WorldWideScience

Sample records for thermal plant power

  1. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnatbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  2. AND THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alduhov Oleg Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the atmospheric dispersion as part of the process of selection of sites to accommodate nuclear and thermal power plants is performed to identify concentration fields of emissions and to assess the anthropogenic impact produced on the landscape components and human beings. Scattering properties of the atmospheric boundary layer are mainly determined by the turbulence intensity and the wind field. In its turn, the turbulence intensity is associated with the thermal stratification of the boundary layer. Therefore, research of the atmospheric dispersion is reduced to the study of temperature and wind patterns of the boundary layer. Statistical processing and analysis of the upper-air data involves the input of the data collected by upper-air stations. Until recently, the upper-air data covering the standard period between 1961 and 1970 were applied for these purposes, although these data cannot assure sufficient reliability of assessments in terms of the properties of the atmospheric dispersion. However, recent scientific and technological developments make it possible to substantially increase the data coverage by adding the upper-air data collected within the period between 1964 and 2010. The article has a brief overview of BL_PROGS, a specialized software package designated for the processing of the above data. The software package analyzes the principal properties of the atmospheric dispersion. The use of the proposed software package requires preliminary development of a database that has the information collected by an upper-air station. The software package is noteworthy for the absence of any substantial limitations imposed onto the amount of the input data that may go up in proportion to the amount of the upper-air data collected by upper-air stations.

  3. Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the reliability and availability of power plants is frequently based on simple indexes that do not take into account the criticality of some failures used for availability analysis. This criticality should be evaluated based on concepts of reliability which consider the effect of a component failure on the performance of the entire plant. System reliability analysis tools provide a root-cause analysis leading to the improvement of the plant maintenance plan.   Taking in view that the power plant performance can be evaluated not only based on  thermodynamic related indexes, such as heat-rate, Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis focuses on the presentation of reliability-based tools used to define performance of complex systems and introduces the basic concepts of reliability, maintainability and risk analysis aiming at their application as tools for power plant performance improvement, including: ·         selection of critical equipment and components, ·         defini...

  4. Thermal power plant design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Dipak

    2015-01-01

    Thermal Power Plant: Design and Operation deals with various aspects of a thermal power plant, providing a new dimension to the subject, with focus on operating practices and troubleshooting, as well as technology and design. Its author has a 40-long association with thermal power plants in design as well as field engineering, sharing his experience with professional engineers under various training capacities, such as training programs for graduate engineers and operating personnel. Thermal Power Plant presents practical content on coal-, gas-, oil-, peat- and biomass-fueled thermal power

  5. Cooling towers for thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaboseau, J.

    1987-01-01

    After a brief recall on cooling towers testing and construction, this paper presents four examples of very large French nuclear power plant cooling towers, and one of an Australian thermal power plant [fr

  6. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistner, Rainer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Price, Henry W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1999-04-14

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier’s perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies.

  7. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Henry W.; Kistner, Rainer

    1999-01-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  8. Financing solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistner, R.; Price, H.

    1999-01-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been built following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply states, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects form the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  9. Thermal power plants and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Recent versions of the air quality models which are reviewed and approved from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are analysed in favour of their application in simple and complex terrain, different meteorological conditions and modifications in the sources of pollutant emissions. Improvement of the standard methods for analysis of the risks affecting the environment from different energy sources has been carried out. The application of the newly introduced model enabled (lead to performing) risk analysis of the coal power plants compared to other types of energy sources. Detailed investigation of the risk assessment and perception from coal power plants, has been performed and applied to the Macedonian coal power plants. Introducing the concept of 'psychological pollution', a modification of the standard models and programs for risk assessment from various energy sources has been suggested (proposed). The model has been applied to REK Bitola, where statistically relevant differences in relation to the control groups have been obtained. (Original)

  10. Availability of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitsch, D.; Schmitz, H.

    1981-01-01

    Availability data based on unique uniform, and clearly defined concepts and methods of acquisition have been compiled by the VGB since 1970. The data are published in anual reports. These reports contain availability data of fossil-fuelled units, combined gas/steam units, nuclear power plants, and gas turbine plants in Germany and abroad, listed by unit size fuel type, time of operation, and application. For the purpose of comparison, the data for the years since 1970 are presented as well as data averaged for the whole period under report. The main results for the year 1980 are presented now that the greater part of the plants has been evaluated. The complete evaluation will be published towards the end of 1981. (orig.) [de

  11. Thermal power plant efficiency enhancement with Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, Rodrigo; Vergara, Julio

    2014-01-01

    In addition to greenhouse gas emissions, coastal thermal power plants would gain further opposition due to their heat rejection distressing the local ecosystem. Therefore, these plants need to enhance their thermal efficiency while reducing their environmental offense. In this study, a hybrid plant based on the principle of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion was coupled to a 740 MW coal-fired power plant project located at latitude 28°S where the surface to deepwater temperature difference would not suffice for regular OTEC plants. This paper presents the thermodynamical model to assess the overall efficiency gained by adopting an ammonia Rankine cycle plus a desalinating unit, heated by the power plant condenser discharge and refrigerated by cold deep seawater. The simulation allowed us to optimize a system that would finally enhance the plant power output by 25–37 MW, depending on the season, without added emissions while reducing dramatically the water temperature at discharge and also desalinating up to 5.8 million tons per year. The supplemental equipment was sized and the specific emissions reduction was estimated. We believe that this approach would improve the acceptability of thermal and nuclear power plant projects regardless of the plant location. -- Highlights: • An Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion hybrid plant was designed. • The waste heat of a power plant was delivered as an OTEC heat source. • The effect of size and operating conditions on plant efficiency were studied. • The OTEC implementation in a Chilean thermal power plant was evaluated. • The net efficiency of the thermal power plant was increased by 1.3%

  12. Environmental effects of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlitzky, M.; Friedrich, R.; Unger, H.

    1986-02-01

    Reviewing critically the present literature, the effects of thermal power plants on the environment are studied. At first, the loads of the different power plant types are compiled. With regard to the effects of emission reduction proceedings the pollutant emissions are quantified. The second chapter shows the effects on the ecological factors, which could be caused by the most important emission components of thermal power plants. Where it is possible, relations between immissions respectively depositions and their effects on climate, man, flora, fauna and materials will be given. This shows that many effects depend strongly on the local landscape, climate and use of natural resources. Therefore, it appears efficient to ascertain different load limits. The last chapter gives a suggestion for an ecological compatibility test (ECT) of thermal power plants. In modular form the ECT deals with the emission fields, waste heat, pollution burden of air and water, noise, loss of area and aesthetical aspects. Limits depending on local conditions and use of area will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. Tasks of a power engineer in future thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freymeyer, P.; Scherschmidt, F.

    1982-01-01

    Today already the power plants provide plenty of tasks and problems to the electrical engineer in the fields of power and conductive engineering. A completely new orientation of power engineering leads to larger, more complex system and even to systems unknown so far. In conductive engineering entirely new solutions have come in view. There are a lot of interesting topics for the electrical engineer in the rearrangement and advance into virgin territory of thermal power plants. (orig.) [de

  14. Availability Performance Analysis of Thermal Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangu, Navneet Singh; Singh, Rupinder; Pahuja, G. L.

    2018-03-01

    This case study presents the availability evaluation method of thermal power plants for conducting performance analysis in Indian environment. A generic availability model has been proposed for a maintained system (thermal plants) using reliability block diagrams and fault tree analysis. The availability indices have been evaluated under realistic working environment using inclusion exclusion principle. Four year failure database has been used to compute availability for different combinatory of plant capacity, that is, full working state, reduced capacity or failure state. Availability is found to be very less even at full rated capacity (440 MW) which is not acceptable especially in prevailing energy scenario. One of the probable reason for this may be the difference in the age/health of existing thermal power plants which requires special attention of each unit from case to case basis. The maintenance techniques being used are conventional (50 years old) and improper in context of the modern equipment, which further aggravate the problem of low availability. This study highlights procedure for finding critical plants/units/subsystems and helps in deciding preventive maintenance program.

  15. Environmental protection in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This workbook is a compilation of the most important facts and data that are relevant today for environmental protection in thermal power plants. Unlike the other issues the text is not in the form of a random collection of data but in the form of a complete presentation. Possible elaboration projects for pupils can be easily derived from the individual sections. These deal with: the discussion about environmental protection; forest decline; sources of emission; nuisances in the Federal Republic of Germany; environmental protection in fossil-fuel power plants - clean air - cooling water utilization and water protection - noise; environmental protection in nuclear power plants - radioactive material produced in nuclear reactors and the retention of such materials - radioactive waste materials - monitoring of radioactive emissions; accessory materials and hints. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. Joint excitation and reactive power control in thermal power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragosavac Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordinated voltage and reactive power controller, designed for the thermal power plant, is presented in the paper. A brief explanation of the need for such device is given and justification for commissioning of such equipment is outlined. After short description of the theoretical background of the proposed control design, the achieved features of the commissioned equipment are fully given. Achieved performances are illustrated by recorded reactive power and bus voltage responses after commissioning of the described equipment into the largest thermal power plant in Serbia. As it can be seen in presented records, all design targets are met.

  17. Availability statistics for thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Denmark, Finland and Sweden have adopted almost the same methods of recording and calculation of availability data. For a number of years comparable availability and outage data for thermal power have been summarized and published in one report. The purpose of the report now presented for 1989 containing general statistical data is to produce basic information on existing kinds of thermal power in the countries concerned. With this information as a basis additional and more detailed information can be exchanged in direct contacts between bodies in the above mentioned countries according to forms established for that purpose. The report includes fossil steam power, nuclear power and gas turbines. The information is presented in separate diagrams for each country, but for plants burning fossil fuel also in a joint NORDEL statistics with data grouped according to type of fuel used. The grouping of units into classes of capacity has been made in accordance with the classification adopted by UNIPEDE/WEC. Values based on energy have been adopted as basic availability data. The same applies to the preference made in the definitions outlined by UNIPEDE and UNIPEDE/WEC. Some data based on time have been included to make possible comparisons with certain international values and for further illustration of the performance. For values given in the report, the definitions in the NORDEL document ''Concepts of Availability for Thermal Power, September 1977'', have been applied. (author)

  18. Thermal power plants and acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ataman, Eleonora

    1990-01-01

    The slow acidification of the environment and the frequent occurrence of the precipitation with pH lower than 5.6 over areas continuously extending are caused by the pollutant releases, especially SO 2 and NO x from anthropic sources. There is a relationship between the SO 2 release from the high stacks of thermal power plants and the long-range transfrontier pollution. The most efficient method to avoid damage on environment is to reduce the releases from stationary and mobile sources. (author)

  19. Availability statistics for thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Denmark, Finland and Sweden have adopted almost the same methods of recording and calculation of availability data. For a number of years comparable availability and outage data for thermal power have been summarized and published in one report. The purpose of the report now presented for 1990 containing general statistical data is to produce basic information on existing kinds of thermal power in the countries concerned. With this information as a basis additional and more detailed information can be exchanged in direct contacts between bodies in the above mentioned countries according to forms established for that purpose. The report includes fossil steam power, nuclear power and gas turbines. The information is presented in separate diagrams for each country, but for plants burning fossil fuel also in a joint NORDEL statistics with data grouped according to type of fuel used. The grouping of units into classes of capacity has been made in accordance with the classification adopted by UNIPEDE/WEC. Values based on energy have been adopted as basic availability data. The same applied to the preference made in the definitions outlined by UNIPEDE and UNIPEDE/WEC. Some data based on time have been included to make possible comparisons with certain international values and for futher illustration of the performance. (au)

  20. Emission Control Technologies for Thermal Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihalani, S. A.; Mishra, Y.; Juremalani, J.

    2018-03-01

    Coal thermal power plants are one of the primary sources of artificial air emissions, particularly in a country like India. Ministry of Environment and Forests has proposed draft regulation for emission standards in coal-fired power plants. This includes significant reduction in sulphur-dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and mercury emissions. The first step is to evaluate the technologies which represent the best selection for each power plant based on its configuration, fuel properties, performance requirements, and other site-specific factors. This paper will describe various technology options including: Flue Gas Desulfurization System, Spray Dryer Absorber (SDA), Circulating Dry Scrubber (CDS), Limestone-based Wet FGD, Low NOX burners, Selective Non Catalytic Reduction, Electrostatic Precipitator, Bag House Dust Collector, all of which have been evaluated and installed extensively to reduce SO2, NOx, PM and other emissions. Each control technology has its advantages and disadvantages. For each of the technologies considered, major features, potential operating and maintenance cost impacts, as well as key factors that contribute to the selection of one technology over another are discussed here.

  1. Radioactive emission from thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, K [New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia). Dept. of Applied Mathematics

    1981-07-01

    Radioactive hazards of the emissions and wastes of thermal power plants arising from fuel impurities of uranium and thorium are discussed. The hazard due to radioactive emission is calculated for an average Australian bituminous coal which contains 2 ppm of U and 2.7 ppm of Th. When the dust removal efficiency of a coal-fired power plant is 99%, the radioactive hazard is greater than that of a nuclear reactor of the same electrical output. After 500 years the radioactive toxicity of the coal waste will be higher than that of fission products of a nuclear reactor and after 2,000 years it will exceed the toxicity of all the nuclear wastes including actinides. The results of a recent calculation are shown, according to which the radioactive hazard of a coal-fired power plant to the public is from several hundred to several tens of thousands of times higher than that of a total fuel cycle of plutonium. It is found that in some regions, such as Japan, the hazard due to /sup 210/Po through seafood could be considerable.

  2. International technologies market for coal thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports a general framework of potential market of clean coal combustion technologies in thermal power plants, specially for commercialization and market penetration in developing countries [it

  3. Modelling and simulation of thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eborn, J.

    1998-02-01

    Mathematical modelling and simulation are important tools when dealing with engineering systems that today are becoming increasingly more complex. Integrated production and recycling of materials are trends that give rise to heterogenous systems, which are difficult to handle within one area of expertise. Model libraries are an excellent way to package engineering knowledge of systems and units to be reused by those who are not experts in modelling. Many commercial packages provide good model libraries, but they are usually domain-specific and closed. Heterogenous, multi-domain systems requires open model libraries written in general purpose modelling languages. This thesis describes a model database for thermal power plants written in the object-oriented modelling language OMOLA. The models are based on first principles. Subunits describe volumes with pressure and enthalpy dynamics and flows of heat or different media. The subunits are used to build basic units such as pumps, valves and heat exchangers which can be used to build system models. Several applications are described; a heat recovery steam generator, equipment for juice blending, steam generation in a sulphuric acid plant and a condensing steam plate heat exchanger. Model libraries for industrial use must be validated against measured data. The thesis describes how parameter estimation methods can be used for model validation. Results from a case-study on parameter optimization of a non-linear drum boiler model show how the technique can be used 32 refs, 21 figs

  4. Efficiency improvement of thermal coal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourfar, D. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr Ag, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The discussion concerning an increase of the natural greenhouse effect by anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere has increased over the past years. The greenhouse effect has become an issue of worldwide debate. Carbon dioxide is the most serious emission of the greenhouse gases. Fossil-fired power plants have in the recent past been responsible for almost 30 % of the total CO{sub 2} emissions in Germany. Against this background the paper will describe the present development of CO{sub 2} emissions from power stations and present actual and future opportunities for CO{sub 2} reduction. The significance attached to hard coal as one of today`s prime sources of energy with the largest reserves worldwide, and, consequently, its importance for use in power generation, is certain to increase in the years to come. The further development of conventional power plant technology, therefore, is vital, and must be carried out on the basis of proven operational experience. The main incentive behind the development work completed so far has been, and continues to be, the achievement of cost reductions and environmental benefits in the generation of electricity by increasing plant efficiency, and this means that, in both the short and the long term, power plants with improved conventional technology will be used for environmentally acceptable coal-fired power generation.

  5. Energy saving and consumption reducing evaluation of thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiu; Han, Miaomiao

    2018-03-01

    At present, energy saving and consumption reduction require energy saving and consumption reduction measures for thermal power plant, establishing an evaluation system for energy conservation and consumption reduction is instructive for the whole energy saving work of thermal power plant. By analysing the existing evaluation system of energy conservation and consumption reduction, this paper points out that in addition to the technical indicators of power plant, market activities should also be introduced in the evaluation of energy saving and consumption reduction in power plant. Ttherefore, a new evaluation index of energy saving and consumption reduction is set up and the example power plant is calculated in this paper. Rresults show that after introducing the new evaluation index of energy saving and consumption reduction, the energy saving effect of the power plant can be judged more comprehensively, so as to better guide the work of energy saving and consumption reduction in power plant.

  6. Techno-economic design optimization of solar thermal power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, G.

    2011-01-01

    A holistic view is essential in the engineering of technical systems. This thesis presents an integrative approach for designing solar thermal power plants. The methodology is based on a techno-economic plant model and a powerful optimization algorithm. Typically, contemporary design methods treat technical and economic parameters and sub-systems separately, making it difficult or even impossible to realize the full optimization potential of power plant systems. The approach presented here ov...

  7. Process control and monitoring system: Thermal Power Plant Gacko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeremovic, Dragan; Skoko, Maksim; Gjokanovic, Zdravko

    2004-01-01

    DCS Ovation system, manufactured by Westinghouse, USA, is described in this paper. Emphasize on concept of realization and basic characteristic in Thermal Power Plant Gacko is given in this paper. The most important, noticed by now, comparative effects and performances of new monitoring and control system according to classical monitoring and control system of 300 MW units Thermal Power Plant Gacko in Gacko, are given in the conclusion. (Author)

  8. Advanced concrete structures for thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerna, W.

    1982-01-01

    The author begins with an overview on the various types of power plants depending on the fuel used in them and then in particular deals with the reinforced concrete structures. Especially for reactor buildings and prestressed concrete pressure vessels concrete is the appropriate material. The methods of construction are described as a function of load and operation. Safety requirements brought new load types for such structures as e.g. airplane crash, internal pressure caused by pipe rupture. Dimensioning is done by means of nonlinear dynamical methods of calculation accounting for plasticizing. These methods are explained. Further the constructional principles of high natural-draft cooling towers are mentioned. (orig.) [de

  9. Japanese aquaculture with thermal water from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, T.

    1977-01-01

    The present level of thermal aquaculture, utilizing thermal water which is waste cooling water from nuclear power plant, in Japan is reported. There are 13 major potential areas for thermal aquaculture in cooperation with conventional type thermal power plants, seven of which are actually operating. Aquaculture facilities of all these are on land, none in the sea. Of these seven centers, those that have already commercialized their nursery methods or are approaching that stage of research and development, are Tohoku Hatsuden Kogyo Ltd., Tsuruga Hama Land Ltd. and Kyushu Rinsan Ltd. Major problems faced specialists in Japanese thermal aquaculture are water temperature, water quality, radioactivity and costs. For keeping the water temperature constant all seasons, cooling or heating by natural sea water may be used. Even negligible amounts of radioactivity that nuclear power plants release into the sea will concentrate in the systems of marine life. A strict precautionary checking routine is used to detect radioactivity in marine life. (Kobatake, H.)

  10. French studies on the thermal effluents of electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezes-Cadiere, H.

    1976-01-01

    This report presents a synthesis of studies made in France in the thermal effluent field: thermal power plant cooling systems, transfer and dispersion of thermal effluents in the receptive media, effects of thermal effluents on water physicochemistry and biochemistry, effects of thermal effluents on aquatic ecosystems, and, possibilities of waste heat recovery with the view of utilization in agriculture, aquaculture and district heating. A catalogue of French organizations working or having data on thermal effluents is presented, as also an alphabetical list of the contacted persons. A bibliography of French documents concerning the previously mentioned studies is finally given (193 refs.) [fr

  11. Japanese aquaculture: use of thermal water from power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Takeya

    1983-01-01

    There is some merit of thermal water from power plants in the effect to marine life. Since 1963, the research and development on the aquaculture using this warm water have been carried out at some twenty power plants, seven nuclear and thirteen thermal, some of which are now in the commercial stage. These fish farming projects are operated variously from seed to adult fish production. They can also be classified as land and sea facilities, conforming to the characteristics of the respective sea areas. The current situation in this field and the future prospect are described: thermal aquaculture including seed production and adult fish farming; the projects in nuclear and thermal power plants, respectively; future problems in the facilities, breeding environment and marine life for cultivation. (Mori, K.)

  12. Thermal impact assessment of multi power plant operations on estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eraslan, A.H.; Kim, K.H.; Harris, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    The assessment of the thermal impact of multi power plant operations on large estuaries requires careful consideration of the problems associated with: re-entrainment, re-circulation, thermal interaction, delay in the attainment of thermal equilibrium state, and uncertainty in specifying open boundaries and open boundary conditions of the regions, which are critically important in the analysis of the thermal conditions in receiving water bodies with tidal dominated, periodically reversing flow conditions. The results of an extensive study in the Hudson River at Indian Point, 42 miles upstream of the ocean end at the Battery, concluded that the tidal-transient, multi-dimensional discrete-element (UTA) thermal transport models (ESTONE, FLOTWO, TMPTWO computer codes) and the near-field far-field zone-matching methodology can be employed with a high degree of reliability in the assessment of the thermal impact of multi power plant operations on tidal dominated estuaries

  13. Efficiency assessment and benchmarking of thermal power plants in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, Naveen; Sharma, Seema; Chauhan, Kavita

    2012-01-01

    Per capita consumption of electricity in India is many folds lesser than Canada, USA, Australia, Japan, Chaina and world average. Even though, total energy shortage and peaking shortage were recorded as 11.2% and 11.85%, respectively, in 2008–09 reflecting non-availability of sufficient supply of electricity. Performance improvement of very small amount can lead to large contribution in financial terms, which can be utilized for capacity addition to reduce demand supply gap. Coal fired thermal power plants are main sources of electricity in India. In this paper, relative technical efficiency of 60 coal fired power plants has been evaluated and compared using CCR and BCC models of data envelopment analysis. Target benchmark of input variables has also been evaluated. Performance comparison includes small versus medium versus large power plants and also state owned versus central owned versus private owned. Result indicates poor performance of few power plants due to over use of input resources. Finding reveals that efficiency of small power plants is lower in comparison to medium and large category and also performance of state owned power plants is comparatively lower than central and privately owned. Study also suggests different measures to improve technical efficiency of the plants. - Highlights: ► This study evaluates relative technical efficiency of 60 coal fired thermal power plants of India. ► Input oriented CCR and BCC models of data envelopment analysis have been used. ► Small, medium and large power plants have been compared. ► Study will help investor while setting up new power projects. ► Power plants of different ownerships have also been compared.

  14. Solar thermal power plants simulation using the TRNSYS software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popel, O.S.; Frid, S.E.; Shpilrain, E.E. [Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVTAN), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-03-01

    The paper describes activity directed on the TRNSYS software application for mathematical simulation of solar thermal power plants. First stage of developments has been devoted to simulation and thermodynamic analysis of the Hybrid Solar-Fuel Thermal Power Plants (HSFTPP) with gas turbine installations. Three schemes of HSFTPP, namely: Gas Turbine Regenerative Cycle, Brayton Cycle with Steam Injection and Combined Brayton-Rankine Cycle,- have been assembled and tested under the TRNSYS. For this purpose 18 new models of the schemes components (gas and steam turbines, compressor, heat-exchangers, steam generator, solar receiver, condenser, controllers, etc) have been elaborated and incorporated into the TRNSYS library of 'standard' components. The authors do expect that this initiative and received results will stimulate experts involved in the mathematical simulation of solar thermal power plants to join the described activity to contribute to acceleration of development and expansion of 'Solar Thermal Power Plants' branch of the TRNSYS. The proposed approach could provide an appropriate basis for standardization of analysis, models and assumptions for well-founded comparison of different schemes of advanced solar power plants. (authors)

  15. Power electronics solution to dust emissions from thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power stations emit significant amounts of fly ash and ultra fine particles into the atmosphere. Electrostatic precipitators (ESP or electro filters remove flying ashes and fine particles from the flue gas before passing the gas into the chimney. Maximum allowable value of dust is 50 mg/m3 and it requires that the efficiency of the ESPs better than 99 %, which calls for an increase of active surface of the electrodes, hence increasing the filter volume and the weight of steel used for the filter. In previous decades, electrostatic precipitators in thermal power plants were fed by thyristor controlled, single phase fed devices having a high degree of reliability, but with a relatively low collection efficiency, hence requiring large effective surface of the collection plates and a large weight of steel construction in order to achieve the prescribed emission limits. Collection efficiency and energy efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator can be increased by applying high frequency high voltage power supply (HF HV. Electrical engineering faculty of the University of Belgrade (ETF has developed technology and HF HV equipment for the ESP power supply. This solution was subjected to extensive experimental investigation at TE Morava from 2008 to 2010. High frequency power supply is proven to reduce emission two times in controlled conditions while increasing energy efficiency of the precipitator, compared to the conventional thyristor controlled 50Hz supply. Two high frequency high voltage unit AR70/1000 with parameters 70 kV and 1000 mA are installed at TE Morava and thoroughly testes. It was found that the HF HV power supply of the ESP at TE Morava increases collection efficiency so that emission of fine particles and flying ashes are halved, brought down to only 50 % of the emissions encountered with conventional 50 Hz thyristor driven power supplies. On the basis of this study, conclusion is drawn that the equipment comprising HF HV

  16. Decision on thermal power plant can be taken this spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, I.

    1978-01-01

    Towards the end of the 1960s it appeared that nuclear power would be the natural successor to hydroelectric power, as the latter became less attractive for further exploitation, reinforced by environmentalist opposition to several proposed hydroelectric schemes. Conventional thermal power was also considered, but one proposed stand-by plant was rejected in 1971 largely because of environmental considerations. Preliminary planning and PR information on nuclear power in the early 1970s aroused considerable opposition and a governmental commission was appointed in 1975-6 to evaluate the question of reactor safety and transport and disposal of radioactive waste, to report in 1978. It is therefore not possible to count on nuclear power as a supplement until the end of the 1980s at the earliest. Gas-fired thermal power is environmentally attractive, but at present no gas fields have been found which make this economic. Oil-fired power is quite feasible, but no political decision has yet been taken. Coal fuel, based on the Spitzbergen mines has recently become more interesting, and small power plants for the extreme north of Norway are under consideration. Finally it is pointed out that nuclear power is safer than generally assumed while fluidised bed combustion of coal in a combined steam-gas turbine plant will lead to very high thermal efficiencies. (JIW)

  17. Energy audit: thermal power, combined cycle, and cogeneration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbi, Yash Pal

    2012-07-01

    The availability of fossil fuels required for power plants is reducing and their costs increasing rapidly. This gives rise to increase in the cost of generation of electricity. But electricity regulators have to control the price of electricity so that consumers are not stressed with high costs. In addition, environmental considerations are forcing power plants to reduce CO2 emissions. Under these circumstances, power plants are constantly under pressure to improve the efficiency of operating plants, and to reduce fuel consumption. In order to progress in this direction, it is important that power plants regularly audit their energy use in terms of the operating plant heat rate and auxiliary power consumption. The author attempts to refresh the fundamentals of the science and engineering of thermal power plants, establish its link with the real power plant performance data through case studies, and further develop techno-economics of the energy efficiency improvement measures. This book will rekindle interest in energy audits and analysis of the data for designing and implementation of energy conservation measures on a continuous basis.

  18. Upgrading of electrostatic precipitators in old thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurumurthy, H V

    1987-02-01

    Indian thermal power stations installed in the 60's and earlier had dust collectors whose efficiency was well below the acceptable level of emission under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1981. This necessitates the need for higher efficiency dust collectors to be installed in old thermal power stations. Further, the poor quality of the coal being received at power stations presently causes severe environmental pollution in and around the plant. This paper deals with the retrofitting of electrostatic precipitators in existing units and the problems encountered in executing the same.

  19. Using thermal power plants waste for building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduik, R. S.; Smoliakov, A. K.; Timokhin, R. A.; Batarshin, V. O.; Yevdokimova, Yu G.

    2017-10-01

    The recycled use of thermal power plants (TPPs) wastes in the building materials production is formulated. The possibility of using of TPPs fly ash as part of the cement composite binder for concrete is assessed. The results of X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis as well as and materials photomicrographs are presented. It was revealed that the fly ash of TPPs of Russian Primorsky Krai is suitable for use as a filler in cement binding based on its chemical composition.

  20. Super thermal power plants and environment: a critical appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible impact on the environment by the particulate matters, oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, trace metals and solid/liquid wastes, which are emitted during the combustion of coal in the super thermal power plants of National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC). The coal consumed by these plants have sufficient sulphur content and ash. Of all the mineral in coal, pyrite is one of the most deleterious in combustion and a major source of oxide of sulphur pollution of the atmosphere. The impact of these on the terrestrial and aquatic environment in and around power plants and on region have been discussed. To arresting such contaminants, some remedial measures are suggested. (author). 14 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  1. Choosing Actuators for Automatic Control Systems of Thermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunov, A. I., E-mail: gor@tornado.nsk.ru [JSC “Tornado Modular Systems” (Russian Federation); Serdyukov, O. V. [Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Automation and Electrometry (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Two types of actuators for automatic control systems of thermal power plants are analyzed: (i) pulse-controlled actuator and (ii) analog-controlled actuator with positioning function. The actuators are compared in terms of control circuit, control accuracy, reliability, and cost.

  2. Mathematical Safety Assessment Approaches for Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-Xiao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How to use system analysis methods to identify the hazards in the industrialized process, working environment, and production management for complex industrial processes, such as thermal power plants, is one of the challenges in the systems engineering. A mathematical system safety assessment model is proposed for thermal power plants in this paper by integrating fuzzy analytical hierarchy process, set pair analysis, and system functionality analysis. In the basis of those, the key factors influencing the thermal power plant safety are analyzed. The influence factors are determined based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process. The connection degree among the factors is obtained by set pair analysis. The system safety preponderant function is constructed through system functionality analysis for inherence properties and nonlinear influence. The decision analysis system is developed by using active server page technology, web resource integration, and cross-platform capabilities for applications to the industrialized process. The availability of proposed safety assessment approach is verified by using an actual thermal power plant, which has improved the enforceability and predictability in enterprise safety assessment.

  3. Experience of Milled Peat Burning at Thermal Electric Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Zhikhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents extensive knowledge and practical experience on burning of milled peat in the boilers of thermal electric power plants in Belarus and Russia. The accumulated experience can be used for solution of problems pertaining to substitution of some types of fuel imported to Belarus by milled peat which is extracted at many fuel effective peat enterprises of the Republic.

  4. Phytomonitoring of air pollution around a thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, M.; Agrawal, S. B.

    This study was undertaken in order to assess the impact of air pollutants on vegetation around Obra thermal power plant (1550 M W capacity) in the Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh. For this purpose, Mangifera indica, Citrus medico and Bouganvillaea spectabilis plants, most common at all sites, were selected as test plants. Five study sites were selected northeast (prevailing wind) of the thermal power plant. A control site was also selected at a distance of 30 km north of Obra. Responses of plants to pollutants in terms of presence of foliar injury symptoms and changes in chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and S content were measured. These changes were correlated with ambient SO 2 and suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations and the amount of dust settled on leaf surfaces. The SO 2 and SPM concentrations were quite high in the immediate vicinity of the power plant. There also exists a direct relationship between the concentration of SPM in air and amount of dust deposited on leaf surfaces. Maximum dust deposition was observed on M. indica plants. The levels of foliar injury, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid were found to decrease and that of S increase in plants around the power plant in comparison to those growing at a control site. The magnitude of such changes was maximum in M. indica and minimum in C. medica. A species specific direct relationship between the increase in the amount of S and decrease in chlorophyll content was observed. The study suggests that differential sensitivity of plants to SO 2 may be used in evaluating the air pollution impact around emission sources and M. indica plants can be used as an indicator plant for quantifying biological changes.

  5. FGD Franchising Pilot Project of Thermal Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    According to the national policy on enhancing environmental protection,the five major power generation companies are required to carry out flue gas desulphurization(FGD) franchising pilot project in thermal power plants.This paper introduces the development of this pilot project,including the foundation,purpose,objects,demands and procedures.It also discusses some main problems encountered during implementation,involving the understanding,legislation,financing,taxation,pricing and management of franchise.At...

  6. Thermo-economic analysis of Shiraz solar thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaghoubi, M. [Academy of Science, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mokhtari, A.; Hesami, R. [Shiraz Univ., Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of). School of Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The Shiraz solar thermal power plant in Iran has 48 parabolic trough collectors (PTCs) which are used to heat the working oil. There is potential to significantly increase the performance and reduce the cost of PTC solar thermal electric technologies. Conventional energy analysis based on the first law of thermodynamics does qualitatively assess the various losses occurring in the components. Therefore, exergy analysis, based on the second law of thermodynamics, can be applied to better assess various losses quantitatively as well as qualitatively. This paper presented a newly developed exergy-economic model for the Shiraz solar thermal power plant. The objective was to find the minimum exergetic production cost (EPC), based on the second law of thermodynamics. The application of exergy-economic analysis includes the evaluation of utility supply costs for production plants, and the energy costs for process operations. The purpose of the analysis was to minimize the total operating costs of the solar thermal power plant by assuming a fixed rate of electricity production and process steam. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  7. Feasibility study on Bobovdol thermal power plant upgrading project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A survey has been made in relation with the improvement project intended of energy conservation, and reduction of global warming gas emission at the Bobovdol thermal power plant located in the suburb of Sofia, the capital of the Republic of Bulgaria. The existing Bobovdol power plant having a total capacity of 630 MW with three generators is a coal burning thermal power plant having been used already for 23 to 27 years, hence over-aged. The survey has discussed an improvement project of scrap-and-build type to make the plant a high-efficiency gas combined cycle power plant using gas turbines. The project calls for building 210-MW gas combined power generation facilities having 70-MW gas turbines, one each in three stages in 2007, 2012 and 2017. As a result of the discussions, the fuel consumption reducing rate was found to reach 37.99%, whereas the cumulative energy saving quantity in 41 years will reach 16.37 million tons of fuel oil equivalent. In addition, the reduction rate of global warming gas emission is 57.75%, and the cumulative reduction quantity in 41 years is 105.18 million tons. (NEDO)

  8. State and development of the technology of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, F.; Schueller, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    Like in the past thermal power plants shall have to be designed also in the future in a way that a sufficient, low-priced and environment-preserving electricity and heat supply can be granted. The technology applied today in fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants and its further development is outlined under the aspects of a better utilization of primary energy, the substitution of petroleum and, in the long term, also of natural gas and coal, and of the extended protection of the environment against harmful influences. (orig.) [de

  9. Availability of thermal power plants 1977-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitsch, D.; Schmitz, H.

    1987-01-01

    To get a picture of power plant availability and its influencing factors, availability data have been acquired and evaluated by VGB according to different design and operation parameters since 1970. The present volume is the 16th annual statistics since 1970. It covers the decade of 1977 to 1986 and contains availability data of 384 power plants in Germany and abroad, with a total of 94.896 MW and 3.768 plant years. Data are presented on fossil-fuelled units, units with a combined gas/steam cycle, nuclear power plants and gas turbine systems, with further sub-categories according to unit size, fuel, type, years of operation, and operating regime. German plants are reviewed separately. All power data are gross data measured at the generator terminals. For a comparative evaluation, the data of 1986 are supplemented by yearly averages since 1977 and averages for the decade from 1977 to 1986. Since 1978, nonavailability data are categorized as 'unscheduled' and 'scheduled' nonavailabilities. For availability data of 1970 to 1976, see the VGB publication 'Availability of thermal power plants, 1970 to 1981'. (orig./UA) [de

  10. Thermal performance test for steam turbine of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu Yubing; Xu Zongfu; Wang Shiyong

    2014-01-01

    Through study of steam turbine thermal performance test of CPR1000 nuclear power plant, we solve the enthalpy calculation problems of the steam turbine in wet steam zone using heat balance method which can help to figure out the real overall heat balance diagram for the first time, and we develop a useful software for thermal heat balance calculation. Ling'ao phase II as an example, this paper includes test instrument layout, system isolation, risk control, data acquisition, wetness measurement, heat balance calculation, etc. (authors)

  11. Vibration monitoring and fault diagnostics of a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, T.; Ghani, R.; Chohan, G.Y.; Amir, M.

    2003-01-01

    A thermal power plant was monitored from HP-turbine to the generator end. The vibration data at different plant locations was obtained with the help of a data collector/analyzer. The spectra of-all locations generate the symptoms for different problems of moderate and high vibration levels like bent shaft, misalignment in the exciter rotor and three couplings, mechanical looseness on generator and exciter sides. The possible causes of these faults are discussed on the basis of presented vibration spectra in this paper. The faults were later on rectified on the basis of this diagnostics. (author)

  12. Possibilities for retrofitting of the existing thermal electric power plants using solar power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matjanov, Erkinjon K.; Abduganieva, Farogat A.; Aminov, Zarif Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Total installed electric power output of the existing thermal electric power plants in Uzbekistan is reaches 12 GW. Thermal electric power plants, working on organic fuel, produce around 88 % of the electricity in the country. The emission coefficient of CO 2 gases is 620 gram/kwph. Average electric efficiency of the thermal electric power plants is 32.1 %. The mentioned above data certifies, that the existing thermal electric power plants of Uzbekistan are physically and morally aged and they need to be retrofitted. Retrofitting of the existing thermal electric power plants can be done by several ways such as via including gas turbine toppings, by using solar technologies, etc. Solar thermal power is a relatively new technology which has already shown its enormous promise. With few environmental impacts and a massive resource, it offers a comparable opportunity to the sunniest Uzbekistan. Solar thermal power uses direct sunlight, so it must be sited in regions with high direct solar radiation. In many regions, one square km of land is enough to generate as much as 100-120 GWh of electricity per year using the solar thermal technology. This is equivalent to the annual production of a 50 MW conventional coal or gas-fired mid-load power plant. Solar thermal power plants can be designed for solar-only or for hybrid operation. Producing electricity from the energy in the sun's rays is a straightforward process: direct solar radiation can be concentrated and collected by a range of Concentrating Solar Power technologies to provide medium- to high temperature heat. This heat is then used to operate a conventional power cycle, for example through a steam turbine or a Stirling engine. Solar heat collected during the day can also be stored in liquid or solid media such as molten salts, ceramics, concrete or, in the future, phase-changing salt mixtures. At night, it can be extracted from the storage medium thereby continuing turbine operation. Currently, the

  13. Availability of thermal power plants 1976-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitsch, D.; Schmitz, H.

    1986-01-01

    This assessment is the 15th annual assessment since 1970. It covers the decade 1976 to 1985 and contains the availability figures for 395 power stations in Germany and abroad with an output of about 93,750 MW and 3,642 years of power station operation. The availability figures of fossil fired units, combined units (plant with combined gas/steam circuit), nuclear power stations and gas turbine plants are given, which are classified according to unit size, fuel, type of construction, age and method of use. The German plants are covered separately. All output figures are gross figures (output at the generator terminals). For comparison purposes, apart for the results of 1985, the annual values determined since 1976 and the mean values for the decade 1976-1985 are given. The non-availability is divided into faults and planned outages since 1978. Availability figures for the years 1970 to 1975 can be found in the VGB assessment 'Availability of thermal power plants 1970-1981'. (orig./GL) [de

  14. Estimating the power efficiency of the thermal power plant modernization by using combined-cycle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovhannisyan, L.S.; Harutyunyan, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    The power efficiency of the thermal power plant (TPP) modernization by using combined-cycle technologies is introduced. It is shown that it is possible to achieve the greatest decrease in the specific fuel consumption at modernizing the TPP at the expense of introducing progressive 'know-how' of the electric power generation: for TPP on gas, it is combined-cycle, gas-turbine superstructures of steam-power plants and gas-turbines with heat utilization

  15. Hybrid intelligent monironing systems for thermal power plant trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Nader; Ismail, Firas Basim

    2012-11-01

    Steam boiler is one of the main equipment in thermal power plants. If the steam boiler trips it may lead to entire shutdown of the plant, which is economically burdensome. Early boiler trips monitoring is crucial to maintain normal and safe operational conditions. In the present work two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler trips have been proposed and coded within the MATLAB environment. The training and validation of the two systems has been performed using real operational data captured from the plant control system of selected power plant. An integrated plant data preparation framework for seven boiler trips with related operational variables has been proposed for IMSs data analysis. The first IMS represents the use of pure Artificial Neural Network system for boiler trip detection. All seven boiler trips under consideration have been detected by IMSs before or at the same time of the plant control system. The second IMS represents the use of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks as a hybrid intelligent system. A slightly lower root mean square error was observed in the second system which reveals that the hybrid intelligent system performed better than the pure neural network system. Also, the optimal selection of the most influencing variables performed successfully by the hybrid intelligent system.

  16. Alternative trends in development of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prisyazhniuk, Vitaly A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal (or fossil fuel) power plants (TPP) are the major polluters of man's environment, discharging into the atmosphere the basic product of carbon fuel combustion, CO 2 . It is this very gas that accounts for the greenhouse effect causing the global climate warm-up on our planet. A natural solution of the problem of reducing carbon dioxide discharge into the atmosphere lies in power saving, thus reducing the amount of the fuel burnt. This approach can be justified from any standpoint, both economically and ecologically. The ideal way of solving the problem would be to completely give up burning carbon-containing fuel, such as coal, petroleum products, and other power resources of organic nature. This work is intended to outline the ways of reducing consumption of fuel by TPP and, consequently, of reducing their discharging into the atmosphere the gases producing the greenhouse effect. One of the ways lies in changing the thermophysical characteristics of the working medium, which becomes possible if we can modify the conventional working medium, that is water, or can use some working medium with quite different thermophysical properties. The article dwells on various technological ways providing for a practical solution of the problem, such as the Kalina cycle; modification of water properties by way of magneto-hydrodynamic resonance (MHD resonance); and employing, in the thermodynamic cycle of Thermal Power Plants, liquids boiling at temperatures which are lower than that of the environment

  17. Fuel combustion in thermal power plants in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.

    1983-11-01

    The position of black coal in the energy balance of Japan is discussed. About 75% of electric energy is produced by thermal power plants. Eighty-five per cent of electricity is produced by power plants fired with liquid fuels and 3% by coal fired plants. Coal production in Japan, the forecast coal import to the country by 1990 (132 Mt/year), proportion of coal imported from various countries, chemical and physical properties of coal from Australia, China and Japan are discussed. Coal classification used in Japan is evaluated. The following topics associated with coal combustion in fossil-fuel power plants in Japan are discussed: coal grindability, types of pulverizing systems, slagging properties of boiler fuel in Japan, systems for slag removal, main types of steam boilers and coal fired furnaces, burner arrangement and design, air pollution control from fly ash, sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, utilization of fly ash for cement production, methods for removal of nitrogen oxides from flue gas using ammonia and catalysts or ammonia without catalysts, efficiency of nitrogen oxide control, abatement of nitrogen oxide emission from boilers by flue gas recirculation and reducing combustion temperatures. The results of research into air pollution control carried out by the Nagasaki Technical Institute are reviewed.

  18. Simulation and parametric optimisation of thermal power plant cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ravindra Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to analyse parametric studies and optimum steam extraction pressures of three different (subcritical, supercritical and ultra-supercritical coal fired power plant cycles at a particular main steam temperature of 600 °C by keeping the reheat temperature at 537 °C and condenser pressure at 0.09 bar as constant. In order to maximize the heat rate gain possible with supercritical and ultra-supercritical steam conditions, eight stages of feed water heater arrangement with single reheater is considered. The system is optimized in such a way that the percentage exergetic losses are reduced for the increase of the exergetic efficiency and higher fuel utilization. The plant cycles are simulated and optimized by using Cycle Tempo 5.0 simulation software tool. From the simulation study, it is observed that the thermal efficiency of the three different power plant cycles obtained as 41.40, 42.48 and 43.03%, respectively. The specific coal consumption for three different power plant cycles are 0.56, 0.55 and 0.54 Tonnes/MWh. The improvement in feed water temperatures at the inlet of steam generator of respective cycles are 291, 305 and 316 °C.

  19. Feasibility study on modernization of North Bangkok Thermal Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to save energies and reduce global warming gas emission, a feasibility study was performed on the oil burning thermal power plant in the city of North Bangkok in Thailand to reconstruct the plant into a natural gas burning combined cycle power plant. In the project, the old facilities with an output of 237.8 MW using three steam turbines in total will be reconstructed into a plant comprising of two steam turbines for 256,2 MW and two gas turbines for 460.4 MW, or a facility of 716.6 MW in total. The plant construction will have the gas turbines, steam turbines, generators, and a waste heat recovered steam generator fixed on one axis, two of which will be installed. The gas turbines will use natural gas as fuel, and the steam turbines will be operated by steam from the waste heat recovered steam generator. As a result of the discussions, the reduction of the energy consumption for a period of 40 years will correspond to crude oil of 20,560 kt, while the reduction of the global warming gas emission will be 107,200 t-CO2. In addition, the energy saving cost will be 9-ton crude oil equivalent/one million yen, and the cost for reduction of the global warming gas emission will be 47 t-CO2/one million yen. (NEDO)

  20. Exergy Analysis of Operating Lignite Fired Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Murugesan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy assessment must be made through the energy quantity as well as the quality. But the usual energy analysisevaluates the energy generally on its quantity only. However, the exergy analysis assesses the energy on quantity as well asthe quality. The aim of the exergy analysis is to identify the magnitudes and the locations of real energy losses, in order toimprove the existing systems, processes or components. The present paper deals with an exergy analysis performed on anoperating 50MWe unit of lignite fired steam power plant at Thermal Power Station-I, Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited,Neyveli, Tamil Nadu, India. The exergy losses occurred in the various subsystems of the plant and their components havebeen calculated using the mass, energy and exergy balance equations. The distribution of the exergy losses in several plantcomponents during the real time plant running conditions has been assessed to locate the process irreversibility. The Firstlaw efficiency (energy efficiency and the Second law efficiency (exergy efficiency of the plant have also been calculated.The comparison between the energy losses and the exergy losses of the individual components of the plant shows that themaximum energy losses of 39% occur in the condenser, whereas the maximum exergy losses of 42.73% occur in the combustor.The real losses of energy which has a scope for the improvement are given as maximum exergy losses that occurredin the combustor.

  1. Applications of laser diagnostics to thermal power plants and engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, Y.; Kamimoto, T.; Wang, Z.Z.; Yan, J.J.; Liu, J.P.; Watanabe, H.; Kurose, R.

    2014-01-01

    The demands for lowering the burdens on the environment will continue to grow steadily. It is important to monitor controlling factors in order to improve the operation of industrial thermal systems. In engines, exhaust gas temperature and concentration distributions are important factors in nitrogen oxides (NO x ), total hydrocarbon (THC) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Coal and fly ash contents are parameters which can be used for the control of coal-fired thermal power plants. Monitoring of heavy metals such as Hg is also important for pollution control. In this study, the improved laser measurement techniques using computed tomography-tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (CT-TDLAS), low pressure laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and laser breakdown time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LB-TOFMS) have been developed and applied to measure 2D temperature and species concentrations in engine exhausts, coal and fly ash contents, and trace species measurement. The 2D temperature and NH 3 concentration distributions in engine exhausts were successfully measured using CT-TDLAS. The elemental contents of size-segregated particles were measured and the signal stability increased using LIBS with the temperature correction method. The detection limit of trace species measurement was enhanced using low pressure LIBS and LB-TOFMS. The detection limit of Hg can be enhanced to 3.5 ppb when employing N 2 as the buffer gas using low pressure LIBS. Hg detection limit was about 0.82 ppb using 35 ps LB-TOFMS. Compared to conventional measurement methods laser diagnostics has high sensitivity, high response and non-contact features for actual industrial systems. With these engineering developments, transient phenomena such as start-ups in thermal systems can be evaluated to improve the efficiency of these thermal processes. - Highlights: • Applicability of newly developed laser diagnostics was demonstrated for the improvement of thermal power plants and

  2. Nuclear and thermal power plant power ramping capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovach, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    The possibilities of step power increase by NPP and TPP units under emergency conditions of power grids operation are considered. The data analysis has shown that power units ramping capability with WWER-440, WWER-1000 and RBMK-1000 reactors is higher than that of 300 MW power units on fossil fuel, at the initial time interval (0-30 s). These NPP power units satisfy as to ramping capability the energy system requirements. Higher NPP power units ramping capability is explained by the fact that relative pressure before turbine valves is decreased less than in straight-through boilers while the steam volumes time constant of steam separator-superheaters is less than that of intermediate superheatings. Higher power unit ramping capability with WWER-440 and RBMK-1000 reactors as compared with the WWER-1000 reactor is pointed out as well as the increase of WWER-1000 power unit capability using high-speed turbines

  3. Cooling problems of thermal power plants. Physical model studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neale, L.C.

    1975-01-01

    The Alden Research Laboratories of Worcester Polytechnic Institute has for many years conducted physical model studies, which are normally classified as river or structural hydraulic studies. Since 1952 one aspect of these studies has involved the heated discharge from steam power plants. The early studies on such problems concentrated on improving the thermal efficiency of the system. This was accomplished by minimizing recirculation and by assuring full use of available cold water supplies. With the growing awareness of the impact of thermal power generation on the environment attention has been redirected to reducing the effect of heated discharges on the biology of the receiving body of water. More specifically the efforts of designers and operators of power plants are aimed at meeting or complying with standards established by various governmental agencies. Thus the studies involve developing means of minimizing surface temperatures at an outfall or establishing a local area of higher temperature with limits specified in terms of areas or distances. The physical models used for these studies have varied widely in scope, size, and operating features. These models have covered large areas with both distorted geometric scales and uniform dimensions. Instrumentations has also varied from simple mercury thermometers to computer control and processing of hundreds of thermocouple indicators

  4. New water intake systems for thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishchuk, T.B.; Samodel'nikov, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    Problems arising during design of water intake and spillway structures for the auxiliary water supply system of thermal and nuclear power plants connected with the provision of their reliable operation and with the effect on the temperature condition of reservoirs and their ecology are investigated. Design providing for the connection of intake channel and catch drain for a through (transition) channel and supplying a water transition flow by ejecting water outputs is suggested. The variant considered is effective for seas, lakes and reservoirs with adverse conditions for natural cooling and it is suitable for regions with seismicity up to 5-6 balls

  5. Study on corrosion of thermal power plant condenser tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Abdolreza Rashidi; Zhaam, Ali Akbar [Niroo Research Institute, end of Poonak Bakhtari blvd., Shahrak Ghods, Tehran (Iran)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this investigation is to study kinds of corrosion mechanisms in thermal power plant condenser tubes. Condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which cooling water flows through its tubes. While the steam from low pressure turbine passes within condenser tubes, it is condensed by cooling water. The exhausted steam from low pressure turbine is condensed on external surface of condenser tubes and heat is transferred to cooling water which flow into tubes. Tubes composition is usually copper-based alloys, stainless steel or titanium. Annual damages due to corrosion cause much cost for replacement and repairing metallic equipment and installations in electric power industry. Because of existence of different contaminants in water and steam cycle, condenser tubes surfaces are exposed to corrosion. Contaminants like oxygen, carbon dioxide, chloride ion and ammonia in water and steam cycle originate several damages such as pitting and crevice corrosion, erosion, galvanic attack, SCC, condensed corrosion, de-alloying in thermal power plant condenser. The paper first states how corrosion damage takes place in condensers and then introduces types of usual alloys used in condensers and also their corrosion behavior. In continuation, a brief explanation is presented about kinds of condenser failures due to corrosion. Then, causes and locations of different mechanisms of corrosion events on condenser tubes and effects of different parameters such as composition, temperature, chloride and sulfide ion concentration, pH, water velocity and biological precipitation are examined and finally protection methods are indicated. Also some photos of tubes specimens related to power plants are studied and described in each case of mentioned mechanisms. (authors)

  6. Comparison of the effects of nuclear power plants and thermal power plants on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivintsev, Yu.V.; Teverovskij, E.N.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of ecological effects produced by a thermal power station (TPS) and a nuclear power plant (NPP) of similar electric capacity has been made. The ecological advantages of NPP over TPS are revealed in analysis of aerosol and gas blow-out and its danger for the environment. From the above data it follows that TPS as compared with NPP of similar electric capacity produces a 100 and 1000 fold higher air pollution effect than the latter. The dose of TPS radiation effect is minimum 500 times higher than that of NPP at normal operation. Large-scale construction of NPP is one of the most perfect means of atmosphere protection against harmful industrial discharges

  7. Thermal power plants in the Oslofjord district - Recipient evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehle, B.; Danielssen, D.; Tveite, S.; Haugen, I.; Nilsen, G.; Audunson, T.; Rye, H.; Thendrup, A.

    1975-11-01

    The results presented in a series of reports from the three institutes concerning the physical characteristics of the waters in the vicinoty of five possible sites for thermal (including nuclear) power plants in the Oslofjord district, and the spreading and effects of thermal effluents on the biological state and resources of these waters, are summarised, and an evaluation of the relative suitability of these sites is made. The sites are ranked as follows:- 1. Naverfjorden or, 2. Langangsfjorden - Saga, with effluent release to the Naverfjord region in both cases; 3. Vardeaasen; 4. Hurum; 5; Brenntangen. The possible intake - outlet arrangements are ranked as follows:-1. Deep intake - surface outlet, 2. Deep intake - deep outlet, or surface intake - surface outlet, 3. Surface intake - deep outlet. (JIW)

  8. Control of nitrogen oxides at thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.; Hall, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews reports presented at the International symposium on reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from stationary pollutant sources, held in San Francisco (USA) in March 1989. Topics concentrated on the latest trends in power engineering in the USA and Europe. Reports were dedicated to test results of pilot plant equipment employing the increasingly popular LNB, OFA, Reburn, SNCR, and SCR technologies. The following conclusions are drawn on the basis of the symposium proceedings: The nitric oxide problem may be considered exaggerated in regard to thermal power plants because of errors made during flue gas composition analysis. The combination of new combustion chambers and staged air input with simultaneous redesigning of equipment is most widely employed in the USA (achieving a 50% NO{sub x} reduction with minimum effect on power plant operation and maintenance costs). Economic sense demands that primary methods of NO{sub x} removal be used prior to SCR implementation. The SCR technology reducing NO{sub x} emission by 60-80% with ammonia to less than 5 ppm is the most popular flue gas denitrification method. 15 refs.

  9. Nuclear power plant thermal-hydraulic performance research program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The purpose of this program plan is to present a more detailed description of the thermal-hydraulic research program than that provided in the NRC Five-Year Plan so that the research plan and objectives can be better understood and evaluated by the offices concerned. The plan is prepared by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) with input from the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) and updated periodically. The plan covers the research sponsored by the Reactor and Plant Systems Branch and defines the major issues (related to thermal-hydraulic behavior in nuclear power plants) the NRC is seeking to resolve and provides plans for their resolution; relates the proposed research to these issues; defines the products needed to resolve these issues; provides a context that shows both the historical perspective and the relationship of individual projects to the overall objectives; and defines major interfaces with other disciplines (e.g., structural, risk, human factors, accident management, severe accident) needed for total resolution of some issues. This plan addresses the types of thermal-hydraulic transients that are normally considered in the regulatory process of licensing the current generation of light water reactors. This process is influenced by the regulatory requirements imposed by NRC and the consequent need for technical information that is supplied by RES through its contractors. Thus, most contractor programmatic work is administered by RES. Regulatory requirements involve the normal review of industry analyses of design basis accidents, as well as the understanding of abnormal occurrences in operating reactors. Since such transients often involve complex thermal-hydraulic interactions, a well-planned thermal-hydraulic research plan is needed

  10. Chemistry of the water in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freier, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook and practical manual gives a comprehensive review of the scientific knowledge of water as operating substance and of the chemistry of water in thermal power plants. The fundamentals of water chemistry and of the conventional and nuclear water/steam circuit are described. The contents of the chapters are: 1. The atom, 2. The chemical bond, 3. The dissolving capacity of water, 4. Operational parameters and their measurement, 5. Corrosion, 6. The water/steam coolant loop of conventional plants (WSC), 7. The pressurized water reactor (PWR), 8. The boiling water reactor (BWR), 9. The total and partial desalination properties of ion exchangers, 10. The cooling water, 11. The failure of Harrisburg in a simple presentation. (HK) [de

  11. Social assessment and location of nuclear and thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Kazuyasu; Nishio, Mitsuo.

    1979-01-01

    Most of the locations of nuclear and thermal power plants in Japan are depopulated villages with remote rural character, but for the development of such districts, the policy is not yet clearly established, and the appropriate measures are not taken. The living regions of residents and the production regions of enterprises are more and more estranged. Social assessment is the scientific method to perceive the future change due to the installation of power stations. The features particular to the assessment of natural environment and social environment related to the location of power stations are considered, and the technical problems involved in the method of assessment of natural environment are solved, and the actual method of assessment of social environment is developed. Then, the possibility of establishing this method and the problems in its application are investigated. The plan of developing the surroundings of power generation facilities is criticized, and the coordination of the location plan of power companies and the regional projects of municipalities is discussed. Finally, the mechanism of consensus formation concerning the location of power stations is considered, dividing into regional consensus formation and administrative consensus formation, and the possibility of instituting social assessment is examined. (Kako, I.)

  12. Thermal performance monitoring and assessment in Dukovany nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madron, F. [Chemplant Technology s.r.o., Hrncirska 4, 400 01 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Papuga, J. [CEZ a.s., JE Dukovany, 675 50 Dukovany (Czech Republic); Pliska, J. [I and C ENERGO a.s., Prazska 684, 674 01 Trebic (Czech Republic)

    2006-07-01

    Competition in the European electricity market forces generators to achieve - in compliance with safety and environmental standards - efficiency of production as high as possible. This efficiency or heat rate is an important indicator of both the condition of the plant equipment and the quality of plant operation. Similar thermal performance indicators can also be calculated for components of the plant equipment such as heat exchangers. However, it is not easy to quantify these indicators with sufficient precision so that the results can be used for conduct of plant operation in near-real time and for predictive maintenance. This paper describes a present state of the system monitoring and evaluating thermal performance of the reactor units in Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant. The system provides information on actual and desirable (should-be) values of thermal performance indicators for control room operators, performance engineers and maintenance planners. The system is designed to monitor steady states and has two main functions: data validation and process simulation. Data validation is based on data reconciliation methodology and carried out with Recon software by Chemplant Technology. A detailed model of the secondary side for mass and heat balancing has been made up by means of the Recon's graphical editor; now it contains roughly 300 flows and employs data of about 200 measurements. Main advantages of the data reconciliation are: - reconciled data are consistent with the model, - reconciled data are more precise than data directly measured with consequence that the thermal power of steam generators is determined with substantially lower uncertainty than before - data reconciliation represents a solid basis for detection and identification of data corrupted by gross errors. Simulation is performed with a different analytical model of plant components configured into secondary side. The model has been developed by I and C Energo. Main purposes of simulation

  13. Revitalization of Tuzla Thermal Power Plant's Unit 3 (100 MW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakovic, A.; Praso, N.

    1998-01-01

    Power Plant Revitalization is a highly ranged concept essentially aimed at continued operations of the generating unit at, or near, rated capacities for the rest of the economic life of the plant or even for an extended life. In essence, the need to rehabilitate may arise due to reasons such as low availability factor, low efficiency, increasing operating and maintenance costs, loss of reliability, drop in safety of plant and personnel, poor maintainability or environmental requirements. The term revitalization is therefore normally used in the context to cover the range of activities including repairing components, replacing equipment, modifying systems, adding new system and equipment and perhaps restoration to rated capacities. This exercise on already complex power generation process will naturally require the application of various technologies in order to ensure a safe and efficient installation of electricity supply. In normal conditions of producing and consumption of electricity (load demands) in order to answer the question of what kind of revitalization to undertake it is necessary to state at the very beginning: - whether it is necessary, from the point of equipment wear-out, to revitalize all equipment at once (one-phase revitalization), or - whether it is possible to postpone the revitalization of a part of equipment for the next period (phased revitalization). Both concepts have some specific advantages and disadvantages. In essence the decision-making process between these two approaches, three basic conditions should be considered: technical-technological adequacy, energy-economy adequacy and financial adequacy. This paper covers general considerations, approach and methodology implemented during the revitalization the Tuzla Thermal Power Plant's Unit 3 (100MW) which was imposed by urgent demands of the Power System, the war conditions and financial possibilities including: - General data on TPP Tuzla and Unit 3 - Scope of work and economic effects

  14. Strategies for emission reduction from thermal power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisyazhniuk, Vitaly A

    2006-07-01

    Major polluters of man's environment are thermal power stations (TPS) and power plants, which discharge into the atmosphere the basic product of carbon fuel combustion, CO2, which results in a build-up of the greenhouse effect and global warm-up of our planet's climate. This paper is intended to show that the way to attain environmental safety of the TPS and to abide by the decisions of the Kyoto Protocol lies in raising the efficiency of the heat power stations and reducing their fuel consumption by using nonconventional thermal cycles. Certain equations have been derived to define the quantitative interrelationship between the growth of efficiency of the TPS, decrease in fuel consumption and reduction of discharge of dust, fuel combustion gases, and heat into the environment. New ideas and new technological approaches that result in raising the efficiency of the TPS are briefly covered: magneto-hydrodynamic resonance, the Kalina cycle, and utilizing the ambient heat by using, as the working medium, low-boiling substances.

  15. 'Crud' detection and evaluation during the Embalse nuclear power plant's thermal cycle for powers of 100%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.; Rosales, A.H.; Mura, V.R.; Sentupery, C.; Rascon, H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the 'crud' measurements performed during the Embalse nuclear power plant's thermal cycle for a power of 100% (645 MWe) under different purification conditions. The aim of this work is to optimize the four steam generators' tube plate cleaning in function of the sweeping produced by their purification. (Author)

  16. Experimental thermal behavior of a power plant reheater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M. Manuela Prieto; Garcia, F. Javier Fernandez; Ramon, Ines Suarez [Departamento de Energia, Universidad de Oviedo, Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijon, Asturias (Spain); Roces, Hilario Sanchez [Central Termica de Soto de Ribera, Soto de Ribera, Asturias (Spain)

    2006-04-15

    The process conditions of power plant components subjected to high pressures and temperatures are essential to determine their remaining life, availability and efficiency. It is, therefore, expedient to pay special attention to critical components, such as superheater and reheater heat exchangers, headers, and main and reheated steam lines. In this paper, on-line and off-line variables of a power plant reheater that has presented problems of thickness losses and repetitive tube fissures are studied. The fissures are associated with the effect of a thermal-mechanical mechanism. Off-line measurements were taken of the following variables: pressure, temperature, velocity and composition of the gases. On-line instrumentation was completed by the installation of specific thermocouples to ascertain the temperatures in the tubes outlet. Various angles for the fuel inlet of the burners and variations in the number and location of the working burners were also assayed. As a consequence of this analysis, it can be deduced that there are important differences in the outlet temperature of the reheater tubes that decrease for lower powers. Finally, it is pointed that a non-uniform distribution of the steam flow in the reheater might be the cause of the problem. (author)

  17. Application of the thermal efficiency analysis software 'EgWin' at existing power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koda, E.; Takahashi, T.; Nakao, Y.

    2008-01-01

    'EgWin' is the general purpose software to analyze a thermal efficiency of power system developed in CRIEPI. This software has been used to analyze the existing power generation unit of 30 or more, and the effectiveness has been confirmed. In thermal power plants, it was used for the clarification of the thermal efficiency decrease factor and the quantitative estimation of the influence that each factor gave to the thermal efficiency of the plant. Also it was used for the quantitative estimation of the effect by the operating condition change and the facility remodeling in thermal power, atomic energy, and geothermal power plants. (author)

  18. Assessment of inhalation risk due to radioactivity released from coal-based thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.; Shukla, V.K.; Puranik, V.D.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    In India, the coal based thermal power plants have been the major source of power generation in the past and would continue for decades to come. As the coal contains naturally occurring primordial radionuclides the burning of pulverized coal to produce energy for generation of electricity in thermal power plants will result in the emission of a variety of natural radioactive elements into the environment in the vicinity of thermal power plants. In this paper we have used two different methods for characterization of uncertainty in inhalation risk to the general public around 10 Kms radius in the neighborhood of a coal-fired thermal power plant. (author)

  19. Nuclear and thermal power plants and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejstrik, V.

    1978-01-01

    The growth is briefly outlined of world daily power consumption and the possibilities are discussed of meeting this demand. Coal and nuclear power are of primary importance as energy resources for the present and the near future. Production costs per 1 kWh of electric power in nuclear power plants are already lower in fossil fuel power plants and both types of power plants have an environmental impact. Activities are presented of radioisotopes resulting from nuclear reactor operation and their release and environmental impact are discussed. An analysis is made of emissions from combustion processes and of wastes from fossil-fuel power plant operation. The environmental impacts of nuclear and fossil fuel power plants are compared. (Z.M.)

  20. Nuclear and thermal power plants and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejstrik, V [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Pruhonice. Ustav Krajinne Ekologie

    1978-01-01

    The growth is briefly outlined of world daily power consumption and the possibilities are discussed of meeting this demand. Coal and nuclear power are of primary importance as energy resources for the present and the near future. Production costs per 1 kWh of electric power in nuclear power plants are already lower than in fossil fuel power plants and both types of power plants have an environmental impact. Activities are presented of radioisotopes resulting from nuclear reactor operation and their release and environmental impact are discussed. An analysis is made of emissions from combustion processes and of wastes from fossil-fuel power plant operation. The environmental impacts of nuclear and fossil fuel power plants are compared.

  1. Numerical Modeling of Water Thermal Plumes Emitted by Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azucena Durán-Colmenares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the study of thermal dispersion of plumes emitted by power plants into the sea. Wastewater discharge from power stations causes impacts that require investigation or monitoring. A study to characterize the physical effects of thermal plumes into the sea is carried out here by numerical modeling and field measurements. The case study is the thermal discharges of the Presidente Adolfo López Mateos Power Plant, located in Veracruz, on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. This plant is managed by the Federal Electricity Commission of Mexico. The physical effects of such plumes are related to the increase of seawater temperature caused by the hot water discharge of the plant. We focus on the implementation, calibration, and validation of the Delft3D-FLOW model, which solves the shallow-water equations. The numerical simulations consider a critical scenario where meteorological and oceanographic parameters are taken into account to reproduce the proper physical conditions of the environment. The results show a local physical effect of the thermal plumes within the study zone, given the predominant strong winds conditions of the scenario under study.

  2. Thermal diagnostics in power plant to improve performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, H.

    1995-01-01

    The improvement of older power plants by changing poor performing components is a cost effective method to increase the capacity of the units. The necessary information for the detection of components that are to be replaced can be obtained from heat rate and component tests with accuracy instrumentation. The discussed methods and tools provided by ABB Were used with success in several power plants in Europe. These tools are in the process of permanent improvement and can be used in almost any type of power plant. Due to the reasons discussed above, there is a high potential for improvement of a lot of power plants in the next decade. (author)

  3. Thermal power plant operating regimes in future British power systems with increasing variable renewable penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmunds, Ray; Davies, Lloyd; Deane, Paul; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work investigates thermal power operating regimes in future power systems. • Gas plants have low utilisation in the scenarios considered. • Ramping intensity increases for gas plants and pumped storage. • Coal plants frequently operate at minimum stable levels and start-ups increase. • Grid emission intensity and total emission production remains substantial. - Abstract: This work investigates the operational requirements of thermal power plants in a number of potential future British power systems with increasing variable renewable penetration. The PLEXOS Integrated Energy Model has been used to develop the market models, with PLEXOS employing mixed integer programming to solve the unit commitment and economic dispatch problem, subject to a number of constraints. Initially, a model of the British power system was developed and validated. Subsequently, a 2020 test model was developed to analyse a number of future system structures with differing fuel and carbon prices and generation mixes. The study has found that in three of the four scenarios considered, the utilisation of gas power plants will be relatively low, but remains fundamental to the security of supply. Also, gas plants will be subject to more intense ramping. The findings have consequent implications for energy policy as expensive government interventions may be required to prevent early decommissioning of gas capacity, should the prevailing market conditions not guarantee revenue adequacy.

  4. A critical review on energy, exergy, exergoeconomic and economic (4-E) analysis of thermal power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    The growing energy supply, demand has created an interest towards the plant equipment efficiency and the optimization of existing thermal power plants. Also, a thermal power plant dependency on fossil fuel makes it a little bit difficult, because of environmental impacts has been always taken into consideration. At present, most of the power plants are going to be designed by the energetic performance criterion which is based on the first law of thermodynamics. Sometimes, the system energy ba...

  5. Thermal effluents from nuclear power plant influences species distribution and thermal tolerance of fishes in reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, A.K.; Das, T.; Dalvi, R.S.; Bagchi, S.; Manush, S.M.; Ayyappan, S.; Chandrachoodan, P.P.; Apte, S.K.; Ravi, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    During electricity generation water bodies like reservoir act as a heat sink for thermal effluent discharges from nuclear power plant. We hypothesized that the fish fauna gets distributed according to their temperature preference in the thermal gradient. In a simulated environment using critical thermal methodology (CTM), we assessed thermal tolerance and metabolic profile of fishes (Puntius filamentosus, Parluciosoma daniconius, Ompok malabaricus, Mastacembelus armatus, Labeo calbasu, Horabragrus brachysoma, Etroplus suratensis, Danio aequipinnatus and Gonoproktopterus curmuca) collected from Kadra reservoir in Karnataka state. Results of CTM tests agrees with the species abundance as per the temperature gradient formed in the reservoir due to thermal effluent discharge. E. suratensis and H. brachysoma) appear to be adapted to high temperature (with high CTMax and CTMin values) and are in abundance at point of thermal discharge. Similarly, P. daniconius, appear to be adapted to cold (low CTM values) is in abundance in lower stretches of Kadra reservoir. Overall results indicate that discharge form nuclear power plant influences the species biodiversity in enclosed water bodies. (author)

  6. Pressurized thermal shock analysis in German nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Stefan; Braun, Michael [TUEV NORD Nuclear, Hannover (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    For more than 30 years TUeV NORD is a competent consultant in nuclear safety is-sues giving expert third party opinion to our clients. According to the German regulations the safety against brittle fracture has to be proved for the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and with a new level of knowledge the proof has to be continuously updated with the development in international codes and standards like ASME, BS and RCC-M. The load of the RPV is a very complex transient pressure and temperature situation. Today these loading conditions can be modeled by thermal hydraulic calculations and new experimental results much more detailed than in the construction phase of German Nuclear Power Plants in the 1980s. Therefore, the proof against brittle fracture from the construction phase had to be updated for all German Nuclear Power Plants with the new findings of the loading conditions especially for a postulated small leakage in the main coolant line. The RPV consists of ferritic base material (about 250 mm) and austenitic cladding (about 6 mm) at the inner side. The base material and the cladding have different physical properties which have to be considered temperature dependently in the cal-culations. Radiation-embrittlement effects on the material are to be respected in the fracture mechanics assessment. The regions of the RPV of special interest are the core weld, the inlet and outlet nozzle region and the flange connecting weld zone. The fracture mechanics assessment is performed for normal and abnormal operating conditions and for accidents like LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident). In this paper the German approach to fracture mechanics assessment to brittle fracture will be discussed from the point of view of a third party organization.

  7. Potential impact of thermal effluents from Chongqing Fuling nuclear power plant to the Three Gorges Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Baohua; Li Jianguo; Ma Binghui; Zhang Yue; Sun Qunli; Hu Yuping

    2012-01-01

    This study is based on the hydrological data near Chongqing Fuling Nuclear Power Plant along the Yangtze River, the present situation of the ecological environment of the Three Gorges Reservoir and the predicted results of thermal effluents from Chongqing Fuling Nuclear Power Plant. The standards of cooling water and the thermal tolerances indexes of aquatic organisms were investigated. The effects of thermal effluents on aquatic organisms were analyzed. The potential impact of Chongqing Fuling nuclear power plant to the Three Gorges Reservoir was explained. The results show that in the most adverse working conditions, the surface temperature near the outfall area is not more than 1℃, the temperature of thermal effluents do not exceed the suitable thermal range of fish breeding, growth and other thermal tolerances indexes. Thermal effluents from nuclear power plant have no influence about fish, plankton and benthic organisms in the Three Gorges Reservoir. (authors)

  8. Demands on thermal power plants in the liberalised energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, D.; Kwanka, K.; Fischer, T.

    2005-01-01

    In the liberalised energy market, a diversified set (''mix'') of power plants will be needed. By investigating present and anticipated future criteria in detail, available technologies and outlines of further development are identified and discussed. Among them, concepts for efficiency-optimised base load plants as well as units with an improved cycling operation capability are both attributed to a specific valued benefit. Following the demand for a significant reduction of the overall greenhouse gas emissions, centralised power plants fed by fossil fuels and modified for retention of CO 2 are needed to guarantee a supply of energy at moderate costs in the 21st century. (author)

  9. Availability of thermal power plants 1985-1994. 24. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitsch, D.; Schmitz, H.

    1995-01-01

    The survey in hand is the 24th statistical report in the series commenced in 1970. It covers the ten-year period from 1985 through 1994 and presents availability data of 349 power plants in Germany and abroad, representing approx. 99.000 MW and a total of 3.500 years of operating experience. Data are presented on fossil-fuel units, units with a combined gas/steam cycle, nuclear power plants, and gas turbines. The fossil-fuel units are broken down by unit size, years of operation, fuel, type of combustion (dry, melt), and design type (monoblock and duoblock, subcritical and supercritical systems). Nuclear power plants are arranged by type of reactor (PWR, BWR), unit size, and years of operation. Combined-cycle power plants are listed separately due to their various technical design concepts. The gas turbine data are arranged by years of operation. Apart from availability and utilisation data of gas turbines, there are data on event reliability and the number of successful or unsuccessful starts. In general, data for all plants and systems included are given first whenever appropriate, the data for the German plants following in second place. Performance data are gross values measured at generator terminals and, just as the number of plants, are end-of-the-year figures. (orig./GL) [de

  10. Availability of thermal power plants 1980-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitsch, D.; Schmitz, H.

    1990-01-01

    The evaluation submitted here is the 19th annual evaluation since 1970. It covers the period from 1980 to 1989 and contains availability data of 324 power stations (domestic and international) with roundabout 94000 MW and 3800 plant years. Data relate to fossil-fuelled cogeneration plants, combined cycle plants (gas-steam combined process), nuclear power stations and gas turbines. The fossil-fuelled blocks are broken down by size, time of operation, fuel, type of combustion (dry, melt) and type mono-, duoblocks, subcritical and supercritical systems, nuclear power stations are organised by type of reactor heavy-water/pressurized water reactor and type of operation. Combined cycle power plants are listed separately due to their different technical concept. Gas turbines are sub-divided by type of operation (time). Apart from availability and utilisation values of gas turbines there are data on reliability and the number of successful and unsuccessful starts. In general the values are first given for all plants of one particular type and then for the German plants in particular. Performance values are gross values measured at generator and like the number of plants they are end-of-the-year figures. In order to increase the usefulness of the VGB-availability studies various items in the recording and evaluation were improved and extended as of 1987. (orig./HS) [de

  11. Exergetic comparison of two different cooling technologies for the power cycle of a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco-Marigorta, Ana M.; Victoria Sanchez-Henriquez, M.; Pena-Quintana, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    Exergetic analysis is without any doubt a powerful tool for developing, evaluating and improving an energy conversion system. In the present paper, two different cooling technologies for the power cycle of a 50 MWe solar thermal power plant are compared from the exergetic viewpoint. The Rankine cycle design is a conventional, single reheat design with five closed and one open extraction feedwater heaters. The software package GateCycle is used for the thermodynamic simulation of the Rankine cycle model. The first design configuration uses a cooling tower while the second configuration uses an air cooled condenser. With this exergy analysis we identify the location, magnitude and the sources or thermodynamic inefficiencies in this thermal system. This information is very useful for improving the overall efficiency of the power system and for comparing the performance of both technologies.

  12. Output power analyses for the thermodynamic cycles of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Chen; Cheng Xue-Tao; Liang Xin-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Thermal power plant is one of the important thermodynamic devices, which is very common in all kinds of power generation systems. In this paper, we use a new concept, entransy loss, as well as exergy destruction, to analyze the single reheating Rankine cycle unit and the single stage steam extraction regenerative Rankine cycle unit in power plants. This is the first time that the concept of entransy loss is applied to the analysis of the power plant Rankine cycles with reheating and steam extraction regeneration. In order to obtain the maximum output power, the operating conditions under variant vapor mass flow rates are optimized numerically, as well as the combustion temperatures and the off-design flow rates of the flue gas. The relationship between the output power and the exergy destruction rate and that between the output power and the entransy loss rate are discussed. It is found that both the minimum exergy destruction rate and the maximum entransy loss rate lead to the maximum output power when the combustion temperature and heat capacity flow rate of the flue gas are prescribed. Unlike the minimum exergy destruction rate, the maximum entransy loss rate is related to the maximum output power when the highest temperature and heat capacity flow rate of the flue gas are not prescribed. (general)

  13. Design study on the efficiency of the thermal scheme of power unit of thermal power plants in hot climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlov, A.; Dorokhov, Y.; Rybakov, B.; Nenashev, A.

    2017-11-01

    At the stage of pre-proposals unit of the thermal power plants for regions with a hot climate requires a design study on the efficiency of possible options for the structure of the thermal circuit and a set of key parameters. In this paper, the thermal circuit of the condensing unit powerfully 350 MW. The main feature of the external conditions of thermal power plants in hot climates is the elevated temperature of cooling water of the turbine condensers. For example, in the Persian Gulf region as the cooling water is sea water. In the hot season of the year weighted average sea water temperature of 30.9 °C and during the cold season to 22.8 °C. From the turbine part of the steam is supplied to the distillation-desalination plant. In the hot season of the year heat scheme with pressure fresh pair of 23.54 MPa, temperature 570/560 °C and feed pump with electric drive (EDP) is characterized by a efficiency net of 0.25% higher than thermal schem with feed turbine pump (TDP). However, the supplied power unit with PED is less by 11.6 MW. Calculations of thermal schemes in all seasons of the year allowed us to determine the difference in the profit margin of units of the TDP and EDP. During the year the unit with the TDP provides the ability to obtain the profit margin by 1.55 million dollars more than the unit EDP. When using on the market subsidized price of electricity (Iran) marginal profit of a unit with TDP more at 7.25 million dollars.

  14. Power plant instrumentation and control handbook a guide to thermal power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Swapan

    2014-01-01

    The book discusses instrumentation and control in modern fossil fuel power plants, with an emphasis on selecting the most appropriate systems subject to constraints engineers have for their projects. It provides all the plant process and design details, including specification sheets and standards currently followed in the plant. Among the unique features of the book are the inclusion of control loop strategies and BMS/FSSS step by step logic, coverage of analytical instruments and technologies for pollution and energy savings, and coverage of the trends toward filed bus systems and integratio

  15. Thermal effects on metabolic activities of thermophilic microorganisms from the thermal discharge point of Tuticorin thermal power plant area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthukkannan, N.; Murugesan, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Metabolic activities of thermophilic microorganisms isolated from the thermal water discharge point at Tuticorin thermal power station were studied by growing the microorganisms in sterile medium and at various temperature regimes of 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65degC. The optimum temperature for the growth of the bacterium isolated from the thermal power plant station was 45 degC and beyond 65 degC the growth was gradually decreased. The bacteria isolated from open sea water were mesophiles with their growth optimum at 35 degC and microbes inhabiting the thermal discharge area were thermopiles as they were tolerant even at 55 degC. The amylase production, carbohydrate metabolism and lactose fermentation activities were optimum at 45 degC. At 25 degC and beyond 65 degC biochemical activities of the organisms were inhibited to a greater extent. (author)

  16. Availability of thermal power plants 1981-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitsch, D.; Schmitz, H.

    1991-01-01

    The present volume covers the period of 1981 to 1990 and contains availability data of power plants in Germany and abroad. Data are presented on fossil-fuelled units, units with a combined gas/steam cycle, nuclear power plants and gas turbines. The fossil-fuelled units are broken down by unit size, years of operation, fuel, type of combustion (dry, melt) and type (mono, duo units, subcritical and supercritical systems). Nuclear power stations are arranged by type of reactor (PWR, BWR), unit size and years of operation. Combined cycle power plants are listed separately due to their different technical concepts. Apart from availability and utilisation values of gas turbines there are data on reliability and the number of successful and unsuccessful starts. In general the data are first given for all plants and then for the German plants in particular. Performance values are gross values measured at generator terminals and, as the number of plants, they are end-of-the-year figures [de

  17. Port Menier thermal power plant: Pre-project report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    Port Menier, the town on Anticosti Island in the St Lawrence River estuary, is supplied with electricity from a diesel power plant having a firm capacity of 1,080 kW. Since 1987, power demand has increased at an average annual rate of 5.7%, raising the winter peak demand from 670 kW to 987 kW. The power plant is located in the center of town and is obsolete, presenting a number of architectural, environmental, and operational deficiencies. It is proposed to construct a new power plant having an initial firm capacity of 1,490 kW and storage capacity for 75,000 liters of fuel. The plant site will have an area of ca 6,265 m 2 to allow for an eventual expansion to over 3,000 kW capacity, sufficient for satisfying forecast demand over the next 20 years. Estimated cost of the new plant is ca $9.5 million. The old plant will be decommissioned and the new plant will be built at a site outside of town. The natural and human environments characteristic of the Port Menier area are detailed and the two selected sites for the new plant are described and compared. A site in the industrial zone of Port-Menier is favored. The environmental impacts of the new plant are analyzed and mitigation measures during the preconstruction, construction, and operational phases are proposed. Local economic impacts are estimated at around $990,000. 20 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs

  18. energy and exergy evaluation of a 220mw thermal power plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    The outcomes of this work provide the exergy consumption and distribution profiles of the thermal power plant ... power plant with post-combustion CO2 capture. The once-through boiler exhibited the highest exergy destruction of all the plants ...

  19. EFFICIENCY AND COST MODELLING OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Bihari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The proper characterization of energy suppliers is one of the most important components in the modelling of the supply/demand relations of the electricity market. Power generation capacity i. e. power plants constitute the supply side of the relation in the electricity market. The supply of power stations develops as the power stations attempt to achieve the greatest profit possible with the given prices and other limitations. The cost of operation and the cost of load increment are thus the most important characteristics of their behaviour on the market. In most electricity market models, however, it is not taken into account that the efficiency of a power station also depends on the level of the load, on the type and age of the power plant, and on environmental considerations. The trade in electricity on the free market cannot rely on models where these essential parameters are omitted. Such an incomplete model could lead to a situation where a particular power station would be run either only at its full capacity or else be entirely deactivated depending on the prices prevailing on the free market. The reality is rather that the marginal cost of power generation might also be described by a function using the efficiency function. The derived marginal cost function gives the supply curve of the power station. The load level dependent efficiency function can be used not only for market modelling, but also for determining the pollutant and CO2 emissions of the power station, as well as shedding light on the conditions for successfully entering the market. Based on the measurement data our paper presents mathematical models that might be used for the determination of the load dependent efficiency functions of coal, oil, or gas fuelled power stations (steam turbine, gas turbine, combined cycle and IC engine based combined heat and power stations. These efficiency functions could also contribute to modelling market conditions and determining the

  20. Impact of environmental cost on economics of thermal power plant. Paper no. IGEC-1-007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, H.; Kaushik, S.C.; Chandra, A.

    2005-01-01

    Cost analysis per unit of power generation have been performed for coal based thermal power plant situated in Dadri (UP) for Indian and imported coal from Australia and America. In our study it has been found that it is better to use imported coal in Indian thermal power plants with advantages like low environmental, investment and total cost per unit of power generation. The effect of percent excess air and plant load factor on total cost per unit of power generation is also analyzed. (author)

  1. Ocean thermal gradient as a generator of electricity. OTEC power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enrique, Luna-Gomez Victor; Angel, Alatorre-Mendieta Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) is a power plant that uses the thermal gradient of the sea water between the surface and a depth of about 700 meters. It works by supplying the heat to a steam machine, for evaporation, with sea water from the surface and cold, to condense the steam, with deep sea water. The energy generated by the power plant OTEC can be transferred to the electric power grid, another use is to desalinate seawater. During the twentieth century in some countries experimental power plants to produce electricity or obtaining drinking water they were installed. On the Mexico's coast itself this thermal gradient, as it is located in tropical seas it occurs, so it has possibilities of installing OTEC power plant type. In this paper one type OTEC power plant operation is represented in most of its components.

  2. Feasibility study of Pridneprovskaya Thermal Power Plant reconstruction project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With objectives of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission at the Pridneprovskaya power plant in Ukraine, a scrap and build project has been discussed. This project will abolish the unit No.12 among the eight units in the existing coal burning power generation facilities, and install a natural gas burning combined cycle plant comprising of three units each with an output of 100 MW. The new plant facilities will consist of gas turbines, steam turbines, HRSG and auxiliary devices, and an air-cooled synchronous power generator with a capacity of 119 MVA. Use of natural gas as fuel reduces generation of soot, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and CO. In addition, the hot effluent and waste liquor effluent will decrease from those at the present plant. The required fund will be 30,107 million yen. The energy saving effect of this project is reduction of about 7.5 million tons of crude oil equivalent as a total in 40 years. The greenhouse effect gas will decrease by about 39 million tons as a total in 40 years. The profitability estimation calls for the number of investment recovery year of 16 years, and internal profit rate of 7.32%, wherein the implementation of the project cannot be expected as a project to be carried out by private funds. (NEDO)

  3. A critical review on energy, exergy, exergoeconomic and economic (4-E analysis of thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing energy supply, demand has created an interest towards the plant equipment efficiency and the optimization of existing thermal power plants. Also, a thermal power plant dependency on fossil fuel makes it a little bit difficult, because of environmental impacts has been always taken into consideration. At present, most of the power plants are going to be designed by the energetic performance criterion which is based on the first law of thermodynamics. Sometimes, the system energy balance is not sufficient for the possible finding of the system imperfections. Energy losses taking place in a system can be easily determined by using exergy analysis. Hence, it is a powerful tool for the measurement of energy quality, thereby helps to make complex thermodynamic systems more efficient. Nowadays, economic optimization of plant is also a big problem for researchers because of the complex nature. At a viewpoint of this, a comprehensive literature review over the years of energy, exergy, exergoeconomic and economic (4-E analysis and their applications in thermal power plants stimulated by coal, gas, combined cycle and cogeneration system have been done thoroughly. This paper is addressed to those researchers who are doing their research work on 4-E analysis in various thermal power plants. If anyone extracts an idea for the development of the concept of 4-E analysis using this article, we will achieve our goal. This review also indicates the scope of future research in thermal power plants.

  4. Soil radioactivity levels and radiation hazard assessment around a Thermal Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Pankaj; Sharma, Somdutt; Agrawal, Anshu; Kumar, Rajesh; Prajith, Rama; Sahoo, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    Coal based thermal power plants further enhance the level of radioactivity in the environment, as burning of coal produces fly ash that can be released into the environment containing traces of 238 U, 232 Th and their decay products. Therefore, coal fired power plants are one of the major contributor towards the Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation (TENR). Keeping this in view, a study of natural radioactivity in the soil of twenty five villages within 5 km radius around the Harduaganj Thermal Power Plant, Aligarh, UP, India is going on under a BRNS major project, to know the radiological implications on general population living around this plant

  5. Meso-meteorological effect of thermal releases from nuclear power plants in the GW range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahloul, C.; Le Berre, P.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison is made between the energy released by nuclear power plants into the environment and the energy brought into action by meso-meteorological phenomena. Observations on the occasion of important heat release (forest fires) are made and compared with the thermal effluents generated by nuclear power plants [fr

  6. Energy and exergy evaluation of a 220MW thermal power plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy and exergy evaluation of a 220MW thermal power plant. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... At the variation of environmental or dead state temperature, ther e were no appreciable changes in the values of exergy efficiency of the ...

  7. Marine ecological habitat: A case study on projected thermal power plant around Dharamtar creek, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kulkarni, V.A.; Naidu, V.S.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Estuaries and tidal creeks, harboring mangroves particularly, face tremendous anthropogenic pressures. Expansion of mega cities and the thermal power plants are generally proposed in the vicinity of estuaries and creek, due to the feasibility...

  8. Experience in connecting the power generating units of thermal power plants to automatic secondary frequency regulation within the united power system of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, A. V.; Komarov, A. N.; Safronov, A. N.; Barsukov, I. V.

    2009-01-01

    The principles of central control of the power generating units of thermal power plants by automatic secondary frequency and active power overcurrent regulation systems, and the algorithms for interactions between automatic power control systems for the power production units in thermal power plants and centralized systems for automatic frequency and power regulation, are discussed. The order of switching the power generating units of thermal power plants over to control by a centralized system for automatic frequency and power regulation and by the Central Coordinating System for automatic frequency and power regulation is presented. The results of full-scale system tests of the control of power generating units of the Kirishskaya, Stavropol, and Perm GRES (State Regional Electric Power Plants) by the Central Coordinating System for automatic frequency and power regulation at the United Power System of Russia on September 23-25, 2008, are reported.

  9. An analysis of factors that influence the technical efficiency of Malaysian thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    See, Kok Fong; Coelli, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The main objectives of this paper are to measure the technical efficiency levels of Malaysian thermal power plants and to investigate the degree to which various factors influence efficiency levels in these plants. Stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) methods are applied to plant-level data over an eight year period from 1998 to 2005. This is the first comprehensive analysis (to our knowledge) of technical efficiency in the Malaysian electricity generation industry using parametric method. Our empirical results indicate that ownership, plant size and fuel type have a significant influence on technical efficiency levels. We find that publicly-owned power plants obtain average technical efficiencies of 0.68, which is lower than privately-owned power plants, which achieve average technical efficiencies of 0.88. We also observe that larger power plants with more capacity and gas-fired power plants tend to be more technically efficient than other power plants. Finally, we find that plant age and peaking plant type have no statistically significant influence on the technical efficiencies of Malaysian thermal power plants. - Highlights: ► We examine the technical efficiency (TE) levels of Malaysian thermal power plants. ► We also investigate the degree to which various factors influence efficiency levels in these plants. ► Stochastic frontier analysis methods are used. ► Average plant would have to increase their TE level by 21% to reach the efficient frontier. ► Ownership, plant size and fuel type have a significant influence on the TE levels.

  10. Effect of increased renewables generation on operation of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eser, Patrick; Singh, Antriksh; Chokani, Ndaona; Abhari, Reza S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Impacts of increased renewables in central European transmission system are assessed. • Individual transmission lines and power plants of transmission system are modelled. • Starts and ramps of thermal power plants significantly increase with increased renewables. • Impact of renewables on thermal power plants is highly dependent on location. - Abstract: High spatial and temporal resolution optimal power flow simulations of the 2013 and 2020 interconnected grid in Central Western and Eastern Europe regions are undertaken to assess the impact of an increased penetration of renewables on thermal power plants. In contrast to prior studies, the present work models each individual transmission line and power plant within the two regions. Furthermore, for conventional plants, electricity costs are determined with respect to fuel type, nameplate capacity, operating condition and geographic location; cycling costs are modeled as function of the recent operational history. For renewable power plants, costs and available power are determined using mesoscale weather simulations and hydrology models. Countrywide validation of the simulations shows that all renewable and most conventional power production is predicted with less than 10% error. It is shown that the increased penetration of renewables in 2020 will induce a 4–23% increase in the number of starts of conventional plants. The number of load ramps significantly increases by 63–181%, which underlines the necessity for equipment manufacturers and utilities to adapt to scenarios of high penetration of renewables. The increased cycling operation of coal plants is shown to depend strongly on the power plant’s location and is mainly observed in Germany and the Czech Republic. Austrian coal plants are cycled less because they supply more base load power to southern Germany, where several nuclear power plants will be phased out by 2020. Thus there is a need for more transmission capacity along

  11. Risk management methodology applied at thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppolino, R.

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, the responsibility of the environmental risks, connected the productive processes and to the products of an enterprise, represent one of the main aspects which an adequate management approach has to foresee. In this paper it has been evaluated the guidelines followed by Edipower Thermoelectric Power plant of S. Filippo di Mela (ME). These guidelines were given in order to manage the chemical risk connected to the usage of various chemicals with which the workers get in touch when identifying the risks of the methodology introduced by the AZ/NZS 4360:2004 Risk Management Standard

  12. Cooperation of nuclear, thermal and hydroelectric power plants in the power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The conference heard 36 papers of which 23 were incorporated in INIS. The subjects discussed were: the development of power industry in Czechoslovakia, methods of statistical analysis of data regarding nuclear power plant operation, the incorporation of WWER nuclear power plants in the power supply system, the standardization of nuclear power plants, the service life of components, use of nuclear energy sources, performance of the reactor accident protection system, the use of nuclear power and heating plants in Hungary, risk analysis, optimization of nuclear power plants, accidents caused by leakage of the primary and secondary circuit. (J.P.)

  13. Thermal pollution of rivers and reservoirs by discharges of heated water from thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, I.

    1974-12-01

    The problems are discussed of the thermal pollution of rivers and water reservoirs by discharges of heated water from thermal and nuclear power plants. The problems concerned are quantitative and qualitative changes in biocenoses, the disturbance or extinction of flora and fauna, physiological changes in organisms and changes in the hydrochemical regime. (Z.M.)

  14. Accident prevention ordinance 2.0 Thermal Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egyptien, H.H.; Fischermann, E.

    This accident prevention ordinance is to cover primarily the very section of a power station where fossil or nuclear energy is converted into thermal energy, e.g. by heating or vaporization of a heat source. In paragraph 1, 40 GJ/h are stipulated as the lower limit of capacity corresponding to about 11 MW. Therefore, the accident prevention ordinance does not only marshal the operation of steam generators in electricity supply utilities but also covers smaller industrial power stations which partly do only meet the company's own requirements. Pipes are only covered as far as they are operated in conjunction with a heat generator. The same applies to coal handling and ash removal facilities. This means that for heat release e.g. in the framework of a district heating grid, the transfer station to the distribution grid is regarded as being a border of the power station and thus a border to the area of application of the accident prevention ordinance. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Adaptation of thermal power plants: The (ir)relevance of climate (change) information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogmans, Christian W.J.; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.; Vliet, Michelle T.H. van

    2017-01-01

    When does climate change information lead to adaptation? We analyze thermal power plant adaptation by means of investing in water-saving (cooling) technology to prevent a decrease in plant efficiency and load reduction. A comprehensive power plant investment model, forced with downscaled climate and hydrological projections, is then numerically solved to analyze the adaptation decisions of a selection of real power plants. We find that operators that base their decisions on current climatic conditions are likely to make identical choices and perform just as well as operators that are fully ‘informed’ about climate change. Where electricity supply is mainly generated by thermal power plants, heat waves, droughts and low river flow may impact electricity supply for decades to come. - Highlights: • We analyze adaptation to climate change by thermal power plants. • A numerical investment model is applied to a coal plant and a nuclear power plant. • The numerical analysis is based on climate and hydrological projections. • Climate change information has a relatively small effect on a power plant's NPV. • Uncertainty and no-regret benefits lower the value of climate change information.

  16. The use of thermal wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balligand, P.

    1976-01-01

    A glance at the diagrams which summarize national primary energy consumption expressed in tons of oil equivalent for various needs shows that 50% and sometimes more of the energy imput is lost during use. It is only logical that an attempt is being made to use this lost energy. However the solution is not an easy one, as it generally involves energy which is widely distributed in low temperature wastes, at any event in the case of present-day electrical power plants, and the economics of the project must be carefully examined. In the case of agriculture, it may be asserted that many solutions for recovery are available depending on the type of waste. These uses are likely to reduce the fuel consumption of agricultural farms and the areas which can be heated are considerable. However, this means concentrating agricultural installations likely to benefit from hot water economic problems. As for urban heating with a heat pump, in order for the system to be economical, we feel that water must be available at least at the temperature of the water from cooling towers, a minimum of 30 0 C, together with a high user density in the immediate vicinity of the power plant. (orig./RW) [de

  17. Operation management of thermal power plant. Karyoku plant no unten kanri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-15

    Nowadays, thermal power plants are getting bigger and bigger in capacity. At the same time, high reliability to the frequent start and stop due to the demand change as well as effective economy. This paper describes the total operation management system. It included the start and stop, normal operation, specified operation, water quality, operation management involving the environmental problems, protection of machinery and equipment in case of emergency, measures against the failure, and the measures against the disaster. The outline of the normal operation is as follows: from the cost economical point of view, the kind of fuel is changed according to the load; i.e., coal for basic operation, LNG for basic to medium operation, and oil for medium to peak operation. The change in demand cannot be followed by the hydroelectric power. The adjustment of the power depending on the load change can be achieved by the thermal power generation. The automatic frequency control, economical load distribution control are also done. In the nighttime, the minimum load operation is required. The voltage change operation below the rated value or the phase-advancing operation is also done depending on the load conditions. 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Detailed partial load investigation of a thermal energy storage concept for solar thermal power plants with direct steam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, M.; Hübner, S.; Johnson, M.

    2016-05-01

    Direct steam generation enables the implementation of a higher steam temperature for parabolic trough concentrated solar power plants. This leads to much better cycle efficiencies and lower electricity generating costs. For a flexible and more economic operation of such a power plant, it is necessary to develop thermal energy storage systems for the extension of the production time of the power plant. In the case of steam as the heat transfer fluid, it is important to use a storage material that uses latent heat for the storage process. This leads to a minimum of exergy losses during the storage process. In the case of a concentrating solar power plant, superheated steam is needed during the discharging process. This steam cannot be superheated by the latent heat storage system. Therefore, a sensible molten salt storage system is used for this task. In contrast to the state-of-the-art thermal energy storages within the concentrating solar power area of application, a storage system for a direct steam generation plant consists of a latent and a sensible storage part. Thus far, no partial load behaviors of sensible and latent heat storage systems have been analyzed in detail. In this work, an optimized fin structure was developed in order to minimize the costs of the latent heat storage. A complete system simulation of the power plant process, including the solar field, power block and sensible and latent heat energy storage calculates the interaction between the solar field, the power block and the thermal energy storage system.

  19. Evaluation of thermal power plant operational performance in Taiwan by data envelopment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.H.; Lin, Sue J.; Lewis, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Electricity is essential in the economic development of a nation. Due to the rapid growth of economy and industrial development in Taiwan, the demand for use of electricity has increased rapidly. This study evaluates the power-generation efficiency of major thermal power plants in Taiwan during 2004-2006 using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. A stability test was conducted to verify the stability of the DEA model. According to the results, all power plants studied achieved acceptable overall operational efficiencies during 2004-2006, and the combined cycle power plants were the most efficient among all plants. The most important variable in this DEA model is the 'heating value of total fuels'. Findings from this study can be beneficial in improving some of the existing power plants and for more efficient operational strategies and related policy-making for future power plants in Taiwan.

  20. Thermal circuit and supercritical steam generator of the BGR-300 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, B.P.; Godik, I.B.; Komarov, N.F.; Kurochnkin, Yu.P.

    1979-01-01

    Secondary coolant circuit and a steam generator for supercritical steam parameters of the BGR-300 reactor plant are described. The BGR-300 plant with a 300 MW(e) high-temperature gas-cooled fast reactor is developed as a pilot commercial plant. It is shown that the use of a supercritical pressure steam increases the thermal efficiency of the plant and descreases thermal releases to the environment, permits to use home-made commercial turbine plants of large unit power. The proposed supercritical pressure steam generator has considerable advantages from the viewpoint of heat transfer and hydrodynamical processes

  1. Study on key technologies of optimization of big data for thermal power plant performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Mingyang; Xiao, Hong

    2018-06-01

    Thermal power generation accounts for 70% of China's power generation, the pollutants accounted for 40% of the same kind of emissions, thermal power efficiency optimization needs to monitor and understand the whole process of coal combustion and pollutant migration, power system performance data show explosive growth trend, The purpose is to study the integration of numerical simulation of big data technology, the development of thermal power plant efficiency data optimization platform and nitrogen oxide emission reduction system for the thermal power plant to improve efficiency, energy saving and emission reduction to provide reliable technical support. The method is big data technology represented by "multi-source heterogeneous data integration", "large data distributed storage" and "high-performance real-time and off-line computing", can greatly enhance the energy consumption capacity of thermal power plants and the level of intelligent decision-making, and then use the data mining algorithm to establish the boiler combustion mathematical model, mining power plant boiler efficiency data, combined with numerical simulation technology to find the boiler combustion and pollutant generation rules and combustion parameters of boiler combustion and pollutant generation Influence. The result is to optimize the boiler combustion parameters, which can achieve energy saving.

  2. A Study on infrared tracing and monitoring of thermal discharge from the power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Sun; Hong, Wuk Hee; Kim, Yung Bae; Park, Jang Rae; Choi, Yung An; Park, Yung San [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1996-08-01

    Massive discharge of cooling water from the nuclear power plants as well as many thermal power plants would cause serious environmental problems. Hence, the task of predicting cooling water dispersion areas has enormous importance for better environmental management related with the power plant operation. For the last two decades, extensive field survey and dispersion modeling have been mainly applied to predict thermal discharge dispersion areas. In this study, the method of infrared thermal sensing was tested as a possible means of measuring the affected areas of thermal discharge at the thermal power plant sites. Many IR images obtained by using the terrestrial camera, or by using the airborne scanner, or from the Landsat iv satellite were analyzed from the pc with the IDRISI and resource software and further enhanced with other image analysis technologies. The result of study proved this IR imaging technology to be an potentially cost-effective tool for assessment of water-temperature increase caused by the thermal discharge from the power plants, however, further elaboration of procedure was highly requested. (author). 9 refs., 24 figs.

  3. A study on the ocean circulation and thermal diffusion near a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Kyung Suk; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Eun Han; Hwang, Won Tae

    1994-08-01

    The thermal discharge used with cooling water at nuclear power plant is released to a neighbour sea and it is influenced on marine environment. The thermal discharge released from power plant is mainly transported and diffused by ocean circulation of neighbour sea. So the evaluation for characteristics of ocean circulation around neighbour sea is firstly performed. The purpose of this research is primarily analyzed the thermal diffusion in sea around Yongkwang nuclear power plant. For this viewpoint, fundamental oceanographic data sets are collected and analyzed in Yellow sea, west sea of Korea, sea around Yongkwang. The ocean circulation and the effects of temperature increase by thermal discharge are evaluated using these data. The characteristics of tide is interpreted by the analysis of observed tidal elevation and tidal currents. The characteristics of temperature and salinity is investigated by the long-term observation of Korea Fisheries Research and Development Agency and the short-term observation around Yongkwang. (Author)

  4. Physico-chemical characterization of slag waste coming from GICC thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, A.; Aineto, M.; Iglesias, I. [Laboratory of Applied Mineralogy, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real Madrid (Spain); Romero, M.; Rincon, J.Ma. [The Glass-Ceramics Laboratory, Insituto Eduardo Torroja de Ciencias de la Construccion, CSIC, c/Serrano Galvache s/n, 28033, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-09-01

    The new gas installations of combined cycle (GICC) thermal power plants for production of electricity are more efficient than conventional thermal power plants, but they produce a high quantity of wastes in the form of slags and fly ashes. Nowadays, these by-products are stored within the production plants with, until now, no applications of recycling in other industrial processes. In order to evaluate the capability of these products for recycling in glass and ceramics inductory, an investigation for the full characterization has been made by usual physico-chemical methods such as: chemical analysis, mineralogical analysis by XRD, granulometry, BET, DTA/TG, heating microscopy and SEM/EDX.

  5. An electron beam flue gas treatment plant for a coal fired thermal power station. EBA demonstration plant in Chengdu thermal power station (China EBA Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Shi, Jingke

    1999-01-01

    Ebara's electron beam flue gas treatment plant was installed and is being demonstrated in Chengdu Thermal Power Station, Sichuan, China. The demonstration is proving that this plant is fully capable of meeting the target removal of sulfur dioxides from flue gas (flow rate : 300-thousand m 3 /h). Recovered by-products, namely ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate, from the treatment were actually tested as fertilizers, the result of which was favorable. The sale and distribution of these by-products are already underway. In May 1995, this plant was presented the certificate of authorization by China's State Power Corporation. It is noted that this was the first time a sulfur dioxide removal plant was certified as such in China. (author)

  6. Optimum voltage of auxiliary systems for thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokumitsu, Iwao; Segawa, Motomichi

    1979-01-01

    In the power plants in Japan, their unit power output has been greatly enhanced since the introduction of new powerful thermal power plants from 1950's to 1960's. In both thermal and nuclear power plants, 1,000 MW machines have been already in operation. The increase of unit power output results in the increase of in-plant load capacity. Of these the voltage adopted for in-plant low voltage systems is now mainly 440 V at load terminals, and the voltage for in-plant high voltage systems has been changing to 6 kV level via 3 kV and 4 kV levels. As plant capacity increases, the load of low voltage systems significantly increases, and it is required to raise the voltage of 400 V level. By the way, the low voltage in AC is specified to be not higher than 600 V. This makes the change within the above range comparatively easy. Considering these conditions, it is recommended to change the voltage for low voltage systems to 575 V at power source terminals and 550 V at load terminals. Some merits in constructing power systems and in economy by raising the voltage were examined. Though demerits are also found, they are only about 15% of total merits. The most advantageous point in raising the voltage is to be capable of increasing the supplying range to low voltage system loads. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Performance analysis of an integrated gas-, steam- and organic fluid-cycle thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oko, C.O.C.; Njoku, I.H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the performance analysis of an existing combined cycle power plant augmented with a waste heat fired organic Rankine cycle power plant for extra power generation. This was achieved by performing energy and exergy analysis of the integrated gas-, steam- and organic fluid-cycle thermal power plant (IPP). Heat source for the subcritical organic Rankine cycle (ORC) was the exhaust flue gases from the heat recovery steam generators of a 650 MW natural gas fired combined cycle power plant. The results showed that extra 12.4 MW of electricity was generated from the attached ORC unit using HFE7100 as working fluid. To select ORC working fluid, ten isentropic fluids were screened and HFE7100 produced the highest net power output and cycle efficiency. Exergy and energy efficiencies of the IPP improved by 1.95% and 1.93%, respectively. The rate of exergy destruction in the existing combined cycle plant was highest in the combustion chamber, 59%, whereas in the ORC, the highest rate of exergy destruction occurred in the evaporator, 62%. Simulations showed exergy efficiency of the IPP decreased with increasing ambient temperature. Exit stack flue gas temperature reduced from 126 °C in the combined cycle power plant to 100 °C in the integrated power plant. - Highlights: • Combined cycle plant retrofitted with ORC produced extra 12.4 MW electric power. • ORC is powered with low temperature flue gas from an existing combined cycle plant. • Exergy destruction rate in integrated plant(IPP) is less than in combined plant. • Exit stack temperature of the IPP has less environmental thermal pollution. • Exergy and energy efficiencies of the IPP improved by 1.95% and 1.93%, respectively.

  8. Impact of coal combustion from thermal power plant: estimates on ambient SO2 levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, P.V.

    1991-01-01

    Using a Gaussian dispersion model, ambient Ground Levels Concentrations (GLC) of SO 2 due to Nashik Thermal Power Plant have been computed. Annual GLC in 16 cardinal sectors and concentration levels in 6 atmospheric stability classes have been estimated as a function of down wind distance. The values are compared with national ambient air quality standard and risk involved due to the release of SO 2 from power plant has been assessed. (author). 8 refs., 2 appendixes

  9. Economic impact of latent heat thermal energy storage systems within direct steam generating solar thermal power plants with parabolic troughs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.; Johnson, M.; Hübner, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of a latent heat thermal energy storage system into a solar direct steam generation power cycle. • Parametric study of solar field and storage size for determination of the optimal layout. • Evaluation of storage impact on the economic performance of the solar thermal power plant. • Economic comparison of new direct steam generation plant layout with state-of-the-art oil plant layout. - Abstract: One possible way to further reduce levelized costs of electricity of concentrated solar thermal energy is to directly use water/steam as the primary heat transfer fluid within a concentrated collector field. This so-called direct steam generation offers the opportunity of higher operating temperatures and better exergy efficiency. A technical challenge of the direct steam generation technology compared to oil-driven power cycles is a competitive storage technology for heat transfer fluids with a phase change. Latent heat thermal energy storages are suitable for storing heat at a constant temperature and can be used for direct steam generation power plants. The calculation of the economic impact of an economically optimized thermal energy storage system, based on a latent heat thermal energy storage system with phase change material, is the main focus of the presented work. To reach that goal, a thermal energy storage system for a direct steam generation power plant with parabolic troughs in the solar field was thermally designed to determine the boundary conditions. This paper discusses the economic impact of the designed thermal energy storage system based on the levelized costs of electricity results, provided via a wide parametric study. A state-of-the-art power cycle with a primary and a secondary heat transfer fluid and a two-tank thermal energy storage is used as a benchmark technology for electricity generation with solar thermal energy. The benchmark and direct steam generation systems are compared to each other, based respectively

  10. Technical Feasibility Study of Thermal Energy Storage Integration into the Conventional Power Plant Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek D. Wojcik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current load balance in the grid is managed mainly through peaking fossil-fuelled power plants that respond passively to the load changes. Intermittency, which comes from renewable energy sources, imposes additional requirements for even more flexible and faster responses from conventional power plants. A major challenge is to keep conventional generation running closest to the design condition with higher load factors and to avoid switching off periods if possible. Thermal energy storage (TES integration into the power plant process cycle is considered as a possible solution for this issue. In this article, a technical feasibility study of TES integration into a 375-MW subcritical oil-fired conventional power plant is presented. Retrofitting is considered in order to avoid major changes in the power plant process cycle. The concept is tested based on the complete power plant model implemented in the ProTRAX software environment. Steam and water parameters are assessed for different TES integration scenarios as a function of the plant load level. The best candidate points for heat extraction in the TES charging and discharging processes are evaluated. The results demonstrate that the integration of TES with power plant cycle is feasible and provide a provisional guidance for the design of the TES system that will result in the minimal influence on the power plant cycle.

  11. Multi-objective superstructure-free synthesis and optimization of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ligang; Lampe, Matthias; Voll, Philip; Yang, Yongping; Bardow, André

    2016-01-01

    The merits of superstructure-free synthesis are demonstrated for bi-objective design of thermal power plants. The design of thermal power plants is complex and thus best solved by optimization. Common optimization methods require specification of a superstructure which becomes a tedious and error-prone task for complex systems. Superstructure specification is avoided by the presented superstructure-free approach, which is shown to successfully solve the design task yielding a high-quality Pareto front of promising structural alternatives. The economic objective function avoids introducing infinite numbers of units (e.g., turbine, reheater and feedwater preheater) as favored by pure thermodynamic optimization. The number of feasible solutions found per number of mutation tries is still high even after many generations but declines after introducing highly-nonlinear cost functions leading to challenging MINLP problems. The identified Pareto-optimal solutions tend to employ more units than found in modern power plants indicating the need for cost functions to reflect current industrial practice. In summary, the multi-objective superstructure-free synthesis framework is a robust approach for very complex problems in the synthesis of thermal power plants. - Highlights: • A generalized multi-objective superstructure-free synthesis framework for thermal power plants is presented. • The superstructure-free synthesis framework is comprehensively evaluated by complex bi-objective synthesis problems. • The proposed framework is effective to explore the structural design space even for complex problems.

  12. Thermal pollution of the atmosphere, in particular due to power plant parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortak, H.

    1977-01-01

    In the paper, a diagram is set up and described which relates the influence of power plant agglomerations to natural atmospheric phenomena, energetically and in some ways also dynamically. As there are no power plant agglomeration in existence at present, there is neither empirical knowledge on the meteorological and climatological effects to be expected from such agglomerations, nor are empirically proved theoretical predictions of the effects possible. In the diagram, the specific vertical energy flow is given for the thermal power emitted and the emission are for natural and anthropogenic thermal sources, and characteristic values are calculated for the thermal lift and the vertical velocity at representative heights above the area. As far as the arrangement of cooling towers is concerned, it is found that it is better to avoid cooling tower agglomerations on small areas and to erect smaller power stations distributed over a large area instead. (orig.) [de

  13. Ecological and economic interests in design process of thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, M.

    1996-01-01

    In design process of thermal power plant various ecological and economic contradictory interests are brought in focus. Requests on environmental protection written in laws, standards and international treaties are increasing investment costs and energy production costs. In a design phase there is a task to reconcile these contradictory requests. The paper presents relationship between technology and environmental protection with a focus on air pollution. Air pollution and human health is considered taking in account the role of design phase in thermal power plants project and human health problems. International laws and standards are presented with moral dilemmas concerning low investment costs and high environmental standards. (author)

  14. Europe's largest solar thermal power plant. [200 kw thermal output supplemented by two 10-kw windmills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossel, U

    1976-03-01

    An overview is given over the solar heating plant which has recently been commissioned in the Camargue (France). This is the largest plant in Europe, with a mean heat output of about 200 kW, for the production of thermal energy from solar energy. The plant consists of 108 parabolic collectors (200 sq. metres) and 48 flat collectors (110 sq. metres). Two windmills with outputs of 10 kW each complete the system. The heat energy produced by the solar collectors is given up to 3 different stores, which in turn are connected to various consumers.

  15. Exergy analysis of the FIGUEIRA thermal power plant operation - state of Parana, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanescu, George; Lima, Joao E. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: stanescu@demec.ufpr.br; joeduli@demec.ufpr.br; Andrade, Carlos de [FIGUEIRA Thermal Power Plant, Figueira, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: ccarlosaandrade@zipmail.com.br

    2000-07-01

    Exergy analysis is a powerful tool to evaluate, design and improve the thermal systems. The method of exergy analysis or availability analysis is well suited for furthering the goal of increasing the efficiency of existing power generation systems, and the capability of more effective energy resource use. Exergy analysis of the FIGUEIRA thermal power plant is presented. Exergy losses occurring in various components are considered and the exergy balance is shown in tabular form. Results clearly reveal that the steam generator is the principal site of thermodynamic losses, while the condenser is relatively unimportant. (author)

  16. Load following generation in nuclear power plants by latent thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Yoshio; Kamimoto, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Ryuji; Kanari, Katsuhiko; Ozawa, Takeo

    1985-01-01

    The recent increase in nuclear power plants and the growing difference between peak and off-peak demands imperatively need load following generation in nuclear power plants to meet the time-variant demands. One possible way to resolve the problem is, obviously, a prompt reaction conrol in the reactors. Alternatively, energy storage gives another sophisticated path to make load following generation in more effective manner. Latent thermal energy storage enjoys high storage density and allows thermal extraction at nearly constant temperature, i.e. phase change temperature. The present report is an attempt to evaluate the feasibility of load following electric power generation in nuclear plants (actually Pressurized Water Reactors) by latent thermal energy storage. In this concept, the excess thermal energy in the off-peak period is stored in molten salt latent thermal energy storage unit, and additional power output is generated in auxiliary generator in the peak demand duration using the stored thermal energy. The present evaluation gives encouraging results and shows the primary subject to be taken up at first is the compatibility of candidate storage materials with inexpensive structural metal materials. Chapter 1 denotes the background of the present report, and Chapter 2 reviews the previous studies on the peak load coverage by thermal energy storage. To figure out the concept of the storage systems, present power plant systems and possible constitution of storage systems are briefly shown in Chapter 3. The details of the evaluation of the candidate storage media, and the compilation of the materials' properties are presented in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5, the concept of the storage systems is depicted, and the economical feasibility of the systems is evaluated. The concluding remarks are summarized in Chapter 6. (author)

  17. Improvement of existing coal fired thermal power plants performance by control systems modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulandrić, Robert; Lončar, Dražen; Cvetinović, Dejan; Spiridon, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents possibilities of implementation of advanced combustion control concepts in selected Western Balkan thermal power plant, and particularly those based on artificial intelligence as part of primary measures for nitrogen oxide reduction in order to optimise combustion and to increase plant efficiency. Both considered goals comply with environmental quality standards prescribed in large combustion plant directive. Due to specific characterisation of Western Balkan power sector these goals should be reached by low cost and easily implementable solution. Advanced self-learning controller has been developed and the effects of advanced control concept on combustion process have been analysed using artificial neural-network based parameter prediction model

  18. RAM investigation of coal-fired thermal power plants: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bose

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Continuous generation of electricity of a power plant depends on the higher availability of its components/equipments. Higher availability of the components/equipments is inherently associated with their higher reliability and maintainability. This paper investigates the reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM characteristics of a 210 MW coal-fired thermal power plant (Unit-2 from a thermal power station in eastern region of India. Critical mechanical subsystems with respect to failure frequency, reliability and maintainability are identified for taking necessary measures for enhancing availability of the power plant and the results are compared with Unit-1 of the same Power Station. Reliability-based preventive maintenance intervals (PMIs at various reliability levels of the subsystems are estimated also for performing their preventive maintenance (PM. The present paper highlights that in the Unit-2, Economizer (ECO & Furnace Wall Tube (FWT exhibits lower reliability as compared to the other subsystems and Economizer (ECO & Baffle Wall Tube (BWT demands more improvement in maintainability. Further, it has been observed that FSH followed Decreasing Failure Rate (DFR and Economizer (ECO is the most critical subsystem for both the plants. RAM analysis is very much effective in finding critical subsystems and deciding their preventive maintenance program for improving availability of the power plant as well as the power supply.

  19. Electricity supply from thermal power plants and alternative sources at the Adriatic coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurek, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Croatian coastline with its numerous islands offers the most appropriate region in the whole of Croatia for the realisation of energy supply from alternative sources as a substitute for the electricity supplied from coal-driven thermal power plants, not only from the point of view of energy but also financial results. Investment costs of a 100 MW thermal power plant served for the estimation of results which would be achieved with the introduction of alternative sources (the sun, small hydro power plants and biomass) as well as for the rationalisation of consumption and savings of the existing energy sources. The alternative programmes can be conducted partially and the investments financed from savings. However, without a systematic solution for the whole country no significant results can be expected. (author)

  20. Hydrogen Fuel as Ecological Contribution to Operation of the Existing Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosic, D.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis is carried out of the application of a new hydrogen based alternative fuel as ecological contribution of the coal thermal power plants operation. Given the fact that coal thermal power plants are seen as the largest producers, not only of CO 2 , but of all others harmful gases, the idea is initiated to use the new alternative fuel as an additive to the coal which would result in much better performance of the coal power plants from an ecological point of view. It is possible to use such a fuel in relation of 10-30% of former coal use. The positive influence of such an application is much bigger than relative used quantity. This lecture has a goal to incite potential investors to create conditions for industrial testing of the new fuel. It will be very interesting to animate investors for large-scale production of the new fuel, too.(author).

  1. Comparative exergetic performance analysis for certain thermal power plants in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Dejan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods of analysis and calculation of complex thermal systems are based on the first law of thermodynamics. These methods use energy balance for a system. In general, energy balances do not provide any information about internal losses. In contrast, the second law of thermodynamics introduces the concept of exergy, which is useful in the analysis of thermal systems. Exergy is a measure for assessing the quality of energy, and allows one to determine the location, cause, and real size of losses incurred as well as residues in a thermal process. The purpose of this study is to comparatively analyze the performance of four thermal power plants from the energetic and exergetic viewpoint. Thermodynamic models of the plants are developed based on the first and second law of thermodynamics. The primary objectives of this paper are to analyze the system components separately and to identify and quantify the sites having largest energy and exergy losses. Finally, by means of these analyses, the main sources of thermodynamic inefficiencies as well as a reasonable comparison of each plant to others are identified and discussed. As a result, the outcomes of this study can provide a basis for the improvement of plant performance for the considered thermal power plants.

  2. An Economic Evaluation on Replacement Plan for Aged Thermal Power Plants through a Real Option Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Moritoshi; Zhou, Yicheng

    This paper presents a novel method to evaluate replacement plan for aged thermal power plants under uncertain circumstances through a real option approach. The most economical plan is selected among the three options: an option to operate an existing oil-fired thermal plant, an option to mothball it, and an option to abandon it and to construct an advanced gas combined cycle power plant (ACC) at the same time. Basic ideas of our model are: we use quadranomial approach in order to evaluate an option value consisted by two different uncertain assets; we consider cash flow with a dividend in order to reflect conditions of an aged oil-fired thermal plant and use the sequential compound option approach; we evaluate replacement time using quadranomial decision tree taking into account the options. We also analyze value and time of replacement using numerical examples. Our proposed method will be practically used for generation planning. For example it is possible to make priority quantitatively in replacements of aged thermal power plants by real option values. The target year of replacement may be set as a year when cumulative probability of replacement becomes over certain level.

  3. Center of thermal-physical data for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobkov, V P; Blokhin, A I; Ivashkevich, A A; Katan, I B; Peskov, O L; Pan' kov, V M; Savanin, N K; Sal' nikova, O V; Khrushcheva, E N; Kirova, T S

    1982-09-01

    The specific features of a specialized Center of thermal-physical data (CTD) are considered. The center has been created for data acquisition, storage and analysis and working out recommendations on the following NPP thermal physics sections: hydrodynamics of channel flows (monophase laminar and turbulent, and two-phase flows, hydrodynamic vibrations) heat exchange in NPP elements, thermohydraulic calculations of nuclear reactor cores, heat exchangers, steam generators and NPP cooling system elements, coolant properties (water and steam, liquid metals and gases). On the CTD data base an automated system ASKhOD, oriented to EC computer, is created. The ASKhoD software ensures data allocation on magnetic tapes or other carriers, automated renewal and data relocation, data search in compliance with a specified set of signs, data processing for the purpose of their estimation or obtaining optimized model constants. Different publications in home and foreign magazines, conference, seminar materials, organization preprints serve as the data sources used for the formation of the ASKhOD data base.

  4. Center of thermal-physical data for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobkov, V.P.; Blokhin, A.I.; Ivashkevich, A.A.; Katan, I.B.; Peskov, O.L.; Pan'kov, V.M.; Savanin, N.K.; Sal'nikova, O.V.; Khrushcheva, E.N.; Kirova, T.S.

    1982-01-01

    The specific features of a specialized Center of thermal-physical data (CTD) are considered. The center has been created for data acquisition, storage and analysis and working out recommendations on the following NPP thermal physics sections: hydrodynamics of channel flows (monophase laminar and turbulent, and two-phase flows, hydrodynamic vibrations) heat exchange in NPP elements, thermohydraulic calculations of nuclear reactor cores, heat exchangers, steam generators and NPP cooling system elements, coolant properties (water and steam, liquid metals and gases). On the CTD data base an automated system ASKhOD, oriented to EC computer, is created. The ASKhoD software ensures data allocation on magnetic tapes or other carriers, automated renewal and data relocation, data search in compliance with a specified set of signs, data processing for the purpose of their estimation or obtaining optimized model constants. Different publications in home and foreign magazines, conference, seminar materials, organization preprints serve as the data sources used for the formation of the ASKhOD data base

  5. Trend analysis of troubles caused by thermal-hydraulic phenomena at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Teruo

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Safety System (INSS) is promoting researches to improve the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants. In the present study, our attention was focused on troubles attributed to thermal-hydraulic phenomena in particular, trend analysis were carried out to learn lessons from these troubles and to prevent their recurrence. Through our survey, we found the following two points. First, many thermal-hydraulics related troubles can be attributed to design faults, since we found some events in foreign countries took place after inadequate facility renovation. To ensure appropriate design verification, it is important to take account of state-of-the-art science and technology and at the same time to pay attention to the compatibility with the initial design concept. Second point, thermal-hydraulic related troubles are common and recurrent to nuclear power plants worldwide. Japanese utilities are planning to introduce some of overseas experiences to their plants, such as power uprate and renovations of aged facilities. It is important to learn lessons from experiences paying close attention continuously to overseas trouble events, including thermal-hydraulics related events, and to use them to improve safety and reliability of nuclear power plants. (author)

  6. Biological effects from discharge of cooling water from thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    Results are reported for a Danish project on biological effects from discharge of cooling water from thermal power plants. The purpose of the project was to provide an up-to-date knowledge of biological effects of cooling water discharge and of organization and evaluation of recipient investigations in planned and established areas. (BP)

  7. Survey of thermal-hydraulic models of commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determan, J.C.; Hendrix, C.E.

    1992-12-01

    A survey of the thermal-hydraulic models of nuclear power plants has been performed to identify the NRC's current analytical capabilities for critical event response. The survey also supports ongoing research for accident management. The results of the survey are presented here. The PC database which records detailed data on each model is described

  8. Thermal-hydraulic calculation and analysis for QNPP (Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant) containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hui; Zhou Jie; He Yingchao

    1993-01-01

    Three containment thermal-hydraulic codes CONTEMPT-LT/028, CONTEMPT-4/MOD3 and COMPARE are used to compute and analyse the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP) containment response under LOCA or MSLB conditions. An evaluation of the capability of containment of QNPP is given

  9. Statistical modeling of an integrated boiler for coal fired thermal power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreepradha Chandrasekharan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The coal fired thermal power plants plays major role in the power production in the world as they are available in abundance. Many of the existing power plants are based on the subcritical technology which can produce power with the efficiency of around 33%. But the newer plants are built on either supercritical or ultra-supercritical technology whose efficiency can be up to 50%. Main objective of the work is to enhance the efficiency of the existing subcritical power plants to compensate for the increasing demand. For achieving the objective, the statistical modeling of the boiler units such as economizer, drum and the superheater are initially carried out. The effectiveness of the developed models is tested using analysis methods like R2 analysis and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance. The dependability of the process variable (temperature on different manipulated variables is analyzed in the paper. Validations of the model are provided with their error analysis. Response surface methodology (RSM supported by DOE (design of experiments are implemented to optimize the operating parameters. Individual models along with the integrated model are used to study and design the predictive control of the coal-fired thermal power plant. Keywords: Chemical engineering, Applied mathematics

  10. Statistical modeling of an integrated boiler for coal fired thermal power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Sreepradha; Panda, Rames Chandra; Swaminathan, Bhuvaneswari Natrajan

    2017-06-01

    The coal fired thermal power plants plays major role in the power production in the world as they are available in abundance. Many of the existing power plants are based on the subcritical technology which can produce power with the efficiency of around 33%. But the newer plants are built on either supercritical or ultra-supercritical technology whose efficiency can be up to 50%. Main objective of the work is to enhance the efficiency of the existing subcritical power plants to compensate for the increasing demand. For achieving the objective, the statistical modeling of the boiler units such as economizer, drum and the superheater are initially carried out. The effectiveness of the developed models is tested using analysis methods like R 2 analysis and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance). The dependability of the process variable (temperature) on different manipulated variables is analyzed in the paper. Validations of the model are provided with their error analysis. Response surface methodology (RSM) supported by DOE (design of experiments) are implemented to optimize the operating parameters. Individual models along with the integrated model are used to study and design the predictive control of the coal-fired thermal power plant.

  11. Cost-effective and reliable design of a solar thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliabadi, A.A.; Wallace, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    A design study was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of solar thermal power generation in a 50 kWe power plant that could be used in a remote location. The system combines a solar collector-thermal storage system utilizing a heat transfer fluid and a simple Rankine cycle power generator utilizing R123 refrigerant. Evacuated tube solar collectors heat mineral oil and supply it to a thermal storage tank. A mineral oil to refrigerant heat exchanger generates superheated refrigerant vapor, which drives a radial turbogenerator. Supplemental natural gas firing maintains a constant thermal storage temperature irregardless of solar conditions enabling the system to produce a constant 50 kWe output. A simulation was carried out to predict the performance of the system in the hottest summer day and the coldest winter day for southern California solar conditions. A rigorous economic analysis was conducted. The system offers advantages over advanced solar thermal power plants by implementing simple fixed evacuated tube collectors, which are less prone to damage in harsh desert environment. Also, backed up by fossil fuel power generation, it is possible to obtain continued operation even during low insolation sky conditions and at night, a feature that stand-alone PV systems do not offer. (author)

  12. Some aspects of improvement of chemical water conditions for thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynova, O.I.; Gladyshev, B.P.; Zhivilova, L.M.; Yurchevskij, E.B.

    1989-01-01

    Some general aspects of preventing corrosion of thermal power plant equipment are considered. Application of oxidation water chemistry regime, high purity feedwater, automatic control of water quality indices (conductivity, content of chlorides, sulfides, sodium, oxygen, hydrogen) is recommended. Necessity in statistics and creation of methods for quantitative evalution of economic losses during power equipment failures due to violation of water chemistry regime standards is indicated

  13. Application of wire sawing method to decommissioning of nuclear power plant. Cutting test with turbine pedestal of thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hideki; Uchiyama, Noriyuki; Sugiyama, Kazuya; Yamashita, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, Morishige

    1995-01-01

    It is very important to reduce radioactive waste volume, and to reduce radiation dose to workers and to the public during dismantling of the activated concrete in the decommissioning stage of a nuclear power plant. For the above, we studied a dismantling method which can separate activated concrete from non-activated concrete safely and effectively. Considering the state of legal regulation about radioactive waste disposal, and the state of developing of decommissioning technologies, we come to a conclusion that wire sawing method is feasible as a concrete cutting method. This study was carried out to evaluate the availability of the wire sawing method to dismantling of concrete structures of nuclear power plants. This study consists of concrete cutting rate test and concrete block cutting test. The former is to obtain data about cutting rate with various steel ratios while the latter is to obtain data about working time and man hour of the whole work with wire sawing. Thirty-six year old turbine pedestal of a thermal power plant was selected as a test piece to simulate actual decommissioning work of nuclear power plant, taking its massive concrete volume and age. Taking account of the handling in the building, the wire sawing machine with motor driven was used in this study considering that it did not produce exhaust gas. The concrete cutting rate test was performed with parameter of steel ratio in the concrete, wire tension and cutting direction. In the concrete block cutting test, imaging the actual cutting situation, cubic blocks which side was approximately 1 meter were taken out, and a large block to be cut and to be taken out is a section of 1m x 1.5m x 10m. Test results are shown below. The difference of cutting rate was mainly caused by the difference of reinforcement steel ratio. Working time data of installation, removal of machines and cutting were obtained. Data on secondary waste (dust, drainage and sludge) and environmental effect (noise and

  14. Global freshwater thermal emissions from steam-electric power plants with once-through cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raptis, Catherine E.; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of heat are rejected into freshwater bodies from power plants employing once-through cooling systems, often leading to temperature increases that disturb aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this work was to produce a high resolution global picture of power-related freshwater thermal emissions and to analyse the technological, geographical and chronological patterns behind them. The Rankine cycle was systematically solved for ∼2400 generating units with once-through cooling systems, distinguishing between simple and cogenerative cycles, giving the rejected heat as a direct output. With large unit sizes, low efficiencies, and high capacity factors, nuclear power plants reject 3.7 GW heat into freshwater on average, contrasting with 480 MW rejected from coal and gas power plants. Together, nuclear and coal-fuelled power plants from the 1970s and 1980s account for almost 50% of the rejected heat worldwide, offering motivation for their phasing out in the future. Globally, 56% of the emissions are rejected into rivers, pointing to potential areas of high thermal pollution, with the rest entering lakes and reservoirs. The outcome of this work can be used to further investigate the identified thermal emission hotspots, and to calculate regionalized water temperature increase and related impacts in environmental, energy-water nexus studies and beyond. - Highlights: • The thermodynamic cycles of ∼2400 power units with once-through cooling were solved. • Global freshwater heat emissions depend on technology, geography & chronology. • Half the global emissions come from nuclear and coal plants from the 70s & 80s. • Hotspots of freshwater thermal emissions were identified globally. • Global georeferenced emissions are available for use in water temperature models.

  15. Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 2, Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    Volume 2 of the ''Survey of Strong Motion Earthquake Effects on Thermal Power Plants in California with Emphasis on Piping Systems'' contains Appendices which detail the detail design and seismic response of several power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes. The particular plants considered include the Ormond Beach, Long Beach and Seal Beach, Burbank, El Centro, Glendale, Humboldt Bay, Kem Valley, Pasadena and Valley power plants. Included is a typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical piping and support installations for the plants surveyed. Detailed piping support spacing data are also included

  16. Thermal stratification in a scaled-down suppression pool of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Byeongnam, E-mail: jo@vis.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Erkan, Nejdet [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Takahashi, Shinji [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Song, Daehun [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Hyundai and Kia Corporate R& D Division, Hyundai Motors, 772-1, Jangduk-dong, Hwaseong-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 445-706 (Korea, Republic of); Sagawa, Wataru; Okamoto, Koji [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Thermal stratification was reproduced in a scaled-down suppression pool of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants. • Horizontal temperature profiles were uniform in the toroidal suppression pool. • Subcooling-steam flow rate map of thermal stratification was obtained. • Steam bubble-induced flow model in suppression pool was suggested. • Bubble frequency strongly depends on the steam flow rate. - Abstract: Thermal stratification in the suppression pool of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants was experimentally investigated in sub-atmospheric pressure conditions using a 1/20 scale torus shaped setup. The thermal stratification was reproduced in the scaled-down suppression pool and the effect of the steam flow rate on different thermal stratification behaviors was examined for a wide range of steam flow rates. A sparger-type steam injection pipe that emulated Fukushima Daiichi Unit 3 (F1U3) was used. The steam was injected horizontally through 132 holes. The development (formation and disappearance) of thermal stratification was significantly affected by the steam flow rate. Interestingly, the thermal stratification in the suppression pool vanished when subcooling became lower than approximately 5 °C. This occurred because steam bubbles are not well condensed at low subcooling temperatures; therefore, those bubbles generate significant upward momentum, leading to mixing of the water in the suppression pool.

  17. Application of process simulation for evaluation of ecologically benefical developments in thermal power plant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, G.

    2000-04-01

    Responsibility for the environment and a sustainable utilization of resources gain also in the production of electric power more and more importance. For this reason existing power generation processes have to be improved and alternatives to existing processes have to be developed. As a first step in this procedure process simulation is a powerful tool to evaluate the potentials of new developments. In this work it is shown, how new thermal power processes are modeled and simulated based on well-known thermodynamic and chemical correlations. Processes for thermal power plants using lignite with high water content and biomass as fuel are studied. In each case simulations are carried out for complete plants including all important unit operations. Based on a conventional thermal power plant for lignite different variants for efficiency improvement by fuel drying are examined. Additionally the potential of a process with gasification and gas turbine is discussed. Compared to a lignite power plant the preconditions for a biomass power plant are different. A promising option for the future seems to be small, decentralized combined heat and power plants. Therefore a process with simple and compact design including gasifier and gas turbine is regarded and sensitivity analyses are carried out. As well as for the lignite processes possible improvements by fuel drying are studied. The basis lignite power plant (drying in an impact rotor mill with hot flue gas) has an overall electric efficiency of 36 %. Alternative fuel drying processes (reducing water content from 54 w % to 10 w %) can increase efficiency to nearly 43 %. Using integrated air-blown gasification combined with gas turbine and steam turbine and additional fuel drying raises the efficiency up to 49 % in the case of cold gas cleanup and up to 50 percent in the case of hot gas cleanup. Efficiencies of the regarded biomass power plants are in the range of about 20 % (with a biomass water content of 25 w %). By

  18. Regional siting survey for thermal power plants in the state of Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkins, M.L.; DiNunno, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    The selection and evaluation of sites for power plants have become increasingly difficult in recent years as pressures from various societal segments have resulted in government restraints on selection and burning of fossil fuels, on methods of heat dissipation, on acquisition of transmission line rights-of-way, and on environmental impact in general. The key elements in successful application of power plant siting technology are the development of the proper balance among the basic siting considerations and the understanding that level of detail in a study varies in an inverse relationship with the siting area under examination. As the first step in the process of selection and eventual licensing of new thermal power plant sites for a utility in the State of Ohio, the entire state was screened to determine promising candidate regions large enough to offer several possible candidate sites for thermal power plants. Because of the size of the area under consideration and the advantages of developing sites with an ultimate capacity for more than one power plant, sites with an installed capacity of 1100 to 4400 MW(e) were considered for this study. As a result of the preliminary screening conducted in four distinct steps, three candidate regions showed the best overall promise for either nuclear or fossil-fueled power plant development. Tentative identification was made of candidate sites within these candidate regions, and follow-on studies conducted in an increasing level of detail are presently in progress to determine the candidate site(s) most promising for power plant siting. (U.S.)

  19. Development of general-purpose software to analyze the static thermal characteristic of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Yoshinobu; Koda, Eiichi; Takahashi, Toru

    2009-01-01

    We have developed the general-purpose software by which static thermal characteristic of the power generation system is analyzed easily. This software has the notable features as follows. It has the new algorithm to solve non-linear simultaneous equations to analyze the static thermal characteristics such as heat and mass balance, efficiencies, etc. of various power generation systems. It has the flexibility for setting calculation conditions. It is able to be executed on the personal computer easily and quickly. We ensured that it is able to construct heat and mass balance diagrams of main steam system of nuclear power plant and calculate the power output and efficiencies of the system. Furthermore, we evaluated various heat recovery measures of steam generator blowdown water and found that this software could be a useful operation aid for planning effective changes in support of power stretch. (author)

  20. Diagnosis of Thermal Efficiency of Nuclear Power Plants Using Optical Torque Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuichi Umezawa; Jun Adachi

    2006-01-01

    A new optical torque measuring method was applied to diagnosis of thermal efficiency of nuclear power plants. The sensor allows torque deformation of the rotor caused by power transmission to be measured without contact. Semiconductor laser beams and small pieces of stainless reflector that have bar-code patterns are employed. The intensity of the reflected laser beam is measured and then input into a computer through an APD and an A/D converter having high frequency sampling rates. The correlation analysis technique can translate these data into the torque deformation angle. This angle allows us to obtain the turbine output along with the torsional rigidity and the rotating speed of the rotor. The sensor was applied to a nuclear plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company, TEPCO, following its application success to the early combined cycle plants and the advanced combined cycle plants of TEPCO. As the turbine rotor of the nuclear power plant is less exposed than that of the combined cycle plants, the measurement position is confined to a narrow gap. In order to overcome the difficulty in installation, the shape of the sensor is modified to be long and thin. Sensor performance of the nuclear power plant was inspected over a year. The value of the torsional rigidity was analyzed by the finite element method at first. Accuracy was improved by correcting the torsional rigidity so that the value was consistent with the generator output. As a result, it is considered that the sensor performance has reached a practical use level. (authors)

  1. Potentials for heat accumulators in thermal power plants; Potenziale fuer Waermespeicher in Heiz(kraft)werken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dengel, Andreas [STEAG New Energies GmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    STEAG New Energies GmbH (Saarbruecken, Federal Republic of Germany) is contractor and operator of a variety of decentralized plants for heat production and power generation. The customers consist of communities, cooperation associations, business enterprises as well as industrial enterprises. Beside merely heat generators, so-called heat and power cogeneration plants often are used. The power generation is of minor importance due to the heat-controlled energy supply of the customers. Biomass power plants being operated in line with the Renewable Energy Law are an exemption. The demand for regulating energy increased clearly due to the enhanced volatile feeding of regenerative produced electric power. If the operation of heat and power cogeneration plants becomes more independent from the actual energy demand by using energy storages, then the energy transducer can be implemented in the lucrative market of regulation energy supply. Thus, the potential of such storages at the sites within a company shall be determined. Additionally, the development and testing of a latent heat accumulator for a thermal power plant of the company supplying process vapour with a temperature of 300 Celsius to a foil manufacturing facility is envisaged.

  2. Performance and Simulation of a Stand-alone Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, S. T.; Al-Kayiem, H. H.; Assadi, M. K.; Gilani, S. I. U. H.; Khlief, A. K.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a Simulink® Thermolib Model has been established for simulation performance evaluation of Stand-alone Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plant in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia. This paper proposes a design of 1.2 kW parabolic trough power plant. The model is capable to predict temperatures at any system outlet in the plant, as well as the power output produced. The conditions that are taken into account as input to the model are: local solar radiation and ambient temperatures, which have been measured during the year. Other parameters that have been input to the model are the collector’s sizes, location in terms of latitude and altitude. Lastly, the results are presented in graphical manner to describe the analysed variations of various outputs of the solar fields obtained, and help to predict the performance of the plant. The developed model allows an initial evaluation of the viability and technical feasibility of any similar solar thermal power plant.

  3. Improvement of environmental aspects of thermal power plant operation by advanced control concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulandrić Robert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, as formulated in the Kyoto Protocol, imposes the need for improving environmental aspects of existing thermal power plants operation. Improvements can be reached either by efficiency increment or by implementation of emission reduction measures. Investments in refurbishment of existing plant components or in plant upgrading by flue gas desulphurization, by primary and secondary measures of nitrogen oxides reduction, or by biomass co-firing, are usually accompanied by modernisation of thermal power plant instrumentation and control system including sensors, equipment diagnostics and advanced controls. Impact of advanced control solutions implementation depends on technical characteristics and status of existing instrumentation and control systems as well as on design characteristics and actual conditions of installed plant components. Evaluation of adequacy of implementation of advanced control concepts is especially important in Western Balkan region where thermal power plants portfolio is rather diversified in terms of size, type and commissioning year and where generally poor maintenance and lack of investments in power generation sector resulted in high greenhouse gases emissions and low efficiency of plants in operation. This paper is intended to present possibilities of implementation of advanced control concepts, and particularly those based on artificial intelligence, in selected thermal power plants in order to increase plant efficiency and to lower pollutants emissions and to comply with environmental quality standards prescribed in large combustion plant directive. [Acknowledgements. This paper has been created within WBalkICT - Supporting Common RTD actions in WBCs for developing Low Cost and Low Risk ICT based solutions for TPPs Energy Efficiency increasing, SEE-ERA.NET plus project in cooperation among partners from IPA SA - Romania, University of Zagreb - Croatia and Vinca

  4. Theseus, the 50 MW solar thermal power plant; Das solarthermische 50-MW-Kraftwerk Theseus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brakmann, G. [Fichtner GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany). Solarenergieprojekte

    1998-04-01

    The Isle of Crete measures 8331 km{sup 2}, and this island renowned for its historical sites attracts millions of tourists every year. Like any other branch of industry, tourism, which is called a ``white`` industry, has an ever growing demand for electric power. Up to now, electricity generation on the island is based on fossil-fuelled thermal power plants. However, recent developments indicate that this technology might be overtaken soon by the novel Theseus power plant (Thermal Solar European Power Station) currently under construction. It is expected to usher in a new era of power generation on the Isle of Crete. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die 8 331 km{sup 2} grosse Insel Kreta wurde vor ueber 3 500 Jahren besiedelt. Der geschichtstraechtige Ort ist ein hochgeschaetztes Reiseziel von Millionen Griechenlandurlaubern. Wie jede Art von Industrie, so benoetigt auch die als `weisse Industrie` bezeichnete Touristikbranche immer mehr elektrische Energie. Diese wird derzeit auf Kreta ausschliesslich mit thermischen Kraftwerken, welche fossile Brennstoffe verbrennen, erzeugt. Aber die Vorherrschaft dieser Technologie kann schon bald mit dem neuen solarthermischen Kraftwerk Theseus (Thermal Solar European Power Station) gebrochen werden. Es soll in wenigen Jahren eine neue Aera der Energieerzeugung auf Kreta einlaeuten. (orig.)

  5. Analyses of thermal plume of Cernavoda nuclear power plant by satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, M. A.; Nicolae, D. N.; Talianu, C. L.; Ciobanu, M.; Ciuciu, J. G.

    2005-10-01

    The synergistic use of multi-temporal and multi-spectral remote sensing data offers the possibility of monitoring of environment quality in the vicinity of nuclear power plants (NPP). Advanced digital processing techniques applied to several LANDSAT, MODIS and ASTER data are used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation and non-radiation effects on the water, near field soil, vegetation and air for NPP Cernavoda , Romania . Cernavoda Unit 1 power plant, using CANDU technology, having 706.5 MW power, is successfully in operation since 1996. Cernavoda Unit 2 which is currently under construction will be operational in 2007. Thermal discharge from nuclear reactor cooling is dissipated as waste heat in Danube-Black -Sea Canal and Danube river. Water temperature distributions captured in thermal IR imagery are correlated with meteorological parameters. Additional information regarding flooding events and earthquake risks is considered . During the winter, the thermal plume is localized to an area within a few km of the power plant, and the temperature difference between the plume and non-plume areas is about 1.5 oC. During the summer and fall, there is a larger thermal plume extending 5-6 km far along Danube Black Sea Canal, and the temperature change is about 1.0 oC. Variation of surface water temperature in the thermal plume is analyzed. The strong seasonal difference in the thermal plume is related to vertical mixing of the water column in winter and to stratification in summer. Hydrodynamic simulation leads to better understanding of the mechanisms by which waste heat from NPP Cernavoda is dissipated in the environment.

  6. Radioactivity of coals and ash and slag wastes at coal-fired thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, D. A.; Sidorova, G. P.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of published data on the content of radioactive nuclides in coals originating from various coal deposits, and in ash and slag wastes produced at coal-fired thermal power plants, as well as in fly ash emitted from thermal power plants into the atmosphere. Problems related to the use of coals with an elevated content of natural radionuclides (NRNs) and methods of their solution implemented at the Urtuyskoe coalfield are dealt with. Data on the analysis of Transbaikal coals for the NRN content, as well as weighted mean content of uranium and thorium in coals from the Siberian Region, are given. In order to reduce irradiation of plant personnel and the population of the areas where coal producers and coal-fired thermal power plants are located, it is necessary to organize very careful control of the NRN content in both coals and products of their combustion that are released into the environment. To solve the problem related to the control of radioactivity, the centralized approach and creation of a proper normative base are needed. Experience gained in developing the Urtuyskoe coalfield shows that it is possible to create an efficient system of coal quality control with respect to the radiation hygiene factor and provide protection of the environment and health of the population.

  7. REAL TIME PULVERISED COAL FLOW SOFT SENSOR FOR THERMAL POWER PLANTS USING EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Raja Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulverised coal preparation system (Coal mills is the heart of coal-fired power plants. The complex nature of a milling process, together with the complex interactions between coal quality and mill conditions, would lead to immense difficulties for obtaining an effective mathematical model of the milling process. In this paper, vertical spindle coal mills (bowl mill that are widely used in coal-fired power plants, is considered for the model development and its pulverised fuel flow rate is computed using the model. For the steady state coal mill model development, plant measurements such as air-flow rate, differential pressure across mill etc., are considered as inputs/outputs. The mathematical model is derived from analysis of energy, heat and mass balances. An Evolutionary computation technique is adopted to identify the unknown model parameters using on-line plant data. Validation results indicate that this model is accurate enough to represent the whole process of steady state coal mill dynamics. This coal mill model is being implemented on-line in a 210 MW thermal power plant and the results obtained are compared with plant data. The model is found accurate and robust that will work better in power plants for system monitoring. Therefore, the model can be used for online monitoring, fault detection, and control to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  8. Environmental impacts of coal mine and thermal power plant to the surroundings of Barapukuria, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Nazir; Paul, Shitangsu Kumar; Hasan, Md Muyeed

    2015-04-01

    The study was carried out to analyse the environmental impacts of coal mine and coal-based thermal power plant to the surrounding environment of Barapukuria, Dinajpur. The analyses of coal, water, soil and fly ash were carried out using standard sample testing methods. This study found that coal mining industry and coal-based thermal power plant have brought some environmental and socio-economic challenges to the adjacent areas such as soil, water and air pollution, subsidence of agricultural land and livelihood insecurity of inhabitants. The pH values, heavy metal, organic carbon and exchangeable cations of coal water treated in the farmland soil suggest that coal mining deteriorated the surrounding water and soil quality. The SO4(2-) concentration in water samples was beyond the range of World Health Organisation standard. Some physico-chemical properties such as pH, conductivity, moisture content, bulk density, unburned carbon content, specific gravity, water holding capacity, liquid and plastic limit were investigated on coal fly ash of Barapukuria thermal power plant. Air quality data provided by the Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited were contradictory with the result of interview with the miners and local inhabitants. However, coal potentially contributes to the development of economy of Bangladesh but coal mining deteriorates the environment by polluting air, water and soil. In general, this study includes comprehensive baseline data for decision makers to evaluate the feasibility of coal power industry at Barapukuria and the coalmine itself.

  9. Study on a heat recovery system for the thermal power plant utilizing air cooling island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jian; Fu, Lin; Sun, Fangtian; Zhang, Shigang

    2014-01-01

    A new heat recovery system for CHP (combined heat and power) systems named HRU (heat recovery unit) is presented, which could recover the low grade heat of exhausted steam from the turbine at the thermal power plant directly. Heat recovery of exhausted steam is often accomplished by recovering the heat of cooling water in current systems. Therefore, two processes of heat transfer is needed at least. However, exhausted steam could be condensed in the evaporator of HRU directly, which reduce one process of heat transfer. A special evaporator is designed condense the exhausted steam directly. Simulated results are compared to experiments, which could include the calculation of heat transfer coefficients of different parts of HRU. It is found that about 25Mw of exhausted steam is recovered by this system. HRU could be promising for conventional CHP systems, which could increase the total energy efficiency obviously and enlarge the heating capacity of a built CHP system. - Highlights: • A new heat recovery system for thermal power plant is presented. • A mathematical model including heat transfer coefficients calculation is given. • This heat recovery system is experimented at a thermal power plant. • Performances of this system under different working conditions are simulated

  10. Auxiliary System Load Schemes in Large Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzle, I.; Bosnjak, D.; Pandzic, H.

    2010-01-01

    Uninterrupted auxiliary system power supply in large power plants is a key factor for normal operation, transient states, start-ups and shutdowns and particularly during fault conditions. Therefore, there are many challenges in designing the main electrical system as well as the auxiliary systems power supply. Depending upon the type of fuel used and the environmental control system required, a thermal power plant may consume as much as 10% of its total generation for auxiliary power, while a nuclear power plant may require only 4 - 6% auxiliaries. In general, the larger the power generating plant, the higher the voltage selected for the AC auxiliary electric system. Most stations in the 75 to 500 MW range utilize 4,2 kV as the base auxiliary system voltage. Large generating stations 500 - 1000 MW and more use voltage levels of 6,9 kV and more. Some single dedicated loads such as electric driven boiler feed pumps are supplied ba a 13,8 kV bus. While designing the auxiliary electric system, the following areas must be considered: motor starting requirements, voltage regulation requirements, short-circuit duty requirements, economic considerations, reliability and alternate sources. Auxiliary power supply can't be completely generalized and each situation should be studied on its own merits to determine the optimal solution. Naturally, nuclear power plants have more reliability requirements and safety design criteria. Main coolant-pump power supply and continuity of service to other vital loads deserve special attention. This paper presents an overview of some up-to-date power plant auxiliary load system concepts. The main types of auxiliary loads are described and the electric diagrams of the modern auxiliary system supply concepts are given. Various alternative sources of auxiliary electrical supply are considered, the advantages and disadvantages of these are compared and proposals are made for high voltage distribution systems around the thermal and nuclear plant

  11. Workplace monitoring and occupational health studies in the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant, Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacimovic, R.; Falnoga, I.; Jeran, Z.; Byrne, A.R.; Kobal, A.B.; Stropnik, B.

    1998-01-01

    Up to now, only a few investigations have been performed in the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (TPP) involving comprehensive studies of trace elements, toxic elements, heavy metals and radionuclides in the workplaces. The aim of the project is development and application of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques for workplace pollution and occupational health studies, leading to formation of a database concerning the trace element air pollution inside the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant. In this report, the emphasis is on the methodology and analytical development (neutron activation analysis, X-ray spectrometry, total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE)), and to a lesser extent on the results obtained up to now. Analytical results for several certified reference materials of similar matrix as the real samples investigated were obtained. Results obtained by the k 0 -standardization method and XRF technique for aerosols (coarse and fine fractions) ore also presented and discussed. (author)

  12. Pressurized thermal shock evaluation of the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, L [ed.

    1985-09-01

    An evaluation of the risk to the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 nuclear power plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the assistance of several other organizations. This evaluation was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants, the other two plants being Oconee Unit 1 and H.B. Robinson Unit 2. The specific objectives of the program were to (1) provide a best estimate of the frequency of a through-the-wall crack in the pressure vessel at each of the three plants, together with the uncertainty in the estimated frequency and its sensitivity to the variables used in the evaluation; (2) determine the dominant overcooling sequences contributing to the estimated frequency and the associated failures in the plant systems or in operator actions; and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of potential corrective measures.

  13. Pressurized thermal shock evaluation of the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, L.

    1985-09-01

    An evaluation of the risk to the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 nuclear power plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the assistance of several other organizations. This evaluation was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants, the other two plants being Oconee Unit 1 and H.B. Robinson Unit 2. The specific objectives of the program were to (1) provide a best estimate of the frequency of a through-the-wall crack in the pressure vessel at each of the three plants, together with the uncertainty in the estimated frequency and its sensitivity to the variables used in the evaluation; (2) determine the dominant overcooling sequences contributing to the estimated frequency and the associated failures in the plant systems or in operator actions; and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of potential corrective measures

  14. Tax Revenue and Job Benefits from Solar Thermal Power Plants in Nye County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuver, Walt

    2009-11-10

    The objective of this report is to establish a common understanding of the financial benefits that the County will receive as solar thermal power plants are developed in Amargosa Valley. Portions of the tax data and job estimates in the report were provided by developers Solar Millennium and Abengoa Solar in support of the effort. It is hoped that the resulting presented data will be accepted as factual reference points for the ensuing debates and financial decisions concerning these development projects.

  15. Formation of the gaseous phase of impurity elements from coal combustion at a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizil'shtein, L.Ya.; Levchenko, S.V.; Peretyakt'ko, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    Data are reported on the distribution of impurity elements in their principal carriers: organic matter, iron sulfides, and clays. Tests with high-temperature combustion of coals and argillites indicate that elements associated with clay minerals largely remain in ash and slag. They do not pass to the gas phase - a factor to be considered in assessment of environmental impact from thermal power plants and specification of toxic concentration levels of impurity elements in coal

  16. The Application of Cyber Physical System for Thermal Power Plants: Data-Driven Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongping Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal operation of energy systems plays an important role to enhance their lifetime security and efficiency. The determination of optimal operating strategies requires intelligent utilization of massive data accumulated during operation or prediction. The investigation of these data solely without combining physical models may run the risk that the established relationships between inputs and outputs, the models which reproduce the behavior of the considered system/component in a wide range of boundary conditions, are invalid for certain boundary conditions, which never occur in the database employed. Therefore, combining big data with physical models via cyber physical systems (CPS is of great importance to derive highly-reliable and -accurate models and becomes more and more popular in practical applications. In this paper, we focus on the description of a systematic method to apply CPS to the performance analysis and decision making of thermal power plants. We proposed a general procedure of CPS with both offline and online phases for its application to thermal power plants and discussed the corresponding methods employed to support each sub-procedure. As an example, a data-driven model of turbine island of an existing air-cooling based thermal power plant is established with the proposed procedure and demonstrates its practicality, validity and flexibility. To establish such model, the historical operating data are employed in the cyber layer for modeling and linking each physical component. The decision-making procedure of optimal frequency of air-cooling condenser is also illustrated to show its applicability of online use. It is concluded that the cyber physical system with the data mining technique is effective and promising to facilitate the real-time analysis and control of thermal power plants.

  17. The use of fly ash the thermal power plants in the construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R. S.; Yushin, A. M.

    2015-10-01

    The problems of ecological and radiation safety of the construction of man-made waste like fly ash thermal power plants were researched. The chemical composition of TPPs ashes of Primorsky Territory was studied, defined their specific effective activity of natural radionuclides. The most modern research methods were used - differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry, X-ray analysis. It was revealed that the ash of the Primorskaya TPP and Partizanskaya TPP has exceed the permissible parameters of radioactivity, so not suitable for use in construction. Ashes of Vladivostok TPP-2 and Artem TPP of Primorsky Region on parameters radioactivity and chemical composition have suitable for use as a filler in the concrete.

  18. Application of thermal comfort theory in probabilistic safety assessment of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Sun Canhui; Li Zhenyang; Wang Zenghui

    2011-01-01

    Human factor errors in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of a nuclear power plant (NPP) can be prevented using thermal comfort analysis. In this paper, the THERP + HCR model is modified by using PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) and PPD (Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied) index system, so as to obtain the operator cognitive reliability,and to reflect and analyze human perception, thermal comfort status,and cognitive ability in a specific NPP environment. The mechanism of human factors in the PSA is analyzed by operators of skill, rule and knowledge types. The THERP + HCR model modified by thermal comfort theory can reflect the conditions in actual environment, and optimize reliability analysis of human factors. Improving human thermal comfort for different types of operators reduces adverse factors due to human errors, and provides a safe and optimum decision-making for NPPs. (authors)

  19. Probabilistic inhalation risk assessment due to radioactivity released from coal fired thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, M.; Ajmal, P.Y.; Bhangare, R.C.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with assessment of radiological risk to the general public around in the neighborhood of a 1000 MWe coal-based thermal power plant. We have used Monte Carlo simulation for characterization of uncertainty in inhalation risk due to radionuclide escaping from the stack of thermal power plant. Monte Carlo simulation treats parameters as random variables bound to a given probabilistic distribution to evaluate the distribution of the resulting output. Risk assessment is the process that estimates the likelihood of occurrence of adverse effects to humans and ecological receptors as a result of exposure to hazardous chemical, radiation, and/or biological agents. Quantitative risk characterization involves evaluating exposure estimates against a benchmark of toxicity, such as a cancer slope factor. Risk is calculated by multiplying the carcinogenic slope factor (SF) of the radionuclide by the dose an individual receives. The collective effective doses to the population living in the neighborhood of coal-based thermal power plant were calculated using Gaussian plume dispersion model. Monte Carlo Analysis is the most widely used probabilistic method in risk assessment. The MCA technique treats any uncertain parameter as random variable that obeys a given probabilistic distribution. This technique is widely used for analyzing probabilistic uncertainty. In MCA computer simulation are used to combine multiple probability distributions associated with the dose and SF depicted in risk equation. Thus we get a probabilistic distribution for the risk

  20. Exergy analysis on the irreversibility of rotary air preheater in thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongyue; Zhao Lingling; Zhou Qiangtai; Xu Zhigao; Kim, Hyung Taek

    2008-01-01

    Energy recovery devices can have a substantial impact on process efficiency and their relevance to the problem of conservation of energy resources is generally recognized to be beyond dispute. One type of such a device, which is commonly used in thermal power plants and air conditioning systems, is the rotary air preheater. A major disadvantage of the rotary air preheater is that there is an unavoidable leakage due to carry over and pressure difference. There are gas streams involved in the heat transfer and mixing processes. There are also irreversibilities, or exergy destruction, due to mixing, pressure losses and temperature gradients. Therefore, the purpose of this research paper is based from the second law of thermodynamics, which is to build up the relationship between the efficiency of the thermal power plant and the total process of irreversibility in the rotary air preheater using exergy analysis. For this, the effects of the variation of the principal design parameters on the rotary air preheater efficiency, the exergy efficiency, and the efficiency of the thermal power plant are examined by changing a number of parameters of rotary air preheater. Furthermore, some conclusions are reached and recommendations are made so as to give insight on designing some optimal parameters

  1. Technical solutions for mitigating adverse impacts on the environment implemented at Deva Thermal Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaida, Victor; Egyed, Francisc; Manea, Laurean

    2004-01-01

    Situated at the south-west of Transylvania, 9 km from Deva town on the Mures River bank, Deva Power Plant has an installed capacity of 1260 MW, in six 210 MW generation units. Each unit operates with two steam boilers of 330 t/h, and steam rated parameters are 13.72 MPa and 550 deg C. The generated electricity is delivered in the national grid at voltage levels of 200 and 400 kV; there exists also the possibility of delivering electricity to the neighbouring countries through the power line Sibiu - Arad - Szeged. The Power Plant also produces thermal energy. The total installed thermal capacity is 400 MWt. Deva Power Plant was commissioned in three stages. During the first stage, between 1969 and 1971, Units No. 1, 2, 3 and 4 were commissioned, followed by Unit No. 5 in 1977 and by Unit No. 6 in 1980. All main equipment was manufactured in Russia. The main fuel utilised here is hard coal extracted from Valea Jiului basins, with calorific value between 14600 and 18800 kJ/kg. Natural gas is used as a flame support fuel. Deva Power Plant has actually produced 9% to 12% of the total electricity produced in the country and 18% to 25% of the electricity produced on coal. Continuous efforts have been made for the rehabilitation and modernisation of this power plant aiming to improve operational safety whilst equal interest has been paid to mitigating the environmental damage caused by the great size combustion systems. In this paper we present some of the preoccupations concerning earliest as well as prospective actions to be taken to protect the environment and to comply with the relevant standards and laws in force. The major role played by Deva Power Plant within the National Power Grid secured through reliable and steady operation also means undertaking exceptional environmental protection actions, to comply with current requirements. By its comprehensive modernisation programme already in progress, Deva Power Plant focus on the continuous upgrading of their plant in

  2. Electrostatic precipitators for coal thermal power plants energized by means of narrow pulse voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinelli, G.; Mattachini, F.; Bogani, V.; Baldacci, A.; Tarli, R. (ENEL-CRTN, Direzione Studi e Ricerche, Milan (Italy) ENEL, VDT Settore Tecnico, Direzione Produzione e Trasmissione, Rome (Italy))

    1990-09-01

    The efficiency of electrostatic precipitators, widely used in thermal power plants to clean flue gases from solid particulate, is strongly dependent both on the way particles are electrically charged and on the characteristics of the electric field within the interelectrodic space of the precipitator. Such operating may become inadequate under varying particle characteristics and operating conditions of the thermal plant, therefore bringing to a reduction in the precipitator collection efficiency. An innovative technique, by generating a pulsed corona in the precipitator, allows a substantial improvement of both the particle charging and the collection processes and an increase in the operation flexibility of the electrostatic precipitator. The narrow pulse voltage energization has been extensively tested at a coal thermal unit having the electrostatic precipitators equipped with both conventional and pulse power sets. The long duration tests confirmed the following results: 1) high reliability of the pulse power sets and a considerable improvement in the precipitator collection efficiency; 2) a decrease in the particulate emissions, with coals whose ashes are of difficult collection, ranging between 75% and 85% of those with conventional energization; 3) a reduction by a factor of about 5 in the consumption of electric power by the electrostatic precipitation process.

  3. Numerical simulation of a passive scalar transport from thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issakhov, Alibek; Baitureyeva, Aiymzhan

    2017-06-01

    The active development of the industry leads to an increase in the number of factories, plants, thermal power plants, nuclear power plants, thereby increasing the amount of emissions into the atmosphere. Harmful chemicals are deposited on the soil surface, remain in the atmosphere, which leads to a variety of environmental problems which are harmful for human health and the environment, flora and fauna. Considering the above problems, it is very important to control the emissions to keep them at an acceptable level for the environment. In order to do that it is necessary to investigate the spread of harmful emissions. The best way to assess it is the creating numerical simulation of gaseous substances' motion. In the present work the numerical simulation of the spreading of emissions from the thermal power plant chimney is considered. The model takes into account the physical properties of the emitted substances and allows to calculate the distribution of the mass fractions, depending on the wind velocity and composition of emissions. The numerical results were performed using the ANSYS Fluent software package. As a result, the results of numerical simulations and the graphs are given.

  4. Nitrogen oxides emissions from thermal power plants in china: current status and future predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hezhong; Liu, Kaiyun; Hao, Jiming; Wang, Yan; Gao, Jiajia; Qiu, Peipei; Zhu, Chuanyong

    2013-10-01

    Increasing emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) over the Chinese mainland have been of great concern due to their adverse impacts on regional air quality and public health. To explore and obtain the temporal and spatial characteristics of NOx emissions from thermal power plants in China, a unit-based method is developed. The method assesses NOx emissions based on detailed information on unit capacity, boiler and burner patterns, feed fuel types, emission control technologies, and geographical locations. The national total NOx emissions in 2010 are estimated at 7801.6 kt, of which 5495.8 kt is released from coal-fired power plant units of considerable size between 300 and 1000 MW. The top provincial emitter is Shandong where plants are densely concentrated. The average NOx-intensity is estimated at 2.28 g/kWh, markedly higher than that of developed countries, mainly owing to the inadequate application of high-efficiency denitrification devices such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Future NOx emissions are predicted by applying scenario analysis, indicating that a reduction of about 40% by the year 2020 can be achieved compared with emissions in 2010. These results suggest that NOx emissions from Chinese thermal power plants could be substantially mitigated within 10 years if reasonable control measures were implemented effectively.

  5. Technology overview: assessment of social values in thermal power plant siting, social impact methodology evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    A methodology was developed to facilitate the selection of favorable thermal power plant site and design alternatives from the community perspective. A two-stage, multicriteria decision technique was employed to combine technical assessments of effects of the proposed site/design alternatives with corresponding community values. In the first stage, submodels are used to develop indices of plant impact on each of ten decision criteria. These criteria include effects on aesthetics, water quality, cost of power, air quality, ecology, social quality, local economy, recreational opportunities, cultural resources, and human health and safety. In the second stage, each of the impact indices is weighted by corresponding community values and then summed to provide an overall index of plant acceptability

  6. MINIMIZATION OF IMPACTS PERTAINING TO EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL ENERGY SECURITY THREATS OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Nagornov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a classification of internal and external threats for thermal power plants and recommendations on minimization of these risks. A set of concrete measures aimed at ensuring TPP energy security has been presented in the paper. The system comprises preventive measures aimed at reducing the possibilities of emergence and implementation of internal and external threats. The system also presupposes to decrease susceptibility of fuel- and energy supply systems to the threats, and application of liquidation measures that ensure elimination of emergency situation consequences and restoration of the conditions concerning fuel- and power supply to consumers.

  7. Research of waste heat energy efficiency for absorption heat pump recycling thermal power plant circulating water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Liansheng; E, Zhijun; Wang, Kun; Wang, Ziyue; Li, Guohao; Qu, Bin

    2018-02-01

    The waste heat energy efficiency for absorption heat pump recycling thermal power plant circulating water has been analyzed. After the operation of heat pump, the influences on power generation and heat generation of unit were taken into account. In the light of the characteristics of heat pump in different operation stages, the energy efficiency of heat pump was evaluated comprehensively on both sides of benefits belonging to electricity and benefits belonging to heat, which adopted the method of contrast test. Thus, the reference of energy efficiency for same type projects was provided.

  8. Towards standardized testing methodologies for optical properties of components in concentrating solar thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaberry, Fabienne; Fernández-García, Aránzazu; Lüpfert, Eckhard; Morales, Angel; Vicente, Gema San; Sutter, Florian

    2017-06-01

    Precise knowledge of the optical properties of the components used in the solar field of concentrating solar thermal power plants is primordial to ensure their optimum power production. Those properties are measured and evaluated by different techniques and equipment, in laboratory conditions and/or in the field. Standards for such measurements and international consensus for the appropriate techniques are in preparation. The reference materials used as a standard for the calibration of the equipment are under discussion. This paper summarizes current testing methodologies and guidelines for the characterization of optical properties of solar mirrors and absorbers.

  9. Supplier selection criteria for sustainable supply chain management in thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, Faisal; Narayan Biswal, Jitendra; Satapathy, Suchismita

    2018-02-01

    Supplies are always in great demand when it comes to industrial operations. The quality of raw material their price accompanied by sustainability and environmental effects are a major concern for industrial operators these days. Supply Chain Management is the subject which is focused on how the supply of different products is carried out. The motive is that each operation performed can be optimized and inherently the efficiency of the whole chain is integrated. In this paper we will be dealing with all the criteria that are required to be evaluated before selecting a supplier, in particular, focusing on Thermal Power Plant. The most suppliers of the thermal power plant are the coal suppliers. The quality of coal directly determines the efficiency of the whole plant. And when there are matters concerning coal environmental pollution plays a very crucial role. ANP method has been used here to select suppliers of thermal power sectors in Indian context. After applying ANP to prioritize the sustainable supplier selection criteria, it is found that for thermal power industries best suppliers are Nationalized/State owned suppliers then 2nd ranked suppliers are imported supplier. Private owned suppliers are ranked least. So private owned suppliers must be more concerned about their performance. Among these suppliers it is found that to compete in the global market privatized suppliers have to give more emphasize on most important criteria like sustainability, then fuel cost and quality. Still some sub-criteria like a clean program, environmental issues, quality, reliability, service rate, investment in high technology, green transportation channel, waste management etc needs for continuous improvement as per their priority.

  10. Novel Functionally Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings in Coal-Fired Power Plant Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing [Indiana Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This project presents a detailed investigation of a novel functionally graded coating material, pyrochlore oxide, for thermal barrier coating (TBC) in gas turbines used in coal-fired power plants. Thermal barrier coatings are refractory materials deposited on gas turbine components, which provide thermal protection for metallic components at operating conditions. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop a manufacturing process to produce the novel low thermal conductivity and high thermal stability pyrochlore oxide based coatings with improved high-temperature durability. The current standard TBC, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), has service temperatures limited to <1200°C, due to sintering and phase transition at higher temperatures. In contrast, pyrochlore oxide, e.g., lanthanum zirconate (La2Zr2O7, LZ), has demonstrated lower thermal conductivity and better thermal stability, which are crucial to high temperature applications, such as gas turbines used in coal-fired power plants. Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) has collaborated with Praxair Surface Technologies (PST), and Changwon National University in South Korea to perform the proposed research. The research findings are critical to the extension of current TBCs to a broader range of high-temperature materials and applications. Several tasks were originally proposed and accomplished, with additional new opportunities identified during the course of the project. In this report, a description of the project tasks, the main findings and conclusions are given. A list of publications and presentations resulted from this research is listed in the Appendix at the end of the report.

  11. Environmental impact of coal industry and thermal power plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, U C

    2004-01-01

    Coal is the only natural resource and fossil fuel available in abundance in India. Consequently, it is used widely as a thermal energy source and also as fuel for thermal power plants producing electricity. India has about 90,000 MW installed capacity for electricity generation, of which more than 70% is produced by coal-based thermal power plants. Hydro-electricity contributes about 25%, and the remaining is mostly from nuclear power plants (NPPs). The problems associated with the use of coal are low calorific value and very high ash content. The ash content is as high as 55-60%, with an average value of about 35-40%. Further, most of the coal is located in the eastern parts of the country and requires transportation over long distances, mostly by trains, which run on diesel. About 70% oil is imported and is a big drain on India's hard currency. In the foreseeable future, there is no other option likely to be available, as the nuclear power programme envisages installing 20,000 MWe by the year 2020, when it will still be around 5% of the installed capacity. Hence, attempts are being made to reduce the adverse environmental and ecological impact of coal-fired power plants. The installed electricity generating capacity has to increase very rapidly (at present around 8-10% per annum), as India has one of the lowest per capita electricity consumptions. Therefore, the problems for the future are formidable from ecological, radio-ecological and pollution viewpoints. A similar situation exists in many developing countries of the region, including the People's Republic of China, where coal is used extensively. The paper highlights some of these problems with the data generated in the author's laboratory and gives a brief description of the solutions being attempted. The extent of global warming in this century will be determined by how developing countries like India manage their energy generation plans. Some of the recommendations have been implemented for new plants

  12. Thermal expansion measurement of turbine and main steam piping by using strain gages in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Sang Soo; Chung, Jae Won; Bong, Suk Kun; Jun, Dong Ki; Kim, Yun Suk

    2000-01-01

    One of the domestic co-generation plants have undergone excessive vibration problems of turbine attributed to external force for years. The root cause of turbine vibration may be shaft alignment problem which sometimes is changed by thermal expansion and external force, even if turbine technicians perfectly performed it. To evaluate the alignment condition from plant start-up to full load, a strain measurement of turbine and main steam piping subjected to thermal loading is monitored by using strain gages. The strain gages are bonded on both bearing housing adjusting bolts and pipe stoppers which installed in the x-direction of left-side main steam piping near the turbine inlet in order to monitor closely the effect of turbine under thermal deformation of turbine casing and main steam piping during plant full load. Also in situ load of constant support hangers in main steam piping system is measured by strain gages and its results are used to rebalance the hanger rod load. Consequently, the experimental stress analysis by using strain gages turns out to be very useful tool to diagnose the trouble and failures of not only to stationary components but to rotating machinery in power plants

  13. Survival of juvenile fishes receiving thermal and mechanical stresses in a simulated power plant condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedl, R.J.; Coutant, C.C.

    Experiments were conducted in a water-recirculating loop to determine the effects of fluid-induced stresses (e.g., turbulence, pressure, and vacuum) on six species of larval fish and one species each of frog tadpoles and zooplankton. These stresses simulate the insults developed in the condenser portion, but not including the pump, of a steam power plant. Some experiments were conducted with thermal stresses superimposed on fluid-induced stresses. Fluid-induced stresses of the magnitude developed in these experiments were generally not fatal to the larval fish within the precision of the experiments, although some sublethal effects were noted. When thermal stress was superimposed on the fluid-induced stresses, the mortalities were equivalent to those resulting from thermal stress alone. Fluid-induced stresses of low magnitude were not fatal to Daphnia magna, but fluid-induced stresses of higher magnitude were responsible for significant mortalities. (U.S.)

  14. An adaptive control application in a large thermal combined power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocaarslan, Ilhan; Cam, Ertugrul

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive controller was applied to a 765 MW large thermal power plant to decrease operating costs, increase quality of generated electricity and satisfy environmental concerns. Since power plants may present several operating problems such as disturbances and severe effects at operating points, design of their controllers needs to be carried out adequately. For these reasons, first, a reduced mathematical model was developed under Computer Aided Analysis and Design Package for Control (CADACS), so that the results of the experimental model have briefly been discussed. Second, conventional PID and adaptive controllers were designed and implemented under the real-time environment of the CADACS software. Additionally, the design of the adaptive model-reference and conventional PID controllers used in the power plant for real-time control were theoretically presented. All processes were realized in real-time. Due to safety restrictions, a direct connection to the sensors and actuators of the plant was not allowed. Instead a coupling to the control system was realized. This offers, in addition, the usage of the supervisory functions of an industrial process computer system. Application of the controllers indicated that the proposed adaptive controller has better performances for rise and settling times of electrical power, and enthalpy outputs than the conventional PID controller does

  15. Startup of Pumping Units in Process Water Supplies with Cooling Towers at Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, V. V., E-mail: vberlin@rinet.ru; Murav’ev, O. A., E-mail: muraviov1954@mail.ru; Golubev, A. V., E-mail: electronik@inbox.ru [National Research University “Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Aspects of the startup of pumping units in the cooling and process water supply systems for thermal and nuclear power plants with cooling towers, the startup stages, and the limits imposed on the extreme parameters during transients are discussed.

  16. Thermal power measurement apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Thermal power measurements are important in nuclear power plants, fossil-fuel plants and other closed loop systems such as heat exchangers and chemical reactors. The main object of this invention is to determine the enthalpy of a fluid using only acoustically determined sound speed and correlating the speed with enthalpy. An enthalpy change is measured between two points in the fluid flow: the apparatus is described in detail. (U.K.)

  17. Performance analysis of a Kalina cycle for a central receiver solar thermal power plant with direct steam generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Solar thermal power plants have attracted increasing interest in the past few years - with respect to both the design of the various plant components, and extending the operation hours by employing different types of storage systems. One approach to improve the overall plant efficiency is to use ...

  18. Energy and environmental studies associated to the emergency plan of natural gas thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Grynberg, Sueli E.; Aronne, Ivan D.; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.; Branco, Otavio E.A.; Martinez, Carlos B.; Versiani, Bruno R.

    2002-01-01

    This work presents a first exertion to evaluate the environmental impacts due to the operation of planned gas power plants. This study was carried out with the model EcoSense, that is a computer program developed for the quantification of environmental impacts and their external costs resulting from the operation of thermal power plants or other industrial activities. EcoSense is still in development and the achieved results should still be considered with caution although it becomes clear the potentiality of the use of this tool in the support of the decision making process in energy planning. Based on the method of approach of the damage function established in the ExternE project this program provides models for an integrated evaluation of the impact rate from the air pollutants resulting from burning fossil fuel, which are transported by the air. (author)

  19. Thermal and optical study of parabolic trough collectors of Shiraz solar power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, A.; Yaghoubi, M.; Vadiee, A.; Hessami, R. [Shiraz Univ, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kanan, P. [Renewable Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The construction of the first 250 KW solar power plant in Shiraz, Iran was discussed. The power plant is comprised of a steam and oil cycle which includes 48 parabolic trough collectors (PTCs). Solar thermal power plants based on PTCs are currently the most successful solar technologies for electricity generation. These power plants are basically composed of a solar collector field and a power block. The solar collector field is designed to collect heat from the sun which it is continuously tracking. The reflecting surface concentrates direct solar radiation in the optical focal line of the collector where the heat collecting element (HCE) is located. The HCE absorbs the reflected energy and transmits it to the heat transfer fluid which is pumped to the conventional power block where electricity is generated. There is potential to significantly increase the performance and reduce the cost of PTC solar thermal electric technologies. However, it is necessary to characterize the optical performance and determine the optical losses of PTCs in order to improve the optical efficiency of these systems and to ensure the desired power quality. In this study, thermocouple sensors were used to record the collector oil inlet and outlet temperature along with the ambient temperature in the PTCs. In addition to measuring the wind speed, the solar beam radiation intensity was measured along with the oil's mass flow rate. All parameters were measured as a function of time. Based on these measurements, the intercept factor value and collector's incidence angle was determined and compared with other large size constructed commercial parabolic collectors. The maximum beam radiation during the experimental period was 735 2mW. The useful heat gain and the collector's instantaneous efficiency as a whole was evaluated on an hourly basis. All these parameters were strongly influenced by the incident beam radiation and found to follow each other. The optical and thermal

  20. An estimation of reactor thermal power uncertainty using UFM-based feedwater flow rate in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byung Ryul Jung; Ho Cheol Jang; Byung Jin Lee; Se Jin Baik; Woo Hyun Jang

    2005-01-01

    Most of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) utilize the venturi meters (VMs) to measure the feedwater (FW) flow rate to the steam generator in the calorimetric measurement, which is used in the reactor thermal power (RTP) estimation. However, measurement drifts have been experienced due to some anomalies on the venturi meter (generally called the venturi meter fouling). The VM's fouling tends to increase the measured pressure drop across the meter, which results in indication of increased feedwater flow rate. Finally, the reactor thermal power is overestimated and the actual reactor power is to be reduced to remain within the regulatory limits. To overcome this VM's fouling problem, the Ultrasonic Flow Meter (UFM) has recently been gaining attention in the measurement of the feedwater flow rate. This paper presents the applicability of a UFM based feedwater flow rate in the estimation of reactor thermal power uncertainty. The FW and RTP uncertainties are compared in terms of sensitivities between the VM- and UFM-based feedwater flow rates. Data from typical Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR1000) plants are used to estimate the uncertainty. (authors)

  1. Impact of coal-fired thermal power plant emissions on surrounding vegetative environment: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, D.K.; Senger, C.B.S.

    1993-01-01

    Vegetative system around the thermal power plants are exposed to perpetual emissions of particulates as well as gaseous pollutants in various forms and nature. These emissions evidently are reflected in plant responses. In order to assess the response of natural flora of this region, 2 plant species, that is Mangifera indica and Holarrhina artidysentrica and certain pollution sensitive parameter, such as leaf area, pH of wash water of foliage and sugar content of the leaves were identified for this study. It was observed that the pH of wash solution of leaves was close to neutral in upstream locations and in polluted zone pH was acidic. Leaf area was higher in least polluted zone and lower in more polluted locations. Dust deposition on leaves was observed be lower in upstream locations and higher in influenced areas. Sugar variations in leaves showed negative impact in affected areas. (author). 9 refs., 5 tabs

  2. Analysis of the Opportunity for an Increase in the Thermal Power of Power Generating Units of Nuclear Power Plants (Part 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Chernousenko, Olga Yuriivna; Nikulenkova, Tetiana Volodymyrivna; Nikulenkov, Anatolii Hennadiiovych

    2017-01-01

    For Ukraine the realization of available reserves to increase the power of operating power units of nuclear plants is a vital problem the solution of which would allow us to increase electric power output. A special role is also played by economic priorities; in particular an increase in power by 1 kW is ten times cheaper in comparison with the construction of 1 kW of new power facilities. One more factor is the world experience in the field of an increase in the thermal power of operating po...

  3. Simulation modeling and analysis of a complex system of a thermal power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorabh Gupta

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the opportunities for the modeling of flue gas and air system of a thermal power plant by making the performance evaluation using probabilistic approach. The present system of thermal plant under study consists of four subsystems with three possible states: full working, reduced capacity working and failed. Failure and repair rates for all the subsystems are assumed to be constant. Formulation of the problem is carried out using Markov Birth-Death process using probabilistic approach and a transition diagram represents the operational behavior of the system. Interrelationship among the full working and reduced working has been developed. A probabilistic model has been developed, considering some assumptions. Data in feasible range are selected from a survey of thermal plant and the effect of each subsystem on the system availability is tabulated in the form of availability matrices, which provides various performance/availability levels for different combinations of failure and repair rates of all subsystems. Based upon various availability values obtained in availability matrices and graphs of failure/repair rates of different subsystems, performance and optimum values of failure/repair rates for maximum availability, of each subsystem is analyzed and then maintenance priorities are decided for all subsystems.

  4. Markov approach to evaluate the availability simulation model for power generation system in a thermal power plant ,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdhesh Kr. Sharma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the availability of power plants has become increasingly important issue in most developed and developing countries. This paper aims to propose a methodology based on Markov approach to evaluate the availability simulation model for power generation system (Turbine in a thermal power plant under realistic working environment. The effects of occurrence of failure/course of actions and availability of repair facilities on system performance have been investigated. Higher availability of the components/equipments is inherently associated with their higher reliability and maintainability. The power generation system consists of five subsystems with four possible states: full working, reduced capacity, reduced efficiency and failed state. So, its availability should be carefully evaluated in order to foresee the performance of the power plant. The availability simulation model (Av. has been developed with the help of mathematical formulation based on Markov Birth-Death process using probabilistic approach. For this purpose, first differential equations have been generated. These equations are then solved using normalizing condition so as to determine the steady state availability of power generation system. In fact, availability analysis is very much effective in finding critical subsystems and deciding their preventive maintenance program for improving availability of the power plant as well as the power supply. From the graphs illustrated, the optimum values of failure/repair rates for maximum availability, of each subsystem is analyzed and then maintenance priorities are decided for all subsystems.The present paper highlights that in this system, Turbine governing subsystem is most sensitive demands more improvement in maintainability as compared to the other subsystems. While Turbine lubrication subsystem is least sensitive.

  5. Design experiences of the first solar parabolic thermal power plant for various regions in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizian, K.; Yaghoubi, M.; Kenary, A.

    2002-01-01

    The basic design is made for a 250 kw solar power plant. The main element of the plant is the collectors. Base on system simulation, a parabolic collector constructed and tested for one year. The model is first validated with experimental measurement and a detail numerical model is also developed to study effects of various optical properties of mirrors and receiver on the thermal performance of the collectors. It is observed that due to poor optical properties of the present collector, it would not be able to produce hot oil with desired temperature. Improving the material of the mirrors and the receiver tube, thermal performances exceed substantially from the design conditions. By considering available optical properties simulation is made to estimate yearly steady and unsteady behavior and the performance of the power plant for three locations: Shiraz, Yazd and Lar in Iran. Comparison of the yearly performance of the cycle shows that unsteady behavior reveals different results and simulations approach a reliable technique to study such cycle

  6. Determining the reliability function of the thermal power system in power plant "Nikola Tesla, Block B1"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaba Dragan V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Representation of probabilistic technique for evaluation of thermal power system reliability is the main subject of this paper. The system of thermal power plant under study consists of three subsystems and the reliability assessment is based on a sixteen-year failure database. By applying the mathematical theory of reliability to exploitation research data and using complex two-parameter Weibull distribution, the theoretical reliability functions of specified system have been determined. Obtained probabilistic laws of failure occurrence have confirmed a hypothesis that the distribution of the observed random variable fully describes behaviour of such a system in terms of reliability. Shown results make possible to acquire a better knowledge of current state of the system, as well as a more accurate estimation of its behavior during future exploitation. Final benefit is opportunity for potential improvement of complex system maintenance policies aimed at the reduction of unexpected failure occurrences.

  7. Thermal Analysis for Environmental Qualification of Kori Nuclear power plant unit 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kwi Hyun; Byun, Choong Sup; Song, Dong Soo

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows the temperature profiles of safety related electrical equipment exposed to MSLB inside containment. It must be demonstrated that the LOCA qualification conditions exceed or are equivalent to the maximum calculated MSLB conditions. COPATTA as Bechtel's vendor code is used for the containment pressure and temperature prediction in power uprating project for Kori 3,4 and Yonggwang 1,2 nuclear power plants(NPPs). However, CONTEMPT-LT/028 is used for calculating the containment pressure and temperatures in equipment qualification project for the same NPPs. Power uprating code that is, COPATTA benchmarking study performed in six equipment at saturation temperature and surface temperature. Specially, thermal analysis carefully investigate that view point environmental qualification and NUREG- 0588 be mentioned in regard to safety-related heat sink it boundary condition or geometry information

  8. Thermal Analysis for Environmental Qualification of Kori Nuclear power plant unit 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Kwi Hyun [ENERGEO Inc., Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Choong Sup; Song, Dong Soo [KEPRI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    This paper shows the temperature profiles of safety related electrical equipment exposed to MSLB inside containment. It must be demonstrated that the LOCA qualification conditions exceed or are equivalent to the maximum calculated MSLB conditions. COPATTA as Bechtel's vendor code is used for the containment pressure and temperature prediction in power uprating project for Kori 3,4 and Yonggwang 1,2 nuclear power plants(NPPs). However, CONTEMPT-LT/028 is used for calculating the containment pressure and temperatures in equipment qualification project for the same NPPs. Power uprating code that is, COPATTA benchmarking study performed in six equipment at saturation temperature and surface temperature. Specially, thermal analysis carefully investigate that view point environmental qualification and NUREG- 0588 be mentioned in regard to safety-related heat sink it boundary condition or geometry information.

  9. Thermal Mode of Tanks for Storage Fuel of Thermal Power Plants and Boiler with the Influence of Engineering Facilities in the Area of their Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polovnikov, V. Yu.; Makhsutbek, F. T.; Ozhikenova, Zh. F.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the numerical modeling of heat transfer in the area placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler with the influence of engineering construction. We have established that the presence of engineering structures in the area of placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler have little effect on the change of heat loss.

  10. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS SMOKE EXHAUSTERS INDUCTION MOTORS SYSTEM OPERATION MODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Vasyliv

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of a model-software complex (MSC for computer analysis of modes of the system of induction motors (IM of smoke exhausters of thermal power plant (TPP, the basic elements of which are mathematical models and corresponding software written in the programming language FORTRAN. Methodology. Mathematical model serves as a system of differential equations of electrical and mechanical condition. The equation of electric state is written in phase coordinates based on Kirchhoff's laws, and mechanical condition described by the d'Alembert equation. Mathematical model focuses on explicit numerical integration methods. Scientific novelty. The equation of state of electrical connections takes into account the mutual electromagnetic circuits for transformer of own needs (TON and induction motors and interdependence (in all possible combinations between: TON (from which motors powered and each of the two IM and blood pressure between themselves. The complex allows to simulate electromagnetic and electromechanical processes in transitional and steady, symmetric and asymmetric modes including modes of self-induction motors. Results. Complex is used for computer analysis of electromagnetic and electromechanical processes and established the basic laws of motion modes of starting, stopping and self-start of IM of smoke exhausters of the TPP unit. Practical value. The complex is suitable for computer analysis of modes of other similar units of own needs of thermal power plants.

  11. Microstructural evolution of pipelines for thermal electric power plants after a prolongated operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twentyman, M.; Rosetti, R.; Porta, G.

    1991-01-01

    The study of failures originated in pipelines for thermal electric power plants allows an evaluation of the limit microstructural conditions that turn the system to critical conditions. A set of pipe samples with different microsctructural evolution which had been affected by direct flame were prepared. The samples were taken close to failures, away from them, from out of use pipes, etc. Metallographic studies were carried out using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Phase distribution, morphology and their relation with the different stages of aging were observed. (Author) [es

  12. Validation studies of thermal-hydraulic code for safety analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapalehto, T.

    1995-01-01

    The thesis gives an overview of the validation process for thermal-hydraulic system codes and it presents in more detail the assessment and validation of the French code CATHARE for VVER calculations. Three assessment cases are presented: loop seal clearing, core reflooding and flow in a horizontal steam generator. The experience gained during these assessment and validation calculations has been used to analyze the behavior of the horizontal steam generator and the natural circulation in the geometry of the Loviisa nuclear power plant. Large part of the work has been performed in cooperation with the CATHARE-team in Grenoble, France. (41 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.)

  13. Experience gained in titanium uses for thermal and nuclear power plants of Electricite de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, R.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal and nuclear power plants are using titanium for tube bundles in steam turbine condensers and water-water heat exchangers, for electrodes in electrolysis cells used in cooling water treatment and for cathodic protection. Titanium is very satisfactory due to good mechanical properties, excellent corrosion resistance (chemicals, sea water and ammoniac) and erosion by sea water or steam. Unfortunately titanium is rare, expensive and France is strongly dependent of foreign countries. For some uses it could be replaced by ferritic stainless steels, testing will take several years before a definitive conclusion [fr

  14. A new way of assessment of environmental effects of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardu, M.

    1996-01-01

    Starting from some fundamental aspects of the atmospheric pollution by gases resulted from the burning of fossil fuels in thermal power plants (TPP) a new method was devised to evaluate quantitatively the harmful consequences of air pollution. This method makes use of some quantities introduced first in the assessment of earthquake consequences. Its application resulted in worth indications with respect to optimal utilization of fuels in TPPs from the point of view of environmental impacts and energy production efficiency. (author) 1 fig., 2 tabs., 4 refs

  15. NORM in the vicinity of the thermal power plant 'Nikola Tesla' B - experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisic, D.; Veselinovic, N.; Tokonami, S.; Celikovic, I.; Stojanovic, Z.; Cuknic, O.; Nemcevic, M.; Simovic, R.; Zunic, Z. S.

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the results related to identification of ionizing radiation from natural sources (NORM - Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) in the vicinity of the fly ash deposit of Thermal Power Plant 'Nikola Tesla B' (TENT B). The survey included such as follows: determination of distribution of naturally soil occurring gases radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Tn) in the vicinity of TENT B by means of passive discriminative solid state nuclear track detectors (CR 39) at the depth of 80 cm with defining its appropriate GPS coordinates. (author) [sr

  16. Value of solar thermal and photovoltaic power plants to Arizona Public Service Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Arizona Public Service Company has performed a study using historical solar radiation and system load data to (1) estimate the effects of six types of solar generation on system reliability, (2) estimate the central station value of each to its system, (3) and to assess the potential of each of those technologies to provide bulk power to its system in the 2000 time frame. Technologies included three solar thermal (central receiver, dish Stirling, and parabolic trough) and three flat plate photovoltaic plants (fixed position, one axis, and two axis tracking)

  17. Failure Investigation of Radiant Platen Superheater Tube of Thermal Power Plant Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, D.; Ray, S.; Mandal, A.; Roy, H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper highlights a case study of typical premature failure of a radiant platen superheater tube of 210 MW thermal power plant boiler. Visual examination, dimensional measurement and chemical analysis, are conducted as part of the investigations. Apart from these, metallographic analysis and fractography are also conducted to ascertain the probable cause of failure. Finally it has been concluded that the premature failure of the super heater tube can be attributed to localized creep at high temperature. The corrective actions has also been suggested to avoid this type of failure in near future.

  18. Effect of water side deposits on the energy performance of coal fired thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, M. Siddhartha

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of water side deposits in the 210 MW coal fired thermal power plant components (viz., boiler, turbine, feed water heaters, condensers and lube oil coolers) on the energy efficiency of these components and that of the overall system at 100% maximum continuous rating (MCR). The origin, composition and rate of build up of deposits on the water side are presented. A linear growth rate of deposits is assumed for simplicity. The effects of the reduction in heat transfer, increased pressure drop and increased pumping power/reduced power output in the components are quantified in the form of curve fits as functions of the deposit thickness (μm). The reduction in heat transfer in the boiler components is in the range of 0.2-2.0% under normal scaling. The increased pumping power is of the order of 0.6-7.6% in the boiler components, 29% in the BFP circuit, 26% in the LPH circuit, 21% in the HPH circuit and 18% in the lube oil cooler circuits. The effects on the overall coal fired plant is quantified through functional relations between the efficiencies and the notional deposit thickness. The sensitivity indices to the notional deposit thickness are: boiler efficiency: -0.0021% points/μm, turbine circuit efficiency: -0.0037% points/μm, auxiliary power efficiency: -0.00129% points/μm, gross overall efficiency: -0.0039% points/μm and net overall efficiency: -0.0040% points/μm. The overall effect of scale build up is either increased power input of ∼68 kW/μm (at a constant power output) or decreased power output ∼25 kW/μm (at a constant power input). Successful contaminant control techniques are highlighted. Capacity reduction effects due to water side deposits are negligible

  19. Treatment of fuel oil contaminated waste water from liquid fuel processing plants associated to thermal power plants or heat and power cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrescu, S.

    1996-01-01

    According to the statistical data presented in the most important European and world meetings on environmental protection, the oil product amounts which pollute the surface water is estimated to be of about 6 mill. tones yearly out of which 35 %, 10 %, and 1 % come from oil tanks, natural sources, and offshore drilling, respectively, while 54 % reach seas and oceans trough rivers, rains a.o. Among the water consumers and users of Romania, the thermal power plants, belonging to RENEL (Romanian Electricity Authority), are the greatest. A part of the water with modified chemical-physical parameters, used for different technological processes, have to be discharged from the user precinct directly towards natural agents or indirectly through public sewage networks as domestic and industrial waste water. These waste waters need an adequate treatment before discharging as to meet the requirements imposed by the norms and regulations related to environment protection. For this purpose, before discharging, after using, the water must be circulated through the treatment plants designed and operated as to ensure the correction of the inadequate values of the residual water parameters. The paper presents the activities developed in the Institute for Power Studies and Design concerning the environmental protection against pollution produced by the entire power generation circuit, from the design phase up to product supplying. (author). 1 tab., 2 refs

  20. Thermal performance of gas turbine power plant based on exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Thamir K.; Basrawi, Firdaus; Awad, Omar I.; Abdullah, Ahmed N.; Najafi, G.; Mamat, Rizlman; Hagos, F.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Modelling theoretical framework for the energy and exergy analysis of the Gas turbine. • Investigated the effects of ambient temperature on the energy and exergy performance. • The maximum exergy loss occurs in the gas turbine components. - Abstract: This study is about energy and exergy analysis of gas turbine power plant. Energy analysis is more quantitatively while exergy analysis is about the same but with the addition of qualitatively. The lack quality of the thermodynamic process in the system leads to waste of potential energy, also known as exergy destruction which affects the efficiency of the power plant. By using the first and second law of thermodynamics, the model for the gas turbine power plant is built. Each component in the thermal system which is an air compressor, combustion chamber and gas turbine play roles in affecting the efficiency of the gas turbine power plant. The exergy flow rate for the compressor (AC), the combustion chamber (CC) and the gas turbine (GT) inlet and outlet are calculated based on the physical exergy and chemical exergy. The exergy destruction calculation based on the difference between the exergy flow in and exergy flow out of the component. The combustion chamber has the highest exergy destruction. The air compressor has 94.9% and 92% of exergy and energy efficiency respectively. The combustion chamber has 67.5% and 61.8% of exergy and energy efficiency respectively while gas turbine has 92% and 82% of exergy and energy efficiency respectively. For the overall efficiency, the plant has 32.4% and 34.3% exergy and energy efficiency respectively. To enhance the efficiency, the intake air temperature should be reduced, modify the combustion chamber to have the better air-fuel ratio and increase the capability of the gas turbine to receive high inlet temperature.

  1. Nordel - Availability statistics for thermal power plants 1995. (Denmark, Finland, Sweden)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The power companies of Denmark, Finland and Sweden have agreed on almost identical procedures for the recording and analysing of data describing the availability of power producing units over a certain capacity. Since 1975 the data for all three countries have been summarized and published in a joint report. The purpose of this report is to present some basic information about the operation of power producing units in the three countries. Referring to the report, companies or bodies will be able to exchange more detailed information with other companies or bodies in any of the countries. The report includes power producing units using fossil fuels, nuclear power plants and gas turbines. The information is presented separately for each country with a joint NORDEL statistics for units using fossil fuels, arranged in separate groups according to the type of fossil fuel which is used. The grouping of power producing units into classes of capacity has been made in accordance with the classification adopted by UNIPEDE/WEC. The definitions in NORDEL's 'Tillgaenglighetsbegrepp foer vaermekraft' ('The Concept of Availability for Thermal Power'), September 1977, are used in this report. The basic data for the availability are in accordance with the recommendations of UNIPEDE/WEC. (author)

  2. Application of a reversible chemical reaction system to solar thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanseth, E. J.; Won, Y. S.; Seibowitz, L. P.

    1980-01-01

    Three distributed dish solar thermal power systems using various applications of SO2/SO3 chemical energy storage and transport technology were comparatively assessed. Each system features various roles for the chemical system: (1) energy storage only, (2) energy transport, or (3) energy transport and storage. These three systems were also compared with the dish-Stirling, using electrical transport and battery storage, and the central receiver Rankine system, with thermal storage, to determine the relative merit of plants employing a thermochemical system. As an assessment criterion, the busbar energy costs were compared. Separate but comparable solar energy cost computer codes were used for distributed receiver and central receiver systems. Calculations were performed for capacity factors ranging from 0.4 to 0.8. The results indicate that SO2/SO3 technology has the potential to be more cost effective in transporting the collected energy than in storing the energy for the storage capacity range studied (2-15 hours)

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT TOOL IN A THERMAL POWER PLANT USING ABC AND BSC MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Dwivedi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s dynamic, uncertain and highly competitive business environment, the long term success of an organization critically depends on the perceptions, choices and actions of its managers regarding their strategies. Activity based costing (ABC and balanced scorecard (BSC are the modern day management approaches acknowledged as reliable tools for strategy formulation and implementation in an organization. In this paper, ABC and BSC models are separately proposed and applied in the merry-go-round (MGR department of an Indian thermal power plant. The results elicited from adoption of these two models in the said power plant provide more accurate, timely, and reliable operational and financial information at different activity levels of the organization, which would help in effective strategic and tactical decision making. Even though, there are limited published research papers related to application of ABC model in power plants, none of them has adopted ABC and BSC techniques in an Indian contextual environment. Additionally, an integrated ABC-BSC model is designed to harness the complementary synergies of both ABC and BSC models.

  4. Regulation of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in Indian coal-based thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Ishita

    Air borne particulate matter, in major Indian cities is at least three times the standard prescribed by the WHO. Coal-based thermal power plants are the major emitters of particulate matter in India. The lack of severe penalty for non-compliance with the standards has worsened the situation and thus calls for an immediate need for investment in technologies to regulate particulate emissions. My dissertation studies the optimal investment decisions in a dynamic framework, for a random sample of forty Indian coal-based power plants to abate particulate emissions. I used Linear Programming to solve the double cost minimization problem for the optimal choices of coal, boiler and pollution-control equipment. A policy analysis is done to choose over various tax policies, which would induce the firms to adopt the energy efficient as well as cost efficient technology. The aim here is to reach the WHO standards. Using the optimal switching point model I show that in a dynamic set up, switching the boiler immediately is always the cost effective option for all the power plants even if there is no policy restriction. The switch to a baghouse depends upon the policy in place. Theoretically, even though an emission tax is considered the most efficient tax, an ash tax or a coal tax can also be considered to be a good substitute especially in countries like India where monitoring costs are very high. As SPM is a local pollutant the analysis here is mainly firm specific.

  5. Application of monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis in thermal performance analysis for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeong Min; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    As condition-based maintenance (CBM) has risen as a new trend, there has been an active movement to apply information technology for effective implementation of CBM in power plants. This motivation is widespread in operations and maintenance, including monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and decision-making on asset management. Thermal efficiency analysis in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is a longstanding concern being updated with new methodologies in an advanced IT environment. It is also a prominent way to differentiate competitiveness in terms of operations and maintenance costs. Although thermal performance tests implemented using industrial codes and standards can provide officially trustworthy results, they are essentially resource-consuming and maybe even a hind-sighted technique rather than a foresighted one, considering their periodicity. Therefore, if more accurate performance monitoring can be achieved using advanced data analysis techniques, we can expect more optimized operations and maintenance. This paper proposes a framework and describes associated methodologies for in-situ thermal performance analysis, which differs from conventional performance monitoring. The methodologies are effective for monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis in pursuit of CBM. Our enabling techniques cover the intelligent removal of random and systematic errors, deviation detection between a best condition and a currently measured condition, degradation diagnosis using a structured knowledge base, and prognosis for decision-making about maintenance tasks. We also discuss how our new methods can be incorporated with existing performance tests. We provide guidance and directions for developers and end-users interested in in-situ thermal performance management, particularly in NPPs with large steam turbines.

  6. Application of monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis in thermal performance analysis for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeong Min; Heo, Gyun Young; Na, Man Gyun

    2014-01-01

    As condition-based maintenance (CBM) has risen as a new trend, there has been an active movement to apply information technology for effective implementation of CBM in power plants. This motivation is widespread in operations and maintenance, including monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and decision-making on asset management. Thermal efficiency analysis in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is a longstanding concern being updated with new methodologies in an advanced IT environment. It is also a prominent way to differentiate competitiveness in terms of operations and maintenance costs. Although thermal performance tests implemented using industrial codes and standards can provide officially trustworthy results, they are essentially resource-consuming and maybe even a hind-sighted technique rather than a foresighted one, considering their periodicity. Therefore, if more accurate performance monitoring can be achieved using advanced data analysis techniques, we can expect more optimized operations and maintenance. This paper proposes a framework and describes associated methodologies for in-situ thermal performance analysis, which differs from conventional performance monitoring. The methodologies are effective for monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis in pursuit of CBM. Our enabling techniques cover the intelligent removal of random and systematic errors, deviation detection between a best condition and a currently measured condition, degradation diagnosis using a structured knowledge base, and prognosis for decision-making about maintenance tasks. We also discuss how our new methods can be incorporated with existing performance tests. We provide guidance and directions for developers and end-users interested in in-situ thermal performance management, particularly in NPPs with large steam turbines.

  7. Improvement of chemical control in the water-steam cycle of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajakovic-Ognjanovic, Vladana N.; Zivojinovic, Dragana Z.; Grgur, Branimir N.; Rajakovic, Ljubinka V.

    2011-01-01

    A more effective chemical control in the water-steam cycle (WSC) of thermal power plants (TPP) is proposed in this paper. Minimization of corrosion effects by the production of ultra pure water and its strict control is the basis of all the investigated processes. The research involved the analysis of water samples in the WSC through key water quality parameters and by the most convenient analytical tools. The necessity for the stricter chemical control is demonstrated through a concrete example of the TPP Nikola Tesla, Serbia. After a thorough analysis of the chemical control system of the WSC, diagnostic and control parameters were chosen for continuous systematic measurements. Sodium and chloride ions were recognized as the ions which indicate the corrosion potential of the water and give insight into the proper production and maintenance of water within the WSC. Chemical transformations of crucial corrosion elements, iron and silica, were considered and related to their quantitative values. - Research highlights: → The more effective chemical control in the water-steam cycle of thermal power plant Nikola Tesla, Serbia. → In chemical control the diagnostic and control parameters were optimized and introduced for the systematic measurements in the water-steam cycle. → Sodium and chloride ions were recognized as ions which indicate corrosion potential of water and give insight to proper function of production and maintenance of water within water-team cycle. → Chemical transformations of crucial corrosion elements, iron and silica are considered and related with their quantitative values.

  8. Considerations upon the possibility of abating the pollution produced by thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ataman, Eleonora

    1992-01-01

    Thermal power plants using fossil fuels in conventional boilers are among the most important man-made stationary sources of pollutant release. A review of the present possibilities to abate the pollution, mainly by abatement of releases at stack is presented. At present the unique viable solution applicable in Romania thermopower stations appears to be the use of catalytic technology based on NO x selective reduction with ammonia. Investments for pollution abatement installations for intra- or post-combustion burning gases in classic boilers appear to be 1/4 and 1/3 of the cost of a new thermal power plant and the maintenance costs of de-pollution installations even when the resulting products are rendered profitable, the cost of KWh will raise. Replacement of classical boilers by circulating fluidized bed boilers would solve entirely the SO 2 and NO x release issue. Investments for such boilers are lower than those implied by a new classical boiler equipped with supplementary installations for the removal of intra- and post-combustion gases. The only remaining drawback is waste resulting desulfurization which is disposed at the dump. (author)

  9. Thermal expansion of slag and fly ash from coal gasification in IGCC power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Aineto; A. Acosta; J.M.A. Rincon; M. Romero [University of Castilla La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain). Laboratory of Applied Mineralogy

    2006-11-15

    Integrated gasification in combined cycle (IGCC) is an electrical power generation system which is characterized to be a clean coal technology different than conventional process in combustible treatment. IGCC process gives rise to inorganic solid wastes in the form of vitreous slag and fly ashes with singular thermal properties. The gasification of the fuel takes place at high temperature and pressure in reducing atmosphere. Under that conditions, gases such as H{sub 2}, N{sub 2} or CO, which are the main components of the gas mixture in the gasifier, show a high solubility in the melt and during the cooling remain enclosed in the vitreous slag. When these wastes are afterward thermal treated in oxidizing conditions, two phenomena occur. The development of a crystalline phase by devitrification of the glassy matrix and the releasing of the enclosed gas, which starts at temperatures nearly to the softening point. At higher temperatures the bubbles with increasing kinetic energy tend to ascend with difficulty through the viscous liquid phase and promotes an expansive reaction, giving rise to a foam glass-ceramic product. This paper has been focused on the study of thermal expansion in slag and fly ash samples from the ELCOGAS IGCC power plant located in Puertollano (Spain). 18 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Preliminary study on acceptability of scope of thermal discharge mixing zone for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yongye; Yang Yang; Wang Liang; Chen Xiaoqiu; Liu Senlin

    2012-01-01

    Based on the situation that the existing domestic temperature control standards are not performable, the preliminary study on the acceptability of the mixing zone scope of thermal discharge for nuclear power plant was conducted in this paper, taking a coastal power station SNP as a case. The following preliminary conclusions could be drawn from the results of cluster analysis of the SNP site under different results of mathematical modeling and physical model test: 1) The influence intensity of ecological function of the SNP site seawater is small and the scope of thermal discharge mixing zone is acceptable under SNP-1 (Unit 1 and 2) operating condition; 2) the influence intensity of ecological function of the SNP site seawater is small and the scope of thermal discharge mixing zone is acceptable in spring under SNP-1 (Unit 1 and 2) and SNP-2 (Unit 3 and 4) operating condition, while the influence intensity of ecological function of the SNP site seawater is large and the scope of mixing zone is unacceptable in autumn under the same operating condition. (authors)

  11. Qualitative analysis of coal combusted in boilers of the thermal power plants in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Slavko N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have looked into the qualitative analysis of coals in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B-H. The analysis includes the following characteristics: moisture (W, ash (A, combustible matter (Vg and lower heating value (Hd. From the statistic parameters we have determined: absolute range (R, arithmetic mean (X, standard deviation (S and variations coefficient (Cv. It has been shown that the coal characteristics (W, A, Vg, Hd have normal distribution. The analysis show that there are considerable deviations of ash characteristics: moisture (36.23%, ash (34.21%, combustible matter (16.15% and lower heating value (25.16% from the mean value which is shown by the variations coefficient (Cv. Large oscilations of mass portions: W, A, Vg and Hd around the mean value can adversely influence the function of a boiler plant and an electric filter plant in thermal power plants in B-H in which the mentioned types of coal burn. Large ash oscilations (34.21% around the mean value point out to the inability of application of dry procedures of desulphurisation of smoke gasses (FGD due to the additional quantity of ash. It has been shown that the characteristics of Bosnian types of coal do not deviate a lot from the characteristics of coal in the surrounding countries (coals of Serbia and Monte Negro. The results can be used in analysis of coal combustion in thermal power plants, optimisation of electrical-filtre, reduction of SO2 in smoke gas and other practical problems.

  12. Modeling and performance simulation of 100 MW PTC based solar thermal power plant in Udaipur India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Bishoyi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is a key renewable energy source and the most abundant energy source on the globe. Solar energy can be converted into electric energy by using two different processes: by means of photovoltaic (PV conversion and the thermodynamic cycles. Concentrated solar power (CSP is viewed as one of the most promising alternatives in the field of solar energy utilization. Lifetime and efficiency of PV system are very less compared to the CSP technology. A 100 MW parabolic trough solar thermal power plant with 6 h of thermal energy storage has been evaluated in terms of design and thermal performance, based on the System Advisor Model (SAM. A location receiving an annual DNI of 2248.17 kW h/m2 in Rajasthan is chosen for the technical feasibility of hypothetical CSP plant. The plant design consists of 194 solar collector loops with each loop comprising of 8 parabolic trough collectors. HITEC solar salt is chosen as an HTF due to its excellent thermodynamic properties. The designed plant can generate annual electricity of 285,288,352 kW h with the plant efficiency of 21%. The proposed design of PTC based solar thermal power plant and its performance analysis encourages further innovation and development of solar thermal power plants in India.

  13. Effective Thermal Conductivity and Diffusivity of Containment Wall for Nuclear Power Plant OPR1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Gyun Noh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to evaluate the effective thermal conductivity and diffusivity of containment walls as heat sinks or passive cooling systems during nuclear power plant (NPP accidents. Containment walls consist of steel reinforced concrete, steel liners, and tendons, and provide the main thermal resistance of the heat sinks, which varies with the volume fraction and geometric alignment of the rebar and tendons, as well as the temperature and chemical composition. The target geometry for the containment walls of this work is the standard Korean NPP OPR1000. Sample tests and numerical simulations are conducted to verify the correlations for models with different densities of concrete, volume fractions, and alignments of steel. Estimation of the effective thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the containment wall models is proposed. The Maxwell model and modified Rayleigh volume fraction model employed in the present work predict the experiment and finite volume method (FVM results well. The effective thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the containment walls are summarized as functions of density, temperature, and the volume fraction of steel for the analysis of the NPP accidents.

  14. Effective thermal conductivity and diffusivity of containment wall for nuclear power plant OPR1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Hyung Gyun; Park, Hyun Sun [Div. of Advanced Nuclear Engineering (DANE), Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Hwi; Kang, Hie Chan [Mechanical Engineering Div., Kunsan National University (KNU), Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the effective thermal conductivity and diffusivity of containment walls as heat sinks or passive cooling systems during nuclear power plant (NPP) accidents. Containment walls consist of steel reinforced concrete, steel liners, and tendons, and provide the main thermal resistance of the heat sinks, which varies with the volume fraction and geometric alignment of the rebar and tendons, as well as the temperature and chemical composition. The target geometry for the containment walls of this work is the standard Korean NPP OPR1000. Sample tests and numerical simulations are conducted to verify the correlations for models with different densities of concrete, volume fractions, and alignments of steel. Estimation of the effective thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the containment wall models is proposed. The Maxwell model and modified Rayleigh volume fraction model employed in the present work predict the experiment and finite volume method (FVM) results well. The effective thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the containment walls are summarized as functions of density, temperature, and the volume fraction of steel for the analysis of the NPP accidents.

  15. Evaluating the Thermal Pollution Caused by Wastewaters Discharged from a Chain of Coal-Fired Power Plants along a River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and safe operation of a coal-fired power plant is strongly linked to freshwater resources, and environmental problems related to water sources and wastewater discharge are challenges for power station operation. In this study, an evaluation on the basis of a wastewater thermal pollution vector is reported for the environmental impact of residual water generated and discharged in the Jiu River during the operation of thermoelectric units of the Rovinari, Turceni and Craiova coal-fired power plants in Romania. Wastewater thermal pollutant vector Plane Projection is applied for assessing the water temperature evolution in the water flow lane created downstream of each power plant wastewater outlet channel. Simulation on the basis of an Electricity of France model, and testing validation of the results for thermoelectric units of 330 MW of these power plants are presented.

  16. Collateral effects of renewable energies deployment in Spain: Impact on thermal power plants performance and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Fermin; Martinez-Val, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    The quest for renewable energy sources has been strong in Spain for a couple of decades, and has produced outstanding results, notably in windpower. Solar technologies also had a prompt response to the promoting legislation of 2007. This evolution has generated side effects in the electricity generation system as a whole, and all this phenomenology is analysed in this paper under the consideration of the three objectives theoretically guiding electricity policy nowadays: security of supply (at macro and micro level), environmental quality, and economic competitiveness. The analysis points out some unbalance among the objectives, which can evolve to a scenario where back-up power is going to be a critical point for the stability of the system. Such a back-up service will surely be provided by gas-fired combined cycles (GFCC). The estimated projections of the generation system show that the required back-up power will grow about 8-9 GW by year 2020, for complying with the objective of attaining a share of 40% renewable electricity. However, collateral effects as the decline in the load factor of GFCC, as well as a reduction in spot price of electricity, can cast many doubts about the feasibility to reach that back-up power level. - Highlights: → Renewable energy will not match power peaks with high level of confidence. → Fossil thermal plants have become back-up systems to substitute for renewable energy. → Estimations show that 8-9 GW of additional combined cycles will be needed by 2020. → Electricity from renewable energy will provoke long periods of low spot prices. → Lack of economic feasibility of thermal plants threatens long term security of supply.

  17. Prediction of Maintenance Period of Equipment Through Risk Assessment of Thermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Gee Wook; Kim, Bum Shin; Choi, Woo Song; Park, Myung Soo [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Risk-based inspection (RBI) is a well-known method that is used to optimize inspection activities based on risk analysis in order to identify the high-risk components of major facilities such as power plants. RBI, when implemented and maintained properly, improves plant reliability and safety while reducing unplanned outages and repair costs. Risk is given by the product of the probability of failure (Pof) and the consequence of failure (COF). A semi-quantitative method is generally used for risk assessment. Semi-quantitative risk assessment complements the low accuracy of qualitative risk assessment and the high expense and long calculation time of quantitative risk assessment. The first step of RB I is to identify important failure modes and causes in the equipment. Once these are defined, the Pof and COF can be assessed for each failure. During Pof and COF assessment, an effective inspection method and range can be easily found. In this paper, the calculation of the Pof is improved for accurate risk assessment. A modified semi-quantitative risk assessment was carried out for boiler facilities of thermal power plants, and the next maintenance schedules for the equipment were decided.

  18. Prediction of Maintenance Period of Equipment Through Risk Assessment of Thermal Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Gee Wook; Kim, Bum Shin; Choi, Woo Song; Park, Myung Soo

    2013-01-01

    Risk-based inspection (RBI) is a well-known method that is used to optimize inspection activities based on risk analysis in order to identify the high-risk components of major facilities such as power plants. RBI, when implemented and maintained properly, improves plant reliability and safety while reducing unplanned outages and repair costs. Risk is given by the product of the probability of failure (Pof) and the consequence of failure (COF). A semi-quantitative method is generally used for risk assessment. Semi-quantitative risk assessment complements the low accuracy of qualitative risk assessment and the high expense and long calculation time of quantitative risk assessment. The first step of RB I is to identify important failure modes and causes in the equipment. Once these are defined, the Pof and COF can be assessed for each failure. During Pof and COF assessment, an effective inspection method and range can be easily found. In this paper, the calculation of the Pof is improved for accurate risk assessment. A modified semi-quantitative risk assessment was carried out for boiler facilities of thermal power plants, and the next maintenance schedules for the equipment were decided

  19. Assessing the impact of primary measures for NOx reduction on the thermal power plant steam boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupar, Goran; Tucaković, Dragan; Živanović, Titoslav; Belošević, Srdjan

    2015-01-01

    The European normatives prescribe content of 200 mg/Nm 3 NO x for pulverized coal combusting power plants. In order to reduce content of NO x in Serbian thermal power plant (TPP) 'Kostolac B' it's necessary to implement particular measures until 2016. The mathematical model of lignite combustion in the steam boiler furnace is defined and applied to analyze the possibility of implementing certain primary measures for reducing nitrogen oxides and their effects on the steam boiler operation. This model includes processes in the coal-fired furnace and defines radiating reactive two-phase turbulent flow. The model of turbulent flow also contains sub-model of fuel and thermal NO x formation and destruction. This complex mathematical model is related to thermal and aerodynamic calculations of the steam boiler within a unified calculation system in order to analyze the steam boiler overall work. This system provides calculations with a number of influential parameters. The steam boiler calculations for unit 1 (350 MWe) of TPP 'Kostolac B' are implemented for existing and modified combustion system in order to achieve effective, reliable and ecological facility work. The paper presents the influence analysis of large number of parameters on the steam boiler operation with an accepted concept of primary measures. Presented system of calculations is verified against measurements in TPP 'Kostolac B'. - Highlights: • Modern steam boilers need to operate according to ecological standards. • Possibility of applying some of the primary measures of NO x reduction. • Conventional calculations have no possibility to estimate sub-stoichiometric combustion. • Develop a new method of connecting the calculations. • Analysis shows the most favorable operation boiler regime (efficiency and ecology)

  20. Comparison of vibrational noise, between thermal power station (T.P.S.) Jamshoro and thermal power plant (T.P.P.) Pakistan Steel Bin Qasim Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheer-ud-Din Memon

    2003-01-01

    Vibrational Noise is one of the major environmental problems in Industrial Plants. The Noise study has been under taken in (Japanese Unit) Thermal Power Station (TPS) Jamshoro, which generates 250 MW since Jan: 1990 and Russian Unit Thermal Power Plant (TPP) Pak Steel Bin Qasim Karachi, generates 165 MW since 1984. The prevailing Noise has been recorded in detail; at Basement area feed pumps, Turbines, Boilers F.D.F, I.D.F and Compressor houses. Comparing these two Plants, the Noise Level found more Intensive i.e. 97- 114 dB(A) at TPP Pak Steel Bin Qasim as against 91.4 -96.3 dB(A) at TPS Jamshoro, which was even higher one in the light of ISO and other National Standards. In the light of permissible Occupational Noise exposure limits, as allowed by the ISO and other National Standards, some recommendations have been made to provide safety measures for workers against high level noise health hazards like head ache, hearing problem, irritation, accidents at work, tension, disturbance to work and so many psychological effects, along with guidelines to improve the efficiency of the plants. (author)

  1. Optimisation of a Kalina cycle for a central receiver solar thermal power plant with direct steam generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Central receiver solar thermal power plants are regarded as one of the promising ways to generate electricity in near future. They offer the possibility of using high temperatures and pressures to achieve high efficiencies with standard power cycles. A direct steam generation approach can be used...

  2. Typical calculation and analysis of carbon emissions in thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Zhi-jie; Zhao, Jian-gang; Zhang, Gang

    2018-03-01

    On December 19, 2017, the national development and reform commission issued the national carbon emissions trading market construction plan (power generation industry), which officially launched the construction process of the carbon emissions trading market. The plan promotes a phased advance in carbon market construction, taking the power industry with a large carbon footprint as a breakthrough, so it is extremely urgent for power generation plants to master their carbon emissions. Taking a coal power plant as an example, the paper introduces the calculation process of carbon emissions, and comes to the fuel activity level, fuel emissions factor and carbon emissions data of the power plant. Power plants can master their carbon emissions according to this paper, increase knowledge in the field of carbon reserves, and make the plant be familiar with calculation method based on the power industry carbon emissions data, which can help power plants positioning accurately in the upcoming carbon emissions trading market.

  3. Design of a DCS Based Model for Continuous Leakage Monitoring System of Rotary Air Preheater of a Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan BHOWMICK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The leakage in rotary air preheater makes a considerable contribution to the reduced overall efficiency of fossil-fuel-fired thermal power plants and increase the effect on environment. Since it is normal phenomenon, continuous monitoring of leakage is generally omitted in most power plants. But for accurate analysis of the operation of the thermal power plant, this leakage monitoring plays a vital role. In the present paper, design of a DCS based model for continuous leakages monitoring of rotary air preheater has been described. In the proposed model, the existing DCS based instrumentation system has been modified and online leakage monitoring system has been developed. This model has been installed in a captive power plant with high capacity boilers and very much satisfactory operation of this system has been observed. The observed online data along with their analysis results are presented in this paper.

  4. Evaluating the impact of the carbon dioxide capturing process on the indices of economic efficiency in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marukhyan, V.Z.; Elbakyan, S.H.

    2017-01-01

    Taking into account the input of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas in the global warming process, the technological solutions of its capturing, and the implementation possibilities in environmentally safe thermal power plants are considered. In power plants equipped with effective systems for cleaning the fuel gas and the coal gasification, the influence of the CO 2 reduction and realization of quotes on the indices of economic efficiency is estimated

  5. Detection and analysis of thermal energy loss in the Atucha I nuclear power plant residual heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berra, Sandra; Guala, Mariana I.; Khon, Hector; Lorenzo, Andrea T.; Raffo Calderon, Maria C.; Urrutia, Guillermo

    1999-01-01

    It is presented the methodology used to detect and to measure energy losses which are existent in the Atucha I nuclear power plant. They were not directly detected, since the magnitude of those was below of the instrumentation precision which is used to measure the electric and thermal power in the plant. To achieve this work temperature special measurements were made. In this way it was possible to quantify the energy losses after operational long periods. (author)

  6. Comparison of physico-chemical parameters of groundwater from shallow aquifers near 2 thermal power plants in Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, S.K.; Sahota, S.K.; Sahota, G.P.S.; Sahota, B.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1993-01-01

    Physico-chemical parameters of groundwater from shallow aquifers near thermal power plants at Bathinda and Ropar have been measured. Increase in metallic content of water is noted in both the cases due to deposition of coal fly ash from the power plants on the soil. High values of calcium chloride, calcium carbonate and total dissolved solids are observed in Bathinda groundwater while Ropar groundwater is rich in ferric, fluoride and nitrate contents. (author). 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Partitioning behaviour of natural radionuclides during combustion of coal in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Tiwari, M.; Bhangare, R.C.; Ajmal, P.Y.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    All fossil fuels contain low levels of naturally occurring radioactive substances. The environmental impact of radionuclide-containing waste products from coal combustion is an important issue. These radionuclides vaporize in the hot portions of the coal combustor and then return to the solid phase in cooler downstream zones. Indian coal used in power plants generally has high ash yield (35-45%) and is of low quality. In the burning process of coal, minerals undergo thermal decomposition, fusion, disintegration, and agglomeration. A major portion of elements in the boiler enter into slag or bottom ash, and the rest of the inorganic materials find their way into the flue gas, in fly ash or vapor. Fly and bottom ash are significant sources of exposure to these radionuclides. In the present study, coal and ash samples collected from six thermal power stations were analyzed to determine their natural radioactivity content and the partitioning behavior of these radionuclides was carried out by tracing their activities in fly and bottom ashes. The partitioning of radionuclides is strongly dependent on the size of associated ash particle. Polonium-210 was mostly associated with the finest fraction and showed large variation with particle size whereas 232 Th showed least dependence on the particle size. The high activities of all radionuclides in fly ashes than that of bottom ashes thus may be due to strong affinity of the nuclides towards the finer particle fractions. All the radionuclide distribution favored small particle sizes

  8. Concentrating solar thermal power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Steinhagen, Hans

    2013-08-13

    In addition to wind and photovoltaic power, concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) will make a major contribution to electricity provision from renewable energies. Drawing on almost 30 years of operational experience in the multi-megawatt range, CSP is now a proven technology with a reliable cost and performance record. In conjunction with thermal energy storage, electricity can be provided according to demand. To date, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity of 1.3 GW are in operation worldwide, with an additional 2.3 GW under construction and 31.7 GW in advanced planning stage. Depending on the concentration factors, temperatures up to 1000°C can be reached to produce saturated or superheated steam for steam turbine cycles or compressed hot gas for gas turbine cycles. The heat rejected from these thermodynamic cycles can be used for sea water desalination, process heat and centralized provision of chilled water. While electricity generation from CSP plants is still more expensive than from wind turbines or photovoltaic panels, its independence from fluctuations and daily variation of wind speed and solar radiation provides it with a higher value. To become competitive with mid-load electricity from conventional power plants within the next 10-15 years, mass production of components, increased plant size and planning/operating experience will be accompanied by technological innovations. On 30 October 2009, a number of major industrial companies joined forces to establish the so-called DESERTEC Industry Initiative, which aims at providing by 2050 15 per cent of European electricity from renewable energy sources in North Africa, while at the same time securing energy, water, income and employment for this region. Solar thermal power plants are in the heart of this concept.

  9. Development of high performance condensers for thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okouchi, Isao; Takahashi, Sankichi; Tomita, Akira.

    1980-01-01

    As the trend toward the large capacity of thermal and nuclear power plants advances, condensers also become large, and from the viewpoint of energy saving in whole plants, the maintenance of high performance and reliability is strongly desired. Hitachi Ltd. responded to this demand, and repeated the basic investigation with a model condenser on the selection of condenser cooling tubes and their arrangement. As the result, balanced downflow type tube arrangement was developed, which enables smooth steam flow and the improvement of condenser performance by forming the intense flow of turbine exhaust from the upper part of tube nest downward and making the steam flow in the lower part of tube nest into radial form toward air ejecting port. This tube arrangement has been applied to actual machines, and the excellent results have been obtained. In particular, the improvement of the degree of vacuum due to the reduction of steam flow loss is advantageous for increasing the power output of turbines. Thereupon, based on the basic experiment with various models of tube arrangement and the consideration on the operational results of actual machines using this tube arrangement, the features of this technique are reported. The basic construction of tube arrangement, the steam flow in tube nest, the vacuum in condensers, the supercooling of condensate, and actual balanced downflow type condensers are described. (Kako, I.)

  10. Evaluation of gas emissions and environmental impact of a Cuban thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas Aroche, Juan Alberto; Alvarez Hernandez, Orlando H; Fuentes Quevedo, Eduardo; Teutelo Nunnez, Raisa

    2006-01-01

    The present work shows the results obtained in the characterization of gas emissions and the impact of two fire-tube boilers in a Cuban thermal power plant. The results of the SO 2 and NO X sampling were collected in specific solutions for each pollutant. The sampling of suspended particulates in chimneys/pipes/stacks was made by collecting them in a filterholder for their analysis by means of the gravimetric method. Flow measurements were also made by using pressure sensors of Pilot tube-type speedometers. The dispersion modelling of pollutants poured out of the chimneys was developed running the program for the concentration calculation from continuous industrial sources and following the methodology approved by the Cuban standard according to Berliand model. The authors conclude that when burning national crude oil in the studied boilers, sulphur dioxide concentrations and suspended particulates are higher than the internationally standardized level

  11. Effect of thermal and radioactive waste waters from nuclear power plant on recipient biocenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veresikova, M; Csupka, S; Tomanova, E [Krajska Hygienicka Stanica, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)

    1979-01-01

    During the years 1974 to 1976 the effect was studied of thermal and radioactive effluents from the A-1 nuclear power plant on aquatic microorganisms. The values obtained from the waste water canal and the river Dudvah after the canal discharged into the river were compared with the values found in the Dudvah before the discharge. The correlation between aquatic microorganisms and water temperature was found to be closest in the waste water canal and between microorganisms and /sup 137/Cs content in the Dudvah after sewer emptying. With increasing water temperature the populations of aquatic microorganisms decrease, with the exception of producers whose numbers will increase with rising water temperature. The content of /sup 137/Cs in water had an effect similar to that of water temperature.

  12. Mineralogical, Microstructural and Thermal Characterization of Coal Fly Ash Produced from Kazakhstani Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauanov, Z.; Abylgazina, L.; Spitas, C.; Itskos, G.; Inglezakis, V.

    2017-09-01

    Coal fly ash (CFA) is a waste by-product of coal combustion. Kazakhstan has vast coal deposits and is major consumer of coal and hence produces huge amounts of CFA annually. The government aims to recycle and effectively utilize this waste by-product. Thus, a detailed study of the physical and chemical properties of material is required as the data available in literature is either outdated or not applicable for recently produced CFA samples. The full mineralogical, microstructural and thermal characterization of three types of coal fly ash (CFA) produced in two large Kazakhstani power plants is reported in this work. The properties of CFAs were compared between samples as well as with published values.

  13. Application of Functional Analysis on a SCADA System of a Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAKHOUA, M. N.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present firstly the functionality of a supervisory system for complex processes, and secondly to present the concepts of SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition systems. A functional analysis technique SADT (Structured Analysis and Design Technique has been applied on an example of a SCADA system of a thermal power plant. This technique allows a functional description of a SCADA system. The paper briefly discusses the functions of a SCADA system and some advantages of the application of functional analysis for the design of a human centered supervisory system. Then the basic principles of the SADT technique applied on the SCADA system are presented. Finally, the different results obtained from the SADT technique are discussed.

  14. [Relationship between job satisfaction and occupational stress in the workers of a thermal power plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Gui-zhen; Yu, Shan-fa; Zhou, Wen-hui

    2011-12-01

    To explore the relationship between job satisfaction and occupational stress in the workers of a thermal power plant. The cluster sampling method was used to investigate 875 workers in a thermal power plant. The job satisfaction, occupational stressors, strains, personalities, meeting strategy and social support were measured using occupational stress instruments, job content questionnaire and effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. There were no significant differences of job satisfaction scores between different groups according to sex, educational level, marriage status, smoking and drinking (P > 0.05). But there were significant differences of job satisfaction scores between different age groups or between different service length groups (P responsibility for persons and things, promotion opportunity, job control, job stabilization, rewards, mental health, positive affectivity, self-esteem, superior support and coworker support scores (P responsibility for persons and things, promotion opportunity, job control, job stabilization, reward, mental health, positive affectivity, self-esteem and buffer scores of the workers with high job satisfaction scores were significantly higher than those of workers with moderate and lower job satisfaction scores (P four times as high as that for workers with high reward (OR = 3.773), the risks of job dissatisfaction for workers with low social support and mental locus of external work control were about two times as high as that for workers with high social support or mental locus of internal work control (OR = 2.419 and 2.219, respectively). The daily life stress, low control strategy, low support strategy, low job control and negative affectivity were risk factors of job dissatisfaction (OR = 1.125 approximately 1.790), but the self-esteem and positive affectivity could reduce the risk of job dissatisfaction. Increasing the decision level, social support, meeting strategy and reward or decreasing the role conflict and

  15. Consideration of a design optimization method for advanced nuclear power plant thermal-hydraulic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridluan, Artit; Tokuhiro, Akira; Manic, Milos; Patterson, Michael; Danchus, William

    2009-01-01

    In order to meet the global energy demand and also mitigate climate change, we anticipate a significant resurgence of nuclear power in the next 50 years. Globally, Generation III plants (ABWR) have been built; Gen' III+ plants (EPR, AP1000 others) are anticipated in the near term. The U.S. DOE and Japan are respectively pursuing the NGNP and MSFR. There is renewed interest in closing the fuel cycle and gradually introducing the fast reactor into the LWR-dominated global fleet. In order to meet Generation IV criteria, i.e. thermal efficiency, inherent safety, proliferation resistance and economic competitiveness, plant and energy conversion system engineering design have to increasingly meet strict design criteria with reduced margin for reliable safety and uncertainties. Here, we considered a design optimization approach using an anticipated NGNP thermal system component as a Case Study. A systematic, efficient methodology is needed to reduce time consuming trial-and-error and computationally-intensive analyses. We thus developed a design optimization method linking three elements; that is, benchmarked CFD used as a 'design tool', artificial neural networks (ANN) to accommodate non-linear system behavior and enhancement of the 'design space', and finally, response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the design solution with targeted constraints. The paper presents the methodology including guiding principles, an integration of CFD into design theory and practice, consideration of system non-linearities (such as fluctuating operating conditions) and systematic enhancement of the design space via application of ANN, and a stochastic optimization approach (RSM) with targeted constraints. Results from a Case Study optimizing the printed circuit heat exchanger for the NGNP energy conversion system will be presented. (author)

  16. Thermodynamic effects when utilizing waste heat from condensation in cases of a reduced vacuum in steam turbine plants of thermal power stations, to provide heat at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiljevic, N.; Savic, B.; Stojakovic, M.

    1986-01-01

    There is an interesting variant of cogeneration in the steam turbine system of a thermal power plant, i.e. the utilisation of the waste heat of condensation with a reduced vacuum without reconstruction of the thermal power plant. The thermodynamic effect in cogeneration was calculated in consideration of the dynamics of heat consumption. This cogeneration process has the advantage of saving primary energy without reconstruction of the thermal power plant.

  17. Ecological and economic interests in design process of thermal power plant; Ekoloski i gospodarstveni izazovi pri projektiranju energetskih postrojenja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander, M [Elektroprojekt, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1997-12-31

    In design process of thermal power plant various ecological and economic contradictory interests are brought in focus. Requests on environmental protection written in laws, standards and international treaties are increasing investment costs and energy production costs. In a design phase there is a task to reconcile these contradictory requests. The paper presents relationship between technology and environmental protection with a focus on air pollution. Air pollution and human health is considered taking in account the role of design phase in thermal power plants project and human health problems. International laws and standards are presented with moral dilemmas concerning low investment costs and high environmental standards. (author). 6 tabs., 2 figs., 13 refs.

  18. IAEA activities to prepare safety codes and guides for thermal neutron nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iansiti, E.

    1977-01-01

    In accordance with the programme presented to, and endorsed by, the eighteenth General Conference in September 1974, the IAEA is now developing a complete set of safety codes and guides that will represent recommendations for the safety of thermal neutron power plants. The safety codes outline the minimum requirements for achieving this safety, and the safety guides set forth the criteria, procedures and methods to implement the safety codes. The whole programme is directed towards the five areas of Governmental Organization, Siting, Design, Operation, and Quality Assurance. One Scientific Secretary from the Agency Secretariat is responsible for each of these areas and a Co-ordinator takes care of common problems. For the development of each of these documents a working group of a few world experts is first convened which prepare a preliminary draft. This draft is then reviewed by a larger, international Technical Review Committee (one for each of the five areas) and a subsequent review by the Senior Advisory Group - with representatives from 20 states - ensures that the document is well coordinated within the programme. At this stage, it is sent to Member States for comments. The Technical Review Committee concerned is reconvened to integrate these comments into the document, and, after a final review by the Senior Advisory Group, the document is ready for transmission to the Director General of the Agency for endorsement and publication. A preliminary to this procedure is the collation by the Secretariat of large amounts of information submitted by Member States so that the first draft is really based on a very complete knowledge of what is done in each area all over the world. This collation frequently reveals differences in approach which are not random but due, rather, to the local conditions and the types of reactors. These differences must be harmonized in the documents produced without detracting from the effectiveness of the code or guide. The whole

  19. Nuclear power and other thermal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakke, J.

    1978-01-01

    Some philosophical aspects of mortality statistics are first briefly mentioued, then the environmental problems of, first, nuclear power plants, then fossil fuelled power plants are summarised. The effects of releases of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are briefly discussed. The possible health effects of radiation from nuclear power plants and those of gaseous and particulate effluents from fossil fuel plants are also discussed. It is pointed out that in choosing between alternative evils the worst course is to make no choice at all, that is, failure to install thermal power plants will lead to isolated domestic burning of fossil fuels which is clearly the worst situation regarding pollution. (JIW)

  20. Impact Assessment of Atmospheric Dust on Foliage Pigments and Pollution Resistances of Plants Grown Nearby Coal Based Thermal Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariram, Manisha; Sahu, Ravi; Elumalai, Suresh Pandian

    2018-01-01

    Plant species grown in the vicinity of thermal power plants (TPP) are one of the immobile substrates to sink most of the pollutants emitted from their stacks. The continuous exposure of toxic pollutants to these plants may affect their resistances and essential biochemical's concentrations. In the present study, we estimated the impact of dust load generated by a TPPs to plant's dust retention capacity and pollution resistances (APTI and API). The observed ambient air quality index (AQI) showed that the surroundings of TPPs are in the severe air pollution category. Observed AQI was greater than 100 in the surrounding area of TPP. The mean dust load on plant foliage was significantly greater in the polluted site compared with the control site: 4.45 ± 1.96 versus 1.38 ± 0.41 mg cm -2 . Nearby, TPP highest and lowest dust load were founded in F. benghalensis (7.58 ± 0.74) and F. religiosa (2.25 ± 0.12 mg cm -2 ) respectively. Analysis revealed the strong negative correlation between dust load and essential pigments of foliage, such as chlorophyll content, carotenoids, pH of foliage extract, and relative water content. Conversely, strong positive correlation was observed with the ascorbic acid content of plant species. Correlation and percentage change analysis in ascorbic acid content for the polluted site against the control site showed the adverse impact on plants due to dust load. Based on their responses to dust pollution, A. scholaris, P. longifolia, and M. indica were observed as most suitable plant species. Estimation of DRC, chlorophyll a/b ratio, APTI and API revealed the A. scholaris, F. benghalensis, P. longifolia, and M. indica as the most suitable plant species for green belt formation. The high gradation was obtained in A. scholaris, F. benghalensis, P. longifolia, and M. indica for opted parameters and showed their most suitability for green belt formation. Salient features of the present study provide useful evidences to estimate the

  1. Looking back on safety management in construction of advanced thermal nuclear power plant 'Fugen'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emori, Kengo

    1979-01-01

    The safety management of the advanced thermal nuclear power plant ''Fugen'' during the period from the preparation of plant construction in October, 1970, to the full power operation in March, 1979, is looked back and explained. Any large human and material accidents did not occur during the long construction time. The total numbers of persons and hours were 1.397 x 10 6 workers and 11.55 x 10 6 hours, respectively. The number of labor accidents was twenty with no dead person, the number of loss days was 645 days, the number of accident rate was 1.73, the intensity rate was 0.06, and the mean rate of labor accidents per year per 1000 workers was 6.4. The radiation exposure dose was 65.27 man-rem for the managed 1804 workers in total, during the testing and operating periods. These data show that the safety management for ''Fugen'' is very excellent, considering the following special features: 1) there were many works which were carried out for the first time, 2) the construction of the plant was conducted by five contractors taking partial charge, there were many kinds of construction works, the construction and testing periods were long, and the workers had to go to the site from Tsuruga city by car and bus. The organization of preventing disasters, the concrete implementation items for safety management, including the planning of activities, various meetings, patrol, education and training, the honoring system, the prevention of traffic accident and so on, and the results of actual safety management are explained with the reflection. (Nakai, Y.)

  2. Solar thermal power stations for activities implemented jointly. The Theseus 50 MWe solar thermal power plant for the island of Crete, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brakmann, Georg [Fichtner, Stuttgart (Germany); Aringhoff, Rainer [Pilkington Solar International (United Kingdom); Cobi, Arend [PreussenElektra (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    THESEUS, the proposed commercial 50 MWe (net) Thermal Solar European Power Station for the Island of Crete is a solar hybrid plant with parabolic trough collectors and an advanced high efficiency Rankine reheat steam cycle. At the end of 1996 the DG XVII (Energy) of the European Commission has accepted the THERMIE application of the THESEUS consortium for the design phase. THESEUS reduces the required oil imports by 28 000 t/a, thereby saving the Greek economy every year 4 million ECU in foreign currency. During its 25 years technical lifetime 2.2 million tons of CO{sub 2} emissions will be avoided. Supply, construction, erection and operation of THESEUS creates 2 000 qualified employments (man-years). Because of the high manpower intensity of solar plants and their larger capital income from interest payments in contrast to the high fuel import intensity of fossil plants, THESEUS will generate larger tax revenues for Greece and for the supplier`s countries. The investment cost of THESEUS is some 135 million ECU. Even without any subsidies this would result in electricity generation cost of some 0.085 ECY/kWh, which is lower than the current average cost from the existing power plants of Crete. (author)

  3. Computer systems for thermal power plant operation and management; Karyoku hatsudensho no kodo joho system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, M.; Miyabe, K.; Matsumoto, A. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    To improve on work efficiency by pooling information and prompting the transmission of information at thermal power stations, efforts have been under way for some years to realize a working environment in which everyone is provided with a computer exclusively for one`s own use. Toshiba Corporation believes that the coming information system has to be equipped with two features of on-demand and EUC (end user computing). Introduced in this report are some approaches to systems that will take care of plant operation information and facility information making use of Toshiba`s advanced information system GS7000XP series. Plant operation information is categorized into process data, operation history data, checking patrol data, and periodic inspection data and, for instance, a distributed-type management computer provided with data recording and application processing servers is used for handling operation history data. For the collection of facility information, efforts are being made to establish a computer network step by step for exchanging information with manufacturers and associated businesses. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Thermal-hydraulic studies on the safety of VVER-440 type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuunanen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The thesis includes several thermal-hydraulic analyses related to the Loviisa VVER-440 nuclear power plant units. The work consists of experimental studies, analysis of the experiments, analysis of some plant transients and development of a calculational model for calculation of boric concentrations in the reactor. In the first part of thesis, in the case of simulation of boric acid solution behaviour during long-term cooling period of LOCAs, experiments were performed in scaled-down test facilities. The experimental data together with the results of RELAP5/MOD3 simulations were used to develop a model for calculations of boric acid concentrations in the reactor during LOCAs. In the second part, in the case of simulation of horizontal generators, experiments were performed with PACTEL integral test loop to simulate loss of feedwater transients. The PACTEL experiments as well as earlier REWETT-III natural circulation tests, were analyzed with RELAP5/MOD3 Version 5m5 code. The third part of the work consists of simulations of Loviisa VVER reactor pump trip transients with RELAP5/MOD1-Eur, RELAP5/MOD3 and CATHARE codes. (56 refs., 9 figs.)

  5. THE IMPROVEMENT OF LOW-WASTE TECHNOLOGIES OF WORKING BODY OF WATER PREPARATION AT THERMAL AND NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Rymasheuskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the main directions of water desalination technologies improving have been analyzed. Possible techniques of high-quality treatment of water that enable the reduction of amounts of environmentally hazardous substances to be discharged into the hydrosphere are indicated. The purpose of the work was to improve the ecological efficiency and the effectiveness of water treatment equipment at heat power plants when designing new and the modernizing existing water treatment schemes. In order to achieve this goal the following problems have been solved: the one of analyzing the main directions of the improvement of technologies of working body of water preparation at thermal and nuclear power plants; of analyzing the main directions of reduction of total volume of highly mineralized power plant wastewaters; of developing the technological scheme of recycling of concentrate of membrane installations and regenerants of ionite filters in acid and alkali; of developing the technological scheme of transformation of the sludge in pre-processing waste into valuable commodity products. The results of research can be applied for the design of new and the modernization of existing water treatment installations of thermal and nuclear power plants. It will enable to reduce considerably the use of natural water and the amount of chemicals added as well as the volume of wastewater and the concentration of dissolved solids in it. As a consequence, the negative impact of thermal and nuclear power plants on the hydrosphere will be reduced. 

  6. Thermal tests of large recirculation cooling installations for nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balunov, B. F.; Lychakov, V. D.; Il'in, V. A.; Shcheglov, A. A.; Maslov, O. P.; Rasskazova, N. A.; Rakhimov, R. Z.; Boyarov, R. A.

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the results from thermal tests of some recirculation installations for cooling air in nuclear power plant premises, including the volume under the containment. The cooling effect in such installations is produced by pumping water through their heat-transfer tubes. Air from the cooled room is blown by a fan through a bundle of transversely finned tubes and is removed to the same room after having been cooled. The finning of tubes used in the tested installations was made of Grade 08Kh18N10T and Grade 08Kh18N10 stainless steels or Grade AD1 aluminum. Steel fins were attached to the tube over their entire length by means of high-frequency welding. Aluminum fins were extruded on a lathe from the external tube sheath into which a steel tube had preliminarily been placed. Although the fin extrusion operation was accompanied by pressing the sheath inner part to the steel tube, tight contact between them over the entire surface was not fully achieved. In view of this, the air gap's thermal resistance coefficient was introduced in calculating the heat transfer between the heat-transferring media. The air gap average thickness was determined from the test results taking into account the gap variation with temperature due to different linear expansion coefficients of steel and aluminum. These tests, which are part of the acceptance tests of the considered installations, were carried out at the NPO TsKTI test facility and were mainly aimed at checking if the obtained thermal characteristics were consistent with the values calculated according to the standard recommendations with introduction, if necessary, of modifications to those recommendations.

  7. Experimental coal dust suppression system installed at the Nikola Tesla thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzijan, D [Rudarski Institut, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Zavod za Ventilaciju i Tehnicku Zastitu

    1988-01-01

    Describes a project conducted at the Nikola Tesla thermal power plant by the Mining Institute of Belgrade to reduce the high levels of dust concentrations in overloading stations on coal conveyors and hoppers. A mathematical model was developed to determine the ventilation capacity required at each of the 18 overloading stations with the hoppers considered successively: empty, 1/3 full, 2/3 full and completely full. Shows how this model enabled an efficient dust suppression system to be developed and subsequently installed by the Termovent company in Belgrade using 4 axial ventilators supplied by the Ventilator Company in Zagreb. The ventilators were powered by means of 5.5 kW electric motors and provided 440 Pa pressure at 950 rpm. Gives the result of dust concentration measurements indicating that the installed system achieved the results predicted by the mathematical model and that the levels were well below the statutory limit. A description of the complete installation is included. 3 refs.

  8. Policy Brief: Enhancing water-use efficiency of thermal power plants in India: need for mandatory water audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batra, R.K. (ed.)

    2012-12-15

    This policy brief discusses the challenges of water availability and opportunity to improve the water use efficiency in industries specially the thermal power plants. It presents TERI’s experience from comprehensive water audits conducted for thermal power plants in India. The findings indicate that there is a significant scope for saving water in the waste water discharge, cooling towers, ash handling systems, and the township water supply. Interventions like recycling wastewater, curbing leakages, increasing CoC (Cycles of concentration) in cooling towers, using dry ash handling etc., can significantly reduce the specific water consumption in power plants. However, the first step towards this is undertaking regular water audits. The policy brief highlights the need of mandatory water audits necessary to understand the current water use and losses as well as identify opportunities for water conservation, reduction in specific water consumption, and an overall improvement in water use efficiency in industries.

  9. Safety - a Neglected Issue When Introducing Solid Biomass Fuel in Thermal Power Plants? Some Evidence of an Emerging Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Astad, John

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines recent evidence from Denmark and abroad with climate change projects that aim to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by converting coal fired thermal power plants to solid biomass fuel. The paper argues that projects appear to be pursued narrow-mindedly with insufficient att...

  10. Method and means for heating buildings in a district heating system with waste heat from a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margen, P.H.E.

    1975-01-01

    The waste heat from a thermal power plant is transported through a municipal heating network to a plurality of buildings to be heated. The quantity of heat thus supplied to the buildings is higher than that required for the heating of the buildings. The excess heat is released from the buildings to the atmosphere in the form of hot air

  11. Thermal Aging Effect Analysis of 17-4PH Martensitic Stainless Steel Valves for Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI; Bing; ZHANG; Chang-yi; TONG; Zhen-feng; YANG; Wen

    2015-01-01

    The valve stem used in the main steam system of nuclear power plant is usually martensitic stainless steel(such as 17.4ph16.4Mo etc.).When served in high temperature for a long time,the thermal aging embrittlement of valve stem will be significant,and even lead to the fracture.

  12. Survey of Thermal Storage for Parabolic Trough Power Plants; Period of Performance: September 13, 1999 - June 12, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilkington Solar International GmbH

    2000-09-29

    The purpose of this report is to identify and selectively review previous work done on the evaluation and use of thermal energy storage systems applied to parabolic trough power plants. Appropriate storage concepts and technical options are first discussed, followed by a review of previous work.

  13. Simulation of the fluctuations of hydraulic pressure in thermal power plants; Simulacion de golpe de ariete en centrales termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzada Mazeres, P. de la [INITEC (Spain)

    1995-07-01

    In this study the different equipments of the circulation waste system in thermal power plants are modellized (refrigeration water from the condenser). The purpose is to analyze the transient generated when the pump trip is produced at different shutting times of discharge valve. (Author)

  14. FEATURES OF ASH OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS AS AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Storozhuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The scientific work is dedicated to development of scientific-technical bases of production and application of concrete on the basis of ashes of thermal power plants (TPP. Methodology. The properties of TPP ash, as well as the peculiarities of its behavior in a concrete mix as a fine aggregate, have been studied. It is shown that the hydrolysis and hydration of cement occur in the active environment of ash, which has a huge specific surface area. This significantly affects the course of these processes and the quality of the concrete produced. A new technology of application of ash of TPP for preparation of concrete mixes is offered. Vibrated and vibrovacuumized concretes of optimum composition from slag and ash, as well as from granite crushed stone and ash, are tested. The chara-cteristics of ordinary concrete (from granite crushed stone and quartz sand are given to compare. Findings. The results of the tests showed the possibility of obtaining concretes of class C20/25…C25/30 on the basis of slag and ash of TPP at a limited consumption of cement. It is shown that the concrete with traditional aggregates has a lower strength than the concrete, which has ash as fine aggregate. This research results contribute to the increased use of ash in construction that solves the problem of aggregates as well as thermal power plants waste recycling. Originality. New method and technology of application of TPP ashes in concrete are developed. Ash concrete mix has rational flowability, which produces the greatest strength of ash vacuum concrete. This strength is twice or more as large as the strength of vibrated ash concrete mix with flowability S1. Practical value. The physico-chemical properties of TPP ash as aggregate for concrete are presented. Significant difference of ash from ordinary aggregates is shown. Chemical activity of the ash is justified. The special conditions of cement hardening in the case of using ash as aggregate for concrete

  15. Reynolds stress turbulence model applied to two-phase pressurized thermal shocks in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mérigoux, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.merigoux@edf.fr; Laviéville, Jérôme; Mimouni, Stéphane; Guingo, Mathieu; Baudry, Cyril

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: • NEPTUNE-CFD is used to model two-phase PTS. • k-ε model did produce some satisfactory results but also highlights some weaknesses. • A more advanced turbulence model has been developed, validated and applied for PTS. • Coupled with LIM, the first results confirmed the increased accuracy of the approach. - Abstract: Nuclear power plants are subjected to a variety of ageing mechanisms and, at the same time, exposed to potential pressurized thermal shock (PTS) – characterized by a rapid cooling of the internal Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) surface. In this context, NEPTUNE-CFD is used to model two-phase PTS and give an assessment on the structural integrity of the RPV. The first available choice was to use standard first order turbulence model (k-ε) to model high-Reynolds number flows encountered in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) primary circuits. In a first attempt, the use of k-ε model did produce some satisfactory results in terms of condensation rate and temperature field distribution on integral experiments, but also highlights some weaknesses in the way to model highly anisotropic turbulence. One way to improve the turbulence prediction – and consequently the temperature field distribution – is to opt for more advanced Reynolds Stress turbulence Model. After various verification and validation steps on separated effects cases – co-current air/steam-water stratified flows in rectangular channels, water jet impingements on water pool free surfaces – this Reynolds Stress turbulence Model (R{sub ij}-ε SSG) has been applied for the first time to thermal free surface flows under industrial conditions on COSI and TOPFLOW-PTS experiments. Coupled with the Large Interface Model, the first results confirmed the adequacy and increased accuracy of the approach in an industrial context.

  16. Effects of Magnetite Aggregate and Steel Powder on Thermal Conductivity and Porosity in Concrete for Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seung Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among many engineering advantages in concrete, low thermal conductivity is an attractive property. Concrete has been widely used for nuclear vessels and plant facilities for its excellent radiation shielding. The heat isolation through low thermal conductivity is actually positive for nuclear power plant concrete; however the property may cause adverse effect when fires and melt-down occur in nuclear vessel since cooling down from outer surface is almost impossible due to very low thermal conductivity. If concrete containing atomic reactor has higher thermal conductivity, the explosion risk of conductive may be partially reduced. This paper presents high thermally conductive concrete development. For the work, magnetite with varying replacements of normal aggregates and steel powder of 1.5% of volume are considered, and the equivalent thermal conductivity is evaluated. Only when the replacement ratio goes up to 30%, thermal conductivity increases rapidly to 2.5 times. Addition of steel powder is evaluated to be effective by 1.08~1.15 times. In order to evaluate the improvement of thermal conductivity, several models like ACI, DEMM, and MEM are studied, and their results are compared with test results. In the present work, the effects of steel powder and magnetite aggregate are studied not only for strength development but also for thermal behavior based on porosity.

  17. Simulation of temperature distribution, BOD, and DO by thermal effluents of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeuser, J.

    1977-01-01

    A transient one, two, or three dimensional numerical model for simulation of heat load by power plants is presented. Water quality is determined by three parameters: temperature, biological oxygen demand (BOD), and disolved oxygen (DO). (orig.) [de

  18. Design and cost of near-term OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) plants for the production of desalinated water and electric power. [Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabas, T.; Panchal, C.; Genens, L.

    1990-01-01

    There currently is an increasing need for both potable water and power for many islands in the Pacific and Caribbean. The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology fills these needs and is a viable option because of the unlimited supply of ocean thermal energy for the production of both desalinated water and electricity. The OTEC plant design must be flexible to meet the product-mix demands that can be very different from site to site. This paper describes different OTEC plants that can supply various mixes of desalinated water and vapor -- the extremes being either all water and no power or no water and all power. The economics for these plants are also presented. The same flow rates and pipe sizes for both the warm and cold seawater streams are used for different plant designs. The OTEC plant designs are characterized as near-term because no major technical issues need to be resolved or demonstrated. The plant concepts are based on DOE-sponsored experiments dealing with power systems, advanced heat exchanger designs, corrosion and fouling of heat exchange surfaces, and flash evaporation and moisture removal from the vapor using multiple spouts. In addition, the mature multistage flash evaporator technology is incorporated into the plant designs were appropriate. For the supply and discharge warm and cold uncertainties do exist because the required pipe sizes are larger than the maximum currently deployed -- 40-inch high-density polyethylene pipe at Keahole Point in Hawaii. 30 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Statistical models for thermal ageing of steel materials in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persoz, M.

    1996-01-01

    Some category of steel materials in nuclear power plants may be subjected to thermal ageing, whose extent depends on the steel chemical composition and the ageing parameters, i.e. temperature and duration. This ageing affects the 'impact strength' of the materials, which is a mechanical property. In order to assess the residual lifetime of these components, a probabilistic study has been launched, which takes into account the scatter over the input parameters of the mechanical model. Predictive formulae for estimating the impact strength of aged materials are important input data of the model. A data base has been created with impact strength results obtained from an ageing program in laboratory and statistical treatments have been undertaken. Two kinds of model have been developed, with non linear regression methods (PROC NLIN, available in SAS/STAT). The first one, using a hyperbolic tangent function, is partly based on physical considerations, and the second one, of an exponential type, is purely statistically built. The difficulties consist in selecting the significant parameters and attributing initial values to the coefficients, which is a requirement of the NLIN procedure. This global statistical analysis has led to general models that are unction of the chemical variables and the ageing parameters. These models are as precise (if not more) as local models that had been developed earlier for some specific values of ageing temperature and ageing duration. This paper describes the data and the methodology used to build the models and analyses the results given by the SAS system. (author)

  20. Leaching of valuable elements from thermal power plant bottom ash using a thermo-hydrometallurgical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojinova, Darinka; Teodosieva, Ralitsa

    2016-06-01

    The solid industrial wastes generated from thermal power plants (TPPs) can be considered as renewable secondary sources for recovery of valuable metals. This study presents the results from investigations that integrated a thermo-hydro-metallurgical method for treatment of bottom ash obtained from the Enel Maritsa East 3 TPP in Bulgaria. Leaching was performed with 20, 30 and 40 wt% sulphuric acid, respectively, in an autoclave at 100(o)C, 120(o)C and 140(o)C for 120, 240, 360 and 480 min, at a constant value of the liquid/solid ratio. After autoclaving, the samples (suspensions) were diluted with a constant value of water and stirring at 50(o)C for 60 min. On the basis of the experimental data the leaching efficiency (α) of the elements in the liquid phase after filtration was estimated. The leaching of aluminium increases significantly with increasing of the temperature, reaching the maximum value of 70 wt%. The highest leaching efficiency values for the other elements are as follows: Fe (86.4%), Ca (86.6%), Na (86.6%), Ni (83.3%) and Zn (83.3%). The maximum value of leaching for Mg, K, Mn, Cu and Cr is in the interval of 46-70%. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Overheating failure of superheater suspension tubes of a captive thermal power plant boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Sova; Amir, Q.M.; Kannan, C.; Mahapatra, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    Failure of boiler tubes is the foremost cause of forced boiler outages. One of the predominant failure mechanism of boiler tubes is the stress rupture failure in the form of either short term overheating or long term overheating which are normally encountered in superheater and reheater sections working in the creep range. The strength of the boiler tube depends on the stress level as well on the temperature of exposure in the creep range. An increase in either can reduce the time to rupture. Time at the exposure temperature is an important factor based on which the failures are categorised as either short term or long term. Though there is no established time duration criteria demarcating the short or long term stress rupture failures, depending on the various manifestations on the failed samples, one can categorise the failure. This paper addresses one such stress rupture failure in the superheater section of a captive thermal power plant of a refinery. Multiple failures on the suspension coil of a superheater section was investigated for the cause of failure. Laboratory investigation of the failed sample involved visual inspection, dimensional measurements, chemical analysis of internal deposits and microstructural study. On the basis of these, the failure was attributed to deposition of trisodium phosphate carried over by the feed water into the superheater section resulting in chokage and increase in local operating hoop stresses of the tube. The ultimate failure was thus categorised as long term overheating failure. (author)

  2. Tentative to use wastes from thermal power plants for construction building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Quoc-Bao; Phan, To-Anh-Vu; Tran, Minh-Tung; Le, Duc-Hien

    2018-04-01

    Thermal power plants (TPP) generates wastes (bottom and fly ashes) which become a serious environmental problem in Vietnam. Indeed, although in several countries fly ash can be used for cement industry, fly ash from actual TPP in Vietnam does not have enough good quality for cement production, because the fly ash treatment phase has not yet included in the generations of existing Vietnamese TPP. That is why bottom ash and fly ash purely become wastes and their evacuation is an urgent demand of the society. This paper presents an investigation using fly and bottom ashes in the manufacturing of construction materials. The main aims of this study is to reduce environmental impacts of fly and bottom ashes, and to test another non-conventional binder to replace cement in the manufacture of unburnt bricks. Several proportions of fly ash, bottom ash, cement, gravel, sand and water were tested to manufacture concretes. Then, geopolymer was prepared from the fly ash and an activator. Specimens were tested in uniaxial compressions. Results showed that the cement concrete tested had the compressive strengths which could be used for low rise constructions and the material using geopolymer could be used for non-load-bearing materials (unburnt bricks).

  3. Room temperature zeolitization of boiler slag from a Bulgarian thermal power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascova Radost D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and cost-effective method was applied for the synthesis of zeolite composites utilising wet bottom boiler slag from the Bulgarian coal-fired thermal power plant “Sviloza”, near the town of Svishtov. The method consisted of a prolonged alkali treatment at room temperature of this waste. Experimental techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction analyses, are employed to characterize the initial slag and the final products with respect to their morphology, and elemental and mineral compositions. The composites synthesized in this way contained two Na-type zeolite phases: zeolite X (type FAU and zeolite Linde F (type EDI. The zeolited products and the starting slag were tested as adsorbents for a textile dye (Malachite Green from aqueous solutions. In comparison with the initial slag, the zeolite composite possessed substantially better adsorption properties: it almost completely adsorbs the dye in much shorter times. The results of this investigations revealed a new, easy and low cost route for recycling boiler slag into a material with good adsorption characteristics, which could find different applications, e.g., for purifying polluted waters, including those from the textile industry.

  4. Problems of reliability and economy work of thermal power plants water treatment based on baromembrane technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Saitov, S. R.

    2017-11-01

    The introduction of baromembrane water treatment technologies for water desalination at Russian thermal power plants was beganed more than 25 years ago. These technologies have demonstrated their definite advantage over the traditional technologies of additional water treatment for steam boilers. However, there are problems associated with the reliability and economy of their work. The first problem is a large volume of waste water (up to 60% of the initial water). The second problem a expensive and unique chemical reagents complex (biocides, antiscalants, washing compositions) is required for units stable and troublefree operation. Each manufacturer develops his own chemical composition for a certain membrane type. This leads to a significant increase in reagents cost, as well as creates dependence of the technology consumer on the certain supplier. The third problem is that the reliability of the baromembrane units depends directly on the water preliminary treatment. The popular pre-cleaning technology with coagulation of aluminum oxychloride proves to be unacceptable during seasonal changes in the quality of the source water at a number of stations. As a result, pollution, poisoning and lesion of the membrane structure or deterioration of their mechanical properties are observed. The report presents ways to solve these problems.

  5. Multi-criteria sustainability analysis of thermal power plant Kolubara-A Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Škobalj, P.; Kijevčanin, M.; Afgan, N.; Jovanović, M.; Turanjanin, V.; Vučićević, B.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a possible approach for creating business decisions based on multi-criteria analysis. Seven options for a possible revitalization of the thermal power plant “Kolubara”-A Unit No. 2 with energy indicators of sustainable development (EISD) are presented in this paper. The chosen EISD numerically express the essential features of the analyzed options, while the sustainability criteria indicate the option quality within the limits of these indicators. In this paper, the criteria for assessing the sustainability options are defined based on several aspects: economic, social, environmental and technological. In the process of assessing the sustainability of the considered options the Analysis and Synthesis of Parameters under Information Deficiency (ASPID) method was used. In this paper, the EISD show that production and energy consumption are closely linked to economic, environmental and other indicators, such as economic and technological development of local communities with employment being one of the most important social parameter. Multi-criteria analysis for the case study of the TPP “Kolubara”-A clearly indicated recommendations to decision makers on the choice of the best available options in dependence on the energy policy. - Highlights: • Options for sustainable generation of electricity have been proposed. • Energy Indicators of Sustainable Development have been formed. • ASPID methodology has been implemented.

  6. Trace metal concentrations in mussels in the outfall zones of thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Kumar, P.T.; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Many trace elements (TE) like Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn, occur naturally in marine environments and these TE accomplish decisive functions in humans to maintain good health. Living organisms like Mytilus galloprovincialis are a rich source of TE and are grown extensively near the industrial water outfalls. Some of these TE tend to be pollutants when their elevated levels produce deleterious effects on the ecological system. As chemical analysis for TE toxicity are expensive, organisms like Mytilus galloprovincialis can be used as monitors of environmental contamination. Most studies reported so far are directed towards the effect of a single environmental factor on marine bivalves. However in the areas receiving mixed effluents from various point and non-point sources, the studies on combined effect of two or more stresses would be a more practical approach. In this paper, We investigate the heavy metal concentrations of mercury, cadmium, lead, zinc, cooper, nickel, manganese, and chromium in Mytilus galloprovincialis to provide information on the pollution of water bodies by thermal and nuclear power plants for the choice of sites from where edible mussels can be harvested. We also propose a chemometric approach developed by us using information theory to mitigate trace element toxicity in the edible part of Mytilus galloprovincialis harvested in these sites. (author)

  7. Workplace monitoring and occupational health studies in the Sostanj thermal power plant, Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacimovic, R.; Falnoga, I.; Jeran, Z.; Kump, P.; Necemer, M.; Stropnik, B.; Kobal, A.B.

    2000-01-01

    Only a few investigations have been performed in the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (TPP) involving comprehensive studies of trace and minor elements and radionuclides in the workplaces. Workers at the TPP in some sectors are exposed to high levels of coal dust, in others to dusty operations with ash and electrostatically precipitated fly ash, and in addition a force of welders is employed for maintenance and construction tasks. Welders work 5 to 6 hours per day and they are protected only from UV light. They are exposed to high concentrations of metals in inhaled welding fume. One method to determine the levels of trace and minor elements in the atmosphere at the working places is to sample aerosols. Aerosols were collected on Nuclepore polycarbonate membrane filters by a Casella personal sampler at different working places in the Sostanj TPP. In this report, the emphasis is on the methodology and analytical development (instrumental neutron activation analysis and X-ray spectrometry), and to a lesser extent on the results obtained up to now. Results obtained by the k 0 -method and XRF techniques for aerosols collected at different working places in the Sostanj TPP are presented and discussed. Results obtained for an intercomparison study for different samples provided by IAEA are not presented in this progress report but have been sent to the IAEA and the National Institute of Occupational Health (Denmark)

  8. PAHs in leachates from thermal power plant wastes and ash-based construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irha, Natalya; Reinik, Janek; Jefimova, Jekaterina; Koroljova, Arina; Raado, Lembi-Merike; Hain, Tiina; Uibu, Mai; Kuusik, Rein

    2015-08-01

    The focus of the current study is to characterise the leaching behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil shale ashes (OSAs) of pulverised firing (PF) and circulating fluidised-bed (CFB) boilers from Estonian Thermal Power Plant (Estonia) as well as from mortars and concrete based on OSAs. The target substances were 16 PAHs from the EPA priority pollutant list. OSA samples and OSA-based mortars were tested for leaching, according to European standard EN 12457-2 (2002). European standard CEN/TC 15862(2012) for monolithic matter was used for OSA-based concrete. Water extracts were analysed by GC-MS for the concentration of PAHs. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene were detected. Still, the release of PAHs was below the threshold limit value for inert waste. The amount of the finest fraction (particle size materials did not lead to the immobilisation of soluble PAHs. Release of PAHs from the monolith samples did not exceed 0.5 μg/m(2). In terms of leaching of PAHs, OSA is safe to be used for construction purposes.

  9. Evaluation of the impact on the environment of thermal power plant releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, C.; Bertrand, R.; Garnier, G.; Berard, P.; Archimbaud, M.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the impact on the environment of oil and coal fired power plants, and of nuclear plants. The impact is evaluated by the level of the air pollution around the plant. But the selected pollutants (Sulfur oxides, Nitrogen oxides, Trace elements, organic compounds) are not specific of the pollution produced by the power plant. Therefore, we measured the specific emission of the plant by a continuous sampling in the stack gases. To evaluate the contribution of the plant to the global pollution, a series of diffusion tests was run to measure the atmospheric transfer between the stack and the monitoring system. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was added to the stack plume and its concentration was measured in the environment continuously at the monitoring stations, and by a mobile network for tracing the movement of the plume due to a shift in wind direction. Thereby the impact of other sources could be estimated [fr

  10. Effect of air ingress on the energy performance of coal fired thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddhartha Bhatt, M.

    2007-01-01

    Ingress of air in boilers leads to drops in energy efficiency. This paper presents the effects of air ingress in the combustion zone, post-combustion zone and air pre-heater (APH) on the energy efficiency and loading capacity of a coal fired thermal power plant operating on fuel with high ash (35-45%). The optimal O 2 in the flue gas for a pulverized coal fired system is 3.5% (corresponding to 20% excess air). The operating values are in the range of 4.2-6.0% in membrane type boilers and up to 10% in refractory type boilers (after sustained periods of operation). The leakage rate of boilers (up to the entrance of the APH) is designed at 0.2% while the average operating values are 7.25% for membrane type enclosures and 33.61% for refractory enclosures. The leakage rate of the APH is designed at 5.0% while the operating values range from 13.66% to 20.13% for rotary and tubular APHs. When the O 2 in the combustion zone varies from 3.5% to 8.0%, efficiency drops of 2.0% points are experienced in the boiler and turbine separately, and the gross overall efficiency drop is ∼3.0% points. The units do not experience any capacity drop up to an O 2 in the flue gas of 6.0% before the APH. At an O 2 in the flue gas (before APH) of 7.2%, a mild limitation on the unit capacity of around 2-3% is experienced. When O 2 in the flue gas (before APH) reaches a level of 9.0%, 20% capacity drop of the unit is experienced due to which the plant load cannot be raised higher than 80%. Beyond the level of 9.0% (rare occurrence), the unit is quite difficult to operate and has to be taken off for overhaul

  11. Possible efficiency improvement by application of various operating regimes for the cooling water pump station at thermal power plant - Bitola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijakovski Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plant (TPP - Bitola is the largest electricity producer in the Republic of Macedonia with installed capacity of 691 MW. It is a lignite fired power plant, in operation since 1982. Most of the installed equipment is of Russian origin. Power plant's cold end comprised of a condenser, pump station and cooling tower is depicted in the article. Possible way to raise the efficiency of the cold end by changing the operating characteristics of the pumps is presented in the article. Diagramic and tabular presentation of the working characteristics of the pumps (two pumps working in paralel for one block with the pipeline, as well as engaged power for their operation are also presented in this article.

  12. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulova, T.Ch.

    1976-01-01

    The textbook focuses on the technology and the operating characteristics of nuclear power plants equiped with pressurized water or boiling water reactors, which are in operation all over the world at present. The following topics are dealt with in relation to the complete plant and to economics: distribution and consumption of electric and thermal energy, types and equipment of nuclear power plants, chemical processes and material balance, economical characteristics concerning heat and energy, regenerative preheating of feed water, degassing and condenser systems, water supply, evaporators, district heating systems, steam generating systems and turbines, coolant loops and pipes, plant siting, ventilation and decontamination systems, reactor operation and management, heat transfer including its calculation, design of reactor buildings, and nuclear power plants with gas or sodium cooled reactors. Numerous technical data of modern Soviet nuclear power plants are included. The book is of interest to graduate and post-graduate students in the field of nuclear engineering as well as to nuclear engineers

  13. LNG plant combined with power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, I; Kikkawa, Y [Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs.

  14. LNG plant combined with power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, I.; Kikkawa, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs

  15. Macrophytes in the cooling ponds of Ukrainian nuclear and thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yachenko, T.N.

    2013-01-01

    Attention is focused at the macrophytes role in the functioning of the natural-technological cooling ponds ecosystems, at the features of aquatic plants and station water supply system interaction. It was considered the degree of macrophytes scrutiny and it was pointed out the necessity of monitoring and controlling their condition in the cooling ponds of Ukrainian power plants.

  16. Extending the applied software in the contemporary thermal power plants for increasing the intelligence of the automatic control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokhin, G.; Pestunov, A.; Arakelyan, E.; Mukhin, V.

    2017-11-01

    During the last decades, there can be noticed an increase of interest concerning various aspects of intellectual diagnostics and management in thermal power engineering according the hybrid principle. It is conditioned by the fact that conservative static methods does not allow to reflect the actual power installation state adequately. In order to improve the diagnostics quality, we use various fuzzy systems apparatus. In this paper, we introduce the intellectual system, called SKAIS, which is intended for quick and precise diagnostics of thermal power equipment. This system was developed as the result of the research carried out by specialists from National Research University “Moscow Power Engineering Institute” and Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management. It drastically increases the level of intelligence of the automatic power plant control system.

  17. Experimental investigations of overvoltages in 6kV station service cable networks of thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukelja, P.I.; Naumov, R.M.; Drobnjak, G.V.; Mrvic, J.D. [Nikola Tesla Inst., Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents the results of experimental investigations of overvoltages on 6kV isolated neutral station service cable networks of thermal power plants. The overvoltages were recorded with capacitive voltage measurement systems made at the Nikola Tesla Institute. Wideband capacitive voltage measurement systems recorded a flat response from below power frequencies to 10MHz. Investigations of overvoltages were performed for appearance and interruption of metal earth faults, intermittent earth faults, switching operation of HV motors switchgear, switching operation of transformers switchgear, and transfer of the network supply from one transformer to another. On the basis of these investigations, certain measures are proposed for limiting overvoltages and for the reliability of station service of thermal power plants.

  18. Interaction among competitive producers in the electricity market: An iterative market model for the strategic management of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carraretto, Cristian; Zigante, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The liberalization of the electricity sector requires utilities to develop sound operation strategies for their power plants. In this paper, attention is focused on the problem of optimizing the management of the thermal power plants belonging to a strategic producer that competes with other strategic companies and a set of smaller non-strategic ones in the day-ahead market. The market model suggested here determines an equilibrium condition over the selected period of analysis, in which no producer can increase profits by changing its supply offers given all rivals' bids. Power plants technical and operating constraints are considered. An iterative procedure, based on the dynamic programming, is used to find the optimum production plans of each producer. Some combinations of power plants and number of producers are analyzed, to simulate for instance the decommissioning of old expensive power plants, the installation of new more efficient capacity, the severance of large dominant producers into smaller utilities, the access of new producers to the market. Their effect on power plants management, market equilibrium, electricity quantities traded and prices is discussed. (author)

  19. Ultrasonic meters in the feedwater flow to recover thermal power in the reactor of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde U1 and U2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tijerina S, F.

    2008-01-01

    The engineers in nuclear power plants BWRs and PWRs based on the development of the ultrasonic technology for the measurement of the mass, volumetric flow, density and temperature in fluids, have applied this technology in two primary targets approved by the NRC: the use for the recovery of thermal power in the reactor and/or to be able to realize an increase of thermal power licensed in a 2% (MUR) by 1OCFR50 Appendix K. The present article mentions the current problem in the measurement of the feedwater flow with Venturi meters, which affects that the thermal balance of reactor BWRs or PWRs this underestimated. One in broad strokes describes the application of the ultrasonic technology for the ultrasonic measurement in the flow of the feedwater system of the reactor and power to recover thermal power of the reactor. One is to the methodology developed in CFE for a calibration of the temperature transmitters of RTD's and the methodology for a calibration of the venturi flow transmitters using ultrasonic measurement. Are show the measurements in the feedwater of reactor of the temperature with RTD's and ultrasonic measurement, as well as the flow with the venturi and the ultrasonic measurement operating the reactor to the 100% of nominal thermal power, before and after the calibration of the temperature transmitters and flow. Finally, is a plan to be able to realize a recovery of thermal power of the reactor, showing as carrying out their estimations. As a result of the application of ultrasonic technology in the feedwater of reactor BWR-5 in Laguna Verde, in the Unit 1 cycle 13 it was recover an equivalent energy to a thermal power of 25 MWt in the reactor and an exit electrical power of 6 M We in the turbogenerator. Also in the Unit 2 cycle 10 it was recover an equivalent energy to a thermal power of 40 MWt in the reactor and an exit electrical power of 16 M We in the turbogenerator. (Author)

  20. Considering on the use of thermal power plants in Brazil; Discorrendo sobre o uso das termeletricas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Maria Thereza da Silva Lopes; Souza, Marina Correa de [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencia e Tecnologia

    2015-07-01

    Today, the world depends on an abundant amount of energy. Hence, there is a need in creating new ways of obtaining energy to boost industrial production and thereby increase the wealth of a country. Therefore, industrial growth is strongly linked to way to get clean and cheap energy. In Brazil, preferentially uses the energy from the hydroelectric plants, but these may not always generate the energy required to supply all our needs. So, we can not deny that the thermal power plants have a respectable role in power generation, complementing the energy from the hydroelectric when they go through times of low production, as in periods of drought. (author)

  1. Location Study of Solar Thermal Power Plant in the State of Pernambuco Using Geoprocessing Technologies and Multiple-Criteria Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Wilma B. Azevêdo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Solar Thermal Technology for the generation of electricity in large scale has been a reality in the world since the 1980s, when the first large-sized solar plants in the United States were introduced. Brazil presents great potential for the development of large-scale projects, although it is noted that the main barriers for the insertion of this technology in Brazilian market are the lack of incentives and goals and associated costs. In a way to contribute to the insertion of solar thermal technology in Brazil, this paper presents a macro-spatial approach, based on the use of Multiple-Criteria Decision Analysis and Geoprocessing, for the location of solar thermal power plants. The applied methodology for Pernambuco, located in the Northeast Region of Brazil, considered the implantation of parabolic trough solar power plant of 80 MW, operating only in solar mode, without heat storage. Based on performed analysis, it was confirmed that Pernambuco presents great potential for the installation of solar power plants, especially in the backlands of Pernambuco. Performed validations in the model demonstrate that the methodology attended the objective once the consistence between the assigned weights to the thematic layers, individually, and the final Map of site suitability were evidenced.

  2. Nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkiewicz, M.; Navratil, J.

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is conditioned on territorial requirements and is accompanied by the disturbance of the environment, land occupation, population migration, the emission of radioactive wastes, thermal pollution, etc. On the other hand, a nuclear power plant makes possible the introduction of district heating and increases the economic and civilization activity of the population. Due to the construction of a nuclear power plant the set limits of negative impacts must not be exceeded. The locality should be selected such as to reduce the unfavourable effects of the plant and to fully use its benefits. The decision on the siting of the nuclear power plant is preceded by the processing of a number of surveys and a wide range of documentation to which the given criteria are strictly applied. (B.H.)

  3. Thermal performance prediction and sensitivity analysis for future deployment of molten salt cavity receiver solar power plants in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudaoud, S.; Khellaf, A.; Mohammedi, K.; Behar, O.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of power plant with molten salt cavity receiver is assessed. • A method has been used to optimize the plant solar multiple, capacity factor and LEC. • Comparison of the simulated results to those of PS20 has shown good agreement. • Higher fossil fuel fraction reduces the LEC and increases the capacity factor. • Highland and Sahara regions are suitable for CRS plants deployment. - Abstract: Of all Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technologies available today, the molten salt solar power plant appears to be the most important option for providing a major share of the clean and renewable electricity needed in the future. In the present paper, a technical and economic analysis for the implementation of a probable molten salt cavity receiver thermal power plant in Algeria has been carried out. In order to do so, we have investigated the effect of solar field size, storage capacity factor, solar radiation intensity, hybridization and power plant capacity on the thermal efficiency and electricity cost of the selected plant. The system advisor model has been used to perform the technical performance and the economic assessment for different locations (coastal, highland and Sahara regions) in Algeria. Taking into account various factors, a method has been applied to optimize the solar multiple and the capacity factor of the plant, to get a trade-off between the incremental investment costs of the heliostat field and the thermal energy storage. The analysis has shown that the use of higher fossil fuel fraction significantly reduces the levelized electricity cost (LEC) and sensibly increases the capacity factor (CF). The present study indicates that hybrid molten salt solar tower power technology is very promising. The CF and the LEC have been found to be respectively of the order of 71% and 0.35 $/kW e . For solar-only power plants, these parameters are respectively about 27% and 0.63 $/kW e . Therefore, hybrid central receiver systems are

  4. Analytical techniques for determination and control of silica content in the water in thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Nataša R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrapure water with minimum contents of impurities is used for the preparation of steam in thermal power plants. More recently it has been found that the corrosion process is also influenced by sodium ions, chloride ions, and all forms of silicon in water. At higher temperatures and under high pressure the less soluble compounds of silicon are extracted, which form deposits on the walls of the boiler, the piping system and the turbine blades. Silicon is found in water in the form of different types (species which are characterized by specific physical and chemical properties. Distinctions can be made between highly reactive species of ionic (silicate anions and molecular forms (silicic acid and relatively inert types (suspended, colloidal, and polymerized silicon. The determination of various forms of silicon in water is a complex analytical task. This paper covers relevant research in the field of silicon specification analysis. Maintaining the unchanged, original composition of silicon species during various stages of analysis (sample collection, storage, and conservation has been given special attention. A large number of methods and procedures have been developed for the analysis of species of silicon, including chromatographic, spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques and combinations thereof. The techniques used for determining both the total amount and individual forms of silicon have been singled out. There is also an overview of the coupled techniques used most frequently in practice by using the methodology which involves preliminary separation of species and then individual specification. The paper offers an overview of analytical properties, advantages and disadvantages of the most representative analytical methods developed specifically for the analysis of silicon species in ultrapure water. The most important studies focusing on the silicon species in water have been highlighted and presented in detail. The determination of

  5. Thermal analysis of heat and power plant with high temperature reactor and intermediate steam cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fic Adam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal analysis of a heat and power plant with a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor is presented. The main aim of the considered system is to supply a technological process with the heat at suitably high temperature level. The considered unit is also used to produce electricity. The high temperature helium cooled nuclear reactor is the primary heat source in the system, which consists of: the reactor cooling cycle, the steam cycle and the gas heat pump cycle. Helium used as a carrier in the first cycle (classic Brayton cycle, which includes the reactor, delivers heat in a steam generator to produce superheated steam with required parameters of the intermediate cycle. The intermediate cycle is provided to transport energy from the reactor installation to the process installation requiring a high temperature heat. The distance between reactor and the process installation is assumed short and negligable, or alternatively equal to 1 km in the analysis. The system is also equipped with a high temperature argon heat pump to obtain the temperature level of a heat carrier required by a high temperature process. Thus, the steam of the intermediate cycle supplies a lower heat exchanger of the heat pump, a process heat exchanger at the medium temperature level and a classical steam turbine system (Rankine cycle. The main purpose of the research was to evaluate the effectiveness of the system considered and to assess whether such a three cycle cogeneration system is reasonable. Multivariant calculations have been carried out employing the developed mathematical model. The results have been presented in a form of the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of the system as a function of the temperature drop in the high temperature process heat exchanger and the reactor pressure.

  6. A comparison of advanced thermal cycles suitable for upgrading existing power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyen, G.; Kalitventzeff, B.

    1999-01-01

    In view of the constant growth of electricity usage and public pressure to reduce the dependence on nuclear power plants in the energy supply, solutions are sought to increase the capacity of power plants using fossil fuels. Highly efficient cycles are available: gas turbines combined with waste heat boilers and steam cycles are able to achieve efficiencies above 50-55%. However building new plants requires a large amount of capital.Alternative proposals are based on upgrades of existing plants : capital savings are expected by reusing part of the facilities. In the present study, three parallel proposals are compared on the basis of exergy efficiency; cost of investment and flexibility of operation are also discussed. They are compared with classical Rankine cycle and state of the art combined cycles. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Environmental impact of fossil fuel utilization in the thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasem D Najafpour; Seyed Jafar Mehdizadeh; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    Carbon dioxide causes green house effect, has been considered as a pollutant source of our safe environment. Since combustion of fossil fuel may create tremendous amount of carbon dioxide, detecting any pollutant sources would be important to eliminate the pollution sources. Evaluation of smoke dispersion that has been generated by a power plant utilizing fossil fuel is the objective of this paper. The concentration of NO, and SO, in the soil, have been analyzed from a distance of 3 to 4 km far from power plant. The experimental results shown. that the concentration of toxic gases was a little above the international standards. Replacement of fossil fuel by natural gas caused NO, concentration to be developed in the atmosphere, therefore usage of natural gas is limited by environmental protection agencies. Beside the nuclear power plant, the power generated by other sources. are limited. Electric power generated by water dam is not a major contribution of electric power demand. Therefore generation of electricity by any other energy sources, which are friendly to the environment, is recommended. Other sources of energy, such as wind power, solar energy, geothermal, ocean thennal and renewable source of energy can be considered safe for the environment. The goal of environmental management system would be to meet the minimum requirements were established and demanded by the local environmental protection agency or international standard organization (ISO-14000). (Author)

  8. Techno-Economic Assessment of Heat Transfer Fluid Buffering for Thermal Energy Storage in the Solar Field of Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Llamas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, operating parabolic trough (PT solar thermal power plants, either solar-only or with thermal storage block, use the solar field as a heat transfer fluid (HTF thermal storage system to provide extra thermal capacity when it is needed. This is done by circulating heat transfer fluid into the solar field piping in order to create a heat fluid buffer. In the same way, by oversizing the solar field, it can work as an alternative thermal energy storage (TES system to the traditionally applied methods. This paper presents a solar field TES model for a standard solar field from a 50-MWe solar power plant. An oversized solar model is analyzed to increase the capacity storage system (HTF buffering. A mathematical model has been developed and different simulations have been carried out over a cycle of one year with six different solar multiples considered to represent the different oversized solar field configurations. Annual electricity generation and levelized cost of energy (LCOE are calculated to find the solar multiple (SM which makes the highest solar field thermal storage capacity possible within the minimum LCOE.

  9. Examination of applicability of thermoelectric power measurement for thermal aging evaluation of cast duplex stainless steel to real components in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joubouji, Katsuo

    2006-01-01

    It is known the mechanical properties of cast duplex stainless steel, which is used for main coolant pipes of pressurized water reactor type nuclear power plants, change due to thermal aging. Non-destructive evaluation method for thermal aging using thermoelectric power measurement has been studied in INSS. And it has been found that there was some relation between mechanical properties and thermoelectric power in the case of accelerated aging sample and change in thermoelectric power was caused by change in microstructure due to thermal aging. In this study, n-site measurement of thermoelectric power of a main coolant pipe with the measurement device which has been used in a laboratory was carried out. As a result, thermoelectric power of the main coolant pipe was almost measured within the range from -2.2 to -2μ V/degC, and that was corresponding to the relation of accelerated aging samples between thermoelectric power and the product of ferrite content and aging parameter considering the standard error. Moreover, applying the measured thermoelectric power to the relation of accelerated aging samples between thermoelectric power and impact value, change in the impact value of the pipe seemed to be corresponding to about 40% of the maximum change assumed by thermal aging. (author)

  10. Certification of temperature measuring techniques at thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preobrazhenskij, V.P.; Strigina, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    Necessity for metrological certification of temperature measurement techniques (TMT) at thermal and nuclear energy plants is grounded. An order of TMT certification is stated and formulae for determining the accuracy of temperature measurements by the thermoelectric method are given. It is concluded that through there are also statistical characteristics of errors of a number of measurement properties, it is necessary to carry on statistical investigations into errors of thermoelectrode extending wires, planimeters, measurement conditions. Such kind investigation technigues have been developed. Besides, it is necessary to regulate a uniform approach to the usage of statistical characteristics of errors of means and conditions of measurements to minimize volume of work for the personnel of thermal and nuclear energy plants and provide reliable estimates of temperature measurement errors

  11. Study of thermal and hydraulic phenomena going along with the discharge of hot waters from a power generation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrmalenios, Panayotis

    1973-01-01

    This short research thesis aims at taking stock of problems raised by the discharge of high temperature water from a power plant into rivers, lakes and seas from a thermal and hydraulic point of view. The author proposes an overview of ecological, legal, and recirculation problems. He describes the various phenomena going along these discharges at the vicinity of the discharge and far from it. He also proposes an overview of methods used to study these thermal and hydraulic effects: 'in-situ' studies, experimental methods, theoretical methods. Appendices address floating jets and layered flows [fr

  12. Evaluation of the energy efficiency of combined cycle gas turbine. Case study of Tashkent thermal power plant, Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminov, Zarif; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Xuan, Tran Dang; Higashi, Osamu; Alikulov, Khusniddin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The combined cycle power plant (CCPP) has a steam turbine and a gas turbine. • Fossil fuel savings and reduction of the CCGT of was evaluated. • The performance of a three pressure CCGT is modelled under different modes. • Energy efficiency of the combined cycle was 58.28%. • An annual reduction of 1760.18 tNO_x/annum and 981.25 ktCO_2/annum can be achieved. - Abstract: The power generation of Tashkent Thermal Power Plant (TPP) is based on conventional power units. Moreover, the facility suffers from limited efficiency in electricity generation. The plant was constructed during the Soviet era. Furthermore, the power plant is being used for inter-hour power generation regulation. As a result, the efficiency can be reduced by increasing specific fuel consumption. This research focuses on the evaluation of the energy efficiency of the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) for the Tashkent TPP. Specifically, the objective is an evaluation of fossil fuel savings and reduction of CO_2 and NO_x emissions with the using CCGT technology at conventional power plant. The proposed combined cycle power plant (CCPP) includes an existing steam turbine (ST) with 160 MW capacity, heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and gas turbine (GT) technology with 300 MW capacity. The performance of a three pressure CCGT is modelled under different modes. As a result, the efficiency of the combined cycle was evaluated at 58.28%, while the conventional cycle had an efficiency of 34.5%. We can achieve an annual reduction of 1760.18 tNO_x/annum and 981.25 ktCO_2/annum.

  13. SusDesign - An approach for a sustainable process system design and its application to a thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abul Hossain, K; Khan, F; Hawboldt, K [Mem University of Newfoundland, St John, NF (Canada). Faculty of Engineering & Applied Science

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents a structured process design approach, SusDesign, for the sustainable development of process systems. At each level of process design, design alternatives are generated using a number of thermodynamic tools and applying pollution prevention strategies followed by analysis, evaluation and screening processes for the selection of potential design options. The evaluation and optimization are carried out based on an integrated environmental and cost potential (IECP) index, which has been estimated with the IECP tool. The present paper also describes a flowsheet optimization technique developed using different thermodynamic tools such as exergy/energy analysis, heat and mass integration, and cogeneration/trigeneration in a systematic manner. The proposed SusDesign approach has been successfully implemented in designing a 30 MW thermal power plant. In the case study, the IECP tool has been set up in Aspen HYSYS process simulator to carry out the analysis, evaluation and screening of design alternatives. The application of this approach has developed an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly thermal system design with an overall thermal efficiency of 70% and CO{sub 2} and NO emissions of 0.28 kg/kW h and 0.2 g/kW h respectively. The cost of power generation is estimated as 4 cents kWh. These achievements are significant compared to the conventional thermal power plant, which demonstrates the potential of the SusDesign approach for the sustainable development of process systems.

  14. SusDesign - An approach for a sustainable process system design and its application to a thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Khandoker Abul [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL, A1B 3X5 (Canada); Khan, Faisal [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL, A1B 3X5 (Canada); Hawboldt, Kelly [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL, A1B 3X5 (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents a structured process design approach, SusDesign, for the sustainable development of process systems. At each level of process design, design alternatives are generated using a number of thermodynamic tools and applying pollution prevention strategies followed by analysis, evaluation and screening processes for the selection of potential design options. The evaluation and optimization are carried out based on an integrated environmental and cost potential (IECP) index, which has been estimated with the IECP tool. The present paper also describes a flowsheet optimization technique developed using different thermodynamic tools such as exergy/energy analysis, heat and mass integration, and cogeneration/trigeneration in a systematic manner. The proposed SusDesign approach has been successfully implemented in designing a 30 MW thermal power plant. In the case study, the IECP tool has been set up in Aspen HYSYS process simulator to carry out the analysis, evaluation and screening of design alternatives. The application of this approach has developed an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly thermal system design with an overall thermal efficiency of 70% and CO{sub 2} and NO emissions of 0.28 kg/kW h and 0.2 g/kW h respectively. The cost of power generation is estimated as 4 cents /kW h. These achievements are significant compared to the conventional thermal power plant, which demonstrates the potential of the SusDesign approach for the sustainable development of process systems.

  15. SusDesign - An approach for a sustainable process system design and its application to a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Khandoker Abul; Khan, Faisal; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a structured process design approach, SusDesign, for the sustainable development of process systems. At each level of process design, design alternatives are generated using a number of thermodynamic tools and applying pollution prevention strategies followed by analysis, evaluation and screening processes for the selection of potential design options. The evaluation and optimization are carried out based on an integrated environmental and cost potential (IECP) index, which has been estimated with the IECP tool. The present paper also describes a flowsheet optimization technique developed using different thermodynamic tools such as exergy/energy analysis, heat and mass integration, and cogeneration/trigeneration in a systematic manner. The proposed SusDesign approach has been successfully implemented in designing a 30 MW thermal power plant. In the case study, the IECP tool has been set up in Aspen HYSYS process simulator to carry out the analysis, evaluation and screening of design alternatives. The application of this approach has developed an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly thermal system design with an overall thermal efficiency of 70% and CO 2 and NO emissions of 0.28 kg/kW h and 0.2 g/kW h respectively. The cost of power generation is estimated as 4 cents /kW h. These achievements are significant compared to the conventional thermal power plant, which demonstrates the potential of the SusDesign approach for the sustainable development of process systems.

  16. A preliminary investigation of the environmental impact of a thermal power plant in relation to PCB contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedik, Kadir; Imamoglu, Ipek

    2011-07-01

    The most significant application of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is in transformers and capacitors. Therefore, power plants are important suspected sources for entry of PCBs into the environment. In this context, the levels and distribution of PCBs in sediment, soil, ash, and sludge samples were investigated around Seyitömer thermal power plant, Kütahya, Turkey. Moreover, identity and contribution of PCB mixtures were predicted using the chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. United States Environmental Protection Agency methods were applied during sample preparation, extraction (3540C), cleanup (3660B, 3665A, 3630C), and analysis (8082A). ΣPCB concentrations in the region ranged from not detected to 385 ng/g dry weight, with relatively higher contamination in sediments in comparison to soil, sludge, and ash samples collected from around the power plant. Congener profiles of the sediment and soil samples show penta-, hexa-, and hepta-chlorobiphenyls as the major homolog groups. The results from the CMB model indicate that PCB contamination is largely due to Clophen A60/A40 and Aroclor 1254/1254(late)/1260 release into the sediment and sludge samples around the thermal power plant. Since there are no other sources of PCBs in the region and the identity of PCB sources estimated by the CMB model mirrors PCB mixtures contained in transformers formerly used in the plant, the environmental contamination observed especially in sediments is attributed to the power plant. Release of PCBs over time, as indicated by the significant concentrations observed even in surface samples, emphasizes the importance of the need for better environmental management.

  17. Corrosion and biofouling on the non-heat-exchanger surfaces of an ocean thermal energy conversion power plant: a survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelli, V.J. (ed.)

    1979-05-01

    Of the many foreseeable problems confronting economical ocean thermal energy conversion operation, two major items are the deterioration of the structural and functional components, which prevents efficient operation, and the biofouling of the surfaces, which adds excess weight to the floating ocean platform. The techniques required for effective long-term control of deterioration and corrosion have been investigated actively for many years, and successful solutions for most situations have been developed. For the most part, these solutions can be directly transferred to the ocean thermal energy conversion plant. The majority of problems in these areas are expected to be associated with scale-up and will require some advanced development due to the immensity of the ocean thermal energy conversion platform. Current antifouling control systems are not effective for long-term fouling prevention. Commercially available antifouling coatings are limited to a 3-year service life in temperate waters, and even shorter in tropical waters. However, underwater cleaning techniques and some fouling-control systems presently being used by conventional power plants may find utility on an ocean thermal energy conversion plant. In addition, some recent major advances in long-term antifouling coatings sponsored by the Navy may be applicable to ocean thermal energy conversion. 132 references.

  18. Study the dispersion the possible thermal discharges to Juragua nuclear power plant. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munnoz Caravaca, A.; Artega Rodriguez, H.; Diaz Asencio, M.; Cartas Aguila, H.

    1998-01-01

    The present work has as objective to present the results the evaluation to the surface area impact to the waters cooling discharges the Juragua nuclear power plant, by means of hydrodynamic models that described the possible distribution the same ones in the boundary marine means to the location

  19. Thermal damage of power plants components and their reparation. Aspects of welding engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautz, H.R.; Zurn, H.E.D.

    1993-01-01

    In the last years, the technology of power plants has been developed. With the recommendation in environmental protection, the research is focussed on gaseous effluents purification . In case of were an accident, the welding engineering might repair the components. 47 refs

  20. Modern cooling systems in thermal power plants relieve environmental pollution. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosche, D.

    1983-01-01

    Direct and indirect dry recirculation cooling, wet cooling tower, natural-draught wet cooling tower, combined cooling processes, hybrid cooling systems, cell cooling systems, auxiliary water preparation, cooling process design, afterheat removal in nuclear power plants, environmental effects, visible plumes as a function of weather conditions, environmental protection and energy supply assurance. (orig.) [de

  1. Models for the dilution of thermal wastes from power plants on the Channel French shore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulot, F.

    1980-11-01

    This report presents the mathematical models developed and employed at EDF estimating the dilution of waste from the power plants along the Channel. The following points are discussed: the model building hypotheses, the difficulties of a numerical kind encountered and the manner in which they were solved, the results obtained and the comparison with the experimental results [fr

  2. Thermal and nuclear power plants: Competitiveness in the new economic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Shkret, A. F.; Garievskii, M. V.

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the conditions of development and functionality of power generating assets have notably changed. Considering the decline in the price of hydrocarbon fuel on the global market, the efficiency of combined-cycle gas-turbine plants in the European part of Russia is growing in comparison with nuclear power plants. Capital investments in the construction of nuclear power plants have also increased as a result of stiffening the safety requirements. In view of this, there has been an increasing interest in exploration of effective lines of development of generating assets in the European part of Russia, taking consideration of the conditions that may arise in the nearest long-term perspective. In particular, the assessment of comparative efficiency of developing combined-cycle gas-turbine plants (operating on natural gas) in the European part of Russia and nuclear power plants is of academic and practical interest. In this article, we analyze the trends of changes in the regional price of hydrocarbon fuel. Using the prognosis of net-weighted import prices of natural gas in Western European countries—prepared by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Energy Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ERIRAS)—the prices of natural gas in the European part of Russia equilibrated with import prices of this heat carrier in Western Europe were determined. The methodology of determining the comparative efficiency of combined-cycle gas turbine plants (CCGT) and nuclear power plants (NPP) were described; based on this, the possible development of basic CCGTs and NPPs with regard to the European part of Russia for various scenarios in the prognosis of prices of gaseous fuel in a broad range of change of specific investments in the given generating sources were assessed, and the extents of their comparative efficiency were shown. It was proven that, at specific investments in the construction of new NPPs in the amount of 5000 dollars/kW, nuclear

  3. Water chemistry control in thermal and nuclear power plants. 9. Nuclear fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The chemical management of fuels in nuclear power plants aims at maintenance of the soundness of nuclear fuels and at reduction of the radiation exposure of the working employees. With regard to the former, particular attention should be paid to the fabrication process of fuel assembly, mainly for chemical management for fuel cladding tubes together with fuel pellet-clad chemical interactions, and to the outer tubes in the power plants. With regard to the latter, the fabrication process should be carefully controlled to prevent radioactive impurity increase in primary cooling water systems by maintaining cleaning level and decreasing surface contamination. Reactions of zircalloy with water or hydrogen forming ZrH 2 , sintered density of UO 2 pellet controlling water content, pellet-clad interactions, stress corrosion cracking, crud induced fuel failure, behaviors of such fission products as I, Xe, Kr, and Cs in plants are also important to water and chemical management of nuclear fuels. (S. Ohno)

  4. Thermal plumes and micro-contaminants release from power plants in water bodies. Development of innovative software tools to support plant management and real case applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guandalini, R.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental issues are a fundamental aspect of energy generation by thermal power plants. Numerical modeling can be used to develop innovative software tools to support plant management and to analyze critical scenarios also considering meteorology forecasts. Compliance with regulatory obligations of thermal/contaminant plumes and prediction of water body physical properties at the intake/discharge location can be performed by real time systems, in order to optimize plant operations and to evaluate the amount of energy that will be generated. A procedure coupling hydrodynamic and water quality modeling for the prediction of possible areas of accumulation of micro-contaminants in a short, medium and long period is also presented. Finally, applications of thermal/pollutant prediction systems and numerical modeling of particular environmental aspects of energy production and transport are shown (e.g. chlorine diffusion from a HVDC marine anode, impact on aquatic ecosystems in coastal regions). (author)

  5. The effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, A. F.; Bowyer, J. M.; Fujita, T.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the performance and cost of four 10-MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States. Each region has different insolation characteristics which result in varying collector field areas, plant performance, capital costs, and energy costs. The paraboloidal dish, central receiver, cylindrical parabolic trough, and compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) comprise the advanced concepts studied. This paper contains a discussion of the regional insolation data base, a description of the solar systems' performances and costs, and a presentation of a range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several decades.

  6. Operational experience of electron beam flue gases treatment pilot installation at the Maritsa East 2 Thermal Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutskinov, N. [NEK-EAD (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-01

    The electron beam flue gases treatment process is very versatile and effective technology for simultaneous removal of acidic pollutants i.e. sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas produced in the combustion of fossil fuel. The technology allows decomposition of VOC (volatile organic compound) such as polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) and persistent organic pollutants (POP). The electron beam flue gases treatment technology for combustion flue gases purification was applied in Maritsa-East 2 Thermal Power Plant. The decision for construction of Electron Beam Pilot Plant at Maritsa-East 2 TPP was taken at the technical meeting in IAEA Vienna, November 1998. The flue gases of 10 000 nm³/h are irradiated by three high energy electron accelerators of 800 keV and 35 kW beam power each. The plant has been operated since November 2003. The removal efficiency 90-99% for SO{sub x} and 85-90% for NO{sub x} was observed. The quality of coals are characterised with high ash content up to 45%, high moisture up to 57%, low calorific value from 1196 kcal/kg up to 1603 kcal/kg and high concentration of sulphur. The Bulgarian lignite coals are unique in their usage as fuel for the thermal power plants in Maritsa East region. (author)

  7. Applying an overall criterion according to the European norms, for ecological assessment of the thermal electrical power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardu, Mircea; Petrescu, Camelia

    2006-01-01

    This work consists of assessing the thermal power plants impact on the environment by the global considering of the pollutant SO 2 and NO x emissions. This assessment takes into account the emission comparisons with the admissible values provided by the European norms. The conclusion we might draw is that the SN proposed global criterion application, (S from sulfur, namely the sulfur dioxide and N from nitrogen, namely the nitrogen oxides), the investment expenses for installing the necessary SDN and SDS systems (were SDN stands for denox plant and SDS for desulfurization systems), and the operation expenses are smaller (in case of pit coal they are even smaller) if we apply such criterion. The ecologic analysis model we applied as an estimation for large solid fuels categories (lignite, pit coal) and for the 330 MW existing power units, can also be applied to the actual cases for different fuel qualities or unit unitary power levels

  8. Thermal-Economic Modularization of Small, Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plants for Mid-Enthalpy Geothermal Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yodha Y. Nusiaputra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The costs of the surface infrastructure in mid-enthalpy geothermal power systems, especially in remote areas, could be reduced by using small, modular Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC power plants. Thermal-economic criteria have been devised to standardize ORC plant dimensions for such applications. We designed a modular ORC to utilize various wellhead temperatures (120–170 °C, mass flow rates and ambient temperatures (−10–40 °C. A control strategy was developed using steady-state optimization, in order to maximize net power production at off-design conditions. Optimum component sizes were determined using specific investment cost (SIC minimization and mean cashflow (MCF maximization for three different climate scenarios. Minimizing SIC did not yield significant benefits, but MCF proved to be a much better optimization function.

  9. Thermal design of a natural gas - diesel dual fuel turbocharged V18 engine for ship propulsion and power plant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvartzides, S.; Karmalis, I.

    2016-11-01

    A detailed method is presented on the thermal design of a natural gas - diesel dual fuel internal combustion engine. An 18 cylinder four stroke turbocharged engine is considered to operate at a maximum speed of 500 rpm for marine and power plant applications. Thermodynamic, heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena are mathematically analyzed to provide a real cycle analysis together with a complete set of calculated operation conditions, power characteristics and engine efficiencies. The method is found to provide results in close agreement to published data for the actual performance of similar engines such as V18 MAN 51/60DF.

  10. Energy and Exergy Analysis of 210 MW Jamshoro Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhib Ali Rajper

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, thermodynamic analysis of 210 MW dual-fire, subcritical, reheat steam power plant, situated near Jamshoro, Pakistan has been performed. Firstly, the plant is modeled by EES (Engineering Equation Solver software. Moreover; a parametric study is performed to assess the impacts of various operating parameters on the performance. The net power output, energy efficiency and exergy efficiency are considered as performance parameters of the plant whereas, condenser pressure, main steam pressure and main steam temperature are nominated as operating parameters. According to the results, the net power output, energy efficiency and exergy efficiency are determined as 186.5 MW, 31.37% and 30.41% respectively, under design operating conditions. The condenser contributed a major share in the total energy loss i.e. 280 MW (68.7% followed by boiler with 89 MW (21.8%. The major exergy destructing area is found in the boiler with 350 MW (82.11% of the total exergy destruction followed by turbine with 43.1 MW (10.12% and condenser 12 MW (5.74 %. According to the parametric study, variation in operating parameters had great influence on the plant performance

  11. Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, Keith

    2013-06-25

    Thermal energy storage systems using phase change materials were evaluated for trough systems that use oil, steam, and high temperature salts as heat transfer fluids. A variety of eutectic salts and metal alloys were considered as phase change materials in a cascaded arrangement. Literature values of specific heat, latent heat, density, and other thermophysical properties were used in initial analyses. Testing laboratories were contracted to measure properties for candidate materials for comparison to the literature and for updating the models. A TRNSYS model from Phase 1 was further developed for optimizing the system, including a novel control algorithm. A concept for increasing the bulk thermal conductivity of the phase change system was developed using expanded metal sheets. Outside companies were contracted to design and cost systems using platecoil heat exchangers immersed in the phase change material. Laboratory evaluations of the one-dimensional and three-dimensional behavior of expanded metal sheets in a low conductivity medium were used to optimize the amount of thermal conductivity enhancement. The thermal energy storage systems were compared to baseline conventional systems. The best phase change system found in this project, which was for the high temperature plant, had a projected cost of $25.2 per kWhth, The best system also had a cost that was similar to the base case, a direct two-tank molten salt system.

  12. Report on construction of thermal power plants for industrial use in China in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Chugoku ni okeru kogyoyo karyoku hatsuden setsubi secchi)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Steam supply and power generating plants in China can be classified into systems for district heating and power generation and systems for steam supply and power generation for industrial use. Steam supply and power generating plants for district heating in winter season are diffused due to the introduction of Russian technology. There are steam supply and power generating plants for supplying steam to manufacturing equipment in works and generating power for industrial use. Both of these are called heat and power stations. This survey was conducted for the latter thermal power generation plants for industrial use. China has heat and power stations with a total capacity of 22,000 MW, and a half of them are used for district heating. Although the thermal efficiency of usual thermal power generation plants is between 30 and 40%, that of heat and power stations is between 60 and 70%. Latent demand of such power generation plants for industrial use is large. Problems for the diffusion were extracted. It was considered that steam supply and combined power generating plants using natural gas are effective when constructed in large cities, in the vicinity of large cities, or in technological universities. 22 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Full scale experimental study of a small natural draft dry cooling tower for concentrating solar thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoxiao; Duniam, Sam; Gurgenci, Hal; Guan, Zhiqiang; Veeraragavan, Anand

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A 20 m high natural draft dry cooling tower is designed and tested. • The cooling tower model is refined and validated with the experimental data. • The performance of the cooling tower utilized in a CST power plant is investigated. • Ambient temperature effect on Rankine cycle and Brayton cycle is discussed. - Abstract: Concentrating solar thermal power system can provide low carbon, renewable energy resources in countries or regions with strong solar irradiation. For this kind of power plant which is likely to be located in the arid area, natural draft dry cooling tower is a promising choice. To develop the experimental studies on small cooling tower, a 20 m high natural draft dry cooling tower with fully instrumented measurement system was established by the Queensland Geothermal Energy Centre of Excellence. The performance of this cooling tower was measured with the constant heat input of 600 kW and 840 kW and with ambient temperature ranging from 20 °C to 32 °C. The cooling tower numerical model was refined and validated with the experimental data. The model of 1 MW concentrating solar thermal supercritical CO_2 power cycle was developed and integrated with the cooling tower model. The influences of changing ambient temperature and the performance of the cooling tower on efficiency of the power system were simulated. The differences of the mechanism of the ambient temperature effect on Rankine cycle and supercritical CO_2 Brayton cycle were analysed and discussed.

  14. Economic optimization of a Kalina cycle for a parabolic trough solar thermal power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Andreasen, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    -water mixture evaporates and condenses with a temperature glide, thus providing a better match with the heat source/sink temperature profile. This better match results in reduced thermal irreversibility, but at the cost of relatively larger heat exchanger areas. The parabolic trough collector is the most mature...... heat transfer correlations, and appropriate cost functions were used to estimate the costs for the various plant components. The optimal capital investment costs were determined for several values of the turbine inlet ammonia mass fraction and among the compared cases, the Kalina cycle has the minimum......The Kalina cycle has recently seen increased interest as a replacement for the more traditional steam Rankine cycle for geothermal, solar, ocean thermal energy conversion and waste heat recovery applications. The Kalina cycle uses a mixture of ammonia and water as the working fluid. The ammonia...

  15. Application of flow network models of SINDA/FLUINT{sup TM} to a nuclear power plant system thermal hydraulic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ji Bum [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Woon [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    In order to enhance the dynamic and interactive simulation capability of a system thermal hydraulic code for nuclear power plant, applicability of flow network models in SINDA/FLUINT{sup TM} has been tested by modeling feedwater system and coupling to DSNP which is one of a system thermal hydraulic simulation code for a pressurized heavy water reactor. The feedwater system is selected since it is one of the most important balance of plant systems with a potential to greatly affect the behavior of nuclear steam supply system. The flow network model of this feedwater system consists of condenser, condensate pumps, low and high pressure heaters, deaerator, feedwater pumps, and control valves. This complicated flow network is modeled and coupled to DSNP and it is tested for several normal and abnormal transient conditions such turbine load maneuvering, turbine trip, and loss of class IV power. The results show reasonable behavior of the coupled code and also gives a good dynamic and interactive simulation capabilities for the several mild transient conditions. It has been found that coupling system thermal hydraulic code with a flow network code is a proper way of upgrading simulation capability of DSNP to mature nuclear plant analyzer (NPA). 5 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  16. Trouble diagnostic system for pumps used in thermal and nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, K.; Hayashi, M.; Takagi, M.; Katsura, H.

    1995-01-01

    Most power plants have been operated under severe conditions to meet the diversification in electricity supply and demand. Therefore, it has become an important objective to keep the pumps under maintenance and control which necessitates a more reliable diagnostic system. With this in mind, the authors set out to perform the simulation tests of abnormal operation using a model pump, and have developed the diagnostic system for pumps based on vibration and process data. The main features of the system are 1) parallel processing of data acquisition and the diagnosis and 2) guidance function for the abnormal operation. The system has been applied to an actual pump to detect a bearing damage and set up at the nuclear power plant. (author)

  17. Environmental design of thermal and nuclear power plants. Its history and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kimio

    1999-01-01

    In order to realize coexistence between electric power plants and local environment, a historical transition on scene and greenization, one of typical environmental coexistence method, and on design of environmental facility was arranged to elucidate a direction of future environmental coexistence. And, a draft of local scene creation type design possible to make it for a symbol at the area was investigated to quantitatively elucidate an effect of the scene design on local peoples by using some metrical psychological experiments. As a result, it was found from an evaluation value profile in each age that younger generation showed severer evaluation against the scene design. And, also found that scene image on the power plant is constructed by four axes of 'regularity', 'symbolicity', 'cleanliness', and traditionality', of which design method (color, shape design, and so forth) effect was clarified. (G.K.)

  18. An acoustic pyrometer system for tomographic thermal imaging in power plant boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Bramanti, Mauro; Gray, Antoinia; Pasini, Sauro; Salerno, Emanuele; Tonazzini, Anna

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents an acoustic pyrometry method for the reconstruction of temperature maps inside power plant boilers. It is based on measuring times-of-flight of acoustic waves along a number of straight paths in a cross-section of the boiler; via an integral relationship, these times depend on the temperature of the gaseous medium along the paths. On this basis, 2D temperature maps can be reconstructed using" suitable inversion techniques. The structure of a particular 'system for the measu...

  19. Improving of the water preparation systems in the industry thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choshnova Daniela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Some modern possibilities for modernization of the water preparation in the heat power plants of metallurgical enterprises are presented. It is focused on the ecological and technological advantages of the methods for obtaining of ultra-pure water. This work is not intended to justify the need of usage of particular technology in an object. This is a separate task requiring in-depth consideration.

  20. Neural-net based real-time economic dispatch for thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M.; Milosevic, B. [Inst. Nikola Tesla, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Power Systems; Calovic, M. [Univ. of Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Sobajic, D.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    This paper proposes the application of artificial neural networks to real-time optimal generation dispatch of thermal units. The approach can take into account the operational requirements and network losses. The proposed economic dispatch uses an artificial neural network (ANN) for generation of penalty factors, depending on the input generator powers and identified system load change. Then, a few additional iterations are performed within an iterative computation procedure for the solution of coordination equations, by using reference-bus penalty-factors derived from the Newton-Raphson load flow. A coordination technique for environmental and economic dispatch of pure thermal systems, based on the neural-net theory for simplified solution algorithms and improved man-machine interface is introduced. Numerical results on two test examples show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently and accurately develop optimal and feasible generator output trajectories, by applying neural-net forecasts of system load patterns.

  1. Handbook for replacement of process control systems in thermal power plants; Handbok - Utbytesbehov i kontrollsystem foer vaermekraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuszynski, J. [Sydkraft Konsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Eriksson, Tage [Vattenfall Energisystem AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Modernization of control equipment in more complex power plants, such as thermal power plants, requires special attention due to the almost complete change-over to new computerised technology. The introduction of new technology gives rise to great changes in both the process control systems and in operation and maintenance routines. The change-over to computerised technology also causes lack of spare parts and service for older equipment. The older technology becomes obsolete due to the great advantages that comes with new technology. Therefore, the lifetime of control equipment is not only coupled to traditional ageing and wear, such as oxidation and fatigue of material, but also to the fact that the old equipment is getting out of date. It becomes more and more common that this out-of-date factor, rather than ageing, sets the limit for the useful life of the equipment. The Handbook for replacement of process control systems in thermal power plants is thought to be a first help for engineers and managers who has the responsibility for process control modernization. The Handbook points out the factors that determines the service life of the control equipment. It also suggests what information is required in order to take a decision on modernization. The Handbook at its present form constitutes a first approach that leaves room for an extension later on. Any request to expand the Handbook should be put forward to Vaermeforsk or its partners

  2. Formulating and implementing an environmental management system in a thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawlor, G.; Leavy, K.; Lyons, J. [Electricity Suppy Board ESB, Dublin (Ireland). Shanonbridge Station

    1993-12-31

    In the last few years there has been a shift in public opinion regarding the need for large industries to become more environmentally focused. National and EC legislation has responded to this. The passing of the Irish Environmental Protection Act in April 1992, the publication of BS 7750 in March 1992, political interest in the EC draft ECO-audit regulation and the recent development of a joint ISO/IEC draft environmental management systems standard, are all clear signs of change which large industry in Ireland, such as ESB, must respond to. It is likely that the Environmental Protection Agency when operational will introduce requirements similar to those required by the BImSchG in Germany. In anticipation ESB has restructured its management of environmental matters. Developments for EMS for power stations began in 1991, following an initial environmental review at one of its power stations. It is being developed and refined at a thermal power station. A crucial element is the environmental audit. A three tier audit procedure has been introduced and a number of internal audits of power stations have been carried out. A self-audit manual for power stations has been developed during 1992. Its aim is to aid station management in assessing their own environmental performance. It is on trial at two power stations. Implementation of the EMS in a number of key power stations can be achieved in 1993. The full development and implementation of the EMS will take some time. The self-audit manual will be in use at all power stations during 1993, and EMS will be fully implemented by the end of 1994. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Thermal and stability considerations for a supercritical water-cooled fast reactor during power-raising phase of plant startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jiejin; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Oka, Yoshiaki; Ikejiri, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes thermal analyses and linear stability analyses of the Supercritical Water-cooled Fast Reactor with 'two-path' flow scheme during the power-raising phase of plant startup. For thermal consideration, the same criterion of the maximum cladding surface temperature (MCST) as applied to the normal operating condition is used. For thermal-hydraulic stability consideration, the decay ratio of 0.5 is applied, which is taken from BWRs. Firstly, we calculated the flow rate distribution among the parallel flow paths from the reactor vessel inlet nozzles to the mixing plenum below the core using a system analysis code. The parallel flow paths consist of the seed fuel assemblies cooled by downward flow, the blanket fuel assemblies cooled by downward flow and the downcomer. Then, the MCSTs are estimated for various reactor powers and feedwater flow rates with system analyses. The decay ratios are estimated with linear stability analyses. The available range of the reactor power and feedwater flow rate to satisfy the thermal and stability criteria is obtained. (author)

  4. Removal of Iron Oxide Scale from Feed-water in Thermal Power Plant by Using Magnetic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Motohiro; Shibatani, Saori; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2017-09-01

    One of the factors of deterioration in thermal power generation efficiency is adhesion of the scale to inner wall in feed-water system. Though thermal power plants have employed All Volatile Treatment (AVT) or Oxygen Treatment (OT) to prevent scale formation, these treatments cannot prevent it completely. In order to remove iron oxide scale, we proposed magnetic separation system using solenoidal superconducting magnet. Magnetic separation efficiency is influenced by component and morphology of scale which changes their property depending on the type of water treatment and temperature. In this study, we estimated component and morphology of iron oxide scale at each equipment in the feed-water system by analyzing simulated scale generated in the pressure vessel at 320 K to 550 K. Based on the results, we considered installation sites of the magnetic separation system.

  5. Achievement report on the development of solar thermal electric power plant technologies. Annex; Taiyonetsu hatsuden plant gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Fuzoku shiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-07-01

    The two solar thermal electric power pilot plants are of the tower concentration type and the flat/curved surface concentration type. For the first time in the world, they succeeded in operating at a rated output of 1,000kW in August and September, 1981, respectively. Sunshine was inputted at an unstable rate, and the plants were operated under various load patterns. Studies were conducted and an optimum operating technique is established. Since designing, construction, and operation were carried for two types of pilot plants, quantities of useful data were collected through a variety of experiences. Valuable hints and design data were provided for use in the construction of full-scale power plants in the future. Element units developed for the plants were high-reflectance mirrors, high-precision tracking mechanisms, solar heat collectors of the cavity type and paraboloidal type, and molten salt heat accumulators. The tower concentration type plant exhibits a power generation efficiency of 16-17% and an overall plant efficiency of 3.1-4.4%. The maximum overall efficiency a month is 3.9% with the flat/curved surface concentration type plant. (NEDO)

  6. Evolution of Italian thermal power plants in the 2003-2008 period: evaluation of most important critical states and operative experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michi, L.; Camponeschi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Italian thermal power plants park is characterized by a dept transformation that is significantly changing the technological mix. The main aspects of these developments and related issues were analyzed in the last two years of operating experience [it

  7. Thermal Pollution Math Model. Volume 1. Thermal Pollution Model Package Verification and Transfer. [environment impact of thermal discharges from power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. S.; Sengupta, S.

    1980-01-01

    Two three dimensional, time dependent models, one free surface, the other rigid lid, were verified at Anclote Anchorage and Lake Keowee respectively. The first site is a coastal site in northern Florida; the other is a man-made lake in South Carolina. These models describe the dispersion of heated discharges from power plants under the action of ambient conditions. A one dimensional, horizontally-averaged model was also developed and verified at Lake Keowee. The data base consisted of archival in situ measurements and data collected during field missions. The field missions were conducted during winter and summer conditions at each site. Each mission consisted of four infrared scanner flights with supporting ground truth and in situ measurements. At Anclote, special care was taken to characterize the complete tidal cycle. The three dimensional model results compared with IR data for thermal plumes on an average within 1 C root mean square difference. The one dimensional model performed satisfactorily in simulating the 1971-1979 period.

  8. Some comments on the thermal effects of power plants on fish eggs and larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubel, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Fish eggs and larvae entrained by steam electric stations with once-through cooling systems are exposed to an initial rapid rise in temperature approximately equivalent to the temperature rise across the condensers. They are exposed to the maximum ΔT during passage through the plant and to the point of discharge and then to decreasing excess temperatures (i.e., temperatures above those to which they have been acclimated) as they are carried down the plume. The actual time-temperature exposure histories depend primarily upon plant design and the characteristics of the receiving waters. Site studies have failed to establish unequivocally the cumulative effects of the several stresses experienced by entrained fish eggs and larvae, and separation of the individual effects of these stresses has rarely, if ever, been possible. Most laboratory studies of the thermal requirements of fish eggs and larvae are also of little use in predicting the thermal effects of entrainment because of the inappropriateness of the time-temperature histories. The few laboratory studies of fish eggs and larvae that have been specifically directed at entrainment questions have shown clearly that the thermal effects of entrainment can be assessed in the laboratory. These few data are reviewed. Blueback herring, alewife, American shad, and striped bass eggs were able to survive exposure to typical time-excess temperature histories with ΔT's of at least 10 0 C above the average temperature on the spawning grounds without any harmful effects. Larvae were generally able to withstand exposure to ΔT's of 12 0 C above acclimation temperatures of 5 0 to 15 0 C for at least 40 minutes without any significant increases in mortality. At higher excess temperatures, acclimation temperature and duration of exposure became increasingly more important. (U.S.)

  9. Numerical Modeling of the Effect of Thawing of Soil in the Area of Placing Tanks for Storage Fuel of Thermal Power Plants and Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovnikov V.Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the numerical modeling of heat transfer in the area placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler with considering the influence of thawing of the soil. We have established that the thawing of the soil in the area of placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler have little effect on the change of heat loss.

  10. Performance analysis of a Kalina cycle for a central receiver solar thermal power plant with direct steam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modi, Anish; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Solar thermal power plants have attracted increasing interest in the past few years – with respect to both the design of the various plant components, and extending the operation hours by employing different types of storage systems. One approach to improve the overall plant efficiency is to use direct steam generation with water/steam as both the heat transfer fluid in the solar receivers and the cycle working fluid. This enables operating the plant with higher turbine inlet temperatures. Available literature suggests that it is feasible to use ammonia-water mixtures at high temperatures without corroding the equipment by using suitable additives with the mixture. The purpose of the study reported here was to investigate if there is any benefit of using a Kalina cycle for a direct steam generation, central receiver solar thermal power plant with high live steam temperature (450 °C) and pressure (over 100 bar). Thermodynamic performance of the Kalina cycle in terms of the plant exergy efficiency was evaluated and compared with a simple Rankine cycle. The rates of exergy destruction for the different components in the two cycles were also calculated and compared. The results suggest that the simple Rankine cycle exhibits better performance than the Kalina cycle when the heat input is only from the solar receiver. However, when using a two-tank molten-salt storage system as the primary source of heat input, the Kalina cycle showed an advantage over the simple Rankine cycle because of about 33 % reduction in the storage requirement. The solar receiver showed the highest rate of exergy destruction for both the cycles. The rates of exergy destruction in other components of the cycles were found to be highly dependent on the amount of recuperation, and the ammonia mass fraction and pressure at the turbine inlet. - Highlights: •Kalina cycle for a central receiver solar thermal power plant with direct steam generation. •Rankine cycle shows better plant exergy

  11. Development of non-destructive diagnosis technology for pipe internal in thermal power plants based on robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seungho; Kim, Changhoi; Seo, Yongchil; Lee, Sunguk; Jung, Seungho; Jung, Seyoung

    2011-11-15

    The Pipelines of power plants may have tiny crack by corrosion. Pipe safety inspection should be performed periodically and non-periodically to ensure their safety and integrity. It is difficult to inspection pipes inside defect since pipes of power plant is covered thermal insulation material. Normally pipes inspection was performed part of pipes on outside. A mobile robot was developed for the inspection of pipe of 100 mm inside diameter. The robot is adopted screw type drive mechanism in order to move vertical, horizontal pipes inside. The multi-laser and camera module, which is mounted in front of the robot, captures a sequence of 360 degree shapes of the inner surface of a pipe. The 3D inner shape of pipe is reconstructed from a multi laser triangulation techniques for the inspection of pipes.

  12. Thermal electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.

    2001-01-01

    The basic principle of a thermal power plant is to heat up water in the pipe system of a boiler to generate steam, which exits the boiler with high pressure and releases its energy to a tandem-arranged turbine. This energy is transmitted to a generator over a common shaft. The generated electricity is fed into the power supply system. The processed steam is condensed to water by means of a condenser and transferred back into the pipe system of the boiler (feed water circuit). In general the following techniques are applied for the combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels: dry bottom boiler, wet bottom boiler, grate firing, fluidized bed combustion, gasification systems - integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), oil firing technique, gas firing technique. Residues from power plants are generated by the following processes and emission reduction measures: separation of bottom ash or boiler slag in the boiler; separation of fly ash (particulate matter) by means of filters or electric precipitators; desulphurization through lime additive processes, dry sorption or spray absorption processes and lime scrubbing processes; desulphurization according to Wellmann-Lord and to the Walther process; reduction of NO x emissions by selective catalytic reduction (SCR). In this case spent catalyst results as a waste unless it is recycled. No residues are generated by the following measures to reduce NO x emissions: minimization of nitrogen by selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR); adaptations of the firing technology to avoid emissions - primary measures (low-NO x burners, CO reduction). However, this may change the quality of fly ash by increasing unburnt carbon. Combustion of fossil fuels (with the exception of gaseous fuels) and biomass generates large quantities of residues - with coal being the greatest contributor - either from the fuel itself in the form of ashes, or from flue gas cleaning measures. In coal-fired power plants huge amounts of inorganic residues

  13. Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Levy

    2012-06-29

    Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination

  14. Analysis of thermally coupled chemical looping combustion-based power plants with carbon capture

    KAUST Repository

    Iloeje, Chukwunwike

    2015-04-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. A number of CO2 capture-enabled power generation technologies have been proposed to address the negative environmental impact of CO2 emission. One important barrier to adopting these technologies is the associated energy penalty. Chemical-looping Combustion (CLC) is an oxy-combustion technology that can significantly lower this penalty. It utilizes an oxygen carrier to transfer oxygen from air/oxidizing stream in an oxidation reactor to the fuel in a reduction reactor. Conventional CLC reactor designs employ two separate reactors, with metal/metal oxide particles circulating pneumatically in-between. One of the key limitations of these designs is the entropy generation due to reactor temperature difference, which lowers the cycle efficiency. Zhao et al. (Zhao et al., 2014; Zhao and Ghoniem, 2014) proposed a new CLC rotary reactor design, which overcomes this limitation. This reactor consists of a single rotating wheel with micro-channels designed to maintain thermal equilibrium between the fuel and air sides. This study uses three thermodynamic models of increasing fidelity to demonstrate that the internal thermal coupling in the rotary CLC reactor creates the potential for improved cycle efficiency. A theoretical availability model and an ideal thermodynamic cycle model are used to define the efficiency limits of CLC systems, illustrate the impact of reactor thermal coupling and discuss relevant criteria. An Aspen Plus® model of a regenerative CLC cycle is then used to show that this thermal coupling raises the cycle efficiency by up to 2% points. A parametric study shows that efficiency varies inversely with pressure, with a maximum of 51% at 3bar, 1000C and 60% at 4bar, 1400C. The efficiency increases with CO2 fraction at high pressure ratios but exhibits a slight inverse dependence at low pressure ratios. The parametric study shows that for low purge steam demand, steam generation improves exhaust heat recovery and increases efficiency

  15. Facing slag glass and slag glass ceramic produced from thermal power plant ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buruchenko, A.E.; Kolesnikov, A.A.; Lukoyanov, A.G.

    1990-10-01

    Evaluates properties of fly ash and slags from the Krasnoyarsk coal-fired power plants and their utilization for glass and ceramic glass production. Composition of a mixture of fly ash and slag was: silica 40-55%, aluminium oxides 10-40%, ferric trioxide 6-14%, calcium oxides 20-35%, magnesium oxides 3-6%, potassium oxides 0.3-1.5%, sodium oxides 0.2-05%, sulfur trioxide 0.9-5.0%. The analyzed fly ash and slags from the Krasnoyarsk plant were an economic waste material for glass production. Properties of sand, clay and other materials used in glass production and properties of glass and ceramic glass produced on the basis of fly ash and slags are analyzed. Economic aspects of fly ash and slag utilization are also evaluated. 3 refs.

  16. Influence of thermal discharges on the distribution of macroflora and fauna. Humboldt Bay Nuclear Power Plant, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Populations of benthic and epifaunal macro-organisms living in the area influenced by the thermal discharge of the steam-electric power plant at Humboldt Bay, California, were analyzed in 1971 and 1972 to determine if differences in distribution could be attributed to the effluent. Relicated benthic samples were collected with a Ponar grab at 20 stations in the bay and at 4 stations in the canals leading to and from the power plant. Comparisons of epifaunal plants and animals in a rocky intertidal zone were made at 13 permanent transects spaced at various distances on either side of the discharge. Species richness in the intertidal was positively correlated with increased temperature in 13 percent of the possible combinations of tide level and diversity. Individual species were positively correlated with increased temperatures for 19 percent of the plant comparisons, and for 16.3 percent of the animal comparisons. Comparisons of populations of individual species in the heated intertidal zone with those in a control zone indicated differences in 26.2 percent of the plant surveys, and 23.2 percent of the animal surveys. Differences were positively related to the increased temperature in 90.5 percent of the comparisons. Proportions of eurythermal plants or animals in the heated areas of the intertidal zone did not differ significantly from proportions in other areas in 4 different survey periods. With the possible exception of one species, there was no conclusive evidence that any of the 132 species found in the intertidal area at Humboldt Bay was eliminated from the heated area surrounding the discharge of the power plant

  17. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.) [pt

  18. Thermal stability of chloroform in the steam condensate cycle of CANDU-PHW nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepine, Louis; Gilbert, Roland; Ouellet, Lorenzo

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of samples taken at the Gentilly 2 (Quebec) CANDU-PHW (CANadian Deuterium Uranium - Pressurized Heavy Water) plant after chlorination and demineralization revealed the presence of all four trihalomethanes (THMs) (CHCl 3 , CHBrCl 2 , CHBr 2 Cl and CHBr 3 ) and other unidentified halogenated volatile compounds. Among the THMs, chloroform was the major contaminant. A study of its thermal stability in water at different temperatures confirmed the degradation of the CHCl 3 molecule according to the equation CHCl 3 + H2O → CO + 3 HCl. The reaction follows first order kinetics and has an activation energy of 100 kJ/mol. The estimated half-life is six seconds at 260 deg C, the maximum temperature of the steam condensate cycle

  19. Developing an early laekage detection system for thermal power plant boiler tubes by using acoustic emission technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Bum [RECTUSON, Co., LTD, Masan (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Seon Man [Samcheonpo Division, Korea South-East Power Co., Samcheonpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A thermal power plant has a heat exchanger tube to collect and convert the heat generated from the high temperature and pressure steam to energy, but the tubes are arranged in a complex manner. In the event that a leakage occurs in any of these tubes, the high-pressure steam leaks out and may cause the neighboring tubes to rupture. This leakage can finally stop power generation, and hence there is a dire need to establish a suitable technology capable of detecting tube leaks at an early stage even before it occurs. As shown in this paper, by applying acoustic emission (AE) technology in existing boiler tube leak detection equipment (BTLD), we developed a system that detects these leakages early enough and generates an alarm at an early stage to necessitate action; the developed system works better that the existing system used to detect fine leakages. We verified the usability of the system in a 560 MW-class thermal power plant boiler by conducting leak tests by simulating leakages from a variety of hole sizes (⌀2, ⌀5, ⌀10 mm). Results show that while the existing fine leakage detection system does not detect fine leakages of ⌀2 mm and ⌀5 mm, the newly developed system could detect leakages early enough and generate an alarm at an early stage, and it is possible to increase the signal to more than 18 dB.

  20. Developing an early laekage detection system for thermal power plant boiler tubes by using acoustic emission technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Bum; Roh, Seon Man

    2016-01-01

    A thermal power plant has a heat exchanger tube to collect and convert the heat generated from the high temperature and pressure steam to energy, but the tubes are arranged in a complex manner. In the event that a leakage occurs in any of these tubes, the high-pressure steam leaks out and may cause the neighboring tubes to rupture. This leakage can finally stop power generation, and hence there is a dire need to establish a suitable technology capable of detecting tube leaks at an early stage even before it occurs. As shown in this paper, by applying acoustic emission (AE) technology in existing boiler tube leak detection equipment (BTLD), we developed a system that detects these leakages early enough and generates an alarm at an early stage to necessitate action; the developed system works better that the existing system used to detect fine leakages. We verified the usability of the system in a 560 MW-class thermal power plant boiler by conducting leak tests by simulating leakages from a variety of hole sizes (⌀2, ⌀5, ⌀10 mm). Results show that while the existing fine leakage detection system does not detect fine leakages of ⌀2 mm and ⌀5 mm, the newly developed system could detect leakages early enough and generate an alarm at an early stage, and it is possible to increase the signal to more than 18 dB

  1. Research on the supercapacitor support schemes for LVRT of variable-frequency drive in the thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiguo; Zhu, Kai; Shi, Wenming; Wu, Kuayu; Chen, Kai

    2018-02-01

    In order to solve the problem of low voltage ride through(LVRT) of the major auxiliary equipment’s variable-frequency drive (VFD) in thermal power plant, the scheme of supercapacitor paralleled in the DC link of VFD is put forward, furthermore, two solutions of direct parallel support and voltage boost parallel support of supercapacitor are proposed. The capacitor values for the relevant motor loads are calculated according to the law of energy conservation, and they are verified by Matlab simulation. At last, a set of test prototype is set up, and the test results prove the feasibility of the proposed schemes.

  2. New materials for thermal energy storage in concentrated solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Luis; Collares-Pereira, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) is an important alternative to PV electricity production, not only because it is getting more cost competitive with the continuous growth in installed capacity, engineering and associated innovations, but also, because of its unique dispatch ability advantage as a result of the already well established 2-tank energy storage using molten salts (MS). In recent years, research has been performed, on direct MS systems, to which features like modularity and combinations with other (solid) thermal storage materials are considered with the goal of achieving lower investment cost. Several alternative materials and systems have been studied. In this research, storage materials were identified with thermo-physical data being presented for different rocks (e.g. quartzite), super concrete, and other appropriate solid materials. Among the new materials being proposed like rocks from old quarries, an interesting option is the incorporation of solid waste material from old mines belonging to the Iberian Pyritic Belt. These are currently handled as byproducts of past mine activity, and can potentially constitute an environmental hazard due to their chemical (metal) content. This paper presents these materials, as part of a broad study to improve the current concept of solar energy storage for STE plants, and additionally presents a potentially valuable solution for environmental protection related to re-use of mining waste.

  3. A Wind Power Plant with Thermal Energy Storage for Improving the Utilization of Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the wind energy industry is seriously restricted by grid connection issues and wind energy generation rejections introduced by the intermittent nature of wind energy sources. As a solution of these problems, a wind power system integrating with a thermal energy storage (TES system for district heating (DH is designed to make best use of the wind power in the present work. The operation and control of the system are described in detail. A one-dimensional system model of the system is developed based on a generic model library using the object-oriented language Modelica for system modeling. Validations of the main components of the TES module are conducted against experimental results and indicate that the models can be used to simulate the operation of the system. The daily performance of the integrated system is analyzed based on a seven-day operation. And the influences of system configurations on the performance of the integrated system are analyzed. The numerical results show that the integrated system can effectively improve the utilization of total wind energy under great wind power rejection.

  4. Practical application of the benchmarking technique to increase reliability and efficiency of power installations and main heat-mechanic equipment of thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimov, A. A.; Chukanova, T. I.; Trofimov, Yu. V.

    2016-12-01

    Data on the comparative analysis variants of the quality of power installations (benchmarking) applied in the power industry is systematized. It is shown that the most efficient variant of implementation of the benchmarking technique is the analysis of statistical distributions of the indicators in the composed homogenous group of the uniform power installations. The benchmarking technique aimed at revealing the available reserves on improvement of the reliability and heat efficiency indicators of the power installations of the thermal power plants is developed in the furtherance of this approach. The technique provides a possibility of reliable comparison of the quality of the power installations in their homogenous group limited by the number and adoption of the adequate decision on improving some or other technical characteristics of this power installation. The technique provides structuring of the list of the comparison indicators and internal factors affecting them represented according to the requirements of the sectoral standards and taking into account the price formation characteristics in the Russian power industry. The mentioned structuring ensures traceability of the reasons of deviation of the internal influencing factors from the specified values. The starting point for further detail analysis of the delay of the certain power installation indicators from the best practice expressed in the specific money equivalent is positioning of this power installation on distribution of the key indicator being a convolution of the comparison indicators. The distribution of the key indicator is simulated by the Monte-Carlo method after receiving the actual distributions of the comparison indicators: specific lost profit due to the short supply of electric energy and short delivery of power, specific cost of losses due to the nonoptimal expenditures for repairs, and specific cost of excess fuel equivalent consumption. The quality loss indicators are developed

  5. Impact of thermal power plant discharges on the coastal environment of Tuticorin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanichamy, S.; Ragumaran, S.; Rajendran, A.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study an attempt is made to delineate the changes in the environmental quality caused due to effluent discharges from Tuticorin thermal power station. Water samples were collected from 19 stations covering three different zones. Plankton and benthic fauna were collected from 5 stations. The data indicated that environmental parameters like DO, pH and nutrients were slightly altered at zone II, while, water temperature was rather higher by about 8 degC above the ambient temperature. Further suspended solids, turbidity values were also found to be higher. The stations located near the hot effluent discharge (zone II) recorded poor plankton diversity and density. Benthic fauna was also found to be affected in the vicinity of the hot effluent discharges. The changes encountered during the study period are discussed in this paper. (author)

  6. Improvement of the performance of the electrostatic precipitators for coal thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldacci, A. (ENEL, Pisa (IT)); Bogani, V.; Dinelli, G.; Mattachini, F.

    1986-10-01

    Electrostatic precipitators performances are greatly influenced by the physical and chemical characteristics of the particles which are to be collected; a very important role is played by electric resistivity of fly ash: when it is high we have a general increase in the number of discharges within the precipitator ,with a consequent decrease in collection efficiency and an increase in emissions. In order to avoid such a behaviour, a different kind of energization, based on the superposition of narrow voltage pulses to a DC voltage, may be used. A prototype of pulse power supply has been installed on the electrostatic precipitator of a coal burning 320 MWe thermal unit and some tests have been carried out to verify its performance with different operating conditions. Some results of the tests are presented here, together with the plan of the research which will develop on a new experimental electrostatic precipitator.

  7. Apparatus and method for thermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.; Redding, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    An improved thermal power plant and method of power generation is described which minimizes thermal stress and chemical impurity buildup in the vaporizing component, particularly beneficial under loss of normal feed fluid and startup conditions. The invention is particularly applicable to a liquid metal fast breeder reactor plant

  8. Solar thermal power plants for heat and electricity generation; Presentacion de plantas termosolares para generacion de calor y energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Cajigal, V [Solartronic S. A. de C. V., Cuernavaca (Mexico); Manzini, F; Sanchez, A [Laboratorio de Energia Solar (IIM-UNAM), Temixco (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    Solar thermal technology is presented for concentration into a point for the production of heat and energy in small and large scale, emphasis is made on the capacity for the combination with current technologies using fossil fuels for electricity generation and process steam, increasing the global efficiency of the power plants and notably reducing the pollutants emission to the air during the insolation hours. It is successfully compared with other solar-thermal technologies. [Espanol] Se presenta la tecnologia termosolar de concentracion puntual para produccion de calor y de energia en pequena y gran escala, se enfatiza su capacidad de combinacion con las tecnologias actuales que utilizan combustibles fosiles para produccion de electricidad y vapor de proceso, aumentando la eficiencia global de las plantas y reduciendo notablemente sus emisiones contaminantes a la atmosfera durante las horas de insolacion. Se le compara exitosamente con otras tecnologias termosolares.

  9. Solar thermal power plants for heat and electricity generation; Presentacion de plantas termosolares para generacion de calor y energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Cajigal, V. [Solartronic S. A. de C. V., Cuernavaca (Mexico); Manzini, F.; Sanchez, A. [Laboratorio de Energia Solar (IIM-UNAM), Temixco (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    Solar thermal technology is presented for concentration into a point for the production of heat and energy in small and large scale, emphasis is made on the capacity for the combination with current technologies using fossil fuels for electricity generation and process steam, increasing the global efficiency of the power plants and notably reducing the pollutants emission to the air during the insolation hours. It is successfully compared with other solar-thermal technologies. [Espanol] Se presenta la tecnologia termosolar de concentracion puntual para produccion de calor y de energia en pequena y gran escala, se enfatiza su capacidad de combinacion con las tecnologias actuales que utilizan combustibles fosiles para produccion de electricidad y vapor de proceso, aumentando la eficiencia global de las plantas y reduciendo notablemente sus emisiones contaminantes a la atmosfera durante las horas de insolacion. Se le compara exitosamente con otras tecnologias termosolares.

  10. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power plants...

  11. Influence of the Sostanj coal-fired thermal power plant on mercury and methyl mercury concentrations in Lake Velenje, Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotnik, J.; Horvat, M.; Mandic, V.; Logar, M. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2000-10-02

    Lake Velenje is located in one of the most polluted regions in Slovenia, the Salek Valley. The major source of pollution in the valley is the coal-fired thermal power plant in Sostanj (STPP, capacity 775 MW). It has five separate units. All units have electrostatic precipitators for fly ash removal. Unit 4 also has installed a wet flue gas desulfurisation system (FGD system). Total mercury (THg) concentrations were measured in lignite, slag and ash samples from the STPP. In flue gas, different mercury species (THg, MeHg, Hg{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 0}) were determined separately for unit 4 and unit 5 which use different flue gas cleaning technology. Mercury and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations were also measured in lake water at different depths, in inflow water, outflow water, rain, snow and lake sediments in order to establish the influence of the power plant on the lake. Most mercury emitted from the power plant is in the elemental form. The ratio between oxidised and elemental Hg depends on the flue gas cleaning technology. Mass balance calculations have been performed for the STPP. The results show that the major sources of mercury in Lake Velenje are wet deposition and lake inflows. Total and MeHg concentrations in the water column are very low and can be compared to other non-contaminated freshwater lakes in the world.

  12. Influence of the Sostanj coal-fired thermal power plant on mercury and methyl mercury concentrations in Lake Velenje, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnik; Horvat; Mandic; Logar

    2000-10-02

    Lake Velenje is located in one of the most polluted regions in Slovenia, the Salek Valley. The major source of pollution in the valley is the coal-fired thermal power plant in Sostanj (STPP, capacity 775 MW). It has five separate units. All units have electrostatic precipitators for fly ash removal. Unit 4 also has installed a wet flue gas desulfurisation system (FGD system). Total mercury (THg) concentrations were measured in lignite, slag and ash samples from the STPP. In flue gas, different mercury species (THg, MeHg, Hg2+, Hg0) were determined separately for unit 4 and unit 5 which use different flue gas cleaning technology. Mercury and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations were also measured in lake water at different depths, in inflow water, outflow water, rain, snow and lake sediments in order to establish the influence of the power plant on the lake. Most mercury emitted from the power plant is in the elemental form. The ratio between oxidised and elemental Hg depends on the flue gas cleaning technology. Mass balance calculations have been performed for the STPP. The results show that the major sources of mercury in Lake Velenje are wet deposition and lake inflows. Total and MeHg concentrations in the water column are very low and can be compared to other non-contaminated freshwater lakes in the world.

  13. Demonstration test of electron beam flue gas treatment pilot plant of a coal fired thermal power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Yoshitaka; Hayashi, Kazuaki; Izutsu, Masahiro; Watanabe, Shigeharu; Namba, Hideki; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Hashimoto, Shoji; Tanaka, Tadashi; Ogura, Yoshimi.

    1995-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Chubu Electric Power Company and Ebara Corporation jointly constructed a pilot plant for electron beam flue gas treatment (dry process) capable of treating 12,000 m 3 /h (NTP) of flue gas from a coal fired boiler, at Shin-Nagoya Thermal Power Station, Chubu Electric Power Company. Various tests carried out at the plant over a period extending one year verified the followings. By appropriately controlling parameters such as electron beam dosage, flue gas temperature, and ammonia stoichiometric amount, highly efficient simultaneous SO 2 and NOx removal from flue gas was achieved under all gas conditions, equal to or more efficient than that by the highest level conventional treatment. The operation of the pilot plant was stable and trouble-free over a long term, and the operation and the process was easy to operate and control. By-products (ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate) produced by the flue gas treatment were proven to have superior quality, equivalent to that of market-available nitrogen fertilizers. These by-products had been registered as by-product nitrogen fertilizers. (author)

  14. FY 1999 report on basic survey for promoting joint implementation, etc. Rehabilitation of Symferopol thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This project serves the purpose of executing COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) joint implementations, etc. In this survey, the existing old facilities will be replaced by three one-shaft combined cycle power generation plants of 107MW. Each of the three units comprises a 70MW-class gas turbine generator, steam turbine, generator, and a exhaust heat recovery boiler, and the three units will output 321MW in total. Upon adoption of the combined cycle design, high efficiency will be attained because stream produced by utilizing exhaust gas in the heat recovery steam generator is used for driving the steam turbine. There will be a reduction of 304,800 toe/year in fuel consumption, and a 712,089 t-CO2/year reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The result of calculation is that the plant modification will demand 224-million dollars. In view of the EIRR (economic internal rate of return) which is predicted to be 11% and of the exchange rate which is unstable, the possibility of the project to materialize as a commercial project is low. After surveying various local areas, it is concluded that most plants in Ukraine are obsolete and that the Symferopol thermal power plant should be modified or refurbished. (NEDO)

  15. Power Electronics Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Gilberto [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Thermal modeling was conducted to evaluate and develop thermal management strategies for high-temperature wide-bandgap (WBG)-based power electronics systems. WBG device temperatures of 175 degrees C to 250 degrees C were modeled under various under-hood temperature environments. Modeling result were used to identify the most effective capacitor cooling strategies under high device temperature conditions.

  16. Development of new NSSS thermal-hydraulic model for Korean standard nuclear power plant(UCN-3/4) simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Doo; Jeong, Jae Jun

    2001-09-01

    The NSSS thermal-hydraulic programs installed in the domestic full-scope power plant simulators were provided in early 1980s by foreign vendors. Because of limited computational capability at that time, they usually adopt very simplified physical models for a real-time simulation of NSSS thermal-hydraulic phenomena, which entails inaccurate results and the possibility of so-called 'negative training', especially for complicated two-phase flows in the reactor coolant system. To resolve the problem, we developed a realistic NSSS T/H program (named 'ARTS-UCN' code) for the improvement of the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant full-scope simulator. ARTS Code, developed as an NSSS T/H model for the KNPEC no. 2 simulator using the RETRAN03 code, was selected as a reference code for ARTS-UCN code development. For the development of ARTS, the followings have been performed: - Improvement of the robustness of RETRAN - Improvement of the real-time simulation capability of RETRAN - Optimum input data generation for the NSSS simulation - New model development that cannot be efficiently modeled by RETRAN - Assessment of the ARTS code. The systematic assessment of ARTS has been conducted in both personal computers (Windows 98, Visual fortran) and the simulator development environment (Windows NT, GSE simulator development tool). The results were resonable in terms of accuracy, real-time simulation and robustness

  17. Hydrodynamics and mass transfer deaeration of water on thermal power plants when used natural gas as a desorbing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, V. I.; Kudryavtseva, E. V.

    2017-11-01

    The technology of low-temperature deaeration of water in thermal power plants was developed. It is proposed to use natural gas supplied to the furnace as desorbing agent in the deaerator instead steam or superheated water. Natural gas has low, often - negative temperature after reducing installs. At the same time, it contains virtually no corrosive gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide, thereby successfully may be used as a stripping agent in water deaeration. The calculation of the energy efficiency of the technology for a typical unit of CHP has shown that achieved a significant annual saving of fuel equivalent in the transition from the traditional method of deaeration of water in the low temperature deaeration. Hydrodynamic and mass transfer indicators were determined for the deaerator thermal power plants using as stripping medium natural gas supplied to the boiler burners. Theoretically required amount and the real specific consumption of natural gas were estimated for deaeration of water standard quality. The calculation of the hydrodynamic characteristics was presented for jet-bubbling atmospheric deaerator with undescended perforated plate when operating on natural gas. The calculation shows the possibility of using commercially available atmospheric deaerators for the application of the new low-temperature water deaeration technology.

  18. A PERFORMANCE MODELING AND DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR A FEED WATER UNIT OF A THERMAL POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The present paper discusses the performance modeling and decision support system for a feed water unit of a thermal power plant using the concept of performance analysis and modeling. A feed water unit ensures a proper supply of water for the sound functioning of a thermal power plant. The decision support system for a feed water unit has been developed with the help of performance modeling using a probabilistic approach. After drawing a transition diagram, differential equations are generated. After that, steady state probabilities are determined. Some decision matrices are also developed, which provide various performance levels for different combinations of failure and repair rates of all subsystems. Based upon various availability values obtained in decision matrices and plots of failure rates / repair rates of various subsystems, the performance of each subsystem is analyzed, and maintenance decisions are made for all subsystems.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Vertoningsanalise en –modellering word gedoen vir die toevoerwatersisteem van ‘n termiese kragstasie. Toevoerwater is ‘n belangrike factor vir die doeltreffende bedryf van ‘n kragstasie. Die vertoningsanalise en –model is probalisties van aard. ‘n Toestandoorgangsdiagram en bypassende differensiaalvergelykings word gebruik, gevolg deur bepaling van die bestandige sisteemtoestand. Bykomende aandag word gegee aan relevante subsisteme. Die vertoning van subsisteme word gebasseer op verskeie beskikbaarheidswaardes om sodoende instandhouding to optimiseer.

  19. Combined method for reducing emission of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.; Grachev, S.P.

    1991-11-01

    Discusses the method developed by the Fossil Energy Research Corp. in the USA for combined desulfurization and denitrification of flue gases from coal-fired power plants. The method combines two methods tested on a commercial scale: the dry additive method for suppression of sulfur dioxide and the selective noncatalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides using urea (the NOXOUT process). The following aspects of joint flue gas desulfurization and denitrification are analyzed: flowsheets of the system, chemical reactions and reaction products, laboratory tests of the method and its efficiency, temperature effects on desulfurization and denitrification of flue gases, effects of reagent consumption rates, operating cost, efficiency of the combined method compared to other conventional methods of separate flue gas desulfurization and denitrification, economic aspects of flue gas denitrification and desulfurization. 4 refs.

  20. A standard description and costing methodology for the balance-of-plant items of a solar thermal electric power plant. Report of a multi-institutional working group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Standard descriptions for solar thermal power plants are established and uniform costing methodologies for nondevelopmental balance of plant (BOP) items are developed. The descriptions and methodologies developed are applicable to the major systems. These systems include the central receiver, parabolic dish, parabolic trough, hemispherical bowl, and solar pond. The standard plant is defined in terms of four categories comprising (1) solar energy collection, (2) power conversion, (3) energy storage, and (4) balance of plant. Each of these categories is described in terms of the type and function of components and/or subsystems within the category. A detailed description is given for the BOP category. BOP contains a number of nondevelopmental items that are common to all solar thermal systems. A standard methodology for determining the costs of these nondevelopmental BOP items is given. The methodology is presented in the form of cost equations involving cost factors such as unit costs. A set of baseline values for the normalized cost factors is also given.

  1. Multi-objective stochastic distribution feeder reconfiguration problem considering hydrogen and thermal energy production by fuel cell power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niknam, Taher; Kavousi Fard, Abdollah; Baziar, Aliasghar

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the operation and management of electrical energy, hydrogen production and thermal load supplement by the Fuel Cell Power Plants (FCPP) in the distribution systems with regard to the uncertainties which exist in the load demand as well as the price of buying natural gas for FCPPs, fuel cost for residential loads, tariff for purchasing electricity, tariff for selling electricity, hydrogen selling price, operation and maintenance cost and the price of purchasing power from the grid. Therefore, a new modified multi-objective optimization algorithm called Teacher-Learning Algorithm (TLA) is proposed to integrate the optimal operation management of Proton Exchange Membrane FCPPs (PEM-FCPPs) and the optimal configuration of the system through an economic model of the PEM-FCPP. In order to improve the total ability of TLA for global search and exploration, a new modification process is suggested such that the algorithm will search the total search space globally. Also, regarding the uncertainties of the new complicated power systems, in this paper for the first time, the DFR problem is investigated in a stochastic environment by the use of probabilistic load flow technique based on Point Estimate Method (PEM). In order to see the feasibility and the superiority of the proposed method, a standard test system is investigated as the case study. The simulation results are investigated in four different scenarios to show the effect of hydrogen production and thermal recovery more evidently. -- Highlights: ► Present an economical and thermal modeling of PEM-FCPPs. ► Present an approach for optimal operation of PEM-FCPPs in a stochastic environment. ► Consider benefits of thermal recovery and Hydrogen production for PEM-FCPPs. ► Present several scenarios for management of PEM-FCPPs.

  2. Comparative analysis of possibilities for raising the efficiency in thermal power plant by utilisation of waste heat energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijakovski Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to use flue gases waste heat for increasing the efficiency of thermal power plant (TPP explained in this work refers to lignite fired TPP-Bitola in Macedonia (3x233 MW installed electric capacity. Possibility to utilize low-temperature heat energy at the plant’s cold end is also considered in the analysis. Specific fuel consumption is used as an analysis and comparison parameter. Its reduction, compared to the basic power unit ranges between 0.4% and 3.4%. An analysis presenting economic feasibility of the low-temperature heat energy utilization concept for two different refrigerants used in the heat pump is also presented.

  3. Nuclear power plant accident simulations of gasket materials under simultaneous radiation plus thermal plus mechanical stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, K.T.; Malone, G.M.

    1997-07-01

    In order to probe the response of silicone door gasket materials to a postulated severe accident in an Italian nuclear power plant, compression stress relaxation (CSR) and compression set (CS) measurements were conducted under combined radiation (approximately 6 kGy/h) and temperature (up to 230 degrees C) conditions. By making some reasonable initial assumptions, simplified constant temperature and dose rates were derived that should do a reasonable job of simulating the complex environments for worst-case severe events that combine overall aging plus accidents. Further simplification coupled with thermal-only experiments allowed us to derive thermal-only conditions that can be used to achieve CSR and CS responses similar to those expected from the combined environments that are more difficult to simulate. Although the thermal-only simulations should lead to sealing forces similar to those expected during a severe accident, modulus and density results indicate that significant differences in underlying chemistry are expected for the thermal-only and the combined environment simulations. 15 refs., 31 figs., 15 tabs

  4. Methodology for calculation of carbon emission and energy generation efficiency by fossil coal thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licks, Leticia A.; Pires, Marcal

    2008-01-01

    This work intends to evaluate the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emitted by the burning of fossil coal in Brazil. So, a detailed methodology is proposed for calculation of CO 2 emissions from the carbon emission coefficients specific for the Brazilian carbons. Also, the using of secondary fuels (fuel oil and diesel oil) were considered and the power generation for the calculation of emissions and efficiencies of each power plant as well. The obtained results indicate carbon emissions for the year 2002 approximately of the order of 1,794 Gg, with 20% less than the obtained by the official methodology (MCT). Such differences are related to the non consideration of the humidity containment of the coals as well as the using of generic coefficients not adapted to the Brazilian coals. The obtained results indicate the necessity to review the emission inventories and the modernization of the burning systems aiming the increase the efficiency and reduction of the CO 2 and other pollutants, as an alternative for maintaining the sustainable form of using the fossil coal in the country

  5. Enrichment of naturally occurring radionuclides and trace elements in Yatagan and Yenikoy coal-fired thermal power plants, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, Banu; Guler, Erkan; Vaasma, Taavi; Horvath, Maria; Kiisk, Madis; Kovacs, Tibor

    2018-08-01

    Coal, residues and waste produced by the combustion of the coal contain naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 232 Th and 40 K and trace elements such as Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni and Zn. In this work, coal and its combustion residues collected from Yatagan and Yenikoy coal fired thermal power plants (CPPs) in Turkey were studied to determine the concentrations of natural radionuclides and trace elements, and their enrichments factors to better understand the radionuclide concentration processes within the combustion system. In addition, the utilization of coal fly ash as a secondary raw material in building industry was also studied in terms of radiological aspects. Fly ash samples were taken at different stages along the emission control system of the thermal power plants. Activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides were determined with Canberra Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detector BE3830-P and ORTEC Soloist PIPS type semiconductor detector. The particle size distribution and trace elements contents were determined in various ash fractions by the laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer and inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). From the obtained data, natural radionuclides tend to condense on fly ash with and the activity concentrations increase as the temperature drop in CPPs. Measured 210 Pb and 210 Po concentration varied between 186 ± 20-1153 ± 44 Bq kg -1 , and 56 ± 5-1174 ± 45 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The highest 210 Pb and 210 Po activity concentrations were determined in fly ash taken from the temporary storage point as 1153 ± 44 Bq kg -1 and 1174 ± 45 Bq kg -1 , respectively. There were significant differences in the activity concentrations of some natural radionuclide and trace elements (Pb and Zn) contents in ash fractions among the sampling point inside both of the plants (ANOVA, p ash sample analysis showed an increase activity concentration and enrichment factors towards the

  6. Characterization of coal blends for effective utilization in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh Raaj, S.; Arumugam, S.; Muthukrishnan, M.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Anantharaman, N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This work will assist utilities to decide on the choice of coals for blending. • Conventional and advanced analytical techniques were used for characterization. • Fuel ratio, burnout profile, ash chemistry and carbon burnout are key factors. • Basic properties were additive while carbon burnout was non additive for the blends. - Abstract: This paper deals with the characterization of coal blends using various conventional and advanced analytical techniques. There has been an increasing trend in utilizing imported coals for power generation in India and utilities are resorting to blended coal firing for various reasons, both financially as well as technically. Characterization studies were carried out on 2 combinations of Indian and imported coal blends. Conventional characterization such as proximate and ultimate analysis and determination of calorific value were carried out for the raw coals and blends as per ASTM standards. Following this thermal and mineral analysis of the samples were carried out using thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA), X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) and computer controlled scanning electron microscope (CCSEM). Combustion experiments were also conducted using drop tube furnace (DTF) to determine the burnout of the raw coals and blends. The selection of technically suitable coal combination for blending, based on these characterization studies, has been detailed.

  7. Weld-forged rotors of the turbines for nuclear and thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudkovskij, A.F.; German, S.I.

    1979-01-01

    Considered is a principally new technology and equipment for assembling and welding superheavy rotors with mass up to 200 tons. Construction peculiarities and advantages of the application of weld-forged rotors are noted. The technology proposed permits to provide for a horizontal assembling, subsequent welding and quality control of rotors, one bench being used instead of three ones. The application of horizontal assembling and complex welding of rotors in one position permits not only to shorten the cycle of assembling and welding, too decrease the equipment costs and release production capacities, but also to improve substantially the quality of welds and especially the accuracy of rotor production. The equipment allows one to assemble and weld rotors with the mass up to 250 tons at maximum rotor diameter up to 2500 mm and length up to 13000 mm. Presented are data characterizing chemical composition and mechanical properties of steels used for forging of welded rotors. Also given are the results of studying mechanical properties of welded joints, welding and thermal treatment of which were made in accordance with the technology proposed. Serial production of rotors for turbines with the power of 500, 1000 and 1200 Mw is shown to be mastered along with the manufacture of welded rotors for cylinders of low, medium and high pressure turbines

  8. Applications of Fuzzy adaptive PID control in the thermal power plant denitration liquid ammonia evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the control of the liquid level of liquid ammonia in thermal power plant’s ammonia vaporization room, traditional PID controller parameter tuning is difficult to adapt to complex control systems, the setting of the traditional PID controller parameters is difficult to adapt to the complex control system. For the disadvantage of bad parameter setting, poor performance and so on the fuzzy adaptive PID control is proposed. Fuzzy adaptive PID control combines the advantages of traditional PID technology and fuzzy control. By using the fuzzy controller to intelligent control the object, the performance of the PID controller is further improved, and the control precision of the system is improved[1]. The simulation results show that the fuzzy adaptive PID controller not only has the advantages of high accuracy of PID controller, but also has the characteristics of fast and strong adaptability of fuzzy controller. It realizes the optimization of PID parameters which are in the optimal state, and the maximum increase production efficiency, so that are more suitable for nonlinear dynamic system.

  9. Cooling water recipients for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, F.-E.; Saetre, H.J.

    1971-10-01

    The hydrographical and hydrological conditions at 17 prospective nuclear power plant sites in the Oslofjord district are evaluated with respect to their suitability as recipients for thermal discharges from nuclear power plants. No comparative evaluations are made. (JIW)

  10. Effect of the foodchain in radioactivities released from thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, K.

    1980-01-01

    Among many radionuclides released when burning fossil fuel 210 Pb and 210 Po are especially important, because they are very volatile, are released at higher rates than others, and are concentrated very strongly in marine organisms. This is particularly important in Japan, because most power plants in Japan are built near the seacoast and seawater contamination is likely. 210 Pb and 210 Po could also contaminate leafy vegetables by fallout. Since Japanese consume large amounts of seafoods and vegetables, this foodchain is important. The dose due to this foodchain is estimated. Although uncertainties are large and a definite conclusion cannot be drawn, the dose is one to three orders of magnitude higher when considering this foodchain than when not considering it. The average individual dose of Japanese due to this foodchain is of the order of several mrem/y. Although much smaller than the natural background, it is comparable to the dose of the total fuel cycle of full scale nuclear electricity generation, and so its social implication cannot be overlooked. (H.K.)

  11. Simulations of thermal-hydraulic processes in heat exchangers- station of the cogeneration power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studovic, M.; Stevanovic, V.; Ilic, M.; Nedeljkovic, S. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Belgrade (Croatia)

    1995-12-31

    Design of the long district heating system to Belgrade (base load 580 MJ/s) from Thermal Power Station `Nikola Tesla A`, 30 km southwest from the present gas/oil burning boilers in New Belgrade, is being conducted. The mathematical model and computer code named TRP are developed for the prediction of the design basis parameters of heat exchangers station, as well as for selection of protection devices and formulation of operating procedures. Numerical simulations of heat exchangers station are performed for various transient conditions: up-set and abnormal. Physical model of multi-pass, shell and tube heat exchanger in the station represented is by unique steam volume, and with space discretised nodes both for water volume and tube walls. Heat transfer regimes on steam and water side, as well as hydraulic calculation were performed in accordance with TEMA standards for transient conditions on both sides, and for each node on water side. Mathematical model is based on balance equations: mass and energy for lumped parameters on steam side, and energy balances for tube walls and water in each node. Water mass balance is taken as boundary/initial condition or as specified control function. The physical model is proposed for (s) heat exchangers in the station and (n) water and wall volumes. Therefore, the mathematical model consists of 2ns+2, non-linear differential equations, including equations of state for water, steam and tube material, and constitutive equations for heat transfer on steam and water side, solved by the Runge-Kutt method. Five scenarios of heat exchangers station behavior have been simulated with the TRP code and obtained results are presented. (author)

  12. Analysis of environmental effect of hybrid solar-assisted desalination cycle in Sirdarya Thermal Power Plant, Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikulov, Khusniddin; Xuan, Tran Dang; Higashi, Osamu; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Aminov, Zarif

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid solar-assisted desalination cycle was designed and stimulated. • Maximum of 21,064.00 kW effective solar heat can be achieved. • The use of parabolic-trough collectors in the Multi Effect Distillation is potential. • The cycle can be applied in other regions with high Direct Normal Irradiation. - Abstract: This study was to investigate possible reduction of fossil fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emission in one of energy sectors of Sirdarya Thermal Power Plant (TPP), Uzbekistan. A hybrid solar-assisted desalination cycle has been designed and simulated for partially supplying saturated steam with 200 °C, 8 bar, and 32 t/h parameters to a Multi Effect Distillation (MED) process in the Sirdarya Thermal Power Plant. The outcome of the parental design model stated that maximum, 21,064.00 kW effective solar heat can be achieved, which is equivalent to 31.76 t/h of saturated steam with 200 °C and 8 bar parameters. Total saved fossil fuel in each month proved that it is possible to reduce fossil fuel (heavy oil and natural gas) consumption with 59.64, 95.24, 389.96, and 298.26 tons during available Direct Normal Irradiation (DNI) by using parabolic-trough collectors. Moreover, the above-mentioned fossil fuel savings accounted for CO_2 reduction with amounts of 182.50, 255.46, 1045.87 & 799.96 tons per each consistent month. Findings proved that integration of parabolic-trough collectors into the MED process is feasible in terms of high DNI availability and demand for retrofitting old existing heat-consuming facilities in Sirdarya Thermal Power Plant. Besides, the cycle also can be applied in other regions of Uzbekistan with high DNI for generating solar heat. Therefore, conducted study is eligible to be applied on the research site by taking into account of sufficient meteorological data and required steam parameters.

  13. Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is located in Zarechny, approximately 60 km east of Ekaterinberg along the Trans-Siberian Highway. Zarechny, a small city of approximately 30,000 residents, was built to support BNPP operations. It is a closed city to unescorted visitors. Residents must show identification for entry. BNPP is one of the first and oldest commercial nuclear power plants in Russia and began operations in 1964. As for most nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, BNPP is operated by Rosenergoatom, which is subordinated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom). BNPP is the site of three nuclear reactors, Units 1, 2, and 3. Units 1 and 2, which have been shut-down and defueled, were graphite moderated reactors. The units were shut-down in 1981 and 1989. Unit 3, a BN-600 reactor, is a 600 MW(electric) sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. Unit 3 went on-line in April 1980 and produces electric power which is fed into a distribution grid and thermal power which provides heat to Zarechny. The paper also discusses the SF NIKIET, the Sverdiovsk Branch of NIKIET, Moscow, which is the research and development branch of the parent NIKEIT and is primarily a design institute responsible for reactor design. Central to its operations is a 15 megawatt IVV research reactor. The paper discusses general security and fissile material control and accountability at these two facilities

  14. Environmental effects of thermal and radioactive discharges from nuclear power plants in the boreal brackish-water conditions of the northern Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Ilus, Erkki

    2009-01-01

    During recent decades, thermal and radioactive discharges from nuclear power plants into the aquatic environment have become the subject of lively debate as an ecological concern. The target of this thesis was to summarize the large quantity of results obtained in extensive monitoring programmes and studies carried out in recipient sea areas off the Finnish nuclear power plants at Loviisa and Olkiluoto during more than four decades. The Loviisa NPP is located on the coast of the Gulf of Finla...

  15. A Novel, Safe, and Environmentally Friendly Technology for Water Production Through Recovery of Rejected Thermal Energy From Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Yehia F.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we describe a novel design that utilizes seawater and a portion of rejected heat from a nuclear plant's steam cycle to operate a water desalination system using forward osmosis technology. Water produced from this process is of sufficient quality to be readily used to supply plant demands for continuous makeup water. The proposed process minimizes the environmental concerns associated with thermal pollution of public waters and the resulting adverse impact on marine ecology. To demonstrate the technical feasibility of this conceptual design of a water treatment process, we discuss a case study as an example to describe how the proposed design can be implemented in a nuclear power station with a once--through cooling system that discharges rejected heat to an open sound seawater as its ultimate heat sink. In this case study, the station uses a leased (vendor owned and operated) onsite water treatment system that demineralizes and polishes up to 500-gpm of city water (at 100 ppm TDS) to supply high-quality makeup water (< 0.01 ppm TDS) to the plant steam system. The objectives of implementing the new design are three fold: 1) forego current practice of using city water as the source of plant makeup water, thereby reducing the nuclear station's impact on the region's potable water supply by roughly 100 million gallons/year, 2) minimize the adverse impact of discharging rejected heat into the open sound seawater and, hence, protect the marine ecology, and 3) eliminate the reliance on external vendor that owns and operates the onsite water treatment system, thereby saving an annual fixed cost of $600 K plus 6 cents per 1,000 gallons of pure water. The design will also eliminate the need for using two double-path reverse osmosis (RO) units that consume 425 kW/h of electric power to operate two RO pumps (480 V, 281.6 HP, and 317.4 amps). (authors)

  16. Accident prevention in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyrer, H.

    Large thermal power plants are insured to a great extent at the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institute of Instrument and Electric Engineering. Approximately 4800 employees are registered. The accident frequency according to an evaluation over 12 months lies around 79.8 per year and 1000 employees in fossil-fired power plants, around 34.1 per year and 1000 employees in nuclear power plants, as in nuclear power plants coal handling and ash removal are excluded. Injuries due to radiation were not registered. The crucial points of accidents are mechanical injuries received on solid, sharp-edged and pointed objects (fossil-fired power plants 28.6%, nuclear power plants 41.5%), stumbling, twisting or slipping (fossil-fired power plants 21.8%, nuclear power plants 19.5%) and injuries due to moving machine parts (only nuclear power plants 12.2%). However, accidents due to burns or scalds obtain with 4.2% and less a lower portion than expected. The accident statistics can explain this fact in a way that the typical power plant accident does not exist. (orig./GL) [de

  17. A method for site-dependent planning and its application to the preselection of sites for thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.

    1979-01-01

    In the first part of the paper a computer-aided method for dealing with the problems of site-dependent planning is described. By means of the modular program system COPLAN complex conjunction between locally varying data can be performed rapidly and accurately with respect to spatial orientation. The system consists of data input, numerous ways of processing, and graphical representation of the results. The second part shows the application of the system to preselection of sites for thermal power plants. By means of a method analyzing its usefulness, the suitability of each point in (the German Federal State of) Baden-Wuerttemberg as a power plant site is determined. Compared with the currently used methods of preliminary site selection the present method is distinguished by area-covering calculation, the possibility of balancing up advantages and disadvantages, as well as transparency and suitability for being checked up. The paper establishes and considers criteria from the fields of operational economy, safety, ecology, and district planning. The computations are performed for different orders of preference. It is shown that there are regions of sites which are acceptable with respect to a large spectrum of object systems. (orig.) [de

  18. Norway spruce needles as bioindicator of air pollution in the area of influence of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant, Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Sayegh Petkovsek, Samar [ERICo Velenje, Ecological Research and Industrial Cooperation Institute, Koroska 58, 3320 Velenje (Slovenia)], E-mail: samar.petkovsek@erico.si; Batic, Franc [Agronomy Department, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ribaric Lasnik, Cvetka [Institute of Environment and Spatial Planning, Ipavceva 18, 3000 Celje (Slovenia)

    2008-01-15

    This paper reports the results of total sulphur content, photosynthetic pigments, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and {alpha}-tocopherol (vitamin E) analysed in current-year needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in the area influenced by sulphur emissions from the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (STPP), Slovenia, in the period 1991-2004. Ten differently polluted sampling sites in the emission area of STPP were selected. After desulphurization of emission gases from STPP total sulphur content in needles decreased and vitality parameters of needles increased. Moreover, a strong correlation between the average annual emissions of SO{sub 2} from STPP and average annual sulphur content (increase) or average annual chlorophyll content (decrease) in current-year needles was found. The results showed that spruce needles may be an useful bioindicator for detecting changes in the emission rates of SO{sub 2}. - Total sulphur content in needles is a well proved indicator of sulphur burden in the environment.

  19. Norway spruce needles as bioindicator of air pollution in the area of influence of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant, Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samar Al Sayegh Petkovsek; Franc Batic; Cvetka Ribaric Lasnik [ERICo Velenje, Velenje (Slovenia). Ecological Research and Industrial Cooperation Institute

    2008-01-15

    This paper reports the results of total sulphur content, photosynthetic pigments, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and {alpha}-tocopherol (vitamin E) analysed in current-year needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in the area influenced by sulphur emissions from the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (STPP), Slovenia, in the period 1991-2004. Ten differently polluted sampling sites in the emission area of STPP were selected. After desulphurization of emission gases from STPP total sulphur content in needles decreased and vitality parameters of needles increased. Moreover, a strong correlation between the average annual emissions of SO{sub 2} from STPP and average annual sulphur content (increase) or average annual chlorophyll content (decrease) in current-year needles was found. The results showed that spruce needles may be an useful bioindicator for detecting changes in the emission rates of SO{sub 2}.

  20. Testing of ground fault relay response during the energisation of megawatt range electric boilers in thermal power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth; Davidsen, Troels

    2015-01-01

    , with the advantage that the warmed water can be reused in a thermal power plant or at regional heating, thus, minimising the overall losses. However, one problem was raised by those purchasing the boilers, mainly the possibility of an unwanted triggering of the protections relays, especially ground fault protection...... for the testing of two ground fault protection relays, in order to assure that they are not triggered by the energisation of the boiler. The test is performed via an OMICRON CMC 256 with Advanced TransPlay SW, which generates the signals that would be present at the secondary of the instrumentation transformers......, during the energisation of a boiler. A special case for concern was the presence of an electric arc between the electrodes of the boiler and the water in the boiler during approximately 2s at the energisation, which can in theory be seen as a ground fault by the relay. The voltage and current transient...

  1. Hygienic assessment of asbestos containing dust in the air of the working zone at thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshkovskiy V.E.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos and artificial mineral fibers were used actively at thermal power plants (TPP as heat insulation of pipes, seal plates, electrical insulation, etc. But content of asbestos fibers in the air of working zone at TPP was not registered to date. Therefore, aim of the work was to assess asbestos containing dust in the air of working zone at steam turbine and gas turbine TPP in the east region of the country. It was found that old insulation at TPP is mixture of asbestoses that contains chrysotile asbestos and traces of amphibole asbestoses – crocidolite and anthophyllite. In the majority of investigated workplaces at the steam turbine TPP significant dust generation with exceed of maximum one-time exposure limits (2 mg/m3 was observed. Concentration of respirable fibers in the air of working zone in all workplaces did not exceed actual hygienic standard (1 fiber/cm3.

  2. Chemical characterization of bottom ashes generated during combustion of a Colombian mineral coal in a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, H.S.; Nogueira, R.E.F.Q.; Lobo, C.J.S.; Nobre, A.I.S.; Sales, J.C.; Silva, C.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Bottom ashes generated during combustion of a mineral coal from Colombia were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The interest in this particular coal is due to the fact that it will be used by a thermal power plant in Ceara, Northeastern Brazil, where it could produce over 900 tons of different residues/combustion products every day. Results from Xray fluorescence allowed identification and quantification of elements present in the sample: silicon (59,17%), aluminum (13,17%), iron (10,74%), potassium (6,11%), titanium (2,91%), calcium (4,97%), sulphur (0,84%) and others (2,09%). The X-ray diffraction revealed patterns from silica, mullite, calcium sulphate and hydrated sodium. Results obtained so far indicate that the material is a potential raw-material for use in the formulation of ceramic components (author)

  3. Theoretical assessment of evaporation rate of isolated water drop under the conditions of cooling tower of thermal power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevelev Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is numerical modelling of heat and mass transfer at evaporation of water drops under the conditions which are typical for a modern chimney-type cooling tower of a thermal power plant. The dual task of heat and mass transfer with movable boundary at convective cooling and evaporation for a ‘drop–humid air’ system in a spherical coordinate system has been solved. It has been shown that there is a rapid decline of water evaporation rate at the initial stage of the process according to temperature decrease of its surface. It has been stated that the effect of evaporation rate decrease appears greatly in the area of small radiuses.

  4. Evolution of coal ash solidification properties with disposal site depth and age, 'Gacko' Thermal power plant case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Dinko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ash with high calcium content is produced by coal combusting in 'Gacko' thermal power plant (Bosnia and Herzegovina. Result of controlled mixture of water and ash is spontaneous ash solidification on disposal site. Speed and solidification efficiency depends on content of calcium-oxide in ash and water: ash mass ratio, which was determined by previous research. Mass ratio that was chosen as the most suitable ratio for industrial usage (roughly was 1:1. Samples of ash of different age were taken after 6.5 years of exploitation and their chemical, physical, mineralogical and geotechnical characteristics were analyzed. Disposed ash was stratified and very heterogeneous. It was shown that great impact on solidification process in practice have climate conditions, proper handling slurry processing, work continuity and disposal site preparation. Great impact of water is noticed which is, because of its water permeability filtrated into lower layers and significantly alters it characteristic.

  5. Failure investigation of a secondary super heater tube in a 140 MW thermal power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanu Saha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the findings of a detailed investigation into the failure of a secondary super heater tube in a 140 MW thermal power plant. Preliminary macroscopic examinations along with visual examination, dimensional measurement and chemical analysis were carried out to deduce the probable cause of failure. In addition optical microscopy was a necessary supplement to understand the cause of failure. It was concluded that the tube had failed due to severe creep damage caused by high metal temperature during service. The probable causes of high metal temperature may be in sufficient flow of steam due to partial blockage, presence of thick oxide scale on ID surface, high flue gas temperature etc. rupture.

  6. Water Chemistry and Chemistry Monitoring at Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants: Problems and Tasks (Based on Proceedings of Conferences)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, B. M.

    2018-02-01

    In late May-early June 2017, two international science and technology conferences on problems of water chemistry and chemistry monitoring at thermal and nuclear power plants were held. The participants of both the first conference held at OAO VTI and the second conference that took place at NITI formulated the problems of the development of the regulatory base and implementation of promising water treatment technologies and outlined the ways of improving the water chemistry and chemistry monitoring at TPPs and NPPs for the near future. It was pointed out that the new amine-containing VTIAMIN agent developed by OAO VTI had been successfully tested on the power-generating units equipped with steam-gas plants to establish the minimum excess of the film-forming amine in the power-generating unit circuit that ensures the protection of the metal as 5-10 μg/dm3. A flow-injection technique for the analysis of trace concentrations of chlorides was proposed; the technique applied to the condensate of the 1000-MW steam turbine of the NPP power-generating unit yields the results comparable with the results obtained by the ion chromatography and the potentiometric method using the solver electrode. The participants of the conferences were demonstrated new Russian instruments to analyze the water media at the TPPs and NPPs, including the total organic carbon analyzer and the analyzer of mineral impurities in the condensate and feed water, that won a gold medal at the 45th International Exhibition of Inventions held in Geneva this April.

  7. Solarthermische Kraftwerksentwicklung (STKE) - development of solar thermal power plants. Technical aspects. Final report; Solarthermische Kraftwerksentwicklung (STKE). Technischer Teil. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz-Paal, R.

    2000-01-01

    This project started on 1 January 1996 with DM 3.7 million funds from the BMFT. Originally scheduled for three years, it was extended by a further 11 months for various reasons. Its intention was to reduce the cost of future solar thermal power plants. Particular emphasis was given to the parabolic trough technology asit is closest to commercialisation. Three strategies were involved: 1. Further development and qualification of components for the parabolic trough collector (WG PAREX); 2. Development of instruments for measuring radiation flux distribution in parabolic trough collectors (WG PARMESAN); 3. Development, verification and application of software tools for analysing the complex dynamic response of solar thermal power plants (WG SISTA). [German] Das hier dargestellte Projekt begann am 1.1.1996 und wurde vom Bundesministerium fuer Forschung und Technologie (BMFT) mit etwa 3,7 Mio. DM gefoerdert. Es hatte eine geplante Laufzeit von drei Jahren, wurde aber aufgrund von unterschiedlichen Verzoegerungen (Mitarbeiterwechsel, Defekte an Versuchsanlagen) kostenneutral um 11 Monate verlaengert. Gesamtziel des Projekts war es, zur Kostensenkung bei zukuenftigen solarthermischen Kraftwerken beizutragen. Dabei stand insbesondere die Parabolrinnentechnik im Vordergrund, da sie im Vergleich zu anderen solarthermischen Technologien einer weiteren kommerziellen Vermarktung derzeit am naechsten steht. Es wurden drei Schwerpunkte verfolgt: 1. Die Weiterentwicklung und Qualifizierung von Komponenten fuer den Parabolrinnenkollektor (Arbeitspaket 'Parabolrinnenexperimente', kurz PAREX) 2. Die Entwicklung von Messtechnik zur Bestimmung von Strahlungsflussverteilung bei Parabolrinnenkollektoren (AP 'Parabolrinnen-Messanlage', kurz PARMESAN) 3. Die Erstellung, Verifikation und Anwendung von Softwarewerkzeugen zur Analyse des komplexen dynamischen Verhaltens von solarthermischen Kraftwerken (AP 'Simulation solarthermischer Anlagen', kurz SISTA) (orig.)

  8. Efficient cycles for carbon capture CLC power plants based on thermally balanced redox reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Iloeje, Chukwunwike; Zhao, Zhenlong; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2015-01-01

    undergoing oxidation and reduction. An earlier study showed that this thermal coupling between the oxidation and reduction reactors increases the efficiency by up to 2% points when implemented in a regenerative Brayton cycle. The present study extends

  9. Dangers of bypassing thermal overload relays in nuclear power plant motor operated valve circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, F.D.

    1980-01-01

    Operation of motor operated valves is analyzed under various abnormal conditions such as frozen bearing, tight packing, mid-travel obstruction, torque switch failure, limit switch failure, and post-accident operation. Each condition has been reviewed to show that an adverse situation results if the thermal overload relays in the circuit are bypassed. In conclusion, there appears to be no technical basis for bypassing or oversizing the thermal overload relay provided it is selected correctly

  10. Severe measures for the reduction of the SO2 emissions, applicable to the thermal power plants in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, Ovidiu

    2006-01-01

    The accession of Romania to EU imposes the observance of the environment community regulations and the international conventions to which Romania is a party, as well. The legislative framework was adapted to the of the community regulations by conditioning the operation of the Large Burning Units, LBU, (of thermal power larger than 50 MW) that belong to the thermal power plants. The control of the LBU operation is not limited to the technological problems but goes further to issues related to the protection of the environment where the severity of the measures adopted imposes equally the control of the Emission Limit Values, ELV. To reduce the pollutant emissions, Romania must observe the ELVs for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and aerosols for each of the existing LBU, and also to prepare a National Plant for the Reduction of the Pollutant Emissions within a transition period, thus ensuring a strict compliance with the EU regulations by January 1, 2008. The power plants for which the transition period was awarded are requested to prevent the pollution especially through the application of the best available techniques what assumes the implementation of some important investment programs. In order to have a clear image on what the observance of the community regulations mean in the domain of the sulfur dioxide emission from the LBU, a few self-evident figures are shown. The paper tackles the following issues: EU Accession Requirements; The efforts of the conforming; The best available techniques (BAT); Severe Measures for the Reduction of the Sulfur Emissions; Wet Desulfurization Procedures; Desulfurization dry/semidry procedures. Since the fuels used by the LBUs in Romania have much sulfur one concludes that they cannot be fired without the desulfurization of the flue gases. Even the mandatory utilization of the fuel oil with sulfur contents less than 1% starting by January 1, 2007 cannot solve the problem; it reduces to a certain extent the SO 2 emissions but

  11. Solar Thermal Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniels, David K.

    The different approaches to the generation of power from solar energy may be roughly divided into five categories: distributed collectors; central receivers; biomass; ocean thermal energy conversion; and photovoltaic devices. The first approach (distributed collectors) is the subject of this module. The material presented is designed to…

  12. Investigation of solar parabolic trough power plants with and without integrated TES (thermal energy storage) and FBS (fuel backup system) using thermic oil and solar salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukelia, T.E.; Mecibah, M.S.; Kumar, B.N.; Reddy, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic, economic and environmental analyses of concentrating solar power plants assist in identifying an effective and viable configuration. In this paper, a 4E (energy-exergy-environmental-economic) comparative study of 8 different configurations of parabolic trough solar thermal power plants with two different working fluids (Therminol VP-1 -oil and molten solar salt), with and without integrated thermal energy storage or/and backup fuel system is presented. The results of the comparative study indicate relevant differences among the 8 configurations. The molten solar salt configuration with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system exhibits the highest overall energy efficiency (18.48%) compared to other configurations. Whereas, the highest overall exergy efficiency (21.77%), capacity factor (38.20%) and annual energy generation (114 GWh) are found for the oil based configuration with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system. The results indicate that the configurations based on molten salt are better in terms of environmental and economical parameters. The configurations with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system are found to be techno-economical, but on the other hand are less environment friendly. A detailed comparison of these plants after optimization must be performed before drawing a final conclusion about the best configuration to be adopted in parabolic trough solar thermal power plant. - Highlights: • 4E comparative study of 8 configurations of PTSTPP with two different fluids. • Comparison of the configurations with and without integrated TES (thermal energy storage) and FBS (fuel backup system). • The overall energy efficiency of the salt plant with TES and FBS is the highest. • The overall exergy efficiency of the oil plant with TES and FBS is the highest. • The salt plants are the best configurations in terms of environ–eco parameters

  13. Significance of oceanographic field investigations for siting coastal thermal and nuclear power plants

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumar, V.; Swamy, G.N.; Sastry, J

    stream_size 7 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Irrig_Power_J_49_129.pdf.txt stream_source_info Irrig_Power_J_49_129.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  14. Economics of nuclear and thermal power plants in the transition to market relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernilin, Yu.F.

    1993-01-01

    In the economic conditions taking shape, the provision of electricity for the national economy of Russia, including in the short term (up to the years 2010-2015), depends in many ways on a weighted choice of strategy for the use of alternative means of electricity generation from the standpoint of fuel resources and electrical technology. When considering problems that need to be reassessed, the role of all alternative energy sources, including nuclear power, in the energy system of Russia must be determined, i.e., a strategy must be worked out for the development of the power industry. Information and data are presented on the present state of the electrical power industry in Russia including fossil and nuclear. Issues and policies associated with the transition to a market-driven economy as related to the nuclear power industry is examined. Specifically, a open-quotes Conception of a Power Policy for Russiaclose quotes is discussed

  15. Analysis of ambient SO2 concentrations and winds in the complex surrounding of a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlakar, P.

    2004-01-01

    SO 2 pollution is still a significant problem in Slovenia, especially around large thermal power plants (TPPs), like the one at Sostanj. The Sostanj TPP is the exclusive source of SO 2 in the area and is therefore a perfect example for air pollution studies. In order to understand air pollution around the Sostanj TPP in detail, some analyses of emissions and ambient concentrations of SO 2 at six automated monitoring stations in the surrounding of the TPP were made. The data base from 1991 to 1993 was used when there were no desulfurization plants in operations. Statistical analyses of the influence of the emissions from the three TPP stacks at different measuring points were made. The analyses prove that the smallest stack (100 m) mainly pollutes villages and towns near the TPP within a radius of a few kilometers. The medium stack's (150 m) influence is noticed at shorter as well as at longer distances up to more than ten kilometers. The highest stack (230 m) pollutes mainly at longer distances, where the plume reaches the higher hills. Detailed analyses of ambient SO 2 concentrations were made. They show the temporal and spatial distribution of different classes of SO 2 concentrations from very low to alarming values. These analyses show that pollution patterns at a particular station remain the same if observed on a yearly basis, but can vary very much if observed on a monthly basis, mainly because of different weather patterns. Therefore the winds in the basin (as the most important feature influencing air pollution dispersion) were further analysed in detail to find clusters of similar patterns. For cluster analysis of ground-level winds patterns in the basin around the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant, the Kohonen neural network and Leaders' method were used. Furthermore the dependence of ambient SO 2 concentrations on the clusters obtained was analysed. The results proved that effective cluster analysis can be a useful tool for compressing a huge wind data base in

  16. Analysis of ambient SO 2 concentrations and winds in the complex surroundings of a thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlakar, P.

    2004-11-01

    SO2 pollution is still a significant problem in Slovenia, especially around large thermal power plants (TPPs), like the one at Šoštanj. The Šoštanj TPP is the exclusive source of SO2 in the area and is therefore a perfect example for air pollution studies. In order to understand air pollution around the Šoštanj TPP in detail, some analyses of emissions and ambient concentrations of SO2 at six automated monitoring stations in the surroundings of the TPP were made. The data base from 1991 to 1993 was used when there were no desulfurisation plants in operation. Statistical analyses of the influence of the emissions from the three TPP stacks at different measuring points were made. The analyses prove that the smallest stack (100 m) mainly pollutes villages and towns near the TPP within a radius of a few kilometres. The medium stack's (150 m) influence is noticed at shorter as well as at longer distances up to more than ten kilometres. The highest stack (230 m) pollutes mainly at longer distances, where the plume reaches the higher hills. Detailed analyses of ambient SO2 concentrations were made. They show the temporal and spatial distribution of different classes of SO2 concentrations from very low to alarming values. These analyses show that pollution patterns at a particular station remain the same if observed on a yearly basis, but can vary very much if observed on a monthly basis, mainly because of different weather patterns. Therefore the winds in the basin (as the most important feature influencing air pollution dispersion) were further analysed in detail to find clusters of similar patterns. For cluster analysis of ground-level winds patterns in the basin around the Šoštanj Thermal Power Plant, the Kohonen neural network and Leaders' method were used. Furthermore, the dependence of ambient SO2 concentrations on the clusters obtained was analysed. The results proved that effective cluster analysis can be a useful tool for compressing a huge wind data base

  17. Efficient cycles for carbon capture CLC power plants based on thermally balanced redox reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Iloeje, Chukwunwike

    2015-10-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. The rotary reactor differs from most alternative chemical looping combustion (CLC) reactor designs because it maintains near-thermal equilibrium between the two stages of the redox process by thermally coupling channels undergoing oxidation and reduction. An earlier study showed that this thermal coupling between the oxidation and reduction reactors increases the efficiency by up to 2% points when implemented in a regenerative Brayton cycle. The present study extends this analysis to alternative CLC cycles with the objective of identifying optimal configurations and design tradeoffs. Results show that the increased efficiency from reactor thermal coupling applies only to cycles that are capable of exploiting the increased availability in the reduction reactor exhaust. Thus, in addition to the regenerative cycle, the combined CLC cycle and the combined-regenerative CLC cycle are suitable for integration with the rotary reactor. Parametric studies are used to compare the sensitivity of the different cycle efficiencies to parameters like pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, carrier-gas fraction and purge steam generation. One of the key conclusions from this analysis is that while the optimal efficiency for regenerative CLC cycle was the highest of the three (56% at 3. bars, 1200. °C), the combined-regenerative cycle offers a trade-off that combines a reasonably high efficiency (about 54% at 12. bars, 1200. °C) with much lower gas volumetric flow rate and consequently, smaller reactor size. Unlike the other two cycles, the optimal compressor pressure ratio for the regenerative cycle is weakly dependent on the design turbine inlet temperature. For the regenerative and combined regenerative cycles, steam production in the regenerator below 2× fuel flow rate improves exhaust recovery and consequently, the overall system efficiency. Also, given that the fuel side regenerator flow is unbalanced, it is more efficient to generate steam from the

  18. Thermal characteristics of spent activated carbon generated from air cleaning units in korean nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yang So

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To identify the feasibility of disposing of spent activated carbon as a clearance level waste, we performed characterization of radioactive pollution for spent activated carbon through radioisotope analysis; results showed that the C-14 concentrations of about half of the spent activated carbon samples taken from Korean NPPs exceeded the clearance level limit. In this situation, we selected thermal treatment technology to remove C-14 and analyzed the moisture content and thermal characteristics. The results of the moisture content analysis showed that the moisture content of the spent activated carbon is in the range of 1.2–23.9 wt% depending on the operation and storage conditions. The results of TGA indicated that most of the spent activated carbon lost weight in 3 temperature ranges. Through py-GC/MS analysis based on the result of TGA, we found that activated carbon loses weight rapidly with moisture desorption reaching to 100°C and desorbs various organic and inorganic carbon compounds reaching to 200°C. The result of pyrolysis analysis showed that the experiment of C-14 desorption using thermal treatment technology requires at least 3 steps of heat treatment, including a heat treatment at high temperature over 850°C, in order to reduce the C-14 concentration below the clearance level.

  19. Thermal characteristics of spent activated carbon generated from air cleaning units in Korean nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hang Rae; So, Ji Yang [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To identify the feasibility of disposing of spent activated carbon as a clearance level waste, we performed characterization of radioactive pollution for spent activated carbon through radioisotope analysis; results showed that the C-14 concentrations of about half of the spent activated carbon samples taken from Korean NPPs exceeded the clearance level limit. In this situation, we selected thermal treatment technology to remove C-14 and analyzed the moisture content and thermal characteristics. The results of the moisture content analysis showed that the moisture content of the spent activated carbon is in the range of 1.2–23.9 wt% depending on the operation and storage conditions. The results of TGA indicated that most of the spent activated carbon lost weight in 3 temperature ranges. Through py-GC/MS analysis based on the result of TGA, we found that activated carbon loses weight rapidly with moisture desorption reaching to 100°C and desorbs various organic and inorganic carbon compounds reaching to 200°C. The result of pyrolysis analysis showed that the experiment of C-14 desorption using thermal treatment technology requires at least 3 steps of heat treatment, including a heat treatment at high temperature over 850°C, in order to reduce the C-14 concentration below the clearance level.

  20. Global Thermal Power Plants Database: Unit-Based CO2, SO2, NOX and PM2.5 Emissions in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, D.; Qiang, Z.; Davis, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    There are more than 30,000 thermal power plants now operating worldwide, reflecting a tremendously diverse infrastructure that includes units burning oil, natural gas, coal and biomass and ranging in capacity from 1GW. Although the electricity generated by this infrastructure is vital to economic activities across the world, it also produces more CO2 and air pollution emissions than any other industry sector. Here we present a new database of global thermal power-generating units and their emissions as of 2010, GPED (Global Power Emissions Database), including the detailed unit information of installed capacity, operation year, geographic location, fuel type and control measures for more than 70000 units. In this study, we have compiled, combined, and harmonized the available underlying data related to thermal power-generating units (e.g. eGRID of USA, CPED of China and published Indian power plants database), and then analyzed the generating capacity, capacity factor, fuel type, age, location, and installed pollution-control technology in order to determine those units with disproportionately high levels of emissions. In total, this work is of great importance for improving spatial distribution of global thermal power plants emissions and exploring their environmental impacts at global scale.

  1. Thermocline thermal storage systems for concentrated solar power plants: One-dimensional numerical model and comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Pérez-Segarra, Carlos David

    2014-01-01

    Concentrated solar power plants have attracted increasing interest from researchers and governments all over the world in recent years. An important part of these plants is the storage system which improves dispatchability and makes the plant more reliable. In this paper, a one-dimensional transi...

  2. Improved coal grinding and fuel flow control in thermal power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemczyk, Piotr; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    A novel controller for coal circulation and pulverized coal flow in a coal mill is proposed. The design is based on optimal control theory for bilinear systems with additional integral action. The states are estimated from the grinding power consumption and the amount of coal accumulated in the m......A novel controller for coal circulation and pulverized coal flow in a coal mill is proposed. The design is based on optimal control theory for bilinear systems with additional integral action. The states are estimated from the grinding power consumption and the amount of coal accumulated...... as well as when parameter uncertainties and noise are present. The proposed controller lowers the grinding power consumption while in most cases exhibiting superior performance in comparison with the PID controller....

  3. Fundamental study on target plate model with high thermal conductive ceramics for fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Shintaro

    2004-01-01

    Target plate model (35 mm x 25 mm x 100 mm) of divertor device for fusion reactor was fabricated using low activated and light material, Si/xSiC Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) and high strength and thermal conductive SiC. This model has bonding structure of armor tile (25 mm x 25 mm x 10 mmt) of Hot Pressed (HP) and Hot Isostatic Pressed (HIP) Si/SiC (10 wt%)-MMC and substrate (25 mm x 25 mm x 100 mm) of SiC/BeO (1 wt%) with water cooling channel (φ15 mm). Armor tile material, Si/10SiC-MMC shows high thermal conductive and low resistivity with over 200 MPa peak bending strength at high temperature. This material behaves super plasticity over peak temperature corresponding to peak bending strength and low temperature brittleness of this material was improved to degrade DBTT to 673 K by optimization of Hot Press (HP) and Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) conditions. Substrate body material, SiC/1BeO behaves major characteristics of high bending strength over 500 MPa, high density of 3.2 g/cm 3 and high thermal conductivity of 270 W/m·K at room temperature. Target plate model with water cooling by 293 K and 2 MPa pressurized water at 1 m/s was exposed under 5 MW/m 2 x 30 s high heat flux H + ion beam and showed very good cooling performance and no damage was found after this test. (author)

  4. Development of creep damage assessment system for aged thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, Isamu [IshikawaJima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Umaki, Hideo [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nishida, Hidetalca [The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Hiroshima (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroshi [The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    IHI has developed the Creep Damage Assessment System to identify voids by processing an image observed by a small laser microscope with an advanced image processing technique jointly with Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc. The result can be obtained immediately on the spot. Application tests of the system at the Unit No.3 boiler of the Kudamatsu Power Station showed good operability, adaptability to the environment, and accuracy. The new system can easily indicate damage conditions in parts during the periodical inspection, allowing rapid maintenance. Time reduction required for assessment and increased reliability of equipment can be also achieved. (orig.)

  5. Development of creep damage assessment system for aged thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, Isamu [IshikawaJima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Umaki, Hideo [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nishida, Hidetalca [The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Hiroshima (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroshi [The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1999-12-31

    IHI has developed the Creep Damage Assessment System to identify voids by processing an image observed by a small laser microscope with an advanced image processing technique jointly with Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc. The result can be obtained immediately on the spot. Application tests of the system at the Unit No.3 boiler of the Kudamatsu Power Station showed good operability, adaptability to the environment, and accuracy. The new system can easily indicate damage conditions in parts during the periodical inspection, allowing rapid maintenance. Time reduction required for assessment and increased reliability of equipment can be also achieved. (orig.)

  6. Efficiency limits of rehabilitation of the Thermal Power Plant Turceni units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, D.; Stoenescu, R.; Balcan, I.; Panait, L.; Pressel, S.; Ghioca, L.

    1996-01-01

    The paper analyses the efficiency limits of the programs A 2 and A 3 of rehabilitation of the TPP Turceni units considering the current economic situation and the power and energy balances in the Romania's National Power System. Starting from the current net income and also, taking into account the performances which can be reached by the units to be rehabilitated, according to the guarantee figures provided by the German Consortium ABB-DBE, one is determined the maximum investment for rehabilitation so that the adjusted net income to be equal to the expenses and adjusted investments (reverse method). (author). 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Biomonitoring of bees. Upgrading of electronic monitoring of thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuhalev, I.; Rajh-Alatic, Z. [Electroinstitute Ljubljana (Slovakia)

    1995-12-31

    Environmental monitoring of the air quality associates procedures whose task is to acquire data about the measurement of the polluted air in the real time and on-line mode. Air quality measurements are made at the point of the measurement site which is the most exposed to pollution. Apart from the point measurements, there are also line measurements carried out. They are made in a particular area where they provide better results about the environmental pollution. Data that are obtained in this way provide the basis for adequate procedures for the air protection. The effect of noxious substances from the air on living organisms under laboratory conditions is known to a certain degree. The real extent of the effect of the air pollution under existing conditions in a particular area and time can only be established with biomonitoring. One of its most frequent forms is observation of a particular plant specimen which is sensitive to some noxious components from the air. Biomonitoring of plants provides data about the complex pollution stress to which an observed plant is exposed. It covers a certain time period and gives point results of an area. To get a complete insight into the effect of the pollution stress in an area biomonotoring was expanded onto bees

  8. Biomonitoring of bees. Upgrading of electronic monitoring of thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuhalev, I; Rajh-Alatic, Z [Electroinstitute Ljubljana (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    Environmental monitoring of the air quality associates procedures whose task is to acquire data about the measurement of the polluted air in the real time and on-line mode. Air quality measurements are made at the point of the measurement site which is the most exposed to pollution. Apart from the point measurements, there are also line measurements carried out. They are made in a particular area where they provide better results about the environmental pollution. Data that are obtained in this way provide the basis for adequate procedures for the air protection. The effect of noxious substances from the air on living organisms under laboratory conditions is known to a certain degree. The real extent of the effect of the air pollution under existing conditions in a particular area and time can only be established with biomonitoring. One of its most frequent forms is observation of a particular plant specimen which is sensitive to some noxious components from the air. Biomonitoring of plants provides data about the complex pollution stress to which an observed plant is exposed. It covers a certain time period and gives point results of an area. To get a complete insight into the effect of the pollution stress in an area biomonotoring was expanded onto bees

  9. Biomonitoring of bees. Upgrading of electronic monitoring of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuhalev, I.; Rajh-Alatic, Z.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of the air quality associates procedures whose task is to acquire data about the measurement of the polluted air in the real time and on-line mode. Air quality measurements are made at the point of the measurement site which is the most exposed to pollution. Apart from the point measurements, there are also line measurements carried out. They are made in a particular area where they provide better results about the environmental pollution. Data that are obtained in this way provide the basis for adequate procedures for the air protection. The effect of noxious substances from the air on living organisms under laboratory conditions is known to a certain degree. The real extent of the effect of the air pollution under existing conditions in a particular area and time can only be established with biomonitoring. One of its most frequent forms is observation of a particular plant specimen which is sensitive to some noxious components from the air. Biomonitoring of plants provides data about the complex pollution stress to which an observed plant is exposed. It covers a certain time period and gives point results of an area. To get a complete insight into the effect of the pollution stress in an area biomonotoring was expanded onto bees

  10. Increasing of prediction reliability of calcium carbonate scale formation in heat exchanger of secondary coolant circuits of thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tret'yakov, O.V.; Kritskij, V.G.; Styazhkin, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    Calcium carbonate scale formation in the secondary circuit heat exchanger of thermal and nuclear power plants is investigated. A model of calcium-carbonate scale formation providing quite reliable prediction of process running and the possibility of its control affecting the parameters of hydrochemical regime (HCR) is developed. The results can be used when designing the automatic-control system of HCR

  11. Multi-criteria evaluation and priority analysis for localization equipment in a thermal power plant using the AHP (analytic hierarchy process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagmur, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring the safety of its energy supply is one of the main issues for newly industrialized/developing countries when utilizing domestic sources for electricity generation. Turkey depends heavily on imported gas to generate electricity, and the ratio of natural gas power generation to total electricity production is nearly 50%. Coal-fired thermal power plants using domestic resources are considered a good option to decrease the large amount of imported natural gas, and to supply a secure energy demand. However, electricity generation from coal-fired power plants using local lignite reserves is not adequate to maintain a secure energy mix and provide sustainable development, as Turkey does not have indigenous energy sector technology. Therefore, technology transfer and its localization are crucial for newly industrialized/developing countries such as Turkey. The aim of this study is to use the analytic hierarchy process to determine a priority analysis in relation to localization equipment for a thermal power plant. Parameters involved, such as readiness of both infrastructure and human resources, manpower as skilled labor, market potential for equipment developed by transferred technology, and competition in global/internal market, are related to localization in thermal power plant technologies, and are considered in relation to the country's technological capability, design ability, possession of materials/equipment, and ability to erect a plant. Results of analysis show that the boiler is the most important piece of equipment in this respect, and that heaters and fans are ranked after the boiler with respect to local conditions. - Highlights: • Localization of foreign technology was determined for developing countries. • An evaluation and priority analysis were performed for parts of a thermal power plant. • Analytic hierarchy process was applied for the hierarchical ordering of parts when transferring technology.

  12. The economics of reducing CO2 emissions by solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brakmann, G.

    1993-01-01

    The necessity to reduce CO 2 -emissions on a global scale is being recognized by scientists and politicians. If no scientific proof of a climate catastrophe due to CO 2 -emissions can be established, it would nevertheless be prudent to implement a form of global survival insurance policy, the premium of which is the required effort to reduce CO 2 -emissions. The implementation of such a policy without a considerable reduction in the living standard requires the replacement of fossil fuels by capital and/or know-how. It should be performed in the most economical manner. This leads to the replacement of the classical ''least cost power expansion strategy'' by the ''least cost power expansion/pollution limiting strategy''. Thereby projects have to compete no longer exclusively on low cost of energy production but on low cost of pollution reduction as well. (Author)

  13. Short-term power plant operation scheduling in thermal systems with long-term boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolter, H.

    1990-01-01

    For the first time, the modeling of long-term quantitative conditions within the short-term planning of the application of power stations is made via their shadow prices. It corresponds to a decomposition of the quantitative conditions by means of the method of the Langrange relaxation. The shadow prices determined by the planning for energy application regarding long- term quantitative conditions pass into the short-term planning for power station application and subsidize or rather punish the application of limited amounts as for as they are not claimed for sufficiently or excessively. The clear advantage of this modeling is that the short-term planning of power station application can deviate from the envisioned energy application regarding the total optimum, because the shadow prices contain all information about the cost effect of the energy shifts in the residual total period, which become necessary due to the deviations in the short-term period to be planned in the current short-term period. (orig./DG) [de

  14. Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majercak, V.; Srenkelova, Z.; Kristak, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    In this brochure the Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina, (VED), subsidiary of the utility Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, plc. Bratislava) are presented. VED is mainly aimed at generating peak-load electrical energy and maintenance of operational equipment. Reaching its goals, company is first of all focused on reliability of production, economy and effectiveness, keeping principles of work safety and industry safety standards and also ecology. VED operates eight hydroelectric power plants, from which PVE Ruzin I and PVE Dobsina I are pump storage ones and they are controlled directly by the Slovak Energy Dispatch Centre located in Zilina thought the system LS 3200. Those power plants participate in secondary regulation of electrical network of Slovakia. They are used to compensate balance in reference to foreign electrical networks and they are put into operation independently from VED. Activity of the branch is focused mainly on support of fulfilment of such an important aim as electric network regulation. Beginnings of the subsidiary Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina are related to the year of 1948. After commissioning of the pump storage Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina in 1953, the plant started to carry out its mission. Since that time the subsidiary has been enlarged by other seven power plants, through which it is fulfilling its missions nowadays. The characteristics of these hydroelectric power plants (The pump-storage power plant Dobsina, Small hydroelectric power plant Dobsina II, Small hydroelectric power plant Rakovec, Small hydroelectric power plant Svedlar, Hydroelectric power plant Domasa, The pump-storage power plant Ruzin, and Small hydroelectric power plant Krompachy) are described in detail. Employees welfare and public relations are presented

  15. Historical development of automation and control of thermal power plants''; Historische Entwicklung der Leittechnik von Dampfkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welfonder, E. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Abt. Stromerzeugung und Automatisierungstechnik (IVD); Sterff, J.

    2006-07-01

    Historically early steam power plants were developed to replace muscular power of men and animals and to gain independence from wind and water power. The further development of power plant technology was driven by the demand to meet the fast growing consumption of electric power with a higher degree of efficiency. In the nineteenth century steam power was the key element for industrialisation. Instrumentation and control equipments were the key factors for the safe operation of power generating processes, becoming more and more complex during the twentieth century. The use of control concepts with increasing performance induced the development of adequate instrumentation and control systems. This paper outlines the history of steam power from the beginning to the seventies and focuses on automation concepts, without further regarding details of apparatus und system technology. (orig.)

  16. On protection and operation of home consumption of large thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, J.

    1988-01-01

    The operating reliability of the system of home consumption is affected not only by the operating reliability of the equipment but also by the system of home consumption protection. The existing system of protection in Czechoslovakia and elsewhere and new concepts in the GDR and in Poland are described. In order to improve protection redundancy in the home consumption system, distance protection can be used. The reliability of the home consumption power supply system can be improved by the use of low-ohm grounding of the home consumption transformer or by an additional transformer and a protection system with time-graded overcurrent protection devices to the zero component of the current. (M.D.). 2 figs., 8 refs

  17. The mechanisms underlying corrosion product formation and deposition in nuclear power plant circuits through the action of galvanic and thermal electromotive forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusakov, V.P.; Sedov, V.M.; Khitrov, Yu.A.; Brusov, K.N.; Razmashkin, N.V.; Versin, V.V.; Rybalchenko, I.L.

    1983-01-01

    From a theoretical standpoint, the processes of formation of corrosion products in nuclear power plant circuits, deposition of corrosion products on the circuit surfaces, formation of an equilibrium concentration of corrosion products in the coolant, and distribution of radionuclides resulting from corrosion in different parts of the circuit are considered. It is shown that the main driving forces for the mass-transfer processes in the circuits are the thermal and galvanic electromotive forces (EMF) of the microcouples. On the basis of the theoretical concepts developed the authors have obtained analytical dependences for calculating the individual stages of the process of corrosion product transfer in the circuits. The mechanisms underlying the processes which occur as a result of thermal and galvanic EMFs are considered, together with the factors influencing these processes. The results of verification of the dependences by computational methods are given and they are compared with operational data from nuclear and conventional thermal power plants and with experimental data. (author)

  18. New aspect to the problem of atmospheric pollution from thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.

    1989-03-01

    Reports on a seminar held by the US Environmental Protection Agency in February 1986 in Durham, North Carolina, on the increasing occurrence of N{sub 2}O in the atmosphere; atmospheric concentrations have been increasing at a rate of 0.25% year from the figure of 0.3 cm{sup 3}/m{sup 3} measured at the end of the 1970s. N{sub 2}O is a cause of alarm because it contributes to the depletion of the ozone layer and the greenhouse effect and its main sources have been identified as fuel combustion (mobile sources such as vehicles and, of increasing importance, stationary sources such as plants burning mazout and solid fuel), the production of artificial silk, sodium azide, pharmaceuticals, propylene and methyl ether. The seminar was divided into five sessions: an overall review of the global situation; technology for measuring N{sub 2}O; mechanisms of N{sub 2}O formation and decomposition; anthropogenic sources of N{sub 2}O emissions into atmosphere; ways of reducing N{sub 2}O emissions. A working commission comprising representatives of EPA, NASA, US Department of Energy and other organizations has been established to coordinate research work in this field. 3 refs.

  19. Mercury Emissions Capture Efficiency with Activated Carbon Injection at a Russian Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA-led project, conducted in collaboration with UNEP, the Swedish Environmental Institute and various Russian Institutes, that demonstrates that the mercury emission control efficiencies of activated carbon injection technologies applied at a Russian power plant burning Rus...

  20. Thermal Pollution by Nuclear Power Plants. A Learning Experience for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, No. 320. [Project COAST].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    This publication includes several activities regarding the use of nuclear power plants and possible effects on the environment. The materials are designed for secondary school students and include reference materials and masters for transparencies. (RH)

  1. Determination of life-span reserve of main steam ducts in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demian, Mihai; Trusculescu, Marin;

    2002-01-01

    The safe operation of the active vapour ducts requires periodic inspections of the structural conditions and of the properties of the used materials. There are possibilities to establish the structural evolution and that of the materials' properties through destructive or non - destructive methods. Currently, we mostly employ destructive methods by which we can establish the microstructure of the material and the mechanical properties at the temperature of operation for certain periods of time. Lately, we employ non-destructive methods of approaching the structural evolution as a function of operation temperature and work duration. The paper presents the determination of the reserve of the life span of a duct with a 426 mm diameter and 16 mm thickness, which works for 84,556 hours at a temperature of 540 deg. C and a pressure of 2.44 MPa within a thermo - electric power station. By creep trials we established that this duct could also be operated for 16,000 - 28,000 hours. Using the Struers replicas and establishing the 'A' parameter of the degradation of the microstructure in time, we determined a maximum duration of safe exploitation of this duct, of 16,065 hours. Although the non - destructive method is less laborious and does not require sampling from the ducts, it should be adjusted with moderation until there is perfected the methodology of the establishment of the degradation of the grains limits. We recommend that the non - destructive method be available in order to be employed currently with informative character. (authors)

  2. Investigating Electrostatic Precipitator Design Parameters for Efficient Control of Particulate Matter in Thermal Power Plant: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, P.; Gautam, N.; Chandra, H.

    2018-02-01

    This work deals with the analysis and modification of operational parameters for meeting the emission standards, set by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)/State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) from time to time of electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The analysis is carried out by using standard chemical analysis supplemented by the relevant data collected from Korba East Phase (Ph)-III thermal power plant, under Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board (CSEB) operating at Korba, Chhattisgarh. Chemical analysis is used to predict the emission level for different parameters of ESP. The results reveal that for a constant outlet PM concentration and fly ash percentage, the total collection area decreases with the increase in migration velocity. For constant migration velocity and outlet PM concentration, the total collection area increases with the increase in the fly ash percent. For constant migration velocity and outlet e PM concentration, the total collection area increases with the ash content in the coal. i.e. from minimum ash to maximum ash. As far as the efficiency is concerned, it increases with the fly ash percent, ash content and the inlet dust concentration but decreases with the outlet PM concentration at constant migration velocity, fly ash and ash content.

  3. Numerical Study on the Seismic Performance of a Steel–Concrete Hybrid Supporting Structure in Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the numerical investigation on the seismic performance of a steel–concrete hybrid structure consisting of reinforced concrete (RC tubular columns and steel braced truss with A-shaped steel frames, which is a novel supporting structural system to house air-cooled condensers (ACC in large-capacity thermal power plants (TPPs. First, the finite element (FE modeling approach for this hybrid structure using the software ABAQUS was validated by a range of pseudo-dynamic tests (PDTs performed on a 1/8-scaled sub-structure. The failure process, lateral displacement responses, changing rules of dynamic characteristic parameters and lateral stiffness with increase of peak ground acceleration (PGA were presented here. Then, nonlinear time-history analysis of the prototype structure was carried out. The dynamic characteristics, base shear force, lateral deformation capacity, stiffness deterioration and damage characteristics were investigated. Despite the structural complexity and irregularity, both experimental and numerical results indicate that the overall seismic performance of this steel–concrete hybrid supporting structure meets the seismic design requirements with respect to the high-intensity earthquakes.

  4. Investigating Electrostatic Precipitator Design Parameters for Efficient Control of Particulate Matter in Thermal Power Plant: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, P.; Gautam, N.; Chandra, H.

    2018-06-01

    This work deals with the analysis and modification of operational parameters for meeting the emission standards, set by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)/State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) from time to time of electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The analysis is carried out by using standard chemical analysis supplemented by the relevant data collected from Korba East Phase (Ph)-III thermal power plant, under Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board (CSEB) operating at Korba, Chhattisgarh. Chemical analysis is used to predict the emission level for different parameters of ESP. The results reveal that for a constant outlet PM concentration and fly ash percentage, the total collection area decreases with the increase in migration velocity. For constant migration velocity and outlet PM concentration, the total collection area increases with the increase in the fly ash percent. For constant migration velocity and outlet e PM concentration, the total collection area increases with the ash content in the coal. i.e. from minimum ash to maximum ash. As far as the efficiency is concerned, it increases with the fly ash percent, ash content and the inlet dust concentration but decreases with the outlet PM concentration at constant migration velocity, fly ash and ash content.

  5. ANALYSIS OF SUFFICIENCY OF THE BEARING CAPACITY OF BUILDING STRUCTURES OF OPERATING SITES OF MAIN BUILDINGS OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekseeva Ekaterina Leonidovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Upon examination of eleven main buildings of power plants, analysis of defects and damages of building structures was performed. Thereafter, the damageability of principal bearing structures of main buildings of thermal plants was analyzed. It was identified that the fastest growing defects and damages were concentrated in the structures of operating sites. The research of the rate of development of the most frequent damages and defects made it possible to conclude that internal corrosion of the reinforcing steel was the most dangerous defect, as far as the reinforced concrete elements of operating sites were concerned. Methods of mathematical statistics were applied to identify the reinforcing steel development pattern inside reinforced concrete elements of floors of operating sites. It was identified that the probability of corrosion of reinforced concrete elements of operating sites was distributed in accordance with the demonstrative law. Based on these data, calculation of strength of reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams was performed in terms of their regular sections, given the natural loads and the realistic condition of structures. As a result, dependence between the bearing capacity reserve ratio and the corrosion development pattern was identified for reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams of operating sites. In order to analyze the sufficiency of the bearing capacity of building structures of operating sites in relation to their time in commission, equations were derived to identify the nature of dependence between the sufficiency of the bearing capacity of reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams of the operating sites and their time in commission.

  6. The influence of variable operating conditions on the design and exploitation of fly ash pneumatic transport systems in thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stanojević

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of an air-slide pneumatic conveying system depends, first of all, on several basic elements chosen or calculated during the design of a plant: air-slide design parameters, air mover characteristics, as well as the physical and chemical properties of the material to be transported. However, during the exploitation of this type of system which is used for handling ash in thermal-power plants, either gradual and/or sudden changes in the operating conditions can arise. This may be due to changes both in the proportion of ash content, and in the flow characteristics of the porous membrane. The consequences of changes in these conditions on the performance of the ash handling system are analyzed, based upon the results of the experimental work carried out on the test rig at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Belgrade, and upon the on-site measurements at the thermal-power plant "Nikola Tesla B".

  7. Small hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgesen, Boerre

    2002-01-01

    Small hydroelectric power plants are power plants of 1 - 10 MW. For a supplier, this is an unnatural limit. A more natural limit involves compact engine design and simplified control system. The article discusses most of the engine and electrotechnical aspects in the development, construction and operation of such a plant

  8. Study on Tensile Fatigue Behavior of Thermal Butt Fusion in Safety Class III High-Density Polyethylene Buried Piping in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Lee, Young Ju; Oh, Young Jin

    2015-01-01

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) piping, which has recently been applied to safety class III piping in nuclear power plants, can be butt-joined through the thermal fusion process, which heats two fused surfaces and then subject to axial pressure. The thermal fusion process generates bead shapes on the butt fusion. The stress concentrations caused by the bead shapes may reduce the fatigue lifetime. Thus, investigating the effect of the thermal butt fusion beads on fatigue behavior is necessary. This study examined the fatigue behavior of thermal butt fusion via a tensile fatigue test under stress-controlled conditions using finite element elastic stress analysis. Based on the results, the presence of thermal butt fusion beads was confirmed to reduce the fatigue lifetime in the low-cycle fatigue region while having a negligible effect in the medium- and high-cycle fatigue regions

  9. Study on Tensile Fatigue Behavior of Thermal Butt Fusion in Safety Class III High-Density Polyethylene Buried Piping in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Lee, Young Ju [Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young Jin [KEPCO E and C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) piping, which has recently been applied to safety class III piping in nuclear power plants, can be butt-joined through the thermal fusion process, which heats two fused surfaces and then subject to axial pressure. The thermal fusion process generates bead shapes on the butt fusion. The stress concentrations caused by the bead shapes may reduce the fatigue lifetime. Thus, investigating the effect of the thermal butt fusion beads on fatigue behavior is necessary. This study examined the fatigue behavior of thermal butt fusion via a tensile fatigue test under stress-controlled conditions using finite element elastic stress analysis. Based on the results, the presence of thermal butt fusion beads was confirmed to reduce the fatigue lifetime in the low-cycle fatigue region while having a negligible effect in the medium- and high-cycle fatigue regions.

  10. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of CO2 emission from a thermal power plant in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toja-Silva, Francisco; Chen, Jia; Hachinger, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Climate change, a societal challenge for the European Union, is affecting all regions in Europe and has a profound impact on society and environment. It is now clear that the present global warming period is due to the strong anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, occurring at an unprecedented rate. Therefore, the identification and control of the greenhouse gas sources has a great relevance. Since the GHG emissions from cities are the largest human contribution to climate change, the present investigation focuses on the urban environment. Bottom-up annual emission inventories are compiled for most countries. However, a rigorous approach requires to perform experimental measurements in order to verify the official estimates. Measurements of column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of GHG (XGHG) can be used for this. To comprehensively detect and quantify GHG emission sources, these punctual column data, however, have to be extended to the surrounding urban map, requiring a deep understanding of the gas transport. The resulting emission estimation will serve several practical purposes, e.g. the verification of official emission rates and the determination of trends in urban emissions. They will enable the administration to make targeted and economically efficient decisions about mitigation options, and help to stop unintentional and furtive releases. With this aim, this investigation presents a completely new approach to the analysis of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel thermal power plants in urban environments by combining differential column measurements with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations in order to deeply understand the experimental conditions. The case study is a natural gas-fueled cogeneration (combined heat and power, CHP) thermal power plant inside the city of Munich (Germany). The software used for the simulations (OpenFOAM) was modified in order to use the most advanced RANS turbulence modeling (i.e. Durbin) and

  11. Solar thermal power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  12. Technical feasibility of the electrode ionization process for the makeup water treatment system of the thermal cycle of the CAREM-25 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramilo, Lucia B.; Chocron, Mauricio

    2003-01-01

    In thermal cycles of PWRs nuclear power plants with once-through steam generators as the CAREM-25, makeup water of very high purity is required to minimizing the induction of corrosion phenomena, fundamentally in the steam generators and other thermal cycle components. The makeup water treatment systems include several stages, of which the demineralization is the purification stage. The required makeup water purity is obtained in this stage. Historically, ultrapure water systems were based completely on ion exchange technology. Now, the electrode ionization process (EDI) has replaced the ion exchange technology used traditionally in the demineralization stage. Continuous demineralization in an EDI stack consists of three coupled processes: ion exchange, continuous ion removal by transport through the ion exchange resin and membranes into the concentrate stream, continuous regeneration by hydrogen and hydroxyl ions derived from the water splitting reaction and driven by the applied direct current. EDI process allows to obtain ultrapure water, with practically no use of chemical reagents and with technologies of continuous process. The objective of this work is the analysis of the electrode ionization process (EDI) for its implementation in the makeup water treatment system of the thermal cycle of the CAREM-25 nuclear power plant. The obtained results allow to assure the technical feasibility of implementation of the electrode ionization process, EDI, in the makeup water treatment system of the thermal cycle of this Argentinean nuclear power plant. (author)

  13. Market role, profitability and competitive features of thermal power plants in the Swedish future electricity market with high renewable integration

    OpenAIRE

    Llovera Bonmatí, Albert

    2017-01-01

    The Swedish energy market is currently undergoing a transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources, including a potential phase-out of nuclear power. The combination of a phase-out with expansion of intermittent renewable energy leads to the issue of increased fluctuations in electricity production. Energy-related organizations and institutions are projecting future Swedish energy scenarios with different possible transition pathways. In this study the market role of thermal power p...

  14. Effects of the selection of heat transfer fluid and condenser type on the performance of a solar thermal power plant with technoeconomic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmazoglu, M. Zeki

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of the selection of HTF and condenser type on STPs were examined. • Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for STP was investigated. • LCOE for STP compared with gas turbine and combined cycle. • CSP with thermal storage can be competitive technology with carbon tax/credits. - Abstract: Renewable electricity generation systems have an increasing trend in terms of usage due to aiming to decrease greenhouse gas emissions and energy source diversification strategies of countries. Parabolic trough, Fresnel, and solar tower systems have been used to generate solar thermal electricity around the world. In this study, the effects of the selection of collector heat transfer fluid (HTF) and condenser type on a concentrated solar thermal power plant were analyzed. Net power, net electrical efficiency, and economic analysis were carried out for the selected HTFs for different collector outlet temperature cases. In the case of condenser type selection four different systems were considered; water cooled, air cooled (dry air) and air cooled with water spraying (spraying before fan and spraying before and after fan). Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) and specific investment cost were calculated. According to the results, specific investment cost and LCOE were found to be 4000 USD/kW_e_l and 0.207 USD/kW h, respectively. Carbon tax/credit was also included to the calculations of LCOE and a comparison study was carried out for gas turbine, combined cycle and solar thermal power plant with thermal storage. Including carbon tax/credit to the LCOE shows that solar thermal power plant with heat storage can be competitive when compared to gas turbines.

  15. Less power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TASR

    2003-01-01

    In the Slovak Republic the number of company power plants decreased as against 2001 by two sources. In present time only 35 companies have their own power plants. The companies Slovnaft, Kappa Sturovo, Slovensky hodvab Senica, Matador Puchov, Maytex Liptovsky MikuIas, Kovohuty Krompachy, Chemko Strazske and some Slovak sugar factories belong to the largest company power plants in force of distributing companies. Installed output of present 35 company sources is 531 MW. The largest of separate power plants as Paroplynovy cyklus Bratislava (218 MW) and VD Zilina (72 MW) belong to independent sources. Total installed output of Slovak sources was 8306 MW in the end of last year

  16. 4-th EPRI International conference on the water chemistry of the organic-fuel thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, T.I.; Martynova, O.I.

    1995-01-01

    Most actual problems on thermal power engineering are discussed at EPRI conferences on organic fuel, conducted every two years. Experience in realization of economically beneficial, ecologically feasible modes and their monitoring, accumulated in recent years, was formulated at the 4-th conference with wide participation

  17. Assessment of air quality benefits from the national pollution control policy of thermal power plants in China: A numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanshan; Pan, Libo; Li, Yunting; Zhang, Dawei; Ma, Jin; Sun, Feng; Xu, Wenshuai; Wang, Xingrun

    2015-04-01

    In 2010, an emission inventory of air pollutants in China was created using the Chinese Bulletin of the Environment, the INTEX-B program, the First National Pollution Source Census, the National Generator Set Manual, and domestic and international research studies. Two emission scenarios, the standard failed emission scenario (S1) and the standard successful emission scenario (S2), were constructed based upon the Instructions for the Preparation of Emission Standards for Air Pollutants from Thermal Power Plants (second draft). The Fifth-Generation NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5) and the U.S. EPA Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model were applied to China to study the air quality benefits from Emission Standards for Air Pollutants from Thermal Power Plants GB13223-2011. The performance of MM5 and CMAQ was evaluated with meteorological data from Global Surface Data from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) and the daily Air Pollution Index (API) reported by Chinese local governments. The results showed that the implementation of the new standards could reduce the concentration of air pollutants and acid deposition in China by varying degrees. The new standards could reduce NO2 pollution in China. By 2020, for the scenario S2, the area with an NO2 concentration higher than the second-level emission standard, and the average NO2 concentration in 31 selected provinces would be reduced by 55.2% and 24.3%, respectively. The new standards could further reduce the concentration of declining SO2 in China. By 2020, for S2, the area with an SO2 concentration higher than the second-level emission standard and the average SO2 concentration in the 31 selected provinces would be reduced by 40.0% and 31.6%, respectively. The new standards could also reduce PM2.5 pollution in China. By 2020, for S2, the area with a PM2.5 concentration higher than the second-level emission standard and the average concentration of PM2.5 in the 31 selected provinces would be

  18. Development of the Technologies for Stabilization Treatment of the Water of the Recycling Cooling Systems at Thermal Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, S. M.; Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Vlasova, A. Yu.; Filimonova, A. A.; Prosvirnina, D. V.

    2018-02-01

    A turbine-condensate cooling system is one of the less stable and most hard-to-control systems of maintaining optimal water chemistry. A laboratory recycling cooling water test facility, UVO-0.3, was developed for physical simulation of innovative zero-discharge water chemistry conditions and improvement of technological flowcharts of stabilization treatment of the initial and circulating water of the recycling cooling systems at thermal power plants. Experiments were conducted in the UVO-0.3 facility to investigate the processes that occur in the recycling water supply system and master new technologies of stabilization of the initial and circulating water. It is shown that, when using untreated initial water, scaling cannot be prevented even under low concentration levels. The main reason for the activation of scale depositing is the desorption of carbon dioxide that results in alkalization of the circulating water and, as a consequence, a displacement of the chemical reaction equilibrium towards the formation of slightly soluble hardness ions. Some techniques, viz., liming and alkalization of the initial water and the by-pass treatment of the circulating water, are considered. New engineering solutions have been developed for reducing the amount of scale-forming substances in the initial and circulating water. The best results were obtained by pretreating the initial water with alkalizing agents and simultaneously bypassing and treating part of the circulating water. The obtained experimental data underlie the process flowcharts of stabilization treatment of the initial and circulating TPP water that ensure scale-free and noncorrosive operation and meet the corresponding environmental requirements. Under the bypassing, the specific rates of the agents and the residual hardness are reduced compared with the conventional pretreatment.

  19. High-temperature stable absorber coatings for linear concentrating solar thermal power plants; Hochtemperaturstabile Absorberschichten fuer linear konzentrierende solarthermische Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, Christina

    2009-03-23

    This work describes the development of new absorber coatings for different applications - para-bolic trough and linear Fresnel collectors - and operating conditions - absorber in vacuum or in air. The demand for higher efficiencies of solar thermal power plants using parabolic trough technology results in higher temperatures in the collectors and on the absorber tubes. As heat losses increase strongly with increasing temperatures, the need for a lower emissivity of the absorber coating at constant absorptivity arises. The linear Fresnel application envisions ab-sorber tubes stable in air at high temperatures of about 450 C, which are to date commercially not available. This work comprises the theoretical background, the modeling and the fabrication of absorber tubes including the technology transfer to a production-size inline sputter coater. In annealing tests and accompanying optical measurements, degradation processes have been observed and specified more precisely by material characterization techniques. The simulations provided the capability of different materials used as potential IR-reflector. The highest selectivity can be achieved by applying silver which consequently has been chosen for the application in absorber coatings of the parabolic trough technology. Thin silver films how-ever need to be stabilized when used at high temperatures. Appropriate barrier layers as well as process and layer parameters were identified. A high selectivity was achieved and stability of the absorber coating for 1200 h at 500 C in vacuum has been demonstrated. For the application in air, silver was also analyzed as a potential IR-reflector. Even though the stability could be increased considerably, it nevertheless proved to be insufficient. The main factors influencing stability in a positive way are the use of higher quality polishing, additional barrier layers and adequate process parameters. This knowledge was applied for developing coatings which are stable in air at

  20. CFD analysis of the pulverized coal combustion processes in a 160 MWe tangentially-fired-boiler of a thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cristiano V. da; Beskow, Arthur B. [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Misses (LABSIM/GEAPI/URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia e Ciencia da Computacao. Grupo de Engenharia Aplicada a Processos Industriais], Emails: cristiano@uricer.edu.br, Arthur@uricer.edu.br; Indrusiak, Maria Luiza S. [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica], E-mail: sperbindrusiak@via-rs.net

    2010-10-15

    The strategic role of energy and the current concern with greenhouse effects, energetic and exegetic efficiency of fossil fuel combustion greatly enhance the importance of the studies of complex physical and chemical processes occurring inside boilers of thermal power plants. The state of the art in computational fluid dynamics and the availability of commercial codes encourage numeric studies of the combustion processes. In the present work the commercial software CFX Ansys Europe Ltd. was used to study the combustion of coal in a 160 MWe commercial thermal power plant with the objective of simulating the operational conditions and identifying factors of inefficiency. The behavior of the flow of air and pulverized coal through the burners was analyzed, and the three-dimensional flue gas flow through the combustion chamber and heat exchangers was reproduced in the numeric simulation. (author)

  1. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  2. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  3. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  4. Central Receiver Solar Thermal Power System, Phase 1. CDRL Item 2. Pilot Plant preliminary design report. Volume III, Book 1. Collector subsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The central receiver system consists of a field of heliostats, a central receiver, a thermal storage unit, an electrical power generation system, and balance of plant. This volume discusses the collector field geometry, requirements and configuration. The development of the collector system and subsystems are discussed and the selection rationale outlined. System safety and availability are covered. Finally, the plans for collector portion of the central receiver system are reviewed.

  5. ACS production: optimal design of solar thermal power plants; Produccion de ACS. Optimizacion del dimensionado de instalaciones de energia solar termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platon Arias, L.; San Jose Alonso, F.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a program to size solar thermal power plants for the production of the company ACS, which enable optimum value calculations of the different influence parameters (surface, inclination, orientation, energy input) advising diverse circumstances and requirements. The energy input calculation has been effected according to f-chart method. For the solar radiation on inclined and oriented surfaces calculation, has been applied the Klein Method. (Author) 14 refs.

  6. The Kuroshio power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Falin

    2013-01-01

    By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power plant, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power plant operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power plant. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the plant's core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and

  7. Power control device of an atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Shiro; Ito, Takero.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the power controllability of an atomic power plant by improving the controllability, response and stability of the recirculation flow rate. Constitution: The power control device comprises a power detector of the reactor, which detects and operates the reactor power from the thermal power, neutron flux or the process quantity controlling the same, and a deviation detector which seeks deviation between the power signal of the power detector and the power set value of the reactor or power station. By use of the power control device constituted in this manner, the core flow rate is regulated by the power signal of the deviation detector thereby to control the power. (Aizawa, K.)

  8. FY 1998 basic survey to promote the joint execution, etc. Overall repair plan of thermal power plants in Maritime Province of Russia; 1998 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa. Roshia Enkaishu ni okeru karyoku hatsudensho sogo kaishu keikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For thermal power plants in Maritime Province of Russia, a repair plan for effective reduction of emission of greenhouse effect gas was worked out as a draft plan for the joint execution. The project is to be implemented for the additional installation/replacement of boilers at Vladivostok No. 2 power plant, construction of a power plant as a substitute for Partizansk power plant, and new construction of Ussuriisk power plant. The draft plan includes the new installation of two gas-fired boilers/replacement of existing boilers at Vladivostok No. 2 power plant, construction of 200MW cogeneration facility at Partizansk power plant, construction of 180MW cogeneration facility at Ussuriisk power plant, abolition of small-sized boiler station, etc. The reduction amount of the greenhouse effect gas emission based on this repair plan totaled 338 million tons in project. The effect against cost is US$ 4.75 per 1 CO2 ton at Vladivostok. (NEDO)

  9. Fiscal 1998 research report. Feasibility study on improvement of the thermal efficiency of existing coal- fired thermal power plants in China; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Chugoku kisetsu sekitan karyoku hatsudensho koritsu kojo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Feasibility study was made on the improvement project of the thermal efficiency of existing coal-fired thermal power plants in China to relate it to Japanese clean development mechanism. General study was made on the facility and operation of existing 300MW coal-fired thermal power plant units, and on-site study was also made on improvement of the thermal efficiency of some typical power plants. Based on these studies, effective improvement measures were identified, and general evaluation was carried out based on a cost effectiveness. The study result showed that the total efficiency improvement measures improve the plant efficiency of a standard 300MW unit by nearly 4%, and reduce CO{sub 2} emission by 184 ktons/y. The efficiency improvement measures for 10 300MW units by 2010 are estimated to reduce CO{sub 2} emission by 1.84 Mtons/y in 2010. This reduced emission is equivalent to annual emission of one 300MW unit. This project is reasonable enough if the cooperation range between Japan and the other country, and a source of funds are clarified. (NEDO)

  10. Performance evaluation and simulation of a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) trough Solar Thermal Power Plant in Puerto Rico under solar transient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano-Cruz, Luisa I.

    The increasing fossil fuel costs as well as the need to move in a somewhat sustainable future has led the world in a quest for exploiting the free and naturally available energy from the Sun to produce electric power, and Puerto Rico is no exception. This thesis proposes the design of a simulation model for the analysis and performance evaluation of a Solar Thermal Power Plant in Puerto Rico and suggests the use of the Compound Parabolic Concentrator as the solar collector of choice. Optical and thermal analysis of such collectors will be made using local solar radiation data for determining the viability of this proposed project in terms of the electric power produced and its cost.

  11. Italian steam power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Rautenkranz, J

    1939-01-01

    A brief history of geothermal power production in Italy is presented. Boric acid has been produced on an industrial scale since 1818. The first electrical power was generated in 1904, and by 1939 the output of geothermal power plants had reached 500 GWh, with major expansion of facilities planned.

  12. Creep life prediction of super heater coils used in coal based thermal power plants subjected to fly ash erosion and oxide scale formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P.; Kushwaha, Shashank

    2018-04-01

    Super heater coils of the coal based thermal power plants and subjected to severe operating conditions from both steam side and gas side. Formation of oxide scale due to prolonged service lead to temperature raise of the tube and erosion due to fly ash present in the combusted gases leads to tube thinning. Both these factors lead to creep rupture of the coils much before the designed service life. Failure of super heater coils during service of the boiler leads to power loss and huge monitory loss to the power plants. An attempt is made to model the creep damage caused to the super heater coils using heat transfer analysis tube thinning due to erosive wear of the tubes. Combined effects of these parameters are taken into consideration to predict the life of the super heater coils. This model may be used to estimate the life of the coils operating under the severe operating conditions to prevent the unexpected failure of the coils.

  13. Thermal ageing of steels; from expertise and understanding of the ageing mechanisms to a maintenance strategy for operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdikian, G.; Ould, P.

    2004-01-01

    Some parts of reactor coolant circuit on Nuclear PWR power plants, elbows on primary circuit, are made in cast duplex stainless steel material. It is now identify that the mechanical characteristic of this material should be decrease under thermal ageing mainly after a long time in operation in at reactor coolant circuit temperature conditions. The sensitiveness to the thermal ageing of these components is in relation with chemical composition and the ferrite content, especially the grade of Chromium equivalent (Ceq %Cr + %Si + %Mo). In the context of justification to maintain in operation on the plants these cat duplex components, an important programme of expertises was carried out on cast elbows after removing on the plants during the Steam Generators replacements (SGR). Several expertises, performed in the objective to understand the thermal ageing phenomenon and mechanism on cast components in service on plants, were permit to validate the prediction formulas established from a large database and programme in laboratories. The expertises were based on a lot of metallurgical, mechanical and chemical characteristics of components in operation Small Angle Neutrons Scattering (SANS), Thermal Electric Power (TEP), micro hardness and toughness measurement on small specimens from boat sample (CT10-5) The expertise carried out on one SG inlet elbows from DAMPIERRE, removed a during SGR after 100000 h in operation is shown, the toughness values are very high compared to the prediction formulas. The TEP measurements performed on the specimen cut off on two elbows and the ingots of the same material aged in laboratory in furnace, are very coherent; it is confirmed that this methodology is a good indicator to follow the ageing characteristic of material. The results of expertises on aged material are a mean of validation of the methodology applied on the file of demonstration of maintaining in operation of cast duplex stainless steel sensitive to thermal ageing. So the

  14. Laboratory studies on the grindability of coal from the Kolubara, Pljevlja and Suvodol open-cast mines for selecting grinding plants for the 'Nikola Tesla' 305 MW, Pljevlja 200 MW, and Suvodol 200 MW thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, L

    1977-10-01

    The influence of some important factors on the grindability of coal was investigated. These factors are 1) mineral content, 2) influence of origin and properties resp. of the petrographic composition, 3) influence of the characteristic features of open-cast mines, and 4) influence of the water content. The findings of these investigations influence the selection and operation of grinding plants when installing new thermal power plant units.

  15. Simulation technology for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Kazuo; Yanai, Katsuya.

    1988-01-01

    In the simulation of nuclear power stations, there are the simulation for the training of plant operation, the plant simulation for analyzing the operation of an electric power system, the simulation for controlling a core, the simulation for the safety analysis of reactors, the simulation for the design analysis of plants and so on as the typical ones. The outline and the technical features of these simulations are described. With the increase of capacity and complexity of thermal power plants, recently the automation of operation has advanced rapidly. The chance of starting up and stopping plants by operators themselves is few, and the chance of actually experiencing troubles also is few as the reliability of plants improved. In order to maintain the ability of coping with plant abnormality, an operation supporting system is strongly demanded. Operation training simulators and used widely now, and there are the simulators for analysis, those of replica type, those of versatile compact type and so on. The system configuration, modeling techniques, training function and others of the replica type are explained. In hydroelectric plants, the behavior of water in penstocks, the characteristics of water turbines, the speed control system for water turbines and the characteristics of generators become the main subjects of simulation. These are described. (Kako, I.)

  16. Extensive feedwater quality control and monitoring concept for preventing chemistry-related failures of boiler tubes in a subcritical thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidojkovic, Sonja; Onjia, Antonije; Matovic, Branko; Grahovac, Nebojsa; Maksimovic, Vesna; Nastasovic, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Prevention and minimizing corrosion processes on steam generating equipment is highly important in the thermal power industry. The maintenance of feedwater quality at a level corresponding to the standards of technological designing, followed by timely respond to the fluctuation of measured parameters, has a decisive role in corrosion prevention. In this study, the comprehensive chemical control of feedwater quality in 210 MW Thermal Power Plant (TPP) was carried out in order to evaluate its potentiality to assure reliable function of the boiler and discover possible irregularity that might be responsible for frequent boiler tube failures. Sensitive on-line and off-line analytical instruments were used for measuring key and diagnostic parameters considered to be crucial for boiler safety and performances. Obtained results provided evidences for exceeded levels of oxygen, silica, sodium, chloride, sulfate, copper, and conductivity what distinctly demonstrated necessity of feedwater control improvement. Consequently, more effective feedwater quality monitoring concept was recommended. In this paper, the explanation of presumable root causes of corrosive contaminants was given including basic directions for their maintenance in proscribed limits. -- Highlights: • Feedwater quality monitoring practice in a thermal power plant has been evaluated. • The more efficient feedwater quality control have been applied. • Analysis of feedwater quality parameters has been performed. • Exceeded levels of corrosive contaminants were found. • Recommendations for their maintenance at proscribed values were given

  17. Nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Moreira, Y.M. de.

    1979-01-01

    The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  18. Nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaziz Yunus

    1986-01-01

    A number of issues have to be taken into account before the introduction of any nuclear power plant in any country. These issues include reactor safety (site and operational), waste disposal and, lastly, the decommissioning of the reactor inself. Because of the radioactive nature of the components, nuclear power plants require a different approach to decommission compared to other plants. Until recently, issues on reactor safety and waste disposal were the main topics discussed. As for reactor decommissioning, the debates have been academic until now. Although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning of retired reactors has simply not been fully planned. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Plant in Pennysylvania, the first large scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debate in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane. (author)

  19. Advanced stellarator power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The stellarator is a class of helical/toroidal magnetic fusion devices. Recent international progress in stellarator power plant conceptual design is reviewed and comparisons in the areas of physics, engineering, and economics are made with recent tokamak design studies

  20. A Comparison of Simple Methods to Incorporate Material Temperature Dependency in the Green's Function Method for Estimating Transient Thermal Stresses in Thick-Walled Power Plant Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, James; Hyde, Christopher

    2016-01-06

    The threat of thermal fatigue is an increasing concern for thermal power plant operators due to the increasing tendency to adopt "two-shifting" operating procedures. Thermal plants are likely to remain part of the energy portfolio for the foreseeable future and are under societal pressures to generate in a highly flexible and efficient manner. The Green's function method offers a flexible approach to determine reference elastic solutions for transient thermal stress problems. In order to simplify integration, it is often assumed that Green's functions (derived from finite element unit temperature step solutions) are temperature independent (this is not the case due to the temperature dependency of material parameters). The present work offers a simple method to approximate a material's temperature dependency using multiple reference unit solutions and an interpolation procedure. Thermal stress histories are predicted and compared for realistic temperature cycles using distinct techniques. The proposed interpolation method generally performs as well as (if not better) than the optimum single Green's function or the previously-suggested weighting function technique (particularly for large temperature increments). Coefficients of determination are typically above 0 . 96 , and peak stress differences between true and predicted datasets are always less than 10 MPa.

  1. Statistical analysis of parameters of river waters of Tikara and Brahmani near the proposed super thermal power plant site at Talcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, G.E.; Muthu Kumar, M.

    1997-01-01

    A detailed study on water quality was conducted on rivers Tikara and Brahmani one of which (Brahmani) is the source of water for super thermal power plant in Talcher, Orissa. Four sites were selected for study, 2 in Tikara and the rest in Brahmani. Person's correlation coefficient was worked for all the water quality parameters. High correlations were observed between conductivity with TDS, calcium and chlorides. High correlations were also observed between hardness with chlorides and calcium, and it has been concluded that the result will help in the calculation of some of the parameters without experimental determination. The analyses, show that there is no appreciable pollution in these rivers. However, flyash and pollutants from thermal plant might pollute these rivers. Suggestions have been given to abate pollution. (author)

  2. Characterization of ash pond ashes from 3rd thermal power plant by SEM/EDX and XRD methods

    OpenAIRE

    A Minjigmaa; Ts Zolzaya; E Bayanjargal; B Davaabal; J Temuujin

    2014-01-01

      Coal combustion by products from ash pond of 3rdthermal power plant of Ulaanbaatar city have been collected in 2010 and 2013 years. The ash samples have been characterized by XRD, XRF and SEM-EDX methods in order to evaluate their chemical and mineralogical composition changes with disposed times. The mineralogical composition of ash varies with time though the chemical composition of the ashes were close each other. Possibly, inefficient operating condition of the TPS shows influence on th...

  3. International power plant business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohe, R.

    1986-03-03

    At the Brown Boveri press seminar 'Energy' in Baden-Baden Rainer Grohe, member of the Brown Boveri board, Mannheim, gave a survey of the activities on the international power plant market in recent years. He showed the vacuities which must be taken into account in this sector today. The drastic escalation of demands on power plant suppliers has lead not to a reduction of protagonists but to an increase. (orig.).

  4. Phase 1 of the First Small Power System Experiment (engineering Experiment No. 1). Volume 4: Commercial System Definition. [development and testing of a solar thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The development and design of a modular solar thermal power system for application in the 1 to 10 MWe range is described. The system is used in remote utility applications, small communities, rural areas, and for industrial uses. The operational reliability, the minimum risk of failure, and the maintenance and repair characteristics are determined and the commercial system design is defined.

  5. Offshore atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Various merits of offshore atomic power plants are illustrated, and their systems are assessed. The planning of the offshore atomic power plants in USA is reviewed, and the construction costs of the offshore plant in Japan were estimated. Air pollution problem may be solved by the offshore atomic power plants remarkably. Deep water at low temperature may be advantageously used as cooling water for condensers. Marine resources may be bred by building artificial habitats and by providing spring-up equipments. In the case of floating plants, the plant design can be standardized so that the construction costs may be reduced. The offshore plants can be classified into three systems, namely artificial island system, floating system and sea bottom-based system. The island system may be realized with the present level of civil engineering, but requires the development of technology for the resistance of base against earthquake and its calculation means. The floating system may be constructed with conventional power plant engineering and shipbuilding engineering, but the aseismatic stability of breakwater may be a problem to be solved. Deep water floating system and deep water submerging system are conceivable, but its realization may be difficult. The sea bottom-based system with large caissons can be realized by the present civil engineering, but the construction of the caissons, stability against earthquake and resistance to waves may be problems to be solved. The technical prediction and assessment of new plant sites for nuclear power plants have been reported by Science and Technology Agency in 1974. The construction costs of an offshore plant has been estimated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to be yen71,026/kW as of 1985. (Iwakiri, K.)

  6. Nuclear power plants and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabas, K [Ceskoslovenska Komise pro Atomovou Energii, Prague

    1978-05-01

    The environmental impacts are compared of conventional coal-fired and oil-fired power plants and of nuclear power plants. The values are compared of SO/sub 2/, NO/sub 2/, ash and soot emissions with /sup 133/Xe and /sup 85/Kr fission products release and the requirement for air for diluting these emissions in the atmosphere is assessed. Also compared are thermal pollution from an oil-fired power plant and from PWR and fast reactor power plants. The conclusion is arrived at that nuclear energy can solve the problem of increasing demand for electric and heat power while reducing negative environmental impacts.

  7. Nuclear power plants and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabas, K.

    1978-01-01

    The environmental impacts are compared of conventional coal-fired and oil-fired power plants and of nuclear power plants. The values are compared of SO 2 , NO 2 , ash and soot emmisions with 133 Xe and 85 Kr fission products release and the requirement for air for diluting these emissions in the atmosphere is assessed. Also compared are thermal pollution from an oil-fired power plant and from PWR and fast reactor power plants. The conclusion is arrived at that nuclear energy can solve the problem of increasing demand for electric and heat power while reducing negative environmental impacts. (O.K.)

  8. Performance model to assist solar thermal power plant siting in northern Chile based on backup fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrain, Teresita; Escobar, Rodrigo; Vergara, Julio [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Metalurgica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-08-15

    In response to environmental awareness, Chile introduced sustainability goals in its electricity law. Power producers must deliver 5% from renewable sources by 2010 and 10% by 2024. The Chilean desert has a large available surface with one of the highest radiation levels and clearest skies in the World. These factors imply that solar power is an option for this task. However, a commercial plant requires a fossil fuel system to backup the sunlight intermittency. The authors developed a thermodynamical model to estimate the backup fraction needed in a 100 MW hybrid -solar-fossil- parabolic trough power plant. This paper presents the model aiming to predicting the performance and exploring its usefulness in assisting site selection among four locations. Since solar radiation data are only available in a monthly average, we introduced two approaches to feed the model. One data set provided an average month with identical days throughout and the other one considered an artificial month of different daylight profiles on an hourly basis for the same monthly average. We recommend a best plant location based on minimum fossil fuel backup, contributing to optimal siting from the energy perspective. Utilities will refine their policy goals more closely when a precise solar energy data set becomes available. (author)

  9. Power plants 2010. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The proceedings include the following lectures: Facing the challenges - new structures for electricity production. Renewable energies in Europe - chances and challenges. Nuclear outlook in the UK. Sustainable energy for Europe. Requirements of the market and the grid operator at the electricity production companies. Perspectives for the future energy production. Pumped storage plants - status and perspectives. Nuclear power/renewable energies -partners or opponents? New fossil fired