic compounds was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry and FT-IR. The results showed that the plasma sintering process favors the adsorption of dye on the layer surface due to the creation of active states caused by O2 reactive plasma. Furthermore the O2 plasma process provides enough energy for removing organic compounds arising from the TiO2 paste and for providing nanoparticle sintering. Solar cells assembled with the plasma-sintered layers had a power conversion efficiency 20.1% higher than the obtained in solar cells sintered in a conventional furnace, proving the efficiency of the plasma sintering process.

  3. Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering: Successes and Challenges of Nanomaterial Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina V. Dudina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spark plasma sintering (SPS, initially developed as an advanced sintering technique for consolidating nanopowders into nanostructured bulk materials, has been recently looked at in much broader perspective and gained a strong reputation of a versatile method of solid state processing of metals, ceramics, and composites. The powders in the SPS-dies experience the action of pulsed electric current and uniaxial pressure; they are heated at very high rates unachievable in furnace heating and sintered within shorter times and at lower temperatures than in conventional methods. The principle of SPS and convenient design of the facilities make it attractive for conducting solid state synthesis. In this paper, based on our own results and the literature data, we analyze the microstructure formation of the products of chemical reactions occurring in the SPS in an attempt to formulate the requirements to the microstructure parameters of reactant mixtures and SPS conditions that should be fulfilled in order to produce a nanostructured material. We present successful syntheses of nanostructured ceramics and metal matrix composite with nanosized reinforcements in terms of microstructure stability and attractive properties of the materials and discuss the challenges of making a dense nanostructured material when reaction and densification do not coincide during the SPS. In the final part of the paper, we provide an outlook on the further uses of reactive SPS in the synthesis of nanostructured materials.

  4. Thermal plasma waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, Joachim; Murphy, Anthony B

    2008-01-01

    Plasma waste treatment has over the past decade become a more prominent technology because of the increasing problems with waste disposal and because of the realization of opportunities to generate valuable co-products. Plasma vitrification of hazardous slags has been a commercial technology for several years, and volume reduction of hazardous wastes using plasma processes is increasingly being used. Plasma gasification of wastes with low negative values has attracted interest as a source of energy and spawned process developments for treatment of even municipal solid wastes. Numerous technologies and approaches exist for plasma treatment of wastes. This review summarizes the approaches that have been developed, presents some of the basic physical principles, provides details of some specific processes and considers the advantages and disadvantages of thermal plasmas in waste treatment applications. (topical review)

  5. Spark plasma sintering of commercial and development titanium alloy powders

    OpenAIRE

    Weston, N.S.; Derguti, F.; Tudball, A.; Jackson, M.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging lower cost titanium metal powder produced via an electrolytic method has been fully consolidated using spark plasma sintering (SPS) generating microstructures comparable to those observed in Ti–6Al–4V PM product. This is the first time powder from an alternative titanium extraction method has been processed via SPS and it is benchmarked with commercial alloys (CP–Ti, Ti–6Al–4V, and Ti–5Al–5V–5Mo–3Cr). The effect of powder feedstock size, morphology, and alloy chemistry on the consoli...

  6. Compaction of lithium-silicate ceramics using spark plasma sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubatík, Tomáš František; Lukáč, František; Mušálek, Radek; Brožek, Vlastimil; Stehlíková, K.; Chráska, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 1 (2017), s. 40-44 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Li2Si2O5 * Li2SiO3 * Spark plasma sintering (SPS) * Quantitative Rietveld refinement * X-ray diffraction (XRD) Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2016 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/index.php?page=cs_detail_doi&id=789

  7. Lanthana-bearing nanostructured ferritic steels via spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasebani, Somayeh [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Charit, Indrajit, E-mail: icharit@uidaho.edu [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Wu, Yaqiao; Burns, Jatuporn; Allahar, Kerry N.; Butt, Darryl P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Cole, James I. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Alsagabi, Sultan F. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    A lanthana-containing nanostructured ferritic steel (NFS) was processed via mechanical alloying (MA) of Fe-14Cr-1Ti-0.3Mo-0.5La{sub 2}O{sub 3} (wt.%) and consolidated via spark plasma sintering (SPS). In order to study the consolidation behavior via SPS, sintering temperature and dwell time were correlated with microstructure, density, microhardness and shear yield strength of the sintered specimens. A bimodal grain size distribution including both micron-sized and nano-sized grains was observed in the microstructure of specimens sintered at 850, 950 and1050 °C for 45 min. Significant densification occurred at temperatures greater than 950 °C with a relative density higher than 98%. A variety of nanoparticles, some enriched in Fe and Cr oxides and copious nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm with faceted morphology and enriched in La and Ti oxides were observed. After SPS at 950 °C, the number density of Cr–Ti–La–O-enriched nanoclusters with an average radius of 1.5 nm was estimated to be 1.2 × 10{sup 24} m{sup −3}. The La + Ti:O ratio was close to 1 after SPS at 950 and 1050 °C; however, the number density of nanoclusters decreased at 1050 °C. With SPS above 950 °C, the density improved but the microhardness and shear yield strength decreased due to partial coarsening of the grains and nanoparticles.

  8. Development of Al2O3 electrospun fibers prepared by conventional sintering method or plasma assisted surface calcination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudra, E.; Streckova, M.; Pavlinak, D.; Medvecka, V.; Kovacik, D.; Kovalcikova, A.; Zubko, P.; Girman, V.; Dankova, Z.; Koval, V.; Duzsa, J.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the electrospinning method was used for preparation of α-Al2O3 microfibers from PAN/Al(NO3)3 precursor solution. The precursor fibers were thermally treated by conventional method in furnace or low-temperature plasma induced surface sintering method in ambient air. The four different temperatures of PAN/Al(NO3)3 precursors were chosen for formation of α-Al2O3 phase by conventional sintering way according to the transition features observed in the TG/DSC analysis. In comparison, the low-temperature plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure was used as an alternative sintering method at the exposure times of 5, 10 and 30 min. FTIR analysis was used for evaluation of residual polymer after plasma induced calcination and for studying the mechanism of polymer degradation. The polycrystalline alumina fibers arranged with the nanoparticles was created continuously throughout the whole volume of the sample. On the other side the low temperature approach, high density of reactive species and high power density of plasma generated at atmospheric pressure by used plasma source allowed rapid removal of polymer in preference from the surface of fibers leading to the formation of composite ceramic/polymer fibers. This plasma induced sintering of PAN/Al(NO3)3 can have obvious importance in industrial applications where the ceramic character of surface with higher toughness of the fibers are required.

  9. Highly defective oxides as sinter resistant thermal barrier coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2005-08-16

    A thermal barrier coating material formed of a highly defective cubic matrix structure having a concentration of a stabilizer sufficiently high that the oxygen vacancies created by the stabilizer interact within the matrix to form multi-vacancies, thereby improving the sintering resistance of the material. The concentration of stabilizer within the cubic matrix structure is greater than that concentration of stabilizer necessary to give the matrix a peak ionic conductivity value. The concentration of stabilizer may be at least 30 wt. %. Embodiments include a cubic matrix of zirconia stabilized by at least 30-50 wt. % yttria, and a cubic matrix of hafnia stabilized by at least 30-50 wt. % gadolinia.

  10. Sintering Characteristics of Multilayered Thermal Barrier Coatings Under Thermal Gradient and Isothermal High Temperature Annealing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amarendra K.; Schmitt, Michael P.; Bhattacharya, Rabi; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrochlore oxides have most of the relevant attributes for use as next generation thermal barrier coatings such as phase stability, low sintering kinetics and low thermal conductivity. One of the issues with the pyrochlore oxides is their lower toughness and therefore higher erosion rate compared to the current state-of-the-art TBC material, yttria (6 to 8 wt%) stabilized zirconia (YSZ). In this work, sintering characteristics were investigated for novel multilayered coating consisted of alternating layers of pyrochlore oxide viz Gd2Zr2O7 and t' low k (rare earth oxide doped YSZ). Thermal gradient and isothermal high temperature (1316 C) annealing conditions were used to investigate sintering and cracking in these coatings. The results are then compared with that of relevant monolayered coatings and a baseline YSZ coating.

  11. Effect of sintering temperature on optical properties and microstructure of translucent zirconia prepared by high-pressure spark plasma sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Zhang, Byung-Nam Kim, Koji Morita, Hidehiro Yoshida Keijiro Hiraga and Yoshio Sakka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to characterize the effect of sintering temperature on transparency of zirconia, we have evaluated the optical properties and microstructure of translucent cubic zirconia prepared by high-pressure spark plasma sintering (SPS at 1000–1200 circleC. Color centers (oxygen vacancies with trapped electrons and residual pores were primary defects in the samples. In SPS samples, the total forward transmittance and in-line transmittance are mainly affected by color centers with a limited contribution from residual pores; in contrast, the changes in reflectance are only related to the porosity. The amounts of color centers and residual pores increase with sintering temperature that reduces the total forward and in-line transmittance of the as-sintered zirconia. Annealing in oxidizing atmosphere improves the total forward and in-line transmittance. During the annealing, the concentration of color centers decreases but the porosity increases.

  12. W/Cu composites produced by low temperature Pulse Plasma Sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, M.S.; Fortuna, E.; Michalski, A.J.; Kurzydlowski, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    The plasma facing components (PFCs) must withstand the thermal, mechanical and neutron loads under cyclic mode of operation and vacuum. Despite that PFCs of ITER and demonstration reactors must assure reliability and long in service lifetime. For that reason PFCs are designed to be made of beryllium, tungsten or carbon fibre composites armours and copper based heat sink material. Such design concepts can only be used if joining methods of these dissimilar materials are resolved. Several techniques have been developed for joining W and Cu e. g. casting of pure Cu onto W, high temperature brazing, direct diffusion bonding or CVDs of W onto Cu. The main problem in the development of such joints is the large difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion, CTE (alpha Cu > 4 alpha W) and elastic modula (ECu > 0.2 EW). These differences result in large stresses at the W/Cu interfaces during manufacturing and/or during operation, which may lead to cracking or delamination reducing lifetime of the components. Possible solution to this problem is the use of W-Cu composites (FGM). W-Cu composites are widely used for spark erosion electrodes, in heavy duty circuit breakers and as heat sinks of microelectronic devices. They are commonly produced by infiltration of a porous sintered tungsten by liquid copper. Other technological route is powder metallurgy. Coatings can be produced by low pressure plasma spraying. All these methods, however, are known to have some disadvantages. For infiltration there is a 30 wt.% limit of Cu content while for powder metallurgy and plasma spraying techniques porosity is of concern. In our work the W-Cu composites of different composition were produced by pulse plasma sintering (PPS). This new method utilizes pulsed high electric discharges to heat the powders under uniaxial load. The arc discharges clean surface of powder particles and intensify diffusion. The total sintering time is reduced to several minutes. In our investigations various

  13. Synthesis, sintering properties and thermal conductivity of uranium carbonitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, R.A.M.

    1978-01-01

    An introduction to the applications and chemistry of uranium carbonitrides is given including the potential use as a nuclear fuel. The powder synthesis of UC, UN and mixtures of UC and UN by a cyclic process is described. The correlation between the composition ratio UN/(UC+UN) in the final product and the parameters of the process is only determined qualitatively. Batch synthesis of a powder does not lead to an increase of the content of metallic impurities and oxygen. The impurity level is determined by that of the starting uranium metal and the thermal conductivity of the sintered compacts of uranium carbonitrides are determined via the measurement of the thermal diffusivity at 1100-1700 K. (Auth.)

  14. Spark plasma sintering of pure and doped tungsten as plasma facing material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autissier, E.; Richou, M.; Minier, L.; Naimi, F.; Pintsuk, G.; Bernard, F.

    2014-04-01

    In the current water cooled divertor concept, tungsten is an armour material and CuCrZr is a structural material. In this work, a fabrication route via a powder metallurgy process such as spark plasma sintering is proposed to fully control the microstructure of W and W composites. The effect of chemical composition (additives) and the powder grain size was investigated. To reduce the sintering temperature, W powders doped with a nano-oxide dispersion of Y2O3 are used. Consequently, the sintering temperature for W-oxide dispersed strengthened (1800 °C) is lower than for pure W powder. Edge localized mode tests were performed on pure W and compared to other preparation techniques and showed promising results.

  15. Densification of silicon and zirconium carbides by a new process: spark plasma sintering; Densification des carbures de silicium et de zirconium par un procede innovant: le spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillard, F

    2006-12-15

    Materials research for suitable utilization in 4. generation nuclear plants needs new ways to densify testing components. Two carbides, silicon and zirconium carbide seems to be the most suitable choice due to their mechanical, thermal and neutron-transparency properties against next nuclear plant specifications. Nevertheless one main difficulty remains, which is densifying them even at high temperature. Spark Plasma Sintering a new metal-, ceramic- and composite-sintering process has been used to densify both SiC and ZrC. Understanding bases of mass transport mechanisms in SPS have been studied. Composites and interfaces have been processed and analyzed. This manuscript reports original results on SiC and ZrC ceramics sintered with commercial powder started, without additives. (author)

  16. Synthesis and characterization of copper–alumina metal matrix composite by conventional and spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, K.; Ray, B.C.; Chaira, D.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The evolution of microstructure, density and hardness of Cu–Al 2 O 3 metal matrix composites with different techniques of sintering has been demonstrated here. The effect of sintering atmosphere has also been discussed. Synthesis of microcomposites was carried out by reinforcing 5, 10 and 15 vol.% of alumina powder particle (average size ∼5.71 μm) in copper matrix via conventional sintering using H 2 and N 2 atmospheres. Nanocomposites of 1, 5, 7 vol.% alumina (average size 2 O 3 metal matrix microcomposites and nanocomposites via conventional route and spark plasma sintering routes are studied and compared. Maximum Vickers hardness of 60 and 80 are obtained when the Cu–15 vol.% Al 2 O 3 is conventionally sintered in N 2 and H 2 atmosphere respectively. However, maximum hardness value of 125 is achieved for the Cu–5 vol.% Al 2 O 3 nanocomposite prepared by spark plasma sintering. It has been observed that Cu–Al 2 O 3 metal matrix composite (MMC) shows poor mechanical properties when it is conventionally sintered in N 2 atmosphere than H 2 atmosphere. Highlights: ► Better matrix–reinforcement interfacial bonding and compatibility in hydrogen atmosphere than nitrogen atmosphere. ► An improvement in density and hardness under hydrogen atmosphere than in nitrogen atmosphere is manifested. ► Spark plasma sintering method results in higher density and hardness values than conventional sintering. - Abstract: The evolution of microstructure, density and hardness of Cu–Al 2 O 3 metal matrix composites with different techniques of sintering have been demonstrated here. The effect of sintering atmosphere on the interfacial compatibility of matrix and reinforcement has also been discussed. Synthesis of microcomposites was carried out by reinforcing 5, 10 and 15 vol.% of alumina powder particles (average size ∼5.71 μm) in copper matrix via conventional sintering using N 2, H 2 and Ar atmospheres. Nanocomposites of 1, 5, 7 vol

  17. Characterization of plasma nitrided layers produced on sintered iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Alves Fontes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plasma nitriding is a thermo-physical-chemical treatment process, which promotes surface hardening, caused by interstitial diffusion of atomic nitrogen into metallic alloys. In this work, this process was employed in the surface modification of a sintered ferrous alloy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD analyses, and wear and microhardness tests were performed on the samples submitted to ferrox treatment and plasma nitriding carried out under different conditions of time and temperature. The results showed that the nitride layer thickness is higher for all nitrided samples than for ferrox treated samples, and this layer thickness increases with nitriding time and temperature, and temperature is a more significant variable. The XRD analysis showed that the nitrided layer, for all samples, near the surface consists in a mixture of γ′-Fe4N and ɛ-Fe3N phases. Both wear resistance and microhardness increase with nitriding time and temperature, and temperature influences both the characteristics the most.

  18. Structural evolution of plasma-sprayed nanoscale 3 mol% and 5 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings during sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Gao, Yang

    2017-12-01

    The microstructure of plasma-sprayed nanostructured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings may change during high-temperature exposure, which would influence the coating performance and service lifetime. In this study, the phase structure and the microstructural evolution of 3YSZ (zirconia-3 mol% yttria) and 5YSZ (zirconia-5 mol% yttria) nanostructured coatings were investigated by means of sintering at 1400 °C for 50-100 h. The microhardness, elastic moduli, and thermal shock cycles of the 3YSZ and 5YSZ nanostructured coatings were also investigated. The results showed that the redistribution of yttrium ions at 1400 °C caused the continuous increase of monoclinic-phase zirconia, but no obvious inter-splat cracking formed at the cross-sections, even after 100 h. Large voids appeared around the nanoporous zone because of the sintering of nanoscale granules upon high-temperature exposure. The microhardness and elastic moduli of the nanostructured coatings first increased and then decreased with increasing sintering times. The growth rate of the nanograins in the 3YSZ coating was lower than that in 5YSZ, which slowed the changes in 3YSZ coating porosity during sintering. Although the 3YSZ coating was prone to monoclinic phase transition, the experimental results showed that the thermal shock resistance of the 3YSZ coating was better than that of the 5YSZ coating.

  19. Preparation of silicon carbide/carbon fiber composites through high-temperature spark plasma sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ghasali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the potentials of spark plasma sintering (SPS integrated with high temperature process that can enable sintering of SiC/Cf composites without any sintering aids. The random distribution of carbon fibers was obtained through mixing composite components in ethanol by using a shaker mill for 10 min. The corresponding sintering process was carried out at 1900 and 2200 °C with 50 MPa pressure applied at maximum temperature. The results showed that 89 ± 0.9 and 97 ± 0.8% of the theoretical density can be obtained for sintering temperatures of 1900 and 2200 °C, respectively. The densification curves were plotted to monitor sintering behavior with punch displacement changes. The appropriate bonding between SiC particles and carbon fibers was detected using FE-SEM for sample which was sintered at 2200 °C. The clear maximum in hardness (2992 ± 33 Vickers, bending strength (427 ± 26 MPa and fracture toughness (4.2 ± 0.3 MPa m1/2 were identified for sample sintered at 2200 °C. XRD investigations supposed that SiC and carbon were the only crystalline phases in both sintered samples.

  20. Monitoring system for thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero G, M.; Vilchis P, A.E.

    1999-01-01

    In the Thermal plasma applications laboratory it has been the degradation project of oils for isolation in transformers. These are a very hazardous residues and at this time in the country they are stored in metal barrels. It has been the intention to undergo the oils to plasma for degradate them to non-hazardous residues. The system behavior must be monitored to establish the thermal plasma behavior. (Author)

  1. Spark plasma sintering and microstructural analysis of pure and Mo doped U3Si2 pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Denise Adorno; Benarosch, Anna; Middleburgh, Simon; Johnson, Kyle D.

    2017-12-01

    U3Si2 has been considered as an alternative fuel for Light Water Reactors (LWRs) within the Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) initiative, begun after the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear accidents. Its main advantages are high thermal conductivity and high heavy metal density. Despite these benefits, U3Si2 presents an anisotropic crystallographic structure and low solubility of fission products, which can result in undesirable effects under irradiation conditions. In this paper, spark plasma sintering (SPS) of U3Si2 pellets is studied, with evaluation of the resulting microstructure. Additionally, exploiting the short sintering time in SPS, a molybdenum doped pellet was produced to investigate the early stages of the Mo-U3Si2 interaction, and analyze how this fission product is accommodated in the fuel matrix. The results show that pellets of U3Si2 with high density (>95% TD) can be obtained with SPS in the temperature range of 1200°C-1300 °C. Moreover, the short time employed in this technique was found to generate a unique microstructure for this fuel, composed mainly of closed nano-pores (uranium with small quantities of dissolved Si and Mo at the front of the reaction.

  2. Post-treatment of Plasma-Sprayed Amorphous Ceramic Coatings by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chraska, T.; Pala, Z.; Mušálek, R.; Medřický, J.; Vilémová, M.

    2015-04-01

    Alumina-zirconia ceramic material has been plasma sprayed using a water-stabilized plasma torch to produce free standing coatings. The as-sprayed coatings have very low porosity and are mostly amorphous. The amorphous material crystallizes at temperatures above 900 °C. A spark plasma sintering apparatus has been used to heat the as-sprayed samples to temperatures above 900 °C to induce crystallization, while at the same time, a uniaxial pressure of 80 MPa has been applied to their surface. After such post-treatment, the ceramic samples are crystalline and have very low open porosity. The post-treated material exhibits high hardness and significantly increased flexural strength. The post-treated samples have a microstructure that is best described as nanocomposite with the very small crystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix.

  3. Thermal properties and thermal shock resistance of liquid phase sintered ZrC-Mo cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landwehr, Sean E.; Hilmas, Gregory E.; Fahrenholtz, William G.; Talmy, Inna G.; Wang Hsin

    2009-01-01

    The linear thermal expansion coefficient (CTE), heat capacity, and thermal conductivity, were investigated as a function of temperature for hot pressed ZrC and liquid phase sintered ZrC-Mo cermets. The ZrC and the ZrC-Mo cermets had the same CTE at 50 deg. C (∼5.1-5.5 ppm deg. C -1 ), but the CTE of ZrC increased to ∼12.2 ppm deg. C -1 at 1000 deg. C compared to ∼7.2-8.5 ppm deg. C -1 for the ZrC-Mo cermets. Heat capacity was calculated using a rule of mixtures and previously reported thermodynamic data. Thermal diffusivity was measured with a laser flash method and was, in turn, used to calculate thermal conductivity. Thermal conductivity increased linearly with increasing temperature for all compositions and was affected by solid solution formation and carbon deficiency of the carbide phases. Hot pressed ZrC had the highest thermal conductivity (∼30-37 W m -1 K -1 ). The nominally 20 and 30 vol% Mo compositions of the ZrC-Mo cermets had a lower thermal conductivity, but the thermal conductivity generally increased with increasing Mo content. Water quench thermal shock testing showed that ZrC-30 vol% Mo had a critical temperature difference of 350 deg. C, which was ∼120 deg. C higher than ZrC. This increase was due to the increased toughness of the cermet compared to ZrC.

  4. Effect of the sintering method on microstructure and thermal and mechanical properties of zirconium oxophosphate ceramics Zr2O(PO4)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregiroux, Damien; Cedelle, Julie; Ranc, Isabelle; Barreteau, Céline; Mata Osoro, Gustavo; Wallez, Gilles

    2017-12-01

    Due to an ultra-low thermal expansion, Zr2O(PO4)2 could find many applications as a thermal shock resistant material. To this end, ceramic processing is a key step in order to reach best properties. In this work, Zr2O(PO4)2 was sintered by conventional sintering and by the spark plasma sintering technique (SPS) with and without additive. Samples made by conventional sintering with ZnO as sintering aid have a maximum relative density of around 92%. Microstructure is composed of large grains and microcracks can be observed. When doped with 5 wt. % of MgO, samples can be densified by SPS up to 99.6% of the relative density and the grain size maintained between 0.5 and 1.5 μm. Thermal conductivity and Vickers microhardness were investigated as a function of the microstructure. Best values were obtained for the ceramic doped with 5 wt.% MgO and sintered by SPS, thanks to a fine microstructure and a small amount of residual microcracks.

  5. Sintered Ag die attach as a solution to improve thermal performance of high power modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansi, Mohammed S.

    The move to smaller electronics packages with higher numbers of I/Os has significantly increased power densities. The increase of power density puts more emphasis on finding solutions to improve the thermal performance of electronics packages. In wire bonded chips, the die attach layer plays a significant role in thermal performance as it establishes the main heat dissipation path from the chip. The use of sintered Ag as a die attach material to improve thermal performance is investigated in this research. A thermal simulation tool (FloTHERM) was used to study the thermal performance of five different sintered Ag die attach materials and compare their performance to the performance of silver filled epoxy die attach. Thermal simulation results showed low thermal improvement in the Theta-JA (thetaJA) value while higher thermal improvement in the Theta-JC (thetaJC) value was observed. Also, this research correlates the thermal simulation results with real-world measurements.

  6. Consolidation of W–Ta composites: Hot isostatic pressing and spark and pulse plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, M., E-mail: marta.dias@itn.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Guerreiro, F. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, J.B. [LNEG, Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Galatanu, A. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105 bis Bucharest-Magurele, 077125 Ilfov (Romania); Rosiński, M. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw (Poland); Monge, M.A.; Munoz, A. [Departamento de Física, Univerdidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avd. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Madrid (Spain); Alves, E. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, P.A. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); CeFEMA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Consolidation of W–Ta composites using three techniques: HIP, SPS and PPS. • Comparison of consolidation methods in terms of W–Ta interdiffusion and densification. • Microstructure analysis in terms of oxides formation. - Abstract: Composites consisting of tantalum fiber/powder dispersed in a nanostructured W matrix have been consolidated by spark and pulse plasma sintering as well as by hot isostatic pressing. The microstructural observations revealed that the tungsten–tantalum fiber composites consolidated by hot isostatic pressing and pulse plasma sintering presented a continuous layer of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase at the W/Ta interfaces, while the samples consolidated by spark plasma sintering evidenced a Ta + Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} eutectic mixture due to the higher temperature of this consolidation process. Similar results have been obtained for the tungsten–tantalum powder composites. A (W, Ta) solid solution was detected around the prior nanostructured W particles in tungsten–tantalum powder composites consolidated by spark and pulse plasma sintering. Higher densifications were obtained for composites consolidated by hot isostatic pressing and pulse plasma sintering.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of aluminium–alumina micro- and nano-composites by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, K.; Chaira, D.; Ray, B.C.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The evolution of microstructure by varying the particle size of reinforcement in the matrix employing spark plasma sintering has been demonstrated here in Al–Al 2 O 3 system. An emphasis has been laid on varying the reinforcement particle size and evaluating the microstructural morphologies and their implications on mechanical performance of the composites. Nanocomposites of 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7 volume % alumina (average size 2 O 3 micro- and nano-composites fabricated by spark plasma sintering. • Better matrix-reinforcement integrity in nanocomposites than microcomposites. • Spark plasma sintering method results in higher density and hardness values. • High density and hardness values of nanocomposites than microcomposites. • High dislocation density in spark plasma sintered Al–Al 2 O 3 composites. - Abstract: In the present study, an emphasis has been laid on evaluation of the microstructural morphologies and their implications on mechanical performance of the composites by varying the reinforcement particle size. Nanocomposites of 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7 volume % alumina (average size 2 O 3 nancomposites respectively. Spark plasma sintering imparts enhanced densification and matrix-reinforcement proximity which have been corroborated with the experimental results

  8. Nano pores evolution in hydroxyapatite microsphere during spark plasma sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Micron-spherical granules of hydroxyapatite (HAp nanoparticles were prepared by powder granulation methods. Through subsequent sintering, porous HAp microspheres with tailored pore and grain framework structures were obtained. Detailed microstructure investigation by SEM and TEM revealed the correlation of the pore structure and the necking strength with the sintering profiles that determine the coalescence features of the nanoparticles. The partially sintered porous HAp microspheres containing more than 50% porosity consisting of pores and grains both in nano-scale are active in inducing the precipitation of HAp in simulated body fluid. The nano-porous HAp microspheres with an extensive surface and interconnecting pores thus demonstrate the potential of stimulating the formation of collagen and bone and the integration with the newly formed bones during physiological bone remodeling.

  9. Nanoscale characterization of ODS Fe-9%Cr model alloys compacted by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintze, C., E-mail: c.heintze@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Hernandez-Mayoral, M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ulbricht, A.; Bergner, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Shariq, A. [Fraunhofer-Center for Nanoelectronic Technologies, Dresden (Germany); Weissgaerber, T. [Fraunhofer-Institut IFAM, Dresden (Germany); Frielinghaus, H. [Juelich Centre for Neutron Science, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Garching (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spark plasma sintered Fe9Cr-xY{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.3, 0.6) characterized by SANS and TEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A consistent description of the microstructure was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Y-free and Y-O-rich nano-particles found, radius 2-15 nm, Y:O ratio 1:2-1:3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both types are stable during additional HIP treatment in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-containing alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth of Y-free particles observed during HIP treatment of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-free reference. - Abstract: Ferritic/martensitic high-chromium steels are leading candidates for fission and fusion reactor components. Oxide dispersion strengthening is an effective way to improve properties related to thermal and irradiation-induced creep and to extend their elevated temperature applications. An extensive experimental study focusing on the microstructural characterization of oxide-dispersion strengthened Fe-9wt%Cr model alloys is reported. Several material variants were produced by means of high-energy milling of elemental powders of Fe, Cr and commercial yttria powders. Consolidation was based on spark plasma sintering. Special emphasis is placed on the characterization of the nano-particles using transmission electron microscopy, small-angle neutron scattering and atom probe tomography. The microstructure of the investigated alloys and the role of the process parameters are discussed. Implications for the reliability of the applied characterization techniques are also highlighted.

  10. Thermoelectric properties of n-type 95%Bi2Te3–5%Bi2Se3 compounds fabricated by gas-atomization and spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo-Seob; Hong, Soon-Jik

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gas Atomization process was used to fabricate 95%Bi 2 Te 3 –5%Bi 2 Se 3 powders. • Characterization of gas atomized powders were conducted. • SPS process was used to sinter the atomized powders at different sintering temp. • Thermoelectric properties, density and hardness of SPS-ed bulks were analyzed. -- Abstract: In this study, n-type 95%Bi 2 Te 3 –5%Bi 2 Se 3 doped with 0.04% SbI 3 thermoelectric materials was fabricated by gas-atomization and spark plasma sintering (SPS) at a temperature range of 623–723 K. The microstructure of the gas atomized powder shows spherical shape, fine particle size and homogeneously distributed grains. The density of the sintered bulk reached nearly 100% of the theoretical density, where micro Vickers Hardness was found around 54–57 Hv. The Seebeck coefficient (α) of the sintered bulk decreased while electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity (κ) increased with increasing sintering temperature to 723 K, resulting in a decrease in figure of merit. The maximum figure of merit (ZT) was 0.76, which was obtained in the sintered bulk at 623 K

  11. Transparent Yttrium Aluminium Garnet Obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering of Lyophilized Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suárez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyophilized YAG gel, synthesized by the coprecipitation technique, has been sintered to transparency by spark plasma sintering method at 1500∘C. Whereas conventionally dried gels show large agglomerates, over 1 μm, powders from lyophilized gels show no agglomeration with an average particle size below 100 nm. The absence of agglomerates affects on the optical properties of the sintered materials: conventionally dried powders are opaque after sintering, whereas 0.8 mm thick transparent YAG materials with in-line transmittances close to 60% at 680 nm and over 80% in the infrared range have been obtained for the lyophilized gels.

  12. Orientation distribution in Bi2Te3-based compound prepared by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.T.; Kim, Y.H.; Lim, C.H.; Cho, D.C.; Lee, Y.S.; Lee, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    P-type Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 compounds doped with 3wt.% Te were fabricated by spark plasma sintering after mixing large powders(P L ) and small powders(P S ). We could obtained the highest figure of merit(Z C ) of 2.89 x 10 -3 /K in sintered compound mixed to P L :P S =80:20. This resulted from the increase of orientation by large powders(P S ) and the reduce of pores by small powders. The figure of merit(Z C ) of the sintered compound using only small powders(P S ) showed lower value of 2.67 x 10 -3 /K compared with that of sintered compound mixed to P L :P S =80:20 due to the increase of electrical resistivity. (orig.)

  13. Demonstration of Subscale Cermet Fuel Specimen Fabrication Approach Using Spark Plasma Sintering and Diffusion Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Marvin W.; Tucker, Dennis S.; Benensky, Kelsa M.

    2018-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) has the potential to expand the limits of human space exploration by enabling crewed missions to Mars and beyond. The viability of NTP hinges on the development of a robust nuclear fuel material that can perform in the harsh operating environment (> or = 2500K, reactive hydrogen) of a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine. Efforts are ongoing to develop fuel material and to assemble fuel elements that will be stable during the service life of an NTR. Ceramic-metal (cermet) fuels are being actively pursued by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) due to their demonstrated high-temperature stability and hydrogen compatibility. Building on past cermet fuel development research, experiments were conducted to investigate a modern fabrication approach for cermet fuel elements. The experiments used consolidated tungsten (W)-60vol%zirconia (ZrO2) compacts that were formed via spark plasma sintering (SPS). The consolidated compacts were stacked and diffusion bonded to assess the integrity of the bond lines and internal cooling channel cladding. The assessment included hot hydrogen testing of the manufactured surrogate fuel and pure W for 45 minutes at 2500 K in the compact fuel element environmental test (CFEET) system. Performance of bonded W-ZrO2 rods was compared to bonded pure W rods to access bond line integrity and composite stability. Bonded surrogate fuels retained structural integrity throughout testing and incurred minimal mass loss.

  14. Effects of Sintering on the Thermal and Optical Properties of Zinc Oxide Ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabasco-Novelo, C.; May-Crespo, J.; Ramírez-Rincón, J. A.; Forero-Sandoval, I. Y.; Rodríguez-Gattorno, G.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2018-02-01

    Microstructure and composition are factors determining heat transfer in ZnO ceramic materials, which define the performance of the material after Joule heating, generated by electron transport. In this study, photothermal radiometry was applied to investigate the influence of the sintering temperature, ranging from 800 {°}C to 1300 {°}C, by measuring the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity at room temperature, of commercial and sol-gel ZnO pellets. Our results show that the values of these thermal properties for both types of ZnO increase when the sintering temperature increases, displaying maximum energy dissipation at 1200 {°}C. Additionally, the role of the sintering temperature on the optical properties was also analyzed using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and from these data the optical band-gap was obtained.

  15. Spark plasma sintering and porosity studies of uranium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kyle D.; Wallenius, Janne; Jolkkonen, Mikael; Claisse, Antoine

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a number of samples of UN sintered by the SPS method have been fabricated, and highly pure samples ranging in density from 68% to 99.8%TD - corresponding to an absolute density of 14.25 g/cm3 out of a theoretical density of 14.28 g/cm3 - have been fabricated. By careful adjustment of the sintering parameters of temperature and applied pressure, the production of pellets of specific porosity may now be achieved between these ranges. The pore closure behaviour of the material has also been documented and compared to previous studies of similar materials, which demonstrates that full pore closure using these methods occurs near 97.5% of relative density.

  16. Processing of pure titanium containing titanium-based reinforcing ceramics additives using spark plasma sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondiu Olayinka DUROWOJU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The densification behaviour, microstructural changes and hardness characteristics during spark plasma sintering of CP-Ti reinforced with TiC, TiN, TiCN and TiB2 were investigated. Commercially pure Ti powders were dry mixed with varied amounts (2.5 and 5 wt. % of the ceramic additives using a T2F Turbula mixer for 5 h and at a speed of 49 rpm. The blended composite powders were then sintered using spark plasma sintering system (model HHPD-25 from FCT Germany at a heating rate of 100oC min-1, dwell time of 5 min and sintering temperature of 950ºC. The sintering of CP-Ti was used as a base study to select the proper spark plasma sintering temperature for full density. Densification was monitored through analysis of the recorded punch displacement and the measured density of the sintered samples using Archimedes method. High densities ranging from 97.8% for 5% TiB2 addition to 99.6% for 5% TiCN addition were achieved at a relatively low temperature of 950°C. Microstructural analyses show a uniform distribution of the additives and finer structure showing their inhibitive effect on grain growth. An improved hardness was observed in all the cases with highest values obtained with TiCN as a result of the combined effect of TiC and TiN. A change in the fracture mode from trans granular to intergranular was also observed.

  17. Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) for Nanostructured Smart Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-05

    ferromagnetic SMA composites, piezo-composites with and without functionally graded microstructure( FGM ), a new active materials such as piezo-SMA composites...without functionally graded microstructure( FGM ), a new active materials such as piezo-SMA composites. These composites will be used for higher performance...g) Sintering Ambience Air. vacuum or inert gas (h) Viewing Windows 0 50mm A O80mm quartz glass with individual protecting plates Wi) Vacuum Neters

  18. Influence of spark plasma sintering conditions on the sintering and functional properties of an ultra-fine grained 316L stainless steel obtained from ball-milled powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, C., E-mail: clement.keller@insa-rouen.fr [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6634, Université de Rouen, INSA de Rouen, Avenue de l' Université, 76800 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Tabalaiev, K.; Marnier, G. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6634, Université de Rouen, INSA de Rouen, Avenue de l' Université, 76800 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Noudem, J. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6508, Université de Caen, ENSICAEN, 7 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Sauvage, X. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6634, Université de Rouen, INSA de Rouen, Avenue de l' Université, 76800 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Hug, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6508, Université de Caen, ENSICAEN, 7 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France)

    2016-05-17

    In this work, 316L samples with submicrometric grain size were sintered by spark plasma sintering. To this aim, 316L powder was first ball-milled with different conditions to obtain nanostructured powder. The process control agent quantity and milling time were varied to check their influence on the crystallite size of milled powder. Samples were then sintered by spark plasma sintering using different sets of sintering parameters (temperature, dwell time and pressure). For each sample, grain size and density were systematically measured in order to investigate the influence of the sintering process on these two key microstructure parameters. Results show that suitable ball-milling and subsequent sintering can be employed to obtain austenitic stainless steel samples with grain sizes in the nanometer range with porosity lower than 3%. However, ball-milling and subsequent sintering enhance chromium carbides formation at the sample surface in addition to intragranular and intergranular oxides in the sample as revealed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It has been shown that using Boron nitride together with graphite foils to protect the mold from powder welding prevent such carbide formation. For mechanical properties, results show that the grain size refinement strongly increases the hardness of the samples without deviation from Hall-Petch relationship despite the oxides formation. For corrosion resistance, grain sizes lower than a few micrometers involve a strong decrease in the pitting potential and a strong increase in passivation current. As a consequence, spark plasma sintering can be considered as a promising tool for ultra-fine grained austenitic stainless steel.

  19. Interface structure and properties of CNTs/Cu composites fabricated by electroless deposition and spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hu; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Hu, Zheng-Yang; Song, Qi; Yin, Shi-Pan

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we fabricated a novel copper matrix composites reinforced by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using electroless deposition (ED) and spark plasma sintering technique. Microstructure, mechanical, electric conductivity, and thermal properties of the CNTs/Cu composites were investigated. The results show that a favorable interface containing C–O and O–Cu bond was formed between CNTs and matrix when the CNTs were coated with nano-Cu by ED method. Thus, we accomplished the uniformly dispersed CNTs in the CNTs/Cu powders and compacted composites, which eventually leads to the enhancement of the mechanical properties of the CNTs/Cu composites in the macro-scale environment. However, the interface structure can hinder the movement of carriers and free electrons and increase the interface thermal resistance, which leads to modest decrease of electrical and thermal conductivity of the CNTs/Cu composites.

  20. Characterization of Sintered and Sintered/Plasma-Nitrided Fe-1.5% Mo Alloy by SEM, X-Ray Diffraction and Electrochemical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Neto José de Pinho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical experiments together with SEM and X-Ray techniques were carried out in order to evaluate the corrosion resistance, to analyze the surface condition and to characterize the nitride layer of the sintered and sintered/plasma-nitrided Fe-1.5% Mo alloy in Mg(NO32 0.5mol.L-1 solution (pH 7.0. The sintered/plasma-nitrided samples presented a higher corrosion resistance, indicating that the surface treatment improved the electrochemical properties of the sintered material. In addition, the nitride layer formed at 500 °C showed better corrosion resistance that the layers formed at higher temperatures. This difference can be ascribed to the nitrogen content in the nitride layer, which at 500°C is higher due to the formation of a phase rich in nitrogen (epsilon phase while at higher temperatures a phase poor in nitrogen (gamma' phase is formed.

  1. Microstructure and Properties of Spark Plasma Sintered Aluminum Containing 1 wt.% SiC Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila Kayode Aliyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The low hardness and strength of aluminum, which limits its use in many industrial applications, could be increased through the addition of nanoparticles. However, the appropriate processing method and parameters should be carefully selected in order to achieve the desired improvement in properties. In this work, aluminum was reinforced with low weight fraction (1 wt.% of SiC nanoparticles and consolidated through spark plasma sintering. The effect of processing parameters on the densification, microstructure, and properties of the processed material was investigated. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS facility was used to characterize the microstructure and analyze the reinforcement’s distribution in sintered samples. Phases present were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD. A densimeter and a digital microhardness tester were used to measure the density and hardness, respectively. Compressive tests were performed using universal testing machine. A fully dense Al-1 wt.% SiC sample was obtained. Analysis of density and hardness values showed that the influence of applied pressure was more pronounced than heating rate while the influence of sintering temperature was more significant than sintering time. Within the range of parameters used, the highest values of the characterized properties were obtained at a sintering temperature of 600 °C, sintering time of 10 min, pressure of 50 MPa, and heating rate of 200 °C/min.

  2. Fe-Zn intermetallic phases prepared by diffusion annealing and spark-plasma sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, P.; Cinert, Jakub; Pala, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2016), s. 253-256 ISSN 1580-2949 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Fe-Zn intermetallics * spark-plasma sintering * diffusion annealing * phase composition * hardness Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 0.436, year: 2016

  3. Spark plasma-sintered Sn-based intermetallic alloys and their Li-storage studies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nithyadharseni, P

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, SnSb, SnSb/Fe, SnSb/Co, and SnSb/Ni alloy powders processed by co-precipitation were subjected to spark plasma-sintering (SPS) at 400 °C for 5 min. The compacts were structurally and morphologically characterized by X...

  4. Applying "Spark Plasma Sintering" Technology to Enhance the Resistance to Contact Fatigue of Sintered Steel Based on Astaloy CRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodziňák, D.; Čerňan, J.; Puchý, V.

    2017-12-01

    The article deals with the effect of porosity on the contact fatigue of sintered material type Astaloy CrL with 0.3 and 0.4% C. Sets of samples were used with densities beginning from the value of 7000 kg.m-3 to the value of almost 7859 kg.m-3 which represents almost zero porosity (compact material). It has been found out that the increase of compacting pressure applied simultaneously with temperature results in the reduction of porosity from the value of 9.10% to 0.0005% and increase in hardness from 145 to 193 HV10, depending on the carbon content. Logically there is also an increase in the fatigue life by the contact fatigue tests for the value of 50×106 cycles from the value of 900 MPa to 1150 MPa for samples with 0.3% of C and from 900 MPa to 1300 MPa for samples with 0.4% C. These investigations were also carried out in the past, but to achieve the reduction of porosity, different technonologies were used at each level such as double pressing, hot pressing, saturation, hot forging, etc. In this case, the single technology of "spark plasma sintering" making use of compacting at high temperatures is capable to continuously reduce porosity to zero.

  5. Al2O3-TiC Composite Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering Process: Evaluation of Mechanical and Tribological Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Chaubey, A. K.; Bathula, Sivaiah; Prashanth, K. G.; Dhar, Ajay

    2018-03-01

    Al2O3-10TiC composites were synthesized by spark plasma sintering (SPS) process. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the composite reveal homogeneous distribution of the fine TiC particles in the matrix. The samples were produced with different sintering temperature, and it shows that the hardness and density gradually increases with increasing sintering temperature. Abrasion wear test result reveals that the composite sintered at 1500 °C shows high abrasion resistance (wt. loss 0.016 g) and the lowest abrasion resistance was observed for the composite sample sintered at 1100 °C (wt. loss 1.459 g). The profilometry surface roughness study shows that sample sintered at 1100 °C shows maximum roughness ( R a = 6.53 µm) compared to the sample sintered at 1500 °C ( R a = 0.66 µm) corroborating the abrasion wear test results.

  6. Al2O3-TiC Composite Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering Process: Evaluation of Mechanical and Tribological Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Chaubey, A. K.; Bathula, Sivaiah; Prashanth, K. G.; Dhar, Ajay

    2018-01-01

    Al2O3-10TiC composites were synthesized by spark plasma sintering (SPS) process. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the composite reveal homogeneous distribution of the fine TiC particles in the matrix. The samples were produced with different sintering temperature, and it shows that the hardness and density gradually increases with increasing sintering temperature. Abrasion wear test result reveals that the composite sintered at 1500 °C shows high abrasion resistance (wt. loss 0.016 g) and the lowest abrasion resistance was observed for the composite sample sintered at 1100 °C (wt. loss 1.459 g). The profilometry surface roughness study shows that sample sintered at 1100 °C shows maximum roughness (R a = 6.53 µm) compared to the sample sintered at 1500 °C (R a = 0.66 µm) corroborating the abrasion wear test results.

  7. Grain growth control and transparency in spark plasma sintered self-doped alumina materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, M.; Fernandez, A.; Menendez, J.L.; Torrecillas, R.

    2009-01-01

    Doping alumina particles with aluminum alkoxides allows dense spark plasma sintered (SPSed) materials to be obtained that have a refined grain size compared to pure materials, which is critical for their transparency. An optical model considering pore and grain size distributions has been developed to obtain information about porosity in dense materials. This work suggests that the atomic diffusion mechanisms do not depend on the sintering technique. A reduction in the activation energy by a factor of 2 has been found in SPSed materials.

  8. Sintering of Fine Particles in Suspension Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Latka, Leszek; Goryachev, Sergey B.; Kozerski, Stefan; Pawlowski, Lech

    2010-01-01

    Suspension plasma spraying is a process that enables the production of finely grained nanometric or submicrometric coatings. The suspensions are formulated with the use of fine powder particles in water or alcohol with some additives. Subsequently, the suspension is injected into plasma jet and the liquid additives evaporate. The remaining fine solids are molten and subsequently agglomerate or remain solid, depending on their trajectory in the plasma jet. The coating’s microstructure results ...

  9. Localized Overheating Phenomena and Optimization of Spark-Plasma Sintering Tooling Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darold G. Martin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper shows the application of a three-dimensional coupled electrical, thermal, mechanical finite element macro-scale modeling framework of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS to an actual problem of SPS tooling overheating, encountered during SPS experimentation. The overheating phenomenon is analyzed by varying the geometry of the tooling that exhibits the problem, namely by modeling various tooling configurations involving sequences of disk-shape spacers with step-wise increasing radii. The analysis is conducted by means of finite element simulations, intended to obtain temperature spatial distributions in the graphite press-forms, including punches, dies, and spacers; to identify the temperature peaks and their respective timing, and to propose a more suitable SPS tooling configuration with the avoidance of the overheating as a final aim. Electric currents-based Joule heating, heat transfer, mechanical conditions, and densification are imbedded in the model, utilizing the finite-element software COMSOL™, which possesses a distinguishing ability of coupling multiple physics. Thereby the implementation of a finite element method applicable to a broad range of SPS procedures is carried out, together with the more specific optimization of the SPS tooling design when dealing with excessive heating phenomena.

  10. Fabrication and Spark Plasma Sintering of Magnetic alpha-Fe/MgO Nanocomposite by Mechanical Alloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Hyo

    2016-02-01

    Solid-state reduction has occurred during mechanical alloying of a mixture of Fe2O3 and Mg powders at room temperature. It is found that magnetic nanocomposite in which MgO is dispersed in alpha-Fe matrix with nano-sized grains is obtained by mechanical alloying of Fe2O3 with Mg for 30 min. Consolidation of the ball-milled powders was performed in a spark plasma sintering (SPS) machine up to 800-1000 degrees C. X-ray diffraction result shows that the average grain size of alpha-Fe in a-Fe/MgO nanocomposite sintered at 800 degrees C is in the range of 110 nm. It can be also seen that the coercivity of SPS sample sintered at 800 degrees C is still high value of 88 Oe, suggesting that the grain growth of magnetic alpha-Fe phase during SPS process tends to be suppressed.

  11. Zirconium carbonitride pellets by internal sol gel and spark plasma sintering as inert matrix fuel material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Marcus; Cologna, Marco; Cambriani, Andrea; Somers, Joseph; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Inert matrix fuel is a fuel type where the fissile material is blended with a solid diluent material. In this work zirconium carbonitride microspheres have been produced by internal sol gel technique, followed by carbothermal reduction. Material nitride purities in the produced materials ranged from Zr(N0.45C0.55) to Zr(N0.74C0.26) as determined by X-ray diffraction and application of Vegard's law. The zirconium carbonitride microspheres have been pelletized by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and by conventional cold pressing and sintering. In all SPS experiments cohesive pellets were formed. Maximum final density reached by SPS at 1700 °C was 87% theoretical density (TD) compared to 53% TD in conventional sintering at 1700 °C. Pore sizes in all the produced pellets were in the μm scale and no density gradients could be observed by computer tomography.

  12. Spark plasma sintering of ceramic matrix composite based on alumina, reinforced by carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, A. A.; Khasanov, A. O.; Danchenko, V. A.; Khasanov, O. L.

    2017-12-01

    Alumina composites reinforced with 3 vol.% multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The influence of sintering temperature (1400-1600 °C) on the composites microstructure and mechanical properties was investigated. Microstructure observations of the composite shows that some CNTs site along alumina grains boundary, while others embed into the alumina grains and shows that CNTs bonded strongly with the alumina matrix contributing to fracture toughness and microhardness increase. MWCNTs reinforcing mechanisms including CNT pull-out and crack deflection were directly observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). For Al2O3/CNT composite sintered at 1600 °C, fracture toughness and microhardness are 4.93 MPa·m1/2 and 23.26 GPa respectively.

  13. Experimental measurements of the thermal conductivity of ash deposits: Part 2. Effects of sintering and deposit microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. L. Robinson; S. G. Buckley; N. Yang; L. L. Baxter

    2000-04-01

    The authors report results from an experimental study that examines the influence of sintering and microstructure on ash deposit thermal conductivity. The measurements are made using a technique developed to make in situ, time-resolved measurements of the effective thermal conductivity of ash deposits formed under conditions that closely replicate those found in the convective pass of a commercial boiler. The technique is designed to minimize the disturbance of the natural deposit microstructure. The initial stages of sintering and densification are accompanied by an increase in deposit thermal conductivity. Subsequent sintering continues to densify the deposit, but has little effect on deposit thermal conductivity. SEM analyses indicates that sintering creates a layered deposit structure with a relatively unsintered innermost layer. They hypothesize that this unsintered layer largely determines the overall deposit thermal conductivity. A theoretical model that treats a deposit as a two-layered material predicts the observed trends in thermal conductivity.

  14. Impact of variable frequency microwave and rapid thermal sintering on microstructure of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Cauchois, Romain; Saadaoui, Mohamed; Yakoub, Abdelwahhab; Inal, Karim; Dubois-Bonvalot, Béatrice; Fidalgo, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The effect of thermal profile on microstructure is studied in the frame of thin films deposited by inkjet-printing technology. The role of sintering temperature and thermal ramp is particularly investigated. Fast heating ramps exhibit coarse grains and pores, especially when a hybrid microwave curing is performed. This enhanced growth is attributed to the quick activation of densifying sintering regimes without undergoing thermal energy loss at low temperature. Microst...

  15. Sintering and thermal ageing studies of zirconia - yttria ceramics by impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florio, Daniel Zanetti de

    1998-01-01

    ZrO 2 :8 mol %Y 2 O 3 solid electrolyte ceramic pellets have been prepared with powders of three different origins: a Nissan (Japan) commercial powder, a powder obtained by the coprecipitation technique at IPEN, and the mixing of powder oxides (ZrO 2 produced at a Pilot Plant at IPEN and 99.9% pure Y 2 O 3 of USA origin). These starting powders have been analysed by the following techniques: X-ray fluorescence for yttrium content, X-ray diffraction for structural phase content, sedimentation for particle size distribution, gas adsorption (BET) for surface area determination, and transmission electron microscopy for average particle size determination. Pressed ceramic pellets have been analysed by dilatometry to evaluate the sintering stages. Sintered pellets have been characterized by X-ray diffraction for phase analysis and scanning electron microscopy for grain morphology analysis. Impedance spectroscopy analysis have been carried out to follow thermal ageing of zirconia-yttria solid electrolyte at 600 deg C, the working temperature of permanent oxygen sensor, and to study sintering kinetics. The main results show that ageing at 600 deg C decreases the emf sensor response in the first 100 h to a steady value. Moreover, sintering studies by impedance spectroscopy allowed for finding correlations between electrical parameters, sintering kinetics and grain growth mechanisms. (author)

  16. Magnetic microstructure and magnetic properties of spark plasma sintered NdFeB magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.L., E-mail: hyl1019_lin@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Wang, Y.; Hou, Y.H.; Wang, Y.L.; Wu, Y.; Ma, S.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Liu, Z.W.; Zeng, D.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tian, Y.; Xia, W.X. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhong, Z.C., E-mail: zzhong2014@sina.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)

    2016-02-01

    Nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique using melt-spun ribbons as starting materials. A distinct two-zone structure with coarse grain zone and fine grain zone was formed in the SPSed magnets. Multi-domain particle in coarse grain zone and exchange interaction domain for fine grain zone were observed. Intergranular non-magnetic phase was favorable to improve the coercivity due to the enhancement of domain wall pinning effects and increased exchange-decouple. The remanent polarization of 0.83 T, coercivity of 1516 kA/m, and maximum energy product of 118 kJ/m{sup 3} are obtained for an isotropic magnet. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets were prepared by spark plasma sintering technique. • Multi-domain particle and exchange interaction domain were observed. • Magnetic microstructure and their relation to the properties were investigated.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of aluminium–alumina micro- and nano-composites by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, K., E-mail: khushbudash@gmail.com; Chaira, D.; Ray, B.C.

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: The evolution of microstructure by varying the particle size of reinforcement in the matrix employing spark plasma sintering has been demonstrated here in Al–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. An emphasis has been laid on varying the reinforcement particle size and evaluating the microstructural morphologies and their implications on mechanical performance of the composites. Nanocomposites of 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7 volume % alumina (average size < 50 nm) reinforced in aluminium matrix were fabricated by powder metallurgy route using spark plasma sintering technique technique at a temperature of 773 K and pressure of 50 MPa. Another set of specimens having composition 1, 5, 20 vol.% of alumina (average size ∼ 10 μm) had been fabricated to compare the physical as well as mechanical attributes of the microcomposite as well as the nanocomposites. These micro- and nano-composites have been characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy followed by density, microhardness and nanoindentation measurements. The alumina nanoparticles revealed an interface showing appreciable physical intimacy with the aluminium matrix compared to that of the alumina microparticles. The interfacial integrity in case of nanocomposites is better than in the microcomposite which has been studied using microscopic techniques. Spark plasma sintering imparts enhanced densification as well as matrix-reinforcement proximity which has been corroborated with the experimental results. - Highlights: • The Al–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} micro- and nano-composites fabricated by spark plasma sintering. • Better matrix-reinforcement integrity in nanocomposites than microcomposites. • Spark plasma sintering method results in higher density and hardness values. • High density and hardness values of nanocomposites than microcomposites. • High dislocation density in spark plasma sintered Al–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites. - Abstract: In the

  18. Thermal Conductivity of Foam Glasses Prepared using High Pressure Sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    The increasing focus on better building insulation is important to lower energy consumption. Development of new and improved insulation materials can contribute to solving this problem. Foam glass has a good insulating effect due to its large gas volume (porosity >90 %). It can be produced with o...... the thermal conductivity varies with gas composition. This allows us to determine the contribution of the gas and solid phase to the total thermal conductivity of a foam glass....

  19. Improved magnetic properties and thermal stabilities of Pr-Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets by Hf addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qingzheng; Lei, Weikai; Zeng, Qingwen; Quan, Qichen; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Renhui; Hu, Xianjun; He, Lunke; Qi, Zhiqi; Ju, Zhihua; Zhong, Minglong; Ma, Shengcan; Zhong, Zhenchen

    2018-05-01

    Nd2Fe14B-type permanent magnets have been widely applied in various fields such as wind power, voice coil motors, and medical instruments. The large temperature dependence of coercivity, however, limits their further applications. We have systematically investigated the magnetic properties, thermal stabilities and coercivity mechanisms of the (Pr0.2Nd0.8)13Fe81-xB6Hfx (x=0, 0.5) nanocrystalline magnets fabricated by a spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The results indicate that the influence of Hf addition is significant on magnetic properties and thermal stabilities of the (PrNd)2Fe14B-type sintered magnets. It is shown that the sample with x = 0.5 at 300 K has much higher coercivity and remanent magnetization than those counterparts without Hf. The temperature coefficients of remanence (α) and coercivity (β) of the (Pr0.2Nd0.8)13Fe81-xB6Hfx magnets are improved significantly from -0.23 %/K, -0.57 %/K for the sample at x = 0 to -0.17 %/K, -0.49 %/K for the sample at x = 0.5 in the temperature range of 300-400 K. Furthermore, it is found out that the domain wall pinning mechanism is more likely responsible for enhancing the coercivity of the (Pr0.2Nd0.8)13Fe81-xB6Hfx magnets.

  20. Nanocrystalline Al7075+1 wt % Zr Alloy Prepared Using Mechanical Milling and Spark Plasma Sintering.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molnárová, O.; Málek, P.; Veselý, J.; Šlapáková, M.; Minárik, P.; Lukáč, František; Chráska, Tomáš; Novák, P.; Průša, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 9 (2017), č. článku 1105. ISSN 1996-1944 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-15609S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : gas atomization * mechanical milling * spark plasma sintering * microstructure * microhardness * recrystallization Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 2.654, year: 2016 http://www.readcube.com/articles/10.3390/ma10091105

  1. Spark Plasma Sintering of a Gas Atomized Al7075 Alloy: Microstructure and Properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molnárová, O.; Málek, P.; Lukáč, František; Chráska, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 12 (2016), č. článku 1004. ISSN 1996-1944 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-15609S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : gas atomized Al7075 alloy * spark plasma sintering * microstructure * microhardness * high temperature stability Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.654, year: 2016 http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/9/12/1004

  2. Plasma debinding and pre-sintering of injected parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Maria Antônia dos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of polypropylene removal in injected metallic parts by using plasma technology are presented. The samples were injected with 55.18% Vol. of unalloyed iron powder, 23.57% Vol. of paraffin and 21.25% Vol. of polypropylene. The paraffin was previously removed in hexane bath, followed by a treatment in abnormal glow discharge of argon and hydrogen for the removal of the polypropylene. The electric discharge was generated in two configurations: a confined anode-cathode with the samples placed on the anode and a confined grid (anode-cathode system with the sample placed on a holder at floating potential inside the grid. In the first geometry, electrons bombarded the sample surface, while in the second, they are collected by the grid. The samples were characterized by mass loss measurements and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the hydrogen discharge was more efficient for both configurations, which is attributed to the high reactivity of hydrogen atoms produced in the discharge. In addition, when plasma debinding was performed at 400 ºC for 10 min, by using the confined anode-cathode configuration, the polypropylene removal was total, while in the confined grid (anode-cathode geometry the removal was approximately 32%. The higher polypropylene removing observed in the anode-cathode configuration is attributed to electron bombardment of the surface of the sample.

  3. Nanostructured Al-ZrAl{sub 3} materials consolidated via spark plasma sintering: Evaluation of their mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, C.; Belzunce, F.J.; Betegon, C. [Escuela Politecnica de Ingenieria (University of Oviedo), Campus Universitario, 33203 Gijon (Spain); Goyos, L. [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN-CSIC-UNIOVI-PA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas-Universidad de Oviedo-Principado de Asturias, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Llanera (Spain); Diaz, L.A., E-mail: la.diaz@cinn.es [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN-CSIC-UNIOVI-PA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas-Universidad de Oviedo-Principado de Asturias, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Llanera (Spain); Torrecillas, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN-CSIC-UNIOVI-PA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas-Universidad de Oviedo-Principado de Asturias, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Llanera (Spain)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A surface modification of aluminium powders was carried out by means of a colloidal process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These powders were consolidated and sintered by spark plasma sintering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Regarding the dwell time at the sintering temperature (625 Degree-Sign C), ZrAl{sub 3} intermetallic crystallizes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanical behaviour of this reinforcement was evaluated by Small Punch Test. - Abstract: Aluminium based nanostructured materials with additions of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 wt.% of zirconium have been produced and sintered using the spark plasma sintering technique in order to promote the nucleation of ZrAl{sub 3} platelets. The mechanical behaviour of all these nanocomposites was determined by means of the Small Punch Test. Zirconium additions significantly decrease the mechanical properties of these products when sintering time at the sintering temperature (625 Degree-Sign C) is short (3 min). Nevertheless, when the sintering time increases to 1 h (intermetallic crystallization), the zirconium additions show the expected effect: the stiffness and the yield strength increase while ductility and toughness decrease. The maximum load increases until a 0.5 wt.% Zr is attained and suddenly drops when the Zr content surpasses 1 wt.%.

  4. Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering and Mechanical Properties of Zirconium Diboride–Titanium Diboride Ultrahigh Temperature Ceramic Solid Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthiselva N. S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrahigh temperature ceramics (UHTCs such as diborides of zirconium, hafnium tantalum and their composites are considered to be the candidate materials for thermal protection systems of hypersonic vehicles due to their exceptional combination of physical, chemical and mechanical properties. A composite of ZrB2-TiB2 is expected to have better properties. In this study, an attempt has been made to fabricate ZrB2-TiB2 ceramics using mechanically activated elemental powders followed by reactive spark plasma sintering (RSPS at 1400 °C. Microstructure and phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffractometer (XRD and electron microscopy to understand microstructure evolution. Fracture toughness and hardness were evaluated using indentation methods. Nanoindentation was used to measure elastic modulus. Compressive strength of the composites has been reported.

  5. Sintering of B{sub 4}C powder obtained by a modified carbo-thermal reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, R.M.; Kazumi, M.H.; Goncalves, D.P.; Melo, F.C.L. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA) - Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco, Praca Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50 Campus do CTA - Vila das Acacias, 12228-904 Sao Jose dos Campos-SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Boron carbide is one of the hardest materials and a highly refractory material that is of great interest for structural, electronic and nuclear applications. B{sub 4}C is commercially manufactured by the carbo-thermal reduction of a mixture of boron oxide (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in an batch electric arc furnace process. However the carbo-thermal reaction on the stoichiometric starting composition results an excess carbon residue because of the boron loss in the form of B{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Thus, a modified carbo-thermal reaction is applied with an excess B{sub 2}O{sub 3} to compensate the loss and to obtain stoichiometric powders. The aim of this work is to study the sinterability of this powder with the lower carbon residue acting as sintering additive. Pressureless sintering in the temperatures of 1900 deg. C/30 min and 2100 deg. C/30 min in argon atmosphere were applied. The synthesized powders were analysed by XRD and SEM. Density of 94% of theoretical density was achieved for sample prepared with the powder obtained with 50% B{sub 2}O{sub 3} excess synthesized at 1700 deg. C/15 min. (authors)

  6. Synthesis of dense yttrium-stabilised hafnia pellets for nuclear applications by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrpekl, Vaclav; Holzhäuser, Michael; Hein, Herwin; Vigier, Jean-Francois; Somers, Joseph; Svora, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Densification of HfO 2 –Y 2 O 3 micro-beads by Spark Plasma Sintering High density pellets with homogenous distribution of Hf and Y serve as neutron absorbers. - Abstract: Dense yttrium–stabilised hafnia pellets (91.35 wt.% HfO 2 and 8.65 wt.% Y 2 O 3 ) were prepared by spark plasma sintering consolidation of micro-beads synthesised by the “external gelation” sol–gel technique. This technique allows a preparation of HfO 2 –Y 2 O 3 beads with homogenous yttria–hafnia solid solution. A sintering time of 5 min at 1600 °C was sufficient to produce high density pellets (over 90% of the theoretical density) with significant reproducibility. The pellets have been machined in a lathe to the correct dimensions for use as neutron absorbers in an experimental test irradiation in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, Holland, in order to investigate the safety of americium based nuclear fuels

  7. A Comparative Study on SiC-B4C-Si Cermet Prepared by Pressureless Sintering and Spark Plasma Sintering Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahani, P.; Karak, S. K.; Mishra, B.; Chakravarty, D.; Chaira, D.

    2016-06-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC)-boron carbide (B4C) based cermets were doped with 5, 10, and 20 wt pct Silicon (Si) and their sinterability and properties were investigated for conventional sintering at 2223 K (1950 °C) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1623 K (1350 °C). An average particle size of ~3 µm was obtained after 10 hours of milling. There is an enhancement of Vickers microhardness in the 10 wt pct Si sample from 18.10 in conventional sintering to 27.80 GPa for SPS. The relative density, microhardness, and indentation fracture toughness of the composition SiC60(B4C)30Si10 fabricated by SPS are 98 pct, 27.80 GPa, and 3.8 MPa m1/2, respectively. The novelty of the present study is to tailor the wettability and ductility of the cermet by addition of Si into the SiC-B4C matrix. Better densification with improved properties is achieved for cermets consolidated by SPS at lower temperatures than conventional sintering.

  8. Alumina-carbon nanofibers nanocomposites obtained by spark plasma sintering for proton exchange membrane fuel cell bipolar plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, A.; Torrecillas, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN) Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad de Oviedo, Principado de Asturias, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Llanera Asturias (Spain); Rocha, V.G.; Fernandez, A. [ITMA Materials Technology, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Llanera Asturias (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    There is an increasing demand of multifunctional materials for a wide variety of technological developments. Bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells are an example of complex functionality components that must show among other properties high mechanical strength, electrical, and thermal conductivity. The present research explored the possibility of using alumina-carbon nanofibers (CNFs) nanocomposites for this purpose. In this study, it was studied for the first time the whole range of powder compositions in this system. Homogeneous powders mixtures were prepared and subsequently sintered by spark plasma sintering. The materials obtained were thoroughly characterized and compared in terms of properties required to be used as bipolar plates. The control on material microstructure and composition allows designing materials where mechanical or electrical performances are enhanced. A 50/50 vol.% alumina-CNFs composite appears to be a very promising material for this kind of application. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Spark Plasma Sintering As a Solid-State Recycling Technique: The Case of Aluminum Alloy Scrap Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, Dimos; Vanmeensel, Kim; Vleugels, Jef; Dewulf, Wim; Deng, Yelin; Duflou, Joost R

    2014-08-06

    Recently, "meltless" recycling techniques have been presented for the light metals category, targeting both energy and material savings by bypassing the final recycling step of remelting. In this context, the use of spark plasma sintering (SPS) is proposed in this paper as a novel solid-state recycling technique. The objective is two-fold: (I) to prove the technical feasibility of this approach; and (II) to characterize the recycled samples. Aluminum (Al) alloy scrap was selected to demonstrate the SPS effectiveness in producing fully-dense samples. For this purpose, Al alloy scrap in the form of machining chips was cold pre-compacted and sintered bellow the solidus temperature at 490 °C, under elevated pressure of 200 MPa. The dynamic scrap compaction, combined with electric current-based joule heating, achieved partial fracture of the stable surface oxides, desorption of the entrapped gases and activated the metallic surfaces, resulting in efficient solid-state chip welding eliminating residual porosity. The microhardness, the texture, the mechanical properties, the microstructure and the density of the recycled specimens have been investigated. An X-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis confirmed the density measurements, revealing a void-less bulk material with homogeneously distributed intermetallic compounds and oxides. The oxide content of the chips incorporated within the recycled material slightly increases its elastic properties. Finally, a thermal distribution simulation of the process in different segments illustrates the improved energy efficiency of this approach.

  10. Investigation of microstructure and irradiation behavior of W–Nb/Ti composites prepared by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing-Bo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Luo, Lai-Ma, E-mail: luolaima@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); National–Local Joint Engineering Research Centre of Nonferrous Metals and Processing Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Zhao, Mei-Ling [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Xu, Qiu [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka-Fu 590-0494 (Japan); Zan, Xiang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); National–Local Joint Engineering Research Centre of Nonferrous Metals and Processing Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Wu, Yu-Cheng, E-mail: ycwu@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); National–Local Joint Engineering Research Centre of Nonferrous Metals and Processing Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2016-11-15

    W–Nb/Ti composites were prepared by machine milling and spark plasma sintering. Field–emission scanning electron microscopy, high–resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analyses were used to characterize the samples. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was used to measure the deuterium retention after only deuterium irradiation. The deuterium retention in W–4wt%Ti–wt1%Nb was lower than that in pure W (D{sub 2}{sup +} flux ∼10{sup 22} ions/(m{sup 2} s), ion energy ∼5 keV), Nb and Ti will improve the deuterium irradiation resistance of tungsten composite. In addition, transgranular and intergranular fractures were observed on the surface of the W–4 wt% Ti–1 wt% Nb composite. A Ti{sub (X)}W{sub (1−X)} solid solution was formed during sintering. The maximum tensile strength (410.53 MPa) was detected in the W–4wt%Ti–1wt%Nb composite at 600 °C.

  11. Spark Plasma Sintering As a Solid-State Recycling Technique: The Case of Aluminum Alloy Scrap Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimos Paraskevas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, “meltless” recycling techniques have been presented for the light metals category, targeting both energy and material savings by bypassing the final recycling step of remelting. In this context, the use of spark plasma sintering (SPS is proposed in this paper as a novel solid-state recycling technique. The objective is two-fold: (I to prove the technical feasibility of this approach; and (II to characterize the recycled samples. Aluminum (Al alloy scrap was selected to demonstrate the SPS effectiveness in producing fully-dense samples. For this purpose, Al alloy scrap in the form of machining chips was cold pre-compacted and sintered bellow the solidus temperature at 490 °C, under elevated pressure of 200 MPa. The dynamic scrap compaction, combined with electric current-based joule heating, achieved partial fracture of the stable surface oxides, desorption of the entrapped gases and activated the metallic surfaces, resulting in efficient solid-state chip welding eliminating residual porosity. The microhardness, the texture, the mechanical properties, the microstructure and the density of the recycled specimens have been investigated. An X-ray computed tomography (CT analysis confirmed the density measurements, revealing a void-less bulk material with homogeneously distributed intermetallic compounds and oxides. The oxide content of the chips incorporated within the recycled material slightly increases its elastic properties. Finally, a thermal distribution simulation of the process in different segments illustrates the improved energy efficiency of this approach.

  12. Evaluation of the Particle Bonding for Aluminum Sample Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tünçay, Mehmet Masum; Nguyen, Lucie; Hendrickx, Philippe; Brochu, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is a powder metallurgy process that sinters powder materials within a short time by simultaneous application of electrical current and pressure. SPS differs from other conventional powder metallurgy processes by its heating mechanism, which is Joule heating of the sample within a graphite die. This study investigates the consolidation of aluminum powder by SPS. Different pressures were used and particle bonding evaluated by means of fracture surface analysis. Electrical resistance, obtained from online monitoring of the variation of voltage and current during the process, showed an enhanced descent at 0.3 T m, and the area under this drop was associated with ductility: the greater the area, the higher the ductility. This temperature corresponds to a significant increase in the hardness ratio of the oxide layer to aluminum, where breakdown of the oxide layer becomes easier, permitting enhanced metallurgical bonding between the powder particles.

  13. Spark Plasma Sintering of Low Alloy Steel Modified with Silicon Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebda M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of adding different amounts of silicon carbide on the properties (density, transverse rupture strength, microhardness and corrosion resistance and microstructure of low alloy steel was investigated. Samples were prepared by mechanical alloying (MA process and sintered by spark plasma sintering (SPS technique. After the SPS process, half of each of obtained samples was heat-treated in a vacuum furnace. The results show that the high-density materials have been achieved. Homogeneous and fine microstructure was obtained. The heat treatment that followed the SPS process resulted in an increase in the mechanical and plastic properties of samples with the addition 1wt. % of silicon carbide. The investigated compositions containing 1 wt.% of SiC had better corrosion resistance than samples with 3 wt.% of silicon carbide addition. Moreover, corrosion resistance of the samples with 1 wt.% of SiC can further be improved by applying heat treatment.

  14. Mechanical characterization of cemented carbide WC-6Co (%wt) manufactured by SPS (Spark Plasma Sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boidi, G.; Tertuliano, A.J.; Machado, I.F.

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to manufacture cemented carbide (WC-6%wtCo) obtained by SPS (Spark Plasma Sintering) process and to carry out the mechanical characterization by hardness and fracture toughness. The material was consolidated at 1100 deg C for different holding times (1 min, 5 min, 10 min), in order to evaluate the densification. A reference sample was also used to be compared to SPS. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were carried out to characterize the microstructural features of the samples and mechanical properties were obtained by hardness measurements (micro and macro) and instrumented indentation. The fracture toughness was calculated with the method of Palmqvist. Best results were found in the material sintered by SPS for 10 minutes of holding time, in which 97% of relative density and about 1600 HV 10 was reached. (author)

  15. Dynamic Fracture Toughness of TaC/CNTs/SiC CMCs Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoyun Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the fracture toughness of TaC and carbon nanotubes (CNTs reinforced SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs, prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS technique. A high densification of 98.4% was achieved under the sintering parameter of 133°C/min, 1800°C, and 90 MPa pressure. Vickers indentation was employed to measure the indentation toughness on the polished surface of ceramic samples, SEM was applied to directly observe the crack propagation after indentation, and split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB was developed to determine the dynamic fracture toughness within the ceramic samples subjected to an impact in a three-point bending configuration.

  16. Thermal Influence of CNT on the Polyamide 12 Nanocomposite for Selective Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaming Bai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The thermal influence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs on the PA12 in the laser sintering process was assessed by physical experiments and a three dimensional simulation model. It appears that, by adding the CNTs into the PA12 matrix, the thermal conductivity increased. A double ellipsoidal heat flux model was applied to input a three dimensional, continuous moving, volumetric laser heat source. The predicted three dimensional temperature distributions suggested that the laser heat was conducted wider and deeper in the PA12-CNT sample than PA12. Greater heat conduction can reduce the interspace between two successive layers, and result in the increase of the parts’ density and properties.

  17. The effect of spark plasma sintering on lithium disilicate glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mansour, Fatima; Karpukhina, Natalia; Grasso, Salvatore; Wilson, Rory M; Reece, Mike J; Cattell, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of spark plasma sintering (SPS) on the microstructure of lithium disilicate glass-ceramics. IPS e.max CAD glass-ceramic samples were processed using spark plasma sintering (SPS) and conventionally sintered (CS) as a comparison. Specimens were sintered at varying temperatures (T1: 840°C, T2: 820°C, T3: 800°C), heating rates (HR1: 150°C/min, HR2: 300°C/min, HR3: 500°C/min) and pressures (P1: 15MPa, P2: 50MPa, P3: 70MPa). IPS e.max Press glass powder samples were densified at 750 and 800°C (50 or 200MPa pressure). Samples were characterized using XRD, HTXRD, and SEM and quantitative image analysis. There was a significant increase in median crystal size (MCS) between the CS and the SPS T1 groups. A statistical difference (p>0.05) in MCS between SPS T1 and SPS T2 groups was observed. The SPS HR3 sample produced a smaller MCS than the CS, SPS HR1 and HR2 groups (pglass samples resulted in fine fibrils or graduated lithium disilicate crystals. The effects of SPS were used to refine the microstructure of IPS e.max CAD lithium disilicate glass-ceramics. Densification by SPS of IPS e.max Press glass resulted in textured and fine nano-crystalline microstructures. SPS generated glass-ceramic microstructures may have unique properties and could be useful in the production of CAD/CAM materials for dentistry. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultrafine WC-Ni cemented carbides fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong Huiyong [School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences at Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Peng Zhijian, E-mail: pengzhijian@cugb.edu.cn [School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences at Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Ren Xiaoyong; Peng Ying; Wang Chengbiao; Fu Zhiqiang [School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences at Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Qi Longhao; Miao Hezhuo [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrafine WC-Ni cemented carbides with average WC grain size of about 330 nm prepared by combination of sparking plasma sintering and grain growth inhibitors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Very short mean free path of about 22 nm for crack in metal binder of the obtained materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher hardness than those of WC-Co cemented carbide counterparts sintered by rapid sintering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Observation of fracture along metal binder and no carbon-carbon fracture face. - Abstract: With VC and TaC as WC grain growth inhibitors, ultrafine WC-Ni cemented carbides with different fractions (6-10 wt%) of binder metal nickel were fabricated by utilizing high energy milling together with spark plasma sintering. In the obtained samples, only WC and Ni phases were detected in X-ray diffraction limit. The microstructure of the specimens was examined on fractural, polished, and polished/etched surfaces by scanning electron microscopy, and the results revealed that the average WC grain size of the WC-Ni cemented carbides was about 330 nm, and there were lots of micro-pores in the samples. The relative density of the samples was all higher than 92%. But the measurement of hardness and flexural strength indicated that the existence of micro-pores had no significant influence on the performance of the obtained materials. On the basis of observation on the micro-fracture surface of the samples, it was found that fractures occurred along the binder metal, and the obtained ultrafine WC-Ni cemented carbides showed a very short binder mean free path (about 22 nm), thus resulting in excellent performance in mechanical strength.

  19. The Influence of Spark Plasma Sintering Temperature on the Microstructure and the Thermoelectric Properties of Al, Ga dually-doped ZnO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li; Le, Thanh Hung; Van Nong, Ngo

    2012-01-01

    Al, Ga dually-doped ZnO was prepared by spark plasma sintering with different sintering temperatures. The microstructural evolution and thermoelectric properties of the samples were investigated in detail. The samples with a sintering temperature above 1223K obtained higher relative densities...

  20. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Highly Alloyed FeCrMoVC Steel Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung-Jin; Jun, Joong-Hwan; Lee, Min-Ha; Shon, In-Jin; Lee, Seok-Jae

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we successfully fabricated highly alloyed FeCrMoVC specimens within 2 min by using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. The densities of the sintered specimens were almost identical to their theoretical values. Fine (Mo, V)-rich carbides with lamellar structure were precipitated along the grain boundaries of the as-sintered specimen, whereas relatively large carbides were formed additionally in the transgranular region during the tempering treatment. Compared with the specimen produced by a conventional casting method, the FeCrMoVC specimens from SPS showed smaller grain size with finer carbides and higher hardness values.

  1. Production of high-strength Al85Y8Ni5Co2 bulk alloy by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surreddi, K B; Scudino, S; Sakaliyska, M; Eckert, J; Srivastava, V C; Uhlenwinkel, V; Kim, J S

    2010-01-01

    Highly dense bulk samples were produced by spark plasma sintering (SPS) through combined devitrification and consolidation of partially amorphous Al 85 Y 8 Ni 5 Co 2 gas atomized powders. The microstructure of the consolidated samples shows a mixed structure containing crystalline, ultrafine-grained and amorphous/nanocrystalline particles. The sintered sample exhibits a remarkable high strength of about 1050 MPa combined with 3.7 % fracture strain.

  2. Prediction of heating rate controlled viscous flow activation energy during spark plasma sintering of amorphous alloy powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Tanaji; Harimkar, Sandip P.

    2017-07-01

    The viscous flow behavior of Fe-based amorphous alloy powder during isochronal spark plasma sintering was analyzed under the integrated theoretical background of the Arrhenius and directional structural relaxation models. A relationship between viscous flow activation energy and heating rate was derived. An extension of the pertinent analysis to Ti-based amorphous alloys confirmed the broad applicability of such a relationship for predicting the activation energy for sintering below the glass transition temperature (T g) of the amorphous alloy powders.

  3. The Influence of Spark Plasma Sintering Temperature on the Microstructure and Thermoelectric Properties of Al,Ga Dual-Doped ZnO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li; Le, Thanh Hung; Van Nong, Ngo

    2013-01-01

    ZnO dual-doped with Al and Ga was prepared by spark plasma sintering using different sintering temperatures. The microstructural evolution and thermoelectric properties of the samples were investigated in detail. The samples obtained with sintering temperature above 1223 K had higher relative den...... of ZnO particles and microstructure evolution at different sintering temperatures were investigated by simulation of the self-Joule-heating effect of the individual particles....

  4. Formation of High Temperature Compounds in W-C-B System by Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Grabis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The formation of high temperature composites in W-C-Bsystem from fine-grained powders in dependence on the ratio of components byusing reactive spark plasma sintering was studied. The mixture of W2Cand C nanoparticles was used as tungsten and carbon precursors. The W2Cand carbon mixture with different ratio of components was prepared by reductionof WO3 in presence of CH4 in nitrogen inductively coupledplasma. The specific surface area of the mixture was in the range of 36–42 m2/gin dependence on the content of carbon. The W2C and carbon particleswere mixed mechanically with amorphous boron and densified using the sparkplasma sintering technique at 1500–1700 oC and pressure of 30 MPafor 4 minutes. The sintered bodies contained WB2 and B4Cphases. The ratio of phase depends on the content of the components in the rawmixture.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7352

  5. Ceramic-intermetallic composites produced by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering

    CERN Document Server

    Cabanas-Moreno, J G; Martínez-Sanchez, R; Delgado-Gutierrez, O; Palacios-Gomez, J; Umemoto, M

    1998-01-01

    Nano-and microcomposites of intermetallic (Co/sub 3/Ti, AlCo/sub 2 /Ti) and ceramic (TiN, Ti(C, N), Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) phases have been produced by spark plasma sintering (SPS) of powders resulting from mechanical alloying of Al-Co-Ti elemental powder mixtures. The mechanically alloyed powders consisted of mixtures of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases which, on sintering, transformed into complex microstructures of the intermetallic and ceramic phases. For Al contents lower than about 30 at% in the original powder mixtures, the use of SPS led to porosities of 1-2% in the sintered compacts and hardness values as high as ~1700 kg/mm/sup 2/; in these cases, the composite matrix was TiN and Ti(C, N), with the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ phase found as finely dispersed particles in the matrix and the Co /sub 3/Ti and AlCo/sub 2/Ti phases as interdispersed grains. (19 refs).

  6. UO2 fuel pellets fabrication via Spark Plasma Sintering using non-standard molybdenum die

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papynov, E. K.; Shichalin, O. O.; Mironenko, A. Yu; Tananaev, I. G.; Avramenko, V. A.; Sergienko, V. I.

    2018-02-01

    The article investigates spark plasma sintering (SPS) of commercial uranium dioxide (UO2) powder of ceramic origin into highly dense fuel pellets using non-standard die instead of usual graphite die. An alternative and formerly unknown method has been suggested to fabricate UO2 fuel pellets by SPS for excluding of typical problems related to undesirable carbon diffusion. Influence of SPS parameters on chemical composition and quality of UO2 pellets has been studied. Also main advantages and drawbacks have been revealed for SPS consolidation of UO2 in non-standard molybdenum die. The method is very promising due to high quality of the final product (density 97.5-98.4% from theoretical, absence of carbon traces, mean grain size below 3 μm) and mild sintering conditions (temperature 1100 ºC, pressure 141.5 MPa, sintering time 25 min). The results are interesting for development and probable application of SPS in large-scale production of nuclear ceramic fuel.

  7. Plasma dynamic synthesis of ultradispersed zinc oxide and sintering ceramics on its basis by SPS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanenkova, Yu; Sivkov, A.; Ivashutenko, A.; Shanenkov, I.; Firsov, K.

    2017-05-01

    Zinc oxide is a well-known semiconductor material having good electrical, optical and catalytic properties. It can be used in different areas from cosmetics to drug delivery and biosensors. The synthesis of nanosized zinc oxide is an urgent task for obtaining ZnO-based ceramics with enhanced physical properties. This work shows the possibility to implement the plasma dynamic synthesis of zinc oxide in one short-term process (less than 1 ms) using an electrodischarge zinc-containing plasma jet, flowing into oxygen atmosphere. It allows synthesizing a mono-crystalline powder with particle size distribution from tens to hundred nanometers. The synthesized powdered product is investigated using by X-Ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. According to XRD, the obtained product consists of hexagonal zinc oxide with lattice parameters a = b = 3.24982 Å, c = 5.20661 Å that is clearly confirmed by microscopy data. This powder was used to produce a bulk ceramics sample on its basis by spark plasma sintering. The influence of sintering parameters on the structure of the resulting sample was studied. The optimal parameters were found which allows obtaining the more dense ceramics with a better microstructure. It was also found that the absence of exposure time after reaching the working temperature and pressure allows decreasing the porosity of ceramics.

  8. Inkjet printed paper based frequency selective surfaces and skin mounted RFID tags: The interrelation between silver nanoparticle ink, paper substrate and low temperature sintering technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Romaguera, V.; Wünscher, S.; Turki, B.M.; Abbel, R.; Barbosa, S.; Tate, D.J.; Oyeka, D.; Batchelor, J.C.; Parker, E.A.; Schubert, U.S.; Yeates, S.G.

    2015-01-01

    Inkjet printing of functional frequency selective surfaces (FSS) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags on commercial paper substrates using silver nanoparticle inks sintered using low temperature thermal, plasma and photonic techniques is reported. Printed and sintered FSS devices

  9. Influences of spark plasma sintering temperature on the microstructures and thermoelectric properties of (Sr0.95Gd0.05)TiO3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang-Liang; Qin, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Yong-Fei; Liu, Quan-Zhen

    2015-06-01

    (Sr0.95Gd0.05)TiO3 (SGTO) ceramics are successfully prepared via spark plasma sintering (SPS) respectively at 1548, 1648, and 1748 K by using submicron-sized SGTO powders synthesized from a sol-gel method. The densities, microstructures, and thermoelectric properties of the SGTO ceramics are studied. Though the Seebeck coefficient shows no obvious difference in the case that SPS temperatures range from 1548 K to 1648 K, the electrical conductivity and the thermal conductivity increase remarkably due to the increase in grain size and density. The sample has a density higher than 98% theoretical density as the sintering temperature increases up to 1648 K and shows average grain sizes increasing from ˜ 0.7 μm to 7 μm until 1748 K. As a result, the maximum of the dimensionless figure of merit of ˜ 0.24 is achieved at ˜ 1000 K for the samples sintered at 1648 K and 1748 K, which was ˜ 71% larger than that (0.14 at ˜ 1000 K) for the sample sintered at 1548 K due to the enhancement of the power factor. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174292, 51101150, and 11374306).

  10. Nanostructured tetragonal barium titanate produced by the polyol and spark plasma sintering (SPS) route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Salas, Ulises; Breitwieser, Romain; Gaudisson, Thomas; Nowak, Sophie; Ammar, Souad; Valenzuela, Raúl

    2017-10-01

    There is a great interest to synthesize ferroelectric ceramics both with fine grain size and significant electric properties. Here, we report the preparation of nanostructured tetragonal barium titanate by combining forced hydrolysis of metallic salts in polyol, soft annealing and 650 °C spark plasma sintering under uniaxial pressure of 120 MPa for 5 min. The stabilization of highly dense (density of 90%), nanostructured (grains about 50 nm) tetragonal barium titanate ceramic was achieved. The produced ceramic exhibited ferroelectric behavior and a dielectric permittivity of 3600 at 1 kHz and room temperature.

  11. Effect of cryogenic milling on Al7075 prepared by spark plasma sintering method.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukáč, František; Chráska, Tomáš; Molnárová, O.; Málek, P.; Cinert, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 32, S1 (2017), S221-S224 ISSN 0885-7156. [European Powder Diffraction Conference (EPDIC) /15./. Bari, 12.06.2016-15.06.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-15609S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Intermetallic precipitates * cryogenic milling * powder metallurgy * ultrafine-grained materials * Al7075 alloy Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 0.674, year: 2016 https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/powder-diffraction/article/effect-of-cryogenic-milling-on-al7075-prepared-by-spark-plasma-sintering-method/17E9F722BAFD428BA7310194FEE551C6

  12. Barium titanate nanometric polycrystalline ceramics fired by spark plasma sintering.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Ryukhtin, Vasyl; Cinert, Jakub; Lukáč, František

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 14 (2016), s. 15989-15993 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : BaTiO3 * Spark plasma sintering * Electrical properties Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass; JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass (UJF-V) Impact factor: 2.986, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272884216311695

  13. Surprising synthesis of nanodiamond from single-walled carbon nanotubes by the spark plasma sintering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Ali; Ham, Heon; Na, Han Gil; Kwon, Yong Jung; Kang, Sung Yong; Choi, Myung Sik; Bang, Jae Hoon; Park, No-Hyung; Kang, Inpil; Kim, Hyoun Woo

    2016-10-01

    Nanodiamond (ND) was successfully synthesized using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as a pure solid carbon source by means of a spark plasma sintering process. Raman spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the generation of the cubic diamond phase by means of the SPS process. Lattice-resolved TEM images confirmed that diamond nanoparticles with a diameter of about ˜10 nm existed in the products. The NDs were generated mainly through the gas-phase nucleation of carbon atoms evaporated from the SWCNTs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Implosive Thermal Plasma Source for Energy Conversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šonský, Jiří; Tesař, Václav; Gruber, Jan; Mašláni, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2017), s. 87-90 ISSN 2336-2626 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : implosion * thermal plasma * detonation wave Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (UFP-V) OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics); Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) (UFP-V) https://ppt.fel.cvut.cz/ppt2017.html#number1

  15. Reactivity of plasma-sintered beryllium in dry air and moisture at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan, E-mail: kim.jaehwan@jaea.go.jp; Nakamichi, Masaru

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Plasma-sintered Be was fabricated to clarify its reactivity. • Parabolic oxidation of Be was predominant up to 1173 K along the grain boundary. • Activation energy in temperature range of parabolic oxidation was 52 kJ/mol. • Introduction of 1% water vapor facilitated breakaway in Be oxidation. - Abstract: Beryllium (Be) metal is a candidate material of not only neutron-multiplier for fusion reactors but also a water-cooled target material for an accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy. To investigate its reactivity in dry air and 1% H{sub 2}O/Ar at 873–1273 K, Be samples were fabricated by a novel plasma-sintering method proposed herein. Because of its reactivity in dry atmosphere, parabolic oxidation of Be along grain boundaries was predominant up to 1173 K at an activation energy of 52 kJ/mol, while catastrophic oxidation occurred at 1273 K. The introduction of H{sub 2}O facilitated breakaway in Be oxidation. Hence, the weight and H{sub 2} concentration of Be tested in 1% H{sub 2}O/Ar dramatically increased from 973 K, while samples tested for 24 h were completely oxidized in appearance.

  16. Nanoclay/Polymer Composite Powders for Use in Laser Sintering Applications: Effects of Nanoclay Plasma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansoori, Alaa; Majewski, Candice; Rodenburg, Cornelia

    2017-11-01

    Plasma-etched nanoclay-reinforced Polyamide 12 (PA12) powder is prepared with its intended use in selective laser sintering (LS) applications. To replicate the LS process we present a downward heat sintering (DHS) process, carried out in a hot press, to fabricate tensile test specimens from the composite powders. The DHS parameters are optimized through hot stage microscopy, which reveal that the etched clay (EC)-based PA12 (EC/PA12) nanocomposite powder melts at a temperature 2°C higher than that of neat PA12, and 1-3°C lower than that of the nonetched clay-based nanocompsite (NEC/PA12 composite). We show that these temperature differences are critical to successful LS. The distribution of EC and NEC onto PA12 is investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images show clearly that the plasma treatment prevents the micron-scale aggregation of the nanoclay, resulting in an improved elastic modulus of EC/PA12 when compared with neat PA12 and NEC/PA12. Moreover, the reduction in elongation at break for EC/PA12 is less pronounced than for NEC/PA12.

  17. Thermal Plasma Generators with Water Stabilized Arc

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2009), s. 99-104 ISSN 1876-5343 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * plasma torch * Gerdien arc Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.bentham.org/open/toppj/openaccess2.htm

  18. PHOTOEMISSION METHOD OF TEMPERATURE MEASURING IN THE PROCESS OF SPARK PLASMA SINTERING POWDERS OF REFRACTORY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Minko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction and algorithm of the photoemission pyrometer based on a photomultiplier are outlined; the calibration procedure is set out. The application of the photoemission method in a rapidly changing temperature is showed. It is proved that during spark plasma sintering the maximal temperature is 5500– 7500 °C, while the speed of temperature increase to its maximum ~108–109 °C/s, and the rate of decrease to 2000–4000 °C may be 106–107 °C/sec. It is recommended to use photoemission method when developing technological conditions, adjustment and control of technological processes using modern high-energy equipment (plasma, laser, cathode-ray tube to produce new materials, coatings and products for mechanical engineering, electronic industry and medicine.

  19. Powder-metallurgy preparation of NiTi shape-memory alloy using mechanical alloying and spark-plasma sintering.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, P.; Moravec, H.; Vojtěch, V.; Knaislová, A.; Školáková, A.; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Kopeček, Jaromír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2017), s. 141-144 ISSN 1580-2949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03044S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : mechanical alloying * spark plasma sintering * NiTi * shape memory alloy Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy; JG - Metallurgy (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Materials engineering ; Materials engineering (FZU-D) Impact factor: 0.436, year: 2016 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313900224_Powder-metallurgy_preparation_of_NiTi_shape-memory_alloy_using_mechanical_alloying_and_spark-plasma_sintering

  20. Spark plasma sintering of hydrothermally derived ultrafine Ca doped lanthanum chromite powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendón-Angeles, J. C.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Lanthanum chromite nano-particles, with a composition of La0.9Ca0.1CrO3 and La0.8Ca0.2CrO3, were produced by 1 h of hydrothermal reaction at 400 and 425°C respectively. The sintering of the powders was conducted using a spark plasma apparatus over the temperature range 1300-1550ºC for 1 min with a constant loading pressure of 45 MPa. Additional sintering experiments using conventional firing were carried out for comparison. Fully densified (98 % r.d. lanthanum chromite pellets with fine equiaxial grains 2.3 μm in size were obtained using the SPS (spark plasma sintering method. In contrast, a maximum relative density of 97 % was produced using La0.8Ca0.2CrO3 sintered conventionally at 1400ºC for 300 min, and the average grain size of the resulting sintered sample was 6 μm.

    Partículas ultrafinas de cromita de lantano, con una composición de La0.9Ca0.1CrO3 y La0.8Ca0.2CrO3, se obtuvieron después de 1 hora de síntesis hidrotermal a las temperaturas de 400 y 425°C respectivamente. Los compuestos obtenidos, con un tamaño de partícula de ~ 200 nm, se caracterizaron utilizando las técnicas de DRX, MEB y MET. La sinterización de estos polvos se efectuó en un equipo de chispa de plasma en el rango de temperatura de 1300-1500°C durante 1 min, y a una presión de compactación de 45 MPa. Ambos polvos también se sinterizaron siguiendo un tratamiento térmico convencional, en aire, con el propósito de comparar ambos métodos de sinterización. Las muestras de cromita de lantano sinterizadas por plasma presentaban una densidad relativa del 98 % (/t; y una microestructura monofásica con granos equaxiales con un tamaño medio de grano menor de 2.3 μm. En contraste, la composición La0.8Ca0.2CrO3, sinterizada a 1400°C/300 min, por métodos convencionales alcanzó una densidad relativa máxima del 97 % y su microestructura estaba formada por una sola fase con un tamaño medio de grano de 6 μm.

  1. Thermal Stability of Silver Paste Sintering on Coated Copper and Aluminum Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Chun; Chen, Chuantong; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Fu, Guicui

    2018-01-01

    The thermal stability of silver (Ag) paste sintering on coated copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) substrates has been investigated. Instead of conventional zincating or nickel plating, magnetron sputtering was used to achieve coating with titanium (Ti) and Ag. Silicon (Si) chips were bonded to coated Cu and Al substrates using a mixture of submicron Ag flakes and particles under 250°C and 0.4 MPa for 30 min. The joints were then subject to aging testing at 250°C for duration of 200 h, 500 h, and 1000 h. Two types of joints exhibited satisfactory initial shear strength above 45 MPa. However, the shear strength of the joints on Al substrate decreased to 28 MPa after 1000 h of aging, while no shear strength decline was detected for the joints on Cu substrate. Fracture surface analysis revealed that the vulnerable points of the two types of joints were (1) the Ag layer and (2) the interface between the Ti layer and Cu substrate. Based on the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and simulations, cracks in the Ag layer were identified as the cause of the shear strength degradation in the joints on Al substrate. The interface evolution of the joints on Cu substrate was ascribed to Cu migration and discontinuity points that initialized in the Ti layer. This study reveals that Al exhibited superior thermal stability with sintered Ag paste.

  2. Magnetic and structural properties of spark plasma sintered nanocrystalline NdFeB-powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, H., E-mail: holger.wuest@de.bosch.com [Robert Bosch GmbH, Postfach 10 60 50, 70049 Stuttgart (Germany); Bommer, L., E-mail: lars.bommer@de.bosch.com [Robert Bosch GmbH, Postfach 10 60 50, 70049 Stuttgart (Germany); Weissgaerber, T., E-mail: thomas.weissgaerber@ifam-dd.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Branch Lab Dresden, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Kieback, B., E-mail: bernd.kieback@ifam-dd.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Branch Lab Dresden, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Institute for Materials Science, Helmholtzstraße 7, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Near-stoichiometric NdFeB melt-spun ribbons have been subjected to spark plasma sintering varying the process temperature T{sub SPS} and pressure p{sub SPS} between 600 and 800 °C and 50–300 MPa, respectively. Produced bulk magnets were analyzed regarding microstructure and magnetic properties. For all samples the intrinsic coercivity H{sub c,J} gradually decreases with increasing sintering temperature and pressure, while residual induction B{sub r} increases simultaneously with sample density. Densities close to the theoretical limit were achieved for p{sub SPS}≥90 MPa and T{sub SPS}≥650 °C. With increasing T{sub SPS} precipitations of Nd-rich and Fe-rich phases have been observed as a result of a decomposition of the hard magnetic Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase. Under optimum sintering conditions of p{sub SPS}=300 MPa and T{sub SPS}=650 °C high-density bulk magnets with H{sub c,J}=652 kA/m, B{sub r}=0.86 T and (BH){sub max}=106 kJ/m{sup 3} have been produced. - Highlights: • Consolidation close to the theoretical density for p{sub SPS}≥90 MPa and T{sub SPS}≥650 °C. • Highest (BH){sub max} of 106 kJ/m{sup 3} for p{sub SPS}=300 MPa and T{sub SPS}=650 °C with 98% theo. • H{sub c,J} gradually decreases with increasing T{sub SPS}, while B{sub r} increases simultaneously with. • With increasing T{sub SPS}, Nd- and Fe-rich precipitations are observed. • Reduction in t{sub SPS} is economic but does not increase (BH){sub max} significantly.

  3. Production and corrosion resistance of NdFeBZr magnets with an improved response to thermal variations during sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.Q.; Zhong, X.L.; Zhang, Y.P.; Yan, Y.G.; Zhen, Y.H.; Zakotnik, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes an attempt to produce NdFeB magnets that are insensitive to the sintering temperature. It was found that addition of Zr to NdFeB magnets significantly augmented the thermal stability of this magnetic material during sintering at high temperature even at industrial scale. The best sintered magnets were produced by jet-milling the powder (to achieve an average 3.4 μm particle size), and then aligned, pressed and sintered under argon at 1100 o C for 3 h followed by appropriate heat treatment. The magnetic properties of the resulting magnets were: (BH) m =403.8 kJ m -3 (±4.7 kJ m -3 ), B r =1430 mT (±9 mT) and i H c =907 kA m -1 (±12 kA m -1 ). Large grain growth, in excess of 100 μm in the Zr-free magnets, was observed during sintering at 1100 o C. This did not occur in the presence of Zr. These observations imply that the sensitivity of this class of magnets to high sintering temperatures is greatly reduced by Zr addition. Corrosion resistance of NdFeB was therefore significantly improved by the addition of small amounts of Zr. - Research highlights: →This study describes an attempt to produce NdFeB magnets that are insensitive to the sintering temperature. → It was found that addition of Zr to NdFeB magnets significantly augmented the thermal stability of this magnetic material during sintering at high temperature; even at industrial scale. → The magnetic properties of the resulting magnets were: (BH) m =403.8 kJ m -3 (±4.7 kJ m -3 ), B r =1430 mT (±9 mT) and i H c =907 kA m -1 (±12 kA m -1 ).

  4. In vitro cell-biological performance and structural characterization of selective laser sintered and plasma surface functionalized polycaprolactone scaffolds for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Bael, Simon, E-mail: simon.vanbael@mech.kuleuven.be [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Production Engineering, Machine Design and Automation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300b, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Biomechanics and Engineering Design, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300c, bus 2419, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Prometheus, Division of Skeletal Tissue Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, O and N 1, Herestraat 49, bus 813, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Desmet, Tim [Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S4 Bis, Ghent, 9000 (Belgium); Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ghent University, Jozef Plateaustraat 22, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Chai, Yoke Chin [Prometheus, Division of Skeletal Tissue Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, O and N 1, Herestraat 49, bus 813, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Pyka, Gregory [Prometheus, Division of Skeletal Tissue Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, O and N 1, Herestraat 49, bus 813, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, bus 2450, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dubruel, Peter [Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S4 Bis, Ghent, 9000 (Belgium); Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ghent University, Jozef Plateaustraat 22, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Kruth, Jean-Pierre [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Production Engineering, Machine Design and Automation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300b, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Schrooten, Jan [Prometheus, Division of Skeletal Tissue Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, O and N 1, Herestraat 49, bus 813, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-08-01

    In the present study a structural characterization and in vitro cell-biological evaluation was performed on polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds that were produced by the additive manufacturing technique selective laser sintering (SLS), followed by a plasma-based surface modification technique, either non-thermal oxygen plasma or double protein coating, to functionalize the PCL scaffold surfaces. In the first part of this study pore morphology by means of 2D optical microscopy, surface chemistry by means of hydrophilicity measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, strut surface roughness by means of 3D micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging and scaffold mechanical properties by means of compression testing were evaluated before and after the surface modifications. The results showed that both surface modifications increased the PCL scaffold hydrophilicity without altering the morphological and mechanical properties. In the second part of this study the in vitro cell proliferation and differentiation of human osteoprogenitor cells, over 14 days of culture in osteogenic and growth medium were investigated. The O{sub 2} plasma modification gave rise to a significant lower in vitro cell proliferation compared to the untreated and double protein coated scaffolds. Furthermore the double protein coating increased in vitro cell metabolic activity and cell differentiation compared to the untreated and O{sub 2} plasma PCL scaffolds when OM was used. - Highlights: • Polycaprolactone scaffolds are produced with selective laser sintering. • 2 types of plasma based surface functionalization were applied. • Plasma had no significant effect on strut roughness and pore morphology. • Plasma improved surface hydrophilicity. • In vitro cell differentiation increased with plasma protein coated functionalization.

  5. In vitro cell-biological performance and structural characterization of selective laser sintered and plasma surface functionalized polycaprolactone scaffolds for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Bael, Simon; Desmet, Tim; Chai, Yoke Chin; Pyka, Gregory; Dubruel, Peter; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Schrooten, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In the present study a structural characterization and in vitro cell-biological evaluation was performed on polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds that were produced by the additive manufacturing technique selective laser sintering (SLS), followed by a plasma-based surface modification technique, either non-thermal oxygen plasma or double protein coating, to functionalize the PCL scaffold surfaces. In the first part of this study pore morphology by means of 2D optical microscopy, surface chemistry by means of hydrophilicity measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, strut surface roughness by means of 3D micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging and scaffold mechanical properties by means of compression testing were evaluated before and after the surface modifications. The results showed that both surface modifications increased the PCL scaffold hydrophilicity without altering the morphological and mechanical properties. In the second part of this study the in vitro cell proliferation and differentiation of human osteoprogenitor cells, over 14 days of culture in osteogenic and growth medium were investigated. The O 2 plasma modification gave rise to a significant lower in vitro cell proliferation compared to the untreated and double protein coated scaffolds. Furthermore the double protein coating increased in vitro cell metabolic activity and cell differentiation compared to the untreated and O 2 plasma PCL scaffolds when OM was used. - Highlights: • Polycaprolactone scaffolds are produced with selective laser sintering. • 2 types of plasma based surface functionalization were applied. • Plasma had no significant effect on strut roughness and pore morphology. • Plasma improved surface hydrophilicity. • In vitro cell differentiation increased with plasma protein coated functionalization

  6. Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS)-Assisted Synthesis and Thermoelectric Characterization of Magnéli Phase V6O11

    KAUST Repository

    Joos, Markus

    2018-01-11

    The Magnéli phase V6O11 was synthesized in gram amounts from a powder mixture of V6O11/V7O13 and vanadium metal, using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. Its structure was determined with synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data from a phase-pure sample synthesized by conventional solid-state synthesis. A special feature of Magnéli-type oxides is a combination of crystallographic shear and intrinsic disorder that leads to relatively low lattice thermal conductivities. SPS prepared V6O11 has a relatively low thermal conductivity of κ = 2.72 ± 0.06 W (m K)-1 while being a n-type conductor with an electrical conductivity of σ = 0.039 ± 0.005 (μΩ m)-1, a Seebeck coefficient of α = -(35 ± 2) μV K-1, which leads to a power factor of PF = 4.9 ± 0.8 × 10-5W (m K2)-1 at ∼600 K. Advances in the application of Magnéli phases are mostly hindered by synthetic and processing challenges, especially when metastable and nanostructured materials such as V6O11 are involved. This study gives insight into the complications of SPS-assisted synthesis of complex oxide materials, provides new information about the thermal and electrical properties of vanadium oxides at high temperatures, and supports the concept of reducing the thermal conductivity of materials with structural building blocks such as crystallographic shear (CS) planes.

  7. Development of a TiAl Alloy by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couret, Alain; Voisin, Thomas; Thomas, Marc; Monchoux, Jean-Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is a consolidated powder metallurgy process for which the powder sintering is achieved through an applied electric current. The present article aims to describe the method we employed to develop a TiAl-based alloy adjusted for this SPS process. Owing to its enhanced mechanical properties, this alloy was found to fully match the industrial specifications for the aeronautic and automotive industries, which require a high strength at high temperature and a reasonably good ductility at room temperature. A step-by-step method was followed for this alloy development. Starting from a basic study on the as-SPSed GE alloy (Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb) in which the influence of the microstructure was studied, the microstructure-alloy composition relationships were then investigated to increase the mechanical properties. As a result of this study, we concluded that tungsten had to be the major alloying element to improve the resistance at high temperature and a careful addition of boron would serve the properties at room temperature. Thus, we developed the IRIS alloy (Ti-48Al-2W-0.08B). Its microstructure and mechanical properties are described here.

  8. Low modulus and bioactive Ti/α-TCP/Ti-mesh composite prepared by spark plasma sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Tan, Yanni; Liu, Yong; Liu, Shifeng; Zhou, Rui; Tang, Hanchun

    2017-11-01

    A titanium mesh scaffold composite filled with Ti/α-TCP particles was prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The microstructures and interfacial reactions of the composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The compressive strength and elastic modulus were also measured. In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility was evaluated by using simulated body fluid and cells culture, respectively. After high temperature sintering, Ti oxides, Ti x P y and CaTiO 3 were formed. The formation of Ti oxides and Ti x P y were resulted from the diffusion of O and P elements from α-TCP to Ti. CaTiO 3 was the reaction product of Ti and α-TCP. The composite of 70Ti/α-TCP incorporated with Ti mesh showed a high compressive strength of 589MPa and a low compressive modulus of 30GPa. The bioactivity test showed the formation of a thick apatite layer on the composite and well-spread cells attachment. A good combination of mechanical properties and bioactivity indicated a high potential application of Ti/α-TCP/Ti-mesh composite for orthopedic implants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Tribological Behavior of Spark Plasma Sintered Aluminum-Graphene Composites at Room and Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rengifo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs as a solid lubricant additive to aluminum. Pure Al and Al-2 vol % GNP pellets are sintered by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS. Their tribological properties are evaluated by a ball-on-disk tribometer at room temperature (RT and high temperature (200 °C. Al-2 vol % GNP composite displayed poor densification (91% and low hardness, resulting in poor wear resistance as compared to pure Al. However GNP addition resulted in a lower coefficient of friction (COF as compared to pure aluminum at both temperatures. The results demonstrated that GNPs contribute to reducing COF by forming a protective tribolayer. GNPs also play a unique role in reducing oxygen ingress at 200 °C. It is concluded that the packing density of a starting powder blend of Al-GNP needs to be improved by using irregular shaped aluminum powder mixed with both larger and smaller GNPs. This would result in greater densification and improve wear rate while maintaining low COF.

  10. Determination of total chlorine and bromine in solid wastes by sintering and inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterlund, Helene; Rodushkin, Ilia; Ylinenjaervi, Karin; Baxter, Douglas C.

    2009-01-01

    A sample preparation method based on sintering, followed by analysis by inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) for the simultaneous determination of chloride and bromide in diverse and mixed solid wastes, has been evaluated. Samples and reference materials of known composition were mixed with a sintering agent containing Na 2 CO 3 and ZnO and placed in an oven at 560 deg. C for 1 h. After cooling, the residues were leached with water prior to a cation-exchange assisted clean-up. Alternatively, a simple microwave-assisted digestion using only nitric acid was applied for comparison. Thereafter the samples were prepared for quantitative analysis by ICP-SFMS. The sintering method was evaluated by analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs) and by comparison with US EPA Method 5050 and ion chromatography with good agreement. Median RSDs for the sintering method were determined to 10% for both chlorine and bromine, and median recovery to 96% and 97%, respectively. Limits of detection (LODs) were 200 mg/kg for chlorine and 20 mg/kg for bromine. It was concluded that the sintering method is suitable for chlorine and bromine determination in several matrices like sewage sludge, plastics, and edible waste, as well as for waste mixtures. The sintering method was also applied for determination of other elements present in anionic forms, such as sulfur, arsenic, selenium and iodine

  11. Thermoelectric transport properties of polycrystalline titanium diselenide co-intercalated with nickel and titanium using spark plasma sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgate, Tim; Zhu, S.; Zhou, M.

    2013-01-01

    Polycrystalline samples of nickel intercalated (0–5%) TiSe2 were attempted via solid-state reaction in evacuated quartz tubes followed by densification using a spark plasma sintering process. X-ray diffraction data indicated that mixed NiSe2 and TiSe2 phases were present after initial synthesis b...

  12. Spark plasma sintered Sm(2)Co(17)-FeCo nanocomposite permanent magnets synthesized by high energy ball milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, G; Gopalan, R; Chandrasekaran, V; Markandeyulu, G; Suresh, K G; Murty, B S

    2008-08-20

    Nanocomposite Sm(2)Co(17)-5 wt% FeCo magnets were synthesized by high energy ball milling followed by consolidation into bulk shape by the spark plasma sintering technique. The evolution of magnetic properties was systematically investigated in milled powders as well as in spark plasma sintered samples. A high energy product of 10.2 MGOe and the other magnetic properties of M(s) = 107 emu g(-1), M(r) = 59 emu g(-1), M(r)/M(s) = 0.55 and H(c) = 6.4 kOe were achieved in a 5 h milled and spark plasma sintered Sm(2)Co(17)-5 wt% FeCo nanocomposite magnet. The spark plasma sintering was carried out at 700 °C for 5 min with a pressure of 70 MPa. The nanocomposite showed a higher Curie temperature of 955 °C for the Sm(2)Co(17) phase in comparison to its bulk Curie temperature for the Sm(2)Co(17) phase (920 °C). This higher Curie temperature can improve the performance of the magnet at higher temperatures.

  13. Quantification of deformation microstructure at ultra-low tensile strain in pure Al prepared by spark plasma sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, C. L.; Zhang, Y. B.; Wul, G. L.

    2017-01-01

    A sample of Al with grain size of 5.1 mu m, prepared by spark plasma sintering, was deformed to a nominal strain of 0.35% under exposure to X-ray synchrotron radiation, allowing spatially resolved orientation measurements to be made during loading by use of a micro-diffraction technique. A signif...

  14. High-strength bulk nano-crystalline silver prepared by selective leaching combined with spark plasma sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, I.; Vojtěch, D.; Michalcová, A.; Kubatík, Tomáš František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 627, March (2015), s. 326-332 ISSN 0921-5093 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Nano-crystalline material * Selective leaching * Silver * Spark plasma sintering * Strength Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 2.647, year: 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2015.01.014

  15. Fabrication of Ni-Ti Alloy by Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis and Spark Plasma Sintering Technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salvetr, P.; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Pignol, D.; Novák, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2017), s. 772-778 ISSN 1073-5615 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : powder metallurgy * Spark plasma sintering Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 1.642, year: 2016

  16. Spark Plasma Sintering of Dielectric Ceramics Zr0.8Sn0.2TiO4

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, P.; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Sedláček, J.; Kotlan, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2016), s. 435-439 ISSN 1392-1320 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : titanates * dielectric ceramics * spark plasma sintering Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.393, year: 2016 http://www.matsc.ktu.lt/index.php/MatSc/article/view/8767

  17. Basic study of Eu.sup.2+./sup.-doped garnet ceramic scintillator produced by spark plasma sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sugiyama, K.; Yanagida, T.; Fujimoto, Y.; Yokota, Y.; Ito, A.; Nikl, Martin; Goto, T.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2012), s. 222-226 ISSN 0925-3467 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Eu 2+ 5d–4f transition * scintillator * spark plasma sintering Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.918, year: 2012

  18. Fabrication And Properties Of Silver Based Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Composite Prepared By Spark Plasma Sintering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations of the obtained nanocomposite materials based on silver with addition of multiwall carbon nanotubes. The powder of carbon nanotubes content from 0.1 to 3 wt. % was produced by application of powder metallurgy methods, through mixing and high-energetic milling, and also chemical methods. Modification of carbon nanotubes included electroless deposition of silver particles on the carbon nanotube active surfaces and chemical reduction with strong reducing agent – sodium borohydride (NaBH4. The obtained powder mixtures were consolidated by SPS – Spark Plasma Sintering method. The formed composites were subjected to tests of relative density, electrical conductivity and electro-erosion properties. Detailed examinations of the structure with application of X-ray microanalysis, with consideration of carbon nanotubes distribution, were also carried out. The effect of manufacturing methods on properties of the obtained composites was observed.

  19. Fabrication of Mg2Si thermoelectric materials by mechanical alloying and spark-plasma sintering process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Hyo; Lee, Seong-Hee; Chun, Sung-Yong; Lee, Sang-Jin

    2006-11-01

    A mixture of pure Mg and Si powders with an atomic ratio 2:1 has been subjected to mechanical alloying (MA) at room temperature to prepare the Mg2Si thermoelectric material. Mg2Si intermetallic compound with a grain size of 50 nm can be obtained by MA of Mg66.7Si33.3 powders for 60 hours and subsequently annealed at 620 degrees C. Consolidation of the MA powders was performed in a spark plasma sintering (SPS) machine using graphite dies up to 800-900 degrees C under 50 MPa. The shrinkage of consolidated samples during SPS was significant at about 250 degrees and 620 degrees C. X-ray diffraction data shows that the SPS compact from 60 h MA powders consolidated up to 800 degrees C consists of only nanocrystalline Mg2Si compound with a grain size of 100 nm.

  20. Mechanical and magnetic properties of semi-Heusler/light-metal composites consolidated by spark plasma sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koller, M.; Chráska, Tomáš; Cinert, Jakub; Heczko, Oleg; Kopeček, Jaromír; Landa, Michal; Mušálek, Radek; Rameš, Michal; Seiner, Hanuš; Stráský, J.; Janeček, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 126, July (2017), s. 351-357 ISSN 0264-1275 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388998 Keywords : Metal–metal composites * Spark plasma sintering * Light metals * Ferromagnetic alloys * Mechanical properties Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials; JI - Composite Materials (FZU-D); JI - Composite Materials (UT-L) OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics; Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics (FZU-D); Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics (UT-L) Impact factor: 4.364, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264127517303842?via%3Dih

  1. Mechanical properties of spark plasma sintered Fe-Cr compacts strengthened by nanodispersed yttria particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Peter [TU Dresden (Germany); Heintze, Cornelia [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany). Institute of Safty Research; Bergner, Frank [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Weissgaerber, Thomas [Frauenhofer Institute for Manufacturing and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Dresden (Germany). Branch Lab Powder Metallurgy and Composite Materials; Frauenhofer Institute for Manufacturing and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Dresden (Germany). Department of High Performance Sintered Materials

    2010-07-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthening of high-Cr steels is a well-recognized way to extend the application window including nuclear applications for this class of materials. The experimental investigation of model alloys of less complexity is important in order to separate individual influence factors and to understand the irradiation behaviour. The present work is devoted to the mechanical properties of ODS Fe-9wt%Cr alloys produced by means of spark plasma sintering. The range of material conditions covers contents of nanodispersed yttria of 0 (reference), 0.3 wt%, and 0.6 wt% as well as variations of the milling time. Results obtained for the density, elastic properties, hardness, tensile behaviour, and brittle-ductile transition are reported, and the effect of ODS content and PM process parameters is discussed. (orig.)

  2. Severe reduction of Ni-Zn ferrites during consolidation by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Raul; Gaudisson, Thomas; Ammar, Souad

    2016-02-01

    NiZn ferrites of composition Zn0.7Ni0.3Fe2O4 were synthesized by the polyol method and subsequently consolidated into fine grain, high density ceramics by means of Spark Plasma Sintering at 600 °C for 10 min, under vacuum and applying a uniaxial pressure of 80 MPa. Their saturation magnetization at room temperature exhibited a value far larger ( 71 emu/g) than the value corresponding to the bulk ferrite ( 50 emu/g), and their Curie point showed also an increase of about 210 K, as compared with the bulk value. These results, together with the presence of a small amount of metallic Ni, are interpreted in terms of a departure of Ni from the spinel phase and an associated reduction of ferric to ferrous cations to compensate for Ni loss.

  3. AC conductivity of BiFeO3 ceramics obtained by spark plasma sintering of nanopowder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykov, S. A.; Palchaev, D. K.; Murlieva, Zh. Kh.; Alikhanov, N. M.-R.; Rabadanov, M. Kh.; Gadzhimagomedov, S. Kh.; Kallaev, S. N.

    2017-09-01

    The structure and electrical properties of BiFeO3 ceramics obtained by spark plasma sintering of a nanopowder are investigated. The nanopowder was synthesized by burning of an organic nitrate precursor. The ac conductivity was measured in a frequency range of 1 kHz-10 MHz in a temperature interval of 25-500°C. It is established that the temperature conductivity coefficients above and below 350°C significantly differ with both alternating and direct currents. The frequency dependence of the conductivity obeys the Jonscher power law σ ω s , where s < 1. The interpretation of this behavior is given in the framework of the model of correlated hops of charge carriers over potential barriers. It is assumed that the hopping mechanism is realized between Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions in ceramic grains. The role of oxygen vacancies in the conduction is also discussed.

  4. Preparation of TiMn alloy by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Weidmann, A.; Nebe, B. J.; Burkel, E.

    2009-01-01

    TiMn alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying and subsequently consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique for exploration of biomedical applications. The microstructures, mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the TiMn alloys were investigated in comparison with the pure Ti and Mn metals. Ti8Mn and Ti12Mn alloys with high relative density (99%) were prepared by mechanical alloying for 60 h and SPS at 700 °C for 5 min. The doping of Mn in Ti has decreased the transformation temperature from α to β phase, increased the relative density and enhanced the hardness of the Ti metal significantly. The Ti8Mn alloys showed 86% cell viability which was comparable to that of the pure Ti (93%). The Mn can be used as a good alloying element for biomedical Ti metal, and the Ti8Mn alloy could have a potential use as bone substitutes and dental implants.

  5. The Fabrication of All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries via Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xialu Wei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Spark plasma sintering (SPS has been successfully used to produce all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASSLibs. Both regular and functionally graded electrodes are implemented into novel three-layer and five-layer battery designs together with solid-state composite electrolyte. The electrical capacities and the conductivities of the SPS-processed ASSLibs are evaluated using the galvanostatic charge-discharge test. Experimental results have shown that, compared to the three-layer battery, the five-layer battery is able to improve energy and power densities. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM is employed to examine the microstructures of the batteries especially at the electrode–electrolyte interfaces. It reveals that the functionally graded structure can eliminate the delamination effect at the electrode–electrolyte interface and, therefore, retains better performance.

  6. Microstructural designs of spark-plasma sintered silicon carbide ceramic scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román-Manso, B.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated ceramic inks based on β-SiC powders, with different amounts of Y2O3 and Al2O3 as sintering aids, are developed for the adequate production of SiC scaffolds, with different patterned morphologies, by the Robocasting technique. The densifi cation of the as-produced 3D structures, previously heat treated in air at 600 ºC for the organics burn-out, is achieved with a Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS furnace. The effects of the amount of sintering additives (7 - 20 wt. % and the size of the SiC powders (50 nm and 0.5 μm on the processing of the inks, microstructure, hardness and elastic modulus of the sintered scaffolds, are studied. The use of nano-sized β-SiC powders significantly restricts the attainable maximum solids volume fraction of the ink (0.32 compared to 0.44 of the submicron-sized powders-based ink, involving a much larger porosity of the green ceramic bodies. Furthermore, reduced amounts of additives improve the mechanical properties of the ceramic skeleton; particularly, the stiffness. The grain size and specific surface area of the starting powders, the ink solids content, green porosity, amount of sintering additives and SPS temperatures are the main parameters to be taken into account for the production of these SiC cellular ceramics.Se han fabricado andamiajes de carburo de silicio (SiC usando la técnica de “Robocasting”, a partir de tintas cerámicas conteniendo β-SiC y distintas cantidades de Y2O3 and Al2O3, como aditivos de sinterización. La densificación de las estructuras tridimensionales, previamente calcinadas a 600 ºC para eliminar los aditivos orgánicos, se realizó en un horno de “Spark Plasma Sintering” (SPS. Se analizó el efecto de la cantidad de aditivos de sinterización (7-20 % en peso y del tamaño de partícula inicial del polvo de SiC (50 nm y 0.5 μm en el procesado de las tintas, en la microestructura, la dureza y el módulo elástico de las estructuras sinterizadas. El uso de polvo

  7. Relativistic thermal plasmas - Pair processes and equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightman, A. P.

    1982-01-01

    The work of Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Zel'dovich and Sunyaev (1971) is extended and generalized, through the inclusion of pair-producing photon processes and effects due to the finite size of the plasma, in an investigation of the equilibria of relativistic thermal plasmas which takes into account electron-positron creation and annihilation and photons produced within the plasma. It is shown that the bridge between an effectively thin plasma and an effectively thick plasma occurs in the transrelativistic region, where the dimensionless temperature value is between 0.1 and 1.0 and the temperature remains in this region over a great luminosity range.

  8. Production of dispersed nanometer sized YAG powders from alkoxide, nitrate and chloride precursors and spark plasma sintering to transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, M., E-mail: m.suarez@cinn.e [Departamento de Materiales Nanoestructurados, Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN), Principado de Asturias - Consejo superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) - Universidad de Oviedo - UO, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera, Asturias (Spain); Fernandez, A. [Fundacion ITMA, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428, Llanera (Spain); Menendez, J.L.; Torrecillas, R. [Departamento de Materiales Nanoestructurados, Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN), Principado de Asturias - Consejo superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) - Universidad de Oviedo - UO, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera, Asturias (Spain)

    2010-03-18

    Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) was synthesized from different starting materials, i.e., alkoxide, nitrate and chloride precursors. The conversion steps from the precursors to crystalline YAG were studied by Raman spectroscopy. Dispersed YAG powders were formed at a relatively low temperature, around 800 {sup o}C by the chlorides route, whereas alkoxide precursors needed firing over 900 {sup o}C and nitrates even over 1100 {sup o}C. Lyophilized YAG gel was sintered to transparency by the spark plasma sintering method at 1500 {sup o}C with in-line transmittances close to 60% at 680 nm and over 80% in the infrared range.

  9. Production of dispersed nanometer sized YAG powders from alkoxide, nitrate and chloride precursors and spark plasma sintering to transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, M.; Fernandez, A.; Menendez, J.L.; Torrecillas, R.

    2010-01-01

    Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) was synthesized from different starting materials, i.e., alkoxide, nitrate and chloride precursors. The conversion steps from the precursors to crystalline YAG were studied by Raman spectroscopy. Dispersed YAG powders were formed at a relatively low temperature, around 800 o C by the chlorides route, whereas alkoxide precursors needed firing over 900 o C and nitrates even over 1100 o C. Lyophilized YAG gel was sintered to transparency by the spark plasma sintering method at 1500 o C with in-line transmittances close to 60% at 680 nm and over 80% in the infrared range.

  10. Spark plasma sintering and mechanical properties of $ZrO_{2} (Y_{2}O_{3})-Al_{2}O_{3}$ composites

    CERN Document Server

    Jin Sheng H; Dalla Torre, S; Miyamoto, H; Miyamoto, K

    2000-01-01

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was conducted on nanocrystalline ZrO/sub 2/(Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/)-20 mol% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ powder at a heat rate of 600 degrees C/min with a short holding time. Full density was obtained at sintering temperatures >1300 degrees C. Considerable grain growth occurred relative to the initial powder particles, but smaller grain size and higher density can be obtained as compared to hot-pressing. High flexural strength and fracture toughness were also achieved for the SPS-resulted composite. (8 refs).

  11. Thermal effects in relativistic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldo, C.; Fedele, R.; Angelis, U. de; Bingham, R.

    1990-11-01

    A kinetic approach is used for a description of a plasma in the presence of a large amplitude wave (ie relativistic electrons). The case of a ''small'' momentum spread around an average momentum is considered and corrections to the cold plasma case (zero spread) are given. (author)

  12. Vibrational Order, Structural Properties, and Optical Gap of ZnO Nanostructures Sintered through Thermal Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Londono-Calderon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sintering of different ZnO nanostructures by the thermal decomposition of zinc acetate is reported. Morphological changes from nanorods to nanoparticles are exhibited with the increase of the decomposition temperature from 300 to 500°C. The material showed a loss in the crystalline order with the increase in the temperature, which is correlated to the loss of oxygen due to the low heating rate used. Nanoparticles have a greater vibrational freedom than nanorods which is demonstrated in the rise of the main Raman mode E 2(high during the transformation. The energy band gap of the nanostructured material is lower than the ZnO bulk material and decreases with the rise in the temperature.

  13. Spark Plasma Sintered Si3N4/TiN Nanocomposites Obtained by a Colloidal Processing Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic Si3N4/TiN (22 vol% nanocomposites have been obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS. Our colloidal processing route allows obtaining dispersed nanoparticles of TiN smaller than 50 nm avoiding the presence of agglomerates. The nanostructured starting powders were obtained by using a colloidal method where commercial Si3N4 submicrometer particles were coated with anatase TiO2 nanocrystals. A later nitridation process led to the formation of TiN nanoparticles on the surface of Si3N4. A second set of powders was prepared by doping the above defined powders with yttrium and aluminium precursors using also a colloidal method as sources of alumina and yttria. After thermal nitridation and SPS treatment, it has been found that the addition of oxides dopants improves the mechanical performance (KIC, σf but increases the electrical resistivity and significantly reduces the hardness. This is due to the formation of a continuous insulating glassy phase that totally envelops the conductive TiN nanoparticles, avoiding the percolative contact between them. The combination of colloidal processing route and SPS allows the designing of tailor-made free glassy phase Si3N4/TiN nanocomposites with controlled microstructure. The microstructural features and the thermoelectrical and mechanical properties of both kinds of dense SPSed compacts are discussed in this work.

  14. Processing, Mechanical and Optical Properties of Additive-Free ZrC Ceramics Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Musa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, nearly fully dense monolithic ZrC samples are produced and broadly characterized from microstructural, mechanical and optical points of view. Specifically, 98% dense products are obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS after 20 min dwell time at 1850 °C starting from powders preliminarily prepared by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS followed by 20 min ball milling. A prolonged mechanical treatment up to 2 h of SHS powders does not lead to appreciable benefits. Vickers hardness of the resulting samples (17.5 ± 0.4 GPa is reasonably good for monolithic ceramics, but the mechanical strength (about 250 MPa up to 1000 °C could be further improved by suitable optimization of the starting powder characteristics. The very smoothly polished ZrC specimen subjected to optical measurements displays high absorption in the visible-near infrared region and low thermal emittance at longer wavelengths. Moreover, the sample exhibits goodspectral selectivity (2.1–2.4 in the 1000–1400 K temperature range. These preliminary results suggest that ZrC ceramics produced through the two-step SHS/SPS processing route can be considered as attractive reference materials for the development of innovative solar energy absorbers.

  15. Carbon nanotube and in-situ titanium carbide reinforced titanium diboride matrix composites synthesized by reactive spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthiselva, N.S.; Bakshi, Srinivasa R., E-mail: sbakshi@iitm.ac.in

    2016-04-29

    Mechanically milled powder mixtures of Titanium and Boron containing 1, 2, 4 and 6 vol% multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) were consolidated by reactive spark plasma sintering resulting in TiB{sub 2}-TiC-CNT hybrid composites. Addition of CNT was found to affect the reaction rate for TiB{sub 2} formation which results in sudden volume shrinkage. Rod shaped TiC were formed due to reaction between Ti and CNT. TiB{sub 2}-TiC-CNT hybrid composites having more than 96% relative density with nanosized TiB{sub 2} grains were obtained. XRD results revealed TiB{sub 2} and TiC as major and minor phases respectively. Unreacted CNT were observed in SEM and TEM. TiB{sub 2}-TiC-CNT composites showed nanohardness of above 25 GPa and elastic modulus of 520 GPa. Indentation fracture toughness was improved by 55% (3.3±0.1 to 5.11±0.6) by the addition of 4 vol% of CNT. The effect of CNT addition on oxidation and co-efficient of thermal expansion is also presented.

  16. Relativistic thermal plasmas - Effects of magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, S.; Lightman, A. P.

    1983-01-01

    Processes and equilibria in finite, relativistic, thermal plasmas are investigated, taking into account electron-positron creation and annihilation, photon production by internal processes, and photon production by a magnetic field. Inclusion of the latter extends previous work on such plasmas. The basic relations for thermal, Comptonized synchrotron emission are analyzed, including emission and absorption without Comptonization, Comptonized thermal synchrotron emission, and the Comptonized synchrotron and bremsstrahlung luminosities. Pair equilibria are calculated, including approximations and dimensionless parameters, the pair balance equation, maximum temperatures and field strengths, and individual models and cooling curves.

  17. Immobilization of high level nuclear wastes in sintered glasses. Devitrification evaluation produced with different thermal treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messi de Bernasconi, N.B.; Russo, D.O.; Bevilacqua, M.E.; Sterba, M.E.; Heredia, A.D.; Audero, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This work describes immobilization of high level nuclear wastes in sintered glass, as alternative way to melting glass. Different chemical compositions of borosilicate glass with simulate waste were utilized and satisfactory results were obtained at laboratory scale. As another contribution to the materials studies by X ray powder diffraction analysis, the devitrification produced with different thermal treatments, was evaluated. The effect of the thermal history on the behaviour of fission products containing glasses has been studied by several working groups in the field of high level waste fixation. When the glass is cooled through the temperature range from 800 deg C down to less than 400 deg C (these temperatures are approximates) nucleation and crystal growth can take place. The rate of crystallization will be maximum near the transformation point but through this rate may be low at lower temperatures, devitrification can still occur over long periods of time, depending on the glass composition. It was verified that there can be an appreciable increase in leaching in some waste glass compositions owing to the presence of crystalline phases. On the other hand, other compositions show very little change in leachability and the devitrified product is often preferable as there is less tendency to cracking, particularly in massive blocks of glass. A borosilicate glass, named SG7, which was developed specially in the KfK for the hot pressing of HLW with glass frit was studied. It presents a much enhanced chemical durability than borosolicate glass developed for the melting process. The crystallization behaviour of SG7 glass products was investigated in our own experiments by annealing sintered samples up to 3000 h at temperatures between 675 and 825 deg C. The samples had contained simulated waste with noble metals, since these might act as foreign nuclei for crystallization. Results on the extent of devitrification and time- temperature- transformation curves are

  18. Bulk nanocrystalline Al85Ni10La5 alloy fabricated by spark plasma sintering of atomized amorphous powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, T.T.; Hono, K.; Vierke, J.; Wollgarten, M.; Banhart, J.

    2008-01-01

    Amorphous Al 85 Ni 10 La 5 powders were consolidated to cylindrical samples by spark plasma sintering (SPS), and their microstructures and mechanical properties were investigated. When the powders were consolidated below the crystallization temperature, an amorphous phase was retained in the consolidated sample. Sintering above the crystallization temperature caused full crystallization. The Vickers hardness of the amorphous-containing sample was about 350 HV in the as-sintered state and increased up to 450 HV by a subsequent heat treatment just below the crystallization temperature. The highest hardness was achieved in a nanocrystalline microstructure. Compression tests revealed the brittle nature of the consolidated samples although the fracture and yield strength was higher than 1 GPa. The brittleness is due to the low relative density of the amorphous-containing samples and the presence of a large amount of intermetallic compounds in the fully crystallized sample

  19. Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Spark Plasma Sintered Fe-Based Bulk Metallic Glass/Graphite Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulin Ji

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bulk metallic glass (BMG and BMG-graphite composites were fabricated using spark plasma sintering at the sintering temperature of 575 °C and holding time of 15 min. The sintered composites exhibited partial crystallization and the presence of distributed porosity and graphite particles. The effect of graphite reinforcement on the tribological properties of the BMG/graphite composites was investigated using dry ball-on-disc sliding wear tests. The reinforcement of graphite resulted in a reduction in both the wear rate and the coefficient of friction as compared to monolithic BMG samples. The wear surfaces of BMG/graphite composites showed regions of localized wear loss due to microcracking and fracture, as was also the case with the regions covered with graphite-rich protective film due to smearing of pulled off graphite particles.

  20. Hot isostatic compression sintering and spark plasma sintering of silicon carbides nano-particles synthesized at the pilot scale by laser pyrolysis; Frittage par compression isostatique a chaud (CIC) et spark plasma sintering (SPS) de nanoparticules en carbure de silicium (SiC) synthetisees a echelle pilote par pyrolyse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengeot, C.; Guizard, B.; Tenegal, F. [CEA-Saclay, DRT/ DTNM/LTMEx, batiment 460, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Poissonnet, S.; Boulanger, L. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DMN/SRMP, batiment 520, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Le Flem, M. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DMN/SRMA/LA2M, batiment 453, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Guillard, F. [CNRS/CEMES - 29, avenue Jeanne Marvig P 4347, 055 Toulouse cedex 4 (France)

    2006-07-01

    Silicon carbide particles (20 nm) synthesized by pilot scale laser pyrolysis and previously compacted at more than 1 GPa with or without sintering additions (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) have been sintered by hot isostatic compression and spark plasma. For the sintered samples without additions, densification rates of about 95% have been obtained by hot isostatic compression whereas by spark plasma sintering, these densification rates are inferior to 80%. In presence of additions, with the two methods it has been possible to densify the materials at values near of 100%. The weaker grain size after sintering have been observed for samples sintered by hot isostatic compression (without additions: about 35 nm and with additions: about 100-200 nm) whereas by spark plasma the grain sizes are typically between 100 nm and 1 {mu}m. An estimation of the basic mechanical properties has revealed an optimum of hardness (25 GPa) for sizes of monocrystalline areas of 200 nm corresponding too to an optimum of fracture toughness (6.5 MPa m{sup 1/2}). (O.M.)

  1. Feasibility of Plasma Treated Clay in Clay/Polymer Nanocomposites Powders for use Laser Sintering (LS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansoori, Alaa; Seabright, Ryan; Majewski, C.; Rodenburg, C.

    2017-05-01

    The addition of small quantities of nano-clay to nylon is known to improve mechanical properties of the resulting nano-composite. However, achieving a uniform dispersion and distribution of the clay within the base polymer can prove difficult. A demonstration of the fabrication and characterization of plasma-treated organoclay/Nylon12 nanocomposite was carried out with the aim of achieving better dispersion of clay platelets on the Nylon12 particle surface. Air-plasma etching was used to enhance the compatibility between clays and polymers to ensure a uniform clay dispersion in composite powders. Downward heat sintering (DHS) in a hot press is used to process neat and composite powders into tensile and XRD specimens. Morphological studies using Low Voltage Scanning Electron Microscopy (LV-SEM) were undertaken to characterize the fracture surfaces and clay dispersion in powders and final composite specimens. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) testing performed that the etched clay (EC) is more stable than the nonetched clay (NEC), even at higher temperatures. The influence of the clay ratio and the clay plasma treatment process on the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites was studied by tensile testing. The composite fabricated from (3% EC/N12) powder showed ~19 % improvement in elastic modulus while the composite made from (3% NEC/N12) powder was improved by only 14%). Most notably however is that the variation between tests is strongly reduced when etch clay is used in the composite. We attribute this to a more uniform distribution and better dispersion of the plasma treated clay within polymer powders and ultimately the composite.

  2. Composites of amorphous and nanocrystalline Zr–Cu–Al–Nb bulk materials synthesized by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, P., E-mail: philipp.drescher@uni-rostock.de [Fluidic Technology and Microfluidics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, University of Rostock, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Witte, K. [Physics of New Materials, Institute of Physics, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Yang, B. [Polymer Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Steuer, R.; Kessler, O. [Chair of Materials Science, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, University of Rostock, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Burkel, E. [Physics of New Materials, Institute of Physics, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Schick, C. [Polymer Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Seitz, H. [Fluidic Technology and Microfluidics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, University of Rostock, 18059 Rostock (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The fabrication of Zr{sub 70}Cu{sub 24}Al{sub 4}Nb{sub 2} bulk metallic glass composite samples by spark plasma sintering (SPS) process has been successfully realized. The unique characteristics of bulk metallic glasses could lead to the possibility of future applications as new structural and functional materials. The densification of an amorphous Zr{sub 70}Cu{sub 24}Al{sub 4}Nb{sub 2} powder was realized in a systematic study changing the sintering temperature in the SPS process leading to stable composites characteristic of amorphous and nanocrystalline structures. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as hardness tests were applied to determine the structural and mechanical properties of the sintered materials. A stable amorphous bulk metallic glass based on Zr{sub 70}Cu{sub 24}Al{sub 4}Nb{sub 2} with a low fraction of crystallites could be fabricated applying a nominal sintering temperature of 400 °C. Higher sintering temperatures lead to composites with high fractions of nanocrystalline material with porosities below 0.5%.

  3. Alloying Behavior and Properties of FeSiBAlNiCo x High Entropy Alloys Fabricated by Mechanical Alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Li, Boyu; Zhai, Sicheng; Xu, Juan; Niu, Zuozhe; Xu, Jing; Wang, Yan

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, FeSiBAlNiCo x (x = 0.2, 0.8) high-entropy alloy (HEA) powders were fabricated by mechanical alloying process, and the powders milled for 140 h were sintered by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The microstructures and properties of as-milled powders and as-sintered samples were investigated. The results reveal that the final milling products (140 h) of both sample powders present the fully amorphous structure. The increased Co contents obviously enhance the glass forming ability and thermal stability of amorphous HEA powders, which are reflected by the shorter formation time of fully amorphous phase and the higher onset crystallization temperature, respectively. According to coercivity, the as-milled FeSiBAlNiCo x (x = 0.2, 0.8) powders (140 h) are the semi-hard magnetic materials. FeSiBAlNiCo0.8 HEA powders possess the highest saturation magnetization and largest remanence ratio. The SPS-ed products of both bulk HEAs are composed of body-centered cubic solid solution, and FeSi and FeB intermetallic phases. They possess the high relative density above 97% and excellent microhardness exceeding 1150 HV. The as-sintered bulks undergo the remarkable increase in saturation magnetization compared with the as-milled state. The SPS-ed FeSiBAlNiCo0.8 HEA exhibits the soft magnetic properties. The electrochemical corrosion test is carried out in 3.5% NaCl solution. The SPS-ed FeSiBAlNiCo0.2 HEA reveals the better passivity with low passive current density, and the higher pitting resistance with wide passive region.

  4. Thermal instability in a stratified plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanns, D.F.M.; Priest, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal instability mechansism has been studied in connection to observed coronal features, like, e.g. prominences or cool cores in loops. Although these features show a lot of structure, most studies concern the thermal instability in an uniform medium. In this paper, we investigate the thermal instability and the interaction between thermal modes and the slow magneto-acoustic subspectrum for a stratified plasma slab. We fomulate the relevant system of equations and give some straightforward properties of the linear spectrum of a non-uniform plasma slab, i.e. the existence of continuous parts in the spectrum. We present a numerical scheme with which we can investigate the linear spectrum for equilibrium states with stratification. The slow and thermal subspectra of a crude coronal model are given as a preliminary result. (author). 6 refs.; 1 fig

  5. Low-temperature plasma nitriding of sintered PIM 316L austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Aecio Fernando; Scheuer, Cristiano Jose; Joanidis, Ioanis Labhardt; Cardoso, Rodrigo Perito; Mafra, Marcio; Klein, Aloisio Nelmo; Brunatto, Silvio Francisco, E-mail: brunatto@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Grupo de Tecnologia de Fabricacao Assistida pro Plasma e Metalurgia do Po

    2014-08-15

    This work reports experimental results on sintered PIM 316L stainless steel low-temperature plasma nitriding. The effect of treatment temperature and time on process kinetics, microstructure and surface characteristics of the nitrided samples were investigated. Nitriding was carried out at temperatures of 350, 380, 410 and 440 °C , and times of 4, 8 and 16 h, using a gas mixture composed by 60% N2 + 20% H2 + 20% Ar, at a gas flow rate of 5.00 X 10{sup 6} Nm{sup 3-1}, and a pressure of 800 Pa. The treated samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and microhardness measurements. Results indicate that low-temperature plasma nitriding is a diffusion controlled process. The calculated activation energy for nitrided layer growth was 111.4 kJmol{sup -1}. Apparently precipitation-free layers were produced in this study. It was also observed that the higher the treatment temperature and time the higher is the obtained surface hardness. Hardness up to 1343 HV{sub 0.025} was verified for samples nitrided at 440 °C. Finally, the characterization of the treated surface indicates the formation of cracks, which were observed in regions adjacent to the original pores after the treatment. (author)

  6. Manipulating microstructure and mechanical properties of CuO doped 3Y-TZP nano-ceramics using spark-plasma sintering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, S.; Vleugels, Jozef; Huang, Shuigen; Vanmeensel, Kim; Blank, David H.A.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Nano-powder composites of 3Y-TZP doped with 8 mol% CuO were processed by spark-plasma sintering (SPS). A 96% dense composite ceramic with an average grain size of 70 nm was obtained by applying the SPS process at 1100 °C and 100 MPa for 1 min. In contrast to normal, pressureless, sintering during

  7. Cytocompatibility of Plasma and Thermally Treated Biopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Slepička

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the surface characterization of plasma and consequently thermally treated biocompatible polymers. PLLA (poly(L-lactide acid and PMP (poly-4-methyl-1-pentene are studied. The influence of Ar plasma treatment on the surface polarity of substrate measured immediately after treatment and during the polymer surface aging is studied. Surface roughness, morphology, wettability, and surface chemistry were determined. Plasma treatment leads to significant changes in PLLA surface morphology and chemistry, with the PMP being slightly affected. The higher resistance to plasma fluence results in smaller ablation of PMP than that of PLLA. The plasma treatment improves cell adhesion and proliferation on the PMP. Plasma treatment of PLLA influences mostly the homogeneity of adhered and proliferated VSMC.

  8. Thermally stimulated scattering in plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dysthe, K. B.; Mjølhus, E.; Pécseli, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    this experiment local heat conduction is of little importance and the dynamic evolution for the electron temperature is dominated by heating and energy exchange with the ion component. These features are incorporated in the analysis. The resulting set of equations gives a growth rate and characteristic scale size......A theory for stimulated scattering of a laser beam is formulated where the dominant nonlinearity is the ohmic heating of the plasma. The analysis is carried out with particular reference to experimental investigations of CO2 laser heating of linear discharge plasma. In the conditions characterizing...

  9. Thermal characteristic of sintered AgeCu nano-paste for high-temperature die-attach application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Kim Seah; Cheong, Kuan Yew; Wong, Yew Hoong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, thermal characteristic of silver-copper (Ag-Cu) nano-paste that consists of a mixture of nano-sized Ag and Cu particles and organic compounds meant for high-temperature die-attach application is reported. The Ag-Cu nano-paste was sintered at 380 deg. C for 30 min without the need of applying external pressure and the effect of Cu loading (20-80 wt%) on the thermal properties was investigated in against of pure Ag nano-paste and pure Cu nano-paste. The results showed the specific heat of sintered Ag-Cu nano-paste was increased as the loading of Cu increased. For thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of sintered Ag-Cu nano-paste, a declining trend has been recorded with the increment of Cu loading. Overall, the sintered Ag-Cu nano-paste with 20 wt% of Cu loading has demonstrated the best combination of thermal conductivity (K) and CTE (α), which were 159 W/m K and 13 x 10 -6 /K, respectively. It has proven that there was a strong correlation between the amount of pores and thermal properties of the nano-paste. The ratio of K/α is a performance index (M), which has shown a higher value (12.2 x 10 6 W/m) than most of the commonly used die-attach systems. Finally, the Ag-Cu nano-paste has demonstrated a melting point of 955 deg. C, which can be proposed as an alternative high-temperature die-attach material

  10. Sintering by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) of silicon carbide (SiC) nano-particles synthesized by laser pyrolysis pilot scale; Frittage par compression isostatique a chaud (CIC) et spark plasma sintering (SPS) de nanoparticules en carbure de silicum (SiC) synthetisees a echelle pilote par pyrolyse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengeot, C.; Guizard, B.; Tenegal, F. [CEA Saclay (DRT/DTNM/LTMEx), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Poissonnet, S.; Boulanger, L. [CEA Saclay (DEN/DMN/SRMP), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Le Flem, M. [CEA Saclay (DEN/DMN/SRMA/LA2M), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Guillard, F. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS/CEMES), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2007-07-01

    Pure or with sintering additives (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) SiC nano-particles (20 nm) synthesised by laser pyrolysis at pilot scale were first cold pressed under 1 GPa and then sintered by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). Pure SiC samples densified by HIP have a higher density (95%) than SPS ones (80%). With help of sintering additives, both HIP and SPS samples are near theoretical density. Smaller grain size were observed for HIP pellets (pure {approx}35 nm and with additives {approx}100 to 200 nm). Whereas SPS samples grain size were between 100 nm and 1 m. A primary mechanical properties study demonstrates a hardness (28 GPa) and a toughness (6.5 MPa m{sup 1/2}) optimum when crystallite size is around 200 nm. (authors)

  11. Hydrogen production by thermal water splitting using a thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudesocque, N.; Lafon, C.; Girold, C.; Vandensteendam, C.; Baronnet, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    CEA has been working for more than 10 years in plasma technologies devoted to waste treatment: incineration, vitrification, gases and liquid treatment. Based on this experience, CEA experiments since several years an innovative route for hydrogen production by thermal water splitting, using a plasma as heat source. This new approach could be considered as an alternative to electrolysis for massive hydrogen production from water and electricity. This paper presents a brief state of the art of water thermal plasmas, showing the temperatures and quench velocity ranges technologically achievable today. Thermodynamic properties of a water plasma are presented and discussed. A kinetic computational model is presented, describing the behavior of splitted products during the quench in a plasma plume for various parameters, such as the quench rate. The model results are compared to gas analysis in the plasma plume obtained with in-situ sampling probe. The plasma composition measurements are issued from an Optical Emission Spectroscopic method (OES). The prediction of 30 % H 2 recovery with a 108 K.s -1 quench rate has been verified. A second experimentation has been performed: mass gas analysis, flowrate measurement and OES to study the 'behavior' and species in underwater electrical arc stricken between graphite electrodes. With this quench, a synthesis gas was produced with a content 55 % of hydrogen. (authors)

  12. Evaluation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al-TiC Metal Matrix Composite Prepared by Conventional, Microwave and Spark Plasma Sintering Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ghasali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the mechanical properties and microstructure of Al-15 wt % TiC composite samples prepared by spark plasma, microwave, and conventional sintering were investigated. The sintering process was performed by the speak plasma sintering (SPS technique, microwave and conventional furnaces at 400 °C, 600 °C, and 700 °C, respectively. The results showed that sintered samples by SPS have the highest relative density (99% of theoretical density, bending strength (291 ± 12 MPa, and hardness (253 ± 23 HV. The X-ray diffraction (XRD investigations showed the formation of TiO2 from the surface layer decomposition of TiC particles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs demonstrated uniform distribution of reinforcement particles in all sintered samples. The SEM/EDS analysis revealed the formation of TiO2 around the porous TiC particles.

  13. Non-thermal Plasma and Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokuni, Shinya

    2015-09-01

    Thermal plasmas and lasers have been used in medicine to cut and ablate tissues and for coagulation. Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP; non-thermal plasma) is a recently developed, non-thermal technique with possible biomedical applications. Although NEAPP reportedly generates reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, electrons, positive ions, and ultraviolet radiation, few research projects have been conducted to merge this technique with conventional free radical biology. Recently, Prof. Masaru Hori's group (Plasma Nanotechnology Research Center, Nagoya University) developed a NEAPP device with high electron density. Here electron spin resonance revealed hydroxyl radicals as a major product. To merge non-thermal plasma biology with the preexisting free radical biology, we evaluated lipid peroxidation and DNA modifications in various in vitro and ex vivo experiments. Conjugated dienes increased after exposure to linoleic and alfa-linolenic acids. An increase in 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was also increased after exposure to phosphatidylcholine, liposomes or liver homogenate. Direct exposure to rat liver in medium produced immunohistochemical evidence of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal- and acrolein-modified proteins. Exposure to plasmid DNA induced dose-dependent single/double strand breaks and increased the amounts of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. These results indicate that oxidative biomolecular damage by NEAPP is dose-dependent and thus can be controlled in a site-specific manner. Simultaneous oxidative and UV-specific DNA damage may be useful in cancer treatment. Other recent advancements in the related studies of non-thermal plasma in Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine will also be discussed.

  14. Consolidation of B4C-TaB2 eutectic composites by spark plasma sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Demirskyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The in situ synthesis/consolidation of B4C-TaB2 eutectic composites by spark plasma sintering (SPS is reported. The microstructure–property relations were determined for composites with the B4C-TaB2 eutectic composition as functions of TaB2 content, and TaB2-TaB2 interlamellar spacing. A clear maximum in fracture toughness was identified (∼4.5 MPa m1/2 for eutectic composites with interlamellar spacing between 0.9 and 1.1 μm. The composites with the hypereutectic composition of 40 mol.% TaB2 obtained by SPS exhibited lower Vickers hardness (25–26 GPa but higher indentation fracture toughness (up to 4.9 MPa m1/2 than eutectic composites with 30–35 mol.% of TaB2.

  15. Spark Plasma Sintering of a Gas Atomized Al7075 Alloy: Microstructure and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Molnárová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The powder of an Al7075 alloy was prepared by gas atomization. A combination of cellular, columnar, and equiaxed dendritic-like morphology was observed in individual powder particles with continuous layers of intermetallic phases along boundaries. The cells are separated predominantly by high-angle boundaries, the areas with dendritic-like morphology usually have a similar crystallographic orientation. Spark plasma sintering resulted in a fully dense material with a microstructure similar to that of the powder material. The continuous layers of intermetallic phases are replaced by individual particles located along internal boundaries, coarse particles are formed at the surface of original powder particles. Microhardness measurements revealed both artificial and natural ageing behavior similar to that observed in ingot metallurgy material. The minimum microhardness of 81 HV, observed in the sample annealed at 300 °C, reflects the presence of coarse particles. The peak microhardness of 160 HV was observed in the sample annealed at 500 °C and then aged at room temperature. Compression tests confirmed high strength combined with sufficient plasticity. Annealing even at 500 °C does not significantly influence the distribution of grain sizes—about 45% of the area is occupied by grains with the size below 10 µm.

  16. Fabrication and properties of dense ex situ magnesium diboride bulk material synthesized using spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dancer, C E J; Todd, R I; Grovenor, C R M [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Prabhakaran, D [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Basoglu, M; Yanmaz, E [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Yan, H; Reece, M, E-mail: claire.dancer@linacre.oxon.or [Department of Materials, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    High density ex situ magnesium diboride bulks were synthesized from commercial MgB{sub 2} powder using spark plasma sintering under a range of applied uniaxial pressures between 16 and 80 MPa. The microstructure was characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, polarized optical microscopy, Vickers hardness measurements, and density measurements using the Archimedes method. By combining these data with those for other bulk samples we have developed a correlation curve for the hardness and density for magnesium diboride for relative densities of 60-100%. The superconducting properties were determined using magnetization measurements. Comparison to samples of significantly higher porosity indicates a positive correlation between magnetization critical current density and bulk density for magnesium diboride bulks up to around 90% density. Above this level other microstructural processes such as grain growth begin to influence the critical current density, suggesting that full elimination of porosity is not necessary to obtain high critical current density. We conclude that the best superconducting properties are likely to be obtained with a combination of small grain size and minimal porosity.

  17. Microscopy of Alloy Formation on Arc Plasma Sintered Oxide Dispersion Strengthen (ODS) Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandriyana, B.; Sujatno, A.; Salam, R.; Dimyati, A.; Untoro, P.

    2017-07-01

    The oxide dispersed strengthened (ODS) alloys steel developed as structure material for nuclear power plants (NPP) has good resistant against creep due to their unique microstructure. Microscopy investigation on the microstructure formation during alloying process especially at the early stages was carried out to study the correlation between structure and property of ODS alloys. This was possible thanks to the arc plasma sintering (APS) device which can simulate the time dependent alloying processes. The ODS sample with composition of 88 wt.% Fe and 12 wt.% Cr powder dispersed with 1 wt.% ZrO2 nano powder was mixed in a high energy milling, isostatic compressed to form sample coins and then alloyed in APS. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy (EDX) line scan and mapping was used to characterize the microstructure and elemental composition distribution of the samples. The alloying process with unification of each Fe and Cr phase continued by the alloying formation of Fe-Cr by inter-diffusion of both Fe and Cr and followed by the improvement of the mechanical properties of hardness.

  18. Hot pressing of nanocrystalline tantalum using high frequency induction heating and pulse plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowicz, J.; Adamek, G.; Sopata, M.; Koper, J. K.; Siwak, P.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the results of nanocrystalline powder tantalum consolidation using hot pressing. The authors used two different heating techniques during hot pressing: high-frequency induction heating (HFIH) and pulse plasma sintering (PPS). A comparison of the structure, microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the bulk nanocrystalline tantalum obtained in both techniques was performed. The nanocrystalline powder was made to start from the microcrystalline one using the high-energy ball milling process. The nanocrystalline powder was hot-pressed at 1000 °C, whereas, for comparison, the microcrystalline powder was hot pressed up to 1500 °C for proper consolidation. The authors found that during hot pressing, the powder partially reacts with the graphite die covered by boron nitride, which facilitated punches and powder displacement in the die during densification. Tantalum carbide and boride in the nanocrystalline material was found, which can improve the mechanical properties. The hardness of the HFIH and PPS nanocrystalline tantalum was as high as 625 and 615 HV, respectively. The microstructure was more uniform in the PPS nanomaterial. The corrosion resistance in both cases deteriorated, in comparison to the microcrystalline material, while the PPS material corrosion resistance was slightly better than that of the HFIH one.

  19. Severe reduction of Ni–Zn ferrites during consolidation by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, Raul, E-mail: monjaras@unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Gaudisson, Thomas; Ammar, Souad [ITODYS, Université Paris-Diderot, PRES Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS-UMR-7086, 75205 Paris (France)

    2016-02-15

    NiZn ferrites of composition Zn{sub 0.7}Ni{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were synthesized by the polyol method and subsequently consolidated into fine grain, high density ceramics by means of Spark Plasma Sintering at 600 °C for 10 min, under vacuum and applying a uniaxial pressure of 80 MPa. Their saturation magnetization at room temperature exhibited a value far larger (~71 emu/g) than the value corresponding to the bulk ferrite (~50 emu/g), and their Curie point showed also an increase of about 210 K, as compared with the bulk value. These results, together with the presence of a small amount of metallic Ni, are interpreted in terms of a departure of Ni from the spinel phase and an associated reduction of ferric to ferrous cations to compensate for Ni loss. - Highlights: • Nanostructured ferrites are obtained at 600°C by 10 min. • Magnetic properties change significantly. • These changes are due to reductive conditions in SPS. • Metallic Ni precipitated from the spinel and are replaced by ferrous ions. • This leads to an increase in Ms and Tc.

  20. Porous copper template from partially spark plasma-sintered Cu–Zn ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and SEM–EDS are carried out to examine microstructural evolution and subsequent changes in hardness with sintering temperatures and different Zn percentages. Dezincification and pore formation are conducted on sintered 0.5 mm thick 12 mm diameter disc samples. The size ...

  1. Porous copper template from partially spark plasma-sintered Cu–Zn ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Dezincification and pore formation are conducted on sintered 0∙5 mm thick 12 mm diameter disc samples. The size, distribution and nature of pores in porous templates of Cu are then investigated using optical microscopy and SEM–EDS analysis. Keywords. Metal; corrosion; porous structure; sintering; powder metallurgy. 1.

  2. Thermal condensation mode in a dusty plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    associated emission nebula, escapes without being absorbed by the in-falling matter from the accretion disk, the dust grain, depending upon the thermal velocities of the background plasma particles, may pick up between 10 to 100 electronic charges from the ionized gas. [5]. Interstellar dust is heated by the absorption of ...

  3. Microstructure, Hardness, and Corrosion Behavior of TiC-Duplex Stainless Steel Composites Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Shicheng; Chen, Hua; Ran, Xu

    2017-08-01

    Duplex stainless steel composites with various weight fractions of TiC particles are prepared by spark plasma sintering. Ferritic 434L and austenitic 316L stainless steel powders are premixed in a 50:50 weight ratio and added with 3-9 wt.% TiC. The compacts are sintered in the solid state under vacuum conditions at 1223 K for 5 min. The effects of TiC content on the microstructure, hardness, and corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel composites fabricated by powder metallurgy are evaluated. The results indicate that the TiC particulates as reinforcements can be distributed homogeneously in the steel matrix. Densification of sintered composites decreases with increasing TiC content. M23C6 carbide precipitates along grain boundary, and its neighboring Cr-Mo-depleted region is formed in the sintered microstructure, which can be eliminated subsequently with appropriate heat treatment. With the addition of TiC, the hardness of duplex stainless steel fabricated by powder metallurgy can be markedly enhanced despite increased porosity in the composites. However, TiC particles increase the corrosion rate and degrade the passivation capability, particularly for the composite with TiC content higher than 6 wt.%. Weakened metallurgical bonding in the composite with high TiC content provides the preferred sites for pitting nucleation and/or dissolution.

  4. Fabrication and Characterization of Thermoelectric CrSi2 Compound by Mechanical Alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Hyo

    2015-07-01

    A mixture of elemental Cr-Si powders has been subjected to mechanical alloying (MA) at room temperature to prepare CrSi2 thermoelectric compound.The MA powders were sintered at 800-1000 °C Cunder 60 MPa using spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. Due to the observed larger loss of Si relative Cr during ball milling, the starting composition was modified to Cr30Si70, Cr31.5Si68.5 and Cr33Si67 to get a single phase of CrSi2 compound. The single phase CrSi2 has been obtained by MA of Cr31.5Si68.5 mixture powders for 70 h and subsequently sintered at 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction data shows that the SPS compact sintered at 1000 °C consists of only nanocrystalline CrSi2 compound with a grain size of 250 nm. The value of Seebeck coefficient of CrSi2 compound increases with temperature and reaches maximum value of 245 µV/K at 300 °C.

  5. Thermal stability of the tokamak plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The general linear, fluid, thermal instability theory for the plasma edge has been extended. An analysis of a two-dimensional fluid model of the plasma edge has identified the importance of many previously unappreciated phenomena associated with parallel and gyroviscous forces in the presence of large radial gradients, with large radial or parallel flows, with the temperature dependence of transport coefficients, and with the coupling of temperature, flow and density perturbations. The radiative condensation effect is generalized to include a further destabilizing condensation effect associated with radial heat conduction. Representative plasma edge neutral and impurity densities are found to be capable of driving thermal instabilities in the edge transport barrier and radiative mantle, respectively. (author)

  6. Bonding of TRIP-Steel/Al2O3-(3Y)-TZP Composites and (3Y)-TZP Ceramic by a Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) Apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    Miriyev, Aslan; Gr?tzner, Steffen; Kr?ger, Lutz; Kalabukhov, Sergey; Frage, Nachum

    2016-01-01

    A combination of the high damage tolerance of TRIP-steel and the extremely low thermal conductivity of partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) can provide controlled thermal-mechanical properties to sandwich-shaped composite specimens comprising these materials. Sintering the (TRIP-steel-PSZ)/PSZ sandwich in a single step is very difficult due to differences in the sintering temperature and densification kinetics of the composite and the ceramic powders. In the present study, we successfully appl...

  7. Mechanical characterization of cemented carbide WC-6Co (%wt) manufactured by SPS (Spark Plasma Sintering; Caracterizacao mecanica de metal duro WC-6Co (%massa) sinterizado via SPS (Spark Plasma Sintering)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boidi, G.; Tertuliano, A.J.; Machado, I.F., E-mail: guido.boidi@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecatronica e Sistemas Mecanicos; Rodrigues, D. [BRATS- Filtros Sinterizados e Pos Metalicos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    This work aimed to manufacture cemented carbide (WC-6%wtCo) obtained by SPS (Spark Plasma Sintering) process and to carry out the mechanical characterization by hardness and fracture toughness. The material was consolidated at 1100 deg C for different holding times (1 min, 5 min, 10 min), in order to evaluate the densification. A reference sample was also used to be compared to SPS. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were carried out to characterize the microstructural features of the samples and mechanical properties were obtained by hardness measurements (micro and macro) and instrumented indentation. The fracture toughness was calculated with the method of Palmqvist. Best results were found in the material sintered by SPS for 10 minutes of holding time, in which 97% of relative density and about 1600 HV{sub 10} was reached. (author)

  8. Potential use of only Yb2O3 in producing dense Si3N4 ceramics with high thermal conductivity by gas pressure sintering

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xinwen; Zhou, You; Hirao, Kiyoshi; Ishigaki, Takamasa; Sakka, Yoshio

    2010-01-01

    Yb2O3 is an efficient sintering additive for enhancing not only thermal conductivity but also the high-temperature mechanical properties of Si3N4 ceramics. Here we report the fabrication of dense Si3N4 ceramics with high thermal conductivity by the gas pressure sintering of α-Si3N4 powder compacts, using only Yb2O3 as an additive, at 1900 °C under a nitrogen pressure of 1 MPa. The effects of Yb2O3 content, sample packing condition and sintering time on the densification, microstructure and th...

  9. Thermal Mechanical Processing Effects on Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of the Sintered Ti-22Al-25Nb Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanxin; Lu, Zhen; Zhang, Kaifeng; Zhang, Dalin

    2016-03-11

    This work illustrates the effect of thermal mechanical processing parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the Ti-22Al-25Nb alloy prepared by reactive sintering with element powders, consisting of O, B2 and Ti₃Al phases. Tensile and plane strain fracture toughness tests were carried out at room temperature to understand the mechanical behavior of the alloys and its correlation with the microstructural features characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the increased tensile strength (from 340 to 500 MPa) and elongation (from 3.6% to 4.2%) is due to the presence of lamellar O/B2 colony and needle-like O phase in B2 matrix in the as-processed Ti-22Al-25Nb alloys, as compared to the coarse lath O adjacent to B2 in the sintered alloys. Changes in morphologies of O phase improve the fracture toughness ( K IC ) of the sintered alloys from 7 to 15 MPa·m -1/2 . Additionally, the fracture mechanism shifts from cleavage fracture in the as-sintered alloys to quasi-cleavage fracture in the as-processed alloys.

  10. Magnetic properties of Sm-Fe-N anisotropic magnets produced by magnetic-field-assisted spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Testuji

    2010-01-01

    Sm-Fe-N magnets were successfully produced at temperatures below 773 K by magnetic-field-assisted spark plasma sintering. The resultant magnets had high densities of 88.7-92.5%. Although partial decomposition of the Sm 2 Fe 17 N 3 phase was observed in the Sm-Fe-N magnets, the decomposition was significantly lowered by the addition of a small amount of Zn powder to the Sm-Fe-N powder. The resultant Sm-Fe-N magnets containing 5 wt.% Zn and 10 wt.% Zn exhibited higher coercivity than the Sm-Fe-N magnets. X-ray diffraction studies and magnetic measurements confirmed that the Sm-Fe-N magnets and those containing 5 wt.% Zn and 10 wt.% Zn were magnetically anisotropic. A high value of 158 kJ/m 3 was achieved for the maximum energy product when Sm-Fe-N powder containing 5 wt.% Zn was sintered at 723 K by magnetic-field-assisted spark plasma sintering.

  11. Thermal efficiency of a non-transferred thermal plasma cannon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, A.; Cota, G.; Merlo, L.; Pacheco, J.; Pena, R.; Cruz, A.

    1997-01-01

    This work shows a thermal efficiency research (ν) for a plasma torch in d.c. which was carried out through the realization of an energy balance around the system under consideration. The plasma torch is manufactured in copper with a tungsten incrustations in cathode. The gas used was argon and the gas fluxes were at the rank of 10 and 40 lt/min to the total pressure of 1.2 bar (1.1 atm). With these conditions it was worked with electric currents at the rank of 40 and 180 A. The data were collected through a data acquisition card which was programmed in Windows environment. (Author)

  12. Phase and Microstructural Correlation of Spark Plasma Sintered HfB2-ZrB2 Based Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambreen Nisar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The refractory diborides (HfB2 and ZrB2 are considered as promising ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTCs where low damage tolerance limits their application for the thermal protection system in re-entry vehicles. In this regard, SiC and CNT have been synergistically added as the sintering aids and toughening agents in the spark plasma sintered (SPS HfB2-ZrB2 system. Herein, a novel equimolar composition of HfB2 and ZrB2 has shown to form a solid-solution which then allows compositional tailoring of mechanical properties (such as hardness, elastic modulus, and fracture toughness. The hardness of the processed composite is higher than the individual phase hardness up to 1.5 times, insinuating the synergy of SiC and CNT reinforcement in HfB2-ZrB2 composites. The enhanced fracture toughness of CNT reinforced composite (up to a 196% increment surpassing that of the parent materials (ZrB2/HfB2-SiC is attributed to the synergy of solid solution formation and enhanced densification (~99.5%. In addition, the reduction in the analytically quantified interfacial residual tensile stress with SiC and CNT reinforcements contribute to the enhancement in the fracture toughness of HfB2-ZrB2-SiC-CNT composites, mandatory for aerospace applications.

  13. Thermal conduction and linear expansion of sintered rhenium and tungsten-rhenium alloys at a temperature up to 1000 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdnyak, N.Z.; Belyaev, R.A.; Vavilov, Yu.V.; Vinogradov, Yu.G.; Serykh, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    Preparation technology (by powder metallurgy methods) of sintered rhenium and tungsten-rhenium VR-5, VR-10, and VR-20 alloys is described. Thermal conduction of rhenium and VR-20 alloy has been measured in the temperature range from 300 to 1000 K. The value obtained turned out to be considerably less than those published elsewhere, this testifies to the great thermal contact resistance between the material grains. Also measured is the mean linear expansion coefficient for the mentioned above materials in the same temperature range. Linear expansion increases with rhenium content increase

  14. Fabrication, characterization, and mechanical properties of spark plasma sintered Al–BN nanoparticle composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestein, Konstantin L., E-mail: kosty@firestein.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky prospect 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Steinman, Alexander E.; Golovin, Igor S. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky prospect 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Cifre, Joan [Universitat de les Illes Balears, Ctra. de Valldemossa, km. 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Obraztsova, Ekaterina A.; Matveev, Andrei T.; Kovalskii, Andrey M. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky prospect 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Lebedev, Oleg I. [CRISMAT, UMR 6508, CNRS-ENSICAEN, 6Bd Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Shtansky, Dmitry V., E-mail: shtansky@shs.misis.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky prospect 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Golberg, Dmitri, E-mail: golberg.dmitri@nims.go.jp [World Premier International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA) National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Namiki 1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3050044 (Japan)

    2015-08-26

    Fabrication of high strength yet light and low cost composite materials with good mechanical properties at room and elevated temperatures is a challenge that metallurgy and materials science communities are facing for many years, and no “dream material” has been developed so far. The primary goal of this study was to fabricate, characterize, and to carry out tensile tests on Al-based composite materials strengthened with commercially-available BN nanoparticles (BNNPs). The composites were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The structures of powder mixtures and composite materials, as well as their fracture surfaces, were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The influence of BNNPs content (0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6, and 7.5 wt%) and holding times (5, 60, and 300 min) at 600 °C during SPS on the tensile strength was investigated. A maximum increase in strength was observed for Al-based composites with 4.5 wt% of BNNPs. The sample demonstrated a 50% increase in tensile strength compared with pristine Al. Although the tensile tests performed at 300 °C revealed that the tensile strength became 20% lower than the strength at room temperature, it was, however, still 75% higher compared with that of the pure Al at 300 °C. In addition, at 300 °C the Al–BNNPs composites demonstrated a much higher value of yield stress, about 115 MPa, which is 190% higher than that of pure Al at the same temperature. The damping properties of Al–BNNPs composites were evaluated by temperature dependent internal friction (TDIF) measurements. The obtained results are discussed based on structural analysis and the TDIF data.

  15. Spark plasma sintered bismuth telluride-based thermoelectric materials incorporating dispersed boron carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.R., E-mail: hugo.williams@leicester.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Ambrosi, R.M. [Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Chen, K. [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Friedman, U. [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Ning, H.; Reece, M.J. [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Robbins, M.C.; Simpson, K. [European Thermodynamics Ltd., 8 Priory Business Park, Wistow Road, Kibworth LE8 0R (United Kingdom); Stephenson, K. [European Space Agency, ESTEC TEC-EP, Keplerlaan 1, 2201AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2015-03-25

    Highlights: • Nano-B{sub 4}C reinforced Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} p-type thermoelectric produced by SPS. • Addition of B{sub 4}C up to 0.2 vol% to SPS’d material has little effect on zT. • Vickers hardness improved by 27% by adding 0.2 vol% B{sub 4}C. • Fracture toughness of SPS material: K{sub IC} = 0.80 MPa m{sup 1/2} by SEVNB. • Mechanical properties much better than commercial directionally solidified material. - Abstract: The mechanical properties of bismuth telluride based thermoelectric materials have received much less attention in the literature than their thermoelectric properties. Polycrystalline p-type Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} materials were produced from powder using spark plasma sintering (SPS). The effects of nano-B{sub 4}C addition on the thermoelectric performance, Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were measured. Addition of 0.2 vol% B{sub 4}C was found to have little effect on zT but increased hardness by approximately 27% when compared to polycrystalline material without B{sub 4}C. The K{sub IC} fracture toughness of these compositions was measured as 0.80 MPa m{sup 1/2} by Single-Edge V-Notched Beam (SEVNB). The machinability of polycrystalline materials produced by SPS was significantly better than commercially available directionally solidified materials because the latter is limited by cleavage along the crystallographic plane parallel to the direction of solidification.

  16. Development of twin cannons of thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena E, R.

    1996-01-01

    Today several service and transformation industries that generate hazardous wastes must implement programs in order to fulfill with requirements established by the present standardization. This problem is solved here for proposing the design and construction of a thermal plasma transferred torch with double cannon which is generated by an electric arc with a capacity of 50 k W, a regulable gas flow from 0-50 lt./min and thermal yield higher than 85 %. This equipment would be capable for degradating industrial and hospital wastes. (Author)

  17. Effect of microstructure changes on magnetic properties of spark plasma sintered Nd-Fe-B powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the SPS method was applied for low RE content (8,5% at. and high RE content (13,5 % at. MQ powders. The powders were sintered in a wide range of temperature, for 5 min., under pressure of 35 MPa. The low RE content grade, densified reluctantly and gained the density close to the theoretical value only for 850 °C. The coercivity decreased gradually with increasing sintering temperature. On the other hand, the densification of the higher RE content grade powder occurred much easier and the coercivity, close to the theoretical value, was achieved already at 650 °C. The coercivity of this material also decreased with increasing sintering temperature. Microstructural studies revealed that the SPS sintering process leads to partial decomposition of the Nd2Fe14B phase. The proportion of the RE-rich and iron phases increases parallel to the increasing sintering temperature. On the basis of the current results one can conclude that fabrication of high density MQ powders based magnets by the SPS method is possible, however the powders having higher RE content should be used for this purpose and the sintering temperature as low as possible, related to density, should be kept.

  18. Thermal radiation properties of PTFE plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyang; Wang, Siyu; Zhou, Yang; Wu, Zhiwen; Xie, Kan; Wang, Ningfei

    2017-06-01

    To illuminate the thermal transfer mechanism of devices adopting polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) as ablation materials, the thermal radiation properties of PTFE plasma are calculated and discussed based on local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and optical thin assumptions. It is clarified that line radiation is the dominant mechanism of PTFE plasma. The emission coefficient shows an opposite trend for both wavelength regions divided by 550 nm at a temperature above 15 000 K. The emission coefficient increases with increasing temperature and pressure. Furthermore, it has a good log linear relation with pressure. Equivalent emissivity varies complexly with temperature, and has a critical point between 20 000 K to 25 000 K. The equivalent cross points of the average ionic valence and radiation property are about 10 000 K and 15 000 K for fully single ionization.

  19. Production of a Powder Metallurgical Hot Work Tool Steel with Harmonic Structure by Mechanical Milling and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deirmina, Faraz; Pellizzari, Massimo; Federici, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    Commercial AISI-H13 gas atomized powders (AT) were mechanically milled (MM) to refine both the particle size and the microstructure. Different volume fractions of coarser grained (CG) AT powders were mixed with the ultra-fine grained (UFG) MM and consolidated by spark plasma sintering to obtain bulks showing a harmonic structure ( i.e. a 3D interconnected network of UFG areas surrounding the CG atomized particles). The low sintering temperature, 1373.15 K (1100 °C) and the short sintering time (30 minutes) made it possible to obtain near full density samples while preserving the refined microstructure induced by MM. A combination of high hardness and significantly improved fracture toughness is achieved by the samples containing 50 to 80 vol pct MM, essentially showing harmonic structure. The design allows to easily achieve specific application oriented properties by varying the MM volume fraction in the initial mixture. Hardness is governed by the fine-grained MM matrix and improved toughening is due to (1) deviatory effect of AT particles and (2) energy dissipation as a result of the decohesion in MM regions or AT and MM interface.

  20. Structure and strength of aluminum with sub-micrometer/micrometer grain size prepared by spark plasma sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, G.M.; Godfrey, A.; Hansen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    A spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique has been applied to prepare fully dense Al samples from Al powder. By applying a sintering temperature of 600°C and a loading pressure of 50MPa, fully recrystallized samples of nearly 100% density with average grain sizes of 5.2μm, 1.3μm and 0.8μm have been...... successfully prepared using a sintering time of less than 30min and without the need for a nitrogen atmosphere. A similarity between the grain size and powder particle size is found, which suggests a potential application of the SPS technique to prepare samples with a variety of grain sizes by tailoring...... the initial powder particle size. The SPS samples show higher strength than Al samples with an identical grain size prepared using thermo-mechanical processing, and a better strength-ductility combination, with the 1.3μm grain size sample showing a yield strength (σ0.2%) of 140MPa and a uniform elongation...

  1. Heterojunction p-Cu2O/ZnO-n solar cell fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Tenailleau

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cuprous oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared at room temperature by inorganic polycondensation. X-ray diffraction (XRD analyses show that the oxide phases formed are pure and well crystallized. The spark plasma sintering (SPS technique was successfully used to prepare dense nanoceramics with superimposed layers of Cu2O and ZnO nanopowders. Sintering conditions were optimized to densify the ceramics without phase transformation or diffusion. These ceramics were also characterized by XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, as well as X-ray computed tomography (XCT. SEM and XCT showed that nanograins are preserved after SPS throughout both oxide materials, while a smaller layer (~20 µm of pure oxide phase with larger grains is formed in between Cu2O and ZnO during the sintering process. The SPS technique results in high material density, with the absence of porosity and cracks, homogenous distribution, and a good phase separation. This is the first time that such as-prepared dense oxide-based heterojunction exhibits a photovoltaic effect under illumination opening a new route for preparing solar cells.

  2. Electron thermal transport in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konings, J.A.

    1994-11-30

    The process of fusion of small nuclei thereby releasing energy, as it occurs continuously in the sun, is essential for the existence of mankind. The same process applied in a controlled way on earth would provide a clean and an abundant energy source, and be the long term solution of the energy problem. Nuclear fusion requires an extremely hot (10{sup 8} K) ionized gas, a plasma, that can only be maintained if it is kept insulated from any material wall. In the so called `tokamak` this is achieved by using magnetic fields. The termal insulation, which is essential if one wants to keep the plasma at the high `fusion` temperature, can be predicted using basic plasma therory. A comparison with experiments in tokamaks, however, showed that the electron enery losses are ten to hundred times larger than this theory predicts. This `anomalous transport` of thermal energy implies that, to reach the condition for nuclear fusion, a fusion reactor must have very large dimensions. This may put the economic feasibility of fusion power in jeopardy. Therefore, in a worldwide collaboration, physicists study tokamak plasmas in an attempt to understand and control the energy losses. From a scientific point of view, the mechanisms driving anomalous transport are one of the challenges in fudamental plasma physics. In Nieuwegein, a tokamak experiment (the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project, RTP) is dedicated to the study of anomalous transport, in an international collaboration with other laboratories. (orig./WL).

  3. Thermoelectric SnS and SnS-SnSe solid solutions prepared by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering: Anisotropic thermoelectric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfandiyar; Wei, Tian-Ran; Li, Zhiliang; Sun, Fu-Hua; Pan, Yu; Wu, Chao-Feng; Farooq, Muhammad Umer; Tang, Huaichao; Li, Fu; Li, Bo; Li, Jing-Feng

    2017-02-27

    P-type SnS compound and SnS 1-x Se x solid solutions were prepared by mechanical alloying followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and their thermoelectric properties were then studied in different compositions (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8) along the directions parallel (//) and perpendicular (⊥) to the SPS-pressurizing direction in the temperature range 323-823 Κ. SnS compound and SnS 1-x Se x solid solutions exhibited anisotropic thermoelectric performance and showed higher power factor and thermal conductivity along the direction ⊥ than the // one. The thermal conductivity decreased with increasing contents of Se and fell to 0.36 W m -1  K -1 at 823 K for the composition SnS 0.5 Se 0.5 . With increasing selenium content (x) the formation of solid solutions substantially improved the electrical conductivity due to the increased carrier concentration. Hence, the optimized power factor and reduced thermal conductivity resulted in a maximum ZT value of 0.64 at 823 K for SnS 0.2 Se 0.8 along the parallel direction.

  4. Synthesis and Spark Plasma Sintering of Soft Magnetic Composite in a Fe₂O₃–Al System by Mechanical Alloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Hyo

    2017-04-01

    We have applied mechanical alloying (MA) to produce soft magnetic composite material using a mixture of elemental Fe₂O₃–Al powders. An optimal milling and sintering conditions to obtain soft magnetic α-Fe/Al₂O₃ composite with fine microstructure were investigated by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimeter and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements. It is found that the average grain sizes of α-Fe in α-Fe/Al₂O₃ composite ball-milled for 5 hours is estimated to be in the range of 50 nm. The saturation magnetization of ball-milled powders showed a maximum value of 88 emu/g after 30 min. of MA and reaches to 77 emu/g after 5 h of MA. The magnetic hardening due to the reduction of the α-Fe grain size with ball milling was also observed. Densification of the ball-milled powders was performed in the spark plasma sintering (SPS) machine at 1000 °C and 1100 °C. FE-SEM observation shows that the average grain size of α-Fe in α-Fe/Al₂O₃ composite sintered at 1000 °C is in the range of 100 nm, which is nearly same value estimated from the so-called Hall plot. It can be also seen that the coercivity of SPS sample sintered at 1000 °C is still high value of 92 Oe, suggesting that the grain growth of magnetic α-Fe phase during SPS process tends to be suppressed.

  5. Powder metallurgy preparation of Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystals using mechanical alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, P.; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Vystrčil, J.; Hendrych, R.; Kříž, J.; Mlynár, J.; Vojtěch, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 52, September (2014), s. 131-137 ISSN 0966-9795 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Nanostructure intermetallics * Ternary alloys systems * Mechanical alloying and milling * Sintering * Diffraction Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.131, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0966979514001198#

  6. Porous copper template from partially spark plasma-sintered Cu–Zn ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Metal; corrosion; porous structure; sintering; powder metallurgy. 1. Introduction. De-alloying of Zn or dezincification in brass is a com- monly noticed corrosion phenomenon (Gladen et al 1990;. Jagodzinski et al 2000; Karpagavalli and ... Recent researches on consolidation of Zn alloys (Gutmanas. 1990; Hisashi et al 2010; ...

  7. Spark plasma versus conventional sintering in the electrical properties of Nasicon-type materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pérez-Estébanez, Marta; Isasi-Marín, J.; Rivera-Calzada, A.; León, C.; Nygren, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 651, December (2015), s. 636-642 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : electrode materials * ionic conduction * sintering Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.014, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925838815308227

  8. Influence of spark plasma sintering and baghdadite powder on mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khandan, A.; Karamian, E.; Mehdikhani-Nahrkhalaji, M.; Mirmohammadi, H.; Farzadi, A.; Ozada, N.; Heidarshenas, B.; Zamani, K.

    2015-01-01

    Since hydroxyapatite-based materials have similar composition and crystallinity as natural calcified tissues, can be used for bone/tissue engineering. In the present study a novel nanocomposite based on bioceramics such as Natural Hydroxyapatite (NHA) and Baghdadite (BAG), was sintered by spark

  9. Plasma sintering of ferritic steel reinforced with niobium carbide prepared by high energy milling; Sinterizacao a plasma de aco ferritico reforcado com carbeto de niobio preparado por moagem de alta energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Junior, J.F. da; Almeida, E.O.; Gomes, U.U.; Alves Junior, C.; Messias, A.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Ceramicos e Metais Especiais; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Lab. de Processamento de Materiais por Plasma

    2010-07-01

    Plasma is an ionized gas where ions are accelerated from anode to cathode surface, where the sample is placed. There are a lot of collisions on cathode surface by ions heating and sintering the sample. High energy milling (HEM) is often used to produce composite particles to be used on powder metallurgy. These particles can exhibit fine particles and high phase dispersion. This present work aim to study ferritic steels reinforced with 3%NbC prepared by HEM and sintered on plasma furnace. Ferritic steel and NbC powders were milled during 5 hours and characterized by SEM, XRD and laser scattering. Then, these composite powders were compacted in a cylindrical steel die and then sintered in a plasma furnace. Vickers microhardness tests and SEM and XRD analysis were performed on sintered samples. (author)

  10. Li3-xMxN (M = Co, Ni) synthesized by Spark Plasma Sintering for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junxian; Cerny, Radovan; Villeroy, Benjamin; Godart, Claude; Chandra, Dhanesh; Latroche, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Anion substitution in light hydrides (amides) is realized experimentally. → The compounds have been synthesized by in-situ Spark plasma Sintering. → The structural characterization has been done by synchrotron powder diffraction. - Abstract: Lithium nitride has recently emerged as a promising material for hydrogen storage. The hydrogen storage capacity reaches 10.2 wt% H by the formation of compounds, such as imides, amides, and others. Hydrogenation of lithium nitride is highly exothermic, and thus desorbing hydrogen from these compounds requires high temperature and cannot be used for reversible hydrogen storage. Ab initio calculations predict that partial substitution of Li by transition metals like Cu or Ni can reduce the reaction enthalpy between amide and imide. In this work, we present the synthesis of the ternary system Li 3-x M x N (M = Co or Ni) by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The samples are hydrogenated at 255 deg. C by solid gas reaction. The sample crystal structures have been analyzed by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction using a high resolution powder diffractometer. The structural models for Co and Ni-substituted Li 3 N have been confirmed. The effect of the substitution on the phase formation upon hydrogenation has been investigated at various metal and hydrogen concentration. Different behaviors are observed depending on the nature of M.

  11. The Influence of Milling and Spark Plasma Sintering on the Microstructure and Properties of the Al7075 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Molnárová

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The compact samples of an Al7075 alloy were prepared by a combination of gas atomization, high energy milling, and spark plasma sintering. The predominantly cellular morphology observed in gas atomized powder particles was completely changed by mechanical milling. The continuous-like intermetallic phases present along intercellular boundaries were destroyed; nevertheless, a small amount of Mg(Zn,Cu,Al2 phase was observed also in the milled powder. Milling resulted in a severe plastic deformation of the material and led to a reduction of grain size from several µm into the nanocrystalline region. The combination of these microstructural characteristics resulted in abnormally high microhardness values exceeding 300 HV. Consolidation through spark plasma sintering (SPS resulted in bulk samples with negligible porosity. The heat exposition during SPS led to precipitation of intermetallic phases from the non-equilibrium microstructure of both gas atomized and milled powders. SPS of the milled powder resulted in a recrystallization of the severely deformed structure. An ultra-fine grained structure (grain size close to 500 nm with grains divided primarily by high-angle boundaries was formed. A simultaneous release of stored deformation energy and an increase in the grain size caused a drop of microhardness to values close to 150 HV. This value was retained even after annealing at 425 °C.

  12. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of ODS and non-ODS Fe–14Cr model alloys produced by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, M.A.; Castro, V. de; Leguey, T.; Muñoz, A.; Pareja, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique has been explored as an alternative consolidation route for producing ultra-fine grained Fe–14Cr model alloys containing a dispersion of oxide nanoparticles. Elemental powders of Fe and Cr, and nanosized Y 2 O 3 powder have been mechanically alloyed in a planetary ball mill and rapidly sintered in a spark plasma furnace. Two alloys, with nominal compositions Fe–14%Cr and Fe–14%Cr–0.3%Y 2 O 3 (wt.%), have been fabricated and their microstructure and mechanical properties investigated. The results have been compared with those obtained for other powder metallurgy processed alloys of the same composition but consolidated by hot isostatic pressing. The SPS technique under the present conditions has produced Fe–14Cr materials that apparently exhibit different microstructures yielding inferior mechanical properties than the counterpart material consolidated by hot isostatic pressing. Although the presence of a dispersion of Y-rich particles is evident, the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe–14Cr alloy consolidated by SPS exhibits poor tensile properties. The extensive decoration of the powder particle surfaces with Cr-rich precipitates and the residual porosity appear to be responsible for the impaired properties of this ODS alloy consolidated by SPS

  13. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of ODS and non-ODS Fe–14Cr model alloys produced by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, M.A.; Castro, V. de [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Leguey, T., E-mail: leguey@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Muñoz, A.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain)

    2013-05-15

    In this work the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique has been explored as an alternative consolidation route for producing ultra-fine grained Fe–14Cr model alloys containing a dispersion of oxide nanoparticles. Elemental powders of Fe and Cr, and nanosized Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder have been mechanically alloyed in a planetary ball mill and rapidly sintered in a spark plasma furnace. Two alloys, with nominal compositions Fe–14%Cr and Fe–14%Cr–0.3%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (wt.%), have been fabricated and their microstructure and mechanical properties investigated. The results have been compared with those obtained for other powder metallurgy processed alloys of the same composition but consolidated by hot isostatic pressing. The SPS technique under the present conditions has produced Fe–14Cr materials that apparently exhibit different microstructures yielding inferior mechanical properties than the counterpart material consolidated by hot isostatic pressing. Although the presence of a dispersion of Y-rich particles is evident, the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe–14Cr alloy consolidated by SPS exhibits poor tensile properties. The extensive decoration of the powder particle surfaces with Cr-rich precipitates and the residual porosity appear to be responsible for the impaired properties of this ODS alloy consolidated by SPS.

  14. In situ Investigation of Titanium Powder Microwave Sintering by Synchrotron Radiation Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, synchrotron radiation computed tomography was applied to investigate the mechanisms of titanium powder microwave sintering in situ. On the basis of reconstructed images, we observed that the sintering described in this study differs from conventional sintering in terms of particle smoothing, rounding, and short-term growth. Contacted particles were also isolated. The kinetic curves of sintering neck growth and particle surface area were obtained and compared with those of other microwave-sintered metals to examine the interaction mechanisms between mass and microwave fields. Results show that sintering neck growth accelerated from the intermediate period; however, this finding is inconsistent with that of aluminum powder microwave sintering described in previous work. The free surface areas of the particles were also quantitatively analyzed. In addition to the eddy current loss in metal particles, other heating mechanisms, including dielectric loss, interfacial polarization effect, and local plasma-activated sintering, contributed to sintering neck growth. Thermal and non-thermal effects possibly accelerated the sintering neck growth of titanium. This study provides a useful reference of further research on interaction mechanisms between mass and microwave fields during microwave sintering.

  15. A methodology to investigate the intrinsic effect of the pulsed electric current during the spark plasma sintering of electrically conductive powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mario Locci, Alberto Cincotti, Sara Todde, Roberto Orrù and Giacomo Cao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel methodology is proposed for investigating the effect of the pulsed electric current during the spark plasma sintering (SPS of electrically conductive powders without potential misinterpretation of experimental results. First, ensemble configurations (geometry, size and material of the powder sample, die, plunger and spacers are identified where the electric current is forced to flow only through either the sample or the die, so that the sample is heated either through the Joule effect or by thermal conduction, respectively. These ensemble configurations are selected using a recently proposed mathematical model of an SPS apparatus, which, once suitably modified, makes it possible to carry out detailed electrical and thermal analysis. Next, SPS experiments are conducted using the ensemble configurations theoretically identified. Using aluminum powders as a case study, we find that the temporal profiles of sample shrinkage, which indicate densification behavior, as well as the final density of the sample are clearly different when the electric current flows only through the sample or through the die containing it, whereas the temperature cycle and mechanical load are the same in both cases.

  16. Thermal Expansion of Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S V.; Palczer, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Metallic Cu-8%Cr, Cu-26%Cr, Cu-8%Cr-1%Al, NiAl and NiCrAlY monolithic coatings were fabricated by vacuum plasma spray deposition processes for thermal expansion property measurements between 293 and 1223 K. The corrected thermal expansion, (DL/L(sub 0) varies with the absolute temperature, T, as (DL/L(sub 0) = A(T - 293)(sup 3) + BIT - 293)(sup 2) + C(T - 293) + D, where, A, B, C and D are thermal, regression constants. Excellent reproducibility was observed for all of the coatings except for data obtained on the Cu-8%Cr and Cu-26%Cr coatings in the first heat-up cycle, which deviated from those determined in the subsequent cycles. This deviation is attributed to the presence of residual stresses developed during the spraying of the coatings, which are relieved after the first heat-up cycle. In the cases of Cu-8%Cr and NiAl, the thermal expansion data were observed to be reproducible for three specimens. The linear expansion data for Cu-8% Cr and Cu-26%Cr agree extremely well with rule of mixture (ROM) predictions. Comparison of the data for the Cu-8%Cr coating with literature data for Cr and Cu revealed that the thermal expansion behavior of this alloy is determined by the Cu-rich matrix. The data for NiAl and NiCrAlY are in excellent agreement with published results irrespective of composition and the methods used for processing the materials. The implications of these results on coating GRCop-84 copper alloy combustor liners for reusable launch vehicles are discussed.

  17. Antibacterial activity, corrosion resistance and wear behavior of spark plasma sintered Ta-5Cu alloy for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Zhao, Liang; Zhu, Weiwei; Wang, Bi; Zhao, Cancan; Fang, Liming; Ren, Fuzeng

    2017-10-01

    Tantalum has been widely used in orthopedic and dental implants. However, the major barrier to the extended use of such medical devices is the possibility of bacterial adhesion to the implant surface which will cause implant-associated infections. To solve this problem, bulk Ta-5Cu alloy has been fabricated by a combination of mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. The effect of the addition of Cu on the hardness, antibacterial activity, cytocompatibility, corrosion resistance and wear performance was systematically investigated. The sintered Ta-5Cu alloy shows enhanced antibacterial activity against E. Coli due to the sustained release of Cu ions. However, the addition of Cu would produce slight cytotoxicity and decrease corrosion resistance of Ta. Furthermore, pin-on-disk wear tests show that Ta-5Cu alloy has a much lower coefficient of friction but a higher wear rate and shows a distinct wear mode from that of Ta upon sliding against stainless steel 440C. Wear-induced plastic deformation leads to elongation of Ta and Cu grains along the sliding direction and nanolayered structures were observed upon approaching the sliding surface. The presence of hard oxides also shows a profound effect on the plastic flow of the base material and results in localized vortex patterns. The obtained results are expected to provide deep insights into the development of novel Ta-Cu alloy for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Isotropic and anisotropic nanocrystalline NdFeB-based magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering and hot deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.W.; Huang, Y.L.; Huang, H.Y.; Zhong, X.C.; Yu, Y.H.; Zeng, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    Isotropic and anisotropic NdFeB permanent magnets were prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) and SPS followed hot deformation (HD), respectively, using melt spun NdFeB ribbons with various compositions as starting materials. It is found that, based on RE-rich composition, SPSed magnets sintered at low temperatures (<700 C) almost maintained the uniform fine grain structure inherited from rapid quenching. At higher temperatures, a distinct two-zone (coarse grain and fine grain zones) structure was formed in the SPSed magnets. The SPS temperature and pressure have important effects on the grain structure, which led to the variations in the magnetic properties. By employing low SPS temperature and high pressure, high-density magnets with negligible coarse grain zone and an excellent combination of magnetic properties can be obtained. For single phase NdFeB alloy, because of the deficiency of Nd-rich phases, it is relatively difficult to consolidate micro-sized melt spun powders into high density bulk magnet, but generally a larger particle size is beneficial to achieve better magnetic properties. Anisotropic magnets with a maximum energy product of approx. equal to 38 MGOe were produced by the SPS+HD process. HD did not lead to obvious grain growth and the two-zone structure still existed in the hot deformed magnets. The results indicated that nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets without significant grain growth and with excellent properties could be obtained by SPS and HD processes. (author)

  19. Characterization of In-Situ Cu–TiH2–C and Cu–Ti–C Nanocomposites Produced by Mechanical Milling and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Hoang Oanh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the fabrication and microstructural investigation of Cu–TiH2–C and Cu–Ti–C nanocomposites with different volume fractions (10% and 20% of TiC. Two mixtures of powders were ball milled for 10 h, consequently consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS at 900 and 1000 °C producing bulk materials with relative densities of 95–97%. The evolution process of TiC formation during sintering process was studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. XRD patterns of composites present only Cu and TiC phases, no residual Ti phase can be detected. TEM images of composites with (10 vol % TiC sintered at 900 °C show TiC nanoparticles about 10–30 nm precipitated in copper matrix, most of Ti and C dissolved in the composite matrix. At the higher sintering temperature of 1000 °C, more TiC precipitates from Cu–TiH2–C than those of Cu–Ti–C composite, particle size ranges from 10 to 20 nm. The hardness of both nanocomposites also increased with increasing sintering temperature. The highest hardness values of Cu–TiH2–C and Cu–Ti–C nanocomposites sintered at 1000 °C are 314 and 306 HV, respectively.

  20. The Structure and Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Bulk Ultrafine-Grained Cobalt Prepared Using High-Energy Ball Milling in Combination with Spark Plasma Sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, I.; Vojtěch, D.; Michalcová, A.; Kubatík, Tomáš František

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 5 (2016), č. článku 391. ISSN 1996-1944 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : ultrafine-grained material * cobalt * ball milling * spark plasma sintering * mechanical properties Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.654, year: 2016 www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/9/5/391/pdf

  1. Structure and mechanical properties of Al-Si-Fe alloys prepared by short-term mechanical alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Průša, J.; Vojtěch, D.; Bláhová, M.; Michalcová, A.; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Čížek, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 75, June (2015), s. 65-75 ISSN 0261-3069 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Aluminium alloy s * Mechanical Properties * Microstructure * Mechanical alloy ing * Spark-Plasma Sintering Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 3.997, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306915000990#

  2. Mechanical Properties of Composites with Titanium Diboride Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulima I.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure and mechanical properties of the 316L steel composite reinforced with TiB2 phase were examined. The test materials were obtained by SPS technique from powders. From testing of the mechanical properties it follows that the optimum temperature for the fabrication of 316Lsteel-TiB2 composites by SPS is 1100°C. Studies have also proved that the critical content of TiB2 phase in steel matrix should not exceed 6vol%. Above this level, the plastic properties of the composite become unstable and strongly dependent on the time of sintering.

  3. Coercivity of Nd-Fe-B hot-deformed magnets produced by the spark plasma sintering method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Saito

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Nd-Cu alloy powder addition on the microstructures and magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B hot-deformed magnets produced by the spark plasma sintering (SPS method were investigated. The addition of a small amount of Nd-Cu alloy powder, up to 2%, significantly increased the coercivity of the Nd-Fe-B hot-deformed magnets without deteriorating the crystallographic alignment of the Nd2Fe14B phase. The Nd-Fe-B hot-deformed magnet with 2% Nd-Cu alloy powder had the same remanence value as the Nd-Fe-B hot-deformed magnet without Nd-Cu alloy powder addition, but the magnet with 2% Nd-Cu alloy powder exhibited higher coercivity and a higher maximum energy product than the magnet without Nd-Cu alloy powder addition.

  4. Microstructure and mechanical strength of near- and sub-micrometre grain size copper prepared by spark plasma sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, K. N.; Godfrey, A.; Hansen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) has been used to prepare fully dense samples of copper in a fully recrystallized condition with grain sizes in the near- and sub-micrometre regime. Two synthesis routes have been investigated to achieve grain size control: (i) SPS at different temperatures from 800 to...... been probed using hardness measurements and tensile testing, revealing an enhanced strength for samples with grain sizes less than ≈ 1 μm....... transmission electron microscope, and on electron back-scatter diffraction studies, confirms the samples are in a nearly fully recrystallized condition, with grains that are dislocation-free, and have a random texture, with a high fraction of high angle boundaries. The mechanical strength of the samples has...

  5. Preparation and characterization of mechanical properties of carbon nanotube reinforced hydroxyapatite composites consolidated by spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ye; Qiang, Wenjiang; Pang, Jingqin

    2017-09-01

    Pure hydroxyapatite(HAP) and 0.5,1,2,3,5wt% carbon nanotubes(CNTs) reinforced HAP which mixed by means of magnetic stirring method were consolidated using a spark plasma sintering(SPS) technique at SPS temperature 1273K, pressure 40MPa, and holding time 5min. The mechanical properties of pure HAP and the composites, such as hardness, flexural strength, and fracture toughness were measured. It is demonstrated that 1wt% of CNTs showed the best performance, which density was 95.78%, the Vickers hardness values was 462HV, flexural strength was 69.2MPa. Enhanced strength and toughness are attributed to the pull-out of CNTs and interfacial bonding mechanism between which and HAP during crack propagation. The flexural strength of the composites with 1 to 3wt% of CNTs were at a high level. When the content of CNTs is excessive, the mechanical properties of the material, especially flexural strength, will decrease quickly.

  6. Spark plasma sintering of cBN(core/SiO2(shell powder prepared by rotary chemical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available SiO2 nanolayer coated cubic boron nitride (cBN, cBN(core/SiO2(shell powder, was prepared by rotary chemical vapor deposition. The cBN/SiO2 powder was densified by spark plasma sintering at 1873 K for 0.3 ks. The hexagonal boron nitride (hBN phase was not observed in the cBN–SiO2 composites, indicating that the SiO2 nanolayer depressed the phase transformation from cBN to hBN. The relative density of cBN–SiO2 increased with increasing SiO2 content (CSiO2. The highest hardness of the cBN–SiO2 composite was 17.5 GPa at CSiO2=38 wt% and a load of 0.98 N.

  7. Microstructural stability of spark-plasma-sintered W f /W composite with zirconia interface coating under high-heat-flux hydrogen beam irradiation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Avello de Lama, M.; Balden, M.; Greuner, H.; Höschen, T.; Matějíček, Jiří; You, J.H.

    Roč. 13, December ( 2017 ), s. 74-80 ISSN 2352-1791 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tungsten-fibre/tungsten composites * plasma-facing components * spark plasma sintering Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352179117300273

  8. Microstructure and property evolution of isotropic and anisotropic NdFeB magnets fabricated from nanocrystalline ribbons by spark plasma sintering and hot deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z W; Huang, H Y; Yu, H Y; Zhong, X C; Zeng, D C [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Gao, X X; Zhu, J, E-mail: zwliu@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2011-01-19

    Isotropic and anisotropic NdFeB magnets were synthesized by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and SPS+HD (hot deformation), respectively, using melt-spun ribbons as the starting materials. Spark plasma sintered magnets sintered at low temperatures (<700 {sup 0}C) almost maintained the uniform fine grain structure inherited from rapid quenching. At higher temperatures, due to the local high-temperature field caused by the spark plasma discharge, the grain growth occurred at the initial particle surfaces and the coarse grain zones formed in the vicinity of the particle boundaries. Since the interior of the particles maintained the fine grain structure, a distinct two-zone structure was formed in the spark plasma sintered magnets. The SPS temperature and pressure have important effects on the widths of coarse and fine grain zones, as well as the grain sizes in two zones. The changes in grain structure led to variations in the magnetic properties. By employing low SPS temperature and high pressure, high-density magnets with negligible coarse grain zone and an excellent combination of magnetic properties can be obtained. An anisotropic magnet with a maximum energy product of {approx}30 MG Oe was produced by the SPS+HD process. HD at 750 {sup 0}C did not lead to obvious grain growth and the two-zone structure still existed in the hot deformed magnets. Intergranular exchange coupling was demonstrated in the spark plasma sintered magnets and was enhanced by the HD process, which reduced the coercivity. Good temperature stability was manifested by low temperature coefficients of remanence and coercivity. The results indicated that nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets without significant grain growth and with excellent properties could be obtained by SPS and HD processes.

  9. SiC/C composites prepared from wood-based carbons by pulse current sintering with SiO2 : Electrical and thermal properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujisawa, M; Hata, T; Bronsveld, P; Castro, [No Value; Tanaka, F; Kikuchi, H; Furuno, T; Imamura, Y

    2004-01-01

    A powder mix of wood charcoal and SiO2 was sintered into a SiC/C composite. The heat treatment temperatures were 1400-1800 degreesC, the SiO2 concentration 0, 10, 30 and 50 wt.% with respect to the dry weight of wood charcoal. The microstructure, electrical resistance and thermal conductivity were

  10. Monitoring non-thermal plasma processes for nanoparticle synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangolini, Lorenzo

    2017-09-01

    Process characterization tools have played a crucial role in the investigation of dusty plasmas. The presence of dust in certain non-thermal plasma processes was first detected by laser light scattering measurements. Techniques like laser induced particle explosive evaporation and ion mass spectrometry have provided the experimental evidence necessary for the development of the theory of particle nucleation in silane-containing non-thermal plasmas. This review provides first a summary of these early efforts, and then discusses recent investigations using in situ characterization techniques to understand the interaction between nanoparticles and plasmas. The advancement of such monitoring techniques is necessary to fully develop the potential of non-thermal plasmas as unique materials synthesis and processing platforms. At the same time, the strong coupling between materials and plasma properties suggest that it is also necessary to advance techniques for the measurement of plasma properties while in presence of dust. Recent progress in this area will be discussed.

  11. Potential use of only Yb2O3in producing dense Si3N4ceramics with high thermal conductivity by gas pressure sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinwen; Zhou, You; Hirao, Kiyoshi; Ishigaki, Takamasa; Sakka, Yoshio

    2010-12-01

    Yb 2 O 3 is an efficient sintering additive for enhancing not only thermal conductivity but also the high-temperature mechanical properties of Si 3 N 4 ceramics. Here we report the fabrication of dense Si 3 N 4 ceramics with high thermal conductivity by the gas pressure sintering of α-Si 3 N 4 powder compacts, using only Yb 2 O 3 as an additive, at 1900 °C under a nitrogen pressure of 1 MPa. The effects of Yb 2 O 3 content, sample packing condition and sintering time on the densification, microstructure and thermal conductivity were investigated. Curves of the density plotted against the Yb 2 O 3 content exhibited a characteristic ' N ' shape with a local minimum at 3 mol% Yb 2 O 3 and nearly complete densification below and above this concentration. The effects of the sample packing condition on the densification, microstructure and thermal conductivity strongly depended on the Yb 2 O 3 content. The embedded condition led to more complete densification but also to a decrease in thermal conductivity from 119 to 94 W m -1 K -1 upon 1 mol% Yb 2 O 3 addition. The sample packing condition had little effect on the density and thermal conductivity (102-106 W m -1 K -1 ) at 7 mol% Yb 2 O 3 . The thermal conductivity value was strongly related to the microstructure.

  12. Potential use of only Yb2O3 in producing dense Si3N4 ceramics with high thermal conductivity by gas pressure sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwen Zhu, You Zhou, Kiyoshi Hirao, Takamasa Ishigaki and Yoshio Sakka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Yb2O3 is an efficient sintering additive for enhancing not only thermal conductivity but also the high-temperature mechanical properties of Si3N4 ceramics. Here we report the fabrication of dense Si3N4 ceramics with high thermal conductivity by the gas pressure sintering of α-Si3N4 powder compacts, using only Yb2O3 as an additive, at 1900 °C under a nitrogen pressure of 1 MPa. The effects of Yb2O3 content, sample packing condition and sintering time on the densification, microstructure and thermal conductivity were investigated. Curves of the density plotted against the Yb2O3 content exhibited a characteristic 'N' shape with a local minimum at 3 mol% Yb2O3 and nearly complete densification below and above this concentration. The effects of the sample packing condition on the densification, microstructure and thermal conductivity strongly depended on the Yb2O3 content. The embedded condition led to more complete densification but also to a decrease in thermal conductivity from 119 to 94 W m-1 K−1 upon 1 mol% Yb2O3 addition. The sample packing condition had little effect on the density and thermal conductivity (102–106 W m−1 K−1 at 7 mol% Yb2O3. The thermal conductivity value was strongly related to the microstructure.

  13. Optimization of Gas Composition Used in Plasma Chemical Vaporization Machining for Figuring of Reaction-Sintered Silicon Carbide with Low Surface Roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rongyan; Yang, Xu; Ohkubo, Yuji; Endo, Katsuyoshi; Yamamura, Kazuya

    2018-02-05

    In recent years, reaction-sintered silicon carbide (RS-SiC) has been of interest in many engineering fields because of its excellent properties, such as its light weight, high rigidity, high heat conductance and low coefficient of thermal expansion. However, RS-SiC is difficult to machine owing to its high hardness and chemical inertness and because it contains multiple components. To overcome the problem of the poor machinability of RS-SiC in conventional machining, the application of atmospheric-pressure plasma chemical vaporization machining (AP-PCVM) to RS-SiC was proposed. As a highly efficient and damage-free figuring technique, AP-PCVM has been widely applied for the figuring of single-component materials, such as Si, SiC, quartz crystal wafers, and so forth. However, it has not been applied to RS-SiC since it is composed of multiple components. In this study, we investigated the AP-PCVM etching characteristics for RS-SiC by optimizing the gas composition. It was found that the different etching rates of the different components led to a large surface roughness. A smooth surface was obtained by applying the optimum gas composition, for which the etching rate of the Si component was equal to that of the SiC component.

  14. PREPARATION OF ZrWMoO8-CONTAINING COMPOSITES WITH ZERO THERMAL EXPANSION PROPERTY USING Al(NO33.9H2O AS A SINTERING AID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinqin Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixed oxide β-ZrWMoO8-containing composites with monoclinic zirconia (m-ZrO2 were prepared in search for zero thermal expansion ceramics over a wide temperature range. Thermomechanical analyzer (TMA results indicate that the thermal expansion coefficients of the β-ZrWMoO8-containing composites decrease with increasing amount of β-ZrWMoO8 and that the composite with 50 wt. % β-ZrWMoO8 and 50 wt. % m-ZrO2 exhibits near-zero thermal expansion from 30 to about 600oC. However, its relative density is low. The addition of a small amount of Al(NO33.9H2O as a sintering aid increases the density (possibly because the Al3+ ion promotes sintering and densification while affecting the structure and thermal expansion only insignificantly.

  15. Numerical Modelling of Wood Gasification in Thermal Plasma Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hirka, Ivan; Živný, Oldřich; Hrabovský, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 4 (2017), s. 947-965 ISSN 0272-4324 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma modelling * CFD * Thermal plasma reactor * Biomass * Gasification * Syngas Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11090-017-9812-z

  16. Treatment of organic waste using thermal plasma pyrolysis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Tang, L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the principles of thermal plasma pyrolysis processes and discusses recent research activities about organic waste treatment using thermal plasma pyrolysis technology. Different kinds of organic wastes, varying from plastic and used tires to agricultural residue and medical waste, have been subjected to thermal plasma pyrolysis tests in laboratory and pilot scale projects. Plasma pyrolysis of organic waste usually gives two product streams: a combustible gas having a calorific value in the range of 4-9 MJ/Nm 3 and a carbonaceous residue. Pyrolysis conditions as well as some technical measures such as the quenching process and steam reforming have significant influences on the properties of these pyrolysis products. Research results indicated that thermal plasma pyrolysis may be a useful way of waste management for energy and material recovery

  17. Hot deformed anisotropic nanocrystalline NdFeB based magnets prepared from spark plasma sintered melt spun powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Y.H.; Huang, Y.L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Liu, Z.W., E-mail: zwliu@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zeng, D.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ma, S.C.; Zhong, Z.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Highlights: • Microstructure evolution and its influence on the magnetic properties were investigated. • The increase of stray field and weakening of domain-wall pinning effects were the main reasons of the decrease of the coercivity with increasing the compression ratio. • The influences of non-uniform plastic deformation on the microstructure and magnetic properties were investigated. • Magnetic properties and temperature coefficient of coercivity are indeed very promising without heavy rare earth elements. -- Abstract: Anisotropic magnets were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) followed by hot deformation (HD) using melt-spun powders as the starting material. Good magnetic properties with the remanence J{sub r} > 1.32 T and maximum of energy product (BH){sub max} > 303 kJ/m{sup 3} have been obtained. The microstructure evolution during HD and its influence on the magnetic properties were investigated. The fine grain zone and coarse grain zone formed in the SPS showed different deformation behaviors. The microstructure also had an important effect on the temperature coefficients of coercivity. A strong domain-wall pinning model was valid to interpret the coercivity mechanism of the HDed magnets. The increase of stray field and weakening of domain-wall pinning effects were the main reasons of the decrease of the coercivity with increasing the compression ratio. The influences of non-uniform plastic deformation on the microstructure and magnetic properties were investigated. The polarization characteristics of HDed magnets were demonstrated. It was found out that the HDed magnets had better corrosion resistance than the counterpart sintered magnet.

  18. Spark Plasma Sintering of Load-Bearing Iron-Carbon Nanotube-Tricalcium Phosphate CerMets for Orthopaedic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montufar, Edgar B.; Horynová, Miroslava; Casas-Luna, Mariano; Diaz-de-la-Torre, Sebastián; Celko, Ladislav; Klakurková, Lenka; Spotz, Zdenek; Diéguez-Trejo, Guillermo; Fohlerová, Zdenka; Dvorak, Karel; Zikmund, Tomáš; Kaiser, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    Recently, ceramic-metallic composite materials (CerMets) have been investigated for orthopaedic applications with promising results. This first generation of bio-CerMets combine the bioactivity of hydroxyapatite with the mechanical stability of titanium to fabricate bioactive, tough and biomechanically more biocompatible osteosynthetic devices. Nonetheless, these first CerMets are not biodegradable materials and a second surgery is required to remove the implant after bone healing. The present work aims to develop the next generation bio-CerMets, which are potential biodegradable materials. The process to produce the new biodegradable CerMet consisted of mixing powder of soluble and osteoconductive alpha tricalcium phosphate with biocompatible and biodegradable iron with consolidation through spark plasma sintering (SPS). The microstructure, composition and mechanical strength of the new CerMet were studied by metallography, x-ray diffraction and diametral tensile strength tests, respectively. The results show that SPS produces CerMet with higher mechanical performance (120 MPa) than the ceramic component alone (29 MPa) and similar mechanical strength to the pure metallic component (129 MPa). Nonetheless, although a short sintering time (10 min) was used, partial transformation of the alpha tricalcium phosphate into its allotropic and slightly less soluble beta phase was observed. Cell adhesion tests show that osteoblasts are able to attach to the CerMet surface, presenting spread morphology regardless of the component of the material with which they are in contact. However, the degradation process restricted to the small volume of the cell culture well quickly reduces the osteoblast viability.

  19. High coercivity, anisotropic, heavy rare earth-free Nd-Fe-B by Flash Spark Plasma Sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Elinor; Sheridan, Richard; Zhou, Wei; Grasso, Salvatore; Walton, Allan; Reece, Michael J

    2017-09-11

    In the drive to reduce the critical Heavy Rare Earth (HRE) content of magnets for green technologies, HRE-free Nd-Fe-B has become an attractive option. HRE is added to Nd-Fe-B to enhance the high temperature performance of the magnets. To produce similar high temperature properties without HRE, a crystallographically textured nanoscale grain structure is ideal; and this conventionally requires expensive "die upset" processing routes. Here, a Flash Spark Plasma Sintering (FSPS) process has been applied to a Dy-free Nd 30.0 Fe 61.8 Co 5.8 Ga 0.6 Al 0.1 B 0.9 melt spun powder (MQU-F, neo Magnequench). Rapid sinter-forging of a green compact to near theoretical density was achieved during the 10 s process, and therefore represents a quick and efficient means of producing die-upset Nd-Fe-B material. The microstructure of the FSPS samples was investigated by SEM and TEM imaging, and the observations were used to guide the optimisation of the process. The most optimal sample is compared directly to commercially die-upset forged (MQIII-F) material made from the same MQU-F powder. It is shown that the grain size of the FSPS material is halved in comparison to the MQIII-F material, leading to a 14% increase in coercivity (1438 kA m -1 ) and matched remanence (1.16 T) giving a BH max of 230 kJ m -3 .

  20. Plasma Thermal Conversion of Methane to Acetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fincke, James Russell; Anderson, Raymond Paul; Hyde, Timothy Allen; Detering, Brent Alan; Wright, Randy Ben; Bewley, Randy Lee; Haggard, Delon C; Swank, William David

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a re-examination of a known process for the direct plasma thermal conversion of methane to acetylene. Conversion efficiencies (% methane converted) approached 100% and acetylene yields in the 90-95% range with 2-4% solid carbon production were demonstrated. Specificity for acetylene was higher than in prior work. Improvements in conversion efficiency, yield, and specificity were due primarily to improved injector design and reactant mixing, and minimization of temperature gradients and cold boundary layers. At the 60-kilowatt scale cooling by wall heat transfer appears to be sufficient to quench the product stream and prevent further reaction of acetylene resulting in the formation of heavier hydrocarbon products or solid carbon. Significantly increasing the quenching rate by aerodynamic expansion of the products through a converging-diverging nozzle led to a reduction in the yield of ethylene but had little effect on the yield of other hydrocarbon products. While greater product selectivity for acetylene has been demonstrated, the specific energy consumption per unit mass of acetylene produced was not improved upon. A kinetic model that includes the reaction mechanisms resulting in the formation of acetylene and heavier hydrocarbons, through benzene, is described

  1. High-Strength Ultra-Fine-Grained Hypereutectic Al-Si-Fe-X (X = Cr, Mn) Alloys Prepared by Short-Term Mechanical Alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Průša, Filip; Bláhová, Markéta; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Kučera, Vojtěch; Bernatiková, Adriana; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Michalcová, Alena

    2016-11-30

    In this work, Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn (wt %) alloys were prepared by a combination of short-term mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. The microstructure was composed of homogeneously dispersed intermetallic particles forming composite-like structures. X-ray diffraction analysis and TEM + EDS analysis determined that the α-Al along with α-Al 15 (Fe,Cr)₃Si₂ or α-Al 15 (Fe,Mn)₃Si₂ phases were present, with dimensions below 130 nm. The highest hardness of 380 ± 7 HV5 was observed for the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloy, exceeding the hardness of the reference as-cast Al-12Si-1Cu-1 Mg-1Ni alloy (121 ± 2 HV5) by nearly a factor of three. Both of the prepared alloys showed exceptional thermal stability with the hardness remaining almost the same even after 100 h of annealing at 400 °C. Additionally, the compressive strengths of the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloys reached 869 MPa and 887 MPa, respectively, and had virtually the same values of 870 MPa and 865 MPa, respectively, even after 100 h of annealing. More importantly, the alloys showed an increase in ductility at 400 °C, reaching several tens of percent. Thus, both of the investigated alloys showed better mechanical properties, including superior hardness, compressive strength and thermal stability, as compared to the reference Al-10Si-1Cu-1Mg-1Ni alloy, which softened remarkably, reducing its hardness by almost 50% to 63 ± 8 HV5.

  2. High hardness BaCb-(BxOy/BN) composites with 3D mesh-like fine grain-boundary structure by reactive spark plasma sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasylkiv, Oleg; Borodianska, Hanna; Badica, Petre; Grasso, Salvatore; Sakka, Yoshio; Tok, Alfred; Su, Liap Tat; Bosman, Michael; Ma, Jan

    2012-02-01

    Boron carbide B4C powders were subject to reactive spark plasma sintering (also known as field assisted sintering, pulsed current sintering or plasma assisted sintering) under nitrogen atmosphere. For an optimum hexagonal BN (h-BN) content estimated from X-ray diffraction measurements at approximately 0.4 wt%, the as-prepared BaCb-(BxOy/BN) ceramic shows values of Berkovich and Vickers hardness of 56.7 +/- 3.1 GPa and 39.3 +/- 7.6 GPa, respectively. These values are higher than for the vacuum SPS processed B4C pristine sample and the h-BN -mechanically-added samples. XRD and electronic microscopy data suggest that in the samples produced by reactive SPS in N2 atmosphere, and containing an estimated amount of 0.3-1.5% h-BN, the crystallite size of the boron carbide grains is decreasing with the increasing amount of N2, while for the newly formed lamellar h-BN the crystallite size is almost constant (approximately 30-50 nm). BN is located at the grain boundaries between the boron carbide grains and it is wrapped and intercalated by a thin layer of boron oxide. BxOy/BN forms a fine and continuous 3D mesh-like structure that is a possible reason for good mechanical properties.

  3. Non-thermal plasma mills bacteria: Scanning electron microscopy observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunov, O.; Churpita, O.; Zablotskii, V.; Deyneka, I. G.; Meshkovskii, I. K.; Jäger, A.; Syková, E.; Kubinová, Š.; Dejneka, A.

    2015-02-01

    Non-thermal plasmas hold great promise for a variety of biomedical applications. To ensure safe clinical application of plasma, a rigorous analysis of plasma-induced effects on cell functions is required. Yet mechanisms of bacteria deactivation by non-thermal plasma remain largely unknown. We therefore analyzed the influence of low-temperature atmospheric plasma on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Using scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate that both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains in a minute were completely destroyed by helium plasma. In contrast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were not affected by the same treatment. Furthermore, histopathological analysis of hematoxylin and eosin-stained rat skin sections from plasma-treated animals did not reveal any abnormalities in comparison to control ones. We discuss possible physical mechanisms leading to the shred of bacteria under non-thermal plasma irradiation. Our findings disclose how helium plasma destroys bacteria and demonstrates the safe use of plasma treatment for MSCs and skin cells, highlighting the favorability of plasma applications for chronic wound therapy.

  4. Bonding of TRIP-Steel/Al2O3-(3Y-TZP Composites and (3Y-TZP Ceramic by a Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan Miriyev

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A combination of the high damage tolerance of TRIP-steel and the extremely low thermal conductivity of partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ can provide controlled thermal-mechanical properties to sandwich-shaped composite specimens comprising these materials. Sintering the (TRIP-steel-PSZ/PSZ sandwich in a single step is very difficult due to differences in the sintering temperature and densification kinetics of the composite and the ceramic powders. In the present study, we successfully applied a two-step approach involving separate SPS consolidation of pure (3Y-TZP and composites containing 20 vol % TRIP-steel, 40 vol % Al2O3 and 40 vol % (3Y-TZP ceramic phase, and subsequent diffusion joining of both sintered components in an SPS apparatus. The microstructure and properties of the sintered and bonded specimens were characterized. No defects at the interface between the TZP and the composite after joining in the 1050–1150 °C temperature range were observed. Only limited grain growth occurred during joining, while crystallite size, hardness, shear strength and the fraction of the monoclinic phase in the TZP ceramic virtually did not change. The slight increase of the TZP layer’s fracture toughness with the joining temperature was attributed to the effect of grain size on transformation toughening.

  5. Performance of Cobalt-Based Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts Using Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasma as an Alternative to Thermal Calcination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Suli; Huang Chengdu; Lv Jing; Li Zhenhua

    2012-01-01

    Co-based catalysts were prepared by using dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) plasma as an alternative method to conventional thermal calcination. The characterization results of N 2 -physisorption, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the catalysts prepared by DBD plasma had a higher specific surface area, lower reduction temperature, smaller particle size and higher cobalt dispersion as compared to calcined catalysts. The DBD plasma method can prevent the sintering and aggregation of active particles on the support due to the decreased treatment time (0.5 h) at lower temperature compared to the longer thermal calcination at higher temperature (at 500° C for 5 h). As a result, the catalytic performance of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on DBD plasma treated Co/SiO 2 catalyst showed an enhanced activity, C 5+ selectivity and catalytic stability as compared to the conventional thermal calcined Co/SiO 2 catalyst.

  6. Non-Thermal Sanitation By Atmospheric Pressure Plasma, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC's Non-Thermal Sanitation by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma technology sanitizes fresh fruits and vegetables without the use of consumable chemicals and without...

  7. Non-Thermal Sanitation By Atmospheric Pressure Plasma, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a non-thermal technology based on atmospheric-pressure (AP) cold plasma to sanitize foods, food packaging materials, and other hardware...

  8. Monitoring system for thermal plasma; Sistema de monitoreo para plasma termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero G, M.; Vilchis P, A.E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In the Thermal plasma applications laboratory it has been the degradation project of oils for isolation in transformers. These are a very hazardous residues and at this time in the country they are stored in metal barrels. It has been the intention to undergo the oils to plasma for degradate them to non-hazardous residues. The system behavior must be monitored to establish the thermal plasma behavior. (Author)

  9. Chemical and mechanical analysis of boron-rich boron carbide processed via spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhollon, Tyler Lee

    Boron carbide is a material of choice for many industrial and specialty applications due to the exceptional properties it exhibits such as high hardness, chemical inertness, low specific gravity, high neutron cross section and more. The combination of high hardness and low specific gravity makes it especially attractive for high pressure/high strain rate applications. However, boron carbide exhibits anomalous behavior when high pressures are applied. Impact pressures over the Hugoniot elastic limit result in catastrophic failure of the material. This failure has been linked to amorphization in cleavage planes and loss of shear strength. Atomistic modeling has suggested boron-rich boron carbide (B13C2) may be a better performing material than the commonly used B4C due to the elimination of amorphization and an increase in shear strength. Therefore, a clear experimental understanding of the factors that lead to the degradation of mechanical properties as well as the effects of chemistry changes in boron carbide is needed. For this reason, the goal of this thesis was to produce high purity boron carbide with varying stoichiometries for chemical and mechanical property characterization. Utilizing rapid carbothermal reduction and pressure assisted sintering, dense boron carbides with varying stoichiometries were produced. Microstructural characteristics such as impurity inclusions, porosity and grain size were controlled. The chemistry and common static mechanical properties that are of importance to superhard materials including elastic moduli, hardness and fracture toughness of the resulting boron-rich boron carbides were characterized. A series of six boron carbide samples were processed with varying amounts of amorphous boron (up to 45 wt. % amorphous boron). Samples with greater than 40 wt.% boron additions were shown to exhibit abnormal sintering behavior, making it difficult to characterize these samples. Near theoretical densities were achieved in samples with

  10. Microstructure and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline high strength Al-Mg-Si (AA6061) alloy by high energy ball milling and spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Jatinkumar Kumar; Sivaprahasam, D.; Seetharama Raju, K.; Subramanya Sarma, V.

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, the microstructure and mechanical properties of nanostructured Al-Mg-Si based AA6061 alloy obtained by high energy ball milling and spark plasma sintering were reported. Gas atomized microcrystalline powder of AA6061 alloy was ball milled under wet condition at room temperature to obtain nanocrystalline powder with grain size of ∼30 nm. The nanocrystalline powder was consolidated to fully dense compacts by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 500 deg. C. The grain size after SPS consolidation was found to be ∼85 nm. The resultant SPS compacts exhibited microhardness of 190-200 HV 100g , compressive strength of ∼800 MPa and strain to fracture of ∼15%.

  11. Effect of low-melting point phases on the microstructure and properties of spark plasma sintered and hot deformed Nd-Fe-B alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Meiyu; Yan, Xueliang; Lin, Ye; Shield, Jeffrey

    2018-04-01

    The effect of adding a low melting point Pr-Cu-Al alloy during spark plasma sintering of melt-spun Nd-Fe-B ribbons is investigated. Regions of coarse grains were reduced and overall grain refinement was observed after the addition of Pr68Cu25Al7, leading to an enhancement of coercivity from 12.7 kOe to 20.4 kOe. Hot deformation of the samples in the spark plasma sintering system resulted in the formation of platelet-like grains, producing crystallographic alignment and magnetic anisotropy. The hot deformation process improved the remanence and energy product but reduced the coercivity. The decrease of coercivity resulted from grain growth and aggregation of Pr and Nd elements at triple-junction phases.

  12. Preliminary experiments on wastes degradation by thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cota S, G.; Pacheco S, J.; Segovia R, A.; Pena E, R.; Merlo S, L.

    1996-01-01

    This work presents the fundamental aspects involved in the installation and start up of an experimental equipment for the hazardous wastes degradation using the thermal plasma technology. It is mentioned about the form in which the thermal plasma is generated and the characteristics that its make to be an appropriate technology for the hazardous wastes degradation. Just as the installed structures for to realize the experiments and results of the first studies on degradation, using nylon as problem sample. (Author)

  13. Microstructural stability of spark-plasma-sintered Wf/W composite with zirconia interface coating under high-heat-flux hydrogen beam irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Avello de Lama

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the durability and chemical stability of Wf/W composite specimens under cyclic heat-flux loads up to 20 MW/m² (surface temperature: 1260 °C was investigated using hydrogen neutral beam. The bulk material was fabricated by means of spark-plasma-sintering (SPS method using fine tungsten powder and a stack of tungsten wire meshes as reinforcement where the surface of the wire was coated with zirconia thin film to produce an engineered interface. The impact of plasma beam irradiation on microstructure was examined for two kinds of specimens produced at different sintering temperatures, 1400 °C and 1700 °C. Results of microscopic (SEM and chemical (EDX analysis are presented comparing the microstructure and element distribution maps obtained before and after heat flux loading. Effects of different sintering temperatures on damage behaviour are discussed. The present composite materials are shown to be applicable as plasma-facing material for high-heat-flux components.

  14. Corrosion Behavior and Strength of Dissimilar Bonding Material between Ti and Mg Alloys Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pripanapong, Patchara; Kariya, Shota; Luangvaranunt, Tachai; Umeda, Junko; Tsutsumi, Seiichiro; Takahashi, Makoto; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Ti and solution treated Mg alloys such as AZ31B (ST), AZ61 (ST), AZ80 (ST) and AZ91 (ST) were successfully bonded at 475 °C by spark plasma sintering, which is a promising new method in welding field. The formation of Ti3Al intermetallic compound was found to be an important factor in controlling the bonding strength and galvanic corrosion resistance of dissimilar materials. The maximum bonding strength and bonding efficiency at 193 MPa and 96% were obtained from Ti/AZ91 (ST), in which a thick and uniform nano-level Ti3Al layer was observed. This sample also shows the highest galvanic corrosion resistance with a measured galvanic width and depth of 281 and 19 µm, respectively. The corrosion resistance of the matrix on Mg alloy side was controlled by its Al content. AZ91 (ST) exhibited the highest corrosion resistance considered from its corrode surface after corrosion test in Kroll’s etchant. The effect of Al content in Mg alloy on bonding strength and corrosion behavior of Ti/Mg alloy (ST) dissimilar materials is discussed in this work. PMID:28773788

  15. Corrosion Behavior and Strength of Dissimilar Bonding Material between Ti and Mg Alloys Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patchara Pripanapong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ti and solution treated Mg alloys such as AZ31B (ST, AZ61 (ST, AZ80 (ST and AZ91 (ST were successfully bonded at 475 °C by spark plasma sintering, which is a promising new method in welding field. The formation of Ti3Al intermetallic compound was found to be an important factor in controlling the bonding strength and galvanic corrosion resistance of dissimilar materials. The maximum bonding strength and bonding efficiency at 193 MPa and 96% were obtained from Ti/AZ91 (ST, in which a thick and uniform nano-level Ti3Al layer was observed. This sample also shows the highest galvanic corrosion resistance with a measured galvanic width and depth of 281 and 19 µm, respectively. The corrosion resistance of the matrix on Mg alloy side was controlled by its Al content. AZ91 (ST exhibited the highest corrosion resistance considered from its corrode surface after corrosion test in Kroll’s etchant. The effect of Al content in Mg alloy on bonding strength and corrosion behavior of Ti/Mg alloy (ST dissimilar materials is discussed in this work.

  16. Fabrication of Tungsten-Rhenium Cladding materials via Spark Plasma Sintering for Ultra High Temperature Reactor Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charit, Indrajit; Butt, Darryl; Frary, Megan; Carroll, Mark

    2012-11-05

    This research will develop an optimized, cost-effective method for producing high-purity tungsten-rhenium alloyed fuel clad forms that are crucial for the development of a very high-temperature nuclear reactor. The study will provide critical insight into the fundamental behavior (processing-microstructure- property correlations) of W-Re alloys made using this new fabrication process comprising high-energy ball milling (HEBM) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). A broader goal is to re-establish the U.S. lead in the research field of refractory alloys, such as W-Re systems, with potential applications in very high-temperature nuclear reactors. An essential long-term goal for nuclear power is to develop the capability of operating nuclear reactors at temperatures in excess of 1,000K. This capability has applications in space exploration and some special terrestrial uses where high temperatures are needed in certain chemical or reforming processes. Refractory alloys have been identified as being capable of withstanding temperatures in excess of 1,000K and are considered critical for the development of ultra hightemperature reactors. Tungsten alloys are known to possess extraordinary properties, such as excellent high-temperature capability, including the ability to resist leakage of fissile materials when used as a fuel clad. However, there are difficulties with the development of refractory alloys: 1) lack of basic experimental data on thermodynamics and mechanical and physical properties, and 2) challenges associated with processing these alloys.

  17. Analytical method for thermal stress analysis of plasma facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, J.H.; Bolt, H.

    2001-01-01

    The thermo-mechanical response of plasma facing materials (PFMs) to heat loads from the fusion plasma is one of the crucial issues in fusion technology. In this work, a fully analytical description of the thermal stress distribution in armour tiles of plasma facing components is presented which is expected to occur under typical high heat flux (HHF) loads. The method of stress superposition is applied considering the temperature gradient and thermal expansion mismatch. Several combinations of PFMs and heat sink metals are analysed and compared. In the framework of the present theoretical model, plastic flow and the effect of residual stress can be quantitatively assessed. Possible failure features are discussed

  18. Analytical method for thermal stress analysis of plasma facing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, J. H.; Bolt, H.

    2001-10-01

    The thermo-mechanical response of plasma facing materials (PFMs) to heat loads from the fusion plasma is one of the crucial issues in fusion technology. In this work, a fully analytical description of the thermal stress distribution in armour tiles of plasma facing components is presented which is expected to occur under typical high heat flux (HHF) loads. The method of stress superposition is applied considering the temperature gradient and thermal expansion mismatch. Several combinations of PFMs and heat sink metals are analysed and compared. In the framework of the present theoretical model, plastic flow and the effect of residual stress can be quantitatively assessed. Possible failure features are discussed.

  19. Hydrogen recovery from the thermal plasma gasification of solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Youngchul; Cho, Moohyun; Chung, Jae Woo; Namkung, Won; Lee, Hyeon Don; Jang, Sung Duk; Kim, Young-Suk; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Carg-Ro; Hwang, Soon-Mo

    2011-06-15

    Thermal plasma gasification has been demonstrated as one of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods for solid waste treatment and energy utilization in many of studies. Therefore, the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification (paper mill waste, 1.2 ton/day) was applied for the recovery of high purity H(2) (>99.99%). Gases emitted from a gasification furnace equipped with a nontransferred thermal plasma torch were purified using a bag-filter and wet scrubber. Thereafter, the gases, which contained syngas (CO+H(2)), were introduced into a H(2) recovery system, consisting largely of a water gas shift (WGS) unit for the conversion of CO to H(2) and a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit for the separation and purification of H(2). It was successfully demonstrated that the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification, combined with the WGS and PSA, produced high purity H(2) (20 N m(3)/h (400 H(2)-Nm(3)/PMW-ton), up to 99.99%) using a plasma torch with 1.6 MWh/PMW-ton of electricity. The results presented here suggest that the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification for the production of high purity H(2) may provide a new approach as a future energy infrastructure based on H(2). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of thermal treatments on microstructure and mechanical properties of a Co-Cr-Mo-W biomedical alloy produced by laser sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengucci, P; Barucca, G; Gatto, A; Bassoli, E; Denti, L; Fiori, F; Girardin, E; Bastianoni, P; Rutkowski, B; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A

    2016-07-01

    Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) technology based on a layer by layer production process was used to produce a Co-Cr-Mo-W alloy specifically developed for biomedical applications. The alloy mechanical response and microstructure were investigated in the as-sintered state and after post-production thermal treatments. Roughness and hardness measurements, and tensile and flexural tests were performed to study the mechanical response of the alloy while X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy (SEM, TEM, STEM) techniques and microanalysis (EDX) were used to investigate the microstructure in different conditions. Results showed an intricate network of ε-Co (hcp) lamellae in the γ-Co (fcc) matrix responsible of the high UTS and hardness values in the as-sintered state. Thermal treatments increase volume fraction of the ε-Co (hcp) martensite but slightly modify the average size of the lamellar structure. Nevertheless, thermal treatments are capable of producing a sensible increase in UTS and hardness and a strong reduction in ductility. These latter effects were mainly attributed to the massive precipitation of an hcp Co3(Mo,W)2Si phase and the contemporary formation of Si-rich inclusions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermal stability and mechanical properties of HfC dispersion strengthened W alloys as plasma-facing components in fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. K.; Miao, S.; Xie, Z. M.; Liu, R.; Zhang, T.; Fang, Q. F.; Hao, T.; Wang, X. P.; Liu, C. S.; Liu, X.; Cai, L. H.

    2017-08-01

    HfC dispersion strengthened tungsten alloys were prepared by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) and an ordinary sintering followed by swaging, respectively. The HfC content is optimized as 0.5 wt% through spark plasma sintering (SPS) processing. The thermal stability, thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of swaged W-0.5 wt%HfC (WHC05) alloys were systematically investigated. Grain of swaged WHC05 has an obvious round bar shaped morphology with an average diameter of 24.5 μm and an average length of 187 μm, respectively, which keeps stability with increasing annealing temperature up to 1400 °C. The ductile-brittle transition temperature of swaged WHC05 is about 250 °C, much lower than that of SPSed WHC05 samples (∼500 °C). The ultimate tensile strength of swaged WHC05 alloys annealed at 1200 °C has no significant drops in a wide tested temperature range from 300 °C to 800 °C. The thermal conductivity of swaged WHC05 annealed at 1200 °C is up to 174 W/m·K at room temperature and always larger than 137 W/m·K from RT to 500 °C, which is much higher than that of the unannealed one and just the same with ITER grade W.

  2. Nanoporous gold synthesized by plasma-assisted inert gas condensation: room temperature sintering, nanoscale mechanical properties and stability against high energy electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrauch, S.; Wagner, C.; Suckfuell, C.; Lotnyk, A.; Knolle, W.; Gerlach, J. W.; Mayr, S. G.

    2018-02-01

    With a plasma assisted gas condensation system it is possible to achieve high-purity nanoporous Au (np-Au) structures with minimal contaminations and impurities. The structures consist of single Au-nanoparticles, which partially sintered together due to their high surface to volume ratio. Through electron microscopy investigations a porosity  >50% with ligament sizes between 20-30 nm was revealed. The elastic modulus of the np-Au was determined via peak force quantitative nanomechanical mapping and resulted in values of 7.5  ±  1.5 GPa. The presented structures partially sintered at room temperature, but proved to be stable to electron irradiation with energies of 7 MeV up to doses of 100 MGy. The electron irradiation stability opens the venue for electron assisted functionalization with biomolecules.

  3. Magnetic features of Fe-Cr-Co alloys with tailoring chromium content fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastabi, Reza Amini; Ghasemi, Ali, E-mail: ali13912001@yahoo.com; Tavoosi, Majid; Ramazani, Mazaher

    2017-03-15

    Structural and magnetic characterization of Fe-Cr-Co alloys during milling, annealing and consolidation processes was the goal of this study. In this regards, different powder mixtures of Fe{sub 80−x}Cr{sub x}Co{sub 20} (15≤x≤35) were mechanically milled in a planetary ball mill and then were consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The produced samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). According to achieved results, the structure of as-milled samples in different compositions consists of single α phase solid solution with coercivity and saturation of magnetization in the range of 110–200 Oe and 150–220 emu/g, respectively. The magnetic properties of consolidated samples depend on the kinds of formed precipitates in microstructure and the maximum values of coercive force and saturation of magnetization obtained in Fe{sub 55}Cr{sub 25}Co{sub 20} magnetic (with single α phase) alloy were 107 Oe and Ms 172 emu/g, respectively. In fact, the formation of non-magnetic σ and γ phases has a destructive effect on magnetic properties of consolidated samples with higher Cr content. Since such magnet requires less cobalt, and contains similar magnetic feature with superior ductility compare to the AlNiCo 5, it could be considered as a promising candidate for employing instead of AlNiCo 5. - Highlights: • Milled samples consist of single phase α-solid solution. • Saturation of magnetization of Fe{sub 65}Cr{sub 15}Co{sub 20} reached to 172 emu/g. • Fe{sub 65}Cr{sub 15}Co{sub 20} alloy is the suitable composition fabricated by SPS.

  4. Sinterable powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanghi, J.S.; Kasprzyk, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    A description is given of sinterable powders and methods of producing sintered products using such powders. The powders consist of (a) a particulate ceramic material, e.g. SiC, having specified particle size and surface area; (b) a carbon source material, e.g. sugar or a phenol-formaldehyde resin; and (c) a residue from a solution of H 3 BO 3 , B 2 O 3 , or mixtures of these as sintering aid. (U.K.)

  5. Surface-selective laser sintering of thermolabile polymer particles using water as heating sensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, E N; Krotova, L I; Minaev, N V; Minaeva, S A; Mironov, A V; Popov, V K [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies of the Russian Academy of Sciencies, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bagratashvili, V N [Department of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    We report the implementation of a novel scheme for surface-selective laser sintering (SSLS) of polymer particles, based on using water as a sensitizer of laser heating and sintering of particles as well as laser radiation at a wavelength of 1.94 μm, corresponding to the strong absorption band of water. A method of sintering powders of poly(lactide-co-glycolide), a hydrophobic bioresorbable polymer, after modifying its surface with an aqueous solution of hyaluronic acid is developed. The sintering thresholds for wetted polymer are by 3 – 4 times lower than those for sintering in air. The presence of water restricts the temperature of the heated polymer, preventing its thermal destruction. Polymer matrices with a developed porous structure are obtained. The proposed SSLS method can be applied to produce bioresorbable polymer matrices for tissue engineering. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  6. Material design of ceramic coating by plasma spray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamichi, M.; Kawamura, H.; Takabatake, T.

    1998-01-01

    In the ceramic coating on substrate, cracking and peeling occur due to the difference of thermal expansion between substrate material and coating material. For evaluation of peeling property of plasma sprayed coating, it is demanded that thermal properties of plasma sprayed coating are estimated in detail. In this study, the results of comparison of thermal properties between bulk material and plasma sprayed material are investigated to design the ceramic coating quantitatively. Thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed MgO.Al 2 O 3 is decreased by approximately 50% to that of sintered MgO.Al 2 O 3 . Thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed 410SS agreed well with the calculation results of relation between porosity and thermal conductivity of iron sintered material. Thermal expansions of atmospheric plasma sprayed MgO.Al 2 O 3 and bulk 410SS, respectively. Therefore, as to material design on ceramic coating, it was made clear that thermal conductivity is more important than thermal expansion. (orig.)

  7. Influence of nitrogen and air atmosphere during thermal treatment on micro and nano sized powders and sintered TiO2 specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labus N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of air and nitrogen atmosphere during heating on TiO2 nano and micro sized powders as well as sintered polycrystalline specimens was analyzed. Sintering of TiO2 nano and micro powders in air atmosphere was monitored in a dilatometer. Non compacted nano and micro powders were analyzed separately in air and nitrogen atmospheres during heating using thermo gravimetric (TG and differential thermal analysis (DTA. The anatase to rutile phase transition temperature interval is influenced by the powder particle size and atmosphere change. At lower temperatures for nano TiO2 powder a second order phase transition was detected by both thermal techniques. Polycrystalline specimens obtained by sintering from nano powders were reheated in the dilatometer in nitrogen and air atmosphere, and their shrinkage is found to be different. Powder particle size influence, as well as the air and nitrogen atmosphere influence was discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI172057 i br. III45014

  8. Reflection of oblique electron thermal modes in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.; Sanuki, H.

    1980-04-01

    In an inhomogeneous magnetoplasma, reflection of an oblique electron thermal mode radiated from a local source is investigated experimentally and theoretically near the electron plasma frequency layer. The experimental observation of reflection in the lower plasma density region than the f sub(p)-layer is found to be in qualitative accord with the theoretical reflection, which is obtained from a kinetic theory in an inhomogeneous magnetoplasma. The reflection of the thermal mode is also compared with that of an electromagnetic mode at the f sub(p)-layer. (author)

  9. Plasma thermal energy transport: theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.

    Experiments on the transport across the magnetic field of electron thermal energy are reviewed (Alcator, Frascati Torus). In order to explain the experimental results, a transport model is described that reconfirmed the need to have an expression for the local diffusion coefficient with a negative exponent of the electron temperature

  10. Thermal condensation mode in a dusty plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... in the presence of dust charge fluctuations. We find that the charge variability of the grain reduces the growth rate of radiative mode only for fluctuation wavelength smaller or of the order of the Debye length and this reduction is not very large. Far from the Debye sphere, radiative mode can damp due to thermal conduction ...

  11. Remelting of metallurgical fines using thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, L.C.; Neto F, J.B.F.; Bender, O.W.; Collares, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A plasma furnace was developed for remelting of ferro alloys and silicon fines. The furnace capacity was about 4 Kg of silicon and power about 50 kW. The fine (20 to 100 mesh) was fed into the furnace directly at the high temperature zone. This system was tested for remelting silicon fines and the results in the recovery of silicon was about 95% and it took place a refine of aluminium and calcium. (author)

  12. Influence of Microstructure on Thermal Properties of Axial Suspension Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ganvir, A.; Curry, N.; Markocsan, N.; Nylen, P.; Joshi, S.; Vilémová, Monika; Pala, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, 1-2 (2016), s. 202-212 ISSN 1059-9630. [ITSC 2015: International Thermal Spray Conference and Exposition. Long Beach, California, 11.05.2015-14.05.2015] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : axial injection * column ar microstructure * porosity * suspension plasma spraying * thermal conductivity * thermal diffusivity Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.488, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11666-015-0355-7

  13. Influence of Microstructure on Thermal Properties of Axial Suspension Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ganvir, A.; Curry, N.; Markocsan, N.; Nylen, P.; Joshi, S.; Vilémová, Monika; Pala, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, 1-2 (2016), s. 202-212 ISSN 1059-9630. [ITSC 2015: International Thermal Spray Conference and Exposition. Long Beach, California, 11.05.2015-14.05.2015] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : axial injection * columnar microstructure * porosity * suspension plasma spraying * thermal conductivity * thermal diffusivity Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.488, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11666-015-0355-7

  14. Thermal Plasma Gasification of Biomass for Fuel Gas Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan; Hlína, Michal; Konrád, Miloš; Kopecký, Vladimír; Kavka, Tetyana; Chumak, Oleksiy; Mašláni, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3-4 (2009), s. 299-313 ISSN 1093-3611 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * plasma gasification * syngas * biomass Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2009 http://www.begellhouse.com/journals/57d172397126f956,5cbc272245f24168,0ac09d02537962cf.html

  15. Tensile Properties and Fracture Characteristics of Nanostructured Copper and Cu-SiC Nanocomposite Produced by Mechanical Milling and Spark Plasma Sintering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarpour, M. R.

    2018-03-01

    The presence of large grains within nanometric and ultrafine grain matrix is an effective method in order to enhance strength while keeping the high ductility of metals. For this purpose, in this research, spark plasma sintering (SPS) was used to consolidate milled Cu and Cu-SiC powders. In SPS process, local sparks with high temperature between particles take place and locally lead to intense grain growth, and therefore, this method has the ability to produce bimodal grain structures in copper and copper-based composites. Microstructural and mechanical studies showed ≈ 185 and ≈ 437 nm matrix grain sizes, high tensile yield strength values of ≈ 188.4 and ≈ 296.9 MPa, and fracture strain values of 15.1 and 6.7% for sintered Cu and Cu-4 vol.% SiC nanocomposite materials, respectively. The presence of nanoparticles promoted the occurrence of static recrystallization and decreased the fraction of coarse grains in microstructure. The high tensile properties of the produced materials are attributed to fine grain size, homogenous dispersion of nanoparticles and retarded grain boundary migration during sintering.

  16. Comparison of Reactive and Non-Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering Routes for the Fabrication of Monolithic and Composite Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Orrù

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A wider utilization of ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC materials strongly depends on the availability of efficient techniques for their fabrication as dense bodies. Based on recent results reported in the literature, it is possible to state that Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS technology offers a useful contribution in this direction. Along these lines, the use of two different SPS-based processing routes for the preparation of massive UHTCs is examined in this work. One method, the so-called reactive SPS (R-SPS, consists of the synthesis and densification of the material in a single step. Alternatively, the ceramic powders are first synthesized by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS and then sintered by SPS. The obtained results evidenced that R-SPS method is preferable for the preparation of dense monolithic products, while the sintering of SHS powders requires relatively milder conditions when considering binary composites. The different kinetic mechanisms involved during R-SPS of the monolithic and composite systems, i.e., combustion-like or gradual solid-diffusion, respectively, provides a possible explanation. An important role is also played by the SHS process, particularly for the preparation of composite powders, since stronger interfaces are established between the ceramic constituents formed in situ, thus favoring diffusion processes during the subsequent SPS step.

  17. Contribution to the densification study of silicon and zirconium carbides by an innovating process: the Spark Plasma Sintering; Contribution a l'etude de la densification des carbures de silicium et de zirconium par un procede innovant: le spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allemand, A. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire (DEN/DMN/SRMA/LTMEx), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Guillard, F.; Galy, J. [Centre d' Elaboration de Materiaux et d' Etudes Structurales (CEMES-CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2007-07-01

    In the framework of the CPR ISMIR, the works presented here take up the results of the thesis of F. Guillard defended on december 2006. This thesis has dealt with the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique and more particularly have been studied: 1)the {beta}SiC and ZrC sintering 2)the modelling of ZrC sintering by the SPS technique and 3)the studies of the carbides/oxides interfaces carried out by SPS. Concerning the {beta}SiC and ZrC sintering: the two carbides have been sintered between 1450 and 1950 C with times periods of 10 minutes and pressures between 50 and 150 MPa. These experiments have shown that the way to apply the pressure is of major importance. Moreover, 92% of densification can be reached after 5 minutes in 1850 C for SiC. For ZrC, 95% of densification is reached as soon as 5 minutes in 1750 C. Different correlations between grains size, density and the way to apply pressure are presented. For the SPS modelling of ZrC, two existing models, taking into account the diffusion laws, are used to try to model the SPS. The results are presented and discussed. At last, the SPS allows to make interfaces starting from powders or materials previously sintered. The SiC/ZrC and ZrO{sub 2}/SiC interfaces have been studied. A microstructural study is presented as well as a technique which allows the assembling with no cracks of SiC and ZrC. (O.M.)

  18. Antitumor action of non thermal plasma sources, DBD and Plasma Gun, alone or in combined protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Eric; Brullé, Laura; Vandamme, Marc; Riès, Delphine; Le Pape, Alain; Pouvesle, Jean-Michel

    2012-10-01

    The presentation deals with the assessment on two non thermal plasma sources developed and optimized for oncology applications. The first plasma source is a floating-electrode dielectric barrier discharge powered at a few hundreds of Hz which deliver air-plasma directly on the surface of cell culture medium in dishes or on the skin or organs of mice bearing cancer tumors. The second plasma source, so called Plasma Gun, is a plasma jet source triggered in noble gas, transferred in high aspect ratio and flexible capillaries, on targeting cells or tumors after plasma transfer in air through the ``plasma plume'' generated at the capillary outlet. In vitro evidence for massive cancer cell destruction and in vivo tumor activity and growth rate reductions have been measured with both plasma sources. DNA damages, cell cycle arrests and apoptosis induction were also demonstrated following the application of any of the two plasma source both in vitro and in vivo. The comparison of plasma treatment with state of the art chemotherapeutic alternatives has been performed and last but not least the benefit of combined protocols involving plasma and chemotherapeutic treatments has been evidenced for mice bearing orthotopic pancreas cancer and is under evaluation for the colon tumors.

  19. Influence of binders on infrared laser ablation of powdered tungsten carbide pressed pellets in comparison with sintered tungsten carbide hardmetals studied by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hola, Marketa [Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology and Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 2, CZ 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Otruba, Vitezslav [Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology and Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 2, CZ 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Kanicky, Viktor [Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology and Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 2, CZ 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: viktork@chemi.muni.cz

    2006-05-15

    Laser ablation (LA) was studied as a sample introduction technique for the analysis of powdered and sintered tungsten carbides (WC/Co) by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The possibility to work with powdered and compact materials with close chemical composition provided the opportunity to compare LA sampling of similar substances in different forms that require different preparation procedures. Powdered WC/Co precursors of sintered hardmetals were prepared for the ablation as pressed pellets with and without powdered silver as a binder, while sintered hardmetal blocks were embedded into a resin to obtain discs, which were then smoothed and polished. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operated at its fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm with a pulse frequency of 10 Hz and maximum pulse energy of 220 mJ was used. A single lens was used for the laser beam focusing. An ablation cell (14 cm{sup 3}) mounted on a PC-controlled XY-translator was connected to an ICP spectrometer Jobin Yvon 170 Ultrace (laterally viewed ICP, mono- and polychromator) using a 1.5-m tubing (4 mm i.d.). Ablation was performed in a circular motion (2 mm diameter). Close attention was paid to the study of the crater parametres depending on hardness, cohesion and Ag binder presence in WC/Co samples. The influence of the Co content on the depth and structure of the ablation craters of the binderless pellets was also studied. Linear calibration plots of Nb, Ta and Ti were obtained for cemented WC/Co samples, binderless and binder-containing pellets. Relative widths of uncertainty intervals about the centroids vary between {+-} 3% and {+-} 7%, and exceptionally reach a value above 10%. The lowest determinable quantities (LDQ) of Nb, Ta and Ti calculated from the calibration lines were less than 0.5% (m/m). To evaluate the possibility of quantitative elemental analysis by LA-ICP-OES, two real sintered WC/Co samples and two real samples of powdered WC/Co materials were analysed

  20. Thermal Plasma Synthesis of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei, P.Y.; Boies, A.M.; Calder, S.A.; Girshick, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by injecting ferrocene vapor and oxygen into an argon/helium DC thermal plasma. Size distributions of particles in the reactor exhaust were measured online using an aerosol extraction probe interfaced to a scanning mobility particle sizer,

  1. Synthesis and characterization of cBN/WCCo composites obtained by the pulse plasma sintering (PPS) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, A; Rosinski, M; Plocinska, M; Szawlowski, J, E-mail: mihalski@inmat.pw.edu.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-10-29

    The cBN/cemented carbide containing 30vol% of cBN particles was produced using a mixture of a 6wt% Co added-WC powder, with a WC grain size of 0.4 {mu}m and a cBN powder with a grain size ranging from 4 to 40 {mu}m. The mixture was sintered to produce a plate, 20 mm in diameter, 3 mm thick. The sintering processes were conducted at temperature of 1100 deg. C under a load of 100 MPa. The phase composition, density, hardness and micro structure of the sintered parts thus obtained were examined. The fractures through the WCCo/cBN composite showed the cBN particles torn out from the cemented carbide matrix were only few, whereas most of them have cleaved along the fracture plane. This gives evidence that the bond at the WCCo/cBN interface is mechanically strong.

  2. Treatment of mixed wastes by thermal plasma discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz A, L.V.

    2007-01-01

    The present study has as purpose to apply the technology of thermal plasma in the destruction of certain type of waste generated in the ININ. As first instance, origin, classification and disposition of the radioactive waste generated in the ININ is identified. Once identified the waste, the waste to treat is determined based on: the easiness of treating him with plasma, classification and importance. Later on, a substance or compound settles down (sample model) that serves as indicative of the waste for its physical-chemical characteristics, this is made because in the Thermal Plasma Applications Laboratory is not had the license to work with radioactive material. The sample model and the material to form the vitreous matrix are characterized before and after the treatment in order to evaluating their degradation and vitrification. During the treatment by means of the thermal plasma, the appropriate conditions are determined for the degradation and vitrification of the waste. Also, it is carried out an energy balance in the system to know the capacity to fuse the material depending the transfer of existent heat between the plasma and the material to treat. Obtaining favorable results, it thought about to climb in the project and by this way to help to solve one of the environmental problems in Mexico, as they are it the mixed wastes. (Author)

  3. Thermal equilibrium criteria in a nitrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cilliers, W.A.; Hey, J.D.; Rash, J.P.S.

    1975-01-01

    A method for obtaining the lower electron density limit for LTE in a nitrogen plasma is described, whereby the experimentally determined ratio of the collisional-radiative ionization and recombination coefficients (S/α) is compared with the corresponding LTE value (Saha ratio). It is argued that if the electron density is increased from values of about 10 16 cm -3 , S/α should tend to the Saha ratio as LTE is approached For NII and NIII spectral lines, this is found to happen at an electron density of a few times 10 16 cm -3 when the electron temperature is about 3 eV, in good agreement with the LTE criterion of Griem. (author)

  4. Thermal plasma reduction of UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fincke, J.R.; Swank, W.D.; Haggard, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental demonstration of a process for the direct plasma reduction of depleted uranium hexafluoride to uranium metal. The process exploits the large departures from equilibrium that can be achieved in the rapid supersonic expansion of a totally dissociated and partially ionized mixture of UF 6 , Ar, He, and H 2 . The process is based on the rapid condensation of subcooled uranium vapor and the relatively slow rate of back reaction between metallic uranium and HF to F 2 to reform stable fluorides. The high translational velocities and rapid cooling result in an overpopulation of atomic hydrogen which persists throughout the expansion process. Atomic hydrogen shifts the equilibrium composition by inhibiting the reformation of uranium-fluorine compounds. This process has the potential to reduce the cost of reducing UF 6 to uranium metal with the added benefit of being a virtually waste free process. The dry HF produced is a commodity which has industrial value

  5. Coercivity and thermal stability improvement in sintered Nd–Fe–B permanent magnets by intergranular addition of Dy–Mn alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiangbin; Liu, Shuo [School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Cao, Xuejing [School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhou, Beibei [School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, Ling; Yan, Aru [Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Yan, Gaolin, E-mail: gaolinyan@whu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-06-01

    To increase coercivity and thermal stability of sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets for high temperature applications, Dy{sub 88}Mn{sub 12} (wt%) alloy powders were intergranular added into (Pr{sub 0.25}Nd{sub 0.75}){sub 30.6}Cu{sub 0.15}Fe{sub bal}B{sub 1} (wt%) starting magnet. The magnetic properties, microstructure and thermal stability of the sintered magnets with different amounts of Dy{sub 88}Mn{sub 12} were investigated. By adding a small amount of Dy{sub 88}Mn{sub 12}, the coercivity was significantly increased from 12.56 kOe to 17.49 kOe. Microstructure analysis showed that a optimized microstructure, i.e. continuous, uniform grain boundary phase was achieved with Dy{sub 88}Mn{sub 12} alloy addition, and Dy was enriched in the outer region of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B matrix grains during the sintering process, which favored to substitute for Nd in matrix grains to form the (Nd,Dy){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B core–shell phase. The greatly increased magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the core–shell phase and the improved decoupling by the continuous grain boundary phase accounted for the coercivity enhancement. Furthermore, by adding 0–4 wt% Dy{sub 88}Mn{sub 12}, the reversible temperature coefficients of remanence (α) and coercivity (β) of the magnet were improved from −0.115%/ºC to −0.107%/ºC and −0.744%/ºC to −0.696%/ºC in the range of 20–100 °C, respectively. In addition, the irreversible flux loss of magnetic flow (h{sub irr}) decreased sharply as Dy{sub 88}Mn{sub 12} addition. The temperature-dependent magnetic properties results indicated that with intergranular addition of Dy{sub 88}Mn{sub 12} alloy, the thermal stability of the magnets was effectively improved. - Highlights: • Addition of Dy–Mn enhanced coercivity of sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets. • Addition of Dy–Mn optimized grain boundary and formed a (Nd,Dy){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B shell. • Addition of Dy–Mn improved the thermal stability of the magnets.

  6. Inductive thermal plasma generation applied for the materials coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, J.; Pena, R.; Cota, G.; Segovia, A.; Cruz, A.

    1996-01-01

    The coatings by thermal plasma are carried out introducing particles into a plasma system where they are accelerated and melted (total or partially) before striking the substrate to which they adhere and are suddenly cooled down. The nature of consolidation and solidification of the particles allows to have control upon the microstructure of the deposit. This technique is able to deposit any kind of material that is suitable to be merged (metal, alloy, ceramic, glass) upon any type of substrate (metal, graphite, ceramic, wood) with an adjustable thickness ranging from a few microns up to several millimeters. The applications are particularly focused to the coating of materials in order to improve their properties of resistance to corrosion, thermal and mechanical efforts as well as to preserve the properties of the so formed compound. In this work the electromagnetic induction phenomenon in an ionized medium by means of electric conductivity, is described. Emphasis is made on the devices and control systems employed in order to generate the thermal plasma and in carrying out the coatings of surfaces by the projection of particles based on plasma

  7. Highly thermal-stable, plasma-polymerized BCB polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, J; Nakano, A; Kinoshita, K; Harada, Y; Tagami, M; Tada, M; Hayashi, Y

    2003-01-01

    A new plasma-enhanced organic monomer-vapour polymerization (plasma polymerization) method has been developed. It was used to make a divinyl siloxane bis-benzocyclobutene (DVS-BCB) polymer film for Cu dual-damascene interconnects that had high thermal stability and a low dielectric constant, k = 2.6. The method consists of the vaporization of organic monomers, transportation of monomers in the gas phase, and polymerization by plasma to make the polymer film. The method eliminates polymer oxidation of DVS-BCB during the polymerization in high vacuum, which improves the film's thermal stability. The thermal stability of plasma-polymerized BCB (p-BCB) exceeded 400 deg. C because of the higher deposition temperature, and the film had a high resistance to Cu diffusion at 400 deg. C annealing. The narrow-pitched Cu/BCB damascene lines showed a 35% reduction in line capacitance compared with Cu/SiO 2 ones. The p-BCB is shown to be a strong candidate for Cu/low-k interconnects

  8. Effect of SiC Nanowhisker on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of WC-Ni Cemented Carbide Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyong Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine tungsten carbide-nickel (WC-Ni cemented carbides with varied fractions of silicon carbide (SiC nanowhisker (0–3.75 wt.% were fabricated by spark plasma sintering at 1350°C under a uniaxial pressure of 50 MPa with the assistance of vanadium carbide (VC and tantalum carbide (TaC as WC grain growth inhibitors. The effects of SiC nanowhisker on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-prepared WC-Ni cemented carbides were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that during spark plasma sintering (SPS Ni may react with the applied SiC nanowhisker, forming Ni2Si and graphite. Scanning electron microscopy examination indicated that, with the addition of SiC nanowhisker, the average WC grain size decreased from 400 to 350 nm. However, with the additional fractions of SiC nanowhisker, more and more Si-rich aggregates appeared. With the increase in the added fraction of SiC nanowhisker, the Vickers hardness of the samples initially increased and then decreased, reaching its maximum of about 24.9 GPa when 0.75 wt.% SiC nanowhisker was added. However, the flexural strength of the sample gradually decreased with increasing addition fraction of SiC nanowhisker.

  9. Non-thermal fusion in a beam plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, F.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of producing fusion power with low neutron emission has been debated in the past in the framework of the magnetic confinement fusion research. Proposals are still being renewed to use advanced fuels in various plasma systems. Since today's toroidal devices cannot support plasma conditions suitable for a large fusion production with such fuels, new concepts and configurations have been studied, where the plasma components are not in a thermal equilibrium. Here, a system of a neutral beam injected into a confined plasma is considered where fusion is produced only between the beam and plasma ions. The collisional slowing down of the beam into the plasma is described by a fluid model. General considerations in this model allow conditions to be found for the fusion-produced power to breakeven against the power needed to sustain the system itself. These conditions are only necessary since the nuclear power is maximized in the present analysis by using favourable assumptions. Nevertheless, the results for different advanced fuels indicate again the very high difficulty of getting a net power produced by the fusion of such fuels, unless the plasma target temperature reaches very high and unrealistic values

  10. Liquid Film Capillary Mechanism for Densification of Ceramic Powders during Flash Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachman Chaim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, local melting of the particle surfaces confirmed the formation of spark and plasma during spark plasma sintering, which explains the rapid densification mechanism via liquid. A model for rapid densification of flash sintered ceramics by liquid film capillary was presented, where liquid film forms by local melting at the particle contacts, due to Joule heating followed by thermal runaway. Local densification is by particle rearrangement led by spreading of the liquid, due to local attractive capillary forces. Electrowetting may assist this process. The asymmetric nature of the powder compact represents an invasive percolating system.

  11. Effects of Synthesis and Spark Plasma Sintering Conditions on the Thermoelectric Properties of Ca3Co4O9+δ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, NingYu; Holgate, Tim; Van Nong, Ngo

    2013-01-01

    Ca3Co4O9+δ samples were synthesized by solid-state (SS) and sol–gel (SG) reactions, followed by spark plasma sintering under different processing conditions. The synthesis process was optimized and the resulting materials characterized with respect to their microstructure, bulk density, and therm......Ca3Co4O9+δ samples were synthesized by solid-state (SS) and sol–gel (SG) reactions, followed by spark plasma sintering under different processing conditions. The synthesis process was optimized and the resulting materials characterized with respect to their microstructure, bulk density...

  12. Non-thermal plasma mills bacteria: scanning electron microscopy observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg; Churpita, Olexandr; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Deyneka, I.G.; Meshkovskii, I.K.; Jäger, Aleš; Syková, Eva; Kubinová, Šárka; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 5 (2015), "053703-1"-"053703-5" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA MŠk LO1309 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100101219; SAFMAT(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/22132 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : non-thermal plasma * plasma medicine * bacteria * cells Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.142, year: 2015

  13. Effect of thermal aging on the erosion resistance of air plasma sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janos, B.Z.; Lugscheider, E.; Remer, P.

    1999-01-01

    To increase the performance, efficiency and reliability of thermal barrier coatings, it is important to understand the influence of the microstructure on the erosion resistance. Therefore, the erosion behavior of air-plasma-sprayed 7 wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBC) at elevated temperatures was investigated. The paper focuses on both the porosity of the coating as well as the thermal pre-treatment of the ceramic. To simulate operating conditions on the ceramic samples, high-temperature erosion experiments at 1093 C were carried out on as-sprayed samples as well as on samples, thermally aged at different temperatures up to 1482 C in air prior to erosion testing. A significant dependence of erosion rate on porosity and thermal pre-treatment was found. Finally, a technique was developed to predict the erosion rates of air-plasma-sprayed 7YSZ TBCs independent of aging conditions or porosity levels. Erosion rates seem to be highly correlated to the micro-hardness of the zirconia TBC. A power-law model was empirically derived to estimate erosion rates of plasma-sprayed 7YSZ ceramic thermal barrier coatings. (orig.)

  14. Effect of TiC content on the microstructure and properties of Ti3SiC2-TiC composites in situ fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianfeng; Wang Lianjun; Jiang Wan; Chen Lidong

    2008-01-01

    Spark plasma sintering technique was used to in situ fabricate high dense Ti 3 SiC 2 -TiC composites. The calculated TiC volume content from X-ray diffraction (XRD) is close to the theoretical one. It is found from fracture surface observation that TiC is about 1 μm, and Ti 3 SiC 2 is about 2-10 μm in grain size. The fracture modes consist of intergranular mainly for Ti 3 SiC 2 and transgranular fracture mainly for TiC. With the increasing of TiC volume content, Vickers hardness increases to the maximum value of 13 GPa for Ti 3 SiC 2 -40 vol.%TiC. Fracture toughness and flexural strength of the composites are also improved compared with those of monolithic Ti 3 SiC 2 except for Ti 3 SiC 2 -40 vol.%TiC composite. The main reasons for the sudden decrease of fracture toughness and flexural strength of Ti 3 SiC 2 -40 vol.%TiC composite can be attributed to the relatively lower density, some clusters of TiC in the composite and the transition of fracture mode from intergranular to transgranular. The thermal conductivities decreased with the addition of TiC. The minimum thermal conductivity is 22 W m deg. C -1 for Ti 3 SiC 2 -40 vol.%TiC composite

  15. Mechanical behaviour of AlSiC nano composites produced by ball milling and spark plasma sintering =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheim, Claudia Sofia de Andrade Redondo Murilhas

    Neste trabalho foram produzidos nanocompositos de AlSiC misturando aluminio puro com nano particulas de SiC com diâmetro de 45 - 55 nm, usando, de forma sequencial, a tecnica da metalurgia do po e a compactacao por "Spark Plasma Sintering". O composito obtido apresentava graos com 100 nm de diâmetro, encontrandose as particulas de SiC localizadas, principalmente, nas fronteiras de grao. O nanocomposito sob a forma de provetes cilindricos foi submetido a testes de compressao uniaxial e a testes de nanoindentacao para analisar a influencia das nanoparticulas de SiC, da fracao volumica de acido estearico e do tempo de moagem, nas propriedades mecânicas do material. Para efeitos de comparacao, utilizouse o comportamento mecânico do Al puro processado em condicoes similares e da liga de aluminio AA1050O. A tensao limite de elasticidade do nanocomposito com 1% Vol./Vol. de SiC e dez vezes superior a do AA1050. O refinamento de grao a escala nano constitui o principal mecanismo de aumento de resistencia mecânica. Na realidade, o Al nanocristalino sem reforco de particulas de SiC, apresenta uma tensao limite de elasticidade sete vezes superior a da liga AA1050O. A adicao de 0,5 % Vol./Vol. e de 1 % Vol./Vol. de SiC conduzem, respetivamente, ao aumento da tensao limite de elasticidade em 47 % e 50%. O aumento do tempo de moagem e a adicao de acido estearico ao po durante a moagem conduzem apenas a um pequeno aumento da tensao de escoamento. A dureza do material medida atraves de testes de nanoindentacao confirmaram os dados anteriores. A estabilidade das microestruturas do aluminio puro e do nanocomposito AlSiC, foi testada atraves de recozimento de restauracao realizado as temperaturas de 150 °C e 250 °C durante 2 horas. Aparentemente, o tratamento termico nao influenciou as propriedades mecânicas dos materiais, excepto do nanocomposito com 1 % Vol./Vol. de SiC restaurado a temperatura de 250 °C, para o qual se observou uma reducao da tensao limite de elasticidade

  16. Recent progress in the modelling of thermal plasma systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Chen

    2002-01-01

    Plasma flow and heat transfer in thermal plasma systems are often of three-dimensional (3-D) features and cannot be well studied by use of a two-dimensional modelling approach. 3-D modelling studies are recently performed in our group. It is found that appreciable 3-D effects exist within non-transferred DC arc plasma torches even for the case with axisymmetrical external conditions. The key for the successful 3-D modelling of the non-transferred arc plasma torch is that the anode-nozzle wall is included in the computational domain. The predicted results are favorably compared with experimental observation. 3-D modelling of the plasma jets with lateral injection of particulate matter and its carrier gas also reveals distinct 3-D effects with the injection velocity and the distance between the carrier-gas injection-tube tip and the jet edge as critical parameters. The 3-D effects appreciably influence the trajectories and heating histories of particles injected into the plasma jet. (author)

  17. Treatment of fly ash from power plants using thermal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Al-Mayman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash from power plants is very toxic because it contains heavy metals. In this study fly ash was treated with a thermal plasma. Before their treatment, the fly ash was analyzed by many technics such as X-ray fluorescence, CHN elemental analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. With these technics, the composition, the chemical and physical proprieties of fly ash are determined. The results obtained by these analysis show that fly ash is mainly composed of carbon, and it contains also sulfur and metals such as V, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Ni, and Rh. The scanning electron microscopy analysis shows that fly ash particles are porous and have very irregular shapes with particle sizes of 20–50 μm. The treatment of fly ash was carried out in a plasma reactor and in two steps. In the first step, fly ash was treated in a pyrolysis/combustion plasma system to reduce the fraction of carbon. In the second step, the product obtained by the combustion of fly ash was vitrified in a plasma furnace. The leaching results show that the fly ash was detoxified by plasma vitrification and the produced slag is amorphous and glassy.

  18. Production of Al2O3–SiC nano-composites by spark plasma sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Razavi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Al2O3–SiC composites were produced by SPS at temperatures of 1600 °C for 10 min under vacuum atmosphere. For preparing samples, Al2O3 with the second phase including of micro and nano-sized SiC powder were milled for 5 h. The milled powders were sintered in a SPS machine. After sintering process, phase studies, densification and mechanical properties of Al2O3–SiC composites were examined. Results showed that the specimens containing micro-sized SiC have an important effect on bulk density, hardness and strength. The highest relative density, hardness and strength were 99.7%, 324.6 HV and 2329 MPa, respectively, in Al2O3–20 wt% SiCmicro composite. Due to short time sintering, the growth was limited and grains still remained in nano-meter scale.

  19. Pre-treating water with non-thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Rabinovich, Alexander; Cho, Daniel J.

    2017-07-04

    The present invention consists of a method of pre-treatment of adulterated water for distillation, including adulterated water produced during hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") of shale rock during natural gas drilling. In particular, the invention is directed to a method of treating adulterated water, said adulterated water having an initial level of bicarbonate ion in a range of about 250 ppm to about 5000 ppm and an initial level of calcium ion in a range of about 500 ppm to about 50,000 ppm, said method comprising contacting the adulterated water with a non-thermal arc discharge plasma to produce plasma treated water having a level of bicarbonate ion of less than about 100 ppm. Optionally, the plasma treated water may be further distilled.

  20. Thermal equilibrium of a cryogenic magnetized pure electron plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.; Oneil, T. M.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal equilibrium correlation properties of a magnetically confined pure electron plasma (McPEP) are related to those of a one-component plasma (OCP). The N-particle spatial distribution rho sub s and the Helmholtz free energy F are evaluated for the McPEP to O(lambda sub d-squared/a-squared), where lambda sub d is the thermal de Broglie wavelength and is an interparticle spacing. The electron gyromotion is allowed to be fully quantized while the guiding center motion is quasi-classical. The distribution rho sub s is shown to be identical to that of a classical OCP with a slightly modified potential. To O(lambda sub d-squared/a-squared) this modification does not affect that part of F that is caused by correlations, as long as certain requirements concerning the size of the plasma are met. This theory is motivated by a current series of experiments that involve the cooling of a magnetically confined pure electron plasma to the cryogenic temperature range.

  1. Application of non-thermal plasmas to pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Bardsley, J.N.; Vitello, P.A.; Wallman, P.H.

    1993-06-01

    Non-thermal plasma techniques can be used to destroy many types of hazardous molecules. They are particularly efficient when the toxic materials are present in very small concentrations. This paper discusses three particular applications of non-thermal plasmas: (1) decomposition of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), (2) removal of trichloroethylene (TCE), and (3) removal of nitrogen oxides (NO x ). Emphasis is placed on the energy cost for implementing the decomposition or removal of these pollutants. Some of the factors affecting the energy cost are discussed. The authors discuss in detail their work at LLNL on pulsed plasma processing for the treatment of NO x in diesel engine exhaust. The results suggest that their plasma reactor can remove up to 70% of NO with relatively high initial concentrations (up to 500 ppM) at a power consumption cost of 2.5% for an engine with an output of 14 kW and an exhaust gas flow rate of 1,200 liters per minute

  2. Application of non-thermal plasmas to pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Bardsley, J.N.; Vitello, P.A.; Wallman, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma techniques can be used to destroy many types of hazardous molecules. They are particularly efficient when the toxic materials are present in very small concentrations. This paper discusses three particular applications of non-thermal plasmas: (1) decomposition of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), (2) removal of trichloroethylene (TCE), and (3) removal of nitric oxides (NO x ) Emphasis is placed on the energy cost for implementing the decomposition or removal of these pollutants. Some of the factors affecting the energy cost are discussed. We discuss in detail our work at LLNL on pulsed plasma processing for the treatment of NO x in diesel engine exhaust. Our results suggest that our plasma reactor can remove up to 70% of NO x with relatively high initial concentrations (up to 500 ppM) at a power consumption cost of 2.5% for an engine with an output of 14 kill and an exhaust gas flow rate of 1200 liters per minute

  3. Higher Temperature Thermal Barrier Coatings with the Combined Use of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet and the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Maurice; Wang, Jiwen; Kumar, Rishi; Roth, Jeffery; Jiang, Chen; Jordan, Eric H.

    2018-02-01

    Gas-turbine engines are widely used in transportation, energy and defense industries. The increasing demand for more efficient gas turbines requires higher turbine operating temperatures. For more than 40 years, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) has been the dominant thermal barrier coating (TBC) due to its outstanding material properties. However, the practical use of YSZ-based TBCs is limited to approximately 1200 °C. Developing new, higher temperature TBCs has proven challenging to satisfy the multiple property requirements of a durable TBC. In this study, an advanced TBC has been developed by using the solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process that generates unique engineered microstructures with the higher temperature yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) to produce a TBC that can meet and exceed the major performance standards of state-of-the-art air plasma sprayed YSZ, including: phase stability, sintering resistance, CMAS resistance, thermal cycle durability, thermal conductivity and erosion resistance. The temperature improvement for hot section gas turbine materials (superalloys & TBCs) has been at the rate of about 50 °C per decade over the last 50 years. In contrast, SPPS YAG TBCs offer the near-term potential of a > 200 °C improvement in temperature capability.

  4. Nanostructured Al/Al4C3 composites reinforced with graphite or fullerene and manufactured by mechanical milling and spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles Hernández, F.C.; Calderon, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fullerene mix (C 60 + C 70 + soot) is effective to manufacture nanostructured Al/Al 4 C 3 . ► Carbon in the fullerene mix is more reactive with Al that that present in graphite. ► A complete transformation of carbon into Al 4 C 3 is observed in the Al/fullerene. ► Milling and sintering conditions preserve the nanostructured nature of the composites. ► Hardness improvement: 375% Al/graphite and 582% for Al/fullerene composites. - Abstract: Nanostructured Al matrix composites with reinforcements of graphite or fullerene (C 60 + C 70 + soot) have been produced by mechanical milling and spark plasma sintering (SPS). X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy show that C 60 + C 70 withstand longer mechanical milling/alloying times than graphite. Fullerene is a good control agent during mechanical alloying resulting in a denser Al/fullerene composite when compared to the Al/graphite one. A refinement mechanism that takes place during mechanical alloying of fullerene and graphite is experimentally found and correspondingly discussed. Such a mechanism plays a major role in the amorphization of graphite. The larger surface area of the fullerene mix after milling promotes a better interaction with Al and hence allows its complete transformation into Al 4 C 3 during the SPS process. The sintered products show an increase in hardness for the Al/fullerene composite of 6 times and only 4 times for the Al/graphite composite. The SPS technique shows to be an excellent method to transform the fullerene into Al 4 C 3 while preserving its nanostructured nature.

  5. Porous materials produced from incineration ash using thermal plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Fu; Chiu, Wen-Tung; Wang, To-Mai; Chen, Ching-Ting; Tzeng, Chin-Ching

    2014-06-01

    This study presents a novel thermal plasma melting technique for neutralizing and recycling municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ash residues. MSWI ash residues were converted into water-quenched vitrified slag using plasma vitrification, which is environmentally benign. Slag is adopted as a raw material in producing porous materials for architectural and decorative applications, eliminating the problem of its disposal. Porous materials are produced using water-quenched vitrified slag with Portland cement and foaming agent. The true density, bulk density, porosity and water absorption ratio of the foamed specimens are studied here by varying the size of the slag particles, the water-to-solid ratio, and the ratio of the weights of the core materials, including the water-quenched vitrified slag and cement. The thermal conductivity and flexural strength of porous panels are also determined. The experimental results show the bulk density and the porosity of the porous materials are 0.9-1.2 g cm(-3) and 50-60%, respectively, and the pore structure has a closed form. The thermal conductivity of the porous material is 0.1946 W m(-1) K(-1). Therefore, the slag composite materials are lightweight and thermal insulators having considerable potential for building applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Post-Plasma SiOx Coatings of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles for Enhanced Thermal Stability and Tunable Photoactivity Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Patrick; Jidenko, Nicolas; Weber, Alfred P.; Borra, Jean-Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The plasma-based aerosol process developed for the direct coating of particles in gases with silicon oxide in a continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process is presented. It is shown that non-thermal plasma filaments induced in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure trigger post-DBD gas phase reactions. DBD operating conditions are first scanned to produce ozone and dinitrogen pentoxide. In the selected conditions, these plasma species react with gaseous tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) precursor downstream of the DBD. The gaseous intermediates then condense on the surface of nanoparticles and self-reactions lead to homogeneous solid SiOx coatings, with thickness from nanometer to micrometer. This confirms the interest of post-DBD injection of the organo-silicon precursor to achieve stable production of actives species with subsequent controlled thickness of SiOx coatings. SiOx coatings of spherical and agglomerated metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (Pt, CuO, TiO2) are achieved. In the selected DBD operating conditions, the thickness of homogeneous nanometer sized coatings of spherical nanoparticles depends on the reaction duration and on the precursor concentration. For agglomerates, operating conditions can be tuned to cover preferentially the interparticle contact zones between primary particles, shifting the sintering of platinum agglomerates to much higher temperatures than the usual sintering temperature. Potential applications for enhanced thermal stability and tunable photoactivity of coated agglomerates are presented. PMID:28335219

  7. Characterization and mechanical testing of alumina-based nanocomposites reinforced with niobium and/or carbon nanotubes fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, K.E.; Jiang, D.; Yao, W.; Ritchie, R.O.; Mukherjee, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Alumina-based nanocomposites reinforced with niobium and/or carbon nanotubes (CNT) were fabricated by advanced powder processing techniques and consolidated by spark plasma sintering. Raman spectroscopy revealed that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) begin to break down at sintering temperatures >1150 °C. Nuclear magnetic resonance showed that, although thermodynamically unlikely, no Al 4 C 3 formed in the CNT–alumina nanocomposites, such that the nanocomposite can be considered as purely a physical mixture with no chemical bond formed between the nanotubes and ceramic matrix. In addition, in situ single-edge notched bend tests were conducted on niobium and/or CNT-reinforced alumina nanocomposites to assess their toughness. Despite the absence of subcritical crack growth, average fracture toughness values of 6.1 and 3.3 MPa m 1/2 were measured for 10 vol.% Nb and 10 vol.% Nb–5 vol.% SWCNT–alumina, respectively. Corresponding tests for the alumina nanocomposites containing 5 vol.% SWCNT, 10 vol.% SWCNT, 5 vol.% double-walled-CNT and 10 vol.% Nb yielded average fracture toughnesses of 3.0, 2.8, 3.3 and 4.0 MPa m 1/2 , respectively. It appears that the reason for not observing improvement in fracture toughness of CNT-reinforced samples is because of either damage to CNTs or possibly non-optimal interfacial bonding between CNT-alumina.

  8. Nickel-graphite composites of variable architecture by graphitization-accompanied spark plasma sintering and hot pressing and their response to phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudina D.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the formation and phase separation response of nickel-graphite composites with variable-architecture phases by graphitization-accompanied consolidation via Spark Plasma Sintering and hot pressing. It was shown that the application of pressure during consolidation is crucial for the occurrence of graphitization and formation of 3D graphite structures. We evaluated the suitability of the synthesized composites as precursors for making porous structures. Nickel behaved as a space holder with the particle size and spatial distribution changing during consolidation with the temperature and determining the structure of porous graphite formed by phase separation by dissolution in HCl. The response of the consolidated Ni-Cgr to separation of carbon by its burnout in air was studied. The result of the carbon removal was either the formation of a dense and continuous NiO film on the surface of the compacts or oxidation through the compact thickness. The choice between these two options depended on the density of the compacts and on the presence of carbon dissolved in nickel. It was found that during the burnout of graphite from Ni-Cgr composites, sintering, rather than formation of pores, dominated.

  9. Improvement of the mechanical properties of spark plasma sintered hap bioceramics by decreasing the grain size and by adding multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Đ.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Composites based on HAP and oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (o-MWCNT and monophase HAP materials were processed by spark plasma sintering. Starting from stoichiometric nano-sized HAP powder, monophase bioceramics were obtained with a density close to the theoretical one and with an average grain size of several hundred nanometers to micron dimensions. It was shown that decreasing the sintering temperature resulted in a decrease of the grain size, which affected an increase in the fracture toughness and hardness. The fracture toughness of an HAP/ o-MWCNT bioceramic processed at 900°C for only 5 min was 30 % higher than that of monophase HAP materials obtained under the same conditions. The addition of MWCNT during SPS processing of HAP materials caused a decrease in the grain size to the nano-dimension, which was one of the reasons for the improved mechanical properties. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45019 i FP7-REGPOT-2009-1 NANOTECH FTM, Grant Agreement Number: 245916

  10. High-Strength Ultra-Fine-Grained Hypereutectic Al-Si-Fe-X (X = Cr,Mn) Alloys Prepared by Short-Term Mechanical Alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Průša, F.; Bláhová, M.; Vojtěch, D.; Kučera, V.; Bernatiková, A.; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Michalcová, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 12 (2016), č. článku 973. ISSN 1996-1944 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : mechanical alloying * spark plasma sintering * microstructure * mechanical properties Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 2.654, year: 2016 http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/9/12/973

  11. Properties of stable nonstoichiometric nanoceria produced by thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yuan-Pei; Sohn, Hong Yong; Mohassab, Yousef; Liu, Qingcai; Xu, Baoqiang

    2017-08-01

    Thermally stable blue nonstoichiometric nanoceria was produced by feeding nanoceria with an average size of 50 nm into a DC thermal plasma reactor. The effects of different plasma power levels and atmospheres were investigated. XRD results showed the ceria lattice parameter increased with plasma power. SEM and TEM results showed that the shape of nanoparticles changed after plasma treatment; the blue nonstoichiometric nanoceria had highly regular shapes such as triangular pyramids and polyhedral in contrast to the irregular shape of the raw nanoceria. Significant downshift was found in the Raman spectra of the plasma products, with a 7.9-cm-1 shift compared with raw nanoceria, which was explained by the reduction of Ce4+. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the Ce3+ fraction increased from 14% in the raw nanoceria to 38-39% for the product CeO2- x , indicating the high reduction state on the ceria surface. It was determined that this blue nonstoichiometric nanoceria was stable up to 400 °C in air, but the color changed to pale yellow after 4 h at 500 °C in air indicating oxidation to CeO2. Additionally, this novel stable nano-CeO2- x caused a red shift in the UV-visible absorption results; a 48-nm red shift occurred for the nonstoichiometric nanoceria produced at 15 kW compared with the raw nanoceria. The band gap was calculated to be 2.5 eV while it was 3.2 eV for the raw nanoceria, indicating that this novel stable blue nonstoichiometric nanoceria should be a promising material for optical application.

  12. SinterHab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousek, Tomáš; Eriksson, Katarina; Doule, Ondřej

    2012-05-01

    This project describes a design study for a core module on a Lunar South Pole outpost, constructed by 3D printing technology with the use of in-situ resources and equipped with a bio-regenerative life support system. The module would be a hybrid of deployable (CLASS II) and in-situ built (CLASS III) structures. It would combine deployable membrane structures and pre-integrated rigid elements with a sintered regolith shell for enhanced radiation and micrometeorite shielding. The closed loop ecological system would support a sustainable presence on the Moon with particular focus on research activities. The core module accommodates from four to eight people, and provides laboratories as a test bed for development of new lunar technologies directly in the environment where they will be used. SinterHab also includes an experimental garden for development of new bio-regenerative life support system elements. The project explores these various concepts from an architectural point-of-view particularly, as they constitute the building, construction and interior elements. The construction method for SinterHab is based on 3D printing by sintering of the lunar regolith. Sinterator robotics 3D printing technology proposed by NASA JPL enables construction of future generations of large lunar settlements with little imported material and the use of solar energy. The regolith is processed, placed and sintered by the Sinterator robotics system which combines the NASA ATHLETE and the Chariot remotely controlled rovers. Microwave sintering creates a rigid structure in the form of walls, vaults and other architectural elements. The interior is coated with a layer of inflatable membranes inspired by the TransHab project. The life-support system is mainly bio-regenerative and several parts of the system are intrinsically multifunctional and serve more than one purpose. The plants for food production are also an efficient part of atmosphere revitalization and water treatment. Moreover

  13. Nanocrystallization in spark plasma sintered Fe{sub 48}Cr{sub 15}Mo{sub 14}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6} bulk amorphous alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ashish; Harimkar, Sandip P. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States); Katakam, Shravana; Dahotre, Narendra B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States); Ilavsky, Jan [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2013-08-07

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is evolving as an attractive process for the processing of multi-component Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys and their in-situ nanocomposites with controlled primary nanocrystallization. Extended Q-range small angle neutron scattering (EQ-SANS) analysis, complemented by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, was performed to characterize nanocrystallization behavior of SPS sintered Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys. The SANS experiments show significant scattering for the samples sintered in the supercooled region indicating local structural/compositional changes associated with the profuse nucleation of nanoclusters (∼4 nm). For the samples spark plasma sintered near and above crystallization temperature (>653 °C), the SANS data show the formation of interference maximum indicating the formation and growth of (Fe,Cr){sub 23}C{sub 6} crystallites. The SANS data also indicate the evolution of bimodal crystallite distribution at higher sintering temperatures (above T{sub x1}). The growth of primary nanocrystallites results in impingement of concentration gradient fields (soft impingement effect), leading to non-random nucleation of crystallites near the primary crystallization.

  14. Characteristics of Thermalization of Boost-Invariant Plasma from Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Michal P.; Janik, Romuald A.; Witaszczyk, Przemysław

    2012-05-01

    We report on the approach toward the hydrodynamic regime of boost-invariant N=4 super Yang-Mills plasma at strong coupling starting from various far-from-equilibrium states at τ=0. The results are obtained through a numerical solution of Einstein’s equations for the dual geometries, as described in detail in the companion article [M. P. Heller, R. A. Janik, and P. Witaszczyk, arXiv:1203.0755]. Despite the very rich far-from-equilibrium evolution, we find surprising regularities in the form of clear correlations between initial entropy and total produced entropy, as well as between initial entropy and the temperature at thermalization, understood as the transition to a hydrodynamic description. For 29 different initial conditions that we consider, hydrodynamics turns out to be definitely applicable for proper times larger than 0.7 in units of inverse temperature at thermalization. We observe a sizable anisotropy in the energy-momentum tensor at thermalization, which is nevertheless entirely due to hydrodynamic effects. This suggests that effective thermalization in heavy-ion collisions may occur significantly earlier than true thermalization.

  15. Characteristics of thermalization of boost-invariant plasma from holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Michal P; Janik, Romuald A; Witaszczyk, Przemysław

    2012-05-18

    We report on the approach toward the hydrodynamic regime of boost-invariant N=4 super Yang-Mills plasma at strong coupling starting from various far-from-equilibrium states at τ=0. The results are obtained through a numerical solution of Einstein's equations for the dual geometries, as described in detail in the companion article [M. P. Heller, R. A. Janik, and P. Witaszczyk, arXiv:1203.0755]. Despite the very rich far-from-equilibrium evolution, we find surprising regularities in the form of clear correlations between initial entropy and total produced entropy, as well as between initial entropy and the temperature at thermalization, understood as the transition to a hydrodynamic description. For 29 different initial conditions that we consider, hydrodynamics turns out to be definitely applicable for proper times larger than 0.7 in units of inverse temperature at thermalization. We observe a sizable anisotropy in the energy-momentum tensor at thermalization, which is nevertheless entirely due to hydrodynamic effects. This suggests that effective thermalization in heavy-ion collisions may occur significantly earlier than true thermalization.

  16. Impact of impurity content on the sintering resistance and phase stability of dysprosia- and yttria-stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Curry, N.; Janikowski, W.; Pala, Zdeněk; Vilémová, Monika; Markocsan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 23, 1-2 (2014), s. 160-169 ISSN 1059-9630. [International Thermal Spray Conference (ITSC2013). Busan, 13.05.2013-15.05.2013] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : atmospheric plasma spray ( APS ) * thermal and phase stability of coatings * thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) * thermal conductivity * zirconia Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.344, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11666-013-0014-9/fulltext.html

  17. HRTEM and Nanoindentation Studies of Bulk WC Nanocrystalline Materials Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering of Ball-Milled Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif El-Eskandarany, M.; Al-Hazza, Abdulsalam; Al-Hajji, L. A.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, mechanical milling technique using a high-energy ball mill was employed for preparing of nanoscaled WC grains powders with an average grain size of 7 nm in diameters of WC. The present study demonstrates a successful consolidation process achieved at 1250 °C for sintering of ball-milled WC powders into full dense bulk buttons (above 99.6%), using SPS technique. The as-consolidated WC bulk nanocrystalline buttons revealed high hardness value ( 24 GPa) with low elastic modulus ( 332 GPa). Moreover, they possessed a high fracture toughness (15 MPa m1/2) that has never been reported for pure WC.

  18. Comparative microstructural and corrosion development of VCrNiCoFeCu equiatomic multicomponent alloy produced by induction melting and spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazakas, É.; Heczel, A.; Molnár, D.; Varga, B.; Zadorozhnyy, V.; Vida, Á.

    2018-03-01

    The present study focuses on the corrosion behavior of a single-phase FCC high entropy alloy (VCrNiCoFeCu) casted by two different methods: induction melting and spark plasma sintering. The corrosion resistance has been evaluated using immersion tests in 3.5% NaCl solution, the potentiodynamic polarization measurements and the results are compared how is dependent the corrosion rate as a function of the production methods. Our results show that induction melted sample is stable in salty environment. On the other hand, based on the changes of polarization curves, there must be an evolution of oxide films on the SPSed sample until reaching the stable oxide layer.

  19. Destruction studies of hazardous wastes by thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cota S, G.

    1998-01-01

    Plasma technology appears promising because its high degree of controllability, capability to process waste without the adverse effects of combustion, and a very wide temperature range of operation. The goal of this work was to develop a process for a high throughput system to turn hazardous waste into inert stable products, which can be safely stored and to greatly reduce air pollution relative to incineration. The experiments have shown that the thermal plasma reactor can provide a high degree of decomposition of CCl 4 , C 6 H 6 , C 2 Cl 4 and commercial oil at low gas input speeds, with modest power requirements. Decomposition of 99.9999 % has been obtained in our laboratory and all the organic components are decomposed in base molecules (C, CO, CO 2 , H 2 , HCl). The analysis of exhaust gases was made by using a mass filter quadrupole. The equipment consist of a cylindrical reactor hermetically sealed, double-walled and water-cooled container made of special steel, this container in halt the crucible which serves to receive the waste materials. The whole system is designed for a maximal internal temperature of 2000 Centigrade. The gaseous result components of the material are transferred to a scrubber unit through an exit arranged on the top of reactor. The thermal efficiency evaluation of the plasma torch was also realized, obtaining a reasonable agreement between measurements and predictions in temperature profiles. (Author)

  20. Effect of electron thermal motion on plasma heating in a magnetized inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman-ur-Rehman; Pu Yikang

    2007-01-01

    Power absorbed inside the magnetized inductively coupled plasma (MICP) is calculated using three different warm MICP models and is then compared with the result of the cold MICP model. The comparison shows that in the propagating region (ω e vertical bar), under the cavity resonance conditions, warm plasma heating S warm is significantly less than the cold plasma heating S cold , unless the distance traveled by the electrons due to their thermal motion, during the effective wave period, becomes significantly less than the wavelength of the cavity wave. Furthermore, in the propagating region, when ω≅ vertical bar Ω e vertical bar, there appears a valley on the plot of η(ω)=S warm /S cold versus ω showing the negative effect of electron thermal motion on plasma heating. This valley widens and gets smoother with an increase in the plasma length. In the nonpropagating region (ω> vertical bar Ω e vertical bar), the maximum value of η(ω) exists when ω- vertical bar Ω e vertical bar ≅v th /δ, showing that, in the presence of the external magnetic field, the thermal motion of the electrons leads to a Doppler shift of the frequencies, at which collisionless heating is the dominant mode of electron heating. Furthermore, in the nonpropagating region, when ω≅ vertical bar Ω e vertical bar, the skin depth of the right circularly polarized electric field decreases with magnetic field. This decrease in the skin depth results in an increase of collisionless heating under the Doppler-shifted wave particle resonant condition of ω- vertical bar Ω e vertical bar ≅v th /δ. It is also observed that, for large plasma length, the results of all the three warm MICP models are consistent with each other

  1. Determination of thermal conductivity from specific heat and thermal diffusivity measurements of plasma-sprayed cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.P.; Smith, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal conductivities of three plasma-sprayed cermets have been determined over the temperature range 23-630 degrees C from the measurement of the specific heat, thermal diffusivity, and density. These cermets are mixtures of Al and SiC prepared by plasma spray deposition and are being considered for various applications in magnetic confinement fusion devices. The samples consisted of three compositions: 61 vol% Al/39 vol% SiC, 74 vol% Al/26 vol% SiC, and 83 vol% Al/17 vol% SiC. The specific heat was determined by differential scanning calorimetry through the Al melt transition up to 720 0 C, while the thermal diffusivity was determined using the laser flash technique up to 630 0 C. The linear thermal expansion was measured and used to correct the diffusivity and density values. The thermal diffusivity showed a significant increase after thermal cycling due to a reduction in the intergrain contact resistance, increasing from 0.4 to 0.6 cm /SUP 2./ S -1 at 160 0 C. However, effective medium theory calculations indicated that the thermal conductivities of both the Al and the SiC were below the ideal defect-free limit even after high-temperature cycling. The specific heat measurements showed suppressed melting points in the plasmasprayed cermets. The 39 vol% SiC began a melt endotherm at 577 0 C, which peaked in the 640-650 0 C range depending on the sample thermal history. Chemical and X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the presence of free silicon in the cermet and in the SiC powder, which resulted in a eutectic Al/Si alloy

  2. Non-Thermal Plasma System Development for CIDI Exhaust Aftertreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balmer, M. Lou (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)); Tonkyn, Russell (Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BPNL)); Maupin, Gary; Yoon, Steven; Kolwaite, Ana (PNNL); Barlow, Stephen (BPNL); Domingo, Norberto; Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory); Hoard, John Wm. (Ford Research Laboratory); Howden, Ken (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

    2000-04-01

    There is a need for an efficient, durable technology to reduce NOx emissions from oxidative exhaust streams such as those produced by compression-ignition, direct injection (CIDI) diesel or lean-burn gasoline engines. A partnership formed between the DOE Office of Advanced Automotive Technology, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the USCAR Low Emission Technologies Research and Development Partnership is evaluating the effectiveness of a non-thermal plasma in conjunction with catalytic materials to mediate NOx and particulate emissions from diesel fueled light duty (CIDI) engines. Preliminary studies showed that plasma-catalyst systems could reduce up to 70% of NOx emissions at an equivalent cost of 3.5% of the input fuel in simulated diesel exhaust. These studies also showed that the type and concentration of hydrocarbon play a key role in both the plasma gas phase chemistry and the catalyst surface chemistry. More recently, plasma/catalyst systems have been evaluated for NOx reduction and particulate removal on a CIDI engine. Performance results for select plasma-catalyst systems for both simulated and actual CIDI exhaust will be presented. The effect of NOx and hydrocarbon concentration on plasma-catalyst performance will also be shown. SAE Paper SAE-2000-01-1601 {copyright} 2000 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.

  3. Thermal Conductivity Analysis and Lifetime Testing of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Curry

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying (SPS has become an interesting method for the production of thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine components. The development of the SPS process has led to structures with segmented vertical cracks or column-like structures that can imitate strain-tolerant air plasma spraying (APS or electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD coatings. Additionally, SPS coatings can have lower thermal conductivity than EB-PVD coatings, while also being easier to produce. The combination of similar or improved properties with a potential for lower production costs makes SPS of great interest to the gas turbine industry. This study compares a number of SPS thermal barrier coatings (TBCs with vertical cracks or column-like structures with the reference of segmented APS coatings. The primary focus has been on lifetime testing of these new coating systems. Samples were tested in thermo-cyclic fatigue at temperatures of 1100 °C for 1 h cycles. Additional testing was performed to assess thermal shock performance and erosion resistance. Thermal conductivity was also assessed for samples in their as-sprayed state, and the microstructures were investigated using SEM.

  4. Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with ultra-high electron density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa [Institute of Innovation for Future Society, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Center for Advanced Medicine and Clinical Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Mizuno, Masaaki [Center for Advanced Medicine and Clinical Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Toyokuni, Shinya [Department of Pathology and Biological Responses, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Maruyama, Shoichi [Department of Nephrology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kodera, Yasuhiro [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Surgery II), Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Terasaki, Hiroko [Department of Ophthalmology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Adachi, Tetsuo [Laboratory of Clinical Pharmaceutics, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 501-1196 Gifu (Japan); Kato, Masashi [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kikkawa, Fumitaka [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Hori, Masaru [Institute of Innovation for Future Society, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a big challenge in plasma medicine. Reactive species generated from plasma are key factors for treating cancer cells, and thus, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with high electron density has been developed and applied for cancer treatment. Various cancer cell lines have been treated with plasma, and non-thermal atmospheric plasma clearly has anti-tumor effects. Recent innovative studies suggest that plasma can both directly and indirectly affect cells and tissues, and this observation has widened the range of applications. Thus, cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is promising. Animal experiments and understanding the mode of action are essential for clinical application in the future. A new academic field that combines plasma science, the biology of free radicals, and systems biology will be established.

  5. Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with ultra-high electron density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Mizuno, Masaaki; Toyokuni, Shinya; Maruyama, Shoichi; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Adachi, Tetsuo; Kato, Masashi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a big challenge in plasma medicine. Reactive species generated from plasma are key factors for treating cancer cells, and thus, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with high electron density has been developed and applied for cancer treatment. Various cancer cell lines have been treated with plasma, and non-thermal atmospheric plasma clearly has anti-tumor effects. Recent innovative studies suggest that plasma can both directly and indirectly affect cells and tissues, and this observation has widened the range of applications. Thus, cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is promising. Animal experiments and understanding the mode of action are essential for clinical application in the future. A new academic field that combines plasma science, the biology of free radicals, and systems biology will be established

  6. Thermal Plasma Decomposition Of Nickel And Cobalt Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woch M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study on manufacturing of nickel and cobalt powders by thermal plasma decomposition of the carbonates of these metals. It was shown the dependence of process parameters and grain size of initial powder on the composition of final product which was ether metal powder, collected in the container as well as the nanopowder with crystallite size of 70 - 90 nm, collected on the inner wall of the reaction chamber. The occurrence of metal oxides in the final products was confirmed and discussed.

  7. Thermal Behavior of Ag Micro/Nano Wires Formed by Low-Temperature Sintering of Ag Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Zhong, Yinghui; Li, Dongxue; Wang, Pan; Cai, Yuwei; Duan, Zhiyong

    2015-12-01

    Ag nanoparticles of 30 nm size were deposited onto a Si substrate to form Ag microwires. The nanoparticles were transformed into continuous Ag wires with low-temperature heat treatment at temperatures not higher than 200°C. The morphology, electrical properties, and interface of the sintered Ag nanoparticle wires are described. It is shown that the neck between the nanoparticles begins to form at 150°C, and obvious metallization was found at 170°C. The changes of the crystal structure of the Ag wires at different sintering temperatures were analyzed by x-ray diffractometry. The grain boundary resistance decreased as the crystal grain size increased above 130 nm. The corresponding resistivity of the microstructure is close to that of the bulk. Through the comparison between the Mayadas-Shatzkes's model and experimental data, the range of the grain boundary reflection coefficient C at different temperatures is obtained. This research lays the foundation for the study of nanoimprint lithography with a pseudoplastic metal nanoparticle fluid.

  8. Processing and Characterization of Fe-Mn-Cu-Sn-C Alloys Prepared by Ball Milling and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bączek, Elżbieta; Konstanty, Janusz; Romański, Andrzej; Podsiadło, Marcin; Cyboroń, Jolanta

    2018-03-01

    In this work, Fe-Mn-Cu-Sn-C alloys were prepared by means of powder metallurgy (PM). Powder mixtures were ball-milled for 8, 30 and 120 h and densified to abrasive wear was evaluated in both three-body abrasion and two-body abrasion tests. The SEM observations revealed an evident dependence of grain size and microstructural homogeneity on milling time. The XRD analysis showed a marked increase in austenite content in the as-sintered specimens with milling time. Although the proportion of deformation-induced martensite was small, the strengthening effect of abrasion on the subsurface layer of the investigated alloys was clearly indicated by Knoop hardness measurements.

  9. Non-thermal-plasma-activated de-NOx catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Rahman; Stere, Cristina E; Goguet, Alexandre; Hardacre, Christopher

    2018-01-13

    The combination of non-thermal plasma (NTP) with catalyst systems as an alternative technology to remove NO x emissions in the exhaust of lean-burn stationary and mobile sources is reviewed. Several factors, such as low exhaust gas temperatures (below 300°C), low selectivity to N 2 and the presence of impurities, make current thermally activated technologies inefficient. Various hybrid plasma-catalyst systems have been examined and shown to have a synergistic effect on de-NO x efficiency when compared with NTP or catalyst-alone systems. The NTP is believed to form oxygenated species, such as aldehydes and nitrogen-containing organic species, and to convert NO to NO 2 , which improves the reduction efficiency of N 2 during hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction reactions. The NTP has been used as a pretreatment to convert NO to its higher oxidation states such as NO 2 to improve NO x reduction efficiency in the subsequent processes, e.g. NH 3 -selective catalytic reduction. It has been applied to the lean phase of the NO x storage to improve the adsorption capacity of the catalyst by conversion of NO to NO 2 Alternatively, a catalyst with high adsorption capacity is chosen and the NTP is applied to the rich phase to improve the reduction activity of the catalyst at low temperature.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Providing sustainable catalytic solutions for a rapidly changing world'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. On reliability of 3D reconstructions of thermal plasma jet radiation by inverse Radon transform

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sekerešová, Zuzana; Hlína, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2011), s. 171-183 ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : thermal plasma jet * tomography * image reconstruction Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  11. Effect of spark plasma sintering conditions on the thermoelectric properties of (Bi{sub 0.25}Sb{sub 0.75}){sub 2}Te{sub 3} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang-Soon [Center for Electronic Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju-Heon [High Temp. Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Beomjin; Kim, Seong Keun [Center for Electronic Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung-Ho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki-Suk; Baik, Jeong Min [School of Materials and Science Engineering, UNIST, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); KIST-UNIST Ulsan Center for Convergent Materials, UNIST, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Jun [Center for Opto-Electronic Materials and Devices, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Ik [High Temp. Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Dow-Bin; Kim, Jin-Sang [Center for Electronic Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Seung-Hyub, E-mail: shbaek77@kist.re.kr [Center for Electronic Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); KIST-UNIST Ulsan Center for Convergent Materials, UNIST, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanomaterials Science and Technology, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-05

    As a field-assisted technique, spark plasma sintering (SPS) enables densification of specimens in a very short period of time compared to other sintering techniques. For high performance thermoelectric material synthesis, SPS is widely used to fabricate nanograin-structured thermoelectric materials by rapidly densifying the nanopowders suppressing grain growth. However, the microstructural evolution behavior of thermoelectric materials by SPS, another important process during sintering, has been rarely studied. Here, we explore SPS as a tool to control the microstructure by long-time SPS. Using p-type (Bi{sub 0.25}Sb{sub 0.75}){sub 2}Te{sub 3} thermoelectric materials as a model system, we systematically vary SPS temperature and time to understand the correlations between SPS conditions, microstructural evolution, and the thermoelectric properties. Our results show that the relatively low eutectic temperature (∼420 °C) and the existence of volatile tellurium (Te) are critical factors to determine both microstructure and thermoelectric property. In the liquid-phase sintering regime, rapid evaporation of Te leads to a strong dependence of thermoelectric property on SPS time. On the other hand, in the solid-phase sintering regime, there is a weak dependence on SPS time. The optimum thermoelectric figure-of-merit (Z) of 2.93 × 10{sup −3}/K is achieved by SPS at 500 °C for 30 min. Our results will provide an insight on the optimization of SPS conditions for materials containing volatile elements with low eutectic temperature. - Highlights: • Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is used to synthesize the thermoelectric (Bi{sub 0.25}Sb{sub 0.75}){sub 2}Te{sub 3}. • Liquid phase and volatile element are a key for the microstructure and thermoelectric property. • Thermoelectric figure-of-merit of 2.9 × 10{sup −3}/K is achieved at 500 °C for 30 min.

  12. Thermal Plasmas: Influence of Current Modulation on Process Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Jochen

    2015-09-01

    Due to the widespread industrial use of thermal plasmas in the field of joining, cutting and the application of coatings new challenges arise owed to the advent of new materials or the drive to reduce cost or improve quality. These challenges may be met by using technological innovations like innovative fast power supplies. In the presence of strong gas flows and a fixed cathodic attachment the anode attachment position is determined by an unstable balance between the drag force on the plasma column exerted by the gas and the Lorentz Force due to the system's magnetic field distribution, leading to a constant arc motion and arc voltage fluctuation. Thus by supplying a sufficiently high and steep current pulse a re-positioning might be initiated by a sudden change of the Lorentz Force thus an externally controlled movement of the arc would be possible. In wire arc spraying a pulsed current is imposed upon the DC supply of the wire arc system. It is observed that steep current increases tend to produce sudden current drops, indicating a jump of the arc. For a certain pulse frequency this pulsing leads to a controlled motion of the arc along the electrode surfaces. Coatings produced with this technology exhibited a lower porosity than DC sprayed coatings and a lower oxide content. In collaboration with Alexander Atzberger and Michal Szulc, Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen; Institute for plasma technology and mathematics (LPT) Neubiberg, Germany. This work was supported by AiF (Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrielle Forschung).

  13. Improvement of the magnetic property, thermal stability and corrosion resistance of the sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Beibei; Li, Xiangbin; Liang, Xiaolin [School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Yan, Gaolin, E-mail: gaolinyan@whu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Chen, Kan; Yan, Aru [Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang (China)

    2017-05-01

    To improve the coercivity and thermal stability of the Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets simultaneously, the Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} (at%) powders with low melting point were introduced into the Nd-Fe-B magnets. Additionally, the magnetic properties, microstructure and thermal stability of the sintered magnets with different amounts of Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} were investigated. By adding a small amount of Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20}, the coercivity was significantly increased from 12.72 to 21.75 kOe. As indicated by the microstructure analysis, a well-developed core-shell structure was formed in the magnets with the addition of Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20}. The improvement of magnetic properties could be attributed to the refined and uniform matrix phase, continuous grain boundaries and a (Nd, Dy){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B hardening shell surrounding the matrix phase grains. With the addition of 0–4 wt% Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} powder, the reversible temperature coefficients of remanence (α) and coercivity (β) of the magnets could be improved from −0.117 to −0.108%/°C and −0.74 to −0.66%/°C in the range of 20–100 °C, respectively. Additionally, the irreversible loss of magnetic flux (hirr) decreased sharply as Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} powder was added. The results of temperature-dependent magnetic properties suggest that, the thermal stability of the magnets was effectively improved with the intergranular addition of Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} alloy. Also, the corrosion resistance was found to be improved through small addition of Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} powders This was partly due to the stability enhancement of the (Pr, Nd)-rich intergranular phase by Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20}. - Highlights: • We successfully introduced the Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} alloy into the Nd-Fe-B magnets. • The magnetic properties and thermal stability of the Nd-Fe-B magnets were improved. • The corrosion resistance of the Nd-Fe-B magnets were improved.

  14. Heavy Metals Behavior During Thermal Plasma Vitrification Of Incineration Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Nuno; Vandensteendam, Colette; Baronnet, Jean Marie

    2006-01-01

    Incineration of wastes, widely and increasingly used nowadays, produces residues, mainly bottom ash and filter fly ash. Fly ash is especially problematic because of its high content in heavy metals easily drawn out. Thermal processes, based mainly on electrical arc processes, are used to melt the residues at high temperature and convert them into a relatively inert glass. Consequently, to improve the process and get a glass satisfying regulation, control of heavy metals (lead, zinc, cadmium and chromium…) volatility during plasma fly ash melting and vitrification is needed and basic data concerning vaporization of these metals are required. According to the volatility of these compounds observed during vitrification of fly ash, a predictive model has been used to simulate the elimination of Pb, Zn and S from the melt as a function of time and temperature for a system including chlorides, oxides and sulfates. The objective of this work was the experimental study of heavy metals volatility using optical emission spectroscopy. A twin torch plasma system, mounted above a cold crucible with Ar (or Ar + O2) as plasma gas, has been used. The crucible was filled with synthetic glass in which known amounts of metallic salts were added to obtain the same chemical composition as used in the model. From spectral lines intensities of Ar, the plasma temperature profiles along the observation direction has been first established, before using ratios of spectral lines of Ar and metallic (Pb, Zn) or Cl vapors to reach the evolution of the elements concentrations above the melt. Off-gases have been analyzed by mass spectrometry. The influence of the atmosphere (Ar or Ar + O2) above the crucible has been studied and differences in elements behaviors have been pointed out. The results of the spectroscopic measurements have been compared to the ones issued of modeling, in order to validate our model of vaporization.

  15. Thermal conductivity of zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwiddie, R. B.; Beecher, S. C.; Nagaraj, B. A.; Moore, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBC's is of primary importance. Physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma spraying (PS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The PS coatings were applied with either standard powder or hollow sphere particles. The hollow sphere particles yielded a lower density and lower thermal conductivity coating. The thermal conductivity of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia, before and after thermal aging, will be compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increases upon exposed to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. Sintering of the as-fabricated plasma sprayed lamellar structure is observed by scanning electron microscopy of coatings isothermally heat treated at temperatures greater than 1100 C. During this sintering process the planar porosity between lamella is converted to a series of small spherical pores. The change in pore morphology is the primary reason for the observed increase in thermal conductivity. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, preliminary results suggest that they have a higher thermal conductivity than PS coatings, both before and after thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for partially stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia have been found to be less than for fully stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia coatings. The high temperature thermal diffusivity data indicate that if these coatings reach a temperature above 1100 C

  16. State of the art in medical applications using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Kenji; Mizuno, Masaaki; Toyokuni, Shinya; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Hori, Masaru

    2017-12-01

    Plasma medical science is a novel interdisciplinary field that combines studies on plasma science and medical science, with the anticipation that understanding the scientific principles governing plasma medical science will lead to innovations in the field. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma has been used for medical treatments, such as for cancer, blood coagulation, and wound healing. The interactions that occur between plasma and cells/tissues have been analyzed extensively. Direct and indirect treatment of cells with plasma has broadened the applications of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma in medicine. Examples of indirect treatment include plasma-assisted immune-therapy and plasma-activated medium. Controlling intracellular redox balance may be key in plasma cancer treatment. Animal studies are required to test the effectiveness and safety of these treatments for future clinical applications.

  17. Optimization of magnetocaloric properties of arc-melted and spark plasma-sintered LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamba, P.; Morley, N.A.; Reaney, I.M.; Rainforth, W.M. [University of Sheffield, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Cespedes, O. [University of Leeds, School of Physics and Astronomy, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} alloy has been synthesized in polycrystalline form using both arc melting and spark plasma sintering (SPS). The phase formation, hysteresis loss and magnetocaloric properties of the LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} alloys synthesized using the two different techniques are compared. The annealing time required to obtain the 1:13 phase is significantly reduced from 14 days (using the arc melting technique) to 30 min (using the SPS technique). The magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub M}) for the arc-melted LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} compound, obtained for a field change of 5 - 0T (decreasing field), was estimated to be 19.6 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1}. The effective RCP at 5T of the arc-melted LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} compound was determined to be 360 J kg{sup -1} which corresponds to about 88 % of that observed in Gd. A significant reduction in the hysteretic losses in the SPS LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} compound was observed. The ΔS{sub M}, obtained for a field change of 5 - 0T (decreasing field), for the SPS LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} compound decreases to 7.4 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1}. The T{sub C} also shifts from 186 (arc-melted) to 230 K (SPS) and shifts the order of phase transition from first to second order, respectively. The MCE of the SPS LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} compound spreads over a larger temperature range with the RCP value at 5T reaching 288 J kg{sup -1} corresponding to about 70 % of that observed in Gd. At low fields, the effective RCP values of the arc-melted and spark plasma-sintered LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} compounds are comparable, thereby clearly demonstrating the potential of SPS LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} compounds in low-field magnetic refrigeration applications. (orig.)

  18. Finite length thermal equilibria of a pure electron plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.A.; O'Neil, T.M.

    1979-01-01

    The electrons of a pure electron plasma may be in thermal equilibrium with each other and still be confined by static magnetic and electric fields. Since the electrons make a significant contribution to the electric field, only certain density profiles are consistent with Poisson's equation. The class of such distributions for a finite length cylindrical column is investigated. In the limit where the Debye length is small compared with the dimensions of the column, the density is essentially constant out to some surface of revolution and then falls off abruptly. The falloff in density is a universal function when measured along the local normal to the surface of revolution and scaled in terms of the Debye length. The solution for the shape of the surface of revolution is simplified by passage to the limit of zero Debye length

  19. Synthesis of cobalt boride nanoparticles using radio frequency thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapitan, Jr. Lorico DS.; Ying Ying Chen; Seesoek Choe; Watanabe, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Nano size cobalt boride particles were synthesized from vapor phase using a 30 kw-4 MHz radio frequency (RF) thermal plasma. Cobalt and boron powder mixtures used as precursors in different composition and feed rate were evaporated immediately in the high temperature plasma and cobalt boride nanoparticles were produced through the quenching process. The x-ray diffractometry (XRD) patterns of cobalt boride nanoparticles prepared from the feed powder ratio of 1:2 and 1:3 for Co: B showed peaks that are associated with the Co 2 B and CoB crystal phases of cobalt boride. The XRD analysis revealed that increasing the powder feed rate results in a higher mass fraction and a larger crystalline diameter of cobalt boride nanoparticles. The images obtained by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) revealed that cobalt boride nanoparticles have a spherical morphology. The crystallite size of the particles estimated with XRD was found to be 18-22 nm. (author)

  20. Hydrogenated liquids and hydrogen production by non-thermal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arabi, K.; Aubry, O.; Khacef, A.; Cormier, J.M. [Orleans Univ., Orleans Cedex (France). Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Polytech d' Orleans, Group for Research and Studies on Mediators of Inflamation

    2010-07-01

    In recent years, hydrogen (H{sub 2}) has been considered as a fuel for electricity generation and transportation purposes. H{sub 2} is a renewable energy source that does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. This paper reported on a comparative study of syngas production from alcohol, with particular reference to the plasma steam-reforming of ethanol, methanol, ammonia and vegetable oil. The H{sub 2} yields and energetic cost in function of hydrogen sources were presented. The non thermal plasma used in this study was a laboratory scale experimental device static discharge. An arc formed between two electrodes made of graphite. The efficiency of the process was determined through chemical diagnostics. Gas chromatography and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques were used to determine concentrations of H{sub 2}, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and carbon as functions of flow and inlet liquid mixture concentration parameters. This paper also presented the values of H{sub 2}/CO ratio and the composition of synthesis gas according to various operating conditions. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  1. New materials through a variety of sintering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, L.; Cyboroń, J.; Cygan, S.; Laszkiewicz-Łukasik, J.; Podsiadło, M.; Novak, P.; Holovenko, Y.

    2018-03-01

    New sintering techniques make it possible to obtain materials with special properties that are impossible to obtain by conventional sintering techniques. This issue is especially important for ceramic materials for application under extreme conditions. Following the tendency to limit critical materials in manufacturing processes, the use of W, Si, B, Co, Cr should be limited, also. One of the cheapest and widely available materials is aluminum oxide, which shows differences in phase composition, grain size, hardness, strain and fracture toughness of the same type of powder, sintered via various methods. In this paper the alumina was sintered using the conventional free sintering process, microwave sintering, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), high pressure-high temperature method (HP-HT) and High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HP SPS). Phase composition analysis, by X-ray diffraction of the alumina materials sintered using various methods, was carried out. For the conventional sintering method, compacts are composed of α-Al2O3 and θ-Al2O3. For compacts sintered using SPS, microwave and HP-HT methods, χ-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3 phases were additionally present. Mechanical and physical properties of the obtained materials were compared between the methods of sintering. On the basis of images from scanning electron microscope quantitative analysis was performed to determine the degree of grain growth of alumina after sintering.

  2. Using plasma-fuel systems at Eurasian coal-fired thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, E. I.; Karpenko, Yu. E.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2009-06-01

    The development of plasma technology for igniting solid fuels at coal-fired thermal power stations in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and other Eurasian countries is briefly reviewed. Basic layouts and technical and economic characteristics of plasma-fuel systems installed in different coal-fired boiles are considered together with some results from using these systems at coal-fired thermal power stations.

  3. Comminution of B4C powders with a high-energy mill operated in air in dry or wet conditions and its effect on their spark-plasma sinterability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz, Angel L.; Sánchez-Bajo, Florentino; Leal, Victor Manuel Candelario

    2017-01-01

    to the nanoscale. While this is accompanied by oxidation and aggregation, these are not serious drawbacks. Wet shaker milling in methanol (i.e., conventional ball-milling) resulted only in a moderate B4C particle refinement with greater contamination by the milling tools, which limits its usefulness. It was also......-plasma sintering confirmed this recommendation, and also showed the usefulness of dry shaker milling to obtain refined B4C microstructures for structural applications....

  4. Electric field effects in combustion with non-thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Tiernan Albert

    Chemically reacting zones such as flames act as sources of charged species and can thus be considered as weakly-ionized plasmas. As such, the action of an externally applied electric field has the potential to affect the dynamics of reaction zones by enhancing transport, altering the local chemical composition, activating reaction pathways, and by providing additional thermal energy through the interaction of electrons with neutral molecules. To investigate these effects, one-dimensional simulations of reacting flows are performed including the treatment of charged species transport and non-thermal electron chemistry using a modified reacting fluid solver. A particular area of interest is that of plasma assisted ignition, which is investigated in a canonical one-dimensional configuration. An incipient ignition kernel, formed by localized energy deposition into a lean mixture of methane and air at atmospheric pressure, is subjected to sub-breakdown electric fields by applied voltages across the domain, resulting in non-thermal behavior of the electron sub-fluid formed during the discharge. Strong electric fields cause charged species to be rapidly transported from the ignition zone across the domain in opposite directions as charge fronts, augmenting the magnitude of the electric field in the fresh gas during the pulse through a dynamic-electrode effect. This phenomenon results in an increase in the energy of the electrons in the fresh mixture with increasing time, accelerating electron impact dissociation processes. A semi-analytic model to represent this dynamic electrode effect is constructed to highlight the relative simplicity of the electrodynamic problem admitted by the far more detailed chemistry and transport. Enhanced fuel and oxidizer decomposition due to electron impact dissociation and interaction with excited neutrals generate a pool of radicals, mostly O and H, in the fresh gas ahead of the flame's preheat zone. The effect of nanosecond pulses are to

  5. Basic knowledge on radiative and transport properties to begin in thermal plasmas modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cressault, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper has for objectives to present the radiative and the transport properties for people beginning in thermal plasmas. The first section will briefly recall the equations defined in numerical models applied to thermal plasmas; the second section will particularly deal with the estimation of radiative losses; the third part will quickly present the thermodynamics properties; and the last part will concern the transport coefficients (thermal conductivity, viscosity and electrical conductivity of the gas or mixtures of gases). We shall conclude the paper with a discussion about the validity of these results the lack of data for some specific applications, and some perspectives concerning these properties for non-equilibrium thermal plasmas

  6. Processing of a novel nano-structured ferritic steel via spark plasma sintering and investigation of its mechanical and microstructural characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasebani, Somayeh; Charit, Indrajit; Wu, Yaqiao; Burns, Jatuporn; Allahar, Kerry N.; Butt, Darryl P.; Cole, James I.

    2015-01-01

    Nano-structured ferritic steels (NFSs) with 12-14 wt% Cr have attracted widespread interest for potential high temperature structural and fuel cladding applications in advanced nuclear reactors. They have excellent high temperature mechanical properties and high resistance to radiation-induced damage. The properties of the NFSs depend on the composition that mainly consists of Cr, Ti, W or Mo, and Y 2 O 3 as alloying constituents. In this study, a novel nano-structured ferritic steel (Fe-14Cr-1Ti-0.3Mo-0.5La 2 O 3 , wt%) termed as 14LMT was developed via high energy ball milling and spark plasma sintering. Vickers microhardness values were measured. Microstructural studies of the developed NFSs were performed by EBSD and TEM, which revealed a bimodal grain size distribution. A significant number density of nano-precipitates was observed in the microstructure. The diameter of the precipitates varied between 2-70 nm and the morphology from the spherical to faceted shape. The Cr-La-Ti-O-enriched nano-clusters were identified by APT studies. (authors)

  7. Thermal wakefield oscillations of laser-induced plasma channels and their spectral signatures in luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, W.; Moloney, J. V.; Wright, E. M.; Kira, M.; Koch, S. W.

    2005-01-01

    Starting from a general microscopic model for an interacting two-component plasma including the interaction with a quantized light field, the equations of motion in the Wigner representation are derived. In contrast to the case of strongly focused laser beams which are known to leave behind so called wakefield oscillations of the electron plasma, thermal wakefield oscillations dominate the dynamics of a femtosecond laser generated plasma rod. It is shown that the photoluminescence from the resulting electron-ion plasma bears spectral features related to the plasma frequency due to these thermal radial wakefield oscillations.

  8. Influence of External Pressure on Turbulent Phenomena in a Thermal Plasma Jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlína, Jan; Šonský, Jiří; Něnička, Václav; Hrabovský, Milan; Konrád, Miloš; Kopecký, Vladimír; Chumak, Oleksiy

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 8, 1-4 (2004), s. 207-214 ISSN 1093-3611 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1057202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2057903 Keywords : thermal plasma * plasma jet * turbulence Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.194, year: 2004

  9. Identification of Dynamic Patterns and their Velocities in Thermal Plasma Jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlína, Jan; Něnička, Václav; Šonský, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2004), s. 199-210 ISSN 0011-4626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2057903 Keywords : thermal plasma * plasma jet * turbulent structure Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004

  10. Mechanical Properties and Plasma Erosion Resistance of ZrO{sub 2p}(3Y)/BN-SiO{sub 2} Ceramic Composites under Different Sintering Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yu; Duan Xiaoming; Jia Dechang; Yang Zhihua; Meng Qingchang; Yu Yang [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Yu Daren; Ding Yongjie, E-mail: dxmhit@126.com [School of Energy Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)

    2011-10-29

    ZrO{sub 2p}(3Y)/BN-SiO{sub 2} ceramic composites were hot pressed under different sintering temperature. The ceramic composites were composed by BN, m-ZrO{sub 2}, t-ZrO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}. The relative density, bending strength, elastic modulus and fracture toughness increase with the sintering temperature increasing, the maximum value of which at the sintering temperature of 1800 deg. C are 97.5%, 229.9MPa, 60.8GPa and 3.55MPam{sup 1/2}, respectively. The erosion resistance ability of ZrO{sub 2p}(3Y)/BN-SiO{sub 2} ceramic composites rise gradually with the sintering temperature increasing, and the erosion rate of the ceramic composite sintered at 1800 deg. C is 8.03x10{sup -3}mm/h.

  11. High temperature oxidation-sulfidation behavior of Cr-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Nb-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites densified by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saucedo-Acuna, R.A. [Instituto e Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Cd. Juarez, Av. Del Charro 450 Norte, Col. Partido Romero, C.P. 32310, Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico); Monreal-Romero, H.; Martinez-Villafane, A. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico); Chacon-Nava, J.G. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico)], E-mail: jose.chacon@cimav.edu.mx; Arce-Colunga, U. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico); Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas, Matamoros 8 y 9 Col. Centro C.P. 87110, Cd. Victoria, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Gaona-Tiburcio, C. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico); De la Torre, S.D. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica (CIITEC)-IPN, D.F. Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-12-15

    The high temperature oxidation-sulfidation behavior of Cr-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Nb-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) has been studied. These composite powders have a particular metal-ceramic interpenetrating network and excellent mechanical properties. Oxidation-sulfidation tests were carried out at 900 deg. C, in a 2.5%SO{sub 2} + 3.6%O{sub 2} + N{sub 2}(balance) atmosphere for 48 h. The results revealed the influence of the sintering conditions on the specimens corrosion resistance, i.e. the Cr-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Nb-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite sintered at 1310 deg. C/4 min showed better corrosion resistance (lower weight gains) compared with those found for the 1440 deg. C/5 min conditions. For the former composite, a protective Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer immediately forms upon heating, whereas for the later pest disintegration was noted. Thus, under the same sintering conditions the Nb-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites showed the highest weight gains. The oxidation products were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy.

  12. Sintering and densification; new techniques: sinter forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnubst, A.J.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter pressure assisted sintering methods will be described. Attention will mainly be paid to sinter forging as a die-wall free uniaxial pressure sintering technique, where large creep strains are possible. Sinter forging is an effective tool to reduce sintering temperature and time and to obtain a nearly theoretically dense ceramic. In this way grain size in tetragonal zirconia ceramics can be reduced down to 100 nm. Another important phenomenon is the reduction of the number density and size of cracks and flaws resulting in higher strength and improved reliability, which is of utmost importance for engineering ceramics. The creep deformation during sinter forging causes a rearrangement of the grains resulting in a reduction of interatomic spaces between grains, while grain boundary (glassy) phases can be removed. The toughness and in some cases the wear resistance is enhanced after sinter forging as a result of the grain-boundary-morphology improvement. (orig.)

  13. Thermal plasma treatment of cell-phone waste : preliminary result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruj, B. [Central Mechanical Engineering Research Inst., Durgapur (India). Thermal Engineering Group; Chang, J.S.; Li, O.L. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Pietsch, G. [RWTH Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The cell phone is an indispensable service facilitator, however, the disposal and recycling of cell phones is a major problem. While the potential life span of a mobile phone, excluding batteries, is over 10 years, most of the users upgrade their phones approximately four times during this period. Cell phone waste is significantly more hazardous than many other municipal wastes as it contains thousands of components made of toxic chemicals and metals like lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, polyvinyl chlorides (PVC), brominated flame retardants, beryllium, antimony and phthalates. Cell phones also use many expensive rare metals. Since cell phones are made up of plastics, metals, ceramics, and trace other substances, primitive recycling or disposal of cell phone waste to landfills and incinerators creates irreversible environmental damage by polluting water and soil, and contaminating air. In order to minimize releases into the environment and threat to human health, the disposal of cell phones needs to be managed in an environmentally friendly way. This paper discussed a safer method of reducing the generation of syngas and hydrocarbons and metal recovery through the treatment of cell phone wastes by a thermal plasma. The presentation discussed the experiment, with particular reference to sample preparation; experimental set-up; and results four samples with different experimental conditions. It was concluded that the plasma treatment of cell phone waste in reduced condition generates gaseous components such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons which are combustible. Therefore, this system is an energy recovery system that contributes to resource conservation and reduction of climate change gases. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Field assisted sintering of refractory carbide ceramics and fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Sean

    The sintering behaviors of silicon carbide (SiC) and boron carbide (B4C) based materials were investigated using an emerging sintering technology known as field assisted sintering technology (FAST), also known as spark plasma sintering (SPS) and pulse electric current sintering (PECS). Sintering by FAST utilizes high density electric current, uniaxial pressure, and relatively high heating rate compared to conventional sintering techniques. This effort investigated issues of scaling from laboratory FAST system (25 ton capacity) to industrial FAST system (250 ton capacity), as well as exploring the difference in sintering behavior of single phase B4C and SiC using FAST and conventional sintering techniques including hot-pressing (HP) and pressure-less sintering (PL). Materials were analyzed for mechanical and bulk properties, including characterization of density, hardness, fracture toughness, fracture (bend) strength, elastic modulus and microstructure. A parallel investigation was conducted in the development of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) using SiC powder impregnation of fiber compacts followed by FAST sintering. The FAST technique was used to sinter several B4C and SiC materials to near theoretical density. Preliminary efforts established optimized sintering temperatures using the smaller 25 ton laboratory unit, targeting a sample size of 40 mm diameter and 8 mm thickness. Then the same B4C and SiC materials were sintered by the larger 250 ton industrial FAST system, a HP system, and PL sintering system with a targeted dense material geometry of 4 x 4 x 0.315 inches3 (101.6 x 101.6 x 8 mm3). The resulting samples were studied to determine if the sintering dynamics and/or the resulting material properties were influenced by the sintering technique employed. This study determined that FAST sintered ceramic materials resulted in consistently higher averaged values for mechanical properties as well as smaller grain size when compared to conventionally sintered

  15. The impact of QCD plasma instabilities on bottom-up thermalization

    OpenAIRE

    Bodeker, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    QCD plasma instabilities, caused by an anisotropic momentum distributions of the particles in the plasma, are likely to play an important role in thermalization in heavy ion collisions. We consider plasmas with two different components of particles, one strongly anisotropic and one isotropic or nearly isotropic. The isotropic component does not eliminate instabilities but it decreases their growth rates. We investigate the impact of plasma instabilities on the first stage of the ``bottom-up''...

  16. Magnetically driven rotation of thermal plasma jet for non-degradable CF{sub 4} treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sooseok, E-mail: choi@chemenv.titech.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Hong, Sang Hee; Kim, Sungwoo [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Park, Dong-Wha [Department of Chemical Engineering and Regional Innovation Center for Environmental Technology of Thermal Plasma, Inha University (Korea, Republic of); Watanabe, Takayuki [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Effects of an externally applied magnetic field on the thermal plasma treatment of non-degradable greenhouse gas were investigated. Tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) was decomposed as a waste gas, because it is the most stable species among perfluorocompounds and has the highest global warming potential. A permanent magnet equipped on the exit region of a hollow electrode plasma torch produced azimuthal Lorentz force to drive rotational motions of the arc root and the thermal plasma jet. In order to sustain a stable arc discharge, the position of the permanent magnet was determined by numerical analysis on the temperature distribution according to the length of arc column. Forcibly swirling motion of thermal plasma jet was observed in accordance with the strength of applied magnetic field. Increased destruction and removal efficiency of CF{sub 4} was measured in torch operation with the externally applied magnetic field due to the enhanced entrainment of waste gas into the thermal plasma jet.

  17. Magnetically driven rotation of thermal plasma jet for non-degradable CF4 treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sooseok; Hong, Sang Hee; Kim, Sungwoo; Park, Dong-Wha; Watanabe, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Effects of an externally applied magnetic field on the thermal plasma treatment of non-degradable greenhouse gas were investigated. Tetrafluoromethane (CF 4 ) was decomposed as a waste gas, because it is the most stable species among perfluorocompounds and has the highest global warming potential. A permanent magnet equipped on the exit region of a hollow electrode plasma torch produced azimuthal Lorentz force to drive rotational motions of the arc root and the thermal plasma jet. In order to sustain a stable arc discharge, the position of the permanent magnet was determined by numerical analysis on the temperature distribution according to the length of arc column. Forcibly swirling motion of thermal plasma jet was observed in accordance with the strength of applied magnetic field. Increased destruction and removal efficiency of CF 4 was measured in torch operation with the externally applied magnetic field due to the enhanced entrainment of waste gas into the thermal plasma jet.

  18. Optimization of Non-Thermal Plasma Treatment in an In Vivo Model Organism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lee

    Full Text Available Non-thermal plasma is increasingly being recognized for a wide range of medical and biological applications. However, the effect of non-thermal plasma on physiological functions is not well characterized in in vivo model systems. Here we use a genetically amenable, widely used model system, Drosophila melanogaster, to develop an in vivo system, and investigate the role of non-thermal plasma in blood cell differentiation. Although the blood system in Drosophila is primitive, it is an efficient system with three types of hemocytes, functioning during different developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Blood cell differentiation in Drosophila plays an essential role in tissue modeling during embryogenesis, morphogenesis and also in innate immunity. In this study, we optimized distance and frequency for a direct non-thermal plasma application, and standardized doses to treat larvae and adult flies so that there is no effect on the viability, fertility or locomotion of the organism. We discovered that at optimal distance, time and frequency, application of plasma induced blood cell differentiation in the Drosophila larval lymph gland. We articulate that the augmented differentiation could be due to an increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS upon non-thermal plasma application. Our studies open avenues to use Drosophila as a model system in plasma medicine to study various genetic disorders and biological processes where non-thermal plasma has a possible therapeutic application.

  19. Mitochondria-Mediated Anticancer Effects of Non-Thermal Atmospheric Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhunussova, Aigul; Vitol, Elina A; Polyak, Boris; Tuleukhanov, Sultan; Brooks, Ari D; Sensenig, Richard; Friedman, Gary; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya

    2016-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma has attracted great interest due to its multiple potential biomedical applications with cancer treatment being among the most urgent. To realize the clinical potential of non-thermal plasma, the exact cellular and molecular mechanisms of plasma effects must be understood. This work aimed at studying the prostate cancer specific mechanisms of non-thermal plasma effects on energy metabolism as a central regulator of cell homeostasis and proliferation. It was found that cancer cells with higher metabolic rate initially are more resistant to plasma treated phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) since the respiratory and calcium sensitive signaling systems were not responsive to plasma exposure. However, dramatic decline of cancer oxidative phosphorylation developed over time resulted in significant progression of cell lethality. The normal prostate cells with low metabolic activity immediately responded to plasma treated PBS by suppression of respiratory functions and sustained elevation of cytosolic calcium. However, over time the normal cells start recovering their mitochondria functions, proliferate and restore the cell population. We found that the non-thermal plasma induced increase in intracellular ROS is of primarily non-mitochondrial origin. The discriminate non-thermal plasma effects hold a promise for clinical cancer intervention.

  20. PLASMA THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS BASED ON ZIRCONIUM DIOXIDE WITH HIGH THERMAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Devoino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents optimization of  processes for obtaining maximum content of tetragonal phase in the initial material and thermal barrier coatings (TBC based on zirconium dioxide and hafnium oxide.  Results of the investigations on phase composition of oxide HfO2 – ZrO2 – Y2O3  system have been given in the paper. The system represents  a microstructure which is similar to  zirconia dioxide and  transformed for its application at 1300 °C. The paper explains a mechanism of hafnium oxide influence on formation of the given microstructure. The research methodology has been based on complex metallography, X – ray diffraction and electron microscopic investigations of  structural elements of the composite plasma coating HfO2 – ZrO2 – Y2O system.In order to stabilize zirconium dioxide  dopant oxide should not only have an appropriate size of  metal ion, but also form a solid solution with the zirconia. This condition severely limits the number of possible stabilizers. In fact, such stabilization is possible only with the help of rare earth oxides (Y2O3, Yb2O3, CeO2, HfO2. Chemical purity of the applied materials plays a significant role for obtaining high-quality thermal barrier coatings. Hafnium oxide has been selected as powder for thermal barrier coatings instead of zirconium dioxide due to their similarities in structural modification, grating, chemical and physical properties and its high temperature structural transformations. It has been established that plasma thermal barrier HfO2 – ZrO2 – Y2O3 coatings consist of  one tetragonal phase. This phase is equivalent to a non-equilibrium tetragonal t' phase in the “zirconium dioxide stabilized with yttrium oxide” system. Affinity of  Hf+4 and Zr+4 cations leads to the formation of identical metastable phases during rapid quenching.

  1. Sintering, microstructural and dilatometric studies of combustion synthesized Synroc phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthuraman, M.; Patil, K.C.; Senbagaraman, S.; Umarji, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Sintering, microstructure, and linear thermal expansion properties of Synroc-B and constituent phases, viz. perovskite CaTiO 3 , zirconolite ZrTi 2 O 7 , hollandite (ideal formula BaAl2Ti 6 O 16 ) have been investigated. Synroc-B powder when pelletized and sintered at 1250 C for 2 h achieved >95% theoretical density. Sintered Synroc-B has a linear thermal expansion coefficient α of 8.72 x 10 -6 K -1 and Vicker's microhardness 9.88 GPa. The linear thermal expansion curves did not show any hysteresis indicating the absence of microcracking in the sintered bodies

  2. Heavy metals behavior during thermal plasma vitrification of incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqueira, N.; Vandensteendam, C.; Baronnet, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the developed world, incineration of wastes is widely and increasingly practiced. Worldwide, a total of approximately 100 millions of tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) material is incinerated annually. Incineration of one ton of MSW leads to the formation of 30 to 50 kg of fly ash, depending on the type of incinerator. The waste disposal of these dusts already causes great problems today; they are of low bulk density, they contain high concentrations of hazardous water-soluble heavy metal compounds, organohalogen compounds (dioxines, furanes), sulfur, and chlorinated compounds. Thermal processes, based mainly on electrical arc processes, show great promise: the residues are melted at high temperature and converted in a relatively inert glass. A few tens of plants, essentially in Japan and Taiwan, have been in industrial operation for a few years. To be authorized to be dumped in a common landfill, the glassy product has to satisfy the leaching test procedure to ensure long-term durability. But to satisfy the regulation to be reused, for example as a nonhazardous standard material in road building, the glassy product would probably include contents in some heavy metals lower than critical limits. So today, there are two alternatives: the first one is to improve the heavy toxic metals evaporation to get a 'light' glassy product and to recycle separately the said separated metals; the second is on the contrary to improve the incorporation of a maximum of heavy metals into the vitreous silicate matrix. Whatever, it is highly required to control, in situ and in real time, volatility of these metals during ash melting under electrical arc. The objective of this work was to reach basic data about metals volatility under the plasma column of an electrical arc transferred on the melt: an experiment has been designed to examine the effects of processing conditions, such as melt temperature, melt composition, and furnace atmosphere, upon volatilization and glassy slag

  3. Comparative analysis of turbulent effects on thermal plasma characteristics inside the plasma torches with rod- and well-type cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Min; Hong, Sang Hee

    2002-01-01

    The thermal plasma characteristics inside the two non-transferred plasma torches with rod-type cathode (RTC) and well-type cathode (WTC) are analysed in conjunction with turbulent effects on them in the atmospheric-pressure conditions. A control volume method and a modified semi-implicit pressure linked equations revised algorithm are used for solving the governing equations, i.e. conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy together with a current continuity equation for arc discharge. A cold flow analysis is introduced to find the cathode spot position in the WTC torch, and both the laminar and turbulent models are employed to gain a physical insight into the turbulent effects on the thermal plasma characteristics produced inside the two torches. The numerical analysis for an RTC torch shows that slightly different values of plasma temperature and velocity between the laminar and turbulent calculations occur and the radial temperature profiles are constricted at the axis with increasing the gas flow rate, and that the large turbulent viscosities appear mostly near the anode wall. These calculated results indicate that the turbulent effects on the thermal plasma characteristics are very weak in the whole discharge region inside the RTC torch. On the other hand, the calculated results of the two numerical simulations for a WTC torch present that the significantly different values of plasma characteristics between the two models appear in the whole torch region and the plasma temperatures decrease with increasing the gas flow rate because the relatively strong turbulent effects are prevailing in the entire interior region of the WTC torch. From the comparisons of plasma net powers calculated and measured in this work, the turbulent modelling turns out to provide the more accurately calculated results close to the measured ones compared with the laminar one, especially for the torch with WTC. This is because the turbulent effects are considerably strong in

  4. Effect of Sintering on the Properties of γ-Brass (Cu5Zn8) Nanoparticles Produced by the Electric Arc Discharge Method and the Thermal Conductivity of γ-Brass Oil-Based Nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbod, Mansoor; Mohammadian, Alireza; Ranjbar, Khalil; Kouhpeymani Asl, Razieh

    2016-03-01

    Cu5Zn8 nanoparticles with a mean particle size of 21 nm were produced using the electric arc discharge method at 1 atm pressure Ar and 300 A arc current. The effect of sintering on the properties of Cu5Zn8 nanoparticle pellets prepared by pressing nanopowders under 750 MPa pressure was studied. Particles grew uniformly when sintered at 1013 K (740 °C), as opposed to those samples that were unsintered, resulting in a reduction of pores and an increase in density of about 21 pct. The electrical resistivity and hardness of the samples were also highly reduced. The results showed that the cooling rate can affect the properties of the sintered samples. The oil-based nanofluids with 0.2 to 3 wt pct of Cu5Zn8 nanoparticles were prepared, and it was found that the thermal conductivity of nanofluids increased with an increase in the weight percent of nanoparticles up to 1 pct and decreased afterward. The highest increase in thermal conductivity of 6 pct was measured compared to the base fluid.

  5. EDITORIAL: Non-thermal plasma-assisted fuel conversion for green chemistry Non-thermal plasma-assisted fuel conversion for green chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Gutsol, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    This special issue is based on the symposium on Non-thermal Plasma Assisted Fuel Conversion for Green Chemistry, a part of the 240th ACS National Meeting & Exposition held in Boston, MA, USA, 22-26 August 2010. Historically, the Division of Fuel Chemistry of the American Chemical Society (ACS) has featured three plasma-related symposia since 2000, and has launched special issues in Catalysis Today on three occasions: 'Catalyst Preparation using Plasma Technologies', Fall Meeting, Washington DC, USA, 2000. Special issue in Catalysis Today 72 (3-4) with 12 peer-reviewed articles. 'Plasma Technology and Catalysis', Spring Meeting, New Orleans, LA, USA, 2003. Special issue in Catalysis Today 89 (1-2) with more than 30 peer-reviewed articles. 'Utilization of Greenhouse Gases II' (partly focused on plasma-related technologies), Spring Meeting, Anaheim, CA, USA, 2004. Special issue in Catalysis Today 98 (4) with 25 peer-reviewed articles. This time, selected presentations are published in this Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics special issue. An industrial material and energy conversion technology platform is established on thermochemical processes including various catalytic reactions. Existing industry-scale technology is already well established; nevertheless, further improvement in energy efficiency and material saving has been continuously demanded. Drastic reduction of CO2 emission is also drawing keen attention with increasing recognition of energy and environmental issues. Green chemistry is a rapidly growing research field, and frequently highlights renewable bioenergy, bioprocesses, solar photocatalysis of water splitting, and regeneration of CO2 into useful chemicals. We would also like to emphasize 'plasma catalysis' of hydrocarbon resources as an important part of the innovative next-generation green technologies. The peculiarity of non-thermal plasma is that it can generate reactive species almost independently of reaction temperature. Plasma

  6. The cosmic dust analyzer: Experimental evaluation of an impact ionization model. [considering thermal equilibrium plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friichtenicht, J. F.; Roy, N. L.; Becker, D. G.

    1973-01-01

    A thermal equilibrium plasma model is used to process data from an impact ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer in order to convert the raw ion data to relative abundances of the elemental constituents of cosmic dust particles.

  7. Thermal plasma synthesis of Fe1−xNix alloy nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, Suyog A.; Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.; Das, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Fe-Ni alloy nanoparticles are of great interest because of diverse practical applications in the fields such as magnetic fluids, high density recording media, catalysis and medicine. We report the synthesis of Fe-Ni nanoparticles via thermal plasma route. Thermal plasma assisted synthesis is a high temperature process and gives high yields of production. Here, we have used direct arc thermal plasma plume of 6kw as a source of energy at operating pressure 500 Torr. The mixture of Fe-Ni powder in required proportion (Fe 1−x Ni x ; x=0.30, 0.32, 0.34, 0.36, 0.38 and 0.40) was made to evaporate simultaneously from the graphite anode in thermal plasma reactor to form Fe-Ni bimetallic nanoparticles. The as synthesized particles were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis/Differential Scanning Calorimtry (TGA/DSC)

  8. Plasma diagnostic techniques in thermal-barrier tandem-mirror fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, E.H.; Clauser, J.F.; Carter, M.R.; Failor, B.H.; Foote, J.H.; Hornady, R.S.; James, R.A.; Lasnier, C.J.; Perkins, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    We review two classes of plasma diagnostic techniques used in thermal-barrier tandem-mirror fusion experiments. The emphasis of the first class is to study mirror-trapped electrons at the thermal-barrier location. The focus of the second class is to measure the spatial and temporal behavior of the plasma space potential at various axial locations. The design and operation of the instruments in these two categories are discussed and data that are representative of their performance is presented

  9. Thermal Plasma Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanopowder from Gallium Nitrate Hydrate and Melamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hee Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gallium nitride (GaN nanopowder used as a blue fluorescent material was synthesized by using a direct current (DC non-transferred arc plasma. Gallium nitrate hydrate (Ga(NO33∙xH2O was used as a raw material and NH3 gas was used as a nitridation source. Additionally, melamine (C3H6N6 powder was injected into the plasma flame to prevent the oxidation of gallium to gallium oxide (Ga2O3. Argon thermal plasma was applied to synthesize GaN nanopowder. The synthesized GaN nanopowder by thermal plasma has low crystallinity and purity. It was improved to relatively high crystallinity and purity by annealing. The crystallinity is enhanced by the thermal treatment and the purity was increased by the elimination of residual C3H6N6. The combined process of thermal plasma and annealing was appropriate for synthesizing crystalline GaN nanopowder. The annealing process after the plasma synthesis of GaN nanopowder eliminated residual contamination and enhanced the crystallinity of GaN nanopowder. As a result, crystalline GaN nanopowder which has an average particle size of 30 nm was synthesized by the combination of thermal plasma treatment and annealing.

  10. Transition Region Emission and the Energy Input to Thermal Plasma in Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Holman, Gordon D.; Dennis, Brian R.; Haga, Leah; Raymond, John C.; Panasyuk, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the energetics of solar flares depends on obtaining reliable determinations of the energy input to flare plasma. X-ray observations of the thermal bremsstrahlung from hot flare plasma provide temperatures and emission measures which, along with estimates of the plasma volume, allow the energy content of this hot plasma to be computed. However, if thermal energy losses are significant or if significant energy goes directly into cooler plasma, this is only a lower limit on the total energy injected into thermal plasma during the flare. We use SOHO UVCS observations of O VI flare emission scattered by coronal O VI ions to deduce the flare emission at transition region temperatures between 100,000 K and 1 MK for the 2002 July 23 and other flares. We find that the radiated energy at these temperatures significantly increases the deduced energy input to the thermal plasma, but by an amount that is less than the uncertainty in the computed energies. Comparisons of computed thermal and nonthermal electron energies deduced from RHESSI, GOES, and UVCS are shown.

  11. THERMODYNAMIC REASONS OF AGGLOMERATION OF DUST PARTICLES IN THE THERMAL DUSTY PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I.Vishnyakov

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamic equilibrium of thermal dusty plasmas consisting of ionized gas (plasma and solid particles (dust grains, which interact with each other, is studied. The tendency of grains in dusty plasmas to agglomerate corresponds to the tendency of dusty plasmas to balanced states. When grains agglomerate, electrical perturbations generated by each grain concentrate inside the agglomerate. The plasma is perturbed only by the agglomerate's exterior surface. The greater number of possible states for electrons and ions in plasma depends on the volume of perturbation of grains. The fewer are the perturbations the greater is the amount of possible states for electrons and ions in plasma. If the grains collected from a distance smaller than 8 Debye lengths, the total volume of perturbations is minimized; the free energy of the plasma is also minimized.

  12. Electrical conductivity of the thermal dusty plasma under the conditions of a hybrid plasma environment simulation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukhovitskii, Dmitry I.; Petrov, Oleg F.; Hyde, Truell W.; Herdrich, Georg; Laufer, Rene; Dropmann, Michael; Matthews, Lorin S.

    2015-05-01

    We discuss the inductively heated plasma generator (IPG) facility in application to the generation of the thermal dusty plasma formed by the positively charged dust particles and the electrons emitted by them. We develop a theoretical model for the calculation of plasma electrical conductivity under typical conditions of the IPG. We show that the electrical conductivity of dusty plasma is defined by collisions with the neutral gas molecules and by the electron number density. The latter is calculated in the approximations of an ideal and strongly coupled particle system and in the regime of weak and strong screening of the particle charge. The maximum attainable electron number density and corresponding maximum plasma electrical conductivity prove to be independent of the particle emissivity. Analysis of available experiments is performed, in particular, of our recent experiment with plasma formed by the combustion products of a propane-air mixture and the CeO2 particles injected into it. A good correlation between the theory and experimental data points to the adequacy of our approach. Our main conclusion is that a level of the electrical conductivity due to the thermal ionization of the dust particles is sufficiently high to compete with that of the potassium-doped plasmas.

  13. Development of innovative thermal plasma and particle diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Benjamin-Leon

    2013-09-24

    Three original plasma diagnostic systems have been developed to investigate transient three-dimensional plasma processes with high spatial and temporal resolution. The developed diagnostics have been analyzed and tested by increasing the complexity from a stationary free burning Argon arc to a dc pulsed process and finally to a transient gas metal arc including droplet transfer through the plasma. The transient plasma parameters that have been determined include three-dimensional axially symmetric plasma densities (n{sub e}, n{sub A}, n{sub A+}, n{sub A++}), electron temperatures (T{sub e}), electrical conductivities (σ{sub el}), magnetic flux densities (B) and current densities (j{sub el}). In the case of a droplet transfer through an arc consisting of an Iron/Argon plasma, the droplet density, surface tension, viscosity, and temperature have been determined.

  14. Time-resolved tomographic measurements of temperatures in a thermal plasma jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlína, Jan; Šonský, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2010), s. 1-9 ISSN 0022-3727 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : thermal plasma jet * optical diagnostics * temperature distribution Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.105, year: 2010

  15. Investigations of a thermal plasma jet structure by generalized correlation dimension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gruber, Jan; Hlína, Jan; Šonský, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-8 ISSN 0022-3727 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : correlation dimension * turbulence * thermal plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.521, year: 2013

  16. Production of Syngas via Biomass Pyrolysis in Thermal Hydrogen/Oxygen Plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan; Hlína, Michal; Konrád, Miloš; Kopecký, Vladimír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 7 (2005), s. 58-58 ISSN 0003-0503. [Annual Gaseous Electronic Conference/58th./. 16.10. 2005-20.10. 2005, San Jose] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : thermal plasma jet * probe diagnostics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  17. Analysis of Thermal Plasma Dynamics in 3-D Using Tomographical Reconstruction and Wavelet Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gruber, Jan; Sekerešová, Zuzana; Hlína, Jan; Šonský, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 11 (2011), s. 2850-2851 ISSN 0093-3813 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : thermal plasma * tomography * wavelet s Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.174, year: 2011 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=5783941

  18. Novel Prospects for Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition of Columnar Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwaar, Aleem; Wei, Lianglinag; Guo, Qian; Zhang, Baopeng; Guo, Hongbo

    2017-12-01

    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is an emerging coating technique that can produce columnar thermal barrier coatings from vapor phase. Feedstock treatment at the start of its trajectory in the plasma torch nozzle is important for such vapor-phase deposition. This study describes the effects of the plasma composition (Ar/He) on the plasma characteristics, plasma-particle interaction, and particle dynamics at different points spatially distributed inside the plasma torch nozzle. The results of calculations show that increasing the fraction of argon in the plasma gas mixture enhances the momentum and heat flow between the plasma and injected feedstock. For the plasma gas combination of 45Ar/45He, the total enthalpy transferred to a representative powder particle inside the plasma torch nozzle is highest ( 9828 kJ/kg). Moreover, due to the properties of the plasma, the contribution of the cylindrical throat, i.e., from the feed injection point (FIP) to the start of divergence (SOD), to the total transferred energy is 69%. The carrier gas flow for different plasma gas mixtures was also investigated by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of zirconium emissions. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating microstructures were produced when using selected plasma gas compositions and corresponding carrier gas flows; structural morphologies were found to be in good agreement with OES and theoretical predictions. Quasicolumnar microstructure was obtained with porosity of 15% when applying the plasma composition of 45Ar/45He.

  19. The role of the bimodal distribution of ultra-fine silicon phase and nano-scale V-phase (AlSi2Sc2) on spark plasma sintered hypereutectic Al–Si–Sc alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghukiran, Nadimpalli; Kumar, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Hypereutectic Al–Si and Al–Si–Sc alloys were spark plasma sintered from corresponding gas-atomized powders. The microstructures of the Al–Si and Al–Si–Sc alloys possessed remarkably refined silicon particles in the size range of 0.38–3.5 µm and 0.35–1.16 µm respectively in contrast to the silicon particles of size greater than 100 µm typically found in conventionally cast alloys. All the sintered alloys exhibited significant ductility of as high as 85% compressive strain without failure even with the presence of relatively higher weight fraction of the brittle silicon phase. Moreover, the Al–Si–Sc alloys have shown appreciable improvement in the compressive strength over their binary counterparts due to the presence of intermetallic compound AlSi 2 Sc 2 of size 10–20 nm distributed uniformly in the matrix of those alloys. The dry sliding pin-on-disc wear tests showed improvement in the wear performance of the sintered alloys with increase in silicon content in the alloys. Further, the Al–Si–Sc ternary alloys with relatively lesser silicon content exhibited appreciable improvement in the wear resistance over their binary counterparts. The Al–Si–Sc alloys with bimodal distribution of the strengthening phases consisting of ultra-fine (sub-micron size) silicon particles and the nano-scale AlSi 2 Sc 2 improved the strength and wear properties of the alloys while retaining significant amount of ductility.

  20. Models of current sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, Sebastian; Engelke, Lukas; Winterer, Markus; Wolf, Dietrich E.

    2017-06-01

    Densification of (semi-)conducting particle agglomerates with the help of an electrical current is much faster and more energy efficient than traditional thermal sintering or powder compression. Therefore, this method becomes more and more common among experimentalists, engineers, and in industry. The mechanisms at work at the particle scale are highly complex because of the mutual feedback between current and pore structure. This paper extends previous modelling approaches in order to study mixtures of particles of two different materials. In addition to the delivery of Joule heat throughout the sample, especially in current bottlenecks, thermoelectric effects must be taken into account. They lead to segregation or spatial correlations in the particle arrangement. Various model extensions are possible and will be discussed.

  1. A non-equilibrium simulation of thermal constriction in a cascaded arc hydrogen plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerenboom, K. S. C.; van Dijk, J.; W. J. Goedheer,; Kroesen, G. M. W.

    2014-01-01

    The cascaded arc hydrogen plasma of Pilot-PSI is studied in a non-LTE model. We demonstrate that the effect of vibrationally excited molecules on the heavy-particle-assisted dissociation is crucial for obtaining thermal constriction. To the best of our knowledge, thermal constriction has not been

  2. Non-thermal Plasma Exposure Rapidly Attenuates Bacterial AHL-Dependent Quorum Sensing and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Padrig B.; Busetti, Alessandro; Wielogorska, Ewa; Chevallier, Olivier P.; Elliott, Christopher T.; Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P.; Graham, William G.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma has been exhaustively characterised, however elucidation of the interactions between biomolecules produced and utilised by bacteria and short plasma exposures are required for optimisation and clinical translation of cold plasma technology. This study characterizes the effects of non-thermal plasma exposure on acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent quorum sensing (QS). Plasma exposure of AHLs reduced the ability of such molecules to elicit a QS response in bacterial reporter strains in a dose-dependent manner. Short exposures (30–60 s) produce of a series of secondary compounds capable of eliciting a QS response, followed by the complete loss of AHL-dependent signalling following longer exposures. UPLC-MS analysis confirmed the time-dependent degradation of AHL molecules and their conversion into a series of by-products. FT-IR analysis of plasma-exposed AHLs highlighted the appearance of an OH group. In vivo assessment of the exposure of AHLs to plasma was examined using a standard in vivo model. Lettuce leaves injected with the rhlI/lasI mutant PAO-MW1 alongside plasma treated N-butyryl-homoserine lactone and n-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl)-homoserine lactone, exhibited marked attenuation of virulence. This study highlights the capacity of atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma to modify and degrade AHL autoinducers thereby attenuating QS-dependent virulence in P. aeruginosa. PMID:27242335

  3. Binary collision rates of relativistic thermal plasmas. I Theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermer, C. D.

    1985-01-01

    Binary collision rates for arbitrary scattering cross sections are derived in the case of a beam of particles interacting with a Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) plasma, or in the case of two MB plasmas interacting at generally different temperatures. The expressions are valid for all beam energies and plasma temperatures, from the nonrelativistic to the extreme relativistic limits. The calculated quantities include the reaction rate, the energy exchange rate, and the average rate of change of the squared transverse momentum component of a monoenergetic particle beam as a result of scatterings with particles of a MB plasma. Results are specialized to elastic scattering processes, two-temperature reaction rates, or the cold plasma limit, reproducing previous work.

  4. Characterization of thermal plasmas by laser light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.C.; Lassahn, G.D.; Reynolds, L.D.; Fincke, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Characterization of an atmospheric pressure free-burning arc discharge and a plasma jet by lineshape analysis of scattered laser light is described. Unlike emission spectroscopy, this technique provides direct measurement of plasma gas temperature, electron temperature and electron density without the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Plasma gas velocity can also be determined from the Doppler shift of the scattered laser light. Radial gas temperature, electron temperature and electron density profiles are presented for an atmospheric pressure argon free-burning arc discharge. These results show a significant departure from LTE in the arc column, contradicting results obtained from emission spectroscopy. Radial gas temperature and gas velocity profiles in the exit plane of a subsonic atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet are also presented. In this case, the results show the plasma jet is close to LTE in the center, but not in the fringes. The velocity profile is parabolic

  5. Use of residual hydrocarbons treated by Thermal Plasma (recovery of energy by-products)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreno B, J.A.; Pacheco S, J.O.; Ramos F, F.; Cruz A, A.; Duran G, M.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence of new technologies is getting greater importance for the control of pollution. One of them is the destruction of hazardous wastes treated by thermal plasma, which is of special interest for the efficient treatment of the hazardous wastes since the heat generated by thermal plasma is able to destroy the molecular bonds generating solids and gaseous products which do not represent danger for the human being and the environment. The thermal plasma is the suitable technology for treating a wide range of hazardous wastes, including the residual hydrocarbons from the refinement process of petroleum, plasma exceeds the barrier of 3000 Centigrade. The efficiency of the degradation of residues is greater than 99.99%. Toxic emissions are not generated to environment as SO 2 , NO x and CO 2 neither dioxins and furans by being a pyrolysis process. The use of hydrogen as fuel does not generate pollution to environment. (Author)

  6. Experimental studies on removal of airborne haloanisoles by non-thermal plasma air purifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Hallam, David; Bermúdez, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    was collected by Tenax tubes and the concentration of TCA and TBA were analyzed by thermal desorption GC–MS. The results showed that the plasma air purifier was effective on removing TCA and TBA with a single pass efficiency of better than 82%. The effect was further validated in a wine cellar under a realistic......A laboratory study was conducted to test the performance of non-thermal plasma air purifiers on its removal effectiveness of two haloanisoles – 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 2,4,6-Tribromoanisole (TBA). TCA and TBA are the two major compounds found in wine cellars that can contaminate wine...... condition. The concentrations of TCA and TBA in the wine cellar decreased 94% and 50% respectively after running two plasma air purifiers for 5 days. The non-thermal plasma air purification technology may be used in wine cellar to remove the two airborne contaminants and prevent the wine from being...

  7. DC Thermal Plasma Design and Utilization for the Low Density Polyethylene to Diesel Oil Pyrolysis Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. Gabbar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The exponential increase of plastic production produces 100 million tonnes of waste plastics annually which could be converted into hydrocarbon fuels in a thermal cracking process called pyrolysis. In this research work, a direct current (DC thermal plasma circuit is designed and used for conversion of low density polyethylene (LDPE into diesel oil in a laboratory scale pyrolysis reactor. The experimental setup uses a 270 W DC thermal plasma at operating temperatures in the range of 625 °C to 860 °C for a low density polyethylene (LDPE pyrolysis reaction at pressure = −0.95, temperature = 550 °C with τ = 30 min at a constant heating rate of 7.8 °C/min. The experimental setup consists of a vacuum pump, closed system vessel, direct current (DC plasma circuit, and a k-type thermocouple placed a few millimeters from the reactant sample. The hydrocarbon products are condensed to diesel oil and analyzed using flame ionization detector (FID gas chromatography. The analysis shows 87.5% diesel oil, 1,4-dichlorobenzene (Surr, benzene, ethylbenzene and traces of toluene and xylene. The direct current (DC thermal plasma achieves 56.9 wt. % of diesel range oil (DRO, 37.8 wt. % gaseous products and minimal tar production. The direct current (DC thermal plasma shows reliability, better temperature control, and high thermal performance as well as the ability to work for long operation periods.

  8. Effect of anisotropic thermal transport on the resistive plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xue; Liu, Yueqiang; Gao, Zhe

    2017-10-01

    Plasma response to the resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) field is numerically investigated by an extended toroidal fluid model, which includes anisotropic thermal transport physics parallel and perpendicular to the total magnetic field. The thermal transport is found to be effective in eliminating the toroidal average curvature induced plasma screening (the so called Glasser-Green-Johnson, GGJ screening) in a slow toroidal flow regime, whilst having minor effect on modifying the conventional plasma screening regimes at faster flow. This physics effect of interaction between thermal transport and GGJ screening is attributed to the modification of the radial structure of the shielding current, which resulted from the plasma response to the applied field. The modification of the plasma response (shielding current, response field, plasma displacement, and the perturbed velocity) also has direct consequence on the toroidal torques produced by RMP. Modelling results show that thermal transport reduces the resonant electromagnetic torque as well as the torque associated with the Reynolds stress, but enhances the neoclassical toroidal viscous torque at slow plasma flow.

  9. Properties of thermal air plasma with admixing of copper and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S; Veklich, A; Boretskij, V; Cressault, Y; Gleizes, A; Teulet, Ph

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with investigations of air plasma with admixing of copper and carbon. Model plasma source unit with real breaking arc was used for the simulation of real discharges, which can be occurred during sliding of Cu-C composite electrodes on copper wire at electromotive vehicles. The complex technique of plasma property studies is developed. From one hand, the radial profiles of temperature and electron density in plasma of electric arc discharge in air between Cu-C composite and copper electrodes in air flow were measured by optical spectroscopy techniques. From another hand, the radial profiles of electric conductivity of plasma mixture were calculated by solution of energy balance equation. It was assumed that the thermal conductivity of air plasma is not depending on copper or carbon vapor admixtures. The electron density is obtained from electric conductivity profiles by calculation in assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium in plasma. Computed in such way radial profiles of electron density in plasma of electric arc discharge in air between copper electrodes were compared with experimentally measured profiles. It is concluded that developed techniques of plasma diagnostics can be reasonably used in investigations of thermal plasma with copper and carbon vapors

  10. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma possible application in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haertel, Beate; von Woedtke, Thomas; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2014-11-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma, also named cold plasma, is defined as a partly ionized gas. Therefore, it cannot be equated with plasma from blood; it is not biological in nature. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma is a new innovative approach in medicine not only for the treatment of wounds, but with a wide-range of other applications, as e.g. topical treatment of other skin diseases with microbial involvement or treatment of cancer diseases. This review emphasizes plasma effects on wound healing. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma can support wound healing by its antiseptic effects, by stimulation of proliferation and migration of wound relating skin cells, by activation or inhibition of integrin receptors on the cell surface or by its pro-angiogenic effect. We summarize the effects of plasma on eukaryotic cells, especially on keratinocytes in terms of viability, proliferation, DNA, adhesion molecules and angiogenesis together with the role of reactive oxygen species and other components of plasma. The outcome of first clinical trials regarding wound healing is pointed out.

  11. An investigation of non-equilibrium effects in thermal argon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosado, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis deals with the study of the validity of the assumption of Local Thermal Equilibrium (LTE) in the description of the parameters of a thermal argon plasma. The aim is twofold. As the studied plasma is close to, but not completely in equilibrium, the author first attempts to obtain a simple description of the plasma in terms of an LTE model in which suitable corrections for the deviations of the plasma parameters from their LTE values is introduced. To this end the plasma parameters are studied by means of a diagnostic method in which the assumption of LTE is not made. The evaluation of the usefulness of this method is the second aim of this thesis. (Auth.)

  12. Investigation of non-thermal plasma effects on lung cancer cells within 3D collagen matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Surya B.; Thapa Gupta, Tripti; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda; Eisenmann, Kathryn M.; Ayan, Halim

    2017-08-01

    Recent breakthroughs in plasma medicine have identified a potential application for the non-thermal plasma in cancer therapy. Most studies on the effects of non-thermal plasma on cancer cells have used traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cell culture. However, very few studies are conducted employing non-thermal plasma in animal models. Two dimensional models do not fully mimic the three-dimensional (3D) tumor microenvironment and animal models are expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, we used 3D collagen matrices that closely resemble the native geometry of cancer tissues and provide more physiologically relevant results than 2D models, while providing a more cost effective and efficient precursor to animal studies. We previously demonstrated a role for non-thermal plasma application in promoting apoptotic cell death and reducing the viability of A549 lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells cultured upon 2D matrices. In this study, we wished to determine the efficacy of non-thermal plasma application in driving apoptotic cell death of A549 lung cancer cells encapsulated within a 3D collagen matrix. The percentage of apoptosis increased as treatment time increased and was time dependent. In addition, the anti-viability effect of plasma was demonstrated. Twenty-four hours post-plasma treatment, 38% and 99% of cell death occurred with shortest (15 s) and longest treatment time (120 s) respectively at the plasma-treated region. We found that plasma has a greater effect on the viability of A549 lung cancer cells on the superficial surface of 3D matrices and has diminishing effects as it penetrates the 3D matrix. We also identified the nitrogen and oxygen species generated by plasma and characterized their penetration in vertical and lateral directions within the 3D matrix from the center of the plasma-treated region. Therefore, the utility of non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma in driving apoptosis and reducing the viability of lung cancer cells

  13. Neutrino-electron processes in a strongly magnetized thermal plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Hardy, S J; Hardy, Stephen J.; Thoma, Markus H.

    2001-01-01

    We present a new method of calculating the rate of neutrino-electron interactions in a strong magnetic field based on finite temperature field theory. Using this method, in which the effect of the magnetic field on the electron states is taken into account exactly, we calculate the rates of all of the lowest order neutrino-electron interactions in a plasma. As an example of the use of this technique, we explicitly calculate the rate at which neutrinos and antineutrinos annihilate in a highly magnetized plasma, and compare that to the rate in an unmagnetized plasma. The most important channel for energy deposition is the gyromagnetic absorption of a neutrino-antineutrino pair on an electron or positron in the plasma ($\

  14. Plasma effects on the passive external thermal control coating of Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Ralph, Jr.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Holt, James M.; Werp, Richard; Sudduth, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    The current baseline chromic acid anodized thermal control coating on 6061-T6 aluminum meteoroid debris (M/D) shields for SSF has been evaluated. The degradation of the solar absorptance, alpha, and the thermal emittance, epsilon, of chromic acid anodized aluminum due to dielectric breakdown in plasma was measured to predict the on-orbit lifetime of the SSF M/D shields. The lifetime of the thermal control coating was based on the surface temperatures achieved with degradation of the thermal control properties, alpha and epsilon. The temperatures of each M/D shield from first element launch (FEL) through FEL+15 years were analyzed. It is shown that the baseline thermal control coating cannot withstand the -140 V potential between the conductive structure of the SSF and the current plasma environment.

  15. Effects of plasma jet parameters, ionization, thermal conduction, and radiation on stagnation conditions of an imploding plasma liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic, Milos

    The disciplines of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are characterized by hypervelocity implosions and strong shocks. The Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) is focused on reaching HEDP and/or ICF relevant regimes in excess of 1 Mbar peak pressure by the merging and implosion of discrete plasma jets, as a potentially efficient path towards these extreme conditions in a laboratory. In this work we have presented the first 3D simulations of plasma liner, formation, and implosion by the merging of discrete plasma jets in which ionization, thermal conduction, and radiation are all included in the physics model. The study was conducted by utilizing a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (SPHC) and was a part of the plasma liner experiment (PLX). The salient physics processes of liner formation and implosion are studied, namely vacuum propagation of plasma jets, merging of the jets (liner forming), implosion (liner collapsing), stagnation (peak pressure), and expansion (rarefaction wave disassembling the target). Radiative transport was found to significantly reduce the temperature of the liner during implosion, thus reducing the thermal expansion rates and leaving more pronounced gradients in the plasma liner during the implosion compared with ideal hydrodynamic simulations. These pronounced gradients lead to a greater sensitivity of initial jet geometry and symmetry on peak pressures obtained. Accounting for ionization and transport, many cases gave higher peak pressures than the ideal hydrodynamic simulations. Scaling laws were developed accordingly, creating a non-dimensional parameter space in which performance of an imploding plasma jet liner can be estimated. It is shown that HEDP regimes could be reached with ≈ 5 MJ of liner energy, which would translate to roughly 10 to 20 MJ of stored (capacitor) energy. This is a potentially significant improvement over the currently available means via ICF of achieving HEDP and nuclear

  16. Electric field-assisted sintering of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tien Bich

    As the main inorganic component of bone, hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca 10(PO4)6(OH)2) should be an ideal candidate in biomaterials selection. When grain sizes are in the nanometric regime, protein adsorption and cell adhesion are enhanced, while strength, hardness, and wear resistance are improved. Unfortunately, low phase stability, poor sinterability, and a tendency towards exaggerated grain coarsening challenge full densification of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite by conventional sintering methods. The field-assisted sintering technique (FAST) has successfully consolidated a variety of nanocrystalline metals and ceramics in dramatically reduced times. The sintering enhancements observed during FAST can be attributed to thermal and athermal effects. The rapid heating rates (up to ˜1000ºC/min) afforded by FAST contribute a significant thermal effect. Since fast heating rates reduce powder exposure to sub-sintering temperatures, non-densifying surface diffusion is limited. The athermal effects of FAST are less well understood and can include plasma generation, dielectric breakdown, particle surface cleaning, grain boundary pinning, and space charge effects. Applying the field-assisted sintering technique to nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite yielded surprising results. Deviations from conventional densification behavior were observed, with dehydroxylation identified as the most deleterious process to densification as well as mechanical and biological performance. Since hydroxyapatite is not a stable phase at high temperatures and low water partial pressure atmospheres, desintering due to dehydroxylation-related pore formation became apparent during Stage III sintering. In fact, the degree of desintering and pore formation increased with the extent of Stage III sintering and grain growth. The atomic rearrangements taking place during grain boundary migration are believed to favor the formation of more-stable oxyapatite through hydroxyapatite dehydroxylation. This behavior was

  17. Ion thermal conductivity for a pure tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, C.W. III.

    1981-06-01

    The ion thermal conductivity is calculated for a wide range of aspect ratios and collision frequencies. The calculation is done by solving the drift kinetic equation, with a model collision operator, using a finite element method, and then calculating the energy weighted friction force to determine the heat flux. The thermal conductivity, determined from the heat flux, is then curve fitted to analytic formulas. These formulas allow the conductivity to be calculated at all collision frequencies and aspect ratios down to about 3

  18. Thermal efficiency of a non-transferred thermal plasma cannon; Eficiencia termica de un canon de plasma termico no-transferido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, A.; Cota, G.; Merlo, L.; Pacheco, J.; Pena, R.; Cruz, A. [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    This work shows a thermal efficiency research ({nu}) for a plasma torch in d.c. which was carried out through the realization of an energy balance around the system under consideration. The plasma torch is manufactured in copper with a tungsten incrustations in cathode. The gas used was argon and the gas fluxes were at the rank of 10 and 40 lt/min to the total pressure of 1.2 bar (1.1 atm). With these conditions it was worked with electric currents at the rank of 40 and 180 A. The data were collected through a data acquisition card which was programmed in Windows environment. (Author)

  19. Dust-acoustic shock waves in a dusty plasma with non-thermal ions and super-thermal electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamuddin, M.; Mamun, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The propagation of dust-acoustic shock waves (DASWs) in a collisionless unmagnetized dusty plasma (containing super-thermal electrons of two distinct temperatures, non-thermal ions, and a negatively charged viscous dust fluid) has been theoretically investigated by deriving and solving the nonlinear Burgers' equation. It has been observed that the viscous force acting on the dust fluid is a source of dissipation, and is responsible for the formation of DASWs, and that the basic features (viz., amplitude, polarity, width, etc.) of the DASWs are significantly modified by the presence of super-thermal electrons and non-thermal ions. The possible applications of this investigation in Earth's mesosphere, the solar atmosphere, Saturn's magnetosphere, etc., have also been briefly addressed.

  20. Inactivation of Microorganisms in Model Biofilms by an Atmospheric Pressure Pulsed Non-thermal Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akishev, Yuri; Trushkin, N.; Grushin, M.; Petryakov, A.; Karal'nik, V.; Kobzev, E.; Kholodenko, V.; Chugunov, V.; Kireev, G.; Rakitsky, Yu.; Irkhina, I.

    Non-thermal plasma jet formed by self-running pulsed-periodical high-current spark generator (PPSG) was used for atmospheric pressure inactivation of microorganisms including biofilms. A distinctive feature of the PPSG is a formation of transient hot plasma clouds (plasma bullets) periodically flying out to the target. We experimented with model biofilms of E. coli and Bacillus subtilis monocultures which were grown on agar and surfaces of steel and polypropylene coupons. High efficiency of plasma inactivation was demonstrated. This effect is associated primarily with an interaction of transient hot plasma clouds with biofilms. Besides complete or partial degradation of the cell membrane, weakening of the cell wall of E.coli culture by active plasma was found.

  1. Thermal insulation and confinement of plasma with a high-frequency electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedenov, A.A.; Volkov, T.F.; Rudakov, L.I.; Sagdeyev, R.Z.; Glagolev, V.M.; Yeliseyev, G.A.; Khilil, V.V.

    1958-01-01

    At the Institute of Atomic Energy (Academy of Sciences, USSR) the problem of creating and thermally insulating plasma by means of high-frequency electromagnetic fields has been studied. Electromagnetic alternating fields which do not penetrate into plasma set up a pressure difference on the plasma boundary. There may be various ways of exciting alternating fields. One of the ways, most convenient from the radio engineering standpoint, is the setting up of a standing electromagnetic wave in a volume resonator partly filled with plasma. Such electromagnetic oscillations can be excited between the conductive walls of the resonator and the surface of plasma in such a way that the electromagnetic pressure, averaged over the high-frequency oscillations, with geometry specially selected, is the same at every point of the plasma surface

  2. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  3. Production of pig iron from red mud waste fines using thermal plasma technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasankar, K.; Ray, P. K.; Chaubey, A. K.; Padhi, A.; Satapathy, B. K.; Mukherjee, P. S.

    2012-08-01

    Red mud, an insoluble residue produced during alkali leaching of bauxite, is considered as a low-grade iron ore containing 30% to 50% iron. The present paper deals with the use of thermal plasma technology for producing pig iron from red mud waste fines. The smelting reduction of red mud was carried out in a 35 kW DC extended arc thermal plasma reactor. Red mud was properly mixed with fluxes and graphite (fixed carbon, 99%) as a reductant as per stoichiometric requirement. The effect of various process parameters like a reductant, fluxes and smelting time on iron recovery was studied and optimized. An optimum condition for the maximum recovery of iron was obtained. A new thermal plasma process applicable to direct iron making from red mud waste fines that would achieve significant utilization of red mud was proposed.

  4. Chemical and physical reactions under thermal plasmas conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchais, P.; Vardelle, A.; Vardelle, M.; Coudert, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Basic understanding of the involved phenomena lags far behind industrial development that requires now a better knowledge of the phenomena to achieve a better control of the process allowing to improve the quality of the products. Thus the authors try to precise what is their actual knowledge in the fields of: plasma generators design; plasma flow models with the following key points: laminar or turbulent flow, heat transfer to walls, 2D or 3D models, non equilibrium effects, mixing problems when chemical reactions are to be taken into account with very fast kinetics, electrode regions, data for transport properties and kinetic rates; nucleation problems; plasma flow characteristics measurements: temperature or temperatures and population of excited states (automatized emission spectroscopy, LIF, CARS) as well as flow velocity (LDA with small particles, Doppler effects...); plasma and particles momentum and heat transfer either with models taking into account particles size and injection velocity distributions, heat propagation, vaporization, Kundsen effect, turbulences ... or with measurements: particles velocity and flux distributions (Laser Anemometry) as well as surface temperature distributions (two colour pyrometry in flight statistical or not)

  5. Characteristics of thermalization of boost-invariant plasma from holography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, M.P.; Janik, R.A.; Witaszczyk, P.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the approach toward the hydrodynamic regime of boost-invariant N=4 super Yang-Mills plasma at strong coupling starting from various far-from-equilibrium states at τ=0. The results are obtained through a numerical solution of Einstein’s equations for the dual geometries, as described in

  6. Microscopic electrical conductivity of nanodiamonds after thermal and plasma treatments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jan; Kozak, Halyna; Stehlík, Štěpán; Švrček, V.; Pichot, V.; Spitzer, D.; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 16 (2016), s. 1105-1111 ISSN 2059-8521 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01809S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : atomic force microscopy * conductive AFM * diamond * nanoparticles * plasma Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  7. Inactivation of human pathogenic dermatophytes by non-thermal plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholtz, V.; Soušková, H.; Hubka, Vít; Švarcová, M.; Julák, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, DEC 2015 (2015), s. 53-58 ISSN 0167-7012 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Corona discharge * Cometary discharge * Decontamination of surfaces Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.857, year: 2015

  8. Plasma Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels in Non-Thermal Plasma-Liquid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    Kudryavtsev V.S., Martysh E.V., and Verovchuk M.A. Plasma-assisted reforming of ethanol in dynamic plasma-liquid system: experiments and modeling // IEEE...Shchedrin A., Rybatsev A., Demchina V., and Kudryavtsev V. Transversal gas discharges in plasma liquid systems and its applications for...Olszewskii, M. Verovchuck, D. Levko, A. Shchedrin, V. Demchina, V. Kudryavtsev . Experimental study and theoretical modeling of process of 42 ethanol

  9. Influence on Injection Mode on Properties of DC Plasma Jets for Thermal Plasma Spraying

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavka, Tetyana; Mašláni, Alan; Arnold, J.; Henne, R.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 54, suppl.C (2004), C766-C771 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /21st/. Praha, 14.06.2004-17.06.2004] Grant - others:DFG(XX) HE2061/2-1-879/97; DFG(XX) HE2061-2-3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma spraying, DC arc, injection Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004

  10. The Effect of Ga2Se3 Doping Ratios on Structure, Composition, and Electrical Properties of CuIn0.5Ga0.5Se2 Absorber Formed by Thermal Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Ping Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chalcopyrite compounds of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS absorber were fabricated by using binary-particle (Cu2Se, In2Se3, and Ga2Se3 precursors with thermal sintering method. The binary-particle ink was firstly prepared by milling technology and then printed onto a soda lime glass substrate, which was baked at a low temperature to remove solvents and form a dry precursor. Following milling, the average particle size of agglomerated CIGS powder is smaller than 1.1 μm. Crystallographic, stoichiometric, and electrical properties of precursor CIGS films with various doping amounts of Ga2Se3 had been widely investigated by using thermal sintering in a nonvacuum environment without selenization. Analytical results reveal that the CIGS absorption layer prepared with a Ga2Se3 doping ratio of 3 has a chalcopyrite structure and favorable composition. The mole ratio of Cu : In : Ga : Se of this sample was 1.03 : 0.49 : 0.54 : 1.94, and related ratios of Ga/(In + Ga and Cu/(In + Ga were 0.52 and 0.99, respectively. The resistivity and carrier concentration were 3.77 ohm-cm and 1.15 E  +  18 cm-3.

  11. Thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of two-temperature helium thermal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoxue; Murphy, Anthony B.; Li, Xingwen

    2017-03-01

    Helium thermal plasmas are in widespread use in arc welding and many other industrial applications. Simulation of these processes relies on accurate plasma property data, such as plasma composition, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients. Departures from LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) generally occur in some regions of helium plasmas. In this paper, properties are calculated allowing for different values of the electron temperature, T e, and heavy-species temperature, T h, at atmospheric pressure from 300 K to 30 000 K. The plasma composition is first calculated using the mass action law, and the two-temperature thermodynamic properties are then derived. The viscosity, diffusion coefficients, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of the two-temperature helium thermal plasma are obtained using a recently-developed method that retains coupling between electrons and heavy species by including the electron-heavy-species collision term in the heavy-species Boltzmann equation. It is shown that the viscosity and the diffusion coefficients strongly depend on non-equilibrium ratio θ (θ ={{T}\\text{e}}/{{T}\\text{h}} ), through the plasma composition and the collision integrals. The electrical conductivity, which depends on the electron number density and ordinary diffusion coefficients, and the thermal conductivity have similar dependencies. The choice of definition of the Debye length is shown to affect the electrical conductivity significantly for θ  >  1. By comparing with literature data, it is shown that the coupling between electrons and heavy species has a significant influence on the electrical conductivity, but not on the viscosity. Plasma properties are tabulated in the supplementary data.

  12. Research on electric and thermal characteristics of plasma torch based on similarity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Changming; Tang Deli; Lan Wei

    2007-01-01

    Configuration and working principle of a DC non-transferred plasma torch have been introduced. Based on similarity theory, connections between the electric-thermal characteristics and operational parameter such as flowing gas rate and arc power have been investigated. Calculation and experiment are compared. The results indicate that the calculation results are in agreement with experimental ones. The formulas can be used for plasma torch improvement and optimization. (authors)

  13. Influence of external pressure on turbulent phenomena in a thermal plasma jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlína, Jan; Šonský, Jiří; Něnička, Václav; Hrabovský, Milan; Konrád, Miloš; Kopecký, Vladimír; Chumak, Oleksiy

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2004), s. 207-214 ISSN 1093-3611 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1057202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910; CEZ:AV0Z2057903 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : thermal plasma * turbulence * CCD camera Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.194, year: 2004

  14. Non-thermal Plasma Activates Human Keratinocytes by Stimulation of Antioxidant and Phase II Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anke; Dietrich, Stephan; Steuer, Anna; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Masur, Kai; Wende, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma provides a novel therapeutic opportunity to control redox-based processes, e.g. wound healing, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. By spatial and time-resolved delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, it allows stimulation or inhibition of cellular processes in biological systems. Our data show that both gene and protein expression is highly affected by non-thermal plasma. Nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (NRF2) and phase II enzyme pathway components were found to act as key controllers orchestrating the cellular response in keratinocytes. Additionally, glutathione metabolism, which is a marker for NRF2-related signaling events, was affected. Among the most robustly increased genes and proteins, heme oxygenase 1, NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase 1, and growth factors were found. The roles of NRF2 targets, investigated by siRNA silencing, revealed that NRF2 acts as an important switch for sensing oxidative stress events. Moreover, the influence of non-thermal plasma on the NRF2 pathway prepares cells against exogenic noxae and increases their resilience against oxidative species. Via paracrine mechanisms, distant cells benefit from cell-cell communication. The finding that non-thermal plasma triggers hormesis-like processes in keratinocytes facilitates the understanding of plasma-tissue interaction and its clinical application. PMID:25589789

  15. Preliminary degradation process study of infectious biological waste in a 5 k W thermal plasma equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xochihua S M, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    This work is a preliminary study of infectious biological waste degradation process by thermal plasma and was made in Thermal Plasma Applications Laboratory of Environmental Studies Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). Infectious biological waste degradation process is realized by using samples such polyethylene, cotton, glass, etc., but the present study scope is to analyze polyethylene degradation process with mass and energy balances involved. Degradation method is realized as follow: a polyethylene sample is put in an appropriated crucible localized inside a pyrolysis reactor chamber, the plasma jet is projected to the sample, by the pyrolysis phenomena the sample is degraded into its constitutive particles: carbon and hydrogen. Air was utilized as a recombination gas in order to obtain the higher percent of CO 2 if amount of O 2 is greater in the recombination gas, the CO generation is reduced. The effluent gases of exhaust pyrolysis reactor through are passed through a heat exchanger to get cooled gases, the temperature water used is 15 Centigrade degrees. Finally the gases was tried into absorption tower with water as an absorbent fluid. Thermal plasma degradation process is a very promising technology, but is necessary to develop engineering process area to avail all advantages of thermal plasma. (Author)

  16. Monte Carlo spectra from pair-equilibrium, weakly magnetized thermal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdziarski, A. A.

    1986-01-01

    The results of Monte Carlo simulations of weakly magnetized, relativistic thermal plasmas are reported, including such physical processes as thermal synchrotron emission and absorption, bremsstrahlung, and Compton scattering, as well as pair-annihilation and pair-production. The rates of the latter two processes are kept approximately equal to each other, i.e., the plasmas are in pair equilibrium. The resulting spectra are of power-law form, and can be well described by a set of simple analytical formulae. Neither a pair annihilation feature nor a Wien hump is seen in the spectra. The possible relevance of the results to active galactic nuclei and gamma-bursts is discussed.

  17. Bactericidal effects of reactive thermal plasma synthesized titanium dioxide photocatalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vijay, M.; Selvarajan, V.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V.; Sreekumar, K.P.; Štengl, Václav; Bondioli, F.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 208, - (2010), 012143/1-012143/8 E-ISSN 1742-6596 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0334 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : a-thermal * analytical tool * anatase phase * Bactericidal action Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  18. Non-thermal Dupree diffusivity and shielding effects on atomic collisions in Lorentzian turbulent plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2016-05-01

    The influence of non-thermal Dupree turbulence and the plasma shielding on the electron-ion collision is investigated in Lorentzian turbulent plasmas. The second-order eikonal analysis and the effective interaction potential including the Lorentzian far-field term are employed to obtain the eikonal scattering phase shift and the eikonal collision cross section as functions of the diffusion coefficient, impact parameter, collision energy, Debye length and spectral index of the astrophysical Lorentzian plasma. It is shown that the non-thermal effect suppresses the eikonal scattering phase shift. However, it enhances the eikonal collision cross section in astrophysical non-thermal turbulent plasmas. The effect of non-thermal turbulence on the eikonal atomic collision cross section is weakened with increasing collision energy. The variation of the atomic cross section due to the non-thermal Dupree turbulence is also discussed. This research was supported by Nuclear Fusion Research Program through NRF funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (Grant No. 2015M1A7A1A01002786).

  19. Self-consistent Langmuir waves in resonantly driven thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, R. R.; Charman, A. E.; Wurtele, J. S.

    2007-01-01

    The longitudinal dynamics of a resonantly driven Langmuir wave are analyzed in the limit that the growth of the electrostatic wave is slow compared to the bounce frequency. Using simple physical arguments, the nonlinear distribution function is shown to be nearly invariant in the canonical particle action, provided both a spatially uniform term and higher-order spatial harmonics are included along with the fundamental in the longitudinal electric field. Requirements of self-consistency with the electrostatic potential yield the basic properties of the nonlinear distribution function, including a frequency shift that agrees closely with driven, electrostatic particle simulations over a range of temperatures. This extends earlier work on nonlinear Langmuir waves by Morales and O'Neil [G. J. Morales and T. M. O'Neil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 417 (1972)] and Dewar [R. L. Dewar, Phys. Plasmas 15, 712 (1972)], and could form the basis of a reduced kinetic treatment of plasma dynamics for accelerator applications or Raman backscatter

  20. Enhanced active aluminum content and thermal behaviour of nano-aluminum particles passivated during synthesis using thermal plasma route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathe, Vikas L., E-mail: vlmathe@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007, Maharashtra (India); Varma, Vijay; Raut, Suyog [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007, Maharashtra (India); Nandi, Amiya Kumar; Pant, Arti; Prasanth, Hima; Pandey, R.K. [High Energy Materials Research Lab, Sutarwadi, Pune 411021, Maharashtra (India); Bhoraskar, Sudha V. [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007, Maharashtra (India); Das, Asoka K. [Utkal University, VaniVihar, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751004 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis of nano crystalline Al (nAl) using DC thermal plasma reactor. • In situ passivation of nAl by palmitic acid and air. • Enhanced active aluminum content obtained for palmitic acid passivated nAl. • Palmitic acid passivated nAl are quite stable in humid atmospheres. - Abstract: Here, we report synthesis and in situ passivation of aluminum nanoparticles using thermal plasma reactor. Both air and palmitc acid passivation was carried out during the synthesis in the thermal plasma reactor. The passivated nanoparticles have been characterized for their structural and morphological properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. In order to understand nature of passivation vibrational spectroscopic analysis have been carried out. The enhancement in active aluminum content and shelf life for a palmitic acid passivated nano-aluminum particles in comparison to the air passivated samples and commercially available nano Al powder (ALEX) has been observed. Thermo-gravimetric analysis was used to estimate active aluminum content of all the samples under investigation. In addition cerimetric back titration method was also used to estimate AAC and the shelf life of passivated aluminum particles. Structural, microstructural and thermogravomateric analysis of four year aged passivated sample also depicts effectiveness of palmitic acid passivation.

  1. Non thermal plasma surface cleaner and method of use

    KAUST Repository

    Neophytou, Marios

    2017-09-14

    Described herein are plasma generation devices and methods of use of the devices. The devices can be used for the cleaning of various surfaces and/or for inhibiting or preventing the accumulation of particulates, such as dust, or moisture on various surfaces. The devices can be used to remove dust and other particulate contaminants from solar panels and windows, or to avoid or minimize condensation on various surfaces. In an embodiment a plasma generation device is provided. The plasma generation device can comprise: a pair of electrodes (1,2) positioned in association with a surface of a dielectric substrate (3). The pair of electrodes (1,2) can comprise a first electrode (1) and a second electrode (2). The first electrode and second electrode can be of different sizes, one of the electrodes being smaller than the other of the electrodes. The first electrode and second electrode can be separated by a distance and electrically connected to a voltage source (4,5).

  2. Non-thermal plasma destruction of allyl alcohol in waste gas: kinetics and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visscher, A de; Dewulf, J; Durme, J van; Leys, C; Morent, R; Langenhove, H Van

    2008-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma treatment is a promising technique for the destruction of volatile organic compounds in waste gas. A relatively unexplored technique is the atmospheric negative dc multi-pin-to-plate glow discharge. This paper reports experimental results of allyl alcohol degradation and ozone production in this type of plasma. A new model was developed to describe these processes quantitatively. The model contains a detailed chemical degradation scheme, and describes the physics of the plasma by assuming that the fraction of electrons that takes part in chemical reactions is an exponential function of the reduced field. The model captured the experimental kinetic data to less than 2 ppm standard deviation

  3. Non-thermal plasma destruction of allyl alcohol in waste gas: kinetics and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVisscher, A.; Dewulf, J.; Van Durme, J.; Leys, C.; Morent, R.; Van Langenhove, H.

    2008-02-01

    Non-thermal plasma treatment is a promising technique for the destruction of volatile organic compounds in waste gas. A relatively unexplored technique is the atmospheric negative dc multi-pin-to-plate glow discharge. This paper reports experimental results of allyl alcohol degradation and ozone production in this type of plasma. A new model was developed to describe these processes quantitatively. The model contains a detailed chemical degradation scheme, and describes the physics of the plasma by assuming that the fraction of electrons that takes part in chemical reactions is an exponential function of the reduced field. The model captured the experimental kinetic data to less than 2 ppm standard deviation.

  4. The structure and thermal properties of plasma-sprayed beryllium for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Bartlett, A.; Elliott, K.E.; Hollis, K.J.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma spraying is being studied for in situ repair of damaged Be and W plasma facing surfaces for ITER, the next generation magnetic fusion energy device, and is also being considered for fabricating Be and W plasma-facing components for the first wall of ITER. Investigators at LANL's Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility have concentrated on investigating the structure-property relation between as-deposited microstructures of plasma sprayed Be coatings and resulting thermal properties. In this study, the effect of initial substrate temperature on resulting thermal diffusivity of Be coatings and the thermal diffusivity at the coating/Be substrate interface (interface thermal resistance) was investigated. Results show that initial Be substrate temperatures above 600 C can improve the thermal diffusivity of the Be coatings and minimize any thermal resistance at the interface between the Be coating and Be substrate

  5. Stochastic gyroresonant electron acceleration on a low-beta plasma. II - Implications of thermal effects in a solar flare plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James A.; Steinacker, Juergen

    1992-01-01

    We consider the thermal damping of R and L waves under typical solar flare conditions. We find that the thermal particles cause rapid dissipation of the cyclotron waves, but do not affect whistlers and Alfven waves. The dissipation of electron cyclotron waves in particular leads to a threshold energy for acceleration which is about 10 times the thermal energy. Therefore, in the absence of an instability that excites these HF waves, a second mechanism is required in order to inject a sufficient number of electrons above the threshold energy and account for solar flare gamma-ray bremsstrahlung emission. We also find that the comoving gyroresonance, which occurs when the electron is in gyroresonance with an R wave whose group velocity equals the parallel electron velocity, can be realized by relativistic electrons if the plasma temperature is less than or approximately equal to 5,000,000 K.

  6. Residual stresses in a co-sintered SOC half-cell during post-sintering cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlas, Benoit; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Brodersen, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Due to the thermal expansion mismatch between the layers of a Solid Oxide Cell, residual stresses (thermal stresses) develop during the cooling after sintering. Residual stresses can induce cell curvature for asymmetric cells but more importantly they also result in more fragile cells. Depending...

  7. Thermal shock problems of bonded structure for plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibui, M.; Kuroda, T.; Kubota, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Thermal shock tests have been performed on W(Re)/Cu and Mo/Cu duplex structures with a particular emphasis on two failure modes: failure on the heated surface and failure near the bonding interface. The results indicate that failure of the duplex structure largely depends on the constraint of thermal strain on the heated surface and on the ductility changes of armour materials. Rapid debonding of the bonding interface may be attributed to the yielding of armour materials. This leads to a residual bending deformation when the armour cools down. Arguments are also presented in this paper on two parameter characterization of the failure of armour materials and on stress distribution near the free edge of the bonding interface. (orig.)

  8. Effects of non-thermal atmospheric plasma on human periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletić, M.; Mojsilović, S.; Okić Đorđević, I.; Maletić, D.; Puač, N.; Lazović, S.; Malović, G.; Milenković, P.; Petrović, Z. Lj; Bugarski, D.

    2013-08-01

    Here we investigate the influences of non-thermal atmospheric plasma on human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from periodontal ligament (hPDL-MSCs). A specially redesigned plasma needle was used as the source of low-temperature plasma and its effects on different hPDL-MSC functions were investigated. Cell cultures were obtained from extracted normal impacted third molars and characterized for their phenotype and multi-potential differentiation. The hPDL-MSCs possessed all the typical MSC properties, including clonogenic ability, high proliferation rate, specific phenotype and multilineage differentiation. The data regarding the interaction of plasma with hPDL-MSCs demonstrated that plasma treatment inhibited the migration of hPDL-MSCs and induced some detachment, while not affecting their viability. Additionally, plasma significantly attenuated hPDL-MSCs' proliferation, but promoted their osteogenic differentiation. The results of this study indicated that a non-thermal plasma offers specific activity with non-destructive properties that can be advantageous for future dental applications.

  9. Ignition phase and steady-state structures of a non-thermal air plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lu Xin Pei

    2003-01-01

    An AC-driven, non-thermal, atmospheric pressure air plasma is generated within the gap separating a disc-shaped metal electrode and a water electrode. The ignition phase and the steady-state are studied by a high-speed CCD camera. It is found that the plasma always initiates at the surface of the water electrode. The plasma exhibits different structures depending on the polarity of the water electrode: when the water electrode plays the role of cathode, a relatively wide but visibly dim plasma column is generated. At the maximum driving voltage, the gas temperature is between 800 and 900 K, and the peak current is 67 mA; when the water electrode is anode, the plasma column narrows but increases its light emission. The gas temperature in this case is measured to be in the 1400-1500 K range, and the peak current is 81 mA.

  10. Departures from thermal equilibrium in a dense Z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufeld, C.R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents on analysis of several features of the emission spectrum obtained from a dense hydrogen Z-pinch plasma. The spectrum is characterized by an extremely broad H/sub β/ line and by the absence of an emission line at the H/sub b/ wavelength. Comparison with theory shows that the spectrum is inconsistent with the assumption of a thermal or collision-dominated plasma. The assumption of a substantial overpopulation of the atomic-hydrogen excited levels, ascribed to a rising degree of plasma ionization, provides a satisfactory description of the observed spectrum. This result illustrates the difficulty of establishing valid equilibrium criteria for transient plasmas, even in the case of plasma densities as high as 10 19 cm -3

  11. Research on the thermal efficiency of a DC non-transfer arc plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhijun; Gao Yang; An Liantong

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented to describe the fluid flow, the electromagnetic, heat flow phenomena in an arc plasma torch authors constructed. A computing program has been developed to simulate the different factors that influence on the thermal efficiency. The results show that the thermal efficiency of the torch increases with the increase of the gas flow rate, the nitrogen or hydrogen content and decrease of the length of torch. The current and diameter of the torch have no obvious effects on the thermal efficiency

  12. Collisional Thermalization in Strongly Coupled Ultracold Neutral Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-25

    NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0267 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Thomas C Killian 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...density plasmas such as inertial confinement fusion experiments and in nature in the interiors of gas giant planets and the crusts of neutron stars...report, e.g. AFOSR-82-1234. 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER. Enter all program element numbers as they appear in the report, e.g. 61101A. 5d. PROJECT

  13. Ion thermal conductivity for a pure tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, C.; Ware, A.

    1981-10-01

    The neoclassical and Pfirsch-Schlueter component of the ion heat conduction for a pure hydrogen Tokamak plasma are recalculated without assuming large aspect ratio and without neglecting energy scattering collisions. Using a model collision operator the conductivity is determined numerically for various collision frequencies and aspect ratios. An approximate algebraic expression is fitted to the results. Even for comparatively large aspect ratios(approx. 10) energy scattering increases the conductivity in the banana regime by about 50% and for small aspect ratios(approx. 3.3) the Pfirsch-Schlueter contribution causes a further increase of approximately 60%

  14. Spark plasma sintering of Ti{sub y}Nb{sub 1-y}C{sub x}N{sub 1-x} monolithic ceramics obtained by mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, Amparo, E-mail: aborrell@upvnet.upv.es [Instituto de Tecnologia de Materiales (ITM), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN) (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas - Universidad de Oviedo - Principado de Asturias), Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera, Asturias (Spain); Salvador, Maria Dolores [Instituto de Tecnologia de Materiales (ITM), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Garcia-Rocha, Victoria [ITMA Materials Technology, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Asturias) (Spain); Fernandez, Adolfo [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN) (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas - Universidad de Oviedo - Principado de Asturias), Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera, Asturias (Spain); ITMA Materials Technology, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Asturias) (Spain); Chicardi, Ernesto; Gotor, Francisco J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US), Calle Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2012-05-01

    Nanometer-sized titanium-niobium carbonitride powders (Ti{sub y}Nb{sub 1-y}C{sub x}N{sub 1-x}) with different Ti/Nb atomic ratios were obtained by a mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction, and sintered by spark plasma sintering technique at 1500 Degree-Sign C for 1 min in a vacuum atmosphere. Mechanical properties such as hardness and Young's modulus were determined by nanoindentation technique and friction and wear coefficients assessed by ball-on-disk testing using alumina ball in dry sliding conditions. The fracture surface and wear tracks of samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that it is possible to obtain dense monolithic ceramics from the solid solution (Ti{sub y}Nb{sub 1-y}C{sub x}N{sub 1-x}) with good mechanical properties and excellent wear resistance. The optimum values of nanomechanical properties were found for the Ti{sub 0.3}Nb{sub 0.7}C{sub 0.5}N{sub 0.5} ceramic composition, which exhibited a high hardness over 26.0 GPa and Young's modulus around 400 GPa.

  15. Thermal history of the plasma and high-frequency gravitons

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Possible deviations from a radiation-dominated evolution, occurring prior the synthesis of light nuclei, impacted on the spectral energy density of high-frequency gravitons. For a systematic scrutiny of this situation, the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm must be complemented by (at least two) physical parameters describing, respectively, a threshold frequency and a slope. The supplementary frequency scale sets the lower border of a high-frequency domain where the spectral energy grows with a slope which depends, predominantly, upon the total sound speed of the plasma right after inflation. While the infra-red region of the graviton energy spectrum is nearly scale-invariant, the expected signals for typical frequencies larger than 0.01 nHz are hereby analyzed in a model-independent framework by requiring that the total sound speed of the post-inflationary plasma is smaller than the speed of light. Current (e.g. low-frequency) upper limits on the tensor power spectra (determined from the combined analysis of the three la...

  16. Sintering of nonstoichiometric UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susnik, D.; Holc, J.

    1983-01-01

    Activated sintering of UO 2 pellets at 1100 deg C is described. In CO 2 atmosphere is UO 2 is nonstoichiometric and pellets from active UO 2 powders sinter at 900 deg C to high density. At 1100 deg C the final sintered density is practically achieved at heating on sintering temperature. After reduction and cooling in H 2 atmosphere which is followed sintering in CO 2 the structure is identical to the structured UO 2 pellets sintered at high temperature in H 2 . Density of activated sintered UO 2 pellets is stable, even after additional sintering at 1800 deg C. (author)

  17. Laser Sintered Calcium Phosphate Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vail, Neil

    1999-01-01

    ...) technology selective laser sintering (SLS). BME has successfully implemented a pilot facility to fabricate calcium phosphate implants using anatomical data coupled with the selective laser sintering process...

  18. The interplay between biological and physical scenarios of bacterial death induced by non-thermal plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, O.; Zablotskyy, V.; Churpita, O.; Jäger, A.; Polívka, L.; Syková, Eva; Dejneka, A.; Kubinová, Šárka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 82, mar. (2016), s. 71-83 ISSN 0142-9612 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : non-thermal plasma * bacteria * cytotoxicity Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 8.402, year: 2016

  19. Free Thermal Convection in Complex Plasma with Background-Gas Friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivlev, A. V.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Morfill, G. E.

    2007-01-01

    The onset of free thermal convection in complex fluids with background friction is theoretically investigated. It is shown that in the limit when friction prevails--opposite to the classic Rayleigh-Benard case--the onset is determined by a renormalized Rayleigh number and also depends on the Prandtl number. Such convection should be observable in experiments with complex plasmas

  20. A sputtered zirconia primer for improved thermal shock resistance of plasma sprayed ceramic turbine seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, R. C.; Sovey, J.; Allen, G. P.

    1981-01-01

    The development of plasma-sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) ceramic turbine blade tip seal components is discussed. The YSZ layers are quite thick (0.040 to 0.090 in.). The service potential of seal components with such thick ceramic layers is cyclic thermal shock limited. The most usual failure mode is ceramic layer delamination at or very near the interface between the plasma sprayed YSZ layer and the NiCrAlY bondcoat. Deposition of a thin RF sputtered YSZ primer to the bondcoat prior to deposition of the thick plasma sprayed YSZ layer was found to reduce laminar cracking in cyclic thermal shock testing. The cyclic thermal shock life of one ceramic seal design was increased by a factor of 5 to 6 when the sputtered YSZ primer was incorporated. A model based on thermal response of plasma sprayed YSZ particles impinging on the bondcoat surface with and without the sputtered YSZ primer provides a basis for understanding the function of the primer.

  1. Expanding thermal plasma chemical vapour deposition of ZnO:Al layers for CIGS solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, K.; Williams, B.L.; Mittal, A.; Knoops, H.C.M.; Kniknie, B.J.; Bakker, N.J.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Creatore, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) grown by expanding thermal plasma chemical vapour deposition (ETP-CVD) has demonstrated excellent electrical and optical properties, which make it an attractive candidate as a transparent conductive oxide for photovoltaic applications. However, when depositing

  2. Chemically different non-thermal plasmas target distinct cell death pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, O.; Zablotskyy, V.; Chrupina, O.; Lunova, M.; Jirsa, M.; Dejneka, A.; Kubinová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, apr (2017), s. 600 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : chemically different * non-thermal plasmas * target distinct cell death pathways Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  3. Demonstration of thermal plasma gasification/vitrification for municipal solid waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Youngchul; Namkung, Won; Cho, Moohyun; Chung, Jae Woo; Kim, Young-Suk; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Carg-Ro; Hwang, Soon-Mo

    2010-09-01

    Thermal plasma treatment has been regarded as a viable alternative for the treatment of highly toxic wastes, such as incinerator residues, radioactive wastes, and medical wastes. Therefore, a gasification/vitrification unit for the direct treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW), with a capacity of 10 tons/day, was developed using an integrated furnace equipped with two nontransferred thermal plasma torches. The overall process, as well as the analysis of byproducts and energy balance, has been presented in this paper to assess the performance of this technology. It was successfully demonstrated that the thermal plasma process converted MSW into innocuous slag, with much lower levels of environmental air pollutant emissions and the syngas having a utility value as energy sources (287 Nm3/MSW-ton for H2 and 395 Nm3/MSW-ton for CO), using 1.14 MWh/MSW-ton of electricity (thermal plasma torch (0.817 MWh/MSW-ton)+utilities (0.322 MWh/MSW-ton)) and 7.37 Nm3/MSW-ton of liquefied petroleum gas.

  4. Catalytic non-thermal plasma reactor for the decomposition of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The decomposition of mixture of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been studied in a catalytic non-thermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge reactor. The VOCs mixture consisting n-hexane, cyclo-hexane and -xylene was chosen for the present study. The decomposition characteristics of mixture of VOCs ...

  5. Finite Larmor radius effect on thermal instability of a compressible plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.C.; Sharma, K.C.

    1978-01-01

    The thermal instability of a compressible plasma in the presence of a uniform vertical magnetic field is studied to include the effects of finiteness of the ion Larmor radius. When the instability sets in as stationary convection, both the compressibility and the finite Larmor radius are found to have stabilizing effect. The sufficient conditions for the nonexistence of overstability are investigated. (author)

  6. Thermal shock behaviour of tungsten after high flux H-plasma loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirtz, M.; Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; De Temmerman, G.; Wright, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that transient thermal shock loads induce crack networks on tungsten samples especially at low base temperatures. To achieve test conditions which are more relevant for the performance of tungsten-armoured plasma facing components in next step thermonuclear fusion devices

  7. The conversion of the thermal energy of plasma in the SOL of tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedospasov, A.V.; Nenova, N.V.

    2008-01-01

    When the plasma expands across the confining magnetic field, a part of its thermal energy is converted to electrical energy. In the SOL of tokamaks, the motion of the plasma across the field due to turbulent processes is accompanied by its departure along the open lines of the magnetic field. The conversion of thermal energy is taken into account in theoretical studies devoted to the physics of plasma in the SOL; however, this conversion is ignored in numerical models, for example, in B2-SOLPS4.0. This paper deals with thermal-to-electrical energy conversion in the SOL of tokamaks. It is demonstrated that the part of the thermal energy subjected to conversion to electrical energy forms an appreciable part of the total energy flowing in the SOL. In ITER, this fraction may be as high as 20-25%. The electrical energy generated in the SOL volume is liberated in the form of Joule heat in a relatively cold plasma in the vicinity of diverter plates or directly on these plates. (letter)

  8. Methods of Increasing Thermal Conductivity of Plasma Sprayed Tungsten-Based Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Iždinský, K.; Vondrouš, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 59, - (2009), s. 82-86 ISSN 1022-6680. [International Conference on New Materials for Extreme Environments/1st./. San Sebastian, 02.06.2008-04.06.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Extreme environments * fusion materials * plasma sprayed coatings * thermal conductivity Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  9. A method for sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for sintering, comprising in the following order the steps of: providing a body in the green state or in the pre-sintered state on a support; providing a load on at least one spacer on the support such that the load is located above said body in the green...

  10. Physics and applications of atmospheric non-thermal air plasma with reference to environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marode, E.; Djermoune, D.; Dessante, P.; Deniset, C.; Ségur, P.; Bastien, F.; Bourdon, A.; Laux, C.

    2009-12-01

    Since air is a natural part of our environment, special attention is given to the study of plasmas in air at atmospheric pressure and their applications. This fact promoted the study of electrical conduction in air-like mixtures, i.e. mixtures containing an electronegative gas component. If the ionization growth is not limited its temporal evolution leads to spark formation, i.e. a thermal plasma of several thousand kelvins in a quasi-local thermodynamic equilibrium state. But before reaching such a thermal state, a plasma sets up where the electrons increase their energy characterized by an electron temperature Te much higher than that of heavy species T or T+ for the ions. Since the plasma is no longer characterized by only one temperature T, it is said to be in a non-thermal plasma (NTP) state. Practical ways are listed to prevent electron ionization from going beyond the NTP states. Much understanding of such NTP may be gathered from the study of the simple paradigmatic case of a discharge induced between a sharp positively stressed point electrode facing a grounded negative plane electrode. Some physical properties will be gathered from such configurations and links underlined between these properties and some associated applications, mostly environmental. Aerosol filtration and electrostatic precipitators, pollution control by removal of hazardous species contained in flue gas exhaust, sterilization applications for medical purposes and triggering fuel combustion in vehicle motors are among such applications nowadays.

  11. Evaluation of Ash Toxicity Generated From the Thermal Plasma Pyrolysis of Used Automobile Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J. S.; Novog, D. R.; Jamal, S.

    1996-10-01

    The disposal of used tires represents a severe environmental problem. As the heat content of the rubber tires is even higher than that of coal it should be considered as a future source of alternate fuel for power generation. There have been attempts to burn old tires directly in cofired boilers for production of electricity. However, there are several environmental concerns since the combustion flue gas may contain a significant concentration heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cd, As, etc.). One technique currently being developed is the pyrolyzation of rubber tires by a thermal plasma to produce combustible gases. In this work, ashes generated during the plasma pyrolysis of used automobile tires using a DC Argon thermal plasma were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and produced syngas composition was analyzed by FT-IR.. The gas analysis indicates a significant quantity of combustible gases (CH4, C2H2, C2H4, CO, H2 etc..) was produced from the thermal plasma pyrolysis of used tires. The results also indicate that a majority of the heavy metals present in used tires were concentrated in the ashes deposited in reaction chamber wall and in the two-stage filtering system. Furthermore the heavy metal concentration decreases significantly with increasing distance from the plasma torch. Toxic components such as Zn, As and Cl were also collected in the filtering process.

  12. Sterilization effect of atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma on dental instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Su-Jin; Huh, Jung-Bo; Yun, Mi-Jung; Chang, Brian Myung W; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Jeon, Young-Chan

    2013-02-01

    Autoclaves and UV sterilizers have been commonly used to prevent cross-infections between dental patients and dental instruments or materials contaminated by saliva and blood. To develop a dental sterilizer which can sterilize most materials, such as metals, rubbers, and plastics, the sterilization effect of an atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma device was evaluated. After inoculating E. coli and B. subtilis the diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials were sterilized by exposing them to the plasma for different lengths of time (30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and, 240 seconds). The diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials were immersed in PBS solutions, cultured on agar plates and quantified by counting the colony forming units. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and significance was assessed by the LSD post hoc test (α=0.05). The device was effective in killing E. coli contained in the plasma device compared with the UV sterilizer. The atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma device contributed greatly to the sterilization of diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials inoculated with E. coli and B. subtilis. Diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials inoculated with E. coli was effective after 60 and 90 seconds. The diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials inoculated with B. subtilis was effective after 120 and 180 seconds. The atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma device was effective in killing both E. coli and B. subtilis, and was more effective in killing E. coli than the UV sterilizer.

  13. Synthesis of Core-shell Structured Amorphous Si Nanoparticles by Induction Thermal Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Daisuke; Kageyama, Takuya; Tanaka, Manabu; Sone, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Takayuki

    2015-09-01

    Core-shell structured amorphous Si nanoparticles were synthesized by induction thermal plasma. Crystalline Si powder with 3 μm of average diameter was injected into the induction thermal plasma at 4 MHz. The Si raw materials immediately evaporate in the high temperature plasma region and nanoparticles were produced through the quenching process. Counterflow quenching gas was injected from downstream of the torch with its direction against the plasma flow. The effect of the operating parameter such as flow rate of quenching gas and input power was investigated. Collected particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Obtained results indicate that amorphization degree of the synthesized nanoparticles is more than 90% when additional quenching gas of 20 L/min is injected. The quenching rate of the prepared nanoparticles in the growth region have an important role on determining the amorphization degree. Moreover, EELS and Raman analyses showed the synthesized nanoparticles were coated by the SiO2 shell with thickness of 2-4 nm. These findings indicated that amorphous Si/SiO2 core-shell structured nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by induction thermal plasma in single step.

  14. Self-organization process of a magnetohydrodynamic plasma in the presence of thermal conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Shao-ping; Horiuchi, Ritoku; Sato, Tetsuya; Watanabe, K.; Hayashi, T.; Todo, Y.; Watanabe, T.H.; Kageyama, A.; Takamaru, H.

    1995-12-01

    A self-organization process of a magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) plasma with a finite thermal conductivity is investigated by means of a three-dimensional MHD simulation. With no thermal conduction an MHD system self-organizes to a non-Taylor's state in which the electric current perpendicular to the magnetic field remains comparable to the parallel electric current. In the presence of thermal conductivity the perpendicular component of electric current and the nonuniformity of thermal pressure generated by driven reconnection tend to be smoothened. Thus, the self-organized state approaches to a force-free minimum energy state under the influence of thermal conduction. Detailed energy conversion processes are also studied to find that the rapid decay of magnetic energy during the self-organization process is caused not only through the ohmic heating, but also through the work done by the j x B force. (author)

  15. Half bridge resonant converter for ignition of thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena E, L.

    1997-01-01

    In this work the background, design, implementation and performance of a half bridge resonant converter (HBRC) used as an electronic ignition system for arc plasma torch generation is presented. The significance of the design lies in its simplicity, versatility and low cost. The system operates like a high voltage supply attached to electrodes before gaseous breakdown and like open circuit when electric arc is established. Resonant converter is implemented with a high voltage and high speed power driver intended for control the power MOSFET transistors connected in half bridge topology with L C load. The HBRC operates besides interference into domestic electric supply line (120 V, 60 Hz) as well electric measurement devices. Advantages and limitations of the converter are reviewed. Experimental impedance variation in the medium as a function of frequency operation and some experiences in striking arcs are also presented. (Author)

  16. Destruction studies of hazardous wastes by thermal plasma; Estudios de degradacion de residuos peligrosos mediante plasma termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota S, G

    1998-11-01

    Plasma technology appears promising because its high degree of controllability, capability to process waste without the adverse effects of combustion, and a very wide temperature range of operation. The goal of this work was to develop a process for a high throughput system to turn hazardous waste into inert stable products, which can be safely stored and to greatly reduce air pollution relative to incineration. The experiments have shown that the thermal plasma reactor can provide a high degree of decomposition of CCl{sub 4} , C{sub 6} H{sub 6}, C{sub 2} Cl{sub 4} and commercial oil at low gas input speeds, with modest power requirements. Decomposition of 99.9999 % has been obtained in our laboratory and all the organic components are decomposed in base molecules (C, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, HCl). The analysis of exhaust gases was made by using a mass filter quadrupole. The equipment consist of a cylindrical reactor hermetically sealed, double-walled and water-cooled container made of special steel, this container in halt the crucible which serves to receive the waste materials. The whole system is designed for a maximal internal temperature of 2000 Centigrade. The gaseous result components of the material are transferred to a scrubber unit through an exit arranged on the top of reactor. The thermal efficiency evaluation of the plasma torch was also realized, obtaining a reasonable agreement between measurements and predictions in temperature profiles. (Author)

  17. Novel fragmentation model for pulverized coal particles gasification in low temperature air thermal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Rastko D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New system for start-up and flame support based on coal gasification by low temperature air thermal plasma is planned to supplement current heavy oil system in Serbian thermal power plants in order to decrease air pollutions emission and operational costs. Locally introduced plasma thermal energy heats up and ignites entrained coal particles, thus starting chain process which releases heat energy from gasified coal particles inside burner channel. Important stages during particle combustion, such as particle devolatilisation and char combustion, are described with satisfying accuracy in existing commercial CFD codes that are extensively used as powerful tool for pulverized coal combustion and gasification modeling. However, during plasma coal gasification, high plasma temperature induces strong thermal stresses inside interacting coal particles. These stresses lead to “thermal shock” and extensive particle fragmentation during which coal particles with initial size of 50-100 m disintegrate into fragments of at most 5-10 m. This intensifies volatile release by a factor 3-4 and substantially accelerates the oxidation of combustible matter. Particle fragmentation, due to its small size and thus limited influence on combustion process is commonly neglected in modelling. The main focus of this work is to suggest novel approach to pulverized coal gasification under high temperature conditions and to implement it into commercial comprehensive code ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. Proposed model was validated against experimental data obtained in newly built pilot scale D.C plasma burner test facility. Newly developed model showed very good agreement with experimental results with relative error less than 10%, while the standard built-in gasification model had error up to 25%.

  18. Study of thermal and suprathermal electron density fluctuations in a plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolas, Alain.

    1982-02-01

    Thomson scattering of ruby laser light is used to study electron density fluctuations in a plasma Focus. One measures frequency and wavenumber spectra as well as angular distribution of fluctuations at given wavenumber. During the implosion phase, plasma layers with different characteristics are evidenced: a dense plasma layer where density fluctuations are isotropic with a thermal level, and a tenuous plasma layer where fluctuations are clearly anisotropic with a suprathermal level. The suprathermal fluctuations are attributed to microscopic instabilities due to the large electrical current which flows in the transition zone where the magnetic field mixes into the plasma. Thermal fluctuation measurements allow the determination of electron density and electron and ion temperatures of the dense layer plasma. One compares the observed characteristics of spectral components of suprathermal fluctuations with various types of known micro-instabilities. Relying on a simplified shock wave model it is deduced an average electrical resistivity greater than the classical Spitzer relation by two order of magnitudes. The lower hybrid drift instability appears to be dominant at the beginning of the implosion phase [fr

  19. Effect of heat treatment on the optical properties of perovskite BaZr0.5Ce0.3Y0.2O3-δ ceramic prepared by spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Bohang; Cheng, Zhi; Wang, Cao; Zhao, Zhe

    2017-09-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the in-line transmittance of BaZr0.5Ce0.3Y0.2O3-δ (BZCY532) ceramics prepared by spark plasma sintering method was investigated. The loss of Ba in transparent BZCY532 ceramics is the key reason for the loss of transmittance during the annealing process. This problem can be effectively alleviated by using a powder bed of BZCY532. Heat treatment atmospheres, wet air and dry air, were also found to be critical for obtaining high quality transparent ceramics. A highly transparent BZCY532 ceramic with the in-line transmittance (Tin) of 71.4% at 2000 nm can be obtained by using SPS method followed by an annealing in powder bed at 1500 °C in wet air.

  20. Radial thermal diffusivity of toroidal plasma affected by resonant magnetic perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ryutaro; Nunami, Masanori; Satake, Shinsuke; Takamaru, Hisanori; Okamoto, Masao

    2012-04-01

    We investigate how the radial thermal diffusivity of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma is modified by effect of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), using a drift kinetic simulation code for calculating the thermal diffusivity in the perturbed region. The perturbed region is assumed to be generated on and around the resonance surfaces, and is wedged in between the regular closed magnetic surfaces. It has been found that the radial thermal diffusivity χ r in the perturbed region is represented as χ r = χ r (0) {1 + c r parallel 2 >}. Here r parallel 2 > 1/2 is the strength of the RMPs in the radial directions, means the flux surface average defined by the unperturbed (i.e., original) magnetic field, χ r (0) is the neoclassical thermal diffusivity, and c is a positive coefficient. In this paper, dependence of the coefficient c on parameters of the toroidal plasma is studied in results given by the δ f simulation code solving the drift kinetic equation under an assumption of zero electric field. We find that the dependence of c is given as c ∝ ω b /ν eff m in the low collisionality regime ν eff b , where ν eff is the effective collision frequency, ω b is the bounce frequency and m is the particle mass. In case of ν eff > ω b , the thermal diffusivity χ r evaluated by the simulations becomes close to the neoclassical thermal diffusivity χ r (0) . (author)

  1. Thermal Conductivity and Erosion Durability of Composite Two-Phase Air Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael P.; Rai, Amarendra K.; Zhu, Dongming; Dorfman, Mitchell R.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    To enhance efficiency of gas turbines, new thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) must be designed which improve upon the thermal stability limit of 7 wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (7YSZ), approximately 1200 C. This tenant has led to the development of new TBC materials and microstructures capable of improved high temperature performance. This study focused on increasing the erosion durability of cubic zirconia based TBCs, traditionally less durable than the metastable t' zirconia based TBCs. Composite TBC microstructures composed of a low thermal conductivity/high temperature stable cubic Low-k matrix phase and a durable t' Low-k secondary phase were deposited via APS. Monolithic coatings composed of cubic Low-k and t' Low-k were also deposited, in addition to a 7YSZ benchmark. The thermal conductivity and erosion durability were then measured and it was found that both of the Low-k materials have significantly reduced thermal conductivities, with monolithic t' Low-k and cubic Low-k improving upon 7YSZ by approximately 13 and approximately 25%, respectively. The 40 wt% t' Low-k composite (40 wt% t' Low-k - 60 wt% cubic Low-k) showed a approximately 22% reduction in thermal conductivity over 7YSZ, indicating even at high levels, the t' Low-k secondary phase had a minimal impact on thermal in the composite coating. It was observed that a mere 20 wt% t' Low-k phase addition can reduce the erosion of a cubic Low-k matrix phase composite coating by over 37%. Various mixing rules were then investigated to assess this non-linear composite behavior and suggestions were made to further improve erosion durability.

  2. Recovery of Cu and valuable metals from E-waste using thermal plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrasinovic, Aleksandar; Pershin, Larry; Wen, John Z.; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2011-08-01

    A thermal plasma treatment was employed for economical recovery of valuable metals from e-waste. Cu-clad plates that simulated circuit boards were fed at the bottom of the reactor and treated with a plasma jet at temperatures between 385 and 840°C. Organic components of the Cu-clad plates were decomposed and contributed to the increased temperature of the offgas. Due to the low temperatures at the base of the reactor, the analyzed samples did not show losses characteristic for the plasma processes such as evaporation or metal oxidation. After plasma treatment, Cu foils were separated from the fiber glass and other solid residues allowing a complete recovery. Solid residues of the plates at the bottom of the reactor were crunched into small particles, allowing easy recycling or use as construction material.

  3. Removal of Elemental Mercury from a Gas Stream Facilitated by a Non-Thermal Plasma Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Mones

    2006-12-01

    Mercury generated from anthropogenic sources presents a difficult environmental problem. In comparison to other toxic metals, mercury has a low vaporization temperature. Mercury and mercury compounds are highly toxic, and organic forms such as methyl mercury can be bio-accumulated. Exposure pathways include inhalation and transport to surface waters. Mercury poisoning can result in both acute and chronic effects. Most commonly, chronic exposure to mercury vapor affects the central nervous system and brain, resulting in neurological damage. The CRE technology employs a series of non-thermal, plasma-jet devices to provide a method for elemental mercury removal from a gas phase by targeting relevant chemical reactions. The technology couples the known chemistry of converting elemental mercury to ionic compounds by mercury-chlorine-oxygen reactions with the generation of highly reactive species in a non-thermal, atmospheric, plasma device. The generation of highly reactive metastable species in a non-thermal plasma device is well known. The introduction of plasma using a jet-injection device provides a means to contact highly reactive species with elemental mercury in a manner to overcome the kinetic and mass-transfer limitations encountered by previous researchers. To demonstrate this technology, WRI has constructed a plasma test facility that includes plasma reactors capable of using up to four plasma jets, flow control instrumentation, an integrated control panel to operate the facility, a mercury generation system that employs a temperature controlled oven and permeation tube, combustible and mercury gas analyzers, and a ductless fume hood designed to capture fugitive mercury emissions. Continental Research and Engineering (CR&E) and Western Research Institute (WRI) successfully demonstrated that non-thermal plasma containing oxygen and chlorine-oxygen reagents could completely convert elemental mercury to an ionic form. These results demonstrate potential the

  4. Sintering of Lead-Free Piezoelectric Sodium Potassium Niobate Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Malič

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The potassium sodium niobate, K0.5Na0.5NbO3, solid solution (KNN is considered as one of the most promising, environment-friendly, lead-free candidates to replace highly efficient, lead-based piezoelectrics. Since the first reports of KNN, it has been recognized that obtaining phase-pure materials with a high density and a uniform, fine-grained microstructure is a major challenge. For this reason the present paper reviews the different methods for consolidating KNN ceramics. The difficulties involved in the solid-state synthesis of KNN powder, i.e., obtaining phase purity, the stoichiometry of the perovskite phase, and the chemical homogeneity, are discussed. The solid-state sintering of stoichiometric KNN is characterized by poor densification and an extremely narrow sintering-temperature range, which is close to the solidus temperature. A study of the initial sintering stage revealed that coarsening of the microstructure without densification contributes to a reduction of the driving force for sintering. The influences of the (K + Na/Nb molar ratio, the presence of a liquid phase, chemical modifications (doping, complex solid solutions and different atmospheres (i.e., defect chemistry on the sintering are discussed. Special sintering techniques, such as pressure-assisted sintering and spark-plasma sintering, can be effective methods for enhancing the density of KNN ceramics. The sintering behavior of KNN is compared to that of a representative piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT.

  5. Sintering of Lead-Free Piezoelectric Sodium Potassium Niobate Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malič, Barbara; Koruza, Jurij; Hreščak, Jitka; Bernard, Janez; Wang, Ke; Fisher, John G.; Benčan, Andreja

    2015-01-01

    The potassium sodium niobate, K0.5Na0.5NbO3, solid solution (KNN) is considered as one of the most promising, environment-friendly, lead-free candidates to replace highly efficient, lead-based piezoelectrics. Since the first reports of KNN, it has been recognized that obtaining phase-pure materials with a high density and a uniform, fine-grained microstructure is a major challenge. For this reason the present paper reviews the different methods for consolidating KNN ceramics. The difficulties involved in the solid-state synthesis of KNN powder, i.e., obtaining phase purity, the stoichiometry of the perovskite phase, and the chemical homogeneity, are discussed. The solid-state sintering of stoichiometric KNN is characterized by poor densification and an extremely narrow sintering-temperature range, which is close to the solidus temperature. A study of the initial sintering stage revealed that coarsening of the microstructure without densification contributes to a reduction of the driving force for sintering. The influences of the (K + Na)/Nb molar ratio, the presence of a liquid phase, chemical modifications (doping, complex solid solutions) and different atmospheres (i.e., defect chemistry) on the sintering are discussed. Special sintering techniques, such as pressure-assisted sintering and spark-plasma sintering, can be effective methods for enhancing the density of KNN ceramics. The sintering behavior of KNN is compared to that of a representative piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT). PMID:28793702

  6. Sintering of silicon nitride ceramics with magnesium silicon nitride and yttrium oxide as sintering aids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, J; Xu, J Y [Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 200235 (China); Peng, G H [Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004, Guangxi (China); Zhuang, H R; Li, W L; Xu, S Y [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Mao, Y J, E-mail: guojianjiang@sit.edu.cn [Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2011-10-29

    Silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) ceramics had been produced through pressureless sintering and hot-pressing sintering with MgSiN{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} or only MgSiN{sub 2} as sintering aids. The influences of the amount of MgSiN{sub 2} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and sintering methods on the properties of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramics were investigated. The results show that the bend strength of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic fabricated through pressureless sintering at 1820 deg. C for 4 h with 5.6 wt.% MgSiN{sub 2}-15.8 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as sintering additive could achieve 839 MPa. However, the bend strength of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic produced by hot-pressing sintering at 1750 deg. C for 1 h under uniaxial pressure of 20 MPa with 4.76 wt.% MgSiN{sub 2} was 1149 MPa. The thermal conductivity of the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic 2 3 4 could reach to 129 W{center_dot}m{sup -1{center_dot}}K{sup 1}. The present work demonstrated that MgSiN{sub 2} aids and hot-pressing sintering were effective to improve the thermal conductivity of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic.

  7. Energy and costs scoping study for plasma pyrolysis thermal processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherick, K.E.; Findley, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide information in support of an investigation of thermal technologies as possible treatment process for buried wastes at the INEL. Material and energy balances and a cost estimate were generated for a representative plasma torch-based thermal waste treatment system operating in a pyrolysis mode. Two waste streams were selected which are representative of INEL buried wastes, large in volume, and difficult to treat by other technologies. These streams were a solidified nitrate sludge waste stream and a waste/soil mix of other buried waste components. The treatment scheme selected includes a main plasma chamber operating under pyrolyzing conditions; a plasma afterburner to provide additional residence time at high temperature to ensure complete destruction of hazardous organics; an off-gas treatment system; and a incinerator and stack to oxidize carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and vent the clean, oxidized gases to atmosphere. The material balances generated provide materials flow and equipment duty information of sufficient accuracy to generate initial rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) system capital and operating cost estimates for a representative plasma thermal processing system

  8. Sintering of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillat, R.; Pointud, R.

    1955-01-01

    This study had for origin to find a process permitting to manufacture bricks of beryllium oxide of pure nuclear grade, with a density as elevated as possible and with standardized shape. The sintering under load was the technique kept for the manufacture of the bricks. Because of the important toxicity of the beryllium oxide, the general features for the preliminary study of the sintering, have been determined while using alumina. The obtained results will be able to act as general indication for ulterior studies with sintering under load. (M.B.) [fr

  9. Failure modes of vacuum plasma spray tungsten coating created on carbon fibre composites under thermal loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, T., E-mail: takeshi.hirai@iter.or [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Forschungszentrum Juelich EURATOM-Association, FZJ, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Bekris, N. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); EFDA CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Coad, J.P. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Culham Science Centre, EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Grisolia, C. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache DSM/DRFC, F-13108, St-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Linke, J. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Forschungszentrum Juelich EURATOM-Association, FZJ, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Maier, H. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Matthews, G.F. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Culham Science Centre, EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Philipps, V.; Wessel, E. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Forschungszentrum Juelich EURATOM-Association, FZJ, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Vacuum plasma spray tungsten (VPS-W) coating created on a carbon fibre reinforced composite (CFC) was tested under two thermal load schemes in the electron beam facility to examine the operation limits and failure modes. In cyclic ELM-like short transient thermal loads, the VPS-W coating was destroyed sub-layer by sub-layer at 0.33 GW/m{sup 2} for 1 ms pulse duration. At longer single pulses, simulating steady-state thermal loads, the coating was destroyed at surface temperatures above 2700 deg. C by melting of the rhenium containing multilayer at the interface between VPS-W and CFC. The operation limits and failure modes of the VPS-W coating in the thermal load schemes are discussed in detail.

  10. Enhanced thermal photon and dilepton production in strongly coupled = 4 SYM plasma in strong magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Kiminad A.

    2013-08-01

    We calculate the DC conductivity tensor of strongly coupled = 4 super-Yang-Mills (SYM) plasma in a presence of a strong external magnetic field B ≫ T 2 by using its gravity dual and employing both the RG flow approach and membrane paradigm which give the same results. We find that, since the magnetic field B induces anisotropy in the plasma, different components of the DC conductivity tensor have different magnitudes depending on whether its components are in the direction of the magnetic field B. In particular, we find that a component of the DC conductivity tensor in the direction of the magnetic field B increases linearly with B while the other components (which are not in the direction of the magnetic field B) are independent of it. These results are consistent with the lattice computations of the DC conductivity tensor of the QCD plasma in an external magnetic field B. Using the DC conductivity tensor, we calculate the soft or low-frequency thermal photon and dilepton production rates of the strongly coupled = 4 SYM plasma in the presence of the strong external magnetic field B ≫ T 2. We find that the strong magnetic field B enhances both the thermal photon and dilepton production rates of the strongly coupled = 4 SYM plasma in a qualitative agreement with the experimentally observed enhancements at the heavy-ion collision experiments.

  11. Atmospheric non-thermal argon-oxygen plasma for sunflower seedling growth improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matra, Khanit

    2018-01-01

    Seedling growth enhancement of sunflower seeds by DC atmospheric non-thermal Ar-O2 plasma has been proposed. The plasma reactor was simply designed by the composition of multi-pin electrodes bonded on a solderable printed circuit board (PCB) anode. A stable plasma was exhibited in the non-periodical self-pulsing discharge mode during the seed treatment. The experimental results showed that non-thermal plasma treatment had a significant positive effect on the sunflower seeds. Ar-O2 mixed gas ratio, treatment time and power source voltage are the important parameters affecting growth stimulation of sunflower sprouts. In this research, the sunflower seeds treated with 3:3 liters per minute (LPM) of Ar-O2 plasma at a source voltage of 8 kV for 1 min showed the best results in stimulating the seedling growth. The results in this case showed that the dry weight and average shoot length of the sunflower sprouts were 1.79 and 2.69 times higher and heavier than those of the untreated seeds, respectively.

  12. Thermal fluctuation levels of magnetic and electric fields in unmagnetized plasma: The rigorous relativistic kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, P. H.; Schlickeiser, R.; Kolberg, U.

    2014-01-01

    Any fully ionized collisionless plasma with finite random particle velocities contains electric and magnetic field fluctuations. The fluctuations can be of three different types: weakly damped, weakly propagating, or aperiodic. The kinetics of these fluctuations in general unmagnetized plasmas, governed by the competition of spontaneous emission, absorption, and stimulated emission processes, is investigated, extending the well-known results for weakly damped fluctuations. The generalized Kirchhoff radiation law for both collective and noncollective fluctuations is derived, which in stationary plasmas provides the equilibrium energy densities of electromagnetic fluctuations by the ratio of the respective spontaneous emission coefficient and the true absorption coefficient. As an illustrative example, the equilibrium energy densities of aperiodic transverse collective electric and magnetic fluctuations in an isotropic thermal electron-proton plasmas of density n e are calculated as |δB|=√((δB) 2 )=2.8(n e m e c 2 ) 1/2 g 1/2 β e 7/4 and |δE|=√((δE) 2 )=3.2(n e m e c 2 ) 1/2 g 1/3 β e 2 , where g and β e denote the plasma parameter and the thermal electron velocity in units of the speed of light, respectively. For densities and temperatures of the reionized early intergalactic medium, |δB|=6·10 −18 G and |δE|=2·10 −16 G result

  13. Thermal Properties of Carbon Nanotube–Copper Composites for Thermal Management Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Chengchang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon nanotube–copper (CNT/Cu composites have been successfully synthesized by means of a novel particles-compositing process followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS technique. The thermal conductivity of the composites was measured by a laser flash technique and theoretical analyzed using an effective medium approach. The experimental results showed that the thermal conductivity unusually decreased after the incorporation of CNTs. Theoretical analyses revealed that the interfacial thermal resistance between the CNTs and the Cu matrix plays a crucial role in determining the thermal conductivity of bulk composites, and only small interfacial thermal resistance can induce a significant degradation in thermal conductivity for CNT/Cu composites. The influence of sintering condition on the thermal conductivity depended on the combined effects of multiple factors, i.e. porosity, CNTs distribution and CNT kinks or twists. The composites sintered at 600°C for 5 min under 50 MPa showed the maximum thermal conductivity. CNT/Cu composites are considered to be a promising material for thermal management applications.

  14. Sintering behavior of LZSA glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rubem Klegues Montedo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The LZSA glass-ceramic system (Li2O-ZrO2-SiO2-Al2O 3 shows interesting properties, such as good chemical resistance, low thermal expansion, high abrasion resistance, and a low dielectric constant. However, in order to obtain a high performance material for specific applications, the sintering behavior must be better understood so that the porosity may be reduced and other properties improved. In this context, a sintering investigation for a specific LZSA glass-ceramic system composition was carried out. A 18.8Li2O-8.3ZrO2-64.2SiO2-8.7Al 2O3 glass was prepared by melting the solids, quenching the melt in water, and grinding the resulting solid in order to obtain a powder (3.68 μm average particle diameter. Subsequently, the glass powder was characterized (chemical analysis and determination of thermal properties and the sintering behavior was investigated using optical non-contact dilatometry measurements. The results showed that the crystallization process strongly reduced the sintering in the temperature interval from 785 to 940 °C, and a maximum thermal shrinkage of 15.4% was obtained with operating conditions of 1020 °C and 180 minutes.

  15. The thermalization of soft modes in non-expanding isotropic quark gluon plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaizot, Jean-Paul, E-mail: jean-paul.blaizot@cea.fr [Institut de Physique Théorique, CNRS/UMR 3681, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Liao, Jinfeng [Physics Department and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 N Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Mehtar-Tani, Yacine [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1550 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    We discuss the role of elastic and inelastic collisions and their interplay in the thermalization of the quark–gluon plasma. We consider a simplified situation of a static plasma, spatially uniform and isotropic in momentum space. We focus on the small momentum region, which equilibrates first, and on a short time scale. We obtain a simple kinetic equation that allows for an analytic description of the most important regimes. The present analysis suggests that the formation of a Bose condensate, expected when only elastic collisions are present, is strongly hindered by the inelastic, radiative, processes.

  16. Field-enhanced electrodes for additive-injection non-thermal plasma (NTP) processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosocha, Louis A [Los Alamos, NM; Ferreri, Vincent [Westminster, CO; Kim, Yongho [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-04-21

    The present invention comprises a field enhanced electrode package for use in a non-thermal plasma processor. The field enhanced electrode package includes a high voltage electrode and a field-enhancing electrode with a dielectric material layer disposed in-between the high voltage electrode and the field-enhancing electrode. The field-enhancing electrode features at least one raised section that includes at least one injection hole that allows plasma discharge streamers to occur primarily within an injected additive gas.

  17. IAEA consultants' meeting on thermal response of plasma facing materials and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janev, R.K.

    1990-07-01

    The present Summary Report contains brief proceedings and the main conclusions and recommendations of the IAEA Consultants' Meeting on ''Thermal Response of Plasma Facing Materials and Components'', which was organized by the IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit and held on June 11-13, 1990, in Vienna, Austria. The Report also includes a categorization and assessment of currently studied plasma facing materials, a classification scheme of material properties data, required in fusion reactor design, and a survey of the urgently needed material properties data. (author)

  18. Study of the thermal effect on silicon surface induced by ion beam from plasma focus device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Z., E-mail: pscientific5@aec.org.sy [Scientific Service Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box: 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Ahmad, M. [IBA Laboratory, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box: 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box: 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Al-Hawat, Sh.; Akel, M. [Physics Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box: 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2017-04-01

    Structural modifications in form of ripples and cracks are induced by nitrogen ions from plasma focus on silicon surface. The investigation of such structures reveals correlation between ripples and cracks formation in peripheral region of the melt spot. The reason of such correlation and structure formation is explained as result of thermal effect. Melting and resolidification of the center of irradiated area occur within one micro second of time. This is supported by a numerical simulation used to investigate the thermal effect induced by the plasma focus ion beams on the silicon surface. This simulation provides information about the temperature profile as well as the dynamic of the thermal propagation in depth and lateral directions. In accordance with the experimental observations, that ripples are formed in latter stage after the arrival of last ion, the simulation shows that the thermal relaxation takes place in few microseconds after the end of the ion beam arrival. Additionally, the dependency of thermal propagation and relaxation on the distance of the silicon surface from the anode is presented.

  19. Synthesis of low carbon boron carbide powder using a minimal time processing route: Thermal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinna Mishra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron carbide powder was synthesized by thermal plasma reduction of boric acid in presence of graphite with a very minimal processing time. Subsequently, the as-synthesized products were leached to minimize the impurities content. Based on the results of X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, the effect of leaching on phase purity and crystallinity was studied. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was performed to identify the chemical composition which highlighted the absence of the BO bonding in the deconvoluted B 1s core-level spectrum. Finally, the temperature dependent thermal conductivity behavior of the leached materials was analyzed and presented.

  20. Fundamental limitations of non-thermal plasma processing for internal combustion engine NOx control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrante, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the physics and chemistry of non-thermal plasma processing for post-combustion NO x control in internal combustion engines. A comparison of electron beam and electrical discharge processing is made regarding their power consumption, radical production, NO x removal mechanisms, and by product formation. Can non-thermal deNO x operate efficiently without additives or catalysts? How much electrical power does it cost to operate? What are the by-products of the process? This paper addresses these fundamental issues based on an analysis of the electron-molecule processes and chemical kinetics