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Sample records for thermal pain sensation

  1. Thermal grill-evoked sensations of heat correlate with cold pain threshold and are enhanced by menthol and cinnamaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbeck, B; Rucker, F; Laubender, R P; Carr, R W

    2013-05-01

    Thunberg's thermal grill produces a sensation of strong heat upon skin contact with spatially interlaced innocuous warm and cool stimuli. To examine the classes of peripheral axons that might contribute to this illusion, the effects of topical l-menthol, an activator of TRPM8, and cinnamaldehyde, a TRPA1 agonist, on the magnitude of thermal sensations were examined during grill stimulation in healthy volunteers. Under control conditions, cutaneous grill stimulation (interlaced 20/40 °C) evoked a sensation of heat, and for individual subjects, the magnitude of this heat sensation was positively correlated with cold pain threshold (CPT). Menthol increased the CPT and enhanced the magnitude of grill-evoked heat. Cinnamaldehyde intensified warm sensations, reduced heat pain threshold and also enhanced grill-evoked heat. Both TRPM8-expressing and TRPA1-expressing afferent axons can affect grill-evoked thermal sensations. The enhancement of grill-evoked sensations of temperature with menthol and cinnamaldehyde may provide an additional clinically relevant means of testing altered thermal sensitivity, which is often affected in neuropathic patient groups. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  2. Pain and thermal sensation in the cold: the effect of interval versus continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Matthew D; Muller, Sarah M; Ryan, Edward J; Bellar, David M; Kim, Chul-Ho; Glickman, Ellen L

    2011-06-01

    Military and factory work often involves exposure to cold temperatures. With prolonged exposure, individuals report feeling cold and develop pain in their hands, both of which might be alleviated by endogenous heat production via exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how interval (INT) and continuous (CONT) cycle ergometry alter thermal sensation, hand pain, mean finger temperature, and skin surface temperature gradient (forearm-finger) following immobility in moderate cold. Fourteen young men underwent two trials (each was three total hours in 5°C) consisting of a 90-min period of acute cold exposure (ACE), 30 min of exercise (INT or CONT), and a 60-min recovery period (REC). INT and CONT were isoenergetic, reflecting 50 ± 1% of each individual's VO(2) peak. All perceptual scales were significantly correlated during ACE (i.e., test-retest reliability). As expected, individuals felt colder and reported more hand pain during ACE, as compared to thermoneutral conditions. Relative to ACE, both INT and CONT increased mean finger temperature, which was associated with warmer thermal sensation and less hand pain. During REC in 5°C, individuals felt colder and reported more hand pain than during exercise. Although there were no perceptual differences between INT and CONT, moderate exercise in general can cause subjective feelings of warmth and less hand pain in people acutely exposed to moderate cold.

  3. Challenging the assumptions for thermal sensation scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Fuchs, Xaver; Becker, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Scales are widely used to assess the personal experience of thermal conditions in built environments. Most commonly, thermal sensation is assessed, mainly to determine whether a particular thermal condition is comfortable for individuals. A seven-point thermal sensation scale has been used...... extensively, which is suitable for describing a one-dimensional relationship between physical parameters of indoor environments and subjective thermal sensation. However, human thermal comfort is not merely a physiological but also a psychological phenomenon. Thus, it should be investigated how scales for its...... assessment could benefit from a multidimensional conceptualization. The common assumptions related to the usage of thermal sensation scales are challenged, empirically supported by two analyses. These analyses show that the relationship between temperature and subjective thermal sensation is non...

  4. Effect of wind speed on human thermal sensation and thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yuhan

    2018-06-01

    In this experiment, a method of questionnaire survey was adopted. By changing the air flow rate under the indoor and outdoor natural conditions, the subjective Thermal Sensation Vote (TSV) and the Thermal Comfort Vote (TCV) were recorded. The draft sensation can reduce the thermal sensation, but the draft sensation can cause discomfort, and the thermal comfort in a windy environment is lower than in a windless environment. When the temperature rises or the level of human metabolism increases, the person feels heat, the demand for draft sensation increases, and the uncomfortable feeling caused by the draft sensation may be reduced. Increasing the air flow within a certain range can be used to compensate for the increase in temperature.

  5. The delayed reproduction of long time intervals defined by innocuous thermal sensation.

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    Khoshnejad, Mina; Martinu, Kristina; Grondin, Simon; Rainville, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The presence of discrete events during an interval to be estimated generally causes a dilation of perceived duration (event-filling effect). Here, we investigated this phenomenon in the thermal modality using multi-seconds (19 s) innocuous cool stimuli that were either constant (continuous interval) or fluctuating to create three discrete sensory events (segmented interval). Moreover, we introduced a delay following stimulus offset, before the reproduction phase, to allow for a direct comparison with our recent study showing an underestimation of duration in a delayed reproduction task of heat pain sensations (Khoshnejad et al. in Pain 155:581-590, 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2013.12.015 ). The event-filling effect was tested by comparing the delayed reproduction of the segmented and the continuous stimuli in experimental conditions asking participants to (1) reproduce the dynamics of the sensation (i.e., changes in sensory intensity over time) or (2) reproduce only the interval duration (i.e., sensation onset-to-offset). A perceptual (control) condition required participants to report changes in sensation concurrently with the stimulus. Results of the dynamic task confirmed the underestimation of duration in the delayed reproduction task, but this effect was only found with the continuous and not with the segmented stimulus. This implies that the dilation of duration produced by segmentation might compensate for the underestimation of duration in this delayed reproduction task. However, this temporal dilation effect was only observed when participants were required to attend and reproduce the dynamics of sensation. These results suggest that the event-filling effect can be observed in the thermal sensory modality and that attention directed toward changes in sensory intensity might contribute to this effect.

  6. Thermal sensation models: a systematic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelblen, B; Psikuta, A; Bogdan, A; Annaheim, S; Rossi, R M

    2017-05-01

    Thermal sensation models, capable of predicting human's perception of thermal surroundings, are commonly used to assess given indoor conditions. These models differ in many aspects, such as the number and type of input conditions, the range of conditions in which the models can be applied, and the complexity of equations. Moreover, the models are associated with various thermal sensation scales. In this study, a systematic comparison of seven existing thermal sensation models has been performed with regard to exposures including various air temperatures, clothing thermal insulation, and metabolic rate values after a careful investigation of the models' range of applicability. Thermo-physiological data needed as input for some of the models were obtained from a mathematical model for human physiological responses. The comparison showed differences between models' predictions for the analyzed conditions, mostly higher than typical intersubject differences in votes. Therefore, it can be concluded that the choice of model strongly influences the assessment of indoor spaces. The issue of comparing different thermal sensation scales has also been discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Prognostic value of thumb pain sensation in birth brachial plexopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O. Heise

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of absent thumb pain sensation in newborns and young infants with birth brachial plexopathy. METHODS: We evaluated 131 patients with birth brachial plexopathy with less than two months of age. Pain sensation was evoked by thumb nail bed compression to evaluate sensory fibers of the upper trunk (C6. The patients were followed-up monthly. Patients with less than antigravity elbow flexion at six months of age were considered to have a poor outcome. RESULTS: Thirty patients had absent thumb pain sensation, from which 26 showed a poor outcome. Sensitivity of the test was 65% and specificity was 96%. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of thumb pain sensation should be included in the clinical assessment of infants with birth brachial plexopathy.

  8. BOLD responses in somatosensory cortices better reflect heat sensation than pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Eric A; Pendse, Gautam; Becerra, Lino R; Borsook, David

    2012-04-25

    The discovery of cortical networks that participate in pain processing has led to the common generalization that blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses in these areas indicate the processing of pain. Physical stimuli have fundamental properties that elicit sensations distinguishable from pain, such as heat. We hypothesized that pain intensity coding may reflect the intensity coding of heat sensation during the presentation of thermal stimuli during fMRI. Six 3T fMRI heat scans were collected for 16 healthy subjects, corresponding to perceptual levels of "low innocuous heat," "moderate innocuous heat," "high innocuous heat," "low painful heat," "moderate painful heat," and "high painful heat" delivered by a contact thermode to the face. Subjects rated pain and heat intensity separately after each scan. A general linear model analysis detected different patterns of brain activation for the different phases of the biphasic response to heat. During high painful heat, the early phase was associated with significant anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex activation. Persistent responses were detected in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobule. Only the late phase showed significant correlations with perceptual ratings. Significant heat intensity correlated activation was identified in contralateral primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, motor cortex, and superior temporal lobe. These areas were significantly more related to heat ratings than pain. These results indicate that heat intensity is encoded by the somatosensory cortices, and that pain evaluation may either arise from multimodal evaluative processes, or is a distributed process.

  9. Why harmless sensations might hurt in individuals with chronic pain: About heightened prediction and perception of pain in the mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Hechler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In individuals with chronic pain harmless bodily sensations can elicit anticipatory fear of pain resulting in maladaptive responses such as taking pain medication. Here, we aim to broaden the perspective taking into account recent evidence that suggests that interoceptive perception is largely a construction of beliefs, which are based on past experience and that are kept in check by the actual state of the body. Taking a Bayesian perspective, we propose that individuals with chronic pain display a heightened prediction of pain (prior probability p(pain, which results in heightened pain perception (posterior probability p(pain|sensation due to an assumed link between pain and a harmless bodily sensation (p(sensation│pain. This pain perception emerges because their mind infers pain as the most likely cause for the sensation. When confronted with a mismatch between predicted pain and a (harmless bodily sensation, individuals with chronic pain try to minimize the mismatch most likely by active inference of pain or by an attentional shift. The active inference results in activities that produce a stronger sensation that will match with the prediction, allowing subsequent perceptual inference of pain. Here, we depict heightened pain perception in individuals with chronic pain by reformulating and extending the assumptions of the interoceptive predictive coding model from a Bayesian perspective. The review concludes with a research agenda and clinical considerations.

  10. 'Errors of Judgment': The Case of Pain Sensations | Loonat | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hill, in his paper 'Introspective Awareness of Sensations', argues that we do sometimes commit 'errors of judgment' and he draws on an example that involves the perception of pain to illustrate his point. I analyze Hill's example and draw on other examples of pain sensations to show how errors of judgment are not possible.

  11. Estimation of Thermal Sensation Based on Wrist Skin Temperatures

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    Sim, Soo Young; Koh, Myung Jun; Joo, Kwang Min; Noh, Seungwoo; Park, Sangyun; Kim, Youn Ho; Park, Kwang Suk

    2016-01-01

    Thermal comfort is an essential environmental factor related to quality of life and work effectiveness. We assessed the feasibility of wrist skin temperature monitoring for estimating subjective thermal sensation. We invented a wrist band that simultaneously monitors skin temperatures from the wrist (i.e., the radial artery and ulnar artery regions, and upper wrist) and the fingertip. Skin temperatures from eight healthy subjects were acquired while thermal sensation varied. To develop a thermal sensation estimation model, the mean skin temperature, temperature gradient, time differential of the temperatures, and average power of frequency band were calculated. A thermal sensation estimation model using temperatures of the fingertip and wrist showed the highest accuracy (mean root mean square error [RMSE]: 1.26 ± 0.31). An estimation model based on the three wrist skin temperatures showed a slightly better result to the model that used a single fingertip skin temperature (mean RMSE: 1.39 ± 0.18). When a personalized thermal sensation estimation model based on three wrist skin temperatures was used, the mean RMSE was 1.06 ± 0.29, and the correlation coefficient was 0.89. Thermal sensation estimation technology based on wrist skin temperatures, and combined with wearable devices may facilitate intelligent control of one’s thermal environment. PMID:27023538

  12. Regional differences in temperature sensation and thermal comfort in humans.

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    Nakamura, Mayumi; Yoda, Tamae; Crawshaw, Larry I; Yasuhara, Saki; Saito, Yasuyo; Kasuga, Momoko; Nagashima, Kei; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2008-12-01

    Sensations evoked by thermal stimulation (temperature-related sensations) can be divided into two categories, "temperature sensation" and "thermal comfort." Although several studies have investigated regional differences in temperature sensation, less is known about the sensitivity differences in thermal comfort for the various body regions. In the present study, we examined regional differences in temperature-related sensations with special attention to thermal comfort. Healthy male subjects sitting in an environment of mild heat or cold were locally cooled or warmed with water-perfused stimulators. Areas stimulated were the face, chest, abdomen, and thigh. Temperature sensation and thermal comfort of the stimulated areas were reported by the subjects, as was whole body thermal comfort. During mild heat exposure, facial cooling was most comfortable and facial warming was most uncomfortable. On the other hand, during mild cold exposure, neither warming nor cooling of the face had a major effect. The chest and abdomen had characteristics opposite to those of the face. Local warming of the chest and abdomen did produce a strong comfort sensation during whole body cold exposure. The thermal comfort seen in this study suggests that if given the chance, humans would preferentially cool the head in the heat, and they would maintain the warmth of the trunk areas in the cold. The qualitative differences seen in thermal comfort for the various areas cannot be explained solely by the density or properties of the peripheral thermal receptors and thus must reflect processing mechanisms in the central nervous system.

  13. Comparison of thermal comfort and sensation scales : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vesely, Michal; Zeiler, Wim; Li, Rongling; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; te Kulve, M.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal sensation is a conscious feeling that grades the thermal environment, while thermal comfort expresses satisfaction with this feeling. Multiple scales to quantify thermal sensation and comfort have been developed throughout the history of research on thermal comfort. In this paper, the most

  14. Cognitive Appraisals Affect Both Embodiment of Thermal Sensation and Its Mapping to Thermal Evaluation.

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    Keeling, Trevor P; Roesch, Etienne B; Clements-Croome, Derek

    2016-01-01

    The physical environment leads to a thermal sensation that is perceived and appraised by occupants. The present study focuses on the relationship between sensation and evaluation. We asked 166 people to recall a thermal event from their recent past. They were then asked how they evaluated this experience in terms of 10 different emotions (frustrated, resigned, dislike, indifferent, angry, anxious, liking, joyful, regretful, proud). We tested whether four psychological factors (appraisal dimensions) could be used to predict the ensuing emotions, as well as comfort, acceptability, and sensation. The four dimensions were: the Conduciveness of the event, who/what caused the event (Causality), who had control (Agency), and whether the event was expected (Expectations). These dimensions, except for Expectations, were good predictors of the reported emotions. Expectations, however, predicted the reported thermal sensation, its acceptability, and ensuing comfort. The more expected an event was, the more uncomfortable a person felt, and the less likely they reported a neutral thermal sensation. Together, these results support an embodied view of how subjective appraisals affect thermal experience. Overall, we show that appraisal dimensions mediate occupants' evaluation of their thermal sensation, which suggests an additional method for understanding psychological adaption.

  15. Thermal sensation and thermophysiological responses with metabolic step-changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goto, Tomonobu; Toftum, Jørn; deDear, Richard

    2006-01-01

    at sedentary activity. In a second experimental series, subjects alternated between rest and exercise as well as between exercise at different intensities at two temperature levels. Measurements comprised skin and oesophageal temperatures, heart rate and subjective responses. Thermal sensation started to rise....... The sensitivity of thermal sensation to changes in core temperature was higher for activity down-steps than for up-steps. A model was proposed that estimates transient thermal sensation after metabolic step-changes. Based on predictions by the model, weighting factors were suggested to estimate a representative...... average metabolic rate with varying activity levels, e.g. for the prediction of thermal sensation by steady-state comfort models. The activity during the most recent 5 min should be weighted 65%, during the prior 10-5 min 25% and during the prior 20-10 min 10%....

  16. Estimation of thermal sensation during varied air temperature conditions.

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    Katsuura, T; Tabuchi, R; Iwanaga, K; Harada, H; Kikuchi, Y

    1998-03-01

    Seven male students were exposed to four varied air temperature environments: hot (37 degrees C) to neutral (27 degrees C) (HN), neutral to hot (NH), cool (17 degrees C) to neutral (CN), and neutral to cool (NC). The air temperature was maintained at the first condition for 20 min, then was changed to the second condition after 15 min and was held there for 20 min. Each subject wore a T-shirt, briefs, trunks, and socks. Each sat on a chair and was continuously evaluated for thermal sensation, thermal comfort, and air velocity sensation. Some physiological and thermal parameters were also measured every 5 s during the experiment. The correlation between thermal sensation and skin temperature at 15 sites was found to be poor. The subjects felt much warmer during the rising phase of the air temperature (CN, NH) than during the descending phase (HN, NC) at a given mean skin temperature. However, thermal sensation at the same heat flux or at the same value of the difference between skin and air temperature (delta(Tsk - Ta)) was not so different among the four experimental conditions, and the correlation between thermal sensation and heat flux or delta(Tsk - Ta) was fairly good. The multiple regression equation of the thermal sensation (TS) on 15 sites of skin temperature (Tsk; degrees C) was calculated and the coefficient of determination (R*2) was found to be 0.656. Higher coefficients of determination were found in the equations of thermal sensation for the heat flux (H; kcal.m-2.h-1) at the right and left thighs of the subjects and on delta(Tsk - Ta) (degrees C) at 4 sites. They were as follows: TS = 2.04 - 0.016 Hright - 0.036 Hleft; R*2 = 0.717, TS = 1.649 + 0.013 delta(Tsk - Ta)UpperArm - 0.036 delta(Tsk - Ta)Chest - 0.223 delta(Tsk - Ta)Thigh-0.083 delta(Tsk - Ta)LowerLeg; R*2 = 0.752, respectively.

  17. Is the Experience of Thermal Pain Genetics Dependent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Horjales-Araujo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested that genetic variations explain a significant portion of the variability in pain perception; therefore, increased understanding of pain-related genetic influences may identify new targets for therapies and treatments. The relative contribution of the different genes to the variance in clinical and experimental pain responses remains unknown. It is suggested that the genetic contributions to pain perception vary across pain modalities. For example, it has been suggested that more than 60% of the variance in cold pressor responses can be explained by genetic factors; in comparison, only 26% of the variance in heat pain responses is explained by these variations. Thus, the selection of pain model might markedly influence the magnitude of the association between the pain phenotype and genetic variability. Thermal pain sensation is complex with multiple molecular and cellular mechanisms operating alone and in combination within the peripheral and central nervous system. It is thus highly probable that the thermal pain experience is affected by genetic variants in one or more of the pathways involved in the thermal pain signaling. This review aims to present and discuss some of the genetic variations that have previously been associated with different experimental thermal pain models.

  18. Thermal sensation and thermal comfort in changing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velt, K.B.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to investigate thermal sensation (TS) and thermal comfort (TC) in changing environments. Therefore, 10 subjects stayed in a 30 °C, 50% relative humidity for 30 min in summer clothes and then moved to a 20 °C room where they remained seated for 30 min (Hot to Reference

  19. Humans, but not animals, perceive the thermal grill illusion as painful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettger, Michael K; Ditze, Günter; Bär, Karl-Juergen; Krüdewagen, Eva Maria; Schaible, Hans-Georg

    2016-10-15

    Simultaneous presentation of alternating innocuous warm and cold stimuli induces in most humans a painful sensation called thermal grill illusion (TGI). Here, pain is elicited although nociceptors are not activated. Upon back-translation of behavioural correlates from humans to animals, we found that neither cats nor rodents show adverse reactions when exposed to TGI stimulation. These results question that a TGI observed as a pain-related change in behaviour can be elicited in animals. While distinct neuronal patterns as previously reported may be measurable in animals upon TGI stimulation, their translational meaning towards the sensation elicited in humans is unclear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tlx3 Function in the Dorsal Root Ganglion is Pivotal to Itch and Pain Sensations

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    Chengcheng Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Itch, a sensation eliciting a desire to scratch, is distinct from but not completely independent of pain. Inspiring achievements have been made in the characterization of itch-related receptors and neurotransmitters, but the molecular mechanisms controlling the development of pruriceptors remain poorly understood. Here, our RNAseq and in situ hybridization data show that the transcription factor Tlx3 is required for the expression of a majority of itch-related molecules in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG. As a result, Tlx3F/F;Nav1.8-cre mice exhibit significantly attenuated acute and dry skin-induced chronic itch. Furthermore, our study indicates that TRPV1 plays a pivotal role in the chronic itch evoked by dry skin and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD. The mutants also display impaired response to cold and inflammatory pain and elevated response to capsaicin, whereas the responses to acute mechanical, thermal stimuli and neuropathic pain remain normal. In Tlx3F/F;Nav1.8-cre mice, TRPV1 is derepressed and expands predominantly into IB4+ non-peptidergic (NP neurons. Collectively, our data reveal a molecular mechanism in regulating the development of pruriceptors and controlling itch and pain sensations.

  1. Effect of thermal stresses on the mechanism of tooth pain.

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    Oskui, Iman Z; Ashtiani, Mohammed N; Hashemi, Ata; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2014-11-01

    Daily hot and cold thermal loadings on teeth may result in structural deformation, mechanical stress, and pain signaling. The aim of this study was to compare the adverse effects of hot and cold beverages on an intact tooth and, then, to provide physical evidence to support the hydrodynamic theory of tooth pain sensation mechanism. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was performed on a premolar model subjected to hot and cold thermal loadings. Elapsed times for heat diffusion and stress detection at the pulp-dentin junction were calculated as measures of the pain sensation. Extreme tensile stress within the enamel resulted in damage in cold loadings. Also, extreme values of stress at the pulpal wall occurred 21.6 seconds earlier than extreme temperatures in hot and cold loadings. The intact tooth was remarkably vulnerable to cold loading. Earlier changes in mechanical stress rather than temperature at the pulp-dentin junction indicate that the dental pain caused by hot or cold beverages may be based on the hydrodynamic theory. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The relationship between bioclimatic thermal stress and subjective thermal sensation in pedestrian spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlmutter, David; Jiao, Dixin; Garb, Yaakov

    2014-12-01

    Outdoor thermal comfort has important implications for urban planning and energy consumption in the built environment. To better understand the relation of subjective thermal experience to bioclimatic thermal stress in such contexts, this study compares micrometeorological and perceptual data from urban spaces in the hot-arid Negev region of Israel. Pedestrians reported on their thermal sensation in these spaces, whereas radiation and convection-related data were used to compute the Index of Thermal Stress (ITS) and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The former is a straightforward characterization of energy exchanges between the human body and its surroundings, without any conversion to an "equivalent temperature." Although the relation of ITS to subjective thermal sensation has been analyzed in the past under controlled indoor conditions, this paper offers the first analysis of this relation in an outdoor setting. ITS alone can account for nearly 60 % of the variance in pedestrians' thermal sensation under outdoor conditions, somewhat more than PET. A series of regressions with individual contextual variables and ITS identified those factors which accounted for additional variance in thermal sensation, whereas multivariate analyses indicated the considerable predictive power ( R-square = 0.74) of models including multiple contextual variables in addition to ITS. Our findings indicate that pedestrians experiencing variable outdoor conditions have a greater tolerance for incremental changes in thermal stress than has been shown previously under controlled indoor conditions, with a tapering of responses at high values of ITS. However, the thresholds of ITS corresponding to thermal "neutrality" and thermal "acceptability" are quite consistent regardless of context.

  3. Thermal sensation and comfort models for non-uniform and transient environments: Part III: whole-body sensation and comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward; Huizenga, Charlie; Han, Taeyoung

    2009-01-01

    A three-part series presents the development of models for predicting the local thermal sensation (Part I) and local thermal comfort (Part II) of different parts of the human body, and also the whole-body sensation and comfort (Part III) that result from combinations of local sensation and comfort. The models apply to sedentary activities in a range of environments: uniform and non-uniform, stable and transient. They are based on diverse findings from the literature and from body-part-specifi...

  4. Experimental study of the influence of anticipated control on human thermal sensation and thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Ouyang, Q; Zhu, Y; Feng, C; Zhang, X

    2014-04-01

    To investigate whether occupants' anticipated control of their thermal environment can influence their thermal comfort and to explain why the acceptable temperature range in naturally ventilated environments is greater than that in air-conditioned environments, a series of experiments were conducted in a climate chamber in which the thermal environment remained the same but the psychological environment varied. The results of the experiments show that the ability to control the environment can improve occupants' thermal sensation and thermal comfort. Specifically, occupants' anticipated control decreased their thermal sensation vote (TSV) by 0.4-0.5 and improved their thermal comfort vote (TCV) by 0.3-0.4 in neutral-warm environment. This improvement was due exclusively to psychological factors. In addition, having to pay the cost of cooling had no significant influence on the occupants' thermal sensation and thermal comfort in this experiment. Thus, having the ability to control the thermal environment can improve occupants' comfort even if there is a monetary cost involved. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Subjective thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate: analysis and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Dovjak, M.; Kolarik, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    , it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. There is a need to verify the human-body exergy model with the Thermal-Sensation (TS) response of subjects exposed to different combinations of indoor climate parameters (temperature, humidity, etc.). First results...... available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation showed that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to slightly cool side of thermal sensation. By applying...... the exergy concept to the built indoor environment, additional results are going to be explored. By using the data available so far of operative temperature (to), the human body exergy consumption rates increase as to increases above 24°C or decreases below 22°C at relative humidity (RH) lower than 50...

  6. Conditioned pain modulation dampens the thermal grill illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D E; Hollins, M

    2017-10-01

    The thermal grill illusion (TGI) refers to the perception of burning heat and often pain that arises from simultaneous cutaneous application of innocuous warm and cool stimuli. This study utilized conditioned pain modulation (CPM) to help elucidate the TGI's underlying neural mechanisms, including the debated role of ascending nociceptive signals in generating the illusion. To trigger CPM, subjects placed the left hand in noxious cold (6 °C) water before placing the right volar forearm onto a thermal grill. Lower pain and unpleasantness ratings of the grill in this CPM run compared to those in a control run (i.e. 33 °C water) were taken as evidence of CPM. To determine whether CPM reduces noxious heat pain and illusory heat pain equally, an experimental group of subjects rated pain and unpleasantness of a grill consisting of innocuous alternating warm (42 °C) and cool (18 °C) bars, while a control group rated a grill with all bars controlled to a noxious temperature (45 °C). CPM produced significant and comparable reductions in pain, unpleasantness and perceived heat of both noxious heat and the TGI. This result suggests that the TGI results from signals in nociceptive dorsal horn convergent neurons, since CPM involves descending inhibition with high selectivity for this neuronal population. More broadly, CPM's ability to produce a shift in perceived thermal sensation of both noxious heat and the TGI from 'hot' to 'warm' implies that nociceptive signals generated by a cutaneous stimulus can contribute to its perceived thermal intensity. Conditioned pain modulation reduces the perceived painfulness, unpleasantness and heat of the thermal grill illusion and noxious heat similarly. The results have important theoretical implications for both types of pain. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  7. Human thermal sensation and comfort in a non-uniform environment with personalized heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qihong; Wang, Runhuai; Li, Yuguo; Miao, Yufeng; Zhao, Jinping

    2017-02-01

    Thermal comfort in traditionally uniform environment is apparent and can be improved by increasing energy expenses. To save energy, non-uniform environment implemented by personalized conditioning system attracts considerable attention, but human response in such environment is unclear. To investigate regional- and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort in a cool environment with personalized heating. In total 36 subjects (17 males and 19 females) including children, adults and the elderly, were involved in our experiment. Each subject was first asked to sit on a seat in an 18°C chamber (uniform environment) for 40min and then sit on a heating seat in a 16°C chamber (non-uniform environment) for another 40min after 10min break. Subjects' regional- and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort were surveyed by questionnaire and their skin temperatures were measured by wireless sensors. We statistically analyzed subjects' thermal sensation and comfort and their skin temperatures in different age and gender groups and compared them between the uniform and non-uniform environments. Overall thermal sensation and comfort votes were respectively neutral and just comfortable in 16°C chamber with personalized heating, which were significantly higher than those in 18°C chamber without heating (pthermal sensation and comfort was consistent in subjects of different age and gender. However, adults and the females were more sensitive to the effect of personalized heating and felt cooler and less comfort than children/elderly and the males respectively. Variations of the regional thermal sensation/comfort across human body were consistent with those of skin temperature. Personalized heating significantly improved human thermal sensation and comfort in non-uniform cooler environment, probably due to the fact that it increased skin temperature. However, the link between thermal sensation/comfort and variations of skin temperature is rather complex and warrant further

  8. Atypical central pain processing in sensory modulation disorder: absence of temporal summation and higher after-sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Shalita, T; Vatine, J-J; Yarnitsky, D; Parush, S; Weissman-Fogel, I

    2014-02-01

    Sensory over-responsivity (SOR), a subtype of the proposed sensory modulation disorder (SMD), is characterized by over-responsiveness to stimuli in several sensory modalities. SMD individuals demonstrate abnormal responses to naturally occurring stimuli in a manner that interferes with daily life participation. Previous psychophysical testing of the somatosensory system revealed that SOR individuals rated pain sensations higher than controls, demonstrating hyperalgesia that can be centrally mediated. Temporal summation (TS) of second pain and after-sensation are manifestations of central sensitization; therefore, this study explored these measures for better characterization of central pain processing in SOR. Twelve SOR adults and 12 healthy controls participated. TS was produced by a train of fifteen repetitive heat pulses, 0.7 s duration each, and 2 s of inter-stimulus interval, applied to the thenar-eminence, while four pain ratings were obtained. An after-sensation was then measured for 5 min, obtaining six pain ratings. No TS of pain was indicated in the SOR group (SOR: p = 0.36; control: p sensation, individuals with SOR continued to report pain for the duration of the 5 min measured (p = 0.002). These results demonstrate an atypical response pattern, suggesting alteration in pain processing and/or modulation at a central level in individuals with SOR. These possible neural changes may manifest themselves as interference with daily functioning as well as shed light on some of the between-subject variability seen in psychophysical testing in non-painful subjects.

  9. Thermal sensation and comfort models for non-uniform and transient environments, part III: Whole-body sensation and comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward; Huizenga, Charlie [Center for the Built Environment, UC Berkeley (United States); Han, Taeyoung [General Motors Company (United States)

    2010-02-15

    A three-part series presents the development of models for predicting the local thermal sensation (Part I) and local thermal comfort (Part II) of different parts of the human body, and also the whole-body sensation and comfort (Part III) that result from combinations of local sensation and comfort. The models apply to sedentary activities in a range of environments: uniform and non-uniform, stable and transient. They are based on diverse findings from the literature and from body-part-specific human subject tests in a climate chamber. They were validated against a test of automobile passengers. The series is intended to present the models' rationale, structure, and coefficients, so that others can test them and develop them further as additional empirical data becomes available. A) The whole-body (overall) sensation model has two forms, depending on whether all of the body's segments have sensations effectively in the same direction (e.g warm or cool), or whether some segments have sensations opposite to those of the rest of the body. For each, individual body parts have different weights for warm versus cool sensations, and strong local sensations dominate the overall sensation. If all sensations are near neutral, the overall sensation is close to the average of all body sensations. B) The overall comfort model also has two forms. Under stable conditions, people evaluate their overall comfort by a complaint-driven process, meaning that when two body parts are strongly uncomfortable, no matter how comfortable the other body parts might be, the overall comfort will be near the discomfort level of the two most uncomfortable parts. When the environmental conditions are transient, or people have control over their environments, overall comfort is better than that of the two most uncomfortable body parts. This can be accounted for by adding the most comfortable vote to the two most uncomfortable ones. (author)

  10. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...... sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation....... Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...

  11. The response of skin hardness and pain sensation to ultrasonic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shaimaa A. Hamid

    2014-03-17

    Mar 17, 2014 ... mation of LDS from venous hypertension are not known; it is likely to be .... position allowed the durometer to be both perpendicular to the leg and ... difference in pain sensation measured by NRS between control and study ...

  12. Transient thermal sensation and comfort resulting from adjustment of clothing insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goto, Tomonobu; Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the transient effects on human thermal responses of clothing adjustments. Two different levels of activity were tested, and the temperature was set to result in a warm or cool thermal sensation at each activity level. The subjects (12 females and 12 males) wore identical...... uniforms and were asked to take off or don a part of the uniform after they had adapted to the experimental conditions for more than 20 minutes. The results showed that the thermal sensation votes responded immediately to the adjustment of clothing insulation and reached a new steady-state level within 5...

  13. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Olesen, Bjarne W. [ICIEE/BYG, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Iwamatsu, Toshiya [Faculty of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Asada, Hideo [Architech Consulting Co., Tokyo (Japan); Dovjak, Mateja [Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Schellen, Lisje [Eindhoven University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture Building and Planning (Netherlands); Shukuya, Masanori [Laboratory of Building Environment, Tokyo City University, Yokohama (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Application of the exergy concept to research on the built environment is a relatively new approach. It helps to optimize climate conditioning systems so that they meet the requirements of sustainable building design. As the building should provide a healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation. Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy consumption rates increase as the operative temperature increases above 24 C or decreases below 22 C. With the data available so far, a second-order polynomial relationship between thermal sensation and the exergy consumption rate was established. (author)

  14. Impulsivity but not sensation seeking is associated with opioid analgesic misuse risk in patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Elise N; Rosen, Kristen D; Gutierrez, Antonio; Eckmann, Maxim; Ramamurthy, Somayaji; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe

    2013-05-01

    Impulsivity and sensation seeking have been associated with substance use disorders, including opioid use disorders. This pilot study sought to examine whether impulsivity and sensation seeking, as measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS), were associated with opioid analgesic misuse risk in chronic, low-back pain patients prescribed opioid analgesics. Participants were 42 chronic, low-back pain patients enrolled in a larger study examining problematic opioid analgesic use. Impulsivity was assessed using the BIS, sensation seeking was measured using the SSS, and opioid analgesic misuse risk was assessed using the Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM). Significant bivariate associations were found between the COMM and the following predictor variables: age and the three BIS subscales: Attentional Impulsiveness, Non-planning Impulsiveness, and Motor Impulsiveness. Using a multivariate linear regression, after controlling for age, the BIS subscales accounted for 29.0% of the variance in the COMM. Attentional Impulsiveness was the only significant BIS subscale. These results suggest a potential relationship between impulsivity, but not sensation seeking, and risk for opioid analgesic misuse. Impulsivity is not a prominent trait observed in chronic pain patients; however, it may be an important risk factor for opioid analgesic misuse for a subset of individuals with chronic pain. As such, these findings suggest that additional exploration of this potential risk factor is warranted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Design for thermal sensation and comfort states in vehicles cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahmer, Ali; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Omar, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript investigates the analysis and modeling of vehicular thermal comfort parameters using a set of designed experiments aided by thermography measurements. The experiments are conducted using a full size climatic chamber to host the test vehicle, to accurately assess the transient and steady state temperature distributions of the test vehicle cabin. Further investigate the thermal sensation (overall and local) and the human comfort states under artificially created relative humidity scenarios. The thermal images are calibrated through a thermocouples network, while the outside temperature and relative humidity are manipulated through the climatic environmental chamber with controlled soaking periods to guarantee the steady state conditions for each test scenario. The relative humidity inside the passenger cabin is controlled using a Total Humidity Controller (THC). The simulation uses the experimentally extracted boundary conditions via a 3-D Berkeley model that is set to be fully transient to account for the interactions in the velocity and temperature fields in the passenger compartment, which included interactions from turbulent flow, thermal buoyancy and the three modes of heat transfer conduction, convection and radiation. The model investigates the human comfort by analyzing the effect of the in-cabin relative humidity from two specific perspectives; firstly its effect on the body temporal variation of temperature within the cabin. Secondly, the Local Sensation (LS) and Comfort (LC) are analyzed for the different body segments in addition to the Overall Sensation (OS) and the Overall Comfort (OC). Furthermore, the human sensation is computed using the Fanger model in terms of the Predicted Mean Value (PMV) and the Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD) indices. The experimental and simulation results show that controlling the RH levels during the heating and the cooling processes (winter and summer conditions respectively) aid the A/C system to

  16. Thermal sensations and comfort investigations in transient conditions in tropical office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, Nur Dalilah; Gital, Yakubu Yau

    2016-05-01

    The study was done to identify affective and sensory responses observed as a result of hysteresis effects in transient thermal conditions consisting of warm-neutral and neutral - warm performed in a quasi-experiment setting. Air-conditioned building interiors in hot-humid areas have resulted in thermal discomfort and health risks for people moving into and out of buildings. Reports have shown that the instantaneous change in air temperature can cause abrupt thermoregulation responses. Thermal sensation vote (TSV) and thermal comfort vote (TCV) assessments as a consequence of moving through spaces with distinct thermal conditions were conducted in an existing single-story office in a hot-humid microclimate, maintained at an air temperature 24 °C (± 0.5), relative humidity 51% (± 7), air velocity 0.5 m/s (± 0.5), and mean radiant temperature (MRT) 26.6 °C (± 1.2). The measured office is connected to a veranda that showed the following semi-outdoor temperatures: air temperature 35 °C (± 2.1), relative humidity 43% (± 7), air velocity 0.4 m/s (± 0.4), and MRT 36.4 °C (± 2.9). Subjective assessments from 36 college-aged participants consisting of thermal sensations, preferences and comfort votes were correlated against a steady state predicted mean vote (PMV) model. Local skin temperatures on the forehead and dorsal left hand were included to observe physiological responses due to thermal transition. TSV for veranda-office transition showed that no significant means difference with TSV office-veranda transition were found. However, TCV collected from warm-neutral (-0.24, ± 1.2) and neutral-warm (-0.72, ± 1.3) conditions revealed statistically significant mean differences (p thermal transition after travel from warm-neutral-warm conditions did not replicate the hysteresis effects of brief, slightly cool, thermal sensations found in previous laboratory experiments. These findings also indicate that PMV is an acceptable alternative to predict thermal

  17. Thresholds and perception of cold pain, heat pain, and the thermal grill illusion in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettger, Michael Karl; Grossmann, David; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    The thermal grill illusion (TGI) in which interlacing cold and warm bars create the illusion of a painful sensation has been suggested as an experimental model for central pain states and pain processing. The aim of this study was to use this technique to gain further insights into the altered pain perception in major depressive disorder (MDD). In 18 unmedicated patients with MDD, cold and heat pain thresholds (CPT/HPT) as well as the perception of the TGI were examined and compared with 18 matched controls. CPT and HPT were significantly increased in patients (7.9°C and 47.5°C) compared with controls (15.9°C and 45.2°C, respectively; p painful by controls, the patients did not indicate painful sensations, thereby indicating a shift of the stimulus-response curve of TGI pain perception toward higher stimulus intensities, that is, greater temperature differentials between cold and warm bars (11.5°C for controls, 16.7°C for patients). The patients rated the pain intensity perceived at the respective pain thresholds (CPT and HPT) in tendency higher than did the controls, whereas they perceived the TGI less painful despite increased stimulus intensities. Unpleasantness ratings were similar between groups. CPT, HPT and temperature differentials for the perception of the TGI, were increased in patients with MDD as compared with controls. Pain intensity, however, was rated differently for CPT and HPT, where patients indicated higher ratings in tendency, and for the TGI stimulation, where pain was perceived less intense.

  18. Do people like to feel 'neutral'? Exploring the variation of the desired thermal sensation on the ASHRAE scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, Michael A; Hancock, Mary [Oxford Institute for Sustainable Development, Oxford Brookes University, Headington Campus, Gipsy Lane, Oxford OX3 0BP (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    This analysis explores the pattern of variation of the desired thermal sensation on the ASHRAE scale, applying the method of direct enquiry. Data are from studies of thermal comfort at university lectures and in selected dwellings. Respondents reported both their thermal sensation and the sensation they would have desired at that time. The data contain 868 comparisons of the actual and the desired sensation. On 57% of occasions the desired sensation was other than 'neutral'. The respondents did not always desire the same sensation, and the mean desired sensation differed systematically among the respondents. The mean desired sensation depended to some extent on the actual sensation, there being a positive correlation in the region from 'neutral' and 'warm' and a negative correlation outside this region. Sensations on the ASHRAE scale are shown to have more than one meaning. Adjusting the ASHRAE scale to allow for the desired sensation yields different distributions of thermal comfort and different group-optimum temperatures. The adjustment should therefore be applied whenever the ASHRAE scale is used. The implications for thermal simulation and for energy use in buildings are considered. (author)

  19. Pain and sensory detection threshold response to acupuncture is modulated by coping strategy and acupuncture sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeungchan; Napadow, Vitaly; Park, Kyungmo

    2014-09-01

    Acupuncture has been shown to reduce pain, and acupuncture-induced sensation may be important for this analgesia. In addition, cognitive coping strategies can influence sensory perception. However, the role of coping strategy on acupuncture modulation of pain and sensory thresholds, and the association between acupuncture sensation and these modulatory effects, is currently unknown. Electroacupuncture (EA) was applied at acupoints ST36 and GB39 of 61 healthy adults. Different coping conditions were experimentally designed to form an active coping strategy group (AC group), who thought they could control EA stimulation intensity, and a passive coping strategy group (PC group), who did not think they had such control. Importantly, neither group was actually able to control EA stimulus intensity. Quantitative sensory testing was performed before and after EA, and consisted of vibration (VDT), mechanical (MDT), warm (WDT), and cold (CDT) detection thresholds, and pressure (PPT), mechanical (MPT), heat (HPT) and cold (CPT) pain thresholds. Autonomic measures (e.g. skin conductance response, SCR) were also acquired to quantify physiological response to EA under different coping conditions. Subjects also reported the intensity of any acupuncture-induced sensations. Coping strategy was induced with successful blinding in 58% of AC subjects. Compared to PC, AC showed greater SCR to EA. Under AC, EA reduced PPT and CPT. In the AC group, improved pain and sensory thresholds were correlated with acupuncture sensation (VDTchange vs. MI: r=0.58, CDTchange vs. tingling: r=0.53, CPTchange vs. tingling; r=0.55, CPTchange vs. dull; r=0.55). However, in the PC group, improved sensory thresholds were negatively correlated with acupuncture sensation (CDTchange vs. intensity sensitization: r=-0.52, WDTchange vs. fullness: r=-0.57). Our novel approach was able to successfully induce AC and PC strategies to EA stimulation. The interaction between psychological coping strategy and

  20. The response of human thermal sensation and its prediction to temperature step-change (cool-neutral-cool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyuan Du

    Full Text Available This paper reports on studies of the effect of temperature step-change (between a cool and a neutral environment on human thermal sensation and skin temperature. Experiments with three temperature conditions were carried out in a climate chamber during the period in winter. Twelve subjects participated in the experiments simulating moving inside and outside of rooms or cabins with air conditioning. Skin temperatures and thermal sensation were recorded. Results showed overshoot and asymmetry of TSV due to the step-change. Skin temperature changed immediately when subjects entered a new environment. When moving into a neutral environment from cool, dynamic thermal sensation was in the thermal comfort zone and overshoot was not obvious. Air-conditioning in a transitional area should be considered to limit temperature difference to not more than 5°C to decrease the unacceptability of temperature step-change. The linear relationship between thermal sensation and skin temperature or gradient of skin temperature does not apply in a step-change environment. There is a significant linear correlation between TSV and Qloss in the transient environment. Heat loss from the human skin surface can be used to predict dynamic thermal sensation instead of the heat transfer of the whole human body.

  1. The Response of Human Thermal Sensation and Its Prediction to Temperature Step-Change (Cool-Neutral-Cool)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiuyuan; Li, Baizhan; Liu, Hong; Yang, Dong; Yu, Wei; Liao, Jianke; Huang, Zhichao; Xia, Kechao

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on studies of the effect of temperature step-change (between a cool and a neutral environment) on human thermal sensation and skin temperature. Experiments with three temperature conditions were carried out in a climate chamber during the period in winter. Twelve subjects participated in the experiments simulating moving inside and outside of rooms or cabins with air conditioning. Skin temperatures and thermal sensation were recorded. Results showed overshoot and asymmetry of TSV due to the step-change. Skin temperature changed immediately when subjects entered a new environment. When moving into a neutral environment from cool, dynamic thermal sensation was in the thermal comfort zone and overshoot was not obvious. Air-conditioning in a transitional area should be considered to limit temperature difference to not more than 5°C to decrease the unacceptability of temperature step-change. The linear relationship between thermal sensation and skin temperature or gradient of skin temperature does not apply in a step-change environment. There is a significant linear correlation between TSV and Qloss in the transient environment. Heat loss from the human skin surface can be used to predict dynamic thermal sensation instead of the heat transfer of the whole human body. PMID:25136808

  2. Investigating the Effects of Three Needling Parameters (Manipulation, Retention Time, and Insertion Site) on Needling Sensation and Pain Profiles: A Study of Eight Deep Needling Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyeung, Bertrand Y. K.; Cobbin, Deirdre M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In traditional Chinese acupuncture, needle sensation (deqi) is purported to contribute to a therapeutic outcome. While researchers have attempted to define deqi qualitatively, few have examined the effects of needling parameters on its intensity. Methods. 24 healthy subjects completed eight interventions scheduled at least one week apart, which involved manual acupuncture to LI4 or a designated nonacupoint (NAP) on the hand, with real or simulated manipulation each three minutes and needle retentions of one or 21 minutes. Intensities of needling sensation and pain were reported every three minutes and sensation qualities were reported post-intervention. Results. Immediately after needle insertion, similar levels of mean needle sensation and of pain were reported independent of intervention. At subsequent measurement times, only two interventions (one at LI4 and one at NAP) maintained statistically significantly elevated needle sensation and pain scores and reported higher numbers of needle sensation descriptors. For both, the needle was retained for 21 minutes and manipulated every three minutes. Neither intervention differed significantly in terms of levels of pain, and needle sensation or numbers and qualities of needle sensation described. Conclusion. In this group of healthy subjects, the initial needling for all eight interventions elicited similar levels of needle sensation and pain. These levels were only maintained if there was ongoing of needle manipulation and retention of the needle. By contrast, the strength of needle sensation or pain experienced was independent of insertion site. PMID:24159337

  3. Hot colors: the nature and specificity of color-induced nasal thermal sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, George A; Galich, Hélène; Relland, Solveig; Prud'hon, Sabine

    2010-03-05

    The nature of the recently discovered color-induced nasal thermal sensations was investigated in four Experiments. Subjects were required to fixate a bottle containing a red or green solution presented centrally (Exp1 and Exp4) or laterally (Exp2) and to sniff another bottle, always the same one, but which they were not allowed to see, containing 10 ml of a colorless, odorless and trigeminal-free solution. Each nostril was tested separately, and subjects were asked whether the sniffed solution induced warming or cooling sensations (plus an ambient sensation in Exp4) in the nasal cavity. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 confirmed the warming/left nostril-cooling/right nostril dissociation, suggesting the existence of different lateralized processes for thermal processing. However, Experiment 2 failed to demonstrate dominance of warming responses when subjects' eyes were directed to the left or cooling responses when they were directed to the right. Nor did gaze direction interact with the tested nostril. This suggests that the color-induced thermal sensations are specifically related to the nasal trigeminal system, rather than a general process related to general hemispheric activity. When the exposed bottles were colorless (Exp3), no lateralized patterns were observed, suggesting, in combination with the results of Experiments 1 and 2, that both color cues and nasal stimulations are necessary for lateralized patterns to arise. Rendering the temperature judgment even more difficult (Exp4), made the lateralized patterns shift towards the associated (i.e., ambient) responses. The results are discussed in a general framework which considers that, even in the absence of real thermal stimulus, preparing to process thermal stimuli in the nasal cavity may activate the underlying lateralized neural mechanisms, and that those mechanisms are reflected in the responses. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for tumor pain relief in inoperable pancreatic cancer : Evaluation with the pain sensation scale (SES)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, M; Strunk, H M; Rauch, M; Henseler, J; Clarens, T; Brüx, L; Dolscheid-Pommerich, R; Conrad, R; Cuhls, H; Radbruch, L; Schild, H H; Mücke, M

    2017-02-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in combination with palliative standard therapy is an innovative and effective treatment option for pain reduction in patients with inoperable pancreatic cancer. Evaluation of the effects of additive ultrasound (US)-guided HIFU treatment in inoperable pancreatic cancer on the sensory and affective pain perception using validated questionnaries. In this study 20 patients with locally advanced inoperable pancreatic cancer and tumor-related pain were treated by US-guided HIFU (6 stage III, 12 stage IV according to UICC and 2 with local recurrence after surgery). Ablation was performed using the JC HIFU system (HAIFU, Chongqing, China) with an ultrasonic device for real-time imaging. Clinical assessment included evaluation of pain severity using validated questionnaires with particular attention to the pain sensation scale (SES) with its affective and sensory component and the numeric rating scale (NRS). The average pain reduction after HIFU was 2.87 points on the NRS scale and 57.3 % compared to the mean baseline score (n = 15, 75 %) in 19 of 20 treated patients. Four patients did not report pain relief, however, the previous opioid medication could be stopped (n = 2) or the analgesic dosage could be reduced (n = 2). No pain reduction was achieved in one patient. Furthermore, after HIFU emotional as well as sensory pain aspects were significantly reduced (before vs. 1 week after HIFU, p pain scales). US-guided HIFU can be used for effective and early pain relief and reduction of emotional and sensory pain sensation in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

  5. Psychophysical properties of female genital sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Melissa A; Maykut, Caroline A; Huberman, Jackie S; Huang, Lejian; Khalifé, Samir; Binik, Yitzchak M; Apkarian, A Vania; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is characterized by the presence of vulvar touch and pain hypersensitivity. Pain with vaginal distension, which motivates treatment seeking and perpetuates distress, is frequently reported with PVD. However, the concordance between the perception of vulvar and vaginal sensation (ie, somatic and visceral genital sensations, respectively) remains unstudied in healthy women, as well as in clinical populations such as PVD. To evaluate the static and dynamic (time-varying) properties of somatic and visceral genital sensation, women with PVD (n=14) and age- and contraceptive-matched healthy controls (n=10) rated varying degrees of nonpainful and painful genital stimulation. Somatic (vulvar) mechanical sensitivity to nonpainul and painful degrees of force were compared to visceral (vaginal) sensitivity to nonpainful and painful distension volumes. Results indicated that healthy women showed substantial individual variation in and high discrimination of vulvar and vaginal sensation. In contrast, PVD was associated with vulvar allodynia and hyperalgesia, as well as vaginal allodynia. Modeling of dynamic perception revealed novel properties of abnormal PVD genital sensation, including temporal delays in vulvar touch perception and reduced perceptual thresholds for vaginal distension. The temporal properties and magnitude of PVD distension pain were indistinguishable from vaginal fullness in healthy controls. These results constitute the first empirical comparison of somatic and visceral genital sensation in healthy women. Findings provide novel insights into the sensory abnormalities that characterize PVD, including an experimental demonstration of visceral allodynia. This investigation challenges the prevailing diagnostic assessment of PVD and reconceptualizes PVD as a chronic somatic and visceral pain condition. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Cognitive Coping Style and the Effectiveness of Distraction or Sensation-Focused Instructions in Chronic Pain Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fox

    Full Text Available This study set out to investigate whether cognitive coping strategies that match participants' preferred coping style effectively reduce pain intensity and situational anxiety in a population of people with chronic pain.Chronic pain patients (N = 43 completed questionnaires on coping style, pain intensity, self-efficacy, and situational/trait anxiety. Participants were classified as Monitors (n = 16 or Blunters (n = 19 based on their Miller Behavioural Style Scale score. Participants were then provided with an audiotaped intervention in which they were instructed to focus on pain sensations or to engage in a distraction task and then to rate the pain intensity and their anxiety during and after the attentional focus and distraction conditions. The two interventions were each completed by all participants, having been presented in counterbalanced order.Findings revealed that Monitors' level of anxiety decreased following a congruent (i.e., sensation-focused intervention. No effects were obtained in terms of perceived pain. For blunters, however, their perceived levels of anxiety and pain did not attenuate following a congruent, distraction-focused intervention.Among persons experiencing chronic pain, tailoring coping strategies to match an individual's preferred coping style--in particular, those with a high level of monitoring--may enhance the benefit of psychological approaches to management of anxiety.

  7. Outdoor comfort study in Rio de Janeiro: site-related context effects on reported thermal sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, E.; Drach, P.; Broede, P.

    2017-03-01

    Aimed at climate-responsive urban design for tropical areas, the paper attempts to answer the question whether the site-related context affects in some way the perceptual assessment of the microclimate by users of outdoor spaces. Our hypothesis was that visual cues resulting from urban design are important components of the outdoor thermal perception. Monitoring was carried out alongside the administration of standard comfort questionnaires throughout summer periods in 2012-2015 in pedestrian areas of downtown Rio de Janeiro (22° 54 10 S, 43° 12 27 W), Brazil. Campaigns took place at different points, pre-defined in respect of urban geometry attributes. For the measurements, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station was employed to which a gray globe thermometer was attached. Two thermal indices were used for assessing the overall meteorological conditions and comfort levels in the outdoor locations: physiological equivalent temperature (PET) and universal thermal climate index (UTCI). Our results suggest that thermal sensation in Rio depends to a large extent on the thermal environment as described by air temperature, PET, or UTCI, and that urban geometry (expressed by the sky-view factor (SVF)) may modify this relationship with increased building density associated to warmer sensation votes under moderate heat stress conditions. This relationship however reverses under strong heat stress with warmer sensations in less obstructed locations, and disappears completely under still higher heat stress, where meteorological conditions, and not the site's SVF, will drive thermal sensation.

  8. Outdoor comfort study in Rio de Janeiro: site-related context effects on reported thermal sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, E; Drach, P; Broede, P

    2017-03-01

    Aimed at climate-responsive urban design for tropical areas, the paper attempts to answer the question whether the site-related context affects in some way the perceptual assessment of the microclimate by users of outdoor spaces. Our hypothesis was that visual cues resulting from urban design are important components of the outdoor thermal perception. Monitoring was carried out alongside the administration of standard comfort questionnaires throughout summer periods in 2012-2015 in pedestrian areas of downtown Rio de Janeiro (22° 54 10 S, 43° 12 27 W), Brazil. Campaigns took place at different points, pre-defined in respect of urban geometry attributes. For the measurements, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station was employed to which a gray globe thermometer was attached. Two thermal indices were used for assessing the overall meteorological conditions and comfort levels in the outdoor locations: physiological equivalent temperature (PET) and universal thermal climate index (UTCI). Our results suggest that thermal sensation in Rio depends to a large extent on the thermal environment as described by air temperature, PET, or UTCI, and that urban geometry (expressed by the sky-view factor (SVF)) may modify this relationship with increased building density associated to warmer sensation votes under moderate heat stress conditions. This relationship however reverses under strong heat stress with warmer sensations in less obstructed locations, and disappears completely under still higher heat stress, where meteorological conditions, and not the site's SVF, will drive thermal sensation.

  9. Supra-threshold scaling, temporal summation, and after-sensation: relationships to each other and anxiety/fear

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Michael E; Bialosky, Joel E; Bishop, Mark D; Price, Donald D; George, Steven Z

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of thermal pain testing from three types of quantitative sensory testing (ie, supra-threshold stimulus response scaling, temporal summation, and after-sensation) at three anatomical sites (ie, upper extremity, lower extremity, and trunk). Pain ratings from these procedures were also compared with common psychological measures previously shown to be related to experimental pain responses and consistent with fear-avoidance models of pain. Results indicat...

  10. Modulation of oral heat and cold pain by irritant chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Kelly C; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, E

    2008-01-01

    Common food irritants elicit oral heat or cool sensations via actions at thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. We used a half-tongue, 2-alternative forced-choice procedure coupled with bilateral pain intensity ratings to investigate irritant effects on heat and cold pain. The method was validated in a bilateral thermal difference detection task. Capsaicin, mustard oil, and cinnamaldehyde enhanced lingual heat pain elicited by a 49 degrees C stimulus. Mustard oil and cinnamaldehyde weakly enhanced lingual cold pain (9.5 degrees C), whereas capsaicin had no effect. Menthol significantly enhanced cold pain and weakly reduced heat pain. To address if capsaicin's effect was due to summation of perceptually similar thermal and chemical sensations, one-half of the tongue was desensitized by application of capsaicin. Upon reapplication, capsaicin elicited little or no irritant sensation yet still significantly enhanced heat pain on the capsaicin-treated side, ruling out summation. In a third experiment, capsaicin significantly enhanced pain ratings to graded heat stimuli (47 degrees C to 50 degrees C) resulting in an upward shift of the stimulus-response function. Menthol may induce cold hyperalgesia via enhanced thermal gating of TRPM8 in peripheral fibers. Capsaicin, mustard oil, and cinnamaldehyde may induce heat hyperalgesia via enhanced thermal gating of TRPV1 that is coexpressed with TRPA1 in peripheral nociceptors.

  11. Seasonal differences in thermal sensation in the outdoor urban environment of Mediterranean climates - the example of Athens, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseliou, Areti; Tsiros, Ioannis X.; Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2017-07-01

    Outdoor urban areas are very important for cities and microclimate is a critical parameter in the design process, contributing to thermal comfort which is important for urban developments. The research presented in this paper is part of extensive field surveys conducted in Athens aimed at investigating people's thermal sensation in a Mediterranean city. Based on 2313 questionnaires and microclimatic data the current work focuses on the relative frequencies of people's evaluation of the thermal along with the sun and wind sensations between two seasons trying to identify the seasonal differences in thermal sensation. The impact of basic meteorological factors on thermal discomfort with respect to season are also examined, as well as the use of the outdoor environment. Results show that psychological adaptation is an important contributing factor influencing perception of the thermal environment between seasons. In addition, the thermal sensation votes during the cool months show that individuals are satisfied to a great extend with the thermal environment whereas the combination of high air temperature, strong solar radiation and weak wind lead to thermal discomfort during summertime. As far as the appropriate urban design in the Mediterranean climate is concerned, priority should be given to the warm months of the year.

  12. Testing for and the role of anal and rectal sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J

    1992-03-01

    The rectum is insensitive to stimuli capable of causing pain and other sensations when applied to a somatic cutaneous surface. It is, however, sensitive to distension by an experimental balloon introduced through the anus, though it is not known whether it is the stretching or reflex contraction of the gut wall, or the distortion of the mesentery and adjacent structures which induces the sensation. No specific sensory receptors are seen on careful histological examination of the rectum in humans. However, myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibres are seen adjacent to the rectal mucosa, but no intraepithelial fibres arise from these. The sensation of rectal distension travels with the parasympathetic system to S2, S3 and S4. The two main methods for quantifying rectal sensation are rectal balloon distension and mucosal electrosensitivity. The balloon is progressively distended until particular sensations are perceived by the patient. The volumes at which these sensations are perceived are recorded. Three sensory thresholds are usually defined: constant sensation of fullness, urge to defecate, and maximum tolerated volume. The modalities of anal sensation can be precisely defined. Touch, pain and temperature sensation exist in normal subjects. There is profuse innervation of the anal canal with a variety of specialized sensory nerve endings: Meissner's corpuscles which record touch sensation, Krause end-bulbs which respond to thermal stimuli, Golgi-Mazzoni bodies and pacinian corpuscles which respond to changes in tension and pressure, and genital corpuscles which respond to friction. In addition, there are large diameter free nerve endings within the epithelium. The nerve pathway for anal canal sensation is via the inferior haemorrhoidal branches of the pudendal nerve to the sacral roots of S2, S3 and S4. Anal sensation may be quantitatively measured in response to electrical stimulation. The technique involves the use of a specialized constant current generator

  13. Color of hot soup modulates postprandial satiety, thermal sensation, and body temperature in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Maki; Kimura, Rie; Kido, Yasue; Inoue, Tomoko; Moritani, Toshio; Nagai, Narumi

    2017-07-01

    The color of food is known to modulate not only consumers' motivation to eat, but also thermal perception. Here we investigated whether the colors of hot soup can influence thermal sensations and body temperature, in addition to the food acceptability and appetite. Twelve young female participants consumed commercial white potage soup, modified to yellow or blue by adding food dyes, at 9 a.m. on 3 separated days. During the test, visual impression (willingness to eat, palatability, comfort, warmth, and anxiety) and thermal sensations were self-reported using visual analog scales. Core (intra-aural) and peripheral (toe) temperatures were continuously recorded 10 min before and 60 min after ingestion. Blue soup significantly decreased willingness to eat, palatability, comfort, and warmth ratings, and significantly increased anxiety feelings compared to the white and yellow soups. After ingestion, the blue soup showed significantly smaller satiety ratings and the tendency of lower thermal sensation scores of the whole body compared to the white and yellow soups. Moreover, a significantly greater increase in toe temperature was found with the yellow soup than the white or blue soup. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence that the colors of hot food may modulate postprandial satiety, thermal sensations and peripheral temperature. Such effects of color may be useful for dietary strategies for individuals who need to control their appetite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative analysis of modified PMV models and SET models to predict human thermal sensation in naturally ventilated buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jie; Wang, Yi; Wargocki, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a comparative analysis was performed on the human thermal sensation estimated by modified predicted mean vote (PMV) models and modified standard effective temperature (SET) models in naturally ventilated buildings; the data were collected in field study. These prediction models were....../s, the expectancy factors for the extended PMV model and the extended SET model were from 0.770 to 0.974 and from 1.330 to 1.363, and the adaptive coefficients for the adaptive PMV model and the adaptive SET model were from 0.029 to 0.167 and from-0.213 to-0.195. In addition, the difference in thermal sensation...... between the measured and predicted values using the modified PMV models exceeded 25%, while the difference between the measured thermal sensation and the predicted thermal sensation using modified SET models was approximately less than 25%. It is concluded that the modified SET models can predict human...

  15. Neurological Assessment Using a Quantitative Sensory Test in Patients with Chronic Unilateral Orofacial Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salame, Talal H; Blinkhorn, Antony; Karami, Zahra

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) has been used in clinical and experimental settings to establish sensory assessment for different types of pains, and may be a useful tool for the assessment of orofacial pain, but this premise needs to be tested. The aim of the study was to evaluate responses to thermal stimuli between painful and non-painful facial sites in subjects with orofacial pain using QST. A total of 60 participants (5o females: 28-83 years; 10 males: 44-81 years) with unilateral orofacial pain were recruited from the Orofacial Pain Clinic at the Pain Management and Research Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia. The study followed the methods of limits of the German Research Network testing four modalities of thermal thresholds, the Warm Sensation, the Cold Sensation, the Heat Pain and the Cold Pain using a TSA-II Neurosensory Analyser. The results were compared to the results from the unaffected side of the same patient on the same area and a single t test statistical analysis was performed, where a p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. The Mean Difference for Cold Sensation between the pain side and the non-pain side was 0.48 °C ± 1.5 (t= 2.466, p=0.017), 0.68 °C ± 2.04 for Warm Sensation (t= -2.573, p= 0.013), 2.56 °C ± 2.74 for Cold Pain (t= 7.238, pPain (t= -3.639, p=0.001). The study showed that QST methods using thermal stimuli could be used to evaluate sensory dysfunction in orofacial pain patients using the specific parameters of cool and warm sensation, and cold and hot pain.

  16. Thermal sensation and comfort during exposure to local airflow to face or legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kazuaki; Matsuo, Juntaro; Tochihara, Yutaka; Kondo, Youichiro; Takayama, Shizuka; Nagayama, Hiroki

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the contribution of local airflow temperature to thermal sensation and comfort in humans. Eight healthy male students were exposed to local airflow to their faces (summer condition) or legs (winter condition) for 30 minutes. Local airflow temperature (Tf) was maintained at 18 degrees C to 36 degrees C, and ambient temperature (Ta) was maintained at 17.4 degrees C to 31.4 degrees C. Each subject was exposed to 16 conditions chosen from the combination of Tf and Ta. Based on the results of multiple regression analysis, the standardized partial regression coefficient of Tf and Ta were determined to be 0.93 and 0.13 in the summer condition, and 0.71 and 0.36 in the winter condition at the end of the exposure. Also, thermal comfort was observed to depend closely on the interrelation between Tf and Ta. The present data suggested that local airflow temperature is an important thermal factor regarding thermal sensation and comfort.

  17. Thermal sensation during mild hyperthermia is modulated by acute postural change in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Ryosuke; Imai, Daiki; Suzuki, Akina; Ota, Akemi; Naghavi, Nooshin; Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2016-12-01

    Thermal sensation represents the primary stimulus for behavioral and autonomic thermoregulation. We assessed whether the sensation of skin and core temperatures for the driving force of behavioral thermoregulation was modified by postural change from the supine (Sup) to sitting (Sit) during mild hyperthermia. Seventeen healthy young men underwent measurements of noticeable increase and decrease (±0.1 °C/s) of skin temperature (thresholds of warm and cold sensation on the skin, 6.25 cm 2 of area) at the forearm and chest and of the whole-body warm sensation in the Sup and Sit during normothermia (NT; esophageal temperature (T es ), ∼36.6 °C) and mild hyperthermia (HT; T es , ∼37.2 °C; lower legs immersion in 42 °C of water). The threshold for cold sensation on the skin at chest was lower during HT than NT in the Sit (P sensation on the skin at both sites remained unchanged with changes in body posture or temperature. The whole-body warm sensation was higher during HT than NT in both postures and higher in the Sit than Sup during both NT and HT (all, P sensation during mild hyperthermia is modulated by postural change from supine to sitting to sense lesser cold on the skin and more whole-body warmth.

  18. Sensation of Cold during the Ice Water Test Corresponds to the Perception of Pain during Botulinum Toxin Bladder Wall Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, André; Hüsch, Tanja; Doggweiler, Regula; Buse, Stephan; Haferkamp, Axel

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the association of bladder cold sensation (BCS) during the ice water test (IWT) and pain perception when botulinum toxin injections (BTI) are administered into the bladder wall. In 86 patients with idiopathic overactive bladder, the BCS during the IWT was investigated. Patients were divided into 2 groups: with and without BCS. During subsequent administration of BTI, the number of perceived and painful injections as well as the pain levels on a 0-100 pain scale were compared in both groups using Student t test. Thirty-five patients reported a BCS, while 51 did not. After 10 BTI, the mean number of perceived injections was 7.9 in patients with and 2.4 in patients without BCS (p sensation (p perceptions of cold and pain in the urinary bladder may use similar receptors and neuronal pathways. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Supra-threshold scaling, temporal summation, and after-sensation: relationships to each other and anxiety/fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Robinson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Robinson1, Joel E Bialosky2, Mark D Bishop2, Donald D Price3, Steven Z George21Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2Department of Physical Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 3Dentistry and Neurosciences, University of Florida,  Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: This study investigated the relationship of thermal pain testing from three types of quantitative sensory testing (ie, supra-threshold stimulus response scaling, temporal summation, and after-sensation at three anatomical sites (ie, upper extremity, lower extremity, and trunk. Pain ratings from these procedures were also compared with common psychological measures previously shown to be related to experimental pain responses and consistent with fear-avoidance models of pain. Results indicated that supra-threshold stimulus response scaling, temporal summation, and after-sensation, were significantly related to each other. The site of stimulation was also an important factor, with the trunk site showing the highest sensitivity in all three quantitative sensory testing procedures. Supra-threshold response measures were highly related to measures of fear of pain and anxiety sensitivity for all stimulation sites. For temporal summation and after-sensation, only the trunk site was significantly related to anxiety sensitivity, and fear of pain, respectively. Results suggest the importance of considering site of stimulation when designing and comparing studies. Furthermore, psychological influence on quantitative sensory testing is also of importance when designing and comparing studies. Although there was some variation by site of stimulation, fear of pain and anxiety sensitivity had consistent influences on pain ratings.Keywords: experimental pain, temporal summation, after-sensation, fear/avoidance, anxiety

  20. Effects of different cooling principles on thermal sensation and physiological responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellen, Lisje; Loomans, Marcel G.L.C.; De Wit, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    Applying low exergy cooling concepts in the built environment allows reduction of use of high quality energy sources. Non-uniform thermal conditions, which may occur due to application of lowex systems, can result in discomfort. Two different cooling principles were studied: passive (through...... by the floor and mixing ventilation, and (6) AC-R-D-F; active cooling through radiation by the floor and displacement ventilation. Though all cases were designed at PMV ≈ 0, subjective data indicate significant differences between the cases. For the prediction of thermal sensation and thermal comfort under non...

  1. Thermal sensation during mild hyperthermia is modulated by acute postural change in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Ryosuke; Imai, Daiki; Suzuki, Akina; Ota, Akemi; Naghavi, Nooshin; Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2016-12-01

    Thermal sensation represents the primary stimulus for behavioral and autonomic thermoregulation. We assessed whether the sensation of skin and core temperatures for the driving force of behavioral thermoregulation was modified by postural change from the supine (Sup) to sitting (Sit) during mild hyperthermia. Seventeen healthy young men underwent measurements of noticeable increase and decrease (±0.1 °C/s) of skin temperature (thresholds of warm and cold sensation on the skin, 6.25 cm2 of area) at the forearm and chest and of the whole-body warm sensation in the Sup and Sit during normothermia (NT; esophageal temperature (Tes), ˜36.6 °C) and mild hyperthermia (HT; Tes, ˜37.2 °C; lower legs immersion in 42 °C of water). The threshold for cold sensation on the skin at chest was lower during HT than NT in the Sit ( P body posture or temperature. The whole-body warm sensation was higher during HT than NT in both postures and higher in the Sit than Sup during both NT and HT (all, P cold on the skin and more whole-body warmth.

  2. Deficits in pain perception in borderline personality disorder: results from the thermal grill illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Chung, Boo Young; Richter, Ingmarie; Wicking, Manon; Foell, Jens; Mancke, Falk; Schmahl, Christian; Flor, Herta

    2015-10-01

    It is well documented that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by reduced pain sensitivity, which might be related to nonsuicidal self-injury and dissociative experiences in patients with BPD. However, it remains an open question whether this insensitivity relies at least partly on altered sensory integration or on an altered evaluation of pain or a combination of both. In this study, we used the thermal grill illusion (TGI), describing a painful sensation induced by the application of alternating cold and warm nonnoxious stimuli, in patients with either current or remitted BPD as well as matched healthy controls. Two additional conditions, applying warm or cold temperatures only, served as control. We further assessed thermal perception, discrimination, and pain thresholds. We found significantly reduced heat and cold pain thresholds for the current BPD group, as well as reduced cold pain thresholds for the remitted BPD group, as compared with the HC group. Current BPD patients perceived a less-intense TGI in terms of induced pain and unpleasantness, while their general ability to perceive this kind of illusion seemed to be unaffected. Thermal grill illusion magnitude was negatively correlated with dissociation and traumatization only in the current BPD patients. These results indicate that higher-order pain perception is altered in current BPD, which seems to normalize after remission. We discuss these findings against the background of neurophysiological evidence for the TGI in general and reduced pain sensitivity in BPD and suggest a relationship to alterations in N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotransmission.

  3. [Joint diagnostic value of four temperature sensation tests in elderly patients with type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Li, Yun-Ming; Ai, Zhi-Hua; You, Zhi-Qing; Wan, Yong; Cheng, Ying; Lang, Hong-Mei

    2013-07-01

    To explore the joint diagnostic value of four temperature sensation tests in elderly patients with type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Thermal sensory analyzer-II were applied to measure cool sensation (CS), warm sensation (WS), cold pain sensation (CP)and heat pain sensation (HP) of 308 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. Logistic regression model was adopted to create the new variable Temp4 from four temperature sensation tests to diagnose type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The ROC curve analysis was used to determine the best cut-off points of the four temperature sensation and Temp4, and the diagnostic value of it was evaluated. The means of temperature sensation tests of the diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) group were significantly different from those of the non-DPN group (P sensation tests to diagnose the DPN, the sensitivity of WS test was the highest, and the value was 0.710; but the specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, Youden index, diagnostic accuracy and Kappa value of cold sensation test were the highest, and the values were 0.842, 0.746, 0.799, 0.528, 77.92% and 0.535, respectively; the Kappa values of the other three temperature sensation tests were all greater than 0.4 (P sensation tests (P sensation quantitative tests were in good agreementand could be applied to diagnose DPN; the new variable Temp4 could be used for diagnosis of DPN with a higher diagnostic accuracy.

  4. Effect of bidirectional rotation of an acupuncture needle at LI10 on acupuncture needle sensation and experimentally-induced contact heat pain in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benham, Alex; Johnson, Mark I

    2014-06-01

    There is insufficient evidence of a relationship between acupuncture needle sensations (de qi) and hypoalgesia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bidirectional needle rotation at LI10 on acupuncture needle sensations and heat pain thresholds. Twenty-two healthy participants received one acupuncture needle at LI10 with bidirectional rotation of the needle in one experimental session and one acupuncture needle at LI10 with mock rotation in a separate session, in a randomised order. Measurements of heat pain thresholds were taken before needle insertion, during needle retention and 15 min after needle removal. At each measurement time point, participants rated needle sensations using the Massachusetts Acupuncture Sensation Scale (MASS) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) of overall intensity of needle sensation. Bidirectional needle rotation produced significantly higher scores for VAS, MASStotal, MASSpain and MASSsensation compared with mock rotation (all psensation and change in pain threshold after needling was only found when data from mock and rotation interventions were combined. Needle rotation increases the magnitude of hypoalgesia. There is tentative evidence that needle sensation may be associated with the amount of change in pain threshold. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Diffuse optical tomography activation in the somatosensory cortex: specific activation by painful vs. non-painful thermal stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Becerra

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Pain is difficult to assess due to the subjective nature of self-reporting. The lack of objective measures of pain has hampered the development of new treatments as well as the evaluation of current ones. Functional MRI studies of pain have begun to delineate potential brain response signatures that could be used as objective read-outs of pain. Using Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT, we have shown in the past a distinct DOT signal over the somatosensory cortex to a noxious heat stimulus that could be distinguished from the signal elicited by innocuous mechanical stimuli. Here we further our findings by studying the response to thermal innocuous and noxious stimuli.Innocuous and noxious thermal stimuli were applied to the skin of the face of the first division (ophthalmic of the trigeminal nerve in healthy volunteers (N = 6. Stimuli temperatures were adjusted for each subject to evoke warm (equivalent to a 3/10 and painful hot (7/10 sensations in a verbal rating scale (0/10 = no/max pain. A set of 26 stimuli (5 sec each was applied for each temperature with inter-stimulus intervals varied between 8 and 15 sec using a Peltier thermode. A DOT system was used to capture cortical responses on both sides of the head over the primary somatosensory cortical region (S1. For the innocuous stimuli, group results indicated mainly activation on the contralateral side with a weak ipsilateral response. For the noxious stimuli, bilateral activation was observed with comparable amplitudes on both sides. Furthermore, noxious stimuli produced a temporal biphasic response while innocuous stimuli produced a monophasic response.These results are in accordance with fMRI and our other DOT studies of innocuous mechanical and noxious heat stimuli. The data indicate the differentiation of DOT cortical responses for pain vs. innocuous stimuli that may be useful in assessing objectively acute pain.

  6. Distinct BOLD fMRI Responses of Capsaicin-Induced Thermal Sensation Reveal Pain-Related Brain Activation in Nonhuman Primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Ali Asad

    Full Text Available Approximately 20% of the adult population suffer from chronic pain that is not adequately treated by current therapies, highlighting a great need for improved treatment options. To develop effective analgesics, experimental human and animal models of pain are critical. Topically/intra-dermally applied capsaicin induces hyperalgesia and allodynia to thermal and tactile stimuli that mimics chronic pain and is a useful translation from preclinical research to clinical investigation. Many behavioral and self-report studies of pain have exploited the use of the capsaicin pain model, but objective biomarker correlates of the capsaicin augmented nociceptive response in nonhuman primates remains to be explored.Here we establish an aversive capsaicin-induced fMRI model using non-noxious heat stimuli in Cynomolgus monkeys (n = 8. BOLD fMRI data were collected during thermal challenge (ON:20 s/42°C; OFF:40 s/35°C, 4-cycle at baseline and 30 min post-capsaicin (0.1 mg, topical, forearm application. Tail withdrawal behavioral studies were also conducted in the same animals using 42°C or 48°C water bath pre- and post- capsaicin application (0.1 mg, subcutaneous, tail.Group comparisons between pre- and post-capsaicin application revealed significant BOLD signal increases in brain regions associated with the 'pain matrix', including somatosensory, frontal, and cingulate cortices, as well as the cerebellum (paired t-test, p<0.02, n = 8, while no significant change was found after the vehicle application. The tail withdrawal behavioral study demonstrated a significant main effect of temperature and a trend towards capsaicin induced reduction of latency at both temperatures.These findings provide insights into the specific brain regions involved with aversive, 'pain-like', responses in a nonhuman primate model. Future studies may employ both behavioral and fMRI measures as translational biomarkers to gain deeper understanding of pain processing and evaluate

  7. Does the effect of acupuncture depend on needling sensation and manipulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu-Jin; Lee, Jae-Eun; Moon, Won-Kyung; Cho, Seung-Hun

    2013-06-01

    Acupuncture sensation and manipulation have been considered to be an important component of acupuncture in traditional Asian medicine. However, there has been limited research as to whether acupuncture sensation is associated with therapeutic benefit. This study investigated the relationship between acupuncture sensation and analgesic effect according to acupuncture manipulation. Fifty-three healthy volunteers received three different forms of acupuncture in a single-blinded crossover design: superficial needling (0.3 cm), deep needling (2 cm) and needling with bi-directional rotation. The effects of acupuncture were evaluated by using the pressure pain threshold. Acupuncture sensation measurement was done in two ways. Both total acupuncture sensation and increase of the pressure pain threshold were maximum in needling with rotation, followed by deep needling and superficial needling. Repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis was carried out to assess whether there was a significant difference; both showed significant difference (p = 0.000, 0.003). A paired sample t-test was carried out, which revealed that needling with rotation showed significant difference from both superficial needling and deep needling. Further, the correlation between the total acupuncture sensation and changes in pressure pain threshold were calculated using Pearson correlation; there was a significant correlation (p = 0.002, p = 0.013). Acupuncture sensation and pressure pain threshold increase according to the depth and rotation of acupuncture. Especially, both display significant increase with needle rotation. Further, there is a significant correlation between acupuncture needling sensation and increase in pressure pain threshold. It seems that needle rotation and acupuncture sensation play an important role in verifying the effect of acupuncture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermal sensation and comfort with five different air terminal devices for personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Bolashikov, Z.

    2004-01-01

    could not see it. During exposures, subjects performed typical office work. Several times during the experiment they answered questions regarding air quality and SBS symptoms, thermal sensation, draught risk, and reported changes made in the PVS. Results showed that all participants actively made use...

  9. The molecular and cellular basis of cold sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKemy, David D

    2013-02-20

    Of somatosensory modalities, cold is one of the more ambiguous percepts, evoking the pleasant sensation of cooling, the stinging bite of cold pain, and welcome relief from chronic pain. Moreover, unlike the precipitous thermal thresholds for heat activation of thermosensitive afferent neurons, thresholds for cold fibers are across a range of cool to cold temperatures that spans over 30 °C. Until recently, how cold produces this myriad of biological effects has been poorly studied, yet new advances in our understanding of cold mechanisms may portend a better understanding of sensory perception as well as provide novel therapeutic approaches. Chief among these was the identification of a number of ion channels that either serve as the initial detectors of cold as a stimulus in the peripheral nervous system, or are part of rather sophisticated differential expression patterns of channels that conduct electrical signals, thereby endowing select neurons with properties that are amenable to electrical signaling in the cold. This review highlights the current understanding of the channels involved in cold transduction as well as presents a hypothetical model to account for the broad range of cold thermal thresholds and distinct functions of cold fibers in perception, pain, and analgesia.

  10. Experimental study of human thermal sensation under hypobaric conditions in winter clothes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haiying; Hu, Songtao; Liu, Guodan [Department of Environment and Municipal Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, Qingdao (China); Li, Angui [Department of Environment and Municipal Engineering, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an (China)

    2010-11-15

    Hypobaric conditions, with pressures about 20-30% below that at sea level, are often experienced at mountain resorts and plateau areas. The diffusive transfer of water evaporation increases at hypobaric conditions whereas dry heat loss by convection decreases. In order to clarify the effects of barometric on human thermal comfort, experiments are conducted in a decompression chamber where the air parameters were controllable. During experiments, air temperature is set at a constant of 20, air velocity is controlled at <0.1 m/s, 0.2 m/s, 0.25 m/s, and 0.3 m/s by stages. The barometric condition is examined stepwise for 1atm, 0.85 atm and 0.75 atm of simulated hypobaric conditions, which is equivalent to altitude of 0 m, 1300 m, and 2300 m respectively. Ten males and ten females in winter clothes participate in the experiments. Thermal sensations are measured with ASHRAE seven-point rating scales and skin temperatures were tested at each altitude. The main results are as follows: when the altitude rises, (1) the mean thermal sensation drops; (2) people become more sensitive to draught and expect lower air movements; (3) no significant change of mean skin temperature has been found. The results of the present study indicate that hypobaric environment tends to make people feel cooler. (author)

  11. The periodontal pain paradox: Difficulty on pain assesment in dental patients (The periodontal pain paradox hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In daily dental practice, the majority of patients’ main complaints are related to pain. Most patients assume that all pains inside the oral cavity originated from the tooth. One particular case is thermal sensitivity; sometimes patients were being able to point the site of pain, although there is neither visible caries nor secondary caries in dental radiograph. In this case, gingival recession and dentin hypersensitivity are first to be treated to eliminate the pain. If these treatments failed, pain may misdiagnose as pulpal inflammation and lead to unnecessary root canal treatment. Study in pain during periodontal instrumentation of plaque-related periodontitis revealed that the majority of patients feel pain and discomfort during probing and scaling. It seems obvious because an inflammation, either acute or chronic is related to a lowered pain threshold. However, in contrast, in this case report, patient suffered from chronic gingivitis and thermal sensitivity experienced a relative pain-free sensation during probing and scaling. Lowered pain threshold which accompanied by a blunted pain perception upon periodontal instrumentation is proposed to be termed as the periodontal pain paradox. The objective of this study is to reveal the possibility of certain factors in periodontal inflammation which may involved in the periodontal pain paradox hypothesis. Patient with thermal hypersensitivity who was conducted probing and scaling, after the relative pain-free instrumentation, thermal hypersensitivity rapidly disappeared. Based on the successful periodontal treatment, it is concluded that chronic gingivitis may modulate periodontal pain perception which termed as periodontal pain paradox

  12. Type III Nrg1 back signaling enhances functional TRPV1 along sensory axons contributing to basal and inflammatory thermal pain sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Sarah E; Luca, Edlira; Pertot, Elyse; Role, Lorna W; Talmage, David A

    2011-01-01

    Type III Nrg1, a member of the Nrg1 family of signaling proteins, is expressed in sensory neurons, where it can signal in a bi-directional manner via interactions with the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (ErbB RTKs). Type III Nrg1 signaling as a receptor (Type III Nrg1 back signaling) can acutely activate phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PtdIns3K) signaling, as well as regulate levels of α7* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, along sensory axons. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a cation-permeable ion channel found in primary sensory neurons that is necessary for the detection of thermal pain and for the development of thermal hypersensitivity to pain under inflammatory conditions. Cell surface expression of TRPV1 can be enhanced by activation of PtdIns3K, making it a potential target for regulation by Type III Nrg1. We now show that Type III Nrg1 signaling in sensory neurons affects functional axonal TRPV1 in a PtdIns3K-dependent manner. Furthermore, mice heterozygous for Type III Nrg1 have specific deficits in their ability to respond to noxious thermal stimuli and to develop capsaicin-induced thermal hypersensitivity to pain. Cumulatively, these results implicate Type III Nrg1 as a novel regulator of TRPV1 and a molecular mediator of nociceptive function.

  13. Type III Nrg1 back signaling enhances functional TRPV1 along sensory axons contributing to basal and inflammatory thermal pain sensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Canetta

    Full Text Available Type III Nrg1, a member of the Nrg1 family of signaling proteins, is expressed in sensory neurons, where it can signal in a bi-directional manner via interactions with the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (ErbB RTKs. Type III Nrg1 signaling as a receptor (Type III Nrg1 back signaling can acutely activate phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PtdIns3K signaling, as well as regulate levels of α7* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, along sensory axons. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 is a cation-permeable ion channel found in primary sensory neurons that is necessary for the detection of thermal pain and for the development of thermal hypersensitivity to pain under inflammatory conditions. Cell surface expression of TRPV1 can be enhanced by activation of PtdIns3K, making it a potential target for regulation by Type III Nrg1. We now show that Type III Nrg1 signaling in sensory neurons affects functional axonal TRPV1 in a PtdIns3K-dependent manner. Furthermore, mice heterozygous for Type III Nrg1 have specific deficits in their ability to respond to noxious thermal stimuli and to develop capsaicin-induced thermal hypersensitivity to pain. Cumulatively, these results implicate Type III Nrg1 as a novel regulator of TRPV1 and a molecular mediator of nociceptive function.

  14. Nociceptive sensations evoked from 'spots' in the skin by mild cooling and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barry G; Roman, Carolyn; Schoen, Kate; Collins, Hannah

    2008-03-01

    It was recently found that nociceptive sensations (stinging, pricking, or burning) can be evoked by cooling or heating the skin to innocuous temperatures (e.g., 29 and 37 degrees C). Here, we show that this low-threshold thermal nociception (LTN) can be traced to sensitive 'spots' in the skin equivalent to classically defined warm spots and cold spots. Because earlier work had shown that LTN is inhibited by simply touching a thermode to the skin, a spatial search procedure was devised that minimized tactile stimulation by sliding small thermodes (16 and 1mm(2)) set to 28 or 36 degrees C slowly across the lubricated skin of the forearm. The procedure uncovered three types of temperature-sensitive sites (thermal, bimodal, and nociceptive) that contained one or more thermal, nociceptive, or (rarely) bimodal spots. Repeated testing indicated that bimodal and nociceptive sites were less stable over time than thermal sites, and that mechanical contact differentially inhibited nociceptive sensations. Intensity ratings collected over a range of temperatures showed that LTN increased monotonically on heat-sensitive sites but not on cold-sensitive sites. These results provide psychophysical evidence that stimulation from primary afferent fibers with thresholds in the range of warm fibers and cold fibers is relayed to the pain pathway. However, the labile nature of LTN implies that these low-threshold nociceptive inputs are subject to inhibitory controls. The implications of these findings for the roles of putative temperature receptors and nociceptors in innocuous thermoreception and thermal pain are discussed.

  15. Lower thermal sensation in normothermic and mildly hyperthermic older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Ryosuke; Imai, Daiki; Suzuki, Akina; Ota, Akemi; Naghavi, Nooshin; Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2016-05-01

    It is important to know how thermal sensation is affected by normal aging under conditions that elevate core body temperature for the prevention of heat-related illness in older people. We assessed whether thermal sensation under conditions of normothermia (NT) and mild hyperthermia (HT) is lowered in older adults. Seventeen younger (23 ±  3 years) and 12 older (71 ±  3 years) healthy men underwent measurements of the cold and warmth detection thresholds ( ± 0.1 °C/s) of their chest and forearm skin, and whole body warmth perception under NT (esophageal temperature, T es, ~36.5 °C) and HT (T es, ~37.3 °C; lower legs immersed in 42 °C water) conditions. Warmth detection threshold at the forearm was increased in older compared with younger participants under both NT (P = 0.006) and HT (P = 0.004) conditions. In contrast, cold detection threshold at the forearm was decreased in older compared with younger participants under NT (P = 0.001) but not HT (P = 0.16). Mild hyperthermia decreased cold detection threshold at forearm in younger participants (P = 0.001) only. There were no effects of age and condition on warmth and cold detection thresholds at chest. Whole body warmth perception increased during HT compared with NT in both groups (both, P perception under NT and HT and skin cold detection thresholds at forearm under NT deteriorated with aging.

  16. Differences in reported linguistic thermal sensation between Bangla and Japanese speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Aklima; Hasib, Md Abdul; Nagano, Hisaho; Taimura, Akihiro

    2017-06-05

    Thermal sensation is a fundamental variable used to determine thermal comfort and is most frequently evaluated through the use of subjective reports in the field of environmental physiology. However, there has been little study of the relationship between the semantics of the words used to describe thermal sensation and the climatic background. The present study investigates the linguistic differences in thermal reports from native speakers of Bangla and Japanese. A total of 1141 university students (932 in Bangladesh and 209 in Japan) responded to a questionnaire survey consisting of 20 questions. Group differences between Bangladeshi and Japanese respondents were then tested with a chi-square test in a crosstab analysis using SPSS (version 21). For the Bangla-speaking respondents, the closest feeling of thermal comfort was "neutral" (66.6%) followed by "slightly cool" (10.2%), "slightly cold" (6.0%), "slightly hot" (4.1%), and "cold" (3.8%). For the Japanese respondents, the closest feeling of thermal comfort was "cool" (38.3%) followed by "slightly cool" (20.4%), "neutral" (14.6%), "slightly warm" (13.1%), and "warm" (10.7%). Of the Bangladeshi respondents, 37.7% reported that they were sensitive to cold weather and 18.1% reported that they were sensitive to hot weather. Of the Japanese respondents, 20.6% reported that they were sensitive to cold weather and 29.2% reported that they were sensitive to hot weather. Of the Bangladeshi respondents, 51.4% chose "higher than 29 °C" as hot weather and 38.7% of the Japanese respondents chose "higher than 32 °C" as hot weather. In the case of cold weather, 43.1% of the Bangladeshi respondents selected "lower than 15 °C" as cold weather and 53.4% of the Japanese respondents selected "lower than 10 °C" as cold weather. Most of the Bangla-speaking respondents chose "neutral" as the most comfortable temperature, and most of the Japanese respondents chose "cool." Most of the Bangladeshi respondents reported that they

  17. Test imf kursus - Referred Pain and Sensations Evoked by Standardized Palpation of the Masseter Muscle in Healthy Participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masuda, Manabu; Iida, Takashi; Exposto, Fernando G

    2018-01-01

    , Tukey post hoc, and McNemar's tests with a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: Referred pain/sensations were most commonly evoked with the 2.0-kg stimulus (34.4% of participants; P significant effects of stimulus intensity on NRS...... scores for pain and unpleasantness, as well as for aftersensation (P significant effects on NRS scores for pain and unpleasantness for the 1.0- and 2.0-kg stimuli (P 2.0-kg stimulus (P .... The right masseter muscle was divided into 15 test sites. Mechanical sensitivity of the masseter was assessed with three mechanical stimuli (0.5 kg, 1.0 kg, or 2.0 kg) applied by palpometers to the 15 test sites for 5 seconds each site. Participants scored the perceived intensity of pain and unpleasantness...

  18. Selective blockade of TRPA1 channel attenuates pathological pain without altering noxious cold sensation or body temperature regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Joshi, Shailen K; DiDomenico, Stanley; Perner, Richard J; Mikusa, Joe P; Gauvin, Donna M; Segreti, Jason A; Han, Ping; Zhang, Xu-Feng; Niforatos, Wende; Bianchi, Bruce R; Baker, Scott J; Zhong, Chengmin; Simler, Gricelda H; McDonald, Heath A; Schmidt, Robert G; McGaraughty, Steve P; Chu, Katharine L; Faltynek, Connie R; Kort, Michael E; Reilly, Regina M; Kym, Philip R

    2011-05-01

    Despite the increasing interest in TRPA1 channel as a pain target, its role in cold sensation and body temperature regulation is not clear; the efficacy and particularly side effects resulting from channel blockade remain poorly understood. Here we use a potent, selective, and bioavailable antagonist to address these issues. A-967079 potently blocks human (IC(50): 51 nmol/L, electrophysiology, 67 nmol/L, Ca(2+) assay) and rat TRPA1 (IC(50): 101 nmol/L, electrophysiology, 289 nmol/L, Ca(2+) assay). It is >1000-fold selective over other TRP channels, and is >150-fold selective over 75 other ion channels, enzymes, and G-protein-coupled receptors. Oral dosing of A-967079 produces robust drug exposure in rodents, and exhibits analgesic efficacy in allyl isothiocyanate-induced nocifensive response and osteoarthritic pain in rats (ED(50): 23.2 mg/kg, p.o.). A-967079 attenuates cold allodynia produced by nerve injury but does not alter noxious cold sensation in naive animals, suggesting distinct roles of TRPA1 in physiological and pathological states. Unlike TRPV1 antagonists, A-967079 does not alter body temperature. It also does not produce locomotor or cardiovascular side effects. Collectively, these data provide novel insights into TRPA1 function and suggest that the selective TRPA1 blockade may present a viable strategy for alleviating pain without untoward side effects. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Beyond body experiences: phantom limbs, pain and the locus of sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2009-02-01

    Reports of perceptual experiences are found throughout history. However, the phenomena considered worthy of note have not been those that nurture our survival (the veridical features of perception) but the oddities or departures from the common and commonplace accuracies of perception. Some oddities (like afterimages) could be experienced by everyone, whereas others were idiosyncratic. Such phenomena were often given a paranormal interpretation before they were absorbed into the normal science of the day. This sequence is examined historically in the context of beyond body experiences or phantom limbs. The experience of sensations in lost body parts provides an example of the ways in which novel phenomena can be interpreted. The first phase of description probably occurred in medieval texts and was often associated with accounts of miraculous reconnection. Ambroise Paré (1510-1590) initiated medical interest in this intriguing aspect of perception, partly because more of his patients survived the trauma of surgery. Description is followed by attempts to incorporate the phenomenon into the body of extant theory. René Descartes (1596-1650) integrated sensations in amputated limbs into his dualist theory of mind, and used the phenomenon to support the unity of the mind in comparison to the fragmented nature of bodily sensations. Others, like William Porterfield (ca. 1696-1771), did not consider the phenomenon as illusory and interpreted it in terms of other projective features of perception. Finally, the phenomenon is accepted and utilized to gain more insights into the functioning of the senses and the brain. The principal features of phantom limbs were well known before they were given that name in the 19th century. Despite the puzzles they still pose, these phantoms continue to provide perception with some potent concepts: the association with theories of pain has loosened the link with peripheral stimulation and emphasis on the phenomenal dimension has slackened

  20. Visceral sensation and irritable bowel syndrome; with special reference to comparison with functional abdominal pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozu, Tsukasa; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2011-04-01

    Stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity may play an important role in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but not in functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS). We examined rectal sensation in those patients. Experiment 1: Rectal thresholds of pain (PT) and maximum tolerance were assessed by barostat with ramp distention before and after repetitive rectal painful distention (RRD). Experiment 2, PT was measured in basal state and after intravenous CRF (100 µg) or vehicle, together with or without RRD. Experiment 3: Three phasic distentions at physiological range were randomly loaded. The subjects were asked to mark the visual analogue scale (VAS) in reference to subjective intensity of sensation. Experiment 1: Majority of IBS patients showed rectal hypersensitivity before RRD in contrast to FAPS. All IBS patients developed hypersensitivity after RRD, however, none of the FAPS patients did. RRD significantly reduced both thresholds in IBS (n=7) but did not change in controls (n=14) and FAPS (n=6). Experiment 2: PT was not modified by RRD in placebo group (n=6), while it was significantly reduced in CRF-treated group (n=5). On the other hand, CRF (n=5) or vehicle (n=5) without RRD did not alter PT. Experiment 3: The VAS ratings were increased in IBS (n=7) but significantly decreased in FAPS (n=6) as compared to controls (n=14). RRD-induced rectal hypersensitivity seems to be reliable marker for IBS, and CRF may contribute to this response. FAPS patients may have hyposensitivity to non-noxious physiological distention, suggesting FAPS has different pathogenesis from IBS. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 文婷; 卢天健; Seffen; Keith

    2008-01-01

    Skin thermal damage or skin burns are the most commonly encountered type of trauma in civilian and military communities. Besides, advances in laser, microwave and similar technologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments for disease and damage involving skin tissue, where the objective is to induce thermal damage precisely within targeted tissue structures but without affecting the surrounding, healthy tissue. Further, extended pain sensation induced by thermal damage has also brought great...

  2. Lumbar Sympathetic Plexus Block as a Treatment for Postamputation Pain: Methodology for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Zachary L; Hendrix, Andrew; Dayanim, David; Clay, Bryan; Kirsling, Amy; Harden, Norman

    2018-03-08

    We present a technical protocol for rigorous assessment of patient-reported outcomes and psychophysical testing relevant to lumbar sympathetic blocks for the treatment of postamputation pain (PAP). This description is intended to inform future prospective investigation. Series of four participants from a blinded randomized sham-controlled trial. Tertiary, urban, academic pain medicine center. Four participants with a single lower limb amputation and associated chronic PAP. Participants were randomized to receive a lumbar sympathetic block with 0.25% bupivacaine or sham needle placement. Patient-rated outcome measures included the numerical rating scale (NRS) for pain, the McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Pain and Anxiety Symptoms Scale-short version, and Pain Disability Index (PDI). Psychophysical and biometric testing was also performed, which included vibration sensation testing, pinprick sensation testing, brush sensation testing, Von Frey repeated weighted pinprick sensation, and thermal quantitative sensory testing. In the four described cases, treatment of PAP with a single lumbar sympathetic block but not sham intervention resulted in reduction of both residual limb pain and phantom limb pain as well as perceived disability on the PDI at three-month follow-up. An appropriately powered randomized controlled study using this methodology may not only aid in determining the possible clinical efficacy of lumbar sympathetic block in PAP, but could also improve our understanding of underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of PAP.

  3. A Protocol of Manual Tests to Measure Sensation and Pain in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostek, Matthew; Polaski, Anna; Kolber, Benedict; Ramsey, Austin; Kranjec, Alexander; Szucs, Kimberly

    2016-12-19

    Numerous qualitative and quantitative techniques can be used to test sensory nerves and pain in both research and clinical settings. The current study demonstrates a quantitative sensory testing protocol using techniques to measure tactile sensation and pain threshold for pressure and heat using portable and easily accessed equipment. These techniques and equipment are ideal for new laboratories and clinics where cost is a concern or a limiting factor. We demonstrate measurement techniques for the following: cutaneous mechanical sensitivity on the arms and legs (von-Frey filaments), radiant and contact heat sensitivity (with both threshold and qualitative assessments using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS)), and mechanical pressure sensitivity (algometer, with both threshold and the VAS). The techniques and equipment described and demonstrated here can be easily purchased, stored, and transported by most clinics and research laboratories around the world. A limitation of this approach is a lack of automation or computer control. Thus, these processes can be more labor intensive in terms of personnel training and data recording than the more sophisticated equipment. We provide a set of reliability data for the demonstrated techniques. From our description, a new laboratory should be able to set up and run these tests and to develop their own internal reliability data.

  4. Deciphering neuronal population codes for acute thermal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Qiaosheng; Phuong Sieu Tong, Ai; Manders, Toby R.; Wang, Jing

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. Current pain research mostly focuses on molecular and synaptic changes at the spinal and peripheral levels. However, a complete understanding of pain mechanisms requires the physiological study of the neocortex. Our goal is to apply a neural decoding approach to read out the onset of acute thermal pain signals, which can be used for brain-machine interface. Approach. We used micro wire arrays to record ensemble neuronal activities from the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in freely behaving rats. We further investigated neural codes for acute thermal pain at both single-cell and population levels. To detect the onset of acute thermal pain signals, we developed a novel latent state-space framework to decipher the sorted or unsorted S1 and ACC ensemble spike activities, which reveal information about the onset of pain signals. Main results. The state space analysis allows us to uncover a latent state process that drives the observed ensemble spike activity, and to further detect the ‘neuronal threshold’ for acute thermal pain on a single-trial basis. Our method achieved good detection performance in sensitivity and specificity. In addition, our results suggested that an optimal strategy for detecting the onset of acute thermal pain signals may be based on combined evidence from S1 and ACC population codes. Significance. Our study is the first to detect the onset of acute pain signals based on neuronal ensemble spike activity. It is important from a mechanistic viewpoint as it relates to the significance of S1 and ACC activities in the regulation of the acute pain onset.

  5. Modification of electrical pain threshold by voluntary breathing-controlled electrical stimulation (BreEStim in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengai Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain has a distinct sensory and affective (i.e., unpleasantness component. BreEStim, during which electrical stimulation is delivered during voluntary breathing, has been shown to selectively reduce the affective component of post-amputation phantom pain. The objective was to examine whether BreEStim increases pain threshold such that subjects could have improved tolerance of sensation of painful stimuli. METHODS: Eleven pain-free healthy subjects (7 males, 4 females participated in the study. All subjects received BreEStim (100 stimuli and conventional electrical stimulation (EStim, 100 stimuli to two acupuncture points (Neiguan and Weiguan of the dominant hand in a random order. The two different treatments were provided at least three days apart. Painful, but tolerable electrical stimuli were delivered randomly during EStim, but were triggered by effortful inhalation during BreEStim. Measurements of tactile sensation threshold, electrical sensation and electrical pain thresholds, thermal (cold sensation, warm sensation, cold pain and heat pain thresholds were recorded from the thenar eminence of both hands. These measurements were taken pre-intervention and 10-min post-intervention. RESULTS: There was no difference in the pre-intervention baseline measurement of all thresholds between BreEStim and EStim. The electrical pain threshold significantly increased after BreEStim (27.5±6.7% for the dominant hand and 28.5±10.8% for the non-dominant hand, respectively. The electrical pain threshold significantly decreased after EStim (9.1±2.8% for the dominant hand and 10.2±4.6% for the non-dominant hand, respectively (F[1, 10] = 30.992, p = .00024. There was no statistically significant change in other thresholds after BreEStim and EStim. The intensity of electrical stimuli was progressively increased, but no difference was found between BreEStim and EStim. CONCLUSION: Voluntary breathing controlled electrical stimulation

  6. An investigation on the assessed thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2010-01-01

    perception of the indoor environment is rare. As the building should provide healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in the building and within the human body. A relatively new approach of the relation between the exergy concept and the built......-environment research has been explored in the present work. The relationship of subjectively assessed thermal sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to the calculated human-body exergy consumption has been analysed. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate was related......The exergy concept helps to optimize indoor climate conditioning systems to meet the requirements of sustainable building design. While the exergy approach to design and operation of indoor climate conditioning systems is relatively well established, its exploitation in connection to human...

  7. Surface electrical stimulation to evoke referred sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forst, Johanna C; Blok, Derek C; Slopsema, Julia P; Boss, John M; Heyboer, Lane A; Tobias, Carson M; Polasek, Katharine H

    2015-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation (SES) is being investigated as a noninvasive method to evoke natural sensations distal to electrode location. This may improve treatment for phantom limb pain as well as provide an alternative method to deliver sensory feedback. The median and/or ulnar nerves of 35 subjects were stimulated at the elbow using surface electrodes. Strength-duration curves of hand sensation were found for each subject. All subjects experienced sensation in their hand, which was mostly described as a paresthesia-like sensation. The rheobase and chronaxie values were found to be lower for the median nerve than the ulnar nerve, with no significant difference between sexes. Repeated sessions with the same subject resulted in sufficient variability to suggest that recalculating the strength-duration curve for each electrode placement is necessary. Most of the recruitment curves in this study were generated with 28 to 36 data points. To quickly reproduce these curves with limited increase in error, we recommend 10 data points. Future studies will focus on obtaining different sensations using SES with the strength-duration curve defining the threshold of the effective parameter space.

  8. Effects of Spinal Cord Stimulation on Pain Thresholds and Sensory Perceptions in Chronic Pain Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shihab U; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lucy; St Hillary, Kristin; Cohen, Abigail; Vo, Trang; Houghton, Mary; Mao, Jianren

    2015-07-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been in clinical use for nearly four decades. In earliest observations, researchers found a significant increase in pain threshold during SCS therapy without changes associated with touch, position, and vibration sensation. Subsequent studies yielded diverse results regarding how SCS impacts pain and other sensory thresholds. This pilot study uses quantitative sensory testing (QST) to objectively quantify the impact of SCS on warm sensation, heat pain threshold, and heat pain tolerance. Nineteen subjects with an indwelling SCS device for chronic pain were subjected to QST with heat stimuli. QST was performed on an area of pain covered with SCS-induced paresthesia and an area without pain and without paresthesia, while the SCS was turned off and on. The temperature at which the patient detected warm sensation, heat pain, and maximal tolerable heat pain was used to define the thresholds. We found that all three parameters, the detection of warm sensation, heat pain threshold, and heat pain tolerance, were increased during the period when SCS was on compared with when it was off. This increase was observed in both painful and non-painful sites. The observed pain relief during SCS therapy seems to be related to its impact on increased sensory threshold as detected in this study. The increased sensory threshold on areas without pain and without the presence of SCS coverage may indicate a central (spinal and/or supra-spinal) influence from SCS. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  9. The race to the nociceptor: mechanical versus temperature effects in thermal pain of dental neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min; Liu, Fusheng; Liu, Shaobao; Ji, Changchun; Li, Ang; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2017-04-01

    The sensing of hot and cold stimuli by dental neurons differs in several fundamental ways. These sensations have been characterized quantitatively through the measured time course of neural discharge signals that result from hot or cold stimuli applied to the teeth of animal models. Although various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the underlying mechanism, the ability to test competing hypotheses against experimental recorded data using biophysical models has been hindered by limitations in our understanding of the specific ion channels involved in nociception of dental neurons. Here we apply recent advances in established biophysical models to test the competing hypotheses. We show that a sharp shooting pain sensation experienced shortly following cold stimulation cannot be attributed to the activation of thermosensitive ion channels, thereby falsifying the so-called neuronal hypothesis, which states that rapidly transduced sensations of coldness are related to thermosensitive ion channels. Our results support a central role of mechanosensitive ion channels and the associated hydrodynamic hypothesis. In addition to the hydrodynamic hypothesis, we also demonstrate that the long time delay of dental neuron responses after hot stimulation could be attributed to the neuronal hypothesis—that a relatively long time is required for the temperature around nociceptors to reach some threshold. The results are useful as a model of how multiphysical phenomena can be combined to provide mechanistic insight into different mechanisms underlying pain sensations.

  10. Placebo-induced somatic sensations: a multi-modal study of three different placebo interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Beissner

    Full Text Available Somatic sensations induced by placebos are a frequent phenomenon whose etiology and clinical relevance remains unknown. In this study, we have evaluated the quantitative, qualitative, spatial, and temporal characteristics of placebo-induced somatic sensations in response to three different placebo interventions: (1 placebo irritant solution, (2 placebo laser stimulation, and (3 imagined laser stimulation. The quality and intensity of evoked sensations were assessed using the McGill pain questionnaire and visual analogue scales (VAS, while subjects' sensation drawings processed by a geographic information system (GIS were used to measure their spatial characteristics. We found that all three interventions are capable of producing robust sensations most frequently described as "tingling" and "warm" that can reach consider-able spatial extent (≤ 205 mm² and intensity (≤ 80/100 VAS. Sensations from placebo stimulation were often referred to areas remote from the stimulation site and exhibit considerable similarity with referred pain. Interestingly, there was considerable similarity of qualitative features as well as spatial patterns across subjects and placebos. However, placebo laser stimulation elicited significantly stronger and more widespread sensations than placebo irritant solution. Finally, novelty seeking, a character trait assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory and associated with basal dopaminergic activity, was less pronounced in subjects susceptible to report placebo-induced sensations. Our study has shown that placebo-induced sensations are frequent and can reach considerable intensity and extent. As multiple somatosensory subsystems are involved despite the lack of peripheral stimulus, we propose a central etiology for this phenomenon.

  11. Biased Intensity Judgements of Visceral Sensations After Learning to Fear Visceral Stimuli: A Drift Diffusion Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Jonas; Madden, Victoria J; Iven, Julie; Wiech, Katja; Weltens, Nathalie; Ly, Huynh Giao; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Van Diest, Ilse

    2017-10-01

    A growing body of research has identified fear of visceral sensations as a potential mechanism in the development and maintenance of visceral pain disorders. However, the extent to which such learned fear affects visceroception remains unclear. To address this question, we used a differential fear conditioning paradigm with nonpainful esophageal balloon distensions of 2 different intensities as conditioning stimuli (CSs). The experiment comprised of preacquisition, acquisition, and postacquisition phases during which participants categorized the CSs with respect to their intensity. The CS+ was always followed by a painful electrical stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) during the acquisition phase and in 60% of the trials during postacquisition. The second stimulus (CS-) was never associated with pain. Analyses of galvanic skin and startle eyeblink responses as physiological markers of successful conditioning showed increased fear responses to the CS+ compared with the CS-, but only in the group with the low-intensity stimulus as CS+. Computational modeling of response times and response accuracies revealed that differential fear learning affected perceptual decision-making about the intensities of visceral sensations such that sensations were more likely to be categorized as more intense. These results suggest that associative learning might indeed contribute to visceral hypersensitivity in functional gastrointestinal disorders. This study shows that associative fear learning biases intensity judgements of visceral sensations toward perceiving such sensations as more intense. Learning-induced alterations in visceroception might therefore contribute to the development or maintenance of visceral pain. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Feng; Wen Ting; Lu Tianjian; Seffen Keith

    2008-01-01

    Skin thermal damage or skin burns are the most commonly encountered type of trauma in civilian and military communities. Besides, advances in laser, microwave and similar technologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments for disease and damage involving skin tissue, where the objective is to induce thermal damage precisely within targeted tissue structures but without affecting the surrounding, healthy tissue. Further, extended pain sensation induced by thermal damage has also brought great problem for burn patients. Thus, it is of great importance to quantify the thermal damage in skin tissue. In this paper, the available models and experimental methods for quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue are discussed.

  13. Characterizing neuropathic pain profiles: enriching interpretation of painDETECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappelleri JC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Joseph C Cappelleri,1 Vijaya Koduru,2 E Jay Bienen,3 Alesia Sadosky4 1Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT, USA; 2Eliassen Group, New London, CT, USA; 3Outcomes Research Consultant, New York, NY, USA; 4Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA Purpose: To psychometrically evaluate painDETECT, a patient-reported screening questionnaire for neuropathic pain (NeP, for discriminating among sensory pain symptoms (burning, tingling/prickling, light touching, sudden pain attacks/electric shock-type pain, cold/heat, numbness, and slight pressure. Methods: The seven-item version of painDETECT provides an overall score that targets only sensory symptoms, while the nine-item version adds responses on two items to the overall score, covering pain course pattern and pain radiation. Both versions have relevance in terms of characterizing broad NeP. The nine- and seven-item versions of painDETECT were administered to subjects with confirmed NeP across six conditions identified during office visits to US community-based physicians. Responses on the sensory symptom items were dichotomized into “at least moderate” (ie, moderate, strongly, very strongly relative to the combined other responses (never, hardly noticed, slightly. Logistic regression of dichotomized variables on the total painDETECT score provided probabilities of experiencing each symptom across the range of painDETECT scores. Results: Both painDETECT versions discriminated among the symptoms with similar probabilities across the score ranges. Using these data, the probability of moderately experiencing each pain sensory item was estimated for a particular score, providing a pain profile. Additionally, the likelihood of experiencing each sensation was determined for a discrete increase in score, ie, the odds of at least a moderate sensation of burning (versus less than a moderate sensation was 1.29 for a 1-point increase, 3.52 for a 5-point increase, and 12.42 for every 10-point increase in the nine-item painDETECT score

  14. Sensation Following Immediate Breast Reconstruction with Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagergren, Jakob; Wickman, Marie; Hansson, Per

    2010-01-01

    Sensation is a neglected aspect of the outcome of breast reconstructions with implants. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the cutaneous somatosensory status in breasts following mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with permanent adjustable prostheses and to analyze the patients' subjective experience of the sensation. Twenty-four consecutive patients diagnosed with invasive or in situ breast carcinoma were examined preoperatively and 2 years after mastectomy and reconstruction, for assessment of perception thresholds for touch, cold, warmth, and heat pain above and below the areola. Von Frey filaments and a Peltier element-based thermode were used. The patients completed a questionnaire concerning their experienced sensation in the reconstructed breast. Using quantitative somato-sensory testing, the sensation to all the examined modalities was significantly impaired compared to preoperatively. Most affected was the area above the areola. Patients given postoperative radiotherapy (n = 9) did not differ from those without radiotherapy (n = 15) regarding any of the modalities. All patients reported reduced sensation in the reconstructed breast compared to that preoperatively. Twenty-three patients stated that the reconstructed breast felt different from the other breast; nevertheless 16 reported that the reconstructed breast felt like a real breast. The study revealed sensation impairment following mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with implants. Patients should be informed about this effect preoperatively to allow adequate expectations regarding the sensation outcome. However, two-thirds of the study patients considered that the reconstructed breast felt like a real breast, which must be one of the main purposes of a breast reconstruction.

  15. Thermal and pressure pain sensitivity in patients with unilateral shoulder pain: comparison of involved and uninvolved sides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Rogelio A; Kindler, Lindsay L; Valencia, Carolina; George, Steven Z

    2011-03-01

    Cross-sectional. In the examination of patients with unilateral shoulder pain, pain provocation testing to compare the involved and uninvolved sides has been considered useful. However, side-to-side comparisons of experimental pain sensitivity in patients with unilateral shoulder pain are not widely reported in the literature. To compare experimental pain sensitivity between the involved and uninvolved sides in patients with unilateral shoulder pain. In consecutive patients seeking operative treatment for shoulder pain, sensitivity measures of bilateral pressure pain threshold at the shoulder and forearm, and thermal pain threshold, tolerance, and temporal summation at the forearm, were examined. Pressure sensitivity was tested with a Fischer pressure algometer, and thermal sensitivity with a computer-controlled Medoc neurosensory analyzer. The involved and uninvolved sides were compared with an analysis of variance. Influence of sex and location of testing were considered as covariates in the analysis. Fifty-nine consecutively recruited participants completed experimental pain sensitivity testing. Participants reported significantly lower pressure pain thresholds in the involved side compared to the uninvolved side (F1,56 = 4.96, P = .030). In addition, female compared to male participants demonstrated lower pressure pain thresholds in the bilateral shoulder regions (F1,56 = 10.84, P = .002). There was no difference in thermal pain sensitivity between sides. Average clinical pain intensity was negatively correlated with pressure pain threshold at the involved local site (r = -0.284, P = .029), indicating an influence of clinical pain intensity on local pressure pain. The results of this study provide evidence for higher experimental pressure pain sensitivity in the involved side of patients with unilateral shoulder pain and no difference between sides for thermal pain sensitivity. Females demonstrated higher pain sensitivity than males to pressure stimuli at the

  16. Tactile, thermal, and electrical thresholds in patients with and without phantom limb pain after traumatic lower limb amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Shengai Li,1,2 Danielle H Melton,1,2 Sheng Li1,2 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA; 2Neurorehabilitation Research Laboratory, TIRR Memorial Hermann Research Center, Houston, TX, USA Purpose: To examine whether there is central sensitization in patients with phantom limb pain (PLP after traumatic limb amputation. Methods: Seventeen patients after unilateral lower limb amputation secondary to trauma were enrolled. Ten patients had chronic PLP, while the other seven patients had no PLP. Tactile-sensation threshold, cold- and warm-sensation thresholds, cold- and heat-pain thresholds, electrical-sensation threshold (EST, and electrical-pain threshold on the distal residual limb and the symmetrical site on the sound limb were measured in all tested patients. Their thresholds were compared within the PLP and non-PLP group, and between the groups. Results: The novel findings included: 1 electrical-pain threshold was only decreased in the sound limb in the PLP group and there was no difference between two limbs in the non-PLP group, suggesting central sensitization in patients with PLP; and 2 EST was increased on the affected limb as compared to the sound limb within the PLP group, but there were no significant differences in EST between the PLP and non-PLP group. There were in general no significant differences in other tested thresholds within the groups and between groups. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate central sensitization in the patients with PLP after traumatic limb amputation. Keywords: central sensitization, pain threshold, human

  17. Comparison between Subjective Sensations during First and Second Phacoemulsification Eye Surgeries in Patients with Bilateral Cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-guo Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate and compare the subjective sensations reported by patients during first and second cataract extractions. Methods. Consecutive patients undergoing bilateral sequential cataract extraction using phacoemulsification were recruited. Following cataract surgery, patients completed questionnaires designed to evaluate subjective sensations, including anxiety, eye bulges, pain, and light sensitivity. Changes in painful sensations experienced by patients between the two surgeries were also recorded. Comparisons were also performed for each subjective sensation between different age groups (79 years. Results. A total of 127 patients were included in the final evaluation. Statistical comparison of the results showed that there were significant differences in perception of anxiety, eye bulges, and pain scores between the first and second cataract surgeries (P0.05 for all. Conclusions. Our research confirms the common observation that patients with bilateral cataracts often report more ocular discomfort during the second surgery. There are, therefore, additional factors that should be considered upon treating patients with bilateral cataracts, and the provision of preoperative counseling could play an important role in providing adequate patient care.

  18. A pain in the bud? Implications of cross-modal sensitivity for pain experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Monica; de Bruyne, Marien; Giummarra, Melita J

    2016-11-01

    There is growing evidence that enhanced sensitivity to painful clinical procedures and chronic pain are related to greater sensitivity to other sensory inputs, such as bitter taste. We examined cross-modal sensitivities in two studies. Study 1 assessed associations between bitter taste sensitivity, pain tolerance, and fear of pain in 48 healthy young adults. Participants were classified as non-tasters, tasters and super-tasters using a bitter taste test (6-n-propythiouracil; PROP). The latter group had significantly higher fear of pain (Fear of Pain Questionnaire) than tasters (p=.036, effect size r = .48). There was only a trend for an association between bitter taste intensity ratings and intensity of pain at the point of pain tolerance in a cold pressor test (p=.04). In Study 2, 40 healthy young adults completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile before rating intensity and unpleasantness of innocuous (33 °C), moderate (41 °C), and high intensity (44 °C) thermal pain stimulations. The sensory-sensitivity subscale was positively correlated with both intensity and unpleasantness ratings. Canonical correlation showed that only sensitivity to audition and touch (not taste/smell) were associated with intensity of moderate and high (not innocuous) thermal stimuli. Together these findings suggest that there are cross-modal associations predominantly between sensitivity to exteroceptive inputs (i.e., taste, touch, sound) and the affective dimensions of pain, including noxious heat and intolerable cold pain, in healthy adults. These cross-modal sensitivities may arise due to greater psychological aversion to salient sensations, or from shared neural circuitry for processing disparate sensory modalities.

  19. Oral L-menthol reduces thermal sensation, increases work-rate and extends time to exhaustion, in the heat at a fixed rating of perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, T R; Waldron, M; Jeffries, O

    2017-07-01

    The study investigated the effect of a non-thermal cooling agent, L-menthol, on exercise at a fixed subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in a hot environment. Eight male participants completed two trials at an exercise intensity between 'hard' and 'very hard', equating to 16 on the RPE scale at ~35 °C. Participants were instructed to continually adjust their power output to maintain an RPE of 16 throughout the exercise trial, stopping once power output had fallen by 30%. In a randomized crossover design, either L-menthol or placebo mouthwash was administered prior to exercise and at 10 min intervals. Power output, [Formula: see text]O 2 , heart rate, core and skin temperature was monitored, alongside thermal sensation and thermal comfort. Isokinetic peak power sprints were conducted prior to and immediately after the fixed RPE trial. Exercise time was greater (23:23 ± 3:36 vs. 21:44 ± 2:32 min; P = 0.049) and average power output increased (173 ± 24 vs. 167 ± 24 W; P = 0.044) in the L-menthol condition. Peak isokinetic sprint power declined from pre-post trial in the L-menthol l (9.0%; P = 0.015) but not in the placebo condition (3.4%; P = 0.275). Thermal sensation was lower in the L-menthol condition (P = 0.036), despite no changes in skin or core temperature (P > 0.05). These results indicate that a non-thermal cooling mouth rinse lowered thermal sensation, resulting in an elevated work rate, which extended exercise time in the heat at a fixed RPE.

  20. Traces: making sense of urodynamics testing--Part 8: Evaluating sensations of bladder filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Mikel

    2011-01-01

    The "Traces" series discusses how the urodynamic clinician generates usable data from a filling cystometrogram (CMG). Part 8 focuses on the question, "What are the sensations of bladder filling?" Recent research suggests that sensations of bladder filling wax and wane from consciousness in healthy persons free of bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms. Because of its invasive and atypical nature when compared to daily life, multichannel urodynamics testing cannot reproduce the numerous and complex variables that influence bladder sensation in the healthy individual, making the evaluation of sensations of bladder filling a particularly challenging component of the filling CMG. Routine assessment of bladder sensations focuses on identification of three landmarks--first sensation of bladder filling, first desire to void, and a strong desire to void. A fourth sensation, bladder fullness or a compelling desire to void, is recommended. In addition to assessing these sensations, the urodynamic clinician must assess sensations indicating associated disease or disorders affecting lower urinary tract function, including urgency, pain, and atypical sensations. This assessment should be completed in the context of the results of one or more validated instruments used to measure bladder sensations.

  1. Individual differences in temperature perception: evidence of common processing of sensation intensity of warmth and cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barry G; Akirav, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The longstanding question of whether temperature is sensed via separate sensory systems for warmth and cold was investigated by measuring individual differences in perception of nonpainful heating and cooling. Sixty-two subjects gave separate ratings of the intensity of thermal sensations (warmth, cold) and nociceptive sensations (burning/stinging/pricking) produced by cooling (29 degrees C) or heating (37 degrees C) local regions of the forearm. Stimuli were delivered via a 4 x 4 array of 8 mm x 8 mm Peltier thermoelectric modules that enabled test temperatures to be presented sequentially to individual modules or simultaneously to the full array. Stimulation of the full array showed that perception of warmth and cold were highly correlated (Pearson r = 0.83, p sensations produced by the two temperatures were also correlated, but to a lesser degree (r = 0.44), and the associations between nociceptive and thermal sensations (r = 0.35 and 0.22 for 37 and 29 degrees C, respectively) were not significant after correction for multiple statistical tests. Intensity ratings for individual modules indicated that the number of responsive sites out of 16 was a poor predictor of temperature sensations but a significant predictor of nociceptive sensations. The very high correlation between ratings of thermal sensations conflicts with the classical view that warmth and cold are mediated by separate thermal modalities and implies that warm-sensitive and cold-sensitive spinothalamic pathways converge and undergo joint modulation in the central nervous system. Integration of thermal stimulation from the skin and body core within the thermoregulatory system is suggested as the possible source of this convergence.

  2. The use of language to express thermal sensation suggests heat acclimatization by Indonesian people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochihara, Yutaka; Lee, Joo-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Bakri, Ilham; Parsons, Ken

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether there is evidence of heat acclimatization in the words used to express thermal sensation. A total of 458 urban Japanese and 601 Indonesians participated in a questionnaire. In addition, in a preliminary survey, 39 native English speakers in the UK participated. Our results showed that (1) for Indonesians, the closest thermal descriptor of a feeling of thermal comfort was `cool' (75%) followed by `slightly cool' (7%), `slightly cold' (5%) and `cold' (5%), while Japanese responses were distributed uniformly among descriptors `cool', `slightly cool', `neither', `slightly warm', and `warm'; (2) the closest thermal descriptors of a feeling of discomfort for Indonesians were less affected by individual thermal susceptibility (vulnerability) than those for Japanese; (3) in the cases where `cool' and `slightly cold' were imagined in the mind, the descriptors were cognized as a thermal comfortable feeling by 97% and 57% of Indonesians, respectively; (4) the most frequently voted choice endorsing hot weather was `higher than 32°C' for Indonesians and `higher than 29°C' for Japanese respondents; for cold weather, `lower than 15°C' for Japanese and `lower than 20°C' for Indonesians. In summary, the descriptor `cool' in Indonesians connotes a thermally comfortable feeling, but the inter-zone between hot and cold weather that was judged in the mind showed a upward shift when compared to that of Japanese. It is suggested that linguistic heat acclimatization exists on a cognitive level for Indonesians and is preserved in the words of thermal descriptors.

  3. Rapid deterioration of pain sensory-discriminative information in short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Pierre; Doucet, Jean-Charles; Fortin, Marie-Chantale; Duncan, Gary H

    2004-08-01

    The assessment of pain and analgesic efficacy sometimes relies on the retrospective evaluation of pain felt in the immediate, recent or distant past, yet we have a very limited understanding of the processes involved in the encoding, maintenance and intentional retrieval of pain. We examine the properties of the short-term memory of thermal and pain sensation intensity with a delayed-discrimination task using pairs of heat pain, warm and cool stimulation in healthy volunteers. Performance decreased as a function of the inter-stimulus interval (ISI), indicating a robust deterioration of sensory information over the test period of 4-14 s. As expected, performance also decreased with smaller temperature differences (Delta-T) and shorter stimulus durations (6-2 s). The relation between performance and Delta-T was adequately described by a power function, the exponent of which increased linearly with longer ISI. Importantly, performance declined steadily with increasing ISI (from 6 to 14 s)--but only for pairs of heat pain stimuli that were relatively difficult to discriminate (Delta-T short-term memory for pain and temperature sensation intensity relies on a transient analog representation that is quickly degraded and transformed into a more resistant but less precise categorical format. This implies that retrospective pain ratings obtained even after very short delays may be rather inaccurate but relatively reliable.

  4. The influence of local effects on thermal sensation under non-uniform environmental conditions — Gender differences in thermophysiology, thermal comfort and productivity during convective and radiant cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellen, L.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; de Wit, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    , thermal comfort and productivity in response to thermal non-uniform environmental conditions. Twenty healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females, age 20–29years) were exposed to two different experimental conditions: a convective cooling situation (CC) and a radiant cooling situation (RC). During...... the experiments physiological responses, thermal comfort and productivity were measured. The results show that under both experimental conditions the actual mean thermal sensation votes significantly differ from the PMV-index; the subjects are feeling colder than predicted. Furthermore, the females are more...... of the occupants. Non-uniform thermal conditions, which may occur due to application of high temperature cooling systems, can be responsible for discomfort. Contradictions in literature exist regarding the validity of the often used predicted mean vote (PMV) index for both genders, and the index is not intended...

  5. Fantom pain: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Sanja S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Phantom limb pain is a common problem after limb amputation (41-85%. It is described as an extremely painful sensation in the missing part of the body that can last for hours, days or even years. It is considered to arise from cortical reorganization, although many factors can increase the risk of phantom limb pain: pain before surgery, age and sex of the patients, the time elapsed since surgery, stump pain, inadequate prosthesis. Phantom limb pain therapy is very complicated. Case report We reported a case of 80-year-old patient suffering from phantom limb pain and phantom sensation 25 years after the amputation of his left leg due to the injury. The patient has pain at the site of amputation, sensation that he has the leg and that it occupies an unusual position and almost daily exhausting phantom limb pain (6-9 visual analogue scale - VAS with disturbed sleep and mood. We managed to reduce the pain under 4 VAS and decrease the patient suffering by combining drugs from the group of coanalgetics (antidepressants, antiepileptics, non-pharmacological methods (transcutaneous electroneurostimulation - TENS, mirror therapy and femoral nerve block in the place of disarticulation of the left thigh. Conclusion Phantom limb pain therapy is multimodal, exhausting for both the patient and the physician and it is often unsuccessful. The combination of different pharmacological and non-pharmacological modalities can give satisfactory therapeutic response.

  6. Prevalence of phantom limb pain, stump pain, and phantom limb sensation among the amputated cancer patients in India: A prospective, observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The phantom limb pain (PLP and phantom limb sensation (PLS are very common among amputated cancer patients, and they lead to considerable morbidity. In spite of this, there is a lack of epidemiological data of this phenomenon among the Asian population. This study was done to provide the data from Indian population. Methods: The prevalence of PLP, stump pain (SP, and PLS was prospectively analyzed from the amputated cancer patients over a period of 2 years in Dr. B.R.A. Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The risk factors and the impact of phantom phenomenon on patients were also noted. Results: The prevalence of PLP was 41% at 3 and 12 months and 45.3% at 6 months, whereas that of SP and PLS was 14.4% and 71.2% at 3 months, 18.75% and 37.1% at 6 months, 15.8% and 32.4% at 12 months, respectively. There was higher prevalence of PLP and PLS among the patients with history of preamputation pain, smoking with proximal level of amputation, receiving general anesthesia, receiving intravenous (IV opioid postoperative analgesia, and developing neuroma or infection. Conclusion: The prevalence of PLP and PLS was higher among the cancer amputees as compared to SP, and a few risk factors responsible for their higher prevalence were found in our study. The PLP and PLS lead to considerable morbidity in terms of sleep disturbance and depression.

  7. Quantitative assessment of pain-related thermal dysfunction through clinical digital infrared thermal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frize Monique

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The skin temperature distribution of a healthy human body exhibits a contralateral symmetry. Some nociceptive and most neuropathic pain pathologies are associated with an alteration of the thermal distribution of the human body. Since the dissipation of heat through the skin occurs for the most part in the form of infrared radiation, infrared thermography is the method of choice to study the physiology of thermoregulation and the thermal dysfunction associated with pain. Assessing thermograms is a complex and subjective task that can be greatly facilitated by computerised techniques. Methods This paper presents techniques for automated computerised assessment of thermal images of pain, in order to facilitate the physician's decision making. First, the thermal images are pre-processed to reduce the noise introduced during the initial acquisition and to extract the irrelevant background. Then, potential regions of interest are identified using fixed dermatomal subdivisions of the body, isothermal analysis and segmentation techniques. Finally, we assess the degree of asymmetry between contralateral regions of interest using statistical computations and distance measures between comparable regions. Results The wavelet domain-based Poisson noise removal techniques compared favourably against Wiener and other wavelet-based denoising methods, when qualitative criteria were used. It was shown to improve slightly the subsequent analysis. The automated background removal technique based on thresholding and morphological operations was successful for both noisy and denoised images with a correct removal rate of 85% of the images in the database. The automation of the regions of interest (ROIs delimitation process was achieved successfully for images with a good contralateral symmetry. Isothermal division complemented well the fixed ROIs division based on dermatomes, giving a more accurate map of potentially abnormal regions. The measure

  8. Thermal and mechanical pain sensitization in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilaqua-Grossi, Debora; Zanin, Marilia; Benedetti, Camila; Florencio, Lidiane; Oliveira, Anamaria

    2018-02-26

    The aim was to assess sensitization using quantitative sensory testing in mechanical and thermal modes in individuals with and without osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Pain thresholds were correlated with functionality, symptoms of depression and intensity of pain. Thirty control volunteers and 30 patients with OA of the knee were assessed. Punctate pain thresholds using Von Frey filaments and thermal pain thresholds using a Thermal Sensory Analyzer were evaluated in the periarticular region of the knee and forearm. Using a digital pressure algometer, pressure pain thresholds were assessed in the periarticular region of the knee and on the root exit zone on the lumbar and sacral spine. Punctate, pressure, and thermal pain thresholds differed significantly between participants with and without OA (p pain sensitization. Pressure pain thresholds also showed moderate and negative correlations with data on functionality, symptoms of depression and intensity of pain (-0.36  -0.56), contributing up to 30% of their variability. Allodynia and hyperalgesia were demonstrated in the OA group, suggesting central sensitization in patients with mild to moderate severity of joint damage. Correlation between mechanical hypersensitivity and psychosocial factors seems to be small, despite of its significance.

  9. How diagnostic tests help to disentangle the mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain symptoms in painful neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truini, Andrea; Cruccu, Giorgio

    2016-02-01

    Neuropathic pain, ie, pain arising directly from a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory afferent pathway, manifests with various symptoms, the commonest being ongoing burning pain, electrical shock-like sensations, and dynamic mechanical allodynia. Reliable insights into the mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain symptoms come from diagnostic tests documenting and quantifying somatosensory afferent pathway damage in patients with painful neuropathies. Neurophysiological investigation and skin biopsy studies suggest that ongoing burning pain primarily reflects spontaneous activity in nociceptive-fiber pathways. Electrical shock-like sensations presumably arise from high-frequency ectopic bursts generated in demyelinated, nonnociceptive, Aβ fibers. Although the mechanisms underlying dynamic mechanical allodynia remain debatable, normally innocuous stimuli might cause pain by activating spared and sensitized nociceptive afferents. Extending the mechanistic approach to neuropathic pain symptoms might advance targeted therapy for the individual patient and improve testing for new drugs.

  10. Evaluation of outdoor human thermal sensation of local climate zones based on long-term database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, János; Skarbit, Nóra; Gál, Tamás

    2018-02-01

    This study gives a comprehensive picture on the diurnal and seasonal general outdoor human thermal sensation levels in different urban quarters based on long-term (almost 3 years) data series from urban and rural areas of Szeged, Hungary. It is supplemented with a case study dealing with an extreme heat wave period which is more and more frequent in the last decades in the study area. The intra-urban comparison is based on a thermal aspect classification of the surface, namely, the local climate zone (LCZ) system, on an urban meteorological station network and on the utilization of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) comfort index with categories calibrated to the local population. The selected stations represent sunlit areas well inside the LCZ areas. The results show that the seasonal and annual average magnitudes of the thermal load exerted by LCZs in the afternoon and evening follow their LCZ numbers. It is perfectly in line with the LCZ concept originally concentrating only on air temperature ( T air) differences between the zones. Our results justified the subdivision of urban areas into LCZs and give significant support to the application possibilities of the LCZ concept as a broader term covering different thermal phenomena.

  11. [From Descartes to fMRI. Pain theories and pain concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handwerker, H O

    2007-08-01

    In the seventeenth century the philosopher Rene Descartes was the forerunner by establishing a scientific hypothesis on the origin of pain. Much later, in the nineteenth century, pain hypotheses emerged which explained the pain sensation either on the basis of intense stimulation of any kind of nerve fibers (intensity hypothesis) or on the basis of specific nociceptors (specificity hypothesis). The "gate control theory" established by Melzack and Wall (1964) offered an explanation of modulations of pain sensation by the interaction between nociceptive and non-nociceptive nerve fibers and by descending control in the central nervous system. Though this hypothesis is outdated in its original form, it had - in a more common formulation - a great influence on our understanding of pain. For building a bridge to our present knowledge, the molecular structure of the nociceptor membrane is of particular importance. On this basis also new pain therapies have been developed. On the other hand, the methods of functional imaging allow the identification of brain regions related to pain processing at a macroscopic level. This new technology opened up new ways of understanding chronic pain processes and new possibilities for the control of therapeutic effects.

  12. Extreme Thermal Sensitivity and Pain-Induced Sensitization in a Fibromyalgia Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong Wong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the course of a psychophysical study of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS, one of the subjects with a long history of headache and facial pain displayed an extraordinarily severe thermal allodynia. Her stimulus-response function for ratings of cutaneous heat pain revealed a sensitivity clearly beyond that of normal controls and most FMS subjects. Specially designed psychophysical methods showed that heat sensitivity sometimes increased dramatically within a series of stimuli. Prior exposure to moderate heat pain served as a trigger for allodynic ratings of series of normally neutral thermal stimulation. These observations document a case of breakthrough pain sensitivity with implications for mechanisms of FMS pain.

  13. Optimism, pain coping strategies and pain intensity among women with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Kwissa-Gajewska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: According to the biopsychosocial model of pain, it is a multidimensional phenomenon, which comprises physiological (sensation-related factors, psychological (affective and social (socio-economic status, social support factors. Researchers have mainly focused on phenomena increasing the pain sensation; very few studies have examined psychological factors preventing pain. The aim of the research is to assess chronic pain intensity as determined by level of optimism, and to identify pain coping strategies in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Material and methods : A survey was carried out among 54 women during a 7-day period of hospitalisation. The following questionnaires were used: LOT-R (optimism; Scheier, Carver and Bridges, the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ; Rosenstiel and Keefe and the 10-point visual-analogue pain scale (VAS. Results: The research findings indicate the significance of optimism in the experience of chronic pain, and in the pain coping strategies. Optimists felt a significantly lower level of pain than pessimists. Patients with positive outcome expectancies (optimists experienced less pain thanks to replacing catastrophizing (negative concentration on pain with an increased activity level. Regardless of personality traits, active coping strategies (e.g. ignoring pain sensations, coping self-statements – appraising pain as a challenge, a belief in one’s ability to manage pain resulted in a decrease in pain, whilst catastrophizing contributed to its intensification. The most common coping strategies included praying and hoping. Employment was an important demographic variable: the unemployed experienced less pain than those who worked. Conclusions : The research results indicate that optimism and pain coping strategies should be taken into account in clinical practice. Particular attention should be given to those who have negative outcome expectations, which in turn determine strong chronic pain

  14. Phantom sensation as experienced by people with a spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Drysdale, Daren

    2012-01-01

    All the approaches in this thesis are linked by a common query: What is the meaning, structure and essence of the lived experience for a person with a Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) who perceives phantom sensation and/or pain? (See Figure 1). The thesis will allow you to form an accurate impression of phantom sensation in the population of people with a spinal cord injury and it highlights some of the confusion surrounding the terms now in common use. As the thesis progresses, the review of the lit...

  15. The influence of pain-related expectations on intensity perception of non-painful somatosensory stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaman, Jonas; Wiech, Katja; Claes, Nathalie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Van Diest, Ilse; Vlaeyen, Johan W. S.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The extent to which pain-related expectations, known to affect pain perception, also affect perception of non-painful sensations remains unclear, as well as the potential role of unpredictability in this context. METHODS: In a proprioceptive fear conditioning paradigm, various arm

  16. Refuge behaviour from outdoor thermal environmental stress and seasonal differences of thermal sense in tropical urban climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurazumi, Y.; Ishii, J.; Fukagawa, K.; Kondo, E.; Aruninta, A.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal sensation affects body temperature regulation. As a starting point for behavioral body temperature regulation taken to improve from a poor thermal environment to a more pleasant environment, thermal sense of thermal environment stimulus is important. The poupose of this sutudy is to use the outdoor thermal environment evaluation index ETFe to quantify effects on thermal sensations of the human body of a tropical region climate with small annual temperature differences, and to examine seasonal differences in thermal sensation. It was found temperature preferences were lower in the winter season than in the dry season, and that a tolerance for higher temperatures in the dry season than in the winter season. It was found effects of seasonal differences of the thermal environment appear in quantitative changes in thermal sensations. It was found that effects of seasonal differences of the thermal environment do not greatly affect quantitative changes in thermal comfort.

  17. Hypnotic analgesia reduces brain responses to pain seen in others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braboszcz, Claire; Brandao-Farinelli, Edith; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2017-08-29

    Brain responses to pain experienced by oneself or seen in other people show consistent overlap in the pain processing network, particularly anterior insula, supporting the view that pain empathy partly relies on neural processes engaged by self-nociception. However, it remains unresolved whether changes in one's own pain sensation may affect empathic responding to others' pain. Here we show that inducing analgesia through hypnosis leads to decreased responses to both self and vicarious experience of pain. Activations in the right anterior insula and amygdala were markedly reduced when participants received painful thermal stimuli following hypnotic analgesia on their own hand, but also when they viewed pictures of others' hand in pain. Functional connectivity analysis indicated that this hypnotic modulation of pain responses was associated with differential recruitment of right prefrontal regions implicated in selective attention and inhibitory control. Our results provide novel support to the view that self-nociception is involved during empathy for pain, and demonstrate the possibility to use hypnotic procedures to modulate higher-level emotional and social processes.

  18. Does Pre-Cooling With Whole-Body Immersion Affect Thermal Sensation or Perceived Exertion?: A Critically-Appraised Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfert, Timothy M; Miller, Kevin C

    2018-02-21

    Clinical Scenario: Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is a potentially deadly heat illness and poses a significant health risk to athletes; EHS survival rates are near 100% if properly recognized and treated. 1 Whole body cold water immersion (CWI) is the most effective method of lowering body core temperature. 2 Precooling (PC) with CWI before exercise may prevent severe hyperthermia and/or EHS by increasing the body's overall heat-storage capacity. 3 However, PC may also alter athletes' perception of how hot they feel or how hard they are exercising. Consequently, they may be unable to accurately perceive their body core temperature or how hard they are working which may predispose them to severe hyperthermia or EHS. Does PC with whole-body CWI affect thermal sensation (TS) or rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise in the heat? In four studies, 4-7 RPE during exercise ranged from 12 ± 2 to 20 ± 3 with no clinically meaningful differences between PC and control trials. Thermal sensation scores ranged from 2 ± 1 to 8 ± 0.5 in control trials and from 2 ± 1 to 7.5 ± 0.5 during PC trials. Clinical Bottom Line: Precooling did not cause clinically-meaningful differences in RPE or TS during exercise. It is unlikely PC would predispose athletes to EHS by altering perceptions of exercise intensity or body core temperature. Strength of Recommendation: None of the reviewed studies 4-7 (all level 2 studies with PEDro scores ≥5) suggest PC with CWI influences RPE or TS in exercising males.

  19. Pruritic and Nociceptive Sensations and Dysesthesias From a Spicule of Cowhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, R. H.; Shimada, S. G.; Green, B. G.; Zelterman, D.

    2009-01-01

    Although the trichomes (spicules) of a pod of cowhage (Mucuna pruriens) are known to evoke a histamine-independent itch that is mediated by a cysteine protease, little is known of the itch and accompanying nociceptive sensations evoked by a single spicule and the enhanced itch and pain that can occur in the surrounding skin. The tip of a single spicule applied to the forearm of 45 subjects typically evoked 1) itch accompanied by nociceptive sensations (NS) of pricking/stinging and, to a lesser extent, burning, and 2) one or more areas of cutaneous dysesthesia characterized by hyperknesis (enhanced itch to pricking) with or without alloknesis (itch to stroking) and/or hyperalgesia (enhanced pricking pain). Itch could occur in the absence of NS or one or more dysesthesias but very rarely the reverse. The peak magnitude of sensation was positively correlated for itch and NS and increased (exhibited spatial summation) as the number of spicules was increased within a spatial extent of 6 cm but not 1 cm. The areas of dysesthesia did not exhibit spatial summation. We conclude that itch evoked by a punctate chemical stimulus can co-exist with NS and cutaneous dysesthesias as may occur in clinical pruritus. However, cowhage itch was not always accompanied by NS or dysesthesia nor was a momentary change in itch necessarily accompanied by a similar change in NS or vice versa. Thus there may be separate neural coding mechanisms for itch, nociceptive sensations, and each type of dysesthesia. PMID:19144738

  20. Sex differences in common pain events: expectations and anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael E; Gagnon, Christine M; Dannecker, Erin A; Brown, Jennifer L; Jump, Rebecca L; Price, Donald D

    2003-02-01

    This study examined (1) the effects of sex-related stereotypes in commonly experienced, potentially painful events and (2) differences in events representing the worst pain sensation imaginable for the typical woman and the typical man. Undergraduates (63 women and 54 men) completed the Situational Pain Questionnaire as the typical woman would and as the typical man would. The participants also answered 2 open-ended questions regarding the worst pain sensation imaginable for the typical woman and for the typical man. Our findings demonstrate that sex-related stereotypes extend to common pain events and that men and women expected that men would report less pain for common pain events than women. This suggests a gender-role related learning history that is relatively consistent for both sexes. The worst pain sensation imaginable was perceived to be different for typical men and women. Both sexes chose injury as the class of events men would find most painful and childbirth and menstrual pain as the class of events women would find most painful. Implications of this finding for common pain scaling approaches are discussed. The results of this study were obtained from a fairly uniform group of undergraduate men and women, which may limit the generalizability of our findings.

  1. Intraoperative perception and sensation in laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivannaboon, Sabong; Chansue, Ekktet

    2004-04-01

    To investigate intraoperative perception and sensation during Laser in situ Keratomileusis (LASIK). Sixty patients with uneventful LASIK were included. All procedures were performed by one surgeon with one technique. Any patient with intra-operative complications was excluded. The patients were asked to fill in the subjective evaluation form regarding their perception and sensation during the operation. Twenty-nine patients (48%) reported no pain and twenty-six patients (43%) reported no burning sensation during the surgery. Nineteen patients (32%) reported no light perception during the suction period of microkeratome. There was no correlation between duration of the suction and no light perception (R2 0.01). Thirty-four patients (56%) reported no trouble in maintaining visual fixation at the red light during the laser treatment. Ten patients (16%) reported they could clearly see the movement during the surgery and 5 out of 10 patients (50% of 16%) reported visual frightening. Fifty cases (84%) reported no visual frightening during the surgery after reassurance of the visual experience by the surgeon before the surgery. Patients undergoing LASIK may experience different visual perceptions. Reassurance of the intraoperative perception and sensation before the surgery can reduce the visual frightening.

  2. [Device for quantitative analysis of perception and pain sensation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Hideko; Kato, Jitsu; Ogawa, Setsuro; Hanaoka, Kazuo

    2014-07-01

    The article describes an analysing device that measures the perception and intensity of pain quantitatively. While it is not necessarily true that psychological aspect is totally irrelevant to pain measurement, this device is remarkable in that it is capable of measuring the intensity of pain felt by the patient more objectively by using electric stimuli. The feature of this device is that it uses a non-pain heteresthesia for measuring the intensity of pain. The device is compact, light-weight, and portable. Unlike VAS that requires only a scale, the device requires a person to carry out the measurement. Nevertheless, as the National Health Insurance (NHI) coverage has been approved, introduction of the device may be facilitated in terms of budget for the purchase and labor. The device is useful to better understand not only the intensity of pain but also the pathological conditions, resulting in more appropriate treatment, by (1) comparing degree of pain or VAS values taken by a multicenter study with those of a patient; (2) using both degree of pain and VAS; and (3) multiple measurements of degree of pain and VAS in one case.

  3. Deconstructing the sensation of pain: The influence of cognitive processes on pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiech, Katja

    2016-11-04

    Phenomena such as placebo analgesia or pain relief through distraction highlight the powerful influence cognitive processes and learning mechanisms have on the way we perceive pain. Although contemporary models of pain acknowledge that pain is not a direct readout of nociceptive input, the neuronal processes underlying cognitive modulation are not yet fully understood. Modern concepts of perception-which include computational modeling to quantify the influence of cognitive processes-suggest that perception is critically determined by expectations and their modification through learning. Research on pain has just begun to embrace this view. Insights into these processes promise to open up new avenues to pain prevention and treatment by harnessing the power of the mind. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Pain, music creativity and music therapy in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, C C

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the music therapy literature yields numerous reports to support the role of music in the alleviation of pain in palliative care. Four theoretical perspectives that support why many patients report reduced pain sensation after music therapy include: the psychological relationship between music and pain; the psychophysiological theory; spinal mechanisms involved in pain modulation; and the role of endorphins. Considerations significant to the use of music in pain relief include how music, used inappropriately, can aggravate pain sensation. Case studies, which include the use of creative music therapy techniques, point to the efficacy of music therapy in alleviating the pain experiences of both palliative care patients and their significant others.

  5. Thermal thresholds and catastrophizing in individuals with chronic pain after whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raak, Ragnhild; Wallin, Mia

    2006-10-01

    Thermal sensitivity, thermal pain thresholds, and catastrophizing were examined in individuals with whiplash associated disorders (WAD) and in healthy pain-free participants. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) was used to measure skin sensitivity to cold and warmth and cold and heat pain thresholds over both the thenar eminence and the trapezius muscle (TrM) in 17 participants with WAD (age 50.8 +/- 11.3 years) and 18 healthy participants (age 44.8 +/- 10.2 years). The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) was used to determine pain coping strategies, and visual analogue scales were used for self-assessment of current background pain in individuals in the WAD group as well as experienced pain intensity and unpleasantness after QST and sleep quality in all participants. There were significant differences in warmth threshold and cold and heat pain thresholds of the TrM site between the WAD and pain-free groups. Significant differences between the two groups were also found for the catastrophizing dimension of helplessness in the PCS and in self-assessed quality of sleep. A correlational analysis showed that current background pain is significantly correlated with both cold discrimination and cold pain threshold in the skin over the TrM in individuals with WAD. These findings imply that thermal sensitivity is an important factor to consider in providing nursing care to individuals with WAD. Because biopsychosocial factors also influence the experience of pain in individuals with WAD, the role of nurses includes not only the description of the pain phenomenon but also the identification of relieving and aggravating factors.

  6. Touched in sensation--moved by respiration: embodied narrative identity--a treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviland, Randi; Råheim, Målfrid; Martinsen, Kari

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this theoretical article is to elaborate on the underpinning of Norwegian psychomotor physiotherapy (NPMP). With a narrative and hermeneutic point of departure, we explore the unfolding of a 10-year-long treatment by analysing a particular narrative from this treatment context in relation to some foundational perspectives on movement, sensation and time. A woman in her late thirties suffering from muscular tensions and pain, depression, anxiety and anorexia, came for NPMP. The investigation of her treatment experience is based on the journal written by her physiotherapist and first author of this article. We suggest that new experiences in movement and sensation as well as changes in movement patterns can contribute to retuning in sensation and restructuring of narrative time. Feeding the fictional space and narrative fantasy with new experiences in movement and sensation can help counteracting delusional ideas and assist changes, supporting embodied narrative identity. Ingrid's experience is discussed in the light of Trygve Braatøy's understanding of muscular functions, Knud E Løgstrup's phenomenology of sensation and Paul Ricouer's narrative time. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  7. Analgesia induced by self-initiated electrotactile sensation is mediated by top-down modulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ke; Tang, Zhengyu; Wang, Huiquan; Guo, Yifei; Peng, Weiwei; Hu, Li

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that sensory perception can be attenuated when sensory stimuli are controlled by self-initiated actions. This phenomenon is explained by the consistency between forward models of anticipated action effects and actual sensory feedback. Specifically, the brain state related to the binding between motor processing and sensory perception would have inhibitory function by gating sensory information via top-down control. Since the brain state could casually influence the perception of subsequent stimuli of different sensory modalities, we hypothesize that pain evoked by nociceptive stimuli following the self-initiated tactile stimulation would be attenuated as compared to that following externally determined tactile stimulation. Here, we compared psychophysical and neurophysiological responses to identical nociceptive-specific laser stimuli in two different conditions: self-initiated tactile sensation condition (STS) and nonself-initiated tactile sensation condition (N-STS). We observed that pain intensity and unpleasantness, as well as laser-evoked brain responses, were significantly reduced in the STS condition compared to the N-STS condition. In addition, magnitudes of alpha and beta oscillations prior to laser onset were significantly larger in the STS condition than in the N-STS condition. These results confirmed that pain perception and pain-related brain responses were attenuated when the tactile stimulation was initiated by subjects' voluntary actions, and exploited neural oscillations reflecting the binding between motor processing and sensory feedback. Thus, our study elaborated the understanding of underlying neural mechanisms related to top-down modulations of the analgesic effect induced by self-initiated tactile sensation, which provided theoretical basis to improve the analgesic effect in various clinical applications. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. Colon manometry proves that perception of the urge to defecate is present in children with functional constipation who deny sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone Baum, Carrie; John, Anub; Srinivasan, Kavitha; Harrison, Prince; Kolomensky, Andrew; Monagas, Javier; Cocjin, Jose; Hyman, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    Children with functional constipation often state an inability to sense an urge to defecate and/or inability to feel incontinence. We used colon manometry to assess whether there was a sensory abnormality in patients who denied sensation. A physician observed all of the colon manometries in the preceding 20 years, and included behavioral observations in the procedure reports. We reviewed the charts of these patients. Of 150 subjects with normal manometry and a diagnosis of functional constipation, 56 volunteered that they had no urge to defecate or complained of abdominal pain. For all who denied sensation, the first high-amplitude propagating colonic contraction (HAPC) was associated with retentive posturing and facial grimaces. When queried, all reported they felt nothing. The examiner explained the HAPC was causing pain, and informed the child that the pain would resolve if they defecated. With subsequent HAPCs, every patient acknowledged an urge to defecate and successfully defecated. Most agreed that a similar pain sensation was present daily, but was misinterpreted to be abdominal pain. Colon manometry may be useful not only for objective findings to discriminate neuromuscular disease from functional symptoms but also to understand psychological issues and aid in helping the child and family understand the maladaptive behaviors in functional constipation.

  9. Sensory retraining after orthognathic surgery: effect on patients' perception of altered sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ceib; Essick, Greg; Preisser, John S; Turvey, Timothy A; Tucker, Myron; Lin, Dongming

    2007-06-01

    The primary research hypothesis was that the magnitude and duration of the perceived burden from altered sensation reported by patients after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and trauma to the third division of the trigeminal nerve are decreased when facial sensory retraining exercises are performed in conjunction with standard opening exercises as compared with standard opening exercises alone. A total of 186 subjects were enrolled in a multicenter, double-blind, 2 parallel group-stratified block randomized clinical trial. Oral and facial pain, unusual sensations, numbness, and loss of sensitivity were scored from "no problem" to "serious problem" before surgery and 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. A proportional odds model for the ordered multinomial response was used to compare the responses of the 2 exercise groups. The 2 exercise groups did not differ significantly at any postsurgical time in terms of perceived problem level from intraoral of facial pain. The difference between the 2 groups at each visit was not statistically significant for unusual sensations, although the trend was for the sensory retraining group to have a higher likelihood of reporting fewer problems. By 6 months, the likelihood of a subject reporting lower problem or interference level related to numbness or decreased lip sensitivity was significantly higher in the sensory-retraining group, approximately twice that of the opening exercise-only group. Our results support the premise that a simple noninvasive exercise program initiated shortly after orthognathic surgery can lessen the objectionable impression of negative altered sensations.

  10. Sensory Retraining following Orthognathic Surgery: Effect on Patient Perception of Altered Sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ceib; Essick, Greg; Preisser, John S; Turvey, Timothy A; Tucker, Myron; Lin, Dongming

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The primary research hypothesis was that the magnitude and duration of the perceived burden from altered sensation reported by patients following bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) and trauma to the third division of the trigeminal nerve is lessened when facial sensory retraining exercises are performed in conjunction with standard opening exercises as compared to standard opening exercises alone. Subjects and Methods 186 subjects were enrolled in a multi-center double-blind two parallel group stratified block randomized clinical trial. Oral and facial pain, unusual sensations, numbness and loss of sensitivity, were scored from “no problem” to “serious problem” before surgery, 1,3, and 6 months after surgery. Analysis A proportional odds model for the ordered multinomial response was used to compare the responses of the two exercise groups. Results The two exercise groups did not differ significantly at any postsurgical time in the perceived problem level from mouth or face pain. The difference between the two groups at each visit was not statistically significant for unusual sensations although the trend was for the sensory retraining group to have a higher likelihood of reporting fewer problems. By 6 months, the likelihood of a subject reporting lower problem or interference level related to numbness or less lip sensitivity was significantly higher in the sensory-retraining group, approximately twice that of the opening exercise only group. Conclusion The results from this clinical trial support the premise that a simple noninvasive exercise program initiated shortly after orthognathic surgery can lessen the objectionable impression of negative altered sensations. PMID:17517301

  11. Phantom Sensations, Supernumerary Phantom Limbs and Apotemnophilia: Three Body Representation Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2018-01-01

    Body representation disorders continue to be mysterious and involve the anatomical substrate that underlies the mental representation of the body. These disorders sit on the boundaries of neurological and psychiatric diseases. We present the main characteristics of 3 examples of body representation disorders: phantom sensations, supernumerary phantom limb, and apotemnophilia. The dysfunction of anatomical circuits that regulate body representation can sometimes have paradoxical features. In the case of phantom sensations, the patient feels the painful subjective sensation of the existence of the lost part of the body after amputation, surgery or trauma. In case of apotemnophilia, now named body integrity identity disorder, the subject wishes for the disappearance of the existing and normal limb, which can occasionally lead to self-amputation. More rarely, a brain-damaged patient with 4 existing limbs can report the existence of a supernumerary phantom limb. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Optokinetic stimulation increases limb pain and forehead hyperalgesia in complex regional pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lone F.; Drummond, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambiguous visual stimuli increase limb pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), possibly due to afferent sensory feedback conflicts. Conflicting sensory stimuli can also generate unpleasant sensations in healthy people such as during motion sickness. We wanted to i...

  13. Inhibition of c-Kit signaling is associated with reduced heat and cold pain sensitivity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceko, Marta; Milenkovic, Nevena; le Coutre, Philipp; Westermann, Jörg; Lewin, Gary R

    2014-07-01

    The tyrosine kinase receptor c-Kit is critically involved in the modulation of nociceptive sensitivity in mice. Ablation of the c-Kit gene results in hyposensitivity to thermal pain, whereas activation of c-Kit produces hypersensitivity to noxious heat, without altering sensitivity to innocuous mechanical stimuli. In this study, we investigated the role of c-Kit signaling in human pain perception. We hypothesized that subjects treated with Imatinib or Nilotinib, potent inhibitors of tyrosine kinases including c-Kit but also Abl1, PDFGFRα, and PDFGFRβ, that are used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), would experience changes in thermal pain sensitivity. We examined 31 asymptomatic CML patients (14 male and 17 female) receiving Imatinib/Nilotinib treatment and compared them to 39 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (12 male and 27 female). We used cutaneous heat and cold stimulation to test normal and noxious thermal sensitivity, and a grating orientation task to assess tactile acuity. Thermal pain thresholds were significantly increased in the Imatinib/Nilotinib-treated group, whereas innocuous thermal and tactile thresholds were unchanged compared to those in the control group. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the biological effects of c-Kit inhibition are comparable in mice and humans in that c-Kit activity is required to regulate thermal pain sensitivity but does not affect innocuous thermal and mechanical sensation. The effect on experimental heat pain observed in our study is comparable to those of several common analgesics; thus modulation of the c-Kit pathway can be used to specifically modulate noxious heat and cold sensitivity in humans. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Re: The Effect of Pelvic Organ Prolapse Repair on Vaginal Sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowenstein L

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between the pelvic organ prolapse (POP and sensory functioning of the genital region has not been studied well. It is not also obvious whether the changes occurring at the same time are the cause or the result. In this study, the authors investigated the quantitative sensory changes one day before and 6 months after the surgical repair of POP by robotic sacrocolpopexy. They also used the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory-6 which quantifies the bother and distress caused by the pelvic symptoms. By this method, the initial perception of a sensation of temperature (hot or cold and vibration was measured. After six months, sensitivity to thermal stimuli was found to be significantly improved, but there was no significant change in the vaginal and clitoral vibratory sensory thresholds. The value of reduced sensation in the genitals is not a well-known issue. We know that the thermal and vibratory sensations are diminished in female sexual dysfunction and they can be important in orgasmic function also. It is a well-designed study although it has some limitations. The anatomic correction in POP surgery could improve the genital sensation. Prevention or, at least, early correction of POP can provide serious advantages not only for urinary system but also for the genital functions of women.

  15. Fluid mechanics in dentinal microtubules provides mechanistic insights into the difference between hot and cold dental pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min; Luo, Zheng Yuan; Bai, Bo Feng; Xu, Feng; Lu, Tian Jian

    2011-03-23

    Dental thermal pain is a significant health problem in daily life and dentistry. There is a long-standing question regarding the phenomenon that cold stimulation evokes sharper and more shooting pain sensations than hot stimulation. This phenomenon, however, outlives the well-known hydrodynamic theory used to explain dental thermal pain mechanism. Here, we present a mathematical model based on the hypothesis that hot or cold stimulation-induced different directions of dentinal fluid flow and the corresponding odontoblast movements in dentinal microtubules contribute to different dental pain responses. We coupled a computational fluid dynamics model, describing the fluid mechanics in dentinal microtubules, with a modified Hodgkin-Huxley model, describing the discharge behavior of intradental neuron. The simulated results agreed well with existing experimental measurements. We thence demonstrated theoretically that intradental mechano-sensitive nociceptors are not "equally sensitive" to inward (into the pulp) and outward (away from the pulp) fluid flows, providing mechanistic insights into the difference between hot and cold dental pain. The model developed here could enable better diagnosis in endodontics which requires an understanding of pulpal histology, neurology and physiology, as well as their dynamic response to the thermal stimulation used in dental practices.

  16. Simulating Physiological Response with a Passive Sensor Manikin and an Adaptive Thermal Manikin to Predict Thermal Sensation and Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, John P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chaney, Larry [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hepokoski, Mark [ThermoAnalytics Inc.; Curran, Allen [ThermoAnalytics Inc.; Burke, Richard [Measurement Technology NW; Maranville, Clay [Ford Motor Company

    2015-04-14

    Reliable assessment of occupant thermal comfort can be difficult to obtain within automotive environments, especially under transient and asymmetric heating and cooling scenarios. Evaluation of HVAC system performance in terms of comfort commonly requires human subject testing, which may involve multiple repetitions, as well as multiple test subjects. Instrumentation (typically comprised of an array of temperature sensors) is usually only sparsely applied across the human body, significantly reducing the spatial resolution of available test data. Further, since comfort is highly subjective in nature, a single test protocol can yield a wide variation in results which can only be overcome by increasing the number of test replications and subjects. In light of these difficulties, various types of manikins are finding use in automotive testing scenarios. These manikins can act as human surrogates from which local skin and core temperatures can be obtained, which are necessary for accurately predicting local and whole body thermal sensation and comfort using a physiology-based comfort model (e.g., the Berkeley Comfort Model). This paper evaluates two different types of manikins, i) an adaptive sweating thermal manikin, which is coupled with a human thermoregulation model, running in real-time, to obtain realistic skin temperatures; and, ii) a passive sensor manikin, which is used to measure boundary conditions as they would act on a human, from which skin and core temperatures can be predicted using a thermophysiological model. The simulated physiological responses and comfort obtained from both of these manikin-model coupling schemes are compared to those of a human subject within a vehicle cabin compartment transient heat-up scenario.

  17. Is heat pain detection threshold associated with the area of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Sejer; Wetterslev, Jørn; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2016-01-01

    role in the development of secondary hyperalgesia; however, a possible association of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization and other heat pain models remains unknown. Our aim with this study is to investigate how close the heat pain detection threshold is associated...... with the size of the area of secondary hyperalgesia induced by the clinical heat pain model: Brief thermal sensitization. METHODS AND DESIGN: We aim to include 120 healthy participants. The participants will be tested on two separate study days with the following procedures: i) Brief thermal sensitization, ii......) heat pain detection threshold and iii) pain during thermal stimulation. Additionally, the participants will be tested with the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaires. We conducted statistical simulations based on data from our previous study, to estimate...

  18. Responses to tonic heat pain in the ongoing EEG under conditions of controlled attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giehl, Janet; Meyer-Brandis, Gesa; Kunz, Miriam; Lautenbacher, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    To confirm the existence of an ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern that is truly suggestive of pain, tonic heat pain was induced by small heat pulses at 1 °C above the pain threshold and compared to slightly less intense tonic non-painful heat pulses at 1 °C below the pain threshold. Twenty healthy subjects rated the sensation intensity during thermal stimulation. Possible confounding effects of attention were thoroughly controlled for by testing in four conditions: (1) focus of attention directed ipsilateral or (2) contralateral to the side of the stimulation, (3) control without a side preference, and (4) no control of attention at all. EEG was recorded via eight leads according to the 10/20 convention. Absolute power was computed for the frequency bands delta (0.5-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-11 Hz), alpha2 (11-14 Hz), beta1 (14-25 Hz), and beta2 (25-35 Hz). Ratings were clearly distinct between the heat and pain conditions and suggestive for heat and pain sensations. Manipulation of attention proved to be successful by producing effects on the ratings and on the EEG activity (with lower ratings and lower EEG activity (theta, beta1, 2) over central areas for side-focused attention). During pain stimulation, lower central alpha1 and alpha2 activity and higher right-parietal and right-occipital delta power were observed compared to heat stimulation. This EEG pattern was not influenced by the manipulation of attention. Since the two types of stimuli (pain, heat) were subjectively felt differently although stimulation intensities were nearby, we conclude that this EEG pattern is clearly suggestive of pain.

  19. Trigeminal pain and quantitative sensory testing in painful peripheral diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arap, Astrid; Siqueira, Silvia R D T; Silva, Claudomiro B; Teixeira, Manoel J; Siqueira, José T T

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate patients with Diabetes Mellitus type 2 and painful peripheral neuropathy in order to investigate oral complaints and facial somatosensory findings. Case-control study; 29 patients (12 women, mean age 57.86 yo) with Diabetes Mellitus type 2 and 31 age-gender-matched controls were evaluated with a standardized protocol for general characteristics, orofacial pain, research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders, visual analogue scale and McGill Pain questionnaire, and a systematic protocol of quantitative sensory testing for bilateral facial sensitivity at the areas innervated by the trigeminal branches, which included the thermal detection by ThermoSensi 2, tactile evaluation with vonFrey filaments, and superficial pain thresholds with a superficial algometer (Micromar). Statistical analysis was performed with Wilcoxon, chi-square, confidence intervals and Spearman (ppain was reported by 55.2% of patients, and the most common descriptor was fatigue (50%); 17.2% had burning mouth. Myofascial temporomandibular disorders were diagnosed in 9 (31%) patients. The study group showed higher sensory thresholds of pain at the right maxillary branch (p=0.017) but sensorial differences were not associated with pain (p=0.608). Glycemia and HbA(1c) were positively correlated with the quantitative sensory testing results of pain (ppain thresholds were correlated with higher glycemia and glycated hemoglobin (p=0.027 and p=0.026). There was a high prevalence of orofacial pain and burning mouth was the most common complaint. The association of loss of pain sensation and higher glycemia and glycated hemoglobin can be of clinical use for the follow-up of DM complications. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Perception of foot temperature in young women with cold constitution: analysis of skin temperature and warm and cold sensation thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadakata, Mieko; Yamada, Yoshiaki

    2007-06-01

    To examine the disease state of cold constitution, physiological measurements of the foot were conducted by investigating thermal sensations under an environmental condition of 25 degrees C-26 degrees C (neutral temperature) in 29 young women with and without cold constitution. The subjects were classified into 3 groups according to their experiences with cold constitution: cold constitution, intermediate, and normal groups. Foot skin temperature was measured by thermography. Thermal sensations were measured on the dorsum of the left foot using a thermal stimulator. Cold and warm spots on the dorsum of the right foot were ascertained. Thermal stimulation was delivered by a copper probe. No significant differences in foot skin temperature among these 3 groups were identified as measured in a laboratory under neutral temperature conditions. However, the mean warm sensation threshold was +6.3+/-1.09 degrees C (mean+/-SEM) for the cold constitution group (n=14), +3.4+/-2.10 degrees C (mean+/-SEM) for the intermediate group (n=7), and -0.25+/-1.96 degrees C (mean+/-SEM) for the normal group (n=6). The difference was significant between the cold constitution and normal groups. No significant differences among the 3 groups were found in the cold sensation threshold. This may be attributable to the distribution of thermal receptors and to chronically reduced blood flow in subcutaneous tissues, where the skin temperature receptors responsible for temperature sensation are located.

  1. The influence of pain-related expectations on intensity perception of non-painful somatosensory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Jonas; Wiech, Katja; Claes, Nathalie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Van Diest, Ilse; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2018-04-03

    The extent to which pain-related expectations, known to affect pain perception, also affect perception of non-painful sensations remains unclear, as well as the potential role of unpredictability in this context. In a proprioceptive fear conditioning paradigm, various arm extension movements were associated with predictable and unpredictable electrocutaneous pain or its absence. During a subsequent test phase non-painful electrocutaneous stimuli with a high or low intensity were presented during movement execution. We used hierarchical drift diffusion modeling to examine the influence of expecting pain on the perceptual decision-making process underlying intensity perception of non-painful sensations. In the first experiment (n=36), the pain stimulus was never presented during the test phase after conditioning. In the second experiment (n=39), partial reinforcement was adopted to prevent extinction of pain expectations. In both experiments, movements that were associated with (un)predictable pain led to higher pain-expectancy, self-reported fear, unpleasantness and arousal, as compared to movements that were never paired with pain (effect sizes ηp ranging from .119 - .557; all p-values threat of the pain US remained present - we found that the expectation of pain affected decision-making. Compared to the no pain condition, an a priori decision-making bias towards the high intensity decision threshold was found with the strongest bias during unpredictable pain (effect sizes ηp ranging from .469 - .504; all p-values affects inferential processes for subsequent painful but also for non-painful bodily stimuli, with unpredictability moderating these effects, and only when the threat of pain remains present due to partial reinforcement.

  2. Thermal comfort of people in the hot and humid area of China-impacts of season, climate, and thermal history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Chen, H; Wang, J; Meng, Q

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a climate chamber study on the thermal comfort of people in the hot and humid area of China. Sixty subjects from naturally ventilated buildings and buildings with split air conditioners participated in the study, and identical experiments were conducted in a climate chamber in both summer and winter. Psychological and physiological responses were observed over a wide range of conditions, and the impacts of season, climate, and thermal history on human thermal comfort were analyzed. Seasonal and climatic heat acclimatization was confirmed, but they were found to have no significant impacts on human thermal sensation and comfort. The outdoor thermal history was much less important than the indoor thermal history in regard to human thermal sensation, and the indoor thermal history in all seasons of a year played a key role in shaping the subjects' sensations in a wide range of thermal conditions. A warmer indoor thermal history in warm seasons produced a higher neutral temperature, a lower thermal sensitivity, and lower thermal sensations in warm conditions. The comfort and acceptable conditions were identified for people in the hot and humid area of China. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Vicarious pain experiences while observing another in pain: an experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eVandenbroucke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at developing an experimental paradigm to assess vicarious pain experiences. We further explored the putative moderating role of observer’s characteristics such as hypervigilance for pain and dispositional empathy. Methods: Two experiments are reported using a similar procedure. Undergraduate students were selected based upon whether they reported vicarious pain in daily life, and categorized into a pain responder group or a comparison group. Participants were presented a series of videos showing hands being pricked whilst receiving occasionally pricking (electrocutaneous stimuli themselves. In congruent trials, pricking and visual stimuli were applied to the same spatial location. In incongruent trials, pricking and visual stimuli were in the opposite spatial location. Participants were required to report on which location they felt a pricking sensation. Of primary interest was the effect of viewing another in pain upon vicarious pain errors, i.e., the number of trials in which an illusionary sensation was reported. Furthermore, we explored the effect of individual differences in hypervigilance to pain, dispositional empathy and the rubber hand illusion (RHI upon vicarious pain errors. Results: Results of both experiments indicated that the number of vicarious pain errors was overall low. In line with expectations, the number of vicarious pain errors was higher in the pain responder group than in the comparison group. Self-reported hypervigilance for pain lowered the probability of reporting vicarious pain errors in the pain responder group, but dispositional empathy and the RHI did not. Conclusion: Our paradigm allows measuring vicarious pain experiences in students. However, the prevalence of vicarious experiences of pain is low, and only a small percentage of participants display the phenomenon. It remains however unknown which variables affect its occurrence.

  4. The Effects of Exposure to Repeated Minor Pain During the Neonatal Period on Formalin Pain Behavior and Thermal Withdrawal Latencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Celeste Johnston

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants undergoing untreated, repeated painful procedures as part of their early experience are more likely to behave differently to pain as they mature than infants who were born at term and did not experience excessive exogenous pain. The neonatal rat model was used to investigate the short- and long-term effects of repeated pain in infancy on later development of pain responses. Newborn rat pups were randomly assigned by litter to be left unhandled (UH, handled by being removed from the dam for 15 min four times daily (H, and being handled and receiving pain from a paw prick with a 26G needle four times daily (Pon postnatal days (PD 2 through 8 (PD2-PD8. Maternal behaviour and grooming of pups on their return to the nest were recorded at PD6 for H and P pups. At PD15, PD36 and PD65, animals were first tested for latency to thermal stimulation threshold using the Hargreaves test and then for inflammatory pain using the formalin test. Pups in the HP group received significantly more grooming from their mothers (359 s than pups in the H group (295 s, P<0.0001. When accounting for differences in maternal grooming, a decreased thermal threshold in the P group compared with the H group (6.04 s versus 5.3 s, P<0.05 was found, although the correlations were not significant between maternal grooming and thermal thresholds. No group differences were seen with the formalin test. Interestingly, age was a significant factor in both tests, with younger animals showing fewer pain behaviours regardless of group or maternal grooming of the pup. Sex was significant at one age only in latency to thermal stimulation testing. The results suggest that changes in maternal care may be an important factor mediating the long-term effects of repeated neonatal experiences of pain.

  5. Sensation Seeking in Street Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence....... The present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...... involving street violence, which are coded quantitatively and qualitatively. Our analysis shows that sensation seeking only seldom seems to play a role in the structuring of street violence. Moreover, the data indicate that sensation seeking finds expression in street violence situations in two different...

  6. Effect of personal and microclimatic variables on observed thermal sensation from a field study in southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Eduardo L.; Rossi, Francine A. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Curitiba PR (Brazil)

    2011-03-15

    Urban climate, which is influenced by land use patterns, heat-generating activities, and the physical texture of urban fabric, has a great impact on outdoor comfort as well as on a building's energy consumption. A climate-responsive urban planning can provide optimal, comfortable thermal conditions not only for the permanence of humans in outdoor spaces but also reducing the need of air conditioning systems in buildings. The purpose of this article is to present results of an outdoor comfort research with passers-by in downtown Curitiba, Brazil (25 31'S, 917m elevation). Urban locations have been monitored regarding standard comfort variables: air temperature and humidity, wind speed and globe temperature. Alongside the quantitative assessment of comfort conditions, a survey of pedestrian's thermal comfort perception according to ISO 10551 was carried out on each monitoring campaign by means of questionnaires with the local population. As a whole, from fourteen monitoring campaigns using a couple of weather stations, beginning on January 9 through August 12, 1654 valid comfort votes were obtained. In this paper, we perform a data consistency check, evaluating the relationship between personal (gender and age of respondents) and objective, microclimatic (comfort variables) factors on observed thermal sensation. (author)

  7. Prior stress exposure increases pain behaviors in a rat model of full thickness thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Jennifer E; McLean, Samuel A; Averitt, Dayna L

    2015-12-01

    Thermal burns among individuals working in highly stressful environments, such as firefighters and military Service Members, are common. Evidence suggests that pre-injury stress may exaggerate pain following thermal injury; however current animal models of burn have not evaluated the potential influence of pre-burn stress. This sham-controlled study evaluated the influence of prior stress exposure on post-burn thermal and mechanical sensitivity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were exposed to 20 min of inescapable swim stress or sham stress once per day for three days. Exposure to inescapable swim stress (1) increased the intensity and duration of thermal hyperalgesia after subsequent burn and (2) accelerated the onset of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia after subsequent burn. This stress-induced exacerbation of pain sensitivity was reversed by pretreatment and concurrent treatment with the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) duloxetine. These data suggest a better understanding of mechanisms by which prior stress augments pain after thermal burn may lead to improved pain treatments for burn survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic pain in Gaucher disease: skeletal or neuropathic origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devigili, Grazia; De Filippo, Michele; Ciana, Giovanni; Dardis, Andrea; Lettieri, Christian; Rinaldo, Sara; Macor, Daniela; Moro, Alessandro; Eleopra, Roberto; Bembi, Bruno

    2017-08-31

    Pain is one of the most disabling symptoms of Gaucher disease. It is referred by the majority of Gaucher patients and often persists despite long-term enzyme replacement treatment. It has been mainly considered as nociceptive pain secondary to skeletal involvement but it is described even in the absence of bone disease without a clear explanation. In the last years an increasing number of reports have described the presence of neurological manifestation in Gaucher type 1 patients, including subclinical large fibre neuropathy. In our Gaucher clinic we have observed the recurrence of painful symptoms in a group of type 1 Gaucher patients even after a long-term enzyme replacement therapy. A cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the pathophysiology of pain in a cohort of 25 Gaucher patients (13 females, 12 males). Twenty-two patients received enzyme replacement therapy for a period of time ranging from 10 to >20 years, while three were new diagnosis. Pain was classified as bone or neurologic related on the basis of anamnestic data, clinical and electrophysilogical examinations. Intensity and quality of pain were recorded by Douleur Neuropathique en 4 questionnaire and Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory. Neuroalgological evaluation, quantitative sensory testing, nerve conduction studies and evaluation of epidermal nerve fibres density were performed. Comorbidities for peripheral neuropathy were excluded. Thirteen patients complained of pain suggestive of neuropathic origin with proximal patchy distribution, six manifested severe pain paroxysmal, nine pinprick hypoesthesia and 17 thermal hypoesthesia. At quantitative sensory testing, all of them showed high cold thresholds with errata sensation (burning instead of cold), paradoxical heat sensation and mechanic hypoesthesia; three patients showed pressure pain hyperalgesia. Epidermal denervation was present in 19 patients, 12 of them with non-length dependent pattern. These results confirm the role of

  9. Sensation seeking and error processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ya; Sheng, Wenbin; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2014-09-01

    Sensation seeking is defined by a strong need for varied, novel, complex, and intense stimulation, and a willingness to take risks for such experience. Several theories propose that the insensitivity to negative consequences incurred by risks is one of the hallmarks of sensation-seeking behaviors. In this study, we investigated the time course of error processing in sensation seeking by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) while high and low sensation seekers performed an Eriksen flanker task. Whereas there were no group differences in ERPs to correct trials, sensation seeking was associated with a blunted error-related negativity (ERN), which was female-specific. Further, different subdimensions of sensation seeking were related to ERN amplitude differently. These findings indicate that the relationship between sensation seeking and error processing is sex-specific. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Innocuous cooling can produce nociceptive sensations that are inhibited during dynamic mechanical contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barry G; Pope, Jennifer V

    2003-02-01

    In a previous study of the heat grill illusion, sensations of burning and stinging were sometimes reported when the skin was cooled by as little as 2 degrees C. Informal tests subsequently indicated that these nociceptive sensations were experienced if cooling occurred when the stimulating thermode rested on the skin, but not when the thermode was cooled and then touched to the skin. In experiment 1 subjects judged the intensity of thermal (cold/warm) and nociceptive (burning/stinging) sensations when the volar surface of the forearm was cooled to 25 degrees C (1) via a static thermode (Static condition), or (2) via a cold thermode touched to the skin (Dynamic condition). The total area of stimulation was varied from 2.6 to 10.4 cm(2) to determine if the occurrence of nociceptive sensations depended upon stimulus size. Burning/stinging was rated 10.3 times stronger in the Static condition than in the Dynamic condition, and this difference did not vary significantly with stimulus size. In experiment 2, thermal and nociceptive sensations were measured during cooling to just 31 degrees, 29 degrees or 27 degrees C, and data were obtained on the frequency at which different sensation qualities were experienced. Stinging was the most frequently reported nociceptive quality in the Static condition, and stinging and burning were both markedly reduced in the Dynamic condition. In experiment 3 we tested the possibility that dynamic contact might have inhibited burning and stinging not because of mechanical contact per se, but rather because dynamic contact caused higher rates of cooling. However, varying cooling rate over a tenfold range (-0.5 degrees to -5.0 degrees /s) had no appreciable effect on the frequency of stinging and burning. Overall, the data show that mild cooling can produce nociceptive sensations that are suppressed under conditions of dynamic mechanical contact. The latter observation suggests that cold is perceived differently during active contact with

  11. Opposite patterns of change in perception of imagined and physically induced pain over the course of repeated thermal stimulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gács, B; Szolcsányi, T; Csathó, Á

    2017-08-01

    Individuals frequently show habituation to repeated noxious heat. However, given the defensive function of human pain processing, it is reasonable to assume that individuals anticipate that they would become increasingly sensitive to repeated thermal pain stimuli. No previous studies have, however, been addressed to this assumption. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated how healthy human individuals imagine the intensity of repeated thermal pain stimulations, and compared this with the intensity ratings given after physically induced thermal pain trials. Healthy participants (N = 20) gave pain intensity ratings in two conditions: imagined and real thermal pain. In the real pain condition, thermal pain stimuli of two intensities (minimal and moderate pain) were delivered in four consecutive trials. The duration of the peak temperature was 20 s, and stimulation was always delivered to the same location. In each trial, participants rated the pain intensity twice, 5 and 15 s after the onset of the peak temperature. In the imagined pain condition, participants were subjected to a reference pain stimulus and then asked to imagine and rate the same sequence of stimulations as in the induced pain condition. Ratings of imagined pain and physically induced pain followed opposite courses over repeated stimulations: Ratings of imagined pain indicated sensitization, whereas ratings for physically induced pain indicated habituation. The findings were similar for minimal and moderate pain intensities. The findings suggest that, rather than habituating to pain, healthy individuals imagine that they would become increasingly sensitive to repeated thermal pain stimuli. This study identified opposite patterns of change in perception of imagined pain (sensitization) and physically induced pain (habituation). The findings show that individuals anticipate that they would become increasingly sensitive to repeated pain stimuli, which might also have clinical implications.

  12. Sensation of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sensation of Movement will discuss the role of sensation in the control of action, bodily self-recognition, and sense of agency. Sensing movement is dependent on a range of information received by the brain, from signalling in the peripheral sensory organs to the establishment of higher order goals....... This volume will question whether one type of information is more relevant for the ability to sense and control movements, and demonstrate the importance of integrating neuroscientific knowledge with philosophical perspectives, in order to arrive at new insights into how sensation of movement can be studied...

  13. The Japanese Version of the Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture Sensation Scale: A Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Nishiwaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture sensations are considered essential in producing the treatment effect of acupuncture. The Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture Sensation Scale (MASS is a frequently used scale in acupuncture research to measure acupuncture sensations. We translated the MASS into Japanese (Japanese MASS based on Beaton’s guidelines. 30 acupuncturists evaluated the relevancy and meaning of the 12 descriptors included in the Japanese MASS. The content validity ratios for 10 of the 12 descriptors were 0.33 or greater. 42 healthy subjects then evaluated acupuncture sensations evoked by manual acupuncture at LI4 using the Japanese MASS. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.86. The correlation coefficient of total MASS scores and total Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire scores and MASS indices and sensory visual analogue scores were 0.78 and 0.80, respectively. Factor analysis loaded the 12 descriptors onto two meaningful factors. This study demonstrated that the Japanese MASS has good reliability, content validity, criterion-related validity, and construct validity. Therefore, the Japanese MASS is a valid and reliable instrument for use with Japanese populations.

  14. The Japanese Version of the Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture Sensation Scale: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Masako; Takayama, Miho; Yajima, Hiroyoshi; Nasu, Morihiro; Kong, Jian; Takakura, Nobuari

    2017-01-01

    Acupuncture sensations are considered essential in producing the treatment effect of acupuncture. The Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture Sensation Scale (MASS) is a frequently used scale in acupuncture research to measure acupuncture sensations. We translated the MASS into Japanese (Japanese MASS) based on Beaton's guidelines. 30 acupuncturists evaluated the relevancy and meaning of the 12 descriptors included in the Japanese MASS. The content validity ratios for 10 of the 12 descriptors were 0.33 or greater. 42 healthy subjects then evaluated acupuncture sensations evoked by manual acupuncture at LI4 using the Japanese MASS. Cronbach's alpha was 0.86. The correlation coefficient of total MASS scores and total Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire scores and MASS indices and sensory visual analogue scores were 0.78 and 0.80, respectively. Factor analysis loaded the 12 descriptors onto two meaningful factors. This study demonstrated that the Japanese MASS has good reliability, content validity, criterion-related validity, and construct validity. Therefore, the Japanese MASS is a valid and reliable instrument for use with Japanese populations.

  15. Thermal sensation vote simulation on the aged for bus air conditioning; Koreisha wo koryoshita onkan suchi simulation no bus kucho eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, H; Nishijima, H; Kitada, M; Shinma, A [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The Numbers of passengers on the aged of sight-seeing buses about 5 times bigger than those of car passengers, have been increasing gradually. The former paper of DENSO in 1994 introduces quantitative method, which simulates passenger heat amount given by sun light at various solar positions. At this time, this paper introduces quantitative method, which simulates passengers thermal sensation skin temperature and also heat amount given by sun light at various solar positions. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Differences in risk experience between sensation avoiders and sensation seekers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heino, A.; van der Molen, H.H.; Wilde, G.J S

    The prime purpose of our study was to find out whether the need for stimulation has a systematic influence on perceived risk. While driving on a motorway, 21 male sensation avoiders and 21 male sensation seekers had to follow another car, once at a free following distance chosen by the subject

  17. The effects of Western music on postoperative pain in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, M; Chin, C C

    1998-02-01

    Music is a method nurses can use to help relieve pain, however little is known about its effectiveness across cultures. In this study, Western music was tested for its effectiveness in reducing postoperative pain in 38 Taiwanese patients, and its acceptability was explored. A pretest and post-test experimental design was used with visual analogue scales to measure sensation and distress of pain. Before surgery, subjects were randomly assigned to receive tape recorded music or the usual care. Those who were assigned to the music group chose among 5 types of sedative music. On postoperative Day 1 and Day 2, the effectiveness of the tape-recorded music was investigated during 15 minutes of rest in bed. Patients were interviewed on Day 3 to determine their liking for the music, its calming effects, and the helpfulness of the music. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant interaction between time and group in the distress of pain on Day 1, but not on Day 2, and in pain sensation on Day 2, but not Day 1. Subjects from Taiwan were similar to subjects in a previous study in the United States in their liking for the music, and in reports of the helpfulness of the music for pain sensation and distress, but fewer Taiwanese found the music calming, and they had different choices: more chose harp music and fewer chose jazz than subjects in the U.S. study, and some would prefer Buddhist hymns or popular songs heard in Taiwan. Findings support the use of culturally acceptable music in addition to analgesic medication for the sensation and distress of postoperative pain.

  18. Descriptors of sensation confirm the multidimensional nature of desire to void.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rebekah; Buckley, Jonathan D; Williams, Marie T

    2015-02-01

    To collect and categorize descriptors of "desire to void" sensation, determine the reliability of descriptor categories and assess whether descriptor categories discriminate between people with and without symptoms of overactive bladder. This observational, repeated measures study involved 64 Australian volunteers (47 female), aged 50 years or more, with and without symptoms of overactive bladder. Descriptors of desire to void sensation were derived from a structured interview (conducted on two occasions, 1 week apart). Descriptors were recorded verbatim and categorized in a three-stage process. Overactive bladder status was determined by the Overactive Bladder Awareness Tool and the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score. McNemar's test assessed the reliability of descriptors volunteered between two occasions and Partial Least Squares Regression determined whether language categories discriminated according to overactive bladder status. Post hoc Chi squared analysis and relative risk calculation determined the size and direction of overactive bladder prediction. Thirteen language categories (Urgency, Fullness, Pressure, Tickle/tingle, Pain/ache, Heavy, Normal, Intense, Sudden, Annoying, Uncomfortable, Anxiety, and Unique somatic) encapsulated 344 descriptors of sensation. Descriptor categories were stable between two interviews. The categories "Urgency" and "Fullness" predicted overactive bladder status. Participants who volunteered "Urgency" descriptors were twice as likely to have overactive bladder and participants who volunteered "Fullness" descriptors were almost three times as likely not to have overactive bladder. The sensation of desire to void is reliably described over sessions separated by a week, the language used reflects multiple dimensions of sensation, and can predict overactive bladder status. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Pain experience during internal spermatic vein embolization for varicocele: comparison of two cyanoacrylate glues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heye, Sam; Maleux, Geert; Wilms, Guido [University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible pain sensation differences in patients after retrograde varicocele embolization either with n-butyl-(2)-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) or with n-butyl-(2)-cyanoacrylate + methacryloxysulfolane (NBCA-MS). Transcatheter varicocele embolization was performed in 64 consecutive patients (62 left, two bilateral). Embolization was done with NBCA (n=32) or NBCA-MS (n=32). Immediately after the procedure, patients were asked to evaluate pain during embolization using a visual analog scale (VAS). Statistical analysis was done with Student's t test. Mean pain score on VAS was 3.23 (range: 0-8) for NBCA and 3.28 (range 0-9) for NBCA-MS. This difference was not significant (P=0.932). Independently of the type of glue, no difference in pain sensation (P value 0.421) was found between patients younger than 18 (n=29) and patients older than 18 years of age (n=35) (younger than18, mean 3.52; older than 18, mean 3.05). No difference in mean pain experience level (P=0.323) was seen in 11 patients with vessel wall perforation (23.4%) during the procedure (3.89; range: 0-8.5) in comparison with those without perforation (mean pain sensation level: 3.13; range: 0-9). No difference in pain experience was found after transcatheter varicocele embolization either with NBCA or NBCA-MS. Age and vessel wall perforation have no influence on pain sensation independently of the type of glue. (orig.)

  20. Pain experience during internal spermatic vein embolization for varicocele: comparison of two cyanoacrylate glues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heye, Sam; Maleux, Geert; Wilms, Guido

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible pain sensation differences in patients after retrograde varicocele embolization either with n-butyl-(2)-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) or with n-butyl-(2)-cyanoacrylate + methacryloxysulfolane (NBCA-MS). Transcatheter varicocele embolization was performed in 64 consecutive patients (62 left, two bilateral). Embolization was done with NBCA (n=32) or NBCA-MS (n=32). Immediately after the procedure, patients were asked to evaluate pain during embolization using a visual analog scale (VAS). Statistical analysis was done with Student's t test. Mean pain score on VAS was 3.23 (range: 0-8) for NBCA and 3.28 (range 0-9) for NBCA-MS. This difference was not significant (P=0.932). Independently of the type of glue, no difference in pain sensation (P value 0.421) was found between patients younger than 18 (n=29) and patients older than 18 years of age (n=35) (younger than18, mean 3.52; older than 18, mean 3.05). No difference in mean pain experience level (P=0.323) was seen in 11 patients with vessel wall perforation (23.4%) during the procedure (3.89; range: 0-8.5) in comparison with those without perforation (mean pain sensation level: 3.13; range: 0-9). No difference in pain experience was found after transcatheter varicocele embolization either with NBCA or NBCA-MS. Age and vessel wall perforation have no influence on pain sensation independently of the type of glue. (orig.)

  1. Social Sensations of Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinert, Lotte; Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    The interpretation of sensations and the recognition of symptoms of a sickness, as well as the movement to seek treatment, have long been recognized in medical anthropology as inherently social processes. Based on cases of HIV and trauma (PTSD) in Uganda, we show that even the first signs....../symptoms; differential recognition of symptoms; and the embodied sociality of treatment....... and sensations of sickness can be radically social. The sensing body can be a ‘social body’ – a family, a couple, a network – a unit that transcends the individual body. In this article we focus on four aspects of the sociality of sensations and symptoms: mode of transmission; the shared experience of sensations...

  2. Camphor induces cold and warm sensations with increases in skin and muscle blood flow in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaka, Tomohiko; Kimura, Shoji; Kashiwayanagi, Makoto; Iwamoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Application of camphor to the skin has been empirically thought to improve blood circulation. However, camphor's effects on blood circulation to the skin and on thermal sensation have not been well elucidated. In this study, we examined its effects on the quality of sensation as well as on skin and muscle blood flow in human. Nine adults (average age 37±9.4 years) participated in the study. Petroleum jelly containing 5%, 10%, 20% camphor, or 2% menthol was separately applied to the skin on the medial side of one forearm of each subject. Just after the application, camphor at each concentration induced a cold sensation in a dose-dependent manner. Within 10 min, each subject reported that the cold sensation had faded, after which it was replaced by a warm sensation. As reported previously, a cold sensation was induced by application of 2% menthol, but the subjects did not adapt to that sensation. In addition, menthol did not induce a warm sensation at all. Application of menthol has been shown to increase blood flow in the skin. Finally, we measured blood flow in skin and muscle after the application of camphor or menthol. Application of camphor or menthol separately induced increases in local blood flow in the skin and muscle. The present results indicate that camphor induces both cold and warm sensations and improves blood circulation.

  3. Thermal comfort, physiological responses and performance during exposure to a moderate temperature drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellen, Lisje; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter; de Wit, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effects of a moderate temperature drift on human thermal comfort, physiological responses, productivity and performance. A dynamic thermophysiological model was used to examine the possibility of simulating human thermal responses and thermal comfort...... temperature corresponding with a neutral thermal sensation (control situation). During the experiments both physiological responses and thermal sensation were measured. Productivity and performance were assessed with a ‘Remote Performance Measurement’ (RPM) method. Physiological and thermal sensation data...

  4. Melittin, the Major Pain-Producing Substance of Bee Venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Guan, Su-Min; Sun, Wei; Fu, Han

    2016-06-01

    Melittin is a basic 26-amino-acid polypeptide that constitutes 40-60% of dry honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom. Although much is known about its strong surface activity on lipid membranes, less is known about its pain-producing effects in the nervous system. In this review, we provide lines of accumulating evidence to support the hypothesis that melittin is the major pain-producing substance of bee venom. At the psychophysical and behavioral levels, subcutaneous injection of melittin causes tonic pain sensation and pain-related behaviors in both humans and animals. At the cellular level, melittin activates primary nociceptor cells through direct and indirect effects. On one hand, melittin can selectively open thermal nociceptor transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor channels via phospholipase A2-lipoxygenase/cyclooxygenase metabolites, leading to depolarization of primary nociceptor cells. On the other hand, algogens and inflammatory/pro-inflammatory mediators released from the tissue matrix by melittin's pore-forming effects can activate primary nociceptor cells through both ligand-gated receptor channels and the G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated opening of transient receptor potential canonical channels. Moreover, subcutaneous melittin up-regulates Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 subunits, resulting in the enhancement of tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) currents and the generation of long-term action potential firing. These nociceptive responses in the periphery finally activate and sensitize the spinal dorsal horn pain-signaling neurons, resulting in spontaneous nociceptive paw flinches and pain hypersensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli. Taken together, it is concluded that melittin is the major pain-producing substance of bee venom, by which peripheral persistent pain and hyperalgesia (or allodynia), primary nociceptive neuronal sensitization, and CNS synaptic plasticity (or metaplasticity) can be readily induced and the molecular and cellular mechanisms

  5. Predication of skin temperature and thermal comfort under two-way transient environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Xiong, Jing; Lian, Zhiwei

    2017-12-01

    In this study, three transient environmental conditions consisting of one high-temperature phase within two low-temperature phases were developed, thus creating a temperature rise followed by a temperature fall. Twenty-four subjects (including 12 males and 12 females) were recruited and they underwent all three test scenarios. Skin temperature on seven body parts were measured during the whole period of the experiment. Besides, thermal sensation was investigated at specific moments by questionnaires. Thermal sensation models including PMV model, Fiala model and the Chinese model were applied to predict subjects' thermal sensation with comparisons carried out among them. Results show that most predicated thermal sensation by Chinese model lies within the range of 0.5 scale of the observed sensation vote, and it agrees best with the observed thermal sensation in transient thermal environment than PMV and Fiala model. Further studies should be carried out to improve performance of Chinese model for temperature alterations between "very hot" to "hot" environment, for prediction error in the temperature-fall situation of C5 (37-32°C) was over 0.5 scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Scorpion sting pain: Which way to treat?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... This results in pain sensation and stimulates various physiological reactions such as a rise in pulse and blood pressure. Pain, which is left untreated, results in varying responses including aggression, depression, insomnia, increased cardiac work and oxygen consumption as well as behavioral changes.

  7. Acceptance-based interoceptive exposure for young children with functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Nancy; Mauro, Christian; Craske, Michelle; Wagner, H Ryan; Datta, Nandini; Hopkins, Hannah; Caldwell, Kristen; Kiridly, Adam; Marsan, Samuel; Maslow, Gary; Mayer, Emeran; Egger, Helen

    2017-10-01

    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is a common childhood somatic complaint that contributes to impairment in daily functioning (e.g., school absences) and increases risk for chronic pain and psychiatric illness. Cognitive behavioral treatments for FAP target primarily older children (9 + years) and employ strategies to reduce a focus on pain. The experience of pain may be an opportunity to teach viscerally hypersensitive children to interpret the function of a variety of bodily signals (including those of hunger, emotions) thereby reducing fear of bodily sensations and facilitating emotion awareness and self-regulation. We designed and tested an interoceptive exposure treatment for younger children (5-9 years) with FAP. Assessments included diagnostic interviews, 14 days of daily pain monitoring, and questionnaires. Treatment involved 10 weekly appointments. Using cartoon characters to represent bodily sensations (e.g., Gassy Gus), children were trained to be "FBI agents" - Feeling and Body Investigators - who investigated sensations through exercises that provoked somatic experience. 24 parent-child dyads are reported. Pain (experience, distress, and interference) and negative affect demonstrated clinically meaningful and statistically significant change with effect sizes ranging from 0.48 to 71 for pain and from 0.38 to 0.61 for pain distress, total pain: X 2 (1, n = 24) = 13.14, p < 0.0003. An intervention that helps children adopt a curious stance and focus on somatic symptoms reduces pain and may help lessen somatic fear generally. NCT02075437. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Review of Neuropathic Pain: From Diagnostic Tests to Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Truini, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Neuropathic pain develops when the somatosensory nervous system is affected by a lesion or disease. Diagnostic tests aimed at assessing somatosensory afferent pathway damage are therefore useful for diagnosing neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain manifests with a range of different symptoms such as ongoing burning pain, squeezing or pressure pain, paroxysmal electric shock-like sensations, stabbing pain, or mechanical dynamic allodynia. The various types of neuropathic pain are associated with ...

  9. Pulse Width Affects Scalp Sensation of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterchev, Angel V; Luber, Bruce; Westin, Gregory G; Lisanby, Sarah H

    Scalp sensation and pain comprise the most common side effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which can reduce tolerability and complicate experimental blinding. We explored whether changing the width of single TMS pulses affects the quality and tolerability of the resultant somatic sensation. Using a controllable pulse parameter TMS device with a figure-8 coil, single monophasic magnetic pulses inducing electric field with initial phase width of 30, 60, and 120 µs were delivered in 23 healthy volunteers. Resting motor threshold of the right first dorsal interosseus was determined for each pulse width, as reported previously. Subsequently, pulses were delivered over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex at each of the three pulse widths at two amplitudes (100% and 120% of the pulse-width-specific motor threshold), with 20 repetitions per condition delivered in random order. After each pulse, subjects rated 0-to-10 visual analog scales for Discomfort, Sharpness, and Strength of the sensation. Briefer TMS pulses with amplitude normalized to the motor threshold were perceived as slightly more uncomfortable than longer pulses (with an average 0.89 point increase on the Discomfort scale for pulse width of 30 µs compared to 120 µs). The sensation of the briefer pulses was felt to be substantially sharper (2.95 points increase for 30 µs compared to 120 µs pulse width), but not stronger than longer pulses. As expected, higher amplitude pulses increased the perceived discomfort and strength, and, to a lesser degree the perceived sharpness. Our findings contradict a previously published hypothesis that briefer TMS pulses are more tolerable. We discovered that the opposite is true, which merits further study as a means of enhancing tolerability in the context of repetitive TMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermal sensation prediction by soft computing methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jović, Srđan; Arsić, Nebojša; Vilimonović, Jovana; Petković, Dalibor

    2016-12-01

    Thermal comfort in open urban areas is very factor based on environmental point of view. Therefore it is need to fulfill demands for suitable thermal comfort during urban planning and design. Thermal comfort can be modeled based on climatic parameters and other factors. The factors are variables and they are changed throughout the year and days. Therefore there is need to establish an algorithm for thermal comfort prediction according to the input variables. The prediction results could be used for planning of time of usage of urban areas. Since it is very nonlinear task, in this investigation was applied soft computing methodology in order to predict the thermal comfort. The main goal was to apply extreme leaning machine (ELM) for forecasting of physiological equivalent temperature (PET) values. Temperature, pressure, wind speed and irradiance were used as inputs. The prediction results are compared with some benchmark models. Based on the results ELM can be used effectively in forecasting of PET. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effectiveness of thermal annular procedures in treating discogenic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm Ii, Standiford; Deer, Timothy R; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Datta, Sukdeb; Chopra, Pradeep; Singh, Vijay; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2012-01-01

    Persistent low back pain refractory to conservative treatment is a common problem that leads to widespread impairment, resulting in significant costs to society. The intervertebral disc is a major source of persistent low back pain. Technologies developed to treat this problem, including various surgical instrumentation and fusion techniques, have not reliably provided satisfactory results in terms of either pain relief or increased function. Thermal annular procedures (TAPs) were first developed in the late 1990s in an attempt to treat discogenic pain. The hope was that they would provide greater value than fusion in terms of efficacy, morbidity, and cost. Three technologies have been developed to apply heat to the annulus: intradiscal electrothermal therapy (IDET), discTRODE, and biacuplasty. Since nerve ingrowth and tissue regeneration in the annulus is felt to be the source of pain in discogenic low back pain, when describing the 3 above techniques we use the term "thermal annular procedures" rather than "thermal intradiscal procedures." We have specifically excluded studies treating the nucleus. TAPs have been the subject of significant controversy. Multiple reviews have been conducted resulting in varying conclusions. A systematic review of TAPs for the treatment of discogenic low back pain. To evaluate the effectiveness of TAPs in treating discogenic low back pain and to assess complications associated with those procedures. The available literature on TAPs in treating discogenic low back pain was reviewed. The quality assessment and clinical relevance criteria utilized were the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Review Group criteria for interventional techniques for randomized trials, and the criteria developed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale criteria for observational studies. The level of evidence was classified as good, fair, or poor based on the quality of evidence developed by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Data sources included relevant literature

  12. Perspectives on Music Imagery and complex chronic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Sanfi, Ilan; Christensen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the article is to examine the concept of chronic pain as a complex phenomenon and to highlight the potential role of music therapy – in particular, music imagery – in the treatment of chronic pain. Theories of pain, along with research on pain pathways and pain control in the nervous system, support the evidence from clinical practice that music interventions can alleviate the sensation of pain whilst also offering a pleasant aesthetic experience. Music therapy provides opportuniti...

  13. Emotional Status, Perceived Control of Pain, and Pain Coping Strategies in Episodic and Chronic Cluster Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Valade

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cluster headache (CH is a chronic syndrome characterized by excruciatingly painful attacks occurring with circadian and circannual periodicity. The objectives of the present study were, in CH patients, to determine by principal component analysis the factor structure of two instruments commonly used in clinics to evaluate pain locus of control (Cancer Locus of Control Scale–CLCS and coping strategies (Coping Strategies Questionnaire–CSQ, to examine the relationship between internal pain controllability and emotional distress, and to compare psychosocial distress and coping strategies between two subsets of patients with episodic or chronic CH. Results indicate, for CLCS, a 3-factor structure (internal controllability, medical controllability, religious controllability noticeably different in CH patients from the structure reported in patients with other painful pathologies and, for CSQ, a 5-factor structure of CSQ which did not markedly diverge from the classical structure. Perceived internal controllability of pain was strongly correlated with study measures of depression (HAD depression/anhedonia subscale, Beck Depression Inventory. Comparison between subsets of patients with episodic or chronic CH of emotional status, pain locus of control, perceived social support and coping strategies did not reveal significant differences apart for the Reinterpreting pain sensations strategy which was more often used by episodic CH patients. Observed tendencies for increased anxiety and perceived social support in patients with episodic CH, and for increased depression and more frequent use of the Ignoring pain sensations strategy in patients with chronic CH, warrant confirmation in larger groups of patients.

  14. Heat pain detection threshold is associated with the area of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Sejer; Wetterslev, Jørn; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The area of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization (BTS) of the skin and heat pain detection thresholds (HPDT) may both have predictive abilities in regards to pain sensitivity and clinical pain states. The association between HPDT and secondary hyperalgesia......, however, remains unsettled, and the dissimilarities in physiologic properties suggest that they may represent 2 distinctively different pain entities. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between HPDT and BTS-induced secondary hyperalgesia. METHODS: A sample of 121 healthy male...... participants was included and tested on 2 separate study days with BTS (45°C, 3 minutes), HPDT, and pain during thermal stimulation (45°C, 1 minute). Areas of secondary hyperalgesia were quantified after monofilament pinprick stimulation. The pain catastrophizing scale (PCS) and hospital anxiety and depression...

  15. Thermodynamical analysis of human thermal comfort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prek, Matjaz

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods of human thermal comfort analysis are based on the first law of thermodynamics. These methods use an energy balance of the human body to determine heat transfer between the body and its environment. By contrast, the second law of thermodynamics introduces the useful concept of exergy. It enables the determination of the exergy consumption within the human body dependent on human and environmental factors. Human body exergy consumption varies with the combination of environmental (room) conditions. This process is related to human thermal comfort in connection with temperature, heat, and mass transfer. In this paper a thermodynamic analysis of human heat and mass transfer based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics in presented. It is shown that the human body's exergy consumption in relation to selected human parameters exhibits a minimal value at certain combinations of environmental parameters. The expected thermal sensation also shows that there is a correlation between exergy consumption and thermal sensation. Thus, our analysis represents an improvement in human thermal modelling and gives more information about the environmental impact on expected human thermal sensation

  16. Neuropathic Pain Experiences of Spinal Cord Injury Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chin-Ching; Lin, Hung-Ru; Tsai, Ming-Dar; Tsay, Shiow-Luan

    2017-11-09

    Neuropathic pain (NP) is a common, severe problem that affects spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Only SCI patients truly understand the impact and extent of this type of pain. The aim of this study was to understand the NP experienced by SCI patients and the influence of this type of pain on their daily life. A qualitative design was used. An interview guide including a semistructured questionnaire and in-depth interviews was conducted with SCI patients with NP in a neurorehabilitation department at a medical center in northern Taiwan. The data were collected using a purposive sampling method. Content analysis was performed on the interview data, which were obtained from 13 SCI patients with NP. Three themes and eight subthemes were identified that described the NP experience of the participants and the influence of NP on their daily life. The three themes included elusive pain (changing and individual pain sensations, erratically haunting threat, and phantom limb sensations), complicated feelings about pain (converting depression into an active attitude toward life, having feelings of anticipation and anxiety about future pain relief, and facing and experiencing pain), and renewed hope (bravely fighting pain and seeking pain relief methods). This study revealed three important themes of NP experienced by SCI patients, including elusive pain, complicated feelings about pain, and renewed hope. Nurses should understand the nature of NP, provide a thorough pain assessment, and design a proper pain management plan to care effectively for patients with NP.

  17. Pain in Children: Neglected, unaddressed and mismanaged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Mathews

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is one of the most misunderstood, under diagnosed, and under treated/untreated medical problems, particularly in children. One of the most challenging roles of medical providers serving children is to appropriately assess and treat their pain. New JCAHO regulations regard pain as "the fifth vital sign" and require caregivers to regularly assess and address pain. Pain being a personal experience, many different terms are used to describe different sensations. Assessment of pain in children is linked to their level of development. Children of the same age vary widely in their perception and tolerance of pain.

  18. The major brain endocannabinoid 2-AG controls neuropathic pain and mechanical hyperalgesia in patients with neuromyelitis optica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L Pellkofer

    Full Text Available Recurrent myelitis is one of the predominant characteristics in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO. While paresis, visual loss, sensory deficits, and bladder dysfunction are well known symptoms in NMO patients, pain has been recognized only recently as another key symptom of the disease. Although spinal cord inflammation is a defining aspect of neuromyelitis, there is an almost complete lack of data on altered somatosensory function, including pain. Therefore, eleven consecutive patients with NMO were investigated regarding the presence and clinical characteristics of pain. All patients were examined clinically as well as by Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST following the protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS. Additionally, plasma endocannabinoid levels and signs of chronic stress and depression were determined. Almost all patients (10/11 suffered from NMO-associated neuropathic pain for the last three months, and 8 out of 11 patients indicated relevant pain at the time of examination. Symptoms of neuropathic pain were reported in the vast majority of patients with NMO. Psychological testing revealed signs of marked depression. Compared to age and gender-matched healthy controls, QST revealed pronounced mechanical and thermal sensory loss, strongly correlated to ongoing pain suggesting the presence of deafferentation-induced neuropathic pain. Thermal hyperalgesia correlated to MRI-verified signs of spinal cord lesion. Heat hyperalgesia was highly correlated to the time since last relapse of NMO. Patients with NMO exhibited significant mechanical and thermal dysesthesia, namely dynamic mechanical allodynia and paradoxical heat sensation. Moreover, they presented frequently with either abnormal mechanical hypoalgesia or hyperalgesia, which depended significantly on plasma levels of the endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerole (2-AG. These data emphasize the high prevalence of neuropathic pain and hyperalgesia

  19. Acupuncture sensation during ultrasound guided acupuncture needling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jongbae J.; Akazawa, Margeaux; Ahn, Jaeki; Beckman-Harned, Selena; Lin, Feng-Chang; Lee, Kwangjae; Fine, Jason; Davis, Robert T; Langevin, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Background Although acupuncture sensation (also known as de qi) is a cornerstone of traditional acupuncture therapy, most research has accepted the traditional method of defining acupuncture sensation only through subjective patient reports rather than on any quantifiable physiological basis. Purpose To preliminarily investigate the frequency of key sensations experienced while needling to specific, quantifiable tissue levels (TLs) guided by ultrasound (US) imaging. Methods Five participants received needling at two acupuncture points and two control points at four TLs. US scans were used to determine when each TL was reached. Each volunteer completed 32 sets of modified Southampton Needle Sensation Questionnaires. Part one of the study tested sensations experienced at each TL and part two compared the effect of oscillation alone versus oscillation + rotation. Results In all volunteers, the frequency of pricking, sharp sensations was significantly greater in shallower TLs than deeper (p=0.007); the frequency of sensations described as deep, dull and heavy, as spreading, and as electric shocks was significantly greater in deeper TLs than shallower (p=0.002). Sensations experienced did not significantly differ between real and control points within each of three TLs (p>0.05) except TL 4 (p=0.006). The introduction of needle rotation significantly increased deep, dull, heavy sensations, but not pricking and sharp sensations; within each level, the spectrum of sensation experienced during both oscillation + rotation and oscillation alone did not significantly differ between acupuncture and control points. Conclusion The preliminary study indicates a strong connection between acupuncture sensation and both tissue depth and needle rotation. Furthermore, the new methodology has been proven feasible. A further study with an objective measurement is warranted. PMID:21642648

  20. The effects of positive or negative words when assessing postoperative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chooi, C S L; Nerlekar, R; Raju, A; Cyna, A M

    2011-01-01

    Negative or harsh words such as 'pain' and 'sting' used to describe sensations prior to potentially painful procedures have been shown to increase pain. We aimed to determine whether the reporting of pain and its severity is affected by the way it is assessed during anaesthesia follow-up after caesarean section. Following caesarean section, 232 women were randomised prior to post-anaesthesia review. Group N participants were asked questions containing the negative word 'pain, "Do you have any pain?" and then asked to rate it on a 0 to 10 point Verbal Numerical Rating Scale. Group P participants were asked questions using more positive words, "How are you feeling?" and "Are you comfortable?". Data are presented as median, interquartile range. In Group N, 63 participants (54.3%) reported pain compared with only 28 participants (24.1%) in Group P (P positive words, decreases its incidence but does not affect its severity when measured by pain scores. Words that focus the patient on pain during its assessment may lead some to interpret sensations as pain which they might not do otherwise. These findings may have important implications when assessing and researching postoperative pain.

  1. Phantom pain and phantom sensations in upper limb amputees : an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, CM; Dijkstra, PU; Geertzen, JHB; Elzinga, A; van der Schans, CP

    Phantom pain in subjects with an amputated limb is a well-known problem. However, estimates of the prevalence of phantom pain differ considerably in the literature. Various factors associated with phantom pain have been described including pain before the amputation, gender, dominance, and time

  2. Postamputation pain: studies on mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolajsen, Lone

    2012-10-01

    Amputation is followed by both painful and non-painful phantom phenomena in a large number of amputees. Non-painful phantom sensations rarely pose any clinical problem, but 60-80% of all amputees also experience painful sensations (i.e. phantom pain) located to the missing limb. The severity of phantom pain usually decreases with time, but severe pain persists in 5-10% of patients. Pain in the residual limb (i.e. stump pain) is another consequence of amputation. Both stump and phantom pain can be very difficult to treat. Treatment guidelines used for other neuropathic pain conditions are probably the best approximation, especially for the treatment of stump pain. The aim of the present doctoral thesis was to explore some of the mechanisms underlying pain after amputation. Ten studies were carried out (I-X). My PhD thesis from 1998 dealt with pain before the amputation and showed that preamputation pain increases the risk of phantom pain after amputation (I). A perioperative epidural blockade, however, did not reduce the incidence of pain or abnormal sensory phenomena after amputation (II, III). The importance of sensitization before amputation for the subsequent development of pain is supported by study IV, in which pressure pain thresholds obtained at the limb before amputation were inversely related to stump and phantom pain after 1 week. Afferent input from the periphery is likely to contribute to postamputation pain as sodium channels were upregulated in human neuromas (VI), although neuroma removal did not always alleviate phantom pain (V). Sensitization of neurons in the spinal cord also seems to be involved in pain after amputation as phantom pain was reduced by ketamine, an NMDA-receptor antagonist. Another NMDA-receptor antagonist, memantine, and gabapentin, a drug working by binding to the δ2α-subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels, had no effect on phantom pain (VII-IX). Supraspinal factors are also important for pain after amputation as

  3. Emotional modulation of pain: is it the sensation or what we recall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Fabio; Magnin, Michel; Frot, Maud; Perchet, Caroline; Garcia-Larrea, Luis

    2006-11-01

    Emotions modulate pain perception, although the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. In this study, we show that intensity reports significantly increased when painful stimuli were concomitant to images showing human pain, whereas pictures with identical emotional values but without somatic content failed to modulate pain. Early somatosensory responses (emotions. Conversely, late responses showed a significant enhancement associated with increased pain ratings, localized to the right prefrontal, right temporo-occipital junction, and right temporal pole. In contrast to selective attention, which enhances pain ratings by increasing sensory gain, emotions triggered by seeing other people's pain did not alter processing in SI-SII (primary and second somatosensory areas), but may have biased the transfer to, and the representation of pain in short-term memory buffers (prefrontal), as well as the affective assignment to this representation (temporal pole). Memory encoding and recall, rather than sensory processing, appear to be modulated by empathy with others' physical suffering.

  4. Subjective sensation on sleep, fatigue, and thermal comfort in winter shelter-analogue settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kazuki; Mochizuki, Yosuke; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo; Nabeshima, Yuki

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to examine sleep in shelter-analogue settings in winter to determine the subjective sensation and environmental conditions in evacuation shelters. Twelve young healthy students took part in the sleep study of two nights for seven hours from Midnight to 7 AM in the gymnasium. One night the subject used a pair of futons and on the other the subject used the emergency supplies of four blankets and a set of portable partitions. During the night, air temperature, humidity and air velocity were measured in the area around the sleeping subjects. Sleep parameters measured by actigraphy, skin temperature, microclimate temperature, rectal temperature, and the heart rates of the subjects were continuously measured and recorded during the sleeping period. The subjects completed questionnaires regarding their thermal comfort and subjective sleep before and after the sleep. The subjects felt more coldness on their head and peripheral parts of the body using the emergency blankets than the futon during the sleep. Moreover, fatigue was felt more on the lower back and lower extremities from using emergency blankets than the futon after sleep. However, the sleep efficiency index and subjective sleep evaluation by OSA questionnaire did not reveal any good correlationship. The emergency supplies should be examined for their suitability to provide comfortable and healthy sleep in the shelter-analogue settings.

  5. Why individual thermo sensation and pain perception varies? Clue of disruptive mutations in TRPVs from 2504 human genome data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arijit; Kaur, Navneet; Kumar, Abhishek; Goswami, Chandan

    2016-09-02

    Every individual varies in character and so do their sensory functions and perceptions. The molecular mechanism and the molecular candidates involved in these processes are assumed to be similar if not same. So far several molecular factors have been identified which are fairly conserved across the phylogenetic tree and are involved in these complex sensory functions. Among all, members belonging to Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels have been widely characterized for their involvement in thermo-sensation. These include TRPV1 to TRPV4 channels which reveal complex thermo-gating behavior in response to changes in temperature. The molecular evolution of these channels is highly correlative with the thermal response of different species. However, recent 2504 human genome data suggest that these thermo-sensitive TRPV channels are highly variable and carry possible deleterious mutations in human population. These unexpected findings may explain the individual differences in terms of complex sensory functions.

  6. Assessment indices for uniform and non-uniform thermal environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Different assessment indices for thermal environments were compared and selected for proper assessment of indoor thermal environments.30 subjects reported their overall thermal sensation,thermal comfort,and thermal acceptability in uniform and non-uniform conditions.The results show that these three assessment indices provide equivalent evaluations in uniform environments.However,overall thermal sensation differs from the other two indices and cannot be used as a proper index for the evaluation of non-uniform environments.The relationship between the percentage and the mean vote for each index is established.

  7. Recovery After Stroke: Dealing with Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the brain in response to touch, warmth, cold and other stimuli. But, the brain does not understand these signals correctly. Instead, it registers even slight sensations in the skin as painful. Stroke survivors with ...

  8. Towards a physiology-based measure of pain: patterns of human brain activity distinguish painful from non-painful thermal stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin E Brown

    Full Text Available Pain often exists in the absence of observable injury; therefore, the gold standard for pain assessment has long been self-report. Because the inability to verbally communicate can prevent effective pain management, research efforts have focused on the development of a tool that accurately assesses pain without depending on self-report. Those previous efforts have not proven successful at substituting self-report with a clinically valid, physiology-based measure of pain. Recent neuroimaging data suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and support vector machine (SVM learning can be jointly used to accurately assess cognitive states. Therefore, we hypothesized that an SVM trained on fMRI data can assess pain in the absence of self-report. In fMRI experiments, 24 individuals were presented painful and nonpainful thermal stimuli. Using eight individuals, we trained a linear SVM to distinguish these stimuli using whole-brain patterns of activity. We assessed the performance of this trained SVM model by testing it on 16 individuals whose data were not used for training. The whole-brain SVM was 81% accurate at distinguishing painful from non-painful stimuli (p<0.0000001. Using distance from the SVM hyperplane as a confidence measure, accuracy was further increased to 84%, albeit at the expense of excluding 15% of the stimuli that were the most difficult to classify. Overall performance of the SVM was primarily affected by activity in pain-processing regions of the brain including the primary somatosensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, insular cortex, primary motor cortex, and cingulate cortex. Region of interest (ROI analyses revealed that whole-brain patterns of activity led to more accurate classification than localized activity from individual brain regions. Our findings demonstrate that fMRI with SVM learning can assess pain without requiring any communication from the person being tested. We outline tasks that should be

  9. Oral sensations and secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Cordelia A

    2018-04-10

    Sensations experienced in the mouth influence food choices, both immediately and in the long term. Such sensations are themselves influenced by experience with flavors, the chemical environment of the mouth, genetics of receptors for flavors, and individual behavior in the chewing of food. Gustation, the sense of taste, yields information about nutrients, influences palatability, and feeds into the human body's preparation to receive those nutrients. Olfaction, the sense of smell, contributes enormously to defining and identifying food flavors (and is experienced even after placing food inside the mouth). Another vital component of food flavor is texture, which contributes to palatability, especially if a food's texture violates a person's expectations. Next, chemesthesis is the sense of chemically induced irritancy and temperature, for example spiciness and stinging. All of these sensations are potentially modified by saliva, the chemical and physical media of the mouth. As a person experiences the culmination of these oral sensations, modified through an individual's own unique saliva, the flavors in turn influence both what and how a person eats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Walking with Neuropathic Pain: Paradoxical Shift from Burden to Support?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Kopsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Baclofen 5% cream can be used for the treatment of neuropathic pain. We describe an unusual case of a neuropathic pain patient with spinal cord injury. A 71-year-old woman with a partial spinal cord injury lesion at L4 complained of tingling, pins and needles, and burning in her legs. She scored her pain as 6 before adding baclofen 5% cream to her pain medication (pregabalin 450 mg, acetaminophen 3000 mg, and diclofenac 150 mg daily. One month later she experienced complete pain relief, though experienced increased difficulties in walking, leading to frequent falls. Her steadier walking without stumbling and falling was more important to her than pain reduction. Thus she decided to stop using baclofen. This unusual case report discusses two important issues that relate to pain medicine and rehabilitation in patients with painful spinal cord lesions: (1 the presence of wide areas of sensory loss “covered” by the presence of painful sensations and (2 pathological sensations that can be used and integrated in the body schema to create an improved spatiovisual orientation and thus mobility. Both these aspects have to be taken into account when treating pain and design rehabilitation programs.

  11. Serotonin-1A receptor polymorphism (rs6295 associated with thermal pain perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Lindstedt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serotonin (5-HT is highly involved in pain regulation and serotonin-1A (5-HT1A receptors are important in determining central 5-HT tone. Accordingly, variation in the 5-HT1A receptor gene (HTR1A may contribute to inter-individual differences in human pain sensitivity. The minor G-allele of the HTR1A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs6295 attenuates firing of serotonergic neurons and reduces postsynaptic expression of the receptor. Experiments in rodents suggest that 5-HT1A-agonism modulates pain in opposite directions at mild compared to high noxious intensities. Based upon this and several other similar observations, we hypothesized that G-carriers would exhibit a relative hypoalgesia at mild thermal stimuli but tend towards hyperalgesia at higher noxious intensities. METHODS: Fourty-nine healthy individuals were selectively genotyped for rs6295. Heat- and cold-pain thresholds were assessed along with VAS-ratings of a range of suprathreshold noxious heat intensities (45°C-49°C. Nociceptive-flexion reflex (NFR thresholds were also assessed. RESULTS: Volunteers did not deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. G-carriers were less sensitive to threshold-level thermal pain. This relative hypoalgesia was abolished at suprathreshold noxious intensities where G-carriers instead increased their ratings of heat-pain significantly more than C-homozygotes. No differences with regard to NFR-thresholds emerged. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of human pain perception on the basis of variation in HTR1A. The results illustrate the importance of including a range of stimulus intensities in assessments of pain sensitivity. In speculation, we propose that an attenuated serotonergic tone may be related to a 'hypo- to hyperalgesic' response-pattern. The involved mechanisms could be of clinical interest as variation in pain regulation is known to influence the risk of developing pain

  12. Experimental study on occupant's thermal responses under the non-uniform conditions in vehicle cabin during the heating period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wencan; Chen, Jiqing; Lan, Fengchong

    2014-03-01

    The existing investigations on thermal comfort mostly focus on the thermal environment conditions, especially of the air-flow field and the temperature distributions in vehicle cabin. Less attention appears to direct to the thermal comfort or thermal sensation of occupants, even to the relationship between thermal conditions and thermal sensation. In this paper, a series of experiments were designed and conducted for understanding the non-uniform conditions and the occupant's thermal responses in vehicle cabin during the heating period. To accurately assess the transient temperature distribution in cabin in common daily condition, the air temperature at a number of positions is measured in a full size vehicle cabin under natural winter environment in South China by using a discrete thermocouples network. The occupant body is divided into nine segments, the skin temperature at each segment and the occupant's local thermal sensation at the head, body, upper limb and lower limb are monitored continuously. The skin temperature is observed by using a discrete thermocouples network, and the local thermal sensation is evaluated by using a seven-point thermal comfort survey questionnaire proposed by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc(ASHRAE) Standard. The relationship between the skin temperature and the thermal sensation is discussed and regressed by statistics method. The results show that the interior air temperature is highly non-uniform over the vehicle cabin. The locations where the occupants sit have a significant effect on the occupant's thermal responses, including the skin temperature and the thermal sensation. The skin temperature and thermal sensation are quite different between body segments due to the effect of non-uniform conditions, clothing resistance, and the human thermal regulating system. A quantitative relationship between the thermal sensation and the skin temperature at each body segment of occupant in

  13. Improved foot sensitivity and pain reduction in patients with peripheral neuropathy after treatment with monochromatic infrared photo energy--MIRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkless, Lawrence B; DeLellis, Salvatore; Carnegie, Dale H; Burke, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    The medical records of 2239 patients (mean age=73 years) with established peripheral neuropathy (PN) were examined to determine whether treatment with MIRE was, in fact, associated with increased foot sensitivity to the Semmes Weinstein monofilament (SWM) 5.07 and a reduction in neuropathic pain. The PN in 1395 of these patients (62%) was due to diabetes. Prior to treatment with MIRE, of the 10 tested sites (5 on each foot), 7.1+/-2.9 were insensitive to the SWM 5.07, and 2078 patients (93%) exhibited loss of protective sensation defined by Medicare as a loss of sensation at two or more sites on either foot. After treatment, the number of insensate sites on both feet decreased to 2.4+/-2.6, an improvement of 66%. Of the 2078 (93%) patients initially presenting with loss of protective sensation, 1106 (53%) no longer had loss of protective sensation after treatment (P<.0001); 1563 patients (70%) also exhibited neuropathic pain in addition to sensory impairment. Prior to treatment with MIRE, pain measured on the 11-point visual analogue scale (VAS) was 7.2+/-2.2 points, despite the use of a variety of pain-relieving therapeutic agents. After treatment with MIRE, pain was reduced by 4.8+/-2.4 points, a 67% reduction. Therefore, MIRE appears to be associated with significant clinical improvement in foot sensation and, simultaneously, a reduction in neuropathic pain in a large cohort of primarily Medicare aged, community-dwelling patients, initially diagnosed with PN. The quality of life associated with these two outcomes cannot be underappreciated.

  14. Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... joint pain relievers containing the active ingredients menthol, methyl salicylate and capsaicin. These cases were uncovered by FDA ... people who purchase these products, Tan notes. Menthol, methyl salicylate and capsaicin create sensations of local warmth or ...

  15. The disruptive effects of pain on multitasking in a virtual errands task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David J; Law, Anna S

    2017-07-01

    Pain is known to have a disruptive effect on cognitive performance, but prior studies have used highly constrained laboratory tasks that lack ecological validity. In everyday life people are required to complete more complex sets of tasks, prioritising task completion and recalling lists of tasks which need to be completed, and these tasks continue to be attempted during episodes or states of pain. The present study therefore examined the impact of thermal induced pain on a simulated errand task. Fifty-five healthy adults (36 female) performed the Edinburgh Virtual Errands Task (EVET) either during a painful thermal sensation or with no concurrent pain. Participants also completed the Experience of Cognitive Intrusion of Pain (ECIP) questionnaire to measure their self-reported cognitive impact of pain in general life. Participants who completed the EVET task in pain and who self-reported high intrusion of pain made significantly more errors than those who reported lower intrusion on the ECIP. Findings here support the growing literature that suggests that pain has a significant impact on cognitive performance. Furthermore, these findings support the developing literature suggesting that this relationship is complex when considering real world cognition, and that self-report on the ECIP relates well to performance on a task designed to reflect the complexities of everyday living. If extrapolated to chronic pain populations, these data suggest that pain during complex multitasking performance may have a significant impact on the number of errors made. For people highly vulnerable to cognitive intrusion by pain, this may result in errors such as selecting the wrong location or item to perform tasks, or forgetting to perform these tasks at the correct time. If these findings are shown to extend to chronic pain populations then occupational support to manage complex task performance, using for example diaries/electronic reminders, may help to improve everyday abilities

  16. Recovery of sensation in immediate breast reconstruction with latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps after breast-conservative surgery and skin-sparing mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Koichi; Yano, Kenji; Hosokawa, Ko

    2011-04-01

    In breast reconstruction, sensation in the reconstructed breasts affects the patients' quality of life along with its aesthetic outcome. Fortunately, less invasive procedures such as breast-conservative surgery (BCS) and skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) have greatly contributed to the improved aesthetic outcome in immediate breast reconstruction. However, there are few reports on the recovery of breast sensation after BCS and SSM. We retrospectively reviewed 104 consecutive patients who underwent immediate breast reconstruction with the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap between 2001 and 2006 at our institution. The sensations of pain, temperature, touch, and vibration were examined at the nipple and skin envelope during the follow-up period (range: 12-61 months, mean: 31 months), and a stratified analysis was performed to determine the critical factors affecting the sensation recovery after BCS and SSM. We found that large breast size significantly impaired the recovery of sensation in the nipple and skin envelope after BCS as well as SSM. Older age and high body mass index value were the factors which negatively affected the sensation in the skin envelope after SSM. While all our BCS patients underwent postoperative radiation therapy, it did not negatively affect the recovery of sensation in SSM patients. On the basis of these findings, we could further improve the sensation of the reconstructed breasts after BCS and SSM. Especially after SSM, the use of innervated flaps is recommended in the patients with large breast, increased age, or obesity when the nipple-areola complex is resected.

  17. Objective sensory evaluation of the spread of complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Lara; Schwartzman, Robert J; Ahmad, Ayesha; Erwin, Kirsten; Alexander, Guillermo M

    2013-01-01

    The spread of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) has been well documented. Many severe refractory long-standing patients have total body pain (TBP) that evolved from a single extremity injury. The purpose of this study was to document by objective sensory threshold testing the extent of body area involvement in 20 long-standing patients with CRPS who have TBP. A comparison of sensory threshold testing parameters between 20 long-standing refractory patients with CRPS who have TBP versus 10 healthy participants. Twenty patients with CRPS who stated that they suffered from total body pain were chosen from the Drexel University College of Medicine CRPS database. They were compared to 10 healthy participants that were age and gender matched to the patients with CRPS. The sensory parameters tested were: skin temperature; static and mechanical allodynia; thermal allodynia; mechanical hyperalgesia; after sensations following all sensory tests. The sites chosen for testing in the patients with CRPS were the most painful area in each of 8 body regions that comprised the total body area. Five patients with CRPS had signs of CRPS over 100% of their body (20%). One patient had pain over 87% and another had pain over 90% of their body area. The average percentage of body involvement was 62% (range 37% - 100%). All patients with CRPS had at least one sensory parameter abnormality in all body regions. All patients with CRPS had lower pain thresholds for static allodynia in all body areas, while 50% demonstrated a lower threshold for dynamic allodynia in all body regions compared to the healthy participants. Cold allodynia had a higher median pain rating on the Likert pain scale in all body areas versus healthy participants except for the chest, abdomen, and back. Eighty-five percent of the patients with CRPS had a significantly lower pain threshold for mechanical hyperalgesia in all body areas compared to the healthy participants. After sensations occurred after all sensory

  18. Thermal sensation and comfort with transient metabolic rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goto, Tomonobu; Toftum, Jørn; Dear, R. d.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effect on thermal perceptions and preferences of controlled metabolic excursions of various intensities (20%, 40%, 60% relative work load) and durations (3-30 min) imposed on subjects that alternated between sedentary activity and exercise on a treadmill. The thermal...... environment was held constant at a temperature corresponding to PMV=0 at sedentary activity. Even low activity changes of short duration (1 min at 20% relative work load) affected thermal perceptions. However, after circa 15 min of constant activity, subjective thermal responses approximated the steady...

  19. Effects of diet-induced obesity on motivation and pain behavior in an operant assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, H L; Luu, A K S; Kothari, S D; Kuburas, A; Neubert, J K; Caudle, R M; Recober, A

    2013-04-03

    Obesity has been associated with multiple chronic pain disorders, including migraine. We hypothesized that diet-induced obesity would be associated with a reduced threshold for thermal nociception in the trigeminal system. In this study, we sought to examine the effect of diet-induced obesity on facial pain behavior. Mice of two different strains were fed high-fat or regular diet (RD) and tested using a well-established operant facial pain assay. We found that the effects of diet on behavior in this assay were strain and reward dependent. Obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) display lower number of licks of a caloric, palatable reward (33% sweetened condensed milk or 30% sucrose) than control mice. This occurred at all temperatures, in both sexes, and was evident even before the onset of obesity. This diminished reward-seeking behavior was not observed in obesity-resistant SKH1-E (SK) mice. These findings suggest that diet and strain interact to modulate reward-seeking behavior. Furthermore, we observed a difference between diet groups in operant behavior with caloric, palatable rewards, but not with a non-caloric neutral reward (water). Importantly, we found no effect of diet-induced obesity on acute thermal nociception in the absence of inflammation or injury. This indicates that thermal sensation in the face is not affected by obesity-associated peripheral neuropathy as it occurs when studying pain behaviors in the rodent hindpaw. Future studies using this model may reveal whether obesity facilitates the development of chronic pain after injury or inflammation. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cutaneous and mucosal pain syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddappa K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The cutaneous and mucosal pain syndromes are characterized by pain, burning sensation, numbness or paraesthesia of a particular part of the skin or mucosal surface without any visible signs. They are usually sensory disorders, sometimes with a great deal of psychologic overlay. In this article various conditions have been listed and are described. The possible causative mechanisms are discussed when they are applicable and the outline of their management is described.

  1. Effects of thermal underwear on thermal and subjective responses in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Wha; Lee, Joo-Young; Kim, So-Young

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to obtain basic data in improving the health of Koreans, saving energy and protecting environments. This study investigated the effects of wearing thermal underwear for keeping warm in the office in winter where temperature is not as low as affecting work efficiency, on thermoregulatory responses and subjective sensations. In order to create an environment where every subject feels the same thermal sensation, two experimental conditions were selected through preliminary experiments: wearing thermal underwear in 18 degrees C air (18-condition) and not wearing thermal underwear in 23 degrees C air (23-condition). Six healthy male students participated in this study as experiment subjects. Measurement items included rectal temperature (T(re)), skin temperature (T(sk)), clothing microclimate temperature (T(cm)), thermal sensation and thermal comfort. The results are as follows: (1) T(re) of all subjects was maintained constant at 37.1 degrees C under both conditions, indicating no significant differences. (2) (T)(sk) under the 18-condition and the 23-condition were 32.9 degrees C and 33.7 degrees C, respectively, indicating a significant level of difference (pcomfortable under both conditions. It was found (T)(sk) decreased due to a drop in the skin temperature of hands and feet, and the subjects felt cooler wearing only one layer of normal thermal underwear at 18 degrees C. Yet, the thermal comfort level, T(re) and T(cm) of chest part under the 18-condition were the same as those under the 23-condition. These results show that the same level of comfort, T(re) and T(cm) can be maintained as that of an environment about 5 degrees C higher in the office in winter, by wearing one layer of thermal underwear. In this regard, this study suggests that lowering indoor temperature by wearing thermal underwear in winter can contribute to saving energy and improving health.

  2. New Thermal Taste Actuation Technology for Future Multisensory Virtual Reality and Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanayaka, Kasun; Johari, Nurafiqah; Hariri, Surina; Camelia, Hanis; Bielawski, Kevin Stanley; Cheok, Adrian David

    2018-04-01

    Today's virtual reality (VR) applications such as gaming, multisensory entertainment, remote dining, and online shopping are mainly based on audio, visual, and touch interactions between humans and virtual worlds. Integrating the sense of taste into VR is difficult since humans are dependent on chemical-based taste delivery systems. This paper presents the 'Thermal Taste Machine', a new digital taste actuation technology that can effectively produce and modify thermal taste sensations on the tongue. It modifies the temperature of the surface of the tongue within a short period of time (from 25°C to 40 °C while heating, and from 25°C to 10 °C while cooling). We tested this device on human subjects and described the experience of thermal taste using 20 known (taste and non-taste) sensations. Our results suggested that rapidly heating the tongue produces sweetness, fatty/oiliness, electric taste, warmness, and reduces the sensibility for metallic taste. Similarly, cooling the tongue produced mint taste, pleasantness, and coldness. By conducting another user study on the perceived sweetness of sucrose solutions after the thermal stimulation, we found that heating the tongue significantly enhances the intensity of sweetness for both thermal tasters and non-thermal tasters. Also, we found that faster temperature rises on the tongue produce more intense sweet sensations for thermal tasters. This technology will be useful in two ways: First, it can produce taste sensations without using chemicals for the individuals who are sensitive to thermal taste. Second, the temperature rise of the device can be used as a way to enhance the intensity of sweetness. We believe that this technology can be used to digitally produce and enhance taste sensations in future virtual reality applications. The key novelties of this paper are as follows: 1. Development of a thermal taste actuation technology for stimulating the human taste receptors, 2. Characterization of the thermal taste

  3. Acute and chronic pain syndromes in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    A representative sample of 117 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) was interviewed on pain syndromes. Chronic syndromes lasting more than one month included dysaestesthesia, low back pain, spasms, tonic seizures, tightening and painful sensations in the extremities. Acute syndromes...... with pain at the time of the examination increased with age and duration of disease. Patients with pain were significantly more often spastic and significantly more often sought alternative treatment forms. No difference was found for mean age, sex, physical impairment, duration of disease from onset of MS...

  4. Brain areas involved in acupuncture needling sensation of de qi: a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Rong; Li, Gan-Long; Zhang, Gui-Feng; Huang, Yong; Wang, Shu-Xia; Lu, Na

    2012-12-01

    De qi is a sensory response elicited by acupuncture stimulation. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), de qi is essential for clinical efficacy. However, the understanding of the neurobiological basis of de qi is still limited. To investigate the relationship between brain activation and de qi by taking a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan while applying acupuncture at TE5. A total of 24 volunteers were randomly divided into 4 groups, and received verum or sham acupuncture at true acupuncture point TE5 or a nearby sham point according to grouping. All subjects then received a (99m)Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT scan. All six subjects in the verum acupuncture at true acupuncture point group experienced de qi sensation; in contrast, all six subjects in the sham acupuncture at the sham point group responded with nothing other than non-sensation. Compared to the scan results from subjects who experienced non-sensation, SPECT scans from subjects with de qi sensation demonstrated significant activated points mainly located in brodmann areas 6, 8, 19, 21, 28, 33, 35, 37, 47, the parahippocampal gyrus, lentiform nucleus, claustrum and red nucleus; deactivated points were seen in brodmann areas 9 and 25. Verum acupuncture at true acupuncture points is more likely to elicit de qi sensation. De qi sensations mainly resulted in brain area activations, but not deactivations. These brain areas are related to the curative effect of Te5. The acupuncture needle sensations of de qi and sharp pain are associated with different patterns of activations and deactivations in the brain.

  5. Reduced Pain Sensation and Reduced BOLD Signal in Parietofrontal Networks during Religious Prayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmholdt, Else-Marie; Skewes, Joshua; Dietz, Martin; Møller, Arne; Jensen, Martin S; Roepstorff, Andreas; Wiech, Katja; Jensen, Troels S

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that religious prayer can alter the experience of pain via expectation mechanisms. While brain processes related to other types of top-down modulation of pain have been studied extensively, no research has been conducted on the potential effects of active religious coping. Here, we aimed at investigating the neural mechanisms during pain modulation by prayer and their dependency on the opioidergic system. Twenty-eight devout Protestants performed religious prayer and a secular contrast prayer during painful electrical stimulation in two fMRI sessions. Naloxone or saline was administered prior to scanning. Results show that pain intensity was reduced by 11% and pain unpleasantness by 26% during religious prayer compared to secular prayer. Expectancy predicted large amounts (70-89%) of the variance in pain intensity. Neuroimaging results revealed reduced neural activity during religious prayer in a large parietofrontal network relative to the secular condition. Naloxone had no significant effect on ratings or neural activity. Our results thus indicate that, under these conditions, pain modulation by prayer is not opioid-dependent. Further studies should employ an optimized design to explore whether reduced engagement of the frontoparietal system could indicate that prayer may attenuate pain through a reduction in processing of pain stimulus saliency and prefrontal control rather than through known descending pain inhibitory systems.

  6. Laryngeal Sensation Before and After Clearing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Sutton, Lori Ellen; Dawson, Amy Elizabeth; Nietert, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose People frequently present to voice clinics with complaints of irritating laryngeal sensations. Clinicians attempt to reduce the irritating sensations and their common sequela, coughing and throat clearing, by advocating for techniques that remove the irritation with less harm to the vocal fold tissue. Despite the prevalence of patients with these complaints, it is not known if the less harmful techniques recommended by clinicians are effective at clearing irritating laryngeal sensations or that irritating laryngeal sensations are, in fact, more frequent in people with voice disorders than people without voice disorders. Method Assessments of participant reported laryngeal sensation, pre- and post- clearing task, were obtained from 22 people with and 24 people without a voice disorder. Six clearing tasks were used to preliminarily evaluate the differing effects of tasks believed to be deleterious and ameliorative. Results People with and without voice disorders reported pre-clear laryngeal sensation at a similar rate. Post-clear sensation was less likely to be completely or partially removed in people with voice disorders than in the non-voice disordered group. Hard throat clear and swallow with water were the most effective techniques at removing laryngeal sensation. Conclusions The findings provide initial evidence for some of the clinical practices common to treating patients with voice disorders and chronic clearing such as advocating for swallowing a sip of water as a replacement behavior instead of coughing or throat clearing. However, the findings raise questions about other practices such as associating irritating laryngeal sensation with a voice disorder. PMID:22717491

  7. Chronic pain affects the whole person--a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Tapio; Häkkinen, Arja; Karppinen, Jaro; Sipilä, Kirsi; Suutama, Timo; Piirainen, Arja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore participants' perspectives on the effects of chronic pain on the psychophysical unity. Thirty-four chronic pain outpatients were interviewed, and the transcribed interviews were analysed with Giorgi's four-phase phenomenological method. The mean age of the participants was 48 years, and 19 of them were women. For 21 of the participants, the pain duration was more than 5 years, and most had degenerative spinal pain. The results of this whole research project indicated that the phenomenon chronic pain consisted of four essential themes: Pain affects the whole person, invisibility, negativity, and dominance of pain. This study concentrates only on one theme "Chronic pain affects the whole person", in which were found eight subthemes in the interviews. The strongest argument made by the participants was not the physical pain itself but the psychosocial consequences, such as distress, loneliness, lost identity, and low quality of life which were their main problems. In multidisciplinary holistic rehabilitation, it is essential to take care of the patient's psychological distress. A potential source of psychosocial symptoms may be the subjective responses to experience of chronic pain due to the subjective meanings of pain. Implications for Rehabilitation About chronic pain Pain is an experience, not only an aversive sensation. Intensity of pain describes only the sensation, not the experience of pain. In chronic pain, the main complaint may be not the physical pain, but the distress. In rehabilitation, the patient needs to be taken as a whole person. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation, including patient counselling should be the fundamental part of treatment. In rehabilitation, the individual meaning of chronic pain needs to be disclosed.

  8. Bladder sensation measures and overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, David E; Neil, Nancy J; Govier, Fred E; Kobashi, Kathleen C

    2009-09-01

    We performed a prospective multicomponent study to determine whether subjective and objective bladder sensation instruments may provide data on sensory dysfunction in patients with overactive bladder. We evaluated 70 prospectively enrolled patients with urodynamics and questionnaires on validated urgency (Urgency Perception Score), general overactive bladder (Urogenital Distress Inventory) and quality of life (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire). We first sought a correlation between sensory specific (Urgency Perception Score) and quality of life questionnaire scores. We then assessed a correlation between sensory questionnaire scores and urodynamic variables, exploring the hypothesis that certain urodynamic parameters may be bladder sensation measures. We evaluated 2 urodynamic derivatives (first sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity) to increase sensory finding discrimination. We noted a moderate correlation between the Urgency Perception Score (0.56) and the Urogenital Distress Inventory (0.74) vs the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (each p Perception Score and bladder capacity (-0.25, p sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity statistically significantly correlated with the Urgency Perception Score despite the lesser or absent correlation associated with the individual components of these derivatives. Bladder sensation questionnaires may be valuable to identify patients with sensory dysfunction and provide additional data not obtained in generalized symptom questionnaires. Urodynamic variables correlated with bladder sensation questionnaire scores and may be an objective method to assess sensory dysfunction.

  9. Influence of attention focus on neural activity in the human spinal cord during thermal sensory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, Patrick W; Coe, Brian C; Munoz, Doug P

    2011-01-01

    Perceptions of sensation and pain in healthy people are believed to be the net result of sensory input and descending modulation from brainstem and cortical regions depending on emotional and cognitive factors. Here, the influence of attention on neural activity in the spinal cord during thermal sensory stimulation of the hand was investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging by systematically varying the participants' attention focus across and within repeated studies. Attention states included (1) attention to the stimulus by rating the sensation and (2) attention away from the stimulus by performing various mental tasks of watching a movie and identifying characters, detecting the direction of coherently moving dots within a randomly moving visual field and answering mentally-challenging questions. Functional MRI results spanning the cervical spinal cord and brainstem consistently demonstrated that the attention state had a significant influence on the activity detected in the cervical spinal cord, as well as in brainstem regions involved with the descending analgesia system. These findings have important implications for the detection and study of pain, and improved characterization of the effects of injury or disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Working through the pain: working memory capacity and differences in processing and storage under pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Christopher A

    2011-02-01

    It has been suggested that pain perception and attention are closely linked at both a neural and a behavioural level. If pain and attention are so linked, it is reasonable to speculate that those who vary in working memory capacity (WMC) should be affected by pain differently. This study compares the performance of individuals who differ in WMC as they perform processing and memory span tasks while under mild pain and not. While processing performance under mild pain does not interact with WMC, the ability to store information for later recall does. This suggests that pain operates much like an additional processing burden, and that the ability to overcome this physical sensation is related to differences in WMC. © 2011 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  11. Neurosensory sequelae assessed by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds after local cold injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Daniel; Burström, Lage; Lilliesköld, Victoria Heldestad; Nilsson, Tohr; Nordh, Erik; Wahlström, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Local freezing cold injuries are common in the north and sequelae to cold injury can persist many years. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) can be used to assess neurosensory symptoms but has previously not been used on cold injury patients. To evaluate neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds and by symptom descriptions. Fifteen patients with a local freezing cold injury in the hands or feet, acquired during military training, were studied with QST by assessment of vibrotactile (VPT), warmth (WPT) and cold (CPT) perception thresholds 4 months post-injury. In addition, a follow-up questionnaire, focusing on neurovascular symptoms, was completed 4 months and 4 years post-injury. QST demonstrated abnormal findings in one or both affected hands for VPT in 6 patients, for WPT in 4 patients and for CPT in 1 patient. In the feet, QST was abnormal for VPT in one or both affected feet in 8 patients, for WPT in 6 patients and for CPT in 4 patients. Freezing cold injury related symptoms, e.g. pain/discomfort when exposed to cold, cold sensation and white fingers were common at 4 months and persisted 4 years after the initial injury. Neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury, in terms of abnormal thermal and/or vibration perception thresholds, may last at least 4 months after the initial injury. Symptoms such as pain/discomfort at cold exposure, cold sensations and white fingers may persist at least 4 years after the initial injury.

  12. Reduced Pain Sensation and Reduced BOLD Signal in Parietofrontal Networks during Religious Prayer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Else-Marie; Skewes, Joshua Charles; Dietz, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that religious prayer can alter the experience of pain via expectation mechanisms. While brain processes related to other types of top-down modulation of pain have been studied extensively, no research has been conducted on the potential effects of active religious coping....... Here, we aimed at investigating the neural mechanisms during pain modulation by prayer and their dependency on the opioidergic system. Twenty-eight devout Protestants performed religious prayer and a secular contrast prayer during painful electrical stimulation in two fMRI sessions. Naloxone or saline...... was administered prior to scanning. Results show that pain intensity was reduced by 11% and pain unpleasantness by 26% during religious prayer compared to secular prayer. Expectancy predicted large amounts (70–89%) of the variance in pain intensity. Neuroimaging results revealed reduced neural activity during...

  13. No Pain Relief with the Rubber Hand Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Valeria I.; Dey, Abishikta; Barnsley, Nadia; Ingvar, Martin; McAuley, James H.; Moseley, G. Lorimer; Ehrsson, Henrik H.

    2012-01-01

    The sense of body ownership can be easily disrupted during illusions and the most common illusion is the rubber hand illusion. An idea that is rapidly gaining popularity in clinical pain medicine is that body ownership illusions can be used to modify pathological pain sensations and induce analgesia. However, this idea has not been empirically evaluated. Two separate research laboratories undertook independent randomized repeated measures experiments, both designed to detect an effect of the rubber hand illusion on experimentally induced hand pain. In Experiment 1, 16 healthy volunteers rated the pain evoked by noxious heat stimuli (5 s duration; interstimulus interval 25 s) of set temperatures (47°, 48° and 49°C) during the rubber hand illusion or during a control condition. There was a main effect of stimulus temperature on pain ratings, but no main effect of condition (p = 0.32), nor a condition x temperature interaction (p = 0.31). In Experiment 2, 20 healthy volunteers underwent quantitative sensory testing to determine heat and cold pain thresholds during the rubber hand illusion or during a control condition. Secondary analyses involved heat and cold detection thresholds and paradoxical heat sensations. Again, there was no main effect of condition on heat pain threshold (p = 0.17), nor on cold pain threshold (p = 0.65), nor on any of the secondary measures (pillusion does not induce analgesia. PMID:23285026

  14. No pain relief with the rubber hand illusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Mohan

    Full Text Available The sense of body ownership can be easily disrupted during illusions and the most common illusion is the rubber hand illusion. An idea that is rapidly gaining popularity in clinical pain medicine is that body ownership illusions can be used to modify pathological pain sensations and induce analgesia. However, this idea has not been empirically evaluated. Two separate research laboratories undertook independent randomized repeated measures experiments, both designed to detect an effect of the rubber hand illusion on experimentally induced hand pain. In Experiment 1, 16 healthy volunteers rated the pain evoked by noxious heat stimuli (5 s duration; interstimulus interval 25 s of set temperatures (47°, 48° and 49°C during the rubber hand illusion or during a control condition. There was a main effect of stimulus temperature on pain ratings, but no main effect of condition (p = 0.32, nor a condition x temperature interaction (p = 0.31. In Experiment 2, 20 healthy volunteers underwent quantitative sensory testing to determine heat and cold pain thresholds during the rubber hand illusion or during a control condition. Secondary analyses involved heat and cold detection thresholds and paradoxical heat sensations. Again, there was no main effect of condition on heat pain threshold (p = 0.17, nor on cold pain threshold (p = 0.65, nor on any of the secondary measures (p<0.56 for all. We conclude that the rubber hand illusion does not induce analgesia.

  15. A transcription factor for cold sensation!

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Susan J; Qu, Zhican; Milbrandt, Jeffrey; Zhuo, Min

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The ability to feel hot and cold is critical for animals and human beings to survive in the natural environment. Unlike other sensations, the physiology of cold sensation is mostly unknown. In the present study, we use genetically modified mice that do not express nerve growth factor-inducible B (NGFIB) to investigate the possible role of NGFIB in cold sensation. We found that genetic deletion of NGFIB selectively affected behavioral responses to cold stimuli while behavioral respons...

  16. How cold is it? TRPM8 and TRPA1 in the molecular logic of cold sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKemy David D

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recognition of temperature is a critical element of sensory perception and allows us to evaluate both our external and internal environments. In vertebrates, the somatosensory system can discriminate discrete changes in ambient temperature, which activate nerve endings of primary afferent fibers. These thermosensitive nerves can be further segregated into those that detect either innocuous or noxious (painful temperatures; the latter neurons being nociceptors. We now know that thermosensitive afferents express ion channels of the transient receptor potential (TRP family that respond at distinct temperature thresholds, thus establishing the molecular basis for thermosensation. Much is known of those channels mediating the perception of noxious heat; however, those proposed to be involved in cool to noxious cold sensation, TRPM8 and TRPA1, have only recently been described. The former channel is a receptor for menthol, and links the sensations provided by this and other cooling compounds to temperature perception. While TRPM8 almost certainly performs a critical role in cold signaling, its part in nociception is still at issue. The latter channel, TRPA1, is activated by the pungent ingredients in mustard and cinnamon, but has also been postulated to mediate our perception of noxious cold temperatures. However, a number of conflicting reports have suggested that the role of this channel in cold sensation needs to be confirmed. Thus, the molecular logic for the perception of cold-evoked pain remains enigmatic. This review is intended to summarize our current understanding of these cold thermoreceptors, as well as address the current controversy regarding TRPA1 and cold signaling.

  17. Use of a novel smart heating sleeping bag to improve wearers' local thermal comfort in the feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W F; Zhang, C J; Lai, D D; Wang, F M; Kuklane, K

    2016-01-13

    Previous studies have revealed that wearers had low skin temperatures and cold and pain sensations in the feet, when using sleeping bags under defined comfort and limit temperatures. To improve wearers' local thermal comfort in the feet, a novel heating sleeping bag (i.e., MARHT) was developed by embedding two heating pads into the traditional sleeping bag (i.e., MARCON) in this region. Seven female and seven male volunteers underwent two tests on different days. Each test lasted for three hours and was performed in a climate chamber with a setting temperature deduced from EN 13537 (2012) (for females: comfort temperature of -0.4 °C, and for males: the limit temperature of -6.4 °C). MARHT was found to be effective in maintaining the toe and feet temperatures within the thermoneutral range for both sex groups compared to the linearly decreased temperatures in MARCON during the 3-hour exposure. In addition, wearing MARHT elevated the toe blood flow significantly for most females and all males. Thermal and comfort sensations showed a large improvement in feet and a small to moderate improvement in the whole body for both sex groups in MARHT. It was concluded that MARHT is effective in improving local thermal comfort in the feet.

  18. Use of a novel smart heating sleeping bag to improve wearers’ local thermal comfort in the feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W. F.; Zhang, C. J.; Lai, D. D.; Wang, F. M.; Kuklane, K.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that wearers had low skin temperatures and cold and pain sensations in the feet, when using sleeping bags under defined comfort and limit temperatures. To improve wearers’ local thermal comfort in the feet, a novel heating sleeping bag (i.e., MARHT) was developed by embedding two heating pads into the traditional sleeping bag (i.e., MARCON) in this region. Seven female and seven male volunteers underwent two tests on different days. Each test lasted for three hours and was performed in a climate chamber with a setting temperature deduced from EN 13537 (2012) (for females: comfort temperature of -0.4 °C, and for males: the limit temperature of -6.4 °C). MARHT was found to be effective in maintaining the toe and feet temperatures within the thermoneutral range for both sex groups compared to the linearly decreased temperatures in MARCON during the 3-hour exposure. In addition, wearing MARHT elevated the toe blood flow significantly for most females and all males. Thermal and comfort sensations showed a large improvement in feet and a small to moderate improvement in the whole body for both sex groups in MARHT. It was concluded that MARHT is effective in improving local thermal comfort in the feet.

  19. Transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation in functional pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R R; Arbit, J; Siqueira, E B; Zagar, R

    1981-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation (TENS) has recently emerged as a distinct therapeutic modality in the alleviation of acute and chronic pain. We applied this modality to 15 nonsurgical low-back pain patients having diagnoses of functional pain, with 40% initially having significant pain relief (50% of greater). However, this pain-alleviating effect of TENS did not last longer than two months. After initiation of neurostimulation, increased pain and/or bizarre and inappropriate sensations and behavior frequently developed. We also applied this modality in the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of 24 patients having diagnoses of postsurgical chronic intractable low-back pain of psychosomatic origin and achieved similar results. In both groups, we utilized a simplified poststimulation "normal-saline-sterile-water intramuscular injection test" to confirm the findings from transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation and to verify the functional basis of the present low-back pain.

  20. Pain and other symptoms of CRPS can be increased by ambiguous visual stimuli--an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jane; Harrison, Simon; Cohen, Helen; McCabe, Candida S; Harris, N; Blake, David R

    2011-01-01

    Visual disturbance, visuo-spatial difficulties, and exacerbations of pain associated with these, have been reported by some patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). We investigated the hypothesis that some visual stimuli (i.e. those which produce ambiguous perceptions) can induce pain and other somatic sensations in people with CRPS. Thirty patients with CRPS, 33 with rheumatology conditions and 45 healthy controls viewed two images: a bistable spatial image and a control image. For each image participants recorded the frequency of percept change in 1 min and reported any changes in somatosensation. 73% of patients with CRPS reported increases in pain and/or sensory disturbances including changes in perception of the affected limb, temperature and weight changes and feelings of disorientation after viewing the bistable image. Additionally, 13% of the CRPS group responded with striking worsening of their symptoms which necessitated task cessation. Subjects in the control groups did not report pain increases or somatic sensations. It is possible to worsen the pain suffered in CRPS, and to produce other somatic sensations, by means of a visual stimulus alone. This is a newly described finding. As a clinical and research tool, the experimental method provides a means to generate and exacerbate somaesthetic disturbances, including pain, without moving the affected limb and causing nociceptive interference. This may be particularly useful for brain imaging studies. Copyright © 2010 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CLINICAL AND HAEMATO-BIOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS FOLLOWING TREATMENT WITH INTERFERENTIAL THERAPY IN THE BACK PAIN IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Sharma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of sixteen clinical cases, comprising of 8 animals each in Group I (animals with hindquarter weakness, which could stand, and had staggering gait and intact pain sensation and Group II (animals with hind quarter paresis, which were unable to stand and dragged hind legs while walking with intact pain sensation were treated with Computerized interferential unit and conventional therapy. Different clinical and haematobiochemical study revealed that the post treatment changes were transient and remains within normal physiological limits.

  2. Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy for Hand and Arm Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranceanu, Ana-Maria; Safren, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psychological treatment that emphasizes the interrelation among thoughts, behaviors, feelings, and sensations. CBT has been proved effective not only for treatment of psychological illness but also for teaching adaptive coping strategies in the context of chronic illnesses, including chronic pain. The present article provides general information on CBT, specific information on CBT for pain, as well as guidelines and strategies for using CBT for hand and arm pain patients, as part of multidisciplinary care models. PMID:21051204

  3. [Pain information pathways from the periphery to the cerebral cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Ryotaro; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2003-07-01

    A recent PET study revealed that the first and second somatosensory cortices (SI, SII), and the anterior cingulate cortex are activated by painful peripheral stimulation in humans. It has become clear that painful signals (nociceptive information) evoked at the periphery are transmitted via various circuits to the multiple cerebral cortices where pain signals are processed and perceived. Human or clinical pain is not merely a modality of somatic sensation, but associated with the affect that accompanies sensation. Consequently, pain has a somatosensory-discriminative aspect and an affective-cognitive aspect that are processed in different but correlated brain structures in the ascending circuits. Considering the physiologic characteristics and fiber connections, the SI and SII cortices appear to be involved in somatosensory-discriminative pain, and the anterior cingulate cortex (area 24) in the affective-cognitive aspect of pain. This paper deals with the ascending pain pathways from the periphery to these cortices and their interconnections. Our recent findings on the protease-activated receptors 1 and 2 (PAR-1, and -2), which are confirmed to exist in the dorsal root ganglion cells, are also described. Activation of PAR-2 during inflammation or tissue injury at the periphery is pronociceptive, while PAR-1 appears to be antinociceptive. Based on the these findings, PAR-1 and PAR-2 are attracting interest as target molecules for new drug development.

  4. Radiofrequency thermal ablation for pain control in patients with single painful bone metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo [Department of Radiology, Vascular and Interventional Radiology, University of Insubria, 21100 Varese (Italy)], E-mail: gcarraf@tin.it; Lagana, Domenico [Department of Radiology, Vascular and Interventional Radiology, University of Insubria, 21100 Varese (Italy)], E-mail: donlaga@gmail.com; Ianniello, Andrea [Department of Radiology, Vascular and Interventional Radiology, University of Insubria, 21100 Varese (Italy)], E-mail: ianand@libero.it; Nicotera, Paolo [Department of Radiology, Vascular and Interventional Radiology, University of Insubria, 21100 Varese (Italy)], E-mail: paolonicotera@virgilio.it; Fontana, Federico [Department of Radiology, Vascular and Interventional Radiology, University of Insubria, 21100 Varese (Italy)], E-mail: fede.fontana@libero.it; Dizonno, Massimiliano [Department of Radiology, Vascular and Interventional Radiology, University of Insubria, 21100 Varese (Italy)], E-mail: massimilianodizonno@libero.it; Cuffari, Salvatore [Service of Anaesthesiology and Palliative Care, University of Insubria, 21100 Varese (Italy)], E-mail: salvatore.cuffari@libero.it; Fugazzola, Carlo [Department of Radiology, Vascular and Interventional Radiology, University of Insubria, 21100 Varese (Italy)], E-mail: carlo.fugazzola@ospedale.varese.it

    2009-08-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and the efficacy of radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA) for pain relief and analgesics use reduction in two patients with painful bone metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: Two patients with lytic metastases from HCC located at the left superior ileo-pubic branch and at the middle arch of VII rib, performed RFA displacing a LeVeen Needle (3.5 and 4.0 cm diameter) under US (ultrasonography) and fluoroscopic guidance. Two methods were used to determine the response of both patients: the first method was to measure patient's worst pain with a Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) 1 day after the procedure, every week for 1 month, and thereafter at week 8 and 12 (total follow-up 3 months); Second method was to evaluate patient's analgesics use recorded at week 1, 4, 8 and 12. Analgesic medication use was translated into a morphine-equivalent dose. Results: The RFA were well tolerated by the patients who did not develop any complication. Both patients obtained substantial reduction of pain, which decreased from a mean score of 8 to approximately 2 in 4 weeks. In both patients we observed a reduction in the use of morphine dose-equivalent after a peak at week 1. CT (computed tomography) imaging, performed at 1 month after RFA, demonstrated that both procedures were technically successful and safe because consistent necrosis and no evidence for complications were observed. Conclusion: RFA provides a potential alternative method for palliation of painful osteolytic metastases from HCC; the procedure is safe, and the pain relief is substantial.

  5. Radiofrequency thermal ablation for pain control in patients with single painful bone metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Lagana, Domenico; Ianniello, Andrea; Nicotera, Paolo; Fontana, Federico; Dizonno, Massimiliano; Cuffari, Salvatore; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and the efficacy of radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA) for pain relief and analgesics use reduction in two patients with painful bone metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: Two patients with lytic metastases from HCC located at the left superior ileo-pubic branch and at the middle arch of VII rib, performed RFA displacing a LeVeen Needle (3.5 and 4.0 cm diameter) under US (ultrasonography) and fluoroscopic guidance. Two methods were used to determine the response of both patients: the first method was to measure patient's worst pain with a Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) 1 day after the procedure, every week for 1 month, and thereafter at week 8 and 12 (total follow-up 3 months); Second method was to evaluate patient's analgesics use recorded at week 1, 4, 8 and 12. Analgesic medication use was translated into a morphine-equivalent dose. Results: The RFA were well tolerated by the patients who did not develop any complication. Both patients obtained substantial reduction of pain, which decreased from a mean score of 8 to approximately 2 in 4 weeks. In both patients we observed a reduction in the use of morphine dose-equivalent after a peak at week 1. CT (computed tomography) imaging, performed at 1 month after RFA, demonstrated that both procedures were technically successful and safe because consistent necrosis and no evidence for complications were observed. Conclusion: RFA provides a potential alternative method for palliation of painful osteolytic metastases from HCC; the procedure is safe, and the pain relief is substantial.

  6. Pain sensation in human osteoarthritic knee joints is strongly enhanced by diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitner, Annett; Pester, Julia; Vogel, Franziska; Marintschev, Ivan; Lehmann, Thomas; Hofmann, Gunther O; Schaible, Hans-Georg

    2017-09-01

    The major burden of knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) is pain. Since in elder patients diabetes mellitus is an important comorbidity of OA, we explored whether the presence of diabetes mellitus has a significant influence on pain intensity at the end stage of knee OA, and we aimed to identify factors possibly related to changes of pain intensity in diabetic patients. In 23 diabetic and 47 nondiabetic patients with OA undergoing total knee arthroplasty, we assessed the pain intensity before the operation using the "Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score". Furthermore, synovial tissue, synovial fluid (SF), cartilage, and blood were obtained. We determined the synovitis score, the concentrations of prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the SF and serum, and of C-reactive protein and HbA1c and other metabolic parameters in the serum. We performed multivariate regression analyses to study the association of pain with several parameters. Diabetic patients had on average a higher Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score pain score than nondiabetic patients (P Knee joints from diabetic patients exhibited on average higher synovitis scores (P = 0.024) and higher concentrations of IL-6 in the SF (P = 0.003) than knee joints from nondiabetic patients. Multivariate regression analysis showed that patients with higher synovitis scores had more intense pain independent of all investigated confounders, and that the positive association between pain intensities and IL-6 levels was dependent on diabetes mellitus and/or synovitis. These data suggest that diabetes mellitus significantly increases pain intensity of knee OA, and that in diabetic patients higher pain intensities were determined by stronger synovitis.

  7. Regulation of heating and air-conditioning systems based on human thermal sensation: impact on the energy consumption in buildings; Regulation des systemes de chauffage et de climatisation basee sur la sensation thermique humaine: impact sur la consommation d'energie dans les batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endravadan, M.

    2006-02-15

    This study is based on the adaptive approach. The thermal comfort of an individual depends on indoor conditions that can be controlled. However, changes in activity or clothing adjustments are difficult to control and measure in the field experiments. Behavioural actions undertaken by the occupant to overcome the discomfort could be varying and may have diverse consequences. Sometimes these actions are beneficial to the occupant, although often they lead to disastrous amounts of energy consumption. Hence, it becomes crucial to consider the human behaviour and the thermal inertia of the building. The creation of numerical models is useful to study the coupling between these two components and to evaluate the effects of the behaviour on comfort and the energy. The simulations were conducted using TRNSYS software. A model such as 'Global Behavioural Regulator' (GBR) was created to evaluate the effects of clothing or thermostat adjustments made by the occupant depending on his thermal sensation (PMV). The energy costs of several types of regulators have been compared in various seasons for example, winter and summer using a light and heavy weight building. The heating of a whole-building may not be necessary in temperate climates or during mid-season. However, comfortable working conditions could be assured for the occupants with the use of an individual heating system such as a 'Local Heating System' (LHS). In such a context, it becomes interesting to evaluate the occupant's behaviour in regards to local heating and its effects on comfort and energy consumption. The LHS consists of three radiant panels; therefore, it is important to evaluate the local heat exchanges with precision. Experiments conducted with the manikin were used to validate the infra-red model; whereas experiments with real subjects were studied to understand the occupant behaviour on the LHS as a function of their local thermal sensations. These analyses led to the creation

  8. Combined mirror visual and auditory feedback therapy for upper limb phantom pain: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Kun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Phantom limb sensation and phantom limb pain is a very common issue after amputations. In recent years there has been accumulating data implicating 'mirror visual feedback' or 'mirror therapy' as helpful in the treatment of phantom limb sensation and phantom limb pain. Case presentation We present the case of a 24-year-old Caucasian man, a left upper limb amputee, treated with mirror visual feedback combined with auditory feedback with improved pain relief. Conclusion This case may suggest that auditory feedback might enhance the effectiveness of mirror visual feedback and serve as a valuable addition to the complex multi-sensory processing of body perception in patients who are amputees.

  9. Pain: metaphor, body, and culture in Anglo-American societies between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Joanna

    2014-10-02

    This article explores the relationship between metaphorical languages, body, and culture, and suggests that such an analysis can reveal a great deal about the meaning and experience of pain in Anglo-American societies between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries. It uses concepts within embodied cognition to speculate on how historians can write a history of sensation. Bodies are actively engaged in the linguistic processes and social interactions that constitute painful sensations. Language is engaged in a dialogue with physiological bodies and social environments. And culture collaborates in the creation of physiological bodies and metaphorical systems.

  10. Human transient response under local thermal stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human body can operate physiological thermoregulation system when it is exposed to cold or hot environment. Whether it can do the same work when a local part of body is stimulated by different temperatures? The objective of this paper is to prove it. Twelve subjects are recruited to participate in this experiment. After stabilizing in a comfort environment, their palms are stimulated by a pouch of 39, 36, 33, 30, and 27°C. Subject’s skin temperature, heart rate, heat flux of skin, and thermal sensation are recorded. The results indicate that when local part is suffering from harsh temperature, the whole body is doing physiological thermoregulation. Besides, when the local part is stimulated by high temperature and its thermal sensation is warm, the thermal sensation of whole body can be neutral. What is more, human body is more sensitive to cool stimulation than to warm one. The conclusions are significant to reveal and make full use of physiological thermoregulation.

  11. Influence of TRPV1 on diabetes-induced alterations in thermal pain sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauza Mary E

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A common complication associated with diabetes is painful or painless diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN. The mechanisms and determinants responsible for these peripheral neuropathies are poorly understood. Using both streptozotocin (STZ-induced and transgene-mediated murine models of type 1 diabetes (T1D, we demonstrate that Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 expression varies with the neuropathic phenotype. We have found that both STZ- and transgene-mediated T1D are associated with two distinct phases of thermal pain sensitivity that parallel changes in TRPV1 as determined by paw withdrawal latency (PWL. An early phase of hyperalgesia and a late phase of hypoalgesia are evident. TRPV1-mediated whole cell currents are larger and smaller in dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons collected from hyperalgesic and hypoalgesic mice. Resiniferatoxin (RTX binding, a measure of TRPV1 expression is increased and decreased in DRG and paw skin of hyperalgesic and hypoalgesic mice, respectively. Immunohistochemical labeling of spinal cord lamina I and II, dorsal root ganglion (DRG, and paw skin from hyperalgesic and hypoalgesic mice reveal increased and decreased TRPV1 expression, respectively. A role for TRPV1 in thermal DPN is further suggested by the failure of STZ treatment to influence thermal nociception in TRPV1 deficient mice. These findings demonstrate that altered TRPV1 expression and function contribute to diabetes-induced changes in thermal perception.

  12. Non-invasive characterization of real-time bladder sensation using accelerated hydration and a novel sensation meter: An initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Anna S; Speich, John E; De Wachter, Stefan G; Ghamarian, Peter P; Le, David M; Colhoun, Andrew F; Ratz, Paul H; Barbee, Robert W; Klausner, Adam P

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a non-invasive, objective, and unprompted method to characterize real-time bladder sensation. Volunteers with and without overactive bladder (OAB) were prospectively enrolled in a preliminary accelerated hydration study. Participants drank 2L Gatorade-G2® and recorded real-time sensation (0-100% scale) and standardized verbal sensory thresholds using a novel, touch-screen "sensation meter." 3D bladder ultrasound images were recorded throughout fillings for a subset of participants. Sensation data were recorded for two consecutive complete fill-void cycles. Data from 14 normal and 12 OAB participants were obtained (ICIq-OAB-5a = 0 vs. ≥3). Filling duration decreased in fill2 compared to fill1, but volume did not significantly change. In normals, adjacent verbal sensory thresholds (within fill) showed no overlap, and identical thresholds (between fill) were similar, demonstrating effective differentiation between degrees of %bladder capacity. In OAB, within-fill overlaps and between-fill differences were identified. Real-time %capacity-sensation curves left shifted from fill1 to fill2 in normals, consistent with expected viscoelastic behavior, but unexpectedly right shifted in OAB. 3D ultrasound volume data showed that fill rates started slowly and ramped up with variable end points. This study establishes a non-invasive means to evaluate real-time bladder sensation using a two-fill accelerated hydration protocol and a sensation meter. Verbal thresholds were inconsistent in OAB, and the right shift in OAB %capacity-sensation curve suggests potential biomechanical and/or sensitization changes. This methodology could be used to gain valuable information on different forms of OAB in a completely non-invasive way. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dimensions of sensation assessed in urinary urgency: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rebekah; Buckley, Jonathan; Williams, Marie

    2013-10-01

    Urinary urgency is an adverse sensory experience. Confirmation of the multidimensional nature of other adverse sensory experiences such as pain and dyspnea has improved the understanding of neurophysiological and perceptual mechanisms leading to innovations in assessment and treatment. It has been suggested that the sensation of urgency may include multiple dimensions such as intensity, suddenness and unpleasantness. In this systematic review we determine which dimensions of sensation have been assessed by instruments used to measure urinary urgency. A systematic search was undertaken of MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, CINAHL, Ageline, Web of Science, InformIT Health and Scopus databases to identify studies that included assessments of urinary urge or urgency. Articles were included in the analysis if they were primary studies that described the method used to measure urge/urgency in adults and published in English in peer reviewed publications since January 1, 2000. Articles were excluded from study if urgency was measured only in conjunction with other symptoms (eg frequency or incontinence) or if there was no English version of the instrument. Secondary analyses and systematic reviews were retained to hand search references for additional primary studies. Data were extracted for the instruments used to measure urge/urgency. For each instrument the items specific to urinary urgency were reviewed using a prospectively developed categorization process for the sensory dimension and the measurement metric. Items used to assess urinary urgency were collated in a matrix (sensory dimensions vs assessment metric). The most frequently used dimensions, metrics and combinations were descriptively analyzed. After removal of duplicate articles 1,048 full text articles were screened and 411 were excluded, leaving 637 eligible articles from which data were extracted. A total of 216 instruments were identified which were 1 of 6 types, namely 1) wider symptom questionnaires, 2) urgency

  14. Pleasure and pain: the effect of (almost) having an orgasm on genital and nongenital sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Laurel Q P; Amsel, Rhonda; Binik, Yitzchak M

    2013-06-01

    The effect of sexual arousal and orgasm on genital sensitivity has received little research attention, and no study has assessed sensation pleasurableness as well as painfulness. To clarify the relationship between sexual arousal, orgasm, and sensitivity in a healthy female sample. Twenty-six women privately masturbated to orgasm and almost to orgasm at two separate sessions, during which standardized pressure stimulation was applied to the glans clitoris, vulvar vestibule, and volar forearm at three testing times: (i) baseline; (ii) immediately following masturbation; and (iii) following a subsequent 15-minute rest period. Touch thresholds (tactile detection sensitivity), sensation pleasurableness ratings (pleasurable sensitivity), and pain thresholds (pain sensitivity). Pleasurableness ratings were higher on the glans clitoris than the vulvar vestibule, and at most testing times on the vulvar vestibule than the volar forearm; and at baseline and immediately after masturbation than 15 minutes later, mainly on the genital locations only. Pain thresholds were lower on the genital locations than the volar forearm, and immediately and 15 minutes after masturbation than at baseline. After orgasm, genital pleasurableness ratings and vulvar vestibular pain thresholds were lower than after masturbation almost to orgasm. Post-masturbation pleasurableness ratings were positively correlated with pain thresholds but only on the glans clitoris. Hormonal contraception users had lower pleasurableness ratings and pain thresholds on all locations than nonusers. There were no significant effects for touch thresholds. Masturbation appears to maintain pleasurable genital sensitivity but increase pain sensitivity, with lower genital pleasurable sensitivity and higher vulvar vestibular pain sensitivity when orgasm occurs. Findings suggest that enhancing stimulation pleasurableness, psychological sexual arousal and lubrication mitigate normative increases in pain sensitivity during

  15. Trajectories of Sensation Seeking Among Puerto-Rican Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S.; Wall, Melanie M.; Eisenberg, Ruth; Blanco, Carlos; Santaella, Julian; Ramos-Olazagasti, Maria; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R.; Brown, Qiana; Duarte, Cristiane S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To document the natural course of sensation seeking from childhood to adolescence, characterize distinct sensation-seeking trajectories, and examine how these trajectories vary according to selected predictors. Method Data were obtained from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of 2,491 children and adolescents of Puerto Rican background (three assessments from 2000 to 2004). First, age-specific sensation-seeking levels were characterized. Then, age-adjusted residuals were analyzed using growth mixture models (GMM). Results On average, sensation seeking was stable in childhood (ages 5–10) and increased during adolescence (ages 11–17). Mean scores of sensation seeking were higher in the South Bronx vs. Puerto Rico and among males vs. females. Four classes of sensation-seeking trajectories were observed: most study participants had age-expected sensation-seeking trajectories following the average for their age (“normative,” 43.8%); others (37.2%) remained consistently lower than the expected average for their age (“low” sensation seeking); some (12.0%) had an “accelerated” sensation-seeking trajectory, increasing at a faster rate than expected, while a minority (7.0%) had a decreasing sensation-seeking trajectory that started high but decreased, reaching scores slightly higher than the age-average sensation-seeking scores (“stabilizers”). Site (South Bronx vs. Puerto Rico) and gender were predictors of membership in a specific class of sensation-seeking trajectory. Conclusion It is important to take a developmental approach when examining sensation seeking and to consider gender and the social environment when trying to understand how sensation seeking evolves during childhood and adolescence. PMID:26598479

  16. The Temporomandibular Pain-Dysfunction Syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feeling in the ear and tinnitus; neuralgia in the distribution of the second and third divisions of the fifth cranial nerve; and headache, pain, or a burning sensation of the tongue. Those who rejected Costen's anatomical explanation"· suggested a disturbance of the TM joint. Since the time of Costen, many theories have been.

  17. Sex differences in sensation-seeking: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Catharine P; Cyrenne, De-Laine M; Brown, Gillian R

    2013-01-01

    Men score higher than women on measures of sensation-seeking, defined as a willingness to engage in novel or intense activities. This sex difference has been explained in terms of evolved psychological mechanisms or culturally transmitted social norms. We investigated whether sex differences in sensation-seeking have changed over recent years by conducting a meta-analysis of studies using Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, version V (SSS-V). We found that sex differences in total SSS-V scores have remained stable across years, as have sex differences in Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility. In contrast, the sex difference in Thrill and Adventure Seeking has declined, possibly due to changes in social norms or out-dated questions on this sub-scale. Our results support the view that men and women differ in their propensity to report sensation-seeking characteristics, while behavioural manifestations of sensation-seeking vary over time. Sex differences in sensation-seeking could reflect genetically influenced predispositions interacting with socially transmitted information.

  18. Minocycline Prevents Muscular Pain Hypersensitivity and Cutaneous Allodynia Produced by Repeated Intramuscular Injections of Hypertonic Saline in Healthy Human Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samour, Mohamad Samir; Nagi, Saad Saulat; Shortland, Peter John; Mahns, David Anthony

    2017-08-01

    Minocycline, a glial suppressor, prevents behavioral hypersensitivities in animal models of peripheral nerve injury. However, clinical trials of minocycline in human studies have produced mixed results. This study addressed 2 questions: can repeated injections of hypertonic saline (HS) in humans induce persistent hypersensitivity? Can pretreatment with minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic with microglial inhibitory effects, prevent the onset of hypersensitivity? Twenty-seven healthy participants took part in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, consisting of 6 test sessions across 2 weeks. At the beginning of every session, pressure-pain thresholds of the anterior muscle compartment of both legs were measured to determine the region distribution and intensity of muscle soreness. To measure changes in thermal sensitivity in the skin overlying the anterior muscle compartment of both legs, quantitative sensory testing was used to measure the cutaneous thermal thresholds (cold sensation, cold pain, warm sensation, and heat pain) and a mild cooling stimulus was applied to assess the presence of cold allodynia. To induce ongoing hypersensitivity, repeated injections of HS were administered into the right tibialis anterior muscle at 48-hour intervals. In the final 2 sessions (days 9 and 14), only sensory assessments were done to plot the recovery after cessation of HS administrations and drug washout. By day 9, nontreated participants experienced a significant bilateral increase in muscle soreness (P minocycline-treated participants experienced a bilateral 70% alleviation in muscle soreness (P minocycline-treated participants showed cold allodynia. This study showed that repeated injections of HS can induce a hypersensitivity that outlasts the acute response, and the development of this hypersensitivity can be reliably attenuated with minocycline pretreatment. Four repeated injections of HS at 48-hour intervals induce a state of persistent hypersensitivity in

  19. Trajectories of Sensation Seeking Among Puerto Rican Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S; Wall, Melanie M; Eisenberg, Ruth; Blanco, Carlos; Santaella, Julian; Ramos-Olazagasti, Maria; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R; Brown, Qiana; Duarte, Cristiane S

    2015-12-01

    To document the natural course of sensation seeking from childhood to adolescence, characterize distinct sensation seeking trajectories, and examine how these trajectories vary according to selected predictors. Data were obtained from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of 2,491 children and adolescents of Puerto Rican background (3 assessments from 2000 to 2004). First, age-specific sensation seeking levels were characterized, and then age-adjusted residuals were analyzed using growth mixture models. On average, sensation seeking was stable in childhood (ages 5-10 years) and increased during adolescence (ages 11-17 years). Mean scores of sensation seeking were higher in the South Bronx versus Puerto Rico and among males versus females. Four classes of sensation seeking trajectories were observed: most study participants had age-expected sensation seeking trajectories following the average for their age ("normative," 43.8%); others (37.2%) remained consistently lower than the expected average for their age ("low" sensation seeking); some (12.0%) had an "accelerated" sensation seeking trajectory, increasing at a faster rate than expected; and a minority (7.0%) had a decreasing sensation seeking trajectory that started high but decreased, reaching scores slightly higher than the age-average sensation seeking scores ("stabilizers"). Site (South Bronx versus Puerto Rico) and gender were predictors of membership in a specific class of sensation seeking trajectory. It is important to take a developmental approach when examining sensation seeking and to consider gender and the social environment when trying to understand how sensation seeking evolves during childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The analgesic effect of different antidepressants combined with aspirin on thermally induced pain in Albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla S. Elhwuegi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Combination analgesics provide more effective pain relief for a broader spectrum of pain. This research examines the possible potentiation of the analgesic effect of different classes of antidepressants when combined with aspirin in thermal model of pain using Albino mice.Methods:Different groups of six animals each were injected intraperitoneally by different doses of aspirin (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg, imipramine (2.5, 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg, fluoxetine (1.25, 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg, mirtazapine (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg and a combination of a fixed dose of aspirin (100 mg/kg with the different doses of the three antidepressants. One hour later the analgesic effect of these treatments were evaluated against thermally induced pain. All data were subjected to statistical analysis using unpaired Student's t-test.Results:Aspirin had no analgesic effect in thermally induced pain. The three selected antidepressants produced dose dependent analgesia. The addition of a fixed dose of aspirin to imipramine significantly increased the reaction time (RT of the lowest dose (by 23% and the highest dose (by 20%. The addition of the fixed dose of aspirin to fluoxetine significantly increased RT by 13% of the dose 2.5 mg/Kg. Finally, the addition of the fixed dose of aspirin significantly potentiated the antinociceptive effect of the different doses of mirtazapine (RT was increased by 24, 54 and 38% respectively.Conclusion:Combination of aspirin with an antidepressant might produce better analgesia, increasing the efficacy of pain management and reduces side effects by using smaller doses of each drug.

  1. Perspectives on Music Imagery and complex chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfi, Ilan; Christensen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the article is to examine the concept of chronic pain as a complex phenomenon and to highlight the potential role of music therapy – in particular, music imagery – in the treatment of chronic pain. Theories of pain, along with research on pain pathways and pain control in the nervous...... system, support the evidence from clinical practice that music interventions can alleviate the sensation of pain whilst also offering a pleasant aesthetic experience. Music therapy provides opportunities for processing psychological and existential issues and enables patients to better cope with chronic...... pain. Related research in neuroscience and music medicine provides supplementary evidence that music can have a considerable impact on the physiological and psychological aspects of pain. This article summarises selected theoretical, clinical, and research–based knowledge relevant for music therapy...

  2. Effect of local cooling on sweating rate and cold sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, L. I.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Stamford, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects resting in a 39 C environment were stimulated in different skin regions with a water-cooled thermode. Results indicate that cooling different body regions produces generally equivalent decreases in sweating rate and increases in cold sensation, with the forehead showing a much greater sensitivity per unit area and temperature decrease than other areas. The high thermal sensitivity of the face may have evolved when it was the thinnest-furred area of the body; today's clothing habits have reestablished the importance of the face in the regulation of body temperature.

  3. The response of skin hardness and pain sensation to ultrasonic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammation of subcutaneous fat). Patient experiences severe pain, increased stress, swelling, walking problems and decreased quality of life. The end result of untreated LDS is ulcer formation with high incidence of delayed healing and ...

  4. Maternal assessment of pain in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Correia dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify mothers' perceptions about the pain in their premature babies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Methods: evaluative, quantitative study with investigative nature conducted with 19 mothers of hospitalized premature newborns. Data were obtained from closed questions, answered by mothers. Results: from the participants, two (10.5% reported that newborns are unable to feel pain. From the 17 mothers who said that premature babies can feel pain, the majority (94.1% identified crying as a characteristic of pain sensation. Eleven (64.7% stated that uneasiness is a sign of pain in newborns. Conclusion: for the proper management of neonatal pain it is essential that mothers know the signs of pain in premature newborns, and that health professionals instruct this recognition, through the enhancement of the maternal presence and practice of effective communication between professionals and newborns’ families.

  5. Quantifying and Characterizing Tonic Thermal Pain Across Subjects From EEG Data Using Random Forest Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Vishal; Case, Michelle; Shirinpour, Sina; He, Bin

    2017-12-01

    Effective pain assessment and management strategies are needed to better manage pain. In addition to self-report, an objective pain assessment system can provide a more complete picture of the neurophysiological basis for pain. In this study, a robust and accurate machine learning approach is developed to quantify tonic thermal pain across healthy subjects into a maximum of ten distinct classes. A random forest model was trained to predict pain scores using time-frequency wavelet representations of independent components obtained from electroencephalography (EEG) data, and the relative importance of each frequency band to pain quantification is assessed. The mean classification accuracy for predicting pain on an independent test subject for a range of 1-10 is 89.45%, highest among existing state of the art quantification algorithms for EEG. The gamma band is the most important to both intersubject and intrasubject classification accuracy. The robustness and generalizability of the classifier are demonstrated. Our results demonstrate the potential of this tool to be used clinically to help us to improve chronic pain treatment and establish spectral biomarkers for future pain-related studies using EEG.

  6. Quantifying and simulating human sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quantifying and simulating human sensation – relating science and technology of indoor climate research Abstract In his doctoral thesis from 1970 civil engineer Povl Ole Fanger proposed that the understanding of indoor climate should focus on the comfort of the individual rather than averaged...... this understanding of human sensation was adjusted to technology. I will look into the construction of the equipment, what it measures and the relationship between theory, equipment and tradition....

  7. [Pain and its pathways. A study for therapeutic action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbin, J Y; Robert, R; Fresche, F; Lajat, J; Menegalli-Boggelli, D

    1992-01-01

    Pain is as old as mankind. It has a threshold beyond which nobody can escape it. Pain is a biological and physiological phenomenon, an integrated part of our body and ego. Will all our efforts eventually make it disappear? Is its disappearance desirable? Pain is one of the major expressions of sensation. It is integrated by the central structures and expressed as a behavior of avoidance or attenuation of the effects produced by the cause of pain. The study of this behavior and of the transmission of the pain message corresponds to the study of how to fight against this message, which means that it should logically lead to the treatment of pain.

  8. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: nonparallel antinociceptive effects on chronic clinical pain and acute experimental pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheing, G L; Hui-Chan, C W

    1999-03-01

    To investigate to what extent a single 60-minute session of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) would modify chronic clinical pain, acute experimental pain, and the flexion reflex evoked in chronic low back pain patients. Thirty young subjects with chronic low back pain were randomly allocated to two groups, receiving either TENS or placebo stimulation to the lumbosacral region for 60 minutes. The flexion reflex was elicited by an electrical stimulation applied to the subject's right sole and recorded electromyographically from the biceps femoris and the tibialis anterior muscles. Subjective sensation of low back pain and the electrically induced pain were measured by two separate visual analog scales, termed VAS(LBP) and VAS(FR), respectively. Data obtained before, during, and 60 minutes after TENS and placebo stimulations were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. The VAS(LBP) score was significantly reduced to 63.1% of the prestimulation value after TENS (pTENS protocol had different degrees of antinociceptive influence on chronic and acute pain in chronic low back pain patients.

  9. Testing haptic sensations for spinal anesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-01-01

    Having identified key determinants of teaching and learning spinal anesthesia, it was necessary to characterize and render the haptic sensations (feeling of touch) associated with needle insertion in the lower back. The approach used is to match recreated sensations (eg, "pop" through skin or dura mater) with experts\\' perceptions of the equivalent clinical events.

  10. Clinical features and imaging of central poststroke pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Bhattacharyya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Central post stroke pain is a variety of neuropathic pain that occurs after stroke as a result of dysfunction of either spino-thalamic tract or thalamo-cortical sensory pathway. Hyperirritability in surviving cells along the affected pain pathways found with changes in inhibitory pathways, spinal and cortical reorganization and central sensitization. Aim: Clinical features like character of pain and other sensory features with neuroimaging findings of central post stroke pain for a part of Indian population were analyzed in this study. Materials and Method including analysis: 120 numbers of patients, who developed new onset pain symptoms after stroke, attending outpatient and inpatient department of a neurology department during a whole year were examined with history including extensive sensory symptoms analysis; sensory examinations including assessment of pain score and other neurological examinations were done and rechecked by neurologists. All were investigated by neuroimaging with either MRI or CT scan or both. Neuro imaging was interpreted by experienced neuroradiologist and corroborated by neurologists and pain physician. Results: 45% of the lesions were in Thalamus when 75% of the lesions were detected as infarction. 57.5% symptoms started within 3 months. Ataxia found with 60%, increased threshold to warm and cold were seen in 40% of patients, burning sensation was seen in 40% followed by numbness with 20%, dysesthesia found with 60%, reduced sensation to temperature changes found with 40% patients. Conclusion: CPSP patients may presents with various sensory symptoms beside pain. Distribution of sensory symptoms may be with any part of the body as well as over one half of the body. Most common trigger factor was mechanical; while thalamic lesions found in 45%, extra thalamic lesions werefound with 55% of patients.

  11. Virtual visual reminiscing pain stimulation of allodynia patients activates cortical representation of pain and emotions. fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Ushida, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Shinichirou; Tania, Toshikazu; Zinchuk, V.; Morio, Kazuo; Sasaki, Toshikazu

    2004-01-01

    It is widely known that sensation of the pain is derived from sensory-discriminative factor and emotional factor. Especially in chronic pain, emotional factors and psychosocial backgrounds are more likely to contribute for the patients' discomfort. The aim of this study is to investigate how emotional factor of pain participates in intractable pain. We employed functional MRI (fMRI) to compare the brain activations occurring in the orthopaedic neuropathic pain patients with allodynia and normal individuals in response to the visual virtual painful experience. During fMRI scanning, a video demonstrating an actual tactile stimulation of the palm and its imitation were shown to participants. In contrast to normal individuals, allodynia patients also displayed activation of the areas reflecting emotions: frontal lobe and anterior cingulate. These findings suggest that brain have important role in the development and maintaining of peripheral originated chronic painful condition. (author)

  12. The application of neuropathic pain questionnaires in burning mouth syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jun-Young; Ok, Soo-Min; Ahn, Yong-Woo; Ko, Myung-Yun; Jeong, Sung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the validity of the PainDETECT, DN4, and abbreviated DN4 (DN4i) neuropathic pain questionnaires for primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS), which is a burning sensation in the oral mucosa in the absence of any identifiable organic etiology. Eighty-one patients (42 with primary BMS and 39 with nociceptive pain) complaining of a burning sensation and pain in their oral mucosa were enrolled in this study. All of the patients completed the neuropathic pain questionnaires. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were estimated. Then the relationship between pain intensity and total neuropathic pain score was investigated. Data were analyzed with the chi-square test and independent t test for subjects' baseline characteristic differences, and with Pearson correlation coefficients for the relationship of variables. The mean area under the ROC curves (AUCs) for PainDETECT, DN4, and DN4i were 0.81, 0.79, and 0.81, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the AUCs among the questionnaires. PainDETECT, DN4, and DN4i had a lower sensitivity and specificity for BMS compared to previous validation studies. The total scores for PainDETECT, DN4, and DN4i in the primary BMS group were significantly associated with pain intensity. Although the results of this study suggest that neuropathic pain questionnaires, such as PainDETECT and DN4, are not ideal principal screening tools for BMS patients, a substantial proportion of neuropathic symptoms in primary BMS patients were identified.

  13. Unsteady-state human-body exergy consumption rate and its relation to subjective assessment of dynamic thermal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Kolarik, Jakub; Dovjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    of the present study confirmed previously indicated trends that lowest human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation close to neutrality. Moreover, higher acceptability was in general associated with lower human body exergy consumption rate. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Few examples studied applicability of exergy analysis on human thermal comfort. These examples relate the human-body exergy consumption rate with subjectively obtained thermal sensation votes and had been based on steady-state calculation methods. However, humans are rarely exposed to steady...... between the human-body exergy consumption rate and subjective assessment of thermal environment represented by thermal sensation as well as to extend the investigation towards thermal acceptability votes. Comparison of steady-state and unsteady-state model showed that results from both models were...

  14. Analytical and subjective interpretation of thermal comfort in hospitals: A case study in two sterilization services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhais, Carlos; Santos, Joana; Vieira da Silva, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Hospital facilities are normally very complex, which combined with patient requirements promote conditions for potential development of uncomfortable working conditions. Thermal discomfort is one such example. This study aimed to determine levels of thermal comfort, sensations, and preferences, from a field investigation conducted in two sterilization services (SS) of two hospitals from Porto and Aveiro, Portugal. The analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort was based upon assumptions of ISO 7726:1998 and ISO 7730:2005. The predicted mean vote (PMV) and predicted percentage of dissatisfaction (PPD) indices were obtained by measurement and estimation of environmental and personal variables, respectively, and calculated according to ISO 7730 equations. The subjective variables were obtained from thermal sensation (subjective PMV) and affective assessment (subjective PPD), reported by a questionnaire based upon ISO 10551:1995. Both approaches confirmed thermal discomfort in both SS (codified as SS1 and SS2). For all areas, PMV and PPD exceeded in all periods of the day the recommended range of -0.5 to +0.5 and thermal discomfort. There were no significant differences between PMV and thermal sensations, as well as between PPD and affective assessment. The PMV/PPD model was found suitable to predict thermal sensations of occupants in hospital SS located in areas with a mild climate in Portugal.

  15. Unilateral nasal pain with migraine features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Mónica; Montojo, Teresa; de la Casa, Beatriz; Vela, Lydia; Pareja, Juan A

    2013-09-01

    Migraine attacks exclusively felt in the face are very rare, the pain involving the territories supplied by the second and third branches of the trigeminal nerve. Two patients suffering from heminasal pain attacks accompanied with typical migrainous features and responsive to oral or intranasal triptans - but not to intranasal lidocaine or oxymetazoline. In one patient, the attacks could be precipitated upon slight touching on the tip of the nose, in the other attacks were preceded by the nasal sensation typically heralding sneezing. Migraine pain mostly develops within the innervation territory of the first branch of the trigeminal nerve, which includes the nose. Therefore, episodes of unilateral nasal pain with migrainous features could be considered a migraine with unusual topography (nasal migraine). Painful nasal attacks occasionally preceded by stimulation of trigeminal afferents in the nose, could be conceived of as migraine-tic syndrome.

  16. Inguinal pain syndrome. The influence of intraoperative local administration of 0.5% bupivacaine on postoperative pain control following Lichtenstein hernioplasty. A prospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybułka, Bartosz

    2017-04-30

    or recurrent hernia, a similar intervention was applied in 41.67% (n=10) of patients. During the hospital stay, pain was assessed four times a day using the NRS numeric scale. All patients received preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis, and, during observation, analgesics and low-molecular-weight heparin were used. In the studied group, risk factor were identified, which affect the pain level associated with surgical treatment of an inguinal hernia. Mean pain level score according to the NRS scale (0-10) for an inguinal hernia was 4.17 on day 0 (standard deviation 2.22; minimum 0; maximum 10). On day 1 - 2.86 (standard deviation 1.86; minimum 0; maximum 8). On day 2 - 0.84 (standard deviation 1.21; minimum 0; maximum 5). The values of those parameters for a scrotal and recurrent hernia were as follows: on day 0 - 3.67 (standard deviation 1.76; minimum 0; maximum 7). On day 1 - 3.79 (standard deviation 1.67; minimum 0; maximum 7). On day 2 - 2.25 (standard deviation 1.54; minimum 0; maximum 4). Intraoperative application of 20 mL 0.5% bupivacaine did not reduce the postoperative pain on the postoperative day 0, 1, 2. Among independent risk factors exacerbating pain, the following variables were identified: local complications of the operated site including edema, ecchymosis and hematoma of the inguinal region. More frequent dressing changes were directly correlated with an increased pain sensation. Postoperative urethral catheterization due to urinary retention was associated with an increased pain immediately after surgery. In the case of intraoperative diagnosis of concurrent direct and indirect hernia (so-called pantaloon hernia), less intense pain was observed on postoperative day 0. Other parameters such as age, sex, duration of operation, duration of hospitalization and wound drainage did not influence the pain sensation. Local injection of an analgesic into the operated site was not associated with the reduction of pain assessed on postoperative day 0, 1 and 2

  17. Frequency steps and compositions determine properties of nee- dling sensation during electroacupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Chen; Xiaoran, Ye; Suying, Ge; Zhifang, Yao; Xiaoqing, Huang

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the relationship of electro-parameters and the electroacupuncture sensation (EAS), which is thought to be an important factor for optimal treatment. The frequency steps and compositions of three frequently used electrical stimulations were set when the switch of the electroacupuncture apparatus was turned to the second or third grade of the dense-disperse frequency wave (DD2 and DD3, respectively) or the second grade of the continuous wave (C2). Three groups of patients according to the three electroacupuncture stimulations were divided again into three sub-groups according to the stimulated acupoints: the face acupoint Quanliao (SI 18), the upper-limb acupoint Quchi (LI 11) and the back acupoint Dachangshu (BL 25). The EAS values were measured every 5 min during 30 min electroacupuncture treatments using a visual analogue scale. The frequency compositions of the three electroacupuncture stimulations were 3.3 and 33 Hz, 12.5 and 66.7 Hz, and 3.3 and 3.3 Hz; each frequency step was 30, 54 and 0 Hz, respectively. In each sub-group of the C2 group, the EAS values from 10 to 30 min were significantly weaker than at 0 min. The sensation fluctuations in the DD2 and DD3 groups were different during the 30 min. The greater the frequency step of the electroacupuncture stimulation, the longer the needling sensation lasted. The electroacupuncture stimulations of the DD3 group were unsuitable for the facial acupoint because of its painful and uncomfortable EAS, but more suitable for the back acupoint.

  18. Epiglottic cyst as an etiological factor of globus sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Bahtiyar; Karahatay, Serdar; Gerek, Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    Globus is a subjective complaint that describes a sensation of a lump or a foreign body in the throat. Despite being a well-known and common clinical condition, the etiological factors have not been definitely elucidated yet. The study was set up to ascertain the relationship between epiglottic cysts and globus sensation. All patients undergoing investigation and treatments for globus sensation were included in the study. Patients with epiglottic cysts but no other possible causes of globus sensation were constituted the series of patients. Patients were asked to assess the levels of complaint before and after the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser excisions of the cysts. Epiglottic cysts were found in 10 (5.4%) of the 182 patients. Three of these 10 patients who had concomitant diseases or conditions that may cause globus sensation and one patient who refused the surgery were excluded from the study. All the remaining six patients reported relief of the globus sensation after the CO2 laser excisions of the cysts. Our results, obtained from this limited series, indicated that epiglottic cysts may be considered as one of the etiological factors of globus sensation.

  19. Inert gas narcosis has no influence on thermo-tactile sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Miroljub; Vidmar, Gaj; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2012-05-01

    Contribution of skin thermal sensors under inert gas narcosis to the raising hypothermia is not known. Such information is vital for understanding the impact of narcosis on behavioural thermoregulation, diver safety and judgment of thermal (dis)comfort in the hyperbaric environment. So this study aimed at establishing the effects of normoxic concentration of 30% nitrous oxide (N(2)O) on thermo-tactile threshold sensation by studying 16 subjects [eight females and eight males; eight sensitive (S) and eight non-sensitive (NS) to N(2)O]. Their mean (SD) age was 22.1 (1.8) years, weight 72.8 (15.3) kg, height 1.75 (0.10) m and body mass index 23.8 (3.8) kg m(-2). Quantitative thermo-tactile sensory testing was performed on forearm, upper arm and thigh under two experimental conditions: breathing air (air trial) and breathing normoxic mixture of 30% N(2)O (N(2)O trial) in the mixed sequence. Difference in thermo-tactile sensitivity thresholds between two groups of subjects in two experimental conditions was analysed by 3-way mixed-model analysis of covariance. There were no statistically significant differences in thermo-tactile thresholds either between the Air and N(2)O trials, or between S and NS groups, or between females and males, or with respect to body mass index. Some clinically insignificant lowering of thermo-tactile thresholds occurred only for warm thermo-tactile thresholds on upper arm and thigh. The results indicated that normoxic mixture of 30% N(2)O had no influence on thermo-tactile sensation in normothermia.

  20. Loss of urinary voiding sensation due to herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Akiyuki; Nagumo, Kiyomi; Sakakibara, Ryuji; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Fujinawa, Naoto; Hashimoto, Tasuku

    2003-01-01

    A case of sacral herpes zoster infection in a 56-year-old man with the complication of loss of urinary voiding sensation is presented. He had typical herpes zoster eruption on the left S2 dermatome, hypalgesia of the S1-S4 dermatomes, and absence of urinary voiding sensation. There was no other urinary symptom at the first medical examination. Urinary complications associated with herpes zoster are uncommon, but two types, acute cystitis and acute retention, have been recognized. No cases of loss of urinary voiding sensation due to herpes zoster have been reported. In this case, hypalgesia of the sacral dermatomes was mild compared to the marked loss of urethral sensation. This inconsistency is explained by the hypothesis that the number of urethral fibers is very small as compared to that of cutaneous fibers, therefore, urethral sensation would be more severely disturbed than cutaneous sensation. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Sensation of agency and perception of temporal order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Jana; Schönwiesner, Marc; SanMiguel, Iria; Schröger, Erich

    2014-01-01

    After adaptation to a fixed temporal delay between actions and their sensory consequences, stimuli delivered during the delay are perceived to occur prior to actions. Temporal judgments are also influenced by the sensation of agency (experience of causing our own actions and their sensory consequences). Sensory consequences of voluntary actions are perceived to occur earlier in time than those of involuntary actions. However, it is unclear whether temporal order illusions influence the sensation of agency. Thus, we tested how the illusionary reversal of motor actions and sound events affect the sensation of agency. We observed an absence of the sensation of agency in the auditory modality in a condition in which sounds were falsely perceived as preceding motor acts relative to the perceived temporal order in the control condition. This finding suggests a strong association between the sensation of agency and the temporal order perception of actions and their consequences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermal comfort of various building layouts with a proposed discomfort index range for tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Lee, Yee Yong; Ponraj, Mohanadoss; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz; Iwao, Kenzo; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan

    2014-04-01

    Recent years have seen issues related to thermal comfort gaining more momentum in tropical countries. The thermal adaptation and thermal comfort index play a significant role in evaluating the outdoor thermal comfort. In this study, the aim is to capture the thermal sensation of respondents at outdoor environment through questionnaire survey and to determine the discomfort index (DI) to measure the thermal discomfort level. The results indicated that most respondents had thermally accepted the existing environment conditions although they felt slightly warm and hot. A strong correlation between thermal sensation and measured DI was also identified. As a result, a new discomfort index range had been proposed in association with local climate and thermal sensation of occupants to evaluate thermal comfort. The results had proved that the respondents can adapt to a wider range of thermal conditions.Validation of the questionnaire data at Putrajaya was done to prove that the thermal sensation in both Putrajaya and UTM was almost similar since they are located in the same tropical climate region. Hence, a quantitative field study on building layouts was done to facilitate the outdoor human discomfort level based on newly proposed discomfort index range. The results showed that slightly shaded building layouts of type- A and B exhibited higher temperature and discomfort index. The resultant adaptive thermal comfort theory was incorporated into the field studies as well. Finally, the study also showed that the DI values were highly dependent on ambient temperature and relative humidity but had fewer effects for solar radiation intensity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Ice application for reducing pain associated with goserelin acetate injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kaname; Nagata, Chika; Koshizaki, Eiko; Nishiuchi, Satoko

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of using an ice pack for reducing the pain associated with goserelin acetate injection. In this study, 39 patients with prostate cancer and 1 patient with breast cancer receiving hormonal therapy with goserelin acetate were enrolled. All patients completed a questionnaire regarding the use of ice application. We used the numerical rating scale (NRS) to assess the pain associated with injection. The NRS scores indicated that the pain was significantly less with ice application than with the usual method (p application could decrease the duration of pain sensation. Ice application at the injection site is safe and effective for reducing pain.

  4. Are online poker problem gamblers sensation seekers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaire, Céline

    2018-03-31

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between sensation seeking and online poker gambling in a community sample of adult online poker players, when controlling for age, gender, anxiety and depression. In total, 288 online poker gamblers were recruited. Sociodemographic data, gambling behavior (CPGI), sensation seeking (SSS), depression and anxiety (HADS) were evaluated. Problem online poker gamblers have higher sensation seeking scores (total, thrill and adventure, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility subscores) and depression scores than non-problem online poker gamblers. Being male, with total sensation seeking, disinhibition and depression scores are factors associated with online poker problem gambling. These findings are interesting in terms of harm reduction. For example, because disinhibition could lead to increased time and money spent, protective behavioral strategies like setting time and monetary limits should be encouraged in poker online gamblers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Breast sensation after breast reconstruction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Sachin M; Magarakis, Michael; Stapleton, Sahael M; Basdag, Basak; Seal, Stella M; Rosson, Gedge D

    2010-07-01

    Studies show some return of breast sensation after breast reconstruction; however, recovery is variable and unpredictable. Efforts are being made to restore innervation by reattaching nerves (neurotization). We sought to systematically review the literature addressing breast sensation after reconstruction. The following databases were searched: EMBASE, Cochrane, and PubMed. Additionally, the PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY journal was hand searched from 1960 to 2009. Inclusion criteria included breast reconstruction for cancer, return of sensation with objective results, and patients aged 18 to 90 years. Studies with purely cosmetic procedures, case reports, studies with less than 10 patients, and studies involving male patients were excluded. The initial search yielded 109 studies, which was refined to 20 studies with a total pool of 638 patients. Innervated flaps have a greater magnitude of recovery, which occurs at an earlier stage compared with the noninnervated flaps. Overall, sensation to deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flaps may recover better sensation than transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps, followed by latissimus dorsi flaps, and finally implants. Women's needs and expectations for sensation have led plastic surgeons to investigate ways to facilitate its return. Studies, however, depict conflicting data. Larger series are needed to define the role of neurotization as a modality for improving sensory restoration. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  6. Ambient Space and Ambient Sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    The ambient is the aesthetic production of the sensation of being surrounded. As a concept, 'ambient' is mostly used in relation to the music genre 'ambient music' and Brian Eno's idea of environmental background music. However, the production of ambient sensations must be regarded as a central...... aspect of the aesthetization of modern culture in general, from architecture, transport and urbanized lifeforms to film, sound art, installation art and digital environments. This presentation will discuss the key aspects of ambient aesthetization, including issues such as objectlessness...

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Tactile Sensation by Electrical and Mechanical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yem, Vibol; Kajimoto, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    An electrotactile display is a tactile interface that provides tactile perception by passing electrical current through the surface of the skin. It is actively used instead of mechanical tactile displays for tactile feedback because of several advantages such as its small and thin size, light weight, and high responsiveness. However, the similarities and differences between these sensations is still not clear. This study directly compares the intensity sensation of electrotactile stimulation to that of mechanical stimulation, and investigates the characteristic sensation of anodic and cathodic stimulation. In the experiment, participants underwent a 30 pps electrotactile stimulus every one second to their middle finger, and were asked to match this intensity by adjusting the intensity of a mechanical tactile stimulus to an index finger. The results showed that anodic stimulation mainly produced vibration sensation, whereas cathodic sensation produced both vibration and pressure sensations. Relatively low pressure sensation was also observed for anodic stimulation but it remains low, regardless of the increasing of electrical intensity.

  8. Message sensation and cognition values: factors of competition or integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Using the Activation Model of Information Exposure and Elaboration Likelihood Model as theoretical frameworks, this study explored the effects of message sensation value (MSV) and message cognition value (MCV) of antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) on ad processing and evaluation among young adults, and the difference between high sensation seekers and low sensation seekers in their perceptions and responses toward ads with different levels of sensation and cognition value. A 2 (MSV: high vs. low) × 2 (MCV: high vs. low) × 2 (need for sensation: high vs. low) mixed experimental design was conducted. Two physiological measures including skin conductance and heart rate were examined. Findings of this study show that MSV was not a distraction but a facilitator of message persuasiveness. These findings contribute to the activation model. In addition, need for sensation moderated the interaction effect of MSV and MCV on ad processing. Low sensation seekers were more likely to experience the interaction between MSV and MCV than high sensation seekers. Several observations related to the findings and implications for antismoking message designs are elaborated. Limitations and directions for future research are also outlined.

  9. Intrathecal Administration of Morphine Decreases Persistent Pain after Cesarean Section: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumi Moriyama

    Full Text Available Chronic pain after cesarean section (CS is a serious concern, as it can result in functional disability. We evaluated the prevalence of chronic pain after CS prospectively at a single institution in Japan. We also analyzed perioperative risk factors associated with chronic pain using logistic regression analyses with a backward-stepwise procedure.Patients who underwent elective or emergency CS between May 2012 and May 2014 were recruited. Maternal demographics as well as details of surgery and anesthesia were recorded. An anesthesiologist visited the patients on postoperative day (POD 1 and 2, and assessed their pain with the Prince Henry Pain Scale. To evaluate the prevalence of chronic pain, we contacted patients by sending a questionnaire 3 months post-CS.Among 225 patients who questionnaires, 69 (30.7% of patients complained of persistent pain, although no patient required pain medication. Multivariate analyses identified lighter weight (p = 0.011 and non-intrathecal administration of morphine (p = 0.023 as determinant factors associated with persistent pain at 3 months. The adjusted odds ratio of intrathecal administration of morphine to reduce persistent pain was 0.424, suggesting that intrathecal administration of morphine could decrease chronic pain by 50%. In addition, 51.6% of patients had abnormal wound sensation, suggesting the development of neuropathic pain. Also, 6% of patients with abnormal wound sensation required medication, yet no patients with persistent pain required medication.Although no effect on acute pain was observed, intrathecal administration of morphine significantly decreased chronic pain after CS.

  10. Thermal perceptions, general adaptation methods and occupant's idea about the trade-off between thermal comfort and energy saving in hot-humid regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ruey-Lung [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91 Huseh-Shin Road, Taichung 404 (China); Cheng, Ming-Jen [Department of Architecture, Feng Chia University, 100 Wen-Hwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 407 (China); Lin, Tzu-Ping [Department of Leisure Planning, National Formosa University, 64 Wen-Hua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 632 (China); Ho, Ming-Chin [Architecture and Building Research Institute, Ministry of the Interior, 13F, No. 200, Sec. 3, Bei-sin Road, Sindian City, Taipei County 231 (China)

    2009-06-15

    A field study conducted in workplaces and residences in Taiwan is carried out to clarify two questions in detail: (1) do people in the tropical climate regions demonstrate a correlation between thermal sensation and thermal dissatisfaction the same as the PMV-PPD formula in the ISO 7730; and (2) does the difference in opportunities to choose from a variety of methods to achieve thermal comfort affects thermal perceptions of occupants? A new predicted formula of percentage of dissatisfied (PD) relating to mean thermal sensation votes (TSVs) is proposed for hot and humid regions. Besides an increase in minimum rate of dissatisfied from 5% to 9%, a shift of the TSV with minimum PD to the cool side of sensation scale is suggested by the new proposed formula. It also reveals that the limits of TSV corresponding to 80% acceptability for hot and humid regions are -1.45 and +0.65 rather than -0.85 and +0.85 suggested by ISO 7730. It is revealed in the findings that the effectiveness, availability and cost of a thermal adaptation method can affect the interviewees' thermal adaptation behaviour. According to the discussion of interviewees' idea about the trade-off between thermal comfort and energy saving, it is found that an energy-saving approach at the cost of sacrificing occupant's thermal comfort is difficult to set into action, but those ensure the occupant's comfort are more acceptable and can be easily popularized. (author)

  11. Attenuation of Self-Generated Tactile Sensations is Predictive, not Postdictive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available When one finger touches the other, the resulting tactile sensation is perceived as weaker than the same stimulus externally imposed. This attenuation of sensation could result from a predictive process that subtracts the expected sensory consequences of the action, or from a postdictive process that alters the perception of sensations that are judged after the event to be self-generated. In this study we observe attenuation even when the fingers unexpectedly fail to make contact, supporting a predictive process. This predictive attenuation of self-generated sensation may have evolved to enhance the perception of sensations with an external cause.

  12. Attenuation of self-generated tactile sensations is predictive, not postdictive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Bays

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available When one finger touches the other, the resulting tactile sensation is perceived as weaker than the same stimulus externally imposed. This attenuation of sensation could result from a predictive process that subtracts the expected sensory consequences of the action, or from a postdictive process that alters the perception of sensations that are judged after the event to be self-generated. In this study we observe attenuation even when the fingers unexpectedly fail to make contact, supporting a predictive process. This predictive attenuation of self-generated sensation may have evolved to enhance the perception of sensations with an external cause.

  13. Conduction-corrected modified effective temperature as the indices of combined and separate effect of environmental factors on sensational temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito [School of Life Studies, Sugiyama Jogakuen University, 17-3 Hoshigaoka-motomachi, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8662 (Japan); Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro [School of Human Science and Environment, University of Hyogo, 1-1-12 Hon-cho, Shinzaike, Himeji, Hyogo 670-0092 (Japan); Kondo, Emi [Graduate School Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cyo, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 468555 (Japan); Horikoshi, Tetsumi [Department of Techno-Business Administration, Graduate School of Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 468555 (Japan); Matsubara, Naoki [Division of Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Kyoto Prefectural University, Nakaragi-cho, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 608522 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    In living spaces, people sit or lie on the floor and adopt a posture in which much of the surface of the body is in contact with the floor. When the temperature of the spatial structure or the surface temperature of an object in contact with the human body is not equivalent to the air temperature, these effects are non-negligible. Most research examining the physiological and psychological responses of the human body has involved subjects sitting in chairs. Research that takes into account body heat balance and assessments of thermal conduction into the environment is uncommon. Thus, in this study, conduction-corrected modified effective temperature (ETF), which is a new thermal environmental index incorporating heat conduction, is defined in order to make possible the evaluation of thermal environments that take into account different postures. This sensational temperature index converts the effects of the following parameters into a temperature equivalent: air velocity, thermal radiation, contact material surface temperature and humidity. This index has the features of a summation formula. Through the use of these parameters, it is possible to represent and quantify their composite influence on bodily sensation and the effects of discrete meteorological elements through an evaluation on an identical axis. (author)

  14. A transcription factor for cold sensation!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milbrandt Jeffrey

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ability to feel hot and cold is critical for animals and human beings to survive in the natural environment. Unlike other sensations, the physiology of cold sensation is mostly unknown. In the present study, we use genetically modified mice that do not express nerve growth factor-inducible B (NGFIB to investigate the possible role of NGFIB in cold sensation. We found that genetic deletion of NGFIB selectively affected behavioral responses to cold stimuli while behavioral responses to noxious heat or mechanical stimuli were normal. Furthermore, behavioral responses remained reduced or blocked in NGFIB knockout mice even after repetitive application of cold stimuli. Our results provide strong evidence that the first transcription factor NGFIB determines the ability of animals to respond to cold stimulation.

  15. Pain thresholds, supra-threshold pain and lidocaine sensitivity in patients with erythromelalgia, including the I848Tmutation in NaV 1.7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helås, T; Sagafos, D; Kleggetveit, I P; Quiding, H; Jönsson, B; Segerdahl, M; Zhang, Z; Salter, H; Schmelz, M; Jørum, E

    2017-09-01

    Nociceptive thresholds and supra-threshold pain ratings as well as their reduction upon local injection with lidocaine were compared between healthy subjects and patients with erythromelalgia (EM). Lidocaine (0.25, 0.50, 1.0 or 10 mg/mL) or placebo (saline) was injected intradermally in non-painful areas of the lower arm, in a randomized, double-blind manner, to test the effect on dynamic and static mechanical sensitivity, mechanical pain sensitivity, thermal thresholds and supra-threshold heat pain sensitivity. Heat pain thresholds and pain ratings to supra-threshold heat stimulation did not differ between EM-patients (n = 27) and controls (n = 25), neither did the dose-response curves for lidocaine. Only the subgroup of EM-patients with mutations in sodium channel subunits Na V 1.7, 1.8 or 1.9 (n = 8) had increased lidocaine sensitivity for supra-threshold heat stimuli, contrasting lower sensitivity to strong mechanical stimuli. This pattern was particularly clear in the two patients carrying the Na V 1.7 I848T mutations in whom lidocaine's hyperalgesic effect on mechanical pain sensitivity contrasted more effective heat analgesia. Heat pain thresholds are not sensitized in EM patients, even in those with gain-of-function mutations in Na V 1.7. Differential lidocaine sensitivity was overt only for noxious stimuli in the supra-threshold range suggesting that sensitized supra-threshold encoding is important for the clinical pain phenotype in EM in addition to lower activation threshold. Intracutaneous lidocaine dose-dependently blocked nociceptive sensations, but we did not identify EM patients with particular high lidocaine sensitivity that could have provided valuable therapeutic guidance. Acute pain thresholds and supra-threshold heat pain in controls and patients with erythromelalgia do not differ and have the same lidocaine sensitivity. Acute heat pain thresholds even in EM patients with the Na V 1.7 I848T mutation are normal and only nociceptor

  16. Myoelectric intuitive control and transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the forearm for vibrotactile sensation feedback applied to a 3D printed prosthetic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germany, Enrique I; Pino, Esteban J; Aqueveque, Pablo E

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the development of a myoelectric prosthetic hand based on a 3D printed model. A myoelectric control strategy based on artificial neural networks is implemented on a microcontroller for online position estimation. Position estimation performance achieves a correlation index of 0.78. Also a study involving transcutaneous electrical stimulation was performed to provide tactile feedback. A series of stimulations with controlled parameters were tested on five able-body subjects. A single channel stimulator was used, positioning the electrodes 8 cm on the wrist over the ulnar and median nerve. Controlling stimulation parameters such as intensity, frequency and pulse width, the subjects were capable of distinguishing different sensations over the palm of the hand. Three main sensations where achieved: tickling, pressure and pain. Tickling and pressure were discretized into low, moderate and high according to the magnitude of the feeling. The parameters at which each sensation was obtained are further discussed in this paper.

  17. Chronic pain and other sequelae in long-term breast cancer survivors: Nationwide survey in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuckmann, V.; Ekholm, O.; Rasmussen, N.K.

    2008-01-01

    %, chronic pain 29%, arm/shoulder swelling 25%, phantom sensations 19%, and allodynia 15%. Chronic pain related to breast cancer was significantly associated with poorer HRQOL and higher medicine consumption, and, in multiple logistic regression analysis, with age (education, being single...... (divorced, widowed, separated), radiotherapy, and time since operation

  18. TOLERANCE TIME OF EXPERIMENTAL THERMAL PAIN (COLD INDUCED) IN VOLUNTEERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaid, V N; Wilkhoo, N S; Jain, A K

    1998-10-01

    Perception of thermal pain (cold induced) was studied in 106 volunteers from troops and civilians deployed in J & K. Thermal stimulus devised was "holding ice". Tolerance time of holding ice was taken to be a measure of thermal sensitivity, volunteers were classified based on their native areas, addiction habits and socio-economic status, out of 106 volunteers, 81 could & 25 could not hold ice over 10 min. Sixteen out of 40 from coastline States and 9 out of 66 from non-coast line States failed to hold ice over 10 min. In "below average" "average" and "high average" socio-economic groups, three out of 27, 19 out of 73 and 03 out of 6 failed to hold ice over 10 min respectively. Fifteen out of 64 from "addiction habit group" and 10 out of 42 from "no addiction habit group" failed to hold ice over 10 min. Statistically no classification used in the study revealed significant difference in "tolerance times" of volunteers except the one based on coastline and non-coastline States.

  19. A preconditioning nerve lesion inhibits mechanical pain hypersensitivity following subsequent neuropathic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A preconditioning stimulus can trigger a neuroprotective phenotype in the nervous system - a preconditioning nerve lesion causes a significant increase in axonal regeneration, and cerebral preconditioning protects against subsequent ischemia. We hypothesized that a preconditioning nerve lesion induces gene/protein modifications, neuronal changes, and immune activation that may affect pain sensation following subsequent nerve injury. We examined whether a preconditioning lesion affects neuropathic pain and neuroinflammation after peripheral nerve injury. Results We found that a preconditioning crush injury to a terminal branch of the sciatic nerve seven days before partial ligation of the sciatic nerve (PSNL; a model of neuropathic pain induced a significant attenuation of pain hypersensitivity, particularly mechanical allodynia. A preconditioning lesion of the tibial nerve induced a long-term significant increase in paw-withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli and paw-withdrawal latency to thermal stimuli, after PSNL. A preconditioning lesion of the common peroneal induced a smaller but significant short-term increase in paw-withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli, after PSNL. There was no difference between preconditioned and unconditioned animals in neuronal damage and macrophage and T-cell infiltration into the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs or in astrocyte and microglia activation in the spinal dorsal and ventral horns. Conclusions These results suggest that prior exposure to a mild nerve lesion protects against adverse effects of subsequent neuropathic injury, and that this conditioning-induced inhibition of pain hypersensitivity is not dependent on neuroinflammation in DRGs and spinal cord. Identifying the underlying mechanisms may have important implications for the understanding of neuropathic pain due to nerve injury.

  20. "Let's talk about OA pain": a qualitative analysis of the perceptions of people suffering from OA. Towards the development of a specific pain OA-Related questionnaire, the Osteoarthritis Symptom Inventory Scale (OASIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cedraschi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pain is the primary outcome measurement in osteoarthritis, and its assessment is mostly based on its intensity. The management of this difficult chronic condition could be improved by using pain descriptors to improve analyses of painful sensations. This should help to define subgroups of patients based on pain phenotype, for more adapted treatment. This study draws upon patients' descriptions of their pain, to identify and understand their perception of osteoarthritis pain and to categorize pain dimensions. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted with representative types of patients suffering from osteoarthritis. Two focus groups were conducted with a sample of 14 participants, with either recent or chronic OA, at one or multiple sites. Focus groups were semi-structured and used open-ended questions addressing personal experiences to explore the experiences of patients with OA pain and the meanings they attributed to these pains. RESULTS: TWO MAIN POINTS EMERGED FROM CONTENT ANALYSES: -A major difficulty in getting patients to describe their osteoarthritis pain: perception that nobody wants to hear about it; necessity to preserve one's self and social image; notion of self-imposed stoicism; and perception of osteoarthritis as a complex, changing, illogical disease associated with aging. -Osteoarthritis pains were numerous and differed in intensity, duration, depth, type of occurrence, impact and rhythm, but also in painful sensations and associated symptoms. Based on analyses of the verbatim interviews, seven dimensions of OA pain emerged: pain sensory description, OA-related symptoms, pain variability profile, pain-triggering factors, pain and physical activity, mood and image, general physical symptoms. SUMMARY: In osteoarthritis, pain analysis should not be restricted to intensity. Our qualitative study identified pain descriptors and defined seven dimensions of osteoarthritis pain. Based on these dimensions, we aim to

  1. Sensation seeking in opium abusers compared to normal people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that it is possible to identify people at risk of substance abuse using some personality variables. Identification of these people might help social planners to deal with these people specifically in their prevention attempts. The aim of this study was to compare the sensation seeking of opium addicted and non-addicted people using the sensation seeking scale. Such a comparison might help to identify personality variables that are effective in turning toward substance abuse. In order to measure the sensation seeking of subjects “Sensation Seeking Scale” (SSS were used. 31 opium abusers were matched to 31 normal controls according to the following variables: age, education, father and mother education. Results showed that opium abusers obtain higher scores on the total sensation seeking score ,“variety seeking” and “experience seeking” subscales.

  2. Field survey of occupants thermal comfort in rooms with displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitchurov, G.; Naidenov, K.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2002-01-01

    Field survey of occupants´ response to the thermal environment in eight office buildings with displacement ventilation was performed. The response of 227 occupants (94 males and 133 females) was collected and analysed. A neutral thermal sensation was reported by 37% of the occupants, and between...... slightly cool and slightly warm by more than 85% of the occupants. The occupants´ thermal sensation was close to the predictions by the PMV index. About 24% of the surveyed occupants complained that they were daily bothered by draught mainly at lower leg. Presence of draught discomfort was verified even...

  3. [The pain experience according to a phenomenological view on palliative care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromage, B; Hatti, M

    2015-12-01

    In palliative care, people with advanced or terminal phase cancer represent a significant proportion of patients. Persuaded that the pain and suffering they experience will never disappear from their daily life, patients are exposed to successive fracture triggered by psychosocial/physical factors. Furthermore, the difficulty in palliative care is that the pain is also a subjective phenomenon. However, the only information available to indicate pain remains the quantitative assessment of the patient or the observation of his/her behaviour. Pain caused by cancer optimally exhibits the difficulty of pain assessment, where a patient may properly assess, through their somatic pain, their own experience of pain expressed according to the consequence of illness on their history and personality. This exploratory study aims to show how the development of analogical subjective speech has an effect on the pain experience in patients with cancer. Indeed, the hypothesis is that one can reduce the sensation of pain by transforming the emotional experience via a figurative/discursive activity due to an elaboration work and clarification of the painful experience. Method-Four terminally ill patients passed the "L'Épreuve des Trois Arbres" (three-tree test) (ETA), which consisted in drawing trees and telling their story. The ETA aims to facilitate the expression of the overall experience according to a person's perspective on a specific situation. In this experiment, quantitative and qualitative data were collected. More specifically, the quantitative data was based on the assessment of somatic pain using the visual analog scale (VAS) of 1 to 10 (0 = no pain, 10 = unbearable pain) and a qualitative analysis assessed with the ETA, which focused on the meaning of pain, a subjective component that can increase the expression of somatic pain. The pain experience is assessed before and after the execution of the ETA using the VAS. The results show a reduction of painful sensation and

  4. The DSM-IV nosology of chronic pain: a comparison of pain disorder and multiple somatization syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, W; Heuser, J; Fichter, M M

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluates the classification of pain from the perspective of the DSM-IV system. Of 60 in-patients with long-standing and disabling pain syndromes, 29 with pain disorder (PD) and 31 with pain as part of a multiple somatization syndrome (MSS) were compared before and after a structured cognitive-behavioral treatment. It was hypothesized that MSS patients show more psychological distress, are more severely disabled, and respond less to the treatment. Both groups were similar with respect to sociodemographic status, history of pain symptomatology and comorbidity with DSM-IV mental disorders. The results show that MSS patients had higher levels of affective and sensoric pain sensations as well as more pain-related disabilities. They were also less successful during treatment to reduce their pain-related depression and anxiety. Psychosocial functioning was improved only by PD patients, but remained almost unchanged in the MSS group. However, there were no group differences concerning general depression and hypochondriasis, dysfunctional attitudes towards body and health, and use of pain coping strategies. It is concluded that the DSM-IV distinction between 'pure' pain disorder and syndromes involving pain plus multiple somatoform symptoms cannot generally be confirmed, but further studies of validation are needed. Copyright 2000 European Federation of Chapters of the International Association for the Study of Pain.

  5. Evidence for thalamic involvement in the thermal grill illusion: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Lindstedt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perceptual illusions play an important role in untangling neural mechanisms underlying conscious phenomena. The thermal grill illusion (TGI has been suggested as a promising model for exploring percepts involved in neuropathic pain, such as cold-allodynia (pain arising from contact with innocuous cold. The TGI is an unpleasant/painful sensation from touching juxtapositioned bars of cold and warm innocuous temperatures. AIM: To develop an MRI-compatible TGI-unit and explore the supraspinal correlates of the illusion, using fMRI, in a group of healthy volunteers. METHODS: We constructed a TGI-thermode allowing the rapid presentation of warm(41°C, cold(18°C and interleaved(41°C+18°C = TGI temperatures in an fMRI-environment. Twenty volunteers were tested. The affective-motivational ("unpleasantness" and sensory-disciminatory ("pain-intensity" dimensions of each respective stimulus were rated. Functional images were analyzed at a corrected α-level <0.05. RESULTS: The TGI was rated as significantly more unpleasant and painful than stimulation with each of its constituent temperatures. Also, the TGI was rated as significantly more unpleasant than painful. Thermal stimulation versus neutral baseline revealed bilateral activations of the anterior insulae and fronto-parietal regions. Unlike its constituent temperatures the TGI displayed a strong activation of the right (contralateral thalamus. Exploratory contrasts at a slightly more liberal threshold-level also revealed a TGI-activation of the right mid/anterior insula, correlating with ratings of unpleasantness (rho = 0.31. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first fMRI-study of the TGI. The activation of the anterior insula is consistent with this region's putative role in processing of homeostatically relevant feeling-states. Our results constitute the first neurophysiologic evidence of thalamic involvement in the TGI. Similar thalamic activity

  6. Congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis: A case report from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carounanidy Udayashankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis, also known as hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the congenital lack of pain sensation, inability to sweat, episodes of recurrent hyperpyrexia, mental retardation, and self-mutilating behavior. It is an extremely rare disorder with only a handful of reports from India. A five- year- old boy, born to second-degree consanguineous parents after uneventful antenatal period, presented to us with history of recurrent unexplained fever, recurrent ulcers in the lower limbs, insensitivity to painful stimuli (like injections, vaccination and self-mutilating behavior from early childhood. Cutaneous examination showed multiple ulcers, loss of teeth, loss of tip of the tongue (due to biting, scarring of finger tips, xerosis and lichenification. Sensory examination showed complete loss of pain and temperature sensations, but fine touch and vibration were preserved. Deep tendon reflexes were normal. Evaluation for Hansen′s disease was non-contributory. An intradermal injection of histamine did not show any flare response. Based on clinical as well as compatible histological features a diagnosis of congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis was made. The ulcers were treated with appropriate antibiotics and daily dressings. The parents were counseled about appropriate care of the child.

  7. Spatial summation and spatial discrimination of cold pain: effect of spatial configuration and skin type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrin, Ruth; Sheraizin, Anat; Malichi, Liron; Shachen, Orit

    2011-12-01

    Spatial summation (SS) and spatial discrimination (SD) are essential for pain perception. In the cold-pain sensation, these processes have hardly been studied. Our aim was to study the SS and SD of cold pain, as well as the SS of cold-pain threshold (CPT) in hairy and glabrous skin. Two discrete stimuli (9 cm(2) each) were applied to the forearm with separation distances of 0-40 cm and in addition, a single stimulus on each forearm. For each configuration, the CPT, suprathreshold cold-pain ratings, and the reported number of activated stimuli (SD) were obtained. In another experiment, SS of CPT was tested in the hairy and glabrous skin of the hand using small (2.25 cm(2)) and large (9 cm(2)) probe sizes. The SS of CPT and of cold pain existed over separation distances of up to 30-40 cm, at which point SD became better than chance. When the 2 forearms were stimulated, SS was abolished and cold pain was inhibited. CPT was significantly higher in hairy than glabrous skin, but the amount of SS of CPT was similar in the 2 skin types. Noxious cold-evoked thermal qualities were more common in the glabrous than the hairy skin. (1) SS and SD of cold pain are reciprocal; (2) whereas cold pain can summate over large distances, the SD of cold pain is poor; (3) SS of cold pain does not exist between contralateral body sides, however, inhibition occurs; (4) SS is independent of skin type and sensitivity to cold pain; (5) differences in pain quality between hairy and glabrous skin may reflect innervation differences. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of pain intensity measurement during the removal of wound dressing material using 'the PainVision™ system' for quantitative analysis of perception and pain sensation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Hajime; Imai, Ryutaro; Gondo, Masahide; Watanabe, Katsueki

    2012-08-01

    Reducing pain caused by the removal of adhesive wound dressing materials is very important in clinical practice and is also one of the factors to consider when choosing dressing materials. A visual analogue scale is the most popular method for assessing pain, but it is subjective and is difficult to evaluate quantitatively or statistically. Recently, a new method for the quantitative measurement of pain intensity using a painless electrical stimulation system, PainVision™, has been developed. In this study, we evaluated pain intensity during the removal of wound dressing materials in healthy volunteers by comparing pain during the removal of wound dressing materials, which use acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesive and pain during the removal of materials, which use soft silicone adhesive, as evaluated using the PainVision™ system. Pain intensity was significantly lower with the dressing materials, which use soft silicone adhesive when measured with the PainVision™ system. The PainVision™ system promises to be useful for the quantitative assessment of pain caused by the removal of adhesive wound dressing materials. Further studies are needed to determine whether the PainVision™ system is also effective in measuring pain caused by the removal of wound dressing materials in actual wounds. © 2012 The Authors. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  9. Cryotherapy, Sensation, and Isometric-Force Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denegar, Craig R.; Buckley, William E.; Newell, Karl M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the changes in sensation of pressure, 2-point discrimination, and submaximal isometric-force production variability due to cryotherapy. Design and Setting: Sensation was assessed using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 repeated-measures factorial design, with treatment (ice immersion or control), limb (right or left), digit (finger or thumb), and sensation test time (baseline, posttreatment, or postisometric-force trials) as independent variables. Dependent variables were changes in sensation of pressure and 2-point discrimination. Isometric-force variability was tested with a 2 × 2 × 3 repeated-measures factorial design. Treatment condition (ice immersion or control), limb (right or left), and percentage (10, 25, or 40) of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) were the independent variables. The dependent variables were the precision or variability (the standard deviation of mean isometric force) and the accuracy or targeting error (the root mean square error) of the isometric force for each percentage of MVIC. Subjects: Fifteen volunteer college students (8 men, 7 women; age = 22 ± 3 years; mass = 72 ± 21.9 kg; height = 183.4 ± 11.6 cm). Measurements: We measured sensation in the distal palmar aspect of the index finger and thumb. Sensation of pressure and 2-point discrimination were measured before treatment (baseline), after treatment (15 minutes of ice immersion or control), and at the completion of isometric testing (final). Variability (standard deviation of mean isometric force) of the submaximal isometric finger forces was measured by having the subjects exert a pinching force with the thumb and index finger for 30 seconds. Subjects performed the pinching task at the 3 submaximal levels of MVIC (10%, 25%, and 40%), with the order of trials assigned randomly. The subjects were given a target representing the submaximal percentage of MVIC and visual feedback of the force produced as they pinched the testing device. The force exerted

  10. Occupant feedback based model predictive control for thermal comfort and energy optimization: A chamber experimental evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiao; Wang, Qian; Srebric, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This study evaluates an occupant-feedback driven Model Predictive Controller (MPC). • The MPC adjusts indoor temperature based on a dynamic thermal sensation (DTS) model. • A chamber model for predicting chamber air temperature is developed and validated. • Experiments show that MPC using DTS performs better than using Predicted Mean Vote. - Abstract: In current centralized building climate control, occupants do not have much opportunity to intervene the automated control system. This study explores the benefit of using thermal comfort feedback from occupants in the model predictive control (MPC) design based on a novel dynamic thermal sensation (DTS) model. This DTS model based MPC was evaluated in chamber experiments. A hierarchical structure for thermal control was adopted in the chamber experiments. At the high level, an MPC controller calculates the optimal supply air temperature of the chamber heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, using the feedback of occupants’ votes on thermal sensation. At the low level, the actual supply air temperature is controlled by the chiller/heater using a PI control to achieve the optimal set point. This DTS-based MPC was also compared to an MPC designed based on the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) model for thermal sensation. The experiment results demonstrated that the DTS-based MPC using occupant feedback allows significant energy saving while maintaining occupant thermal comfort compared to the PMV-based MPC.

  11. [Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) : An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, V; Birklein, F

    2018-04-17

    The acute phase of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is pathophysiologically characterized by an activation of the immune system and its associated inflammatory response. During the course of CRPS, central nervous symptoms like mechanical hyperalgesia, loss of sensation, and body perception disorders develop. Psychological factors such as pain-related anxiety and traumatic events might have a negative effect on the treatment outcome. While the visible inflammatory symptoms improve, the pain often persists. A stage adapted, targeted treatment could improve the prognosis. Effective multidisciplinary treatment includes the following: pharmacotherapy with steroids, bisphosphonates, or dimethylsulfoxide cream (acute phase), and antineuropathic analgesics (all phases); physiotherapy and behavioral therapy for pain-related anxiety and avoidance of movement; and interventional treatment like spinal cord or dorsal root ganglion stimulation if noninvasive options failed.

  12. The Subjective Sensation of Synchrony: An Experimental Study

    KAUST Repository

    Llobera, Joan; Charbonnier, Caecilia; Chagué , Sylvain; Preissmann, Delphine; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Ansermet, Franç ois; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2016-01-01

    People performing actions together have a natural tendency to synchronize their behavior. Consistently, people doing a task together build internal representations not only of their actions and goals, but also of the other people performing the task. However, little is known about which are the behavioral mechanisms and the psychological factors affecting the subjective sensation of synchrony, or “connecting” with someone else. In this work, we sought to find which factors induce the subjective sensation of synchrony, combining motion capture data and psychological measures. Our results show that the subjective sensation of synchrony is affected by performance quality together with task category, and time. Psychological factors such as empathy and negative subjective affects also correlate with the subjective sensation of synchrony. However, when people estimate synchrony as seen from a third person perspective, their psychological factors do not affect the accuracy of the estimation. We suggest that to feel this sensation it is necessary to, first, have a good joint performance and, second, to assume the existence of an attention monitoring mechanism that reports that the attention of both participants (self and other) is focused on the task.

  13. The Subjective Sensation of Synchrony: An Experimental Study

    KAUST Repository

    Llobera, Joan

    2016-02-12

    People performing actions together have a natural tendency to synchronize their behavior. Consistently, people doing a task together build internal representations not only of their actions and goals, but also of the other people performing the task. However, little is known about which are the behavioral mechanisms and the psychological factors affecting the subjective sensation of synchrony, or “connecting” with someone else. In this work, we sought to find which factors induce the subjective sensation of synchrony, combining motion capture data and psychological measures. Our results show that the subjective sensation of synchrony is affected by performance quality together with task category, and time. Psychological factors such as empathy and negative subjective affects also correlate with the subjective sensation of synchrony. However, when people estimate synchrony as seen from a third person perspective, their psychological factors do not affect the accuracy of the estimation. We suggest that to feel this sensation it is necessary to, first, have a good joint performance and, second, to assume the existence of an attention monitoring mechanism that reports that the attention of both participants (self and other) is focused on the task.

  14. Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) Stimulation in the Treatment of Phantom Limb Pain (PLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldabe, Sam; Burger, Katja; Moser, Heinrich; Klase, Daniel; Schu, Stefan; Wahlstedt, Anders; Vanderick, Bernard; Francois, Eric; Kramer, Jeffery; Subbaroyan, Jeyakumar

    2015-10-01

    Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a neuropathic condition in which pain is perceived as arising from an amputated limb. PLP is distinct from, although associated with, pain in the residual limb and nonpainful phantom sensations of the missing limb. Its treatment is extremely challenging; pharmaceutical options, while commonly employed, may be insufficient or intolerable. Neuromodulatory interventions such as spinal cord stimulation have generated mixed results and may be limited by poor somatotopic specificity. It was theorized that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuromodulation may be more effective. Patients trialed a DRG neurostimulation system for their PLP and were subsequently implanted if results were positive. Retrospective chart review was completed, including pain ratings on a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS) and patient-reported outcomes. Across eight patients, the average baseline pain rating was 85.5 mm. At follow-up (mean of 14.4 months), pain was rated at 43.5 mm. Subjective ratings of quality of life and functional capacity improved. Some patients reduced or eliminated pain medications. Patients reported precise concordance of the paresthesia with painful regions, including in their phantom limbs; in one case, stimulation eliminated PLP as well as nonpainful phantom sensations. Three patients experienced a diminution of pain relief, despite good initial outcomes. DRG neuromodulation may be an effective tool in treating this pain etiology. Clinical outcomes in this report support recent converging evidence suggesting that the DRG may be the site of PLP generation and/or maintenance. Further research is warranted to elucidate mechanisms and optimal treatment pathways. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  15. How do different tests evaluate sensation in the lower urinary tract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laet, Kevin; De Wachter, Stefan; Van Meel, Tom; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

    2010-04-01

    Different tests can be used to evaluate lower urinary tract (LUT) sensation. The purpose of this study is to compare sensory tests in patients with voiding disorders. Seventy patients with various functional disorders of the LUT were admitted for a cystometry and an electrical perception threshold test of the bladder (bEPT) and distal urethra (uEPT). A pudendal EPT (pEPT) and pudendal somatosensory evoked potentials (pSSEP) were also determined. Correlations were calculated for somatosensory (uEPT, pEPT and pSSEP latency) and viscerosensory tests (volumes at filling sensations and bEPT). Fifty of the 70 patients (71%) had normal bladder filling sensations, with abnormal bEPT in 21/50 (41%), including 11 (22%) with no sensation at maximal electrical stimulation. Twenty out of 70 (29%) had an abnormal pattern of filling sensation, with increased bEPT in 13/20 (65%) and no sensation at electrical stimulation in 8/13 (40%). No significant correlation exists between filling sensation and bladder electrical perception thresholds (r 0.243). pEPT correlated with uEPT and SSEP (r > 0.035, p sensation. No significant correlation exists between volumes of filling sensations and bEPT (r 0.243). Therefore, both tests provide complementary information. Somatosensory tests of the pudendal nerve are correlated, so performing SSEP, pEPT and uEPT provides poor additional information to one of these tests alone. Somatosensory pudendal tests cannot be used to quantify filling sensation.

  16. Effect of long-term acclimatization on summer thermal comfort in outdoor spaces: a comparative study between Melbourne and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cho Kwong Charlie; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun

    2018-04-01

    The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) is an index for assessing outdoor thermal environment which aims to be applicable universally to different climates. However, the scale of UTCI thermal stress classification can be interpreted depending on the context. Previous studies validated the UTCI in individual cities, but comparative studies between different cities are scarce. This study examines the differences in thermal perception and clothing choices between residents from two climate zones over similar UTCI ranges in summer. We compared summer thermal comfort survey data from Melbourne (n = 2162, January-February 2014) and Hong Kong (n = 414, July-August 2007). We calculated the UTCI from outdoor weather station data and used t tests to compare the differences in thermal sensation and clothing between Hong Kong and Melbourne residents. When the UTCI was between 23.0 and 45.9 °C, Melbourne residents wore significantly more clothing (0.1 clo) than Hong Kong residents. Hong Kong residents reported neutral to warm sensation at a higher UTCI range compared with the dynamic thermal sensation (DTS) model. Moreover, Melbourne residents reported warm and hot sensation at a higher UTCI range than the DTS model. Respondents in Melbourne also exhibited different responses to the mean radiant temperature under shaded and sunny conditions, while such a trend was not observed in Hong Kong. It would be advisable to define different thermal sensation thresholds for the UTCI scale according to different climate zones for better prediction of the outdoor thermal comfort of different urban populations.

  17. Effect of long-term acclimatization on summer thermal comfort in outdoor spaces: a comparative study between Melbourne and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cho Kwong Charlie; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun

    2018-04-12

    The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) is an index for assessing outdoor thermal environment which aims to be applicable universally to different climates. However, the scale of UTCI thermal stress classification can be interpreted depending on the context. Previous studies validated the UTCI in individual cities, but comparative studies between different cities are scarce. This study examines the differences in thermal perception and clothing choices between residents from two climate zones over similar UTCI ranges in summer. We compared summer thermal comfort survey data from Melbourne (n = 2162, January-February 2014) and Hong Kong (n = 414, July-August 2007). We calculated the UTCI from outdoor weather station data and used t tests to compare the differences in thermal sensation and clothing between Hong Kong and Melbourne residents. When the UTCI was between 23.0 and 45.9 °C, Melbourne residents wore significantly more clothing (0.1 clo) than Hong Kong residents. Hong Kong residents reported neutral to warm sensation at a higher UTCI range compared with the dynamic thermal sensation (DTS) model. Moreover, Melbourne residents reported warm and hot sensation at a higher UTCI range than the DTS model. Respondents in Melbourne also exhibited different responses to the mean radiant temperature under shaded and sunny conditions, while such a trend was not observed in Hong Kong. It would be advisable to define different thermal sensation thresholds for the UTCI scale according to different climate zones for better prediction of the outdoor thermal comfort of different urban populations.

  18. Interaction of hyperalgesia and sensory loss in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huge, Volker; Lauchart, Meike; Förderreuther, Stefanie; Kaufhold, Wibke; Valet, Michael; Azad, Shahnaz Christina; Beyer, Antje; Magerl, Walter

    2008-07-23

    Sensory abnormalities are a key feature of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). In order to characterise these changes in patients suffering from acute or chronic CRPS I, we used Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) in comparison to an age and gender matched control group. 61 patients presenting with CRPS I of the upper extremity and 56 healthy subjects were prospectively assessed using QST. The patients' warm and cold detection thresholds (WDT; CDT), the heat and cold pain thresholds (HPT; CPT) and the occurrence of paradoxical heat sensation (PHS) were observed. In acute CRPS I, patients showed warm and cold hyperalgesia, indicated by significant changes in HPT and CPT. WDT and CDT were significantly increased as well, indicating warm and cold hypoaesthesia. In chronic CRPS, thermal hyperalgesia declined, but CDT as well as WDT further deteriorated. Solely patients with acute CRPS displayed PHS. To a minor degree, all QST changes were also present on the contralateral limb. We propose three pathomechanisms of CRPS I, which follow a distinct time course: Thermal hyperalgesia, observed in acute CRPS, indicates an ongoing aseptic peripheral inflammation. Thermal hypoaesthesia, as detected in acute and chronic CRPS, signals a degeneration of A-delta and C-fibres, which further deteriorates in chronic CRPS. PHS in acute CRPS I indicates that both inflammation and degeneration are present, whilst in chronic CRPS I, the pathomechanism of degeneration dominates, signalled by the absence of PHS. The contralateral changes observed strongly suggest the involvement of the central nervous system.

  19. Visual sensations induced by relativistic pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNulty, P.J.; Pease, V.P.; Bond, V.P.

    1976-01-01

    Visual sensations were experienced when bursts of high-energy pions passed through the dark-adapted right eyes of three human subjects. The threshold for a visual sensation was typically 1 to 3 μrad at the retina. Data are presented to show that the mechanism is Cerenkov radiation generated within the vitreous humor. Threshold measurements agree with published optical data. A comparison is made between our observations and the light flashes observed in deep space by Apollo astronauts

  20. Pain evaluation in self and others in autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaler, Hanna; Skewes, Joshua; Gebauer, Line

    The picture of pain sensation in autism and its relationship with perception of pain in others is currently far from clear. A common observation in case studies is that autistic individuals are more pain insensitive. However, this hypothesis has recently been challenged by experimental evidence...... indicating that physiological sensitivity in autism may even be enhanced. Evaluation of own pain might also relate to one’s ability to evaluate pain in others. There is some experimental evidence indicating that people generally tend to underestimate how much pain another person feels. Our study investigated...... whether this underestimation bias is stronger in individuals with autism and how this evaluation may be associated with one’s individual pain sensitivity. Using electric pain stimulation, we tested whether autistic and non-autistic male adults (n = 16 in each group) rated the intensity and unpleasantness...

  1. Solifenacin objectively decreases urinary sensation in women with overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Lior; Kenton, Kimberly; Mueller, Elizabeth R; Brubaker, Linda; Sabo, Edmond; Durazo-Arivzu, Ramón A; Fitzgerald, Mary P

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the test-retest reliability of a device that measures urinary sensation during cystometry, and to use that device to determine whether treatment of overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) with solifenacin is associated with a change in urinary sensation. Overall 15 women were recruited for this study, ten women with OAB and urodynamically demonstrated detrusor overactivity and five controls without OAB underwent filling cystometry twice with contemporaneous, continuous recording of urinary sensation. Women with OAB received solifenacin 10 mg daily during the weeks between testing. We compared the areas under the initial and repeat sensation-volume curves. While taking solifenacin, the maximum cystometric capacity increased from 329 ± 168 ml to 464 ± 123 ml (P sensation curve decreased (P sensation during the treatment of OAB with solifenacin. If clinical correlations are confirmed by future study, such urinary sensation measures may prove useful as assessment, treatment predictor, or outcome measures in OAB research and/or clinical care.

  2. Auditory and Visual Sensations

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    Professor Yoichi Ando, acoustic architectural designer of the Kirishima International Concert Hall in Japan, presents a comprehensive rational-scientific approach to designing performance spaces. His theory is based on systematic psychoacoustical observations of spatial hearing and listener preferences, whose neuronal correlates are observed in the neurophysiology of the human brain. A correlation-based model of neuronal signal processing in the central auditory system is proposed in which temporal sensations (pitch, timbre, loudness, duration) are represented by an internal autocorrelation representation, and spatial sensations (sound location, size, diffuseness related to envelopment) are represented by an internal interaural crosscorrelation function. Together these two internal central auditory representations account for the basic auditory qualities that are relevant for listening to music and speech in indoor performance spaces. Observed psychological and neurophysiological commonalities between auditor...

  3. Is heat pain detection threshold associated with the area of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization? A study of healthy volunteers - design and detailed plan of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Morten Sejer; Wetterslev, Jørn; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Dahl, Jørgen Berg

    2016-05-31

    Several factors are believed to influence the development and experience of pain. Human clinical pain models are central tools, in the investigation of basic physiologic pain responses, and can be applied in patients as well as in healthy volunteers. Each clinical pain model investigates different aspects of the human pain response. Brief thermal sensitization induces a mild burn injury, resulting in development of primary hyperalgesia at the site of stimulation, and secondary hyperalgesia surrounding the site of stimulation. Central sensitization is believed to play an important role in the development of secondary hyperalgesia; however, a possible association of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization and other heat pain models remains unknown. Our aim with this study is to investigate how close the heat pain detection threshold is associated with the size of the area of secondary hyperalgesia induced by the clinical heat pain model: Brief thermal sensitization. We aim to include 120 healthy participants. The participants will be tested on two separate study days with the following procedures: i) Brief thermal sensitization, ii) heat pain detection threshold and iii) pain during thermal stimulation. Additionally, the participants will be tested with the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaires. We conducted statistical simulations based on data from our previous study, to estimate an empirical power of 99.9 % with α of 0.05. We define that an R(2) heat stimulation, and thus may be a biomarker of an individual's pain sensitivity. The number of studies investigating secondary hyperalgesia is growing; however basic knowledge of the physiologic aspects of secondary hyperalgesia in humans is still incomplete. We therefore find it interesting to investigate if HPDT, a known quantitative sensory test, is associated with areas of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization Clinicaltrials

  4. Sensation seeking in males involved in recreational high risk sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Guszkowska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The study examined sensation seeking intensity level in males involved in recreational high risk sports and investigated whether its level depends on type of sport practised. Additionally, in case of parachutists, sport experience of study participants were scrutinised with regard to its possible impact on the level of sensation seeking.The research involved 217 males aged 17 to 45, practising recreational high risk sports, namely: parachuting (n=98; wakeboarding (n=30; snowboarding (n=30; scuba diving (n=22; alpinism (n=20; paragliding (n=17. The control group included 54 men not involved in sports. Polish version of Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-IV of Zuckerman was applied.Results show, that high risk sports males are featured by stronger need of sensations in comparison to control group and this concerned all but one aspect of sensation seeking variable. The only exception was the need of intellectual stimulation. Except from the thrill and adventure seeking dimension, type of sport may also be an important determinant of sensation seeking. Men practising snowboard and wakeboard presented stronger need for sensations, especially in the dimension of experience seeking, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Sport experience (number of jumps in parachuting did not differentiate the level of sensation seeking among investigated parachutists. Population of sport high risk male takers was not homogeneous, and therefore in future research one should analyse specific sports (or events in a certain sport separately.

  5. Music therapy in relief of pain in oncology patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Franco

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the perception of oncology patients with chronic pain as to the effects of music in alleviating pain, to identify if there are changes in the vital signs of these patients before and after the musicotherapy session, and to identify whether the intensity of pain is diminished after the music session as per an analogic scale of pain. Methods: This level II, descriptive-exploratory and cross-sectional study used a quantitative and qualitative approach. The sample consisted of ten oncology patients with chronic pain. Rresults: There was a reduction in vital signs and in intensity of pain in ten patients of the sample; after the music sessions, the patients reported a sensation of relief of pain, relaxation, and a belief in the power of music as a supplementary therapy. Cconclusions: Music showed an influence in reducing vital signs and pain intensity, and the patients perceived a reduction of pain and anxiety, and began to believe in music as a form of therapy.

  6. Self-reported pain and disability outcomes from an endogenous model of muscular back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Steven Z

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our purpose was to develop an induced musculoskeletal pain model of acute low back pain and examine the relationship among pain, disability and fear in this model. Methods Delayed onset muscle soreness was induced in 52 healthy volunteers (23 women, 17 men; average age 22.4 years; average BMI 24.3 using fatiguing trunk extension exercise. Measures of pain intensity, unpleasantness, and location, and disability, were tracked for one week after exercise. Results Pain intensity ranged from 0 to 68 with 57.5% of participants reporting peak pain at 24 hours and 32.5% reporting this at 48 hours. The majority of participants reported pain in the low back with 33% also reporting pain in the legs. The ratio of unpleasantness to intensity indicated that the sensation was considered more unpleasant than intense. Statistical differences were noted in levels of reported disability between participants with and without leg pain. Pain intensity at 24 hours was correlated with pain unpleasantness, pain area and disability. Also, fear of pain was associated with pain intensity and unpleasantness. Disability was predicted by sex, presence of leg pain, and pain intensity; however, the largest amount of variance was explained by pain intensity (27% of a total 40%. The second model, predicting pain intensity only included fear of pain and explained less than 10% of the variance in pain intensity. Conclusions Our results demonstrate a significant association between pain and disability in this model in young adults. However, the model is most applicable to patients with lower levels of pain and disability. Future work should include older adults to improve the external validity of this model.

  7. Thirst sensation and oral dryness following alcohol intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotoshi Inenaga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Substantial acute and chronic intakes of alcohol or ethanol (EtOH severely influence oral sensations, such as thirst and oral dryness (dry mouth, xerostomia. Thirst sensation and oral dryness are primarily caused by the activation of neurons in brain regions, including the circumventricular organs and hypothalamus, which are referred to as the dipsogenic center, and by a decrease in salivary secretion, respectively. The sensation of thirst experienced after heavy-alcohol drinking is widely regarded as a consequence of EtOH-induced diuresis; however, EtOH in high doses induces anti-diuresis. Recently, it has been proposed that the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde induces thirst via two distinct processes in the central nervous system from EtOH-induced diuresis, based on the results of animal experiments. The present review describes new insights regarding the induction mechanism of thirst sensation and oral dryness after drinking alcohol.

  8. The influence of outdoor thermal environment on young Japanese females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Ishii, Jin; Kondo, Emi; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Sakoi, Tomonori; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2014-07-01

    The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relationship between the physiological and psychological responses of humans and the enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature (ETFe). Subjective experiments were conducted in an outdoor environment. Subjects were exposed to the thermal environment in a standing posture. Air temperature, humidity, air velocity, short wave solar radiation, long wave radiation, ground surface temperature, sky factor, and the green solid angle were measured. The temperatures of skin exposed to the atmosphere and in contact with the ground were measured. Thermal sensation and thermal comfort were measured by means of rating the whole-body thermal sensation (cold-hot) and the whole body thermal comfort (comfortable-uncomfortable) on a linear scale. Linear rating scales are given for the hot (100) and cold (0), and comfortable (100) and uncomfortable (0) directions only. Arbitrary values of 0 and 100 were assigned to each endpoint, the reported values read in, and the entire length converted into a numerical value with an arbitrary scale of 100 to give a linear rating scale. The ETFe considered to report a neither hot nor cold, thermally neutral sensation of 50 was 35.9 °C, with 32.3 °C and 42.9 °C, respectively, corresponding to the low and high temperature ends of the ETFe considered to report a neither comfortable nor uncomfortable comfort value of 50. The mean skin temperature considered to report a neither hot nor cold, thermally neutral sensation of 50 was 33.3 °C, with 31.0 °C and 34.3 °C, respectively, corresponding to the low and high temperature ends of the mean skin temperature considered to report a neither comfortable nor uncomfortable comfort value of 50. The

  9. Authoritative Parenting and Sensation Seeking as Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette and Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael T.; Helme, Donald W.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies often seek out thrill seeking experiences to satisfy their need for stimulation and sensation. In many cases, sensation-seeking adolescents fulfill their need for stimulation and sensation by using illicit substances. However, not all high sensation seekers use drugs, although the factors that…

  10. The Neural Mechanisms of Re-Experiencing Mental Fatigue Sensation: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Akira; Karasuyama, Takuma; Kikuchi, Taiki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Yamano, Emi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    There have been several studies which have tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation; however fatigue sensation has multiple aspects. We hypothesized that past experience related to fatigue sensation is an important factor which contributes to future formation of fatigue sensation through the transfer to memories that are located within specific brain structures. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation related to memory. In the present s...

  11. Multimodal mechanisms of food creaminess sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianshe; Eaton, Louise

    2012-12-01

    In this work, the sensory creaminess of a set of four viscosity-matched fluid foods (single cream, evaporated milk, corn starch solution, and corn starch solution containing long chain free fatty acids) was tested by a panel of 16 assessors via controlled sensation mechanisms of smell only, taste only, taste and tactile, and integrated multimodal. It was found that all sensation channels were able to discriminate between creamy and non-creamy foods, but only the multimodal method gave creaminess ratings in agreement with the samples' fat content. Results from this study show that the presence of long chain free fatty acids has no influence on creaminess perception. It is certain that food creaminess is not a primary sensory property but an integrated sensory perception (or sensory experience) derived from combined sensations of visual, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile cues. Creamy colour, milky flavour, and smooth texture are probably the most important sensory features of food creaminess.

  12. Self-Produced Tickle Sensation by Manipulating Visual Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Iizuka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to clarify how the distinction of self- (sense of agency, SOA and other-produced behavior can be synthesized and recognized in multisensory integration as our cognitive processes. To address this issue, we used tickling paradigm that it is hard for us to tickle ourselves. Previous studies show that tickle sensation by their own motion increases if more delay is given between self-motion of tickling and tactile stimulation (Blakemore et al. 1998, 1999. We introduced visual feedbacks to the tickling experiments. In our hypothesis, integration of vision, proprioception, and motor commands forms the SOA and disintegration causes the breakdown the SOA, which causes the feeling of others, producing tickling sensation even by tickling oneself. We used video-see-through HMD to suddenly delay the real-time images of their hand tickling motions. The tickle sensation was measured by subjective response in the following conditions; 1 tickling oneself without any visual modulation, 2 tickled by others, 3 tickling oneself with visual feedback manipulation. The statistical analysis of ranked evaluation of tickle sensations showed that the delay of visual feedback causes the increase of tickle sensation. The SOA was discussed with Blakemore's and our results.

  13. Motion sickness history, food neophobia, and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Thomas R; Willet, Kathleen A; Muth, Eric R

    2006-06-01

    Motion sickness is believed to be caused by conflicting sensory signals, a situation that mimics the effects of ingesting certain toxins. Thus, one might suspect that individuals who have experienced a relatively high frequency of motion sickness may be particularly vigilant about avoiding anything that produces nausea, induding potentially nauseating toxins. Consequently, they may be more resistant to trying new foods, i.e., be more food neophobic, since unfamiliar foods can have unexpected adverse effects due to toxins or allergens. Likewise, many highly stimulating experiences can trigger motion sickness, so individuals who are more susceptible may be more prone to avoid such experiences, i.e., be less sensation seeking. Finally, it was expected that food neophobia would be more frequent in individuals low on sensation seeking tendencies. Self-reported motion sickness history in 308 adults (M= 18.8 yr.; SD = 1.6) was correlated with scores on the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking and the Food Neophobia Scale. As predicted, greater history of motion sickness was associated with lower Sensation Seeking scores. Food Neophobia was not correlated with motion sickness history but, as expected, was negatively correlated (r = -.42) with scores on Sensation Seeking. Further research is recommended that measures actual sensitivity to motion sickness.

  14. Current advances in orthodontic pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hu; Wang, Yan; Jian, Fan; Liao, Li-Na; Yang, Xin; Lai, Wen-Li

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic pain is an inflammatory pain that is initiated by orthodontic force-induced vascular occlusion followed by a cascade of inflammatory responses, including vascular changes, the recruitment of inflammatory and immune cells, and the release of neurogenic and pro-inflammatory mediators. Ultimately, endogenous analgesic mechanisms check the inflammatory response and the sensation of pain subsides. The orthodontic pain signal, once received by periodontal sensory endings, reaches the sensory cortex for pain perception through three-order neurons: the trigeminal neuron at the trigeminal ganglia, the trigeminal nucleus caudalis at the medulla oblongata and the ventroposterior nucleus at the thalamus. Many brain areas participate in the emotion, cognition and memory of orthodontic pain, including the insular cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, locus coeruleus and hypothalamus. A built-in analgesic neural pathway—periaqueductal grey and dorsal raphe—has an important role in alleviating orthodontic pain. Currently, several treatment modalities have been applied for the relief of orthodontic pain, including pharmacological, mechanical and behavioural approaches and low-level laser therapy. The effectiveness of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain relief has been validated, but its effects on tooth movement are controversial. However, more studies are needed to verify the effectiveness of other modalities. Furthermore, gene therapy is a novel, viable and promising modality for alleviating orthodontic pain in the future. PMID:27341389

  15. Evaluation of the Effects of Novel Nafimidone Derivatives on Thermal Hypoalgesia in Mice with Diabetic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Kamışlı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetic neuropathy (DN is a common complication in Diabetes Mellitus. The streptozotocin-induced diabetic rodent is the most commonly used animal model of diabetes and increased sodium channel expression and activity were revealed in this model. At this study, we evaluated the effect of three different nafimidone derivatives which have possible anticonvulsant activity on disorders of thermal pain sensation in diabetic mice. Study Design: Randomized animal experiment. Material and Methods: Mice were divided randomly into five groups (5 mice per group: Control, Diabetes, Dibetes+C1, Diabetes+C2, Diabetes+C3. We used hot and cold plate, and tail-immersion tests for assessment of thermal nociceptive responses. Results: Compared with the control group, the hot-plate response time and the number of paw liftings on cold plate as important indicators of loss of sensation increased, but no significant difference (p>0.05 was found in tail-immersion response time test in diabetes group. C3 compound moved it back to control group levels in the all of three tests. C1 and C2 compounds were effective only in cold-plate test. Conclusion: Nafimidone derivatives may be effective in the cases where epilepsy and diabetes occur together since it has shown efficacy against “loss of sensation” which evolves in diabetic neuropathy over time as well as its antiepileptic effect.

  16. High pain sensitivity is distinct from high susceptibility to non-painful sensory input at threshold level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Thomas; Springborn, Maria; Croy, Ilona; Kaiser, Jochen; Lötsch, Jörn

    2011-04-01

    Individuals may differ considerably in their sensitivity towards various painful stimuli supporting the notion of a person as stoical or complaining about pain. Molecular and functional imaging research provides support that this may extend also to other sensory qualities. Whether a person can be characterized as possessing a generally high or low sensory acuity is unknown. This was therefore assessed with thresholds to painful and non-painful stimuli, with a focus on chemical stimuli that besides pain may evoke clearly non-painful sensations such as taste or smell. In 36 healthy men and 78 women (ages 18 to 52 years), pain thresholds to chemo-somatosensory (intranasal gaseous CO(2)) and electrical stimuli (cutaneous stimulation) were significantly correlated (ρ(2)=0.2268, psensory qualities, i.e., for the rose-like odor phenyl ethyl alcohol and gustatory thresholds for sour (citric acid) and salty (NaCl). Similarly, pain clusters showed no differences in thresholds to other stimuli. Moreover, no clustering was obtained for thresholds to both painful and non-painful stimuli together. Thus, individuals could not be characterized as highly sensitive (or insensitive) to all chemical stimuli no matter of evoking pain. This suggests that pain is primarily a singular sensory perception distinct from others such as olfaction or taste. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex Is Associated with Fatigue Sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiki Tajima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is an indispensable bioalarm to avoid exhaustive state caused by overwork or stresses. It is necessary to elucidate the neural mechanism of fatigue sensation for managing fatigue properly. We performed H2O  15 positron emission tomography scans to indicate neural activations while subjects were performing 35-min fatigue-inducing task trials twice. During the positron emission tomography experiment, subjects performed advanced trail-making tests, touching the target circles in sequence located on the display of a touch-panel screen. In order to identify the brain regions associated with fatigue sensation, correlation analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping method. The brain region exhibiting a positive correlation in activity with subjective sensation of fatigue, measured immediately after each positron emission tomography scan, was located in medial orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 10/11. Hence, the medial orbitofrontal cortex is a brain region associated with mental fatigue sensation. Our findings provide a new perspective on the neural basis of fatigue.

  18. Sensation Seeking Predicting Growth in Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byck, Gayle R.; Swann, Greg; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13-18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599

  19. [The treatment of the phantom pain syndrome with tizanidine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobeĭchik, Ia M; Kukushkin, M L; Reshetniak, V K; Ovechkin, A M; Gnezdilov, A V

    1997-01-01

    The authors carried out estimation of analgetic effect of tisanidin by double blind test in patients with phantom limb pain syndrome. 14 patients took the medicine in a dose of 12 mg/day and 5 patients took placebo at the same dose. Characteristics and intensity of pain were estimated in accordance with McGill pain questionnaire and visual analogue scale. Pain possessed more than one sensory characteristics in the majority of patients. Tisanidin had a significant analgetic influence on all type of phantom limb pain: "neuralgic"--acute, shooting, transitory, "causalgic"--hot, burning, searing, "cramping" pain. Pain sensation did not decrease only in one of 14 patients treated with tisanidin. The authors explain the effectivity of the drug for treatment of phantom limb pain of different sensory modality by variety of the mechanisms of its therapeutic action, the capacity to decrease the releasing of excitatory neurotransmitter amino acids and the influence on alpha 2-adrenoceptors.

  20. Sensation seekers as a healthcare marketing metasegment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Donald R; Findley, Carolyn Sara

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses "sensation seekers" as a market segment for communication and prevention programs for various lifestyle and/or risk-related health problem areas such as alcohol abuse, drug abuse, suicide attempts, and sexually transmitted diseases. Although sensation seekers tend to be creative, artistic individuals, they are also prone to various negative health behaviors and many population-based prevention programs have over-looked these individuals as an important target. Various inputs to sensation-seeking causation are explored, including biological/chemical, psychological, and the impact of external characteristics. Using a combination for regulatory focus and risk homeostasis, propositions are provided for improving the effectiveness of the communications. Recommendations for prevention efforts focusing on reaching this subculture using television, along with other electronic media are proposed, including recommendations for message construction and presentation venues.

  1. Female thermal sensitivity to hot and cold during rest and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrett, Nicola; Ouzzahra, Yacine; Redortier, Bernard; Voelcker, Thomas; Havenith, George

    2015-12-01

    Regional differences in thermal sensation to a hot or cold stimulus are often limited to male participants, in a rested state and cover minimal locations. Therefore, magnitude sensation to both a hot and cold stimulus were investigated during rest and exercise in 8 females (age: 20.4 ± 1.4 years, mass: 61.7 ± 4.0 kg, height: 166.9 ± 5.4 cm, VO2max: 36.8 ± 4.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Using a repeated measures cross over design, participants rested in a stable environment (22.3 ± 0.9°C, 37.7 ± 5.5% RH) whilst a thermal probe (25 cm(2)), set at either 40°C or 20°C, was applied in a balanced order to 29 locations across the body. Participants reported their thermal sensation after 10s of application. Following this, participants cycled at 50% VO2max for 20 min and then 30% VO2max whilst the sensitivity test was repeated. Females experienced significantly stronger magnitude sensations to the cold than the hot stimulus (5.5 ± 1.7 and 4.3 ± 1.3, pcold stimulation (psensation was greatest at the head then the torso and declined towards the extremities. No significant effect of location was found in response to the hot stimulation and the pattern across the body was more homogenous. In comparison to rest, exercise caused a significant overall reduction in thermal sensation (5.2 ± 1.5 and 4.6 ± 1.7, respectively, p<0.05). Body maps were produced for both stimuli during rest and exercise, which highlight sensitive areas across the body. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving rational thermal comfort prediction by using subpopulation characteristics: A case study at Hermitage Amsterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Rick; Schellen, Lisje; Schellen, Henk; Kingma, Boris

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the rational standard thermal comfort model, known as the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) model, by (1) calibrating one of its input variables "metabolic rate," and (2) extending it by explicitly incorporating the variable running mean outdoor temperature (RMOT) that relates to adaptive thermal comfort. The analysis was performed with survey data ( n = 1121) and climate measurements of the indoor and outdoor environment from a one year-long case study undertaken at Hermitage Amsterdam museum in the Netherlands. The PMVs were calculated for 35 survey days using (1) an a priori assumed metabolic rate, (2) a calibrated metabolic rate found by fitting the PMVs to the thermal sensation votes (TSVs) of each respondent using an optimization routine, and (3) extending the PMV model by including the RMOT. The results show that the calibrated metabolic rate is estimated to be 1.5 Met for this case study that was predominantly visited by elderly females. However, significant differences in metabolic rates have been revealed between adults and elderly showing the importance of differentiating between subpopulations. Hence, the standard tabular values, which only differentiate between various activities, may be oversimplified for many cases. Moreover, extending the PMV model with the RMOT substantially improves the thermal sensation prediction, but thermal sensation toward extreme cool and warm sensations remains partly underestimated.

  3. Sensation seeking and visual selective attention in adults with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, David J; Castellon, Steven A; Hinkin, Charles H; Levine, Andrew J; Lam, Mona N

    2008-11-01

    The association between sensation seeking and visual selective attention was examined in 31 adults with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Sensation seeking was measured with Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale Form V (SSS-V). Selective attention was assessed with a perceptual span task, where a target letter-character must be identified in a quickly presented array of nontarget letter-characters. As predicted, sensation seeking was strongly associated (R(2) = .229) with perceptual span performance in the array size 12 condition, where selective attention demands were greatest, but not in the easier conditions. The Disinhibition, Boredom Susceptibility, and Experience Seeking subscales of the SSS-V were associated with span performance. It is argued that personality factors such as sensation seeking may play a significant role in selective attention and related cognitive abilities in HIV positive adults. Furthermore, sensation seeking differences might explain certain inconsistencies in the HIV neuropsychology literature.

  4. Flavoured cigarettes, sensation seeking and adolescents' perceptions of cigarette brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, K C; Kelly, K J; Comello, M L

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of cigarette package flavour descriptors and sensation seeking on adolescents' brand perceptions. High school students (n = 253) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions and sequentially exposed to cigarette package illustrations for three different brands. In the flavour descriptor condition, the packages included a description of the cigarettes as "cherry", while in the traditional descriptor condition the cigarette brands were described with common phrases found on tobacco packages such as "domestic blend." Following exposure to each package participants' hedonic beliefs, brand attitudes and trial intentions were assessed. Sensation seeking was also measured, and participants were categorised as lower or higher sensation seekers. Across hedonic belief, brand attitude and trial intention measures, there were interactions between package descriptor condition and sensation seeking. These interactions revealed that among high (but not low) sensation seekers, exposure to cigarette packages including sweet flavour descriptors led to more favourable brand impressions than did exposure to packages with traditional descriptors. Among high sensation seeking youths, the appeal of cigarette brands is enhanced through the use of flavours and associated descriptions on product packaging.

  5. Pain perception description after advanced surface ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobas EM

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Eva M Sobas,1,2 Sebastián Videla,3,4 Amanda Vázquez,1 Itziar Fernández,1,5 Miguel J Maldonado,1 José-Carlos Pastor1,6,7 1Instituto Universitario de Oftalmobiología Aplicada (IOBA, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain; 2Facultad de Enfermería, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid Spain; 3Laboratorios Dr. Esteve S.A., Barcelona, Spain; 4Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud y de la Vida, Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain; 5Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN, Valladolid, Spain; 6Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Valladolid, Spain; 7Department of Surgery, Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology and Physiotherapy, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain Purpose: The objective of this study was to characterize the evolution of ocular pain after advanced surface ablation (ASA to improve strategies in postoperative pain management.Methods: This was a multicenter, prospective, descriptive, cohort study. The inclusion criteria were healthy individuals ≥18 years old receiving bilateral alcohol-assisted surface ablation with epithelial removal. Pain intensity was evaluated with the visual analog scale (VAS and the numeric pain rating scale before and after surgery. Comorbidities (photophobia, burning, tearing, and foreign body sensation and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD questionnaire were evaluated before and at 6 hours after surgery. Postoperative treatments included cold patch, topical cold antibiotics, topical steroids, and benzodiazepines.Results: Thirty-two consecutive patients having similar profiles of postoperative pain evolution were included. At 0.5 hour after ASA, the pain score by VAS was 37±20 mm, and the maximum pain, 61±31 mm, occurred at 24 hours. Afterward, it decreased progressively until 72 hours after surgery (19±20 mm. Most patients (81% scored >60 mm, and

  6. Neighborhood Moderation of Sensation Seeking Effects on Adolescent Substance Use Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Michaeline; Chassin, Laurie; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2017-09-01

    Adolescent substance use carries a considerable public health burden, and early initiation into use is especially problematic. Research has shown that trait sensation seeking increases risk for substance use initiation, but less is known about contextual factors that can potentially unmask this risk. This study utilized a diverse longitudinal subsample of youth (N = 454) from a larger study of familial alcoholism (53.1% female, 61% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 27.8% Hispanic, 11.2% other ethnicity). Study questions examined sensation seeking in early adolescence (mean age = 12.16) and its relations with later substance use initiation (mean age = 15.69), and tested whether neighborhood disadvantage moderated sensation seeking's effects on initiation of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use. Neighborhood disadvantage significantly moderated the relation between sensation seeking and all three forms of substance use. For the most part, sensation seeking effects were weakened as neighborhood disadvantage increased, with the most advantaged neighborhoods exhibiting the strongest link between sensation seeking and substance use initiation. These results highlight the importance of focusing on relatively advantaged areas as potentially risky environments for the sensation seeking pathway to substance use.

  7. Pain in Down's Syndrome

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    Federica Mafrica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a homeostatic mechanism that intervenes to protect the organism from harmful stimuli that could damage its integrity. It is made up of two components: the sensory-discriminative component, which identifies the provenance and characteristics of the type of pain; and the affective-motivational component, on which emotional reflexes, following the painful sensation, depend.There is a system for pain control at an encephalic and spinal level, principally made up of the periaqueductal grey matter, the periventricular area, the nucleus raphe magnus, and the pain-inhibition complex situated in the posterior horns of the spinal cord. Through the activation of these pain-control systems, the nervous system suppresses the afference of pain signals. Endogenous opioids represent another analgesic system.In the course of various studies on pain transmission in Down patients, the reduced tolerance of pain and the incapacity to give a qualitative and quantitative description emerged in a powerful way. All of these aspects cause difficulty in evaluating pain. This is linked to several learning difficulties. However, it cannot be excluded that in these anomalies of pain perception, both the anatomical and the neurotransmitter alteration, typical of this syndrome, may hold a certain importance.This fact may have important clinical repercussions that could affect the choice of therapeutic and rehabilitative schemes for treatment of pathologies in which pain is the dominant symptom, such as postoperative pain. It could influence research on analgesics that are more suitable for these patients, the evaluation of the depth of analgesia during surgical operation, and ultimately, absence of obvious pain manifestations. In conclusion, alterations of the central nervous system, neurotransmitters, pain transmission, and all related problems should be considered in the management of pain in patients with Down's syndrome, especially by algologists and

  8. Authoritative parenting and sensation seeking as predictors of adolescent cigarette and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael T; Helme, Donald W

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies often seek out thrill seeking experiences to satisfy their need for stimulation and sensation. In many cases, sensation-seeking adolescents fulfill their need for stimulation and sensation by using illicit substances. However, not all high sensation seekers use drugs, although the factors that prevent or buffer sensation seeking remain unexplored. This study fills this gap in extant research by examining the role of authoritative parenting as a protective factor that prevents or buffers cigarette and marijuana use by adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies. Data from 1461 adolescents attending 6th through 8th grades in central Colorado were gathered during a semester-long classroom-based intervention to prevent the onset or further use of cigarettes. Results indicate that authoritative parenting moderated the effect of sensation seeking on adolescent marijuana attitudes, intentions, and peer influence but not behaviors. Further, authoritative parenting was a stronger influence than sensation seeking on cigarette-related outcomes with just the opposite effect observed for marijuana-related outcomes.

  9. Dopamine Regulates Approach-Avoidance in Human Sensation-Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Agnes; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Winston, Joel S; Roiser, Jonathan P; Husain, Masud

    2015-04-09

    Sensation-seeking is a trait that constitutes an important vulnerability factor for a variety of psychopathologies with high social cost. However, little is understood either about the mechanisms underlying motivation for intense sensory experiences or their neuropharmacological modulation in humans. Here, we first evaluate a novel paradigm to investigate sensation-seeking in humans. This test probes the extent to which participants choose either to avoid or self-administer an intense tactile stimulus (mild electric stimulation) orthogonal to performance on a simple economic decision-making task. Next we investigate in a different set of participants whether this behavior is sensitive to manipulation of dopamine D2 receptors using a within-subjects, placebo-controlled, double-blind design. In both samples, individuals with higher self-reported sensation-seeking chose a greater proportion of mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli, even when this involved sacrifice of monetary gain. Computational modelling analysis determined that people who assigned an additional positive economic value to mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli exhibited speeding of responses when choosing these stimuli. In contrast, those who assigned a negative value exhibited slowed responses. These findings are consistent with involvement of low-level, approach-avoidance processes. Furthermore, the D2 antagonist haloperidol selectively decreased the additional economic value assigned to mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli in individuals who showed approach reactions to these stimuli under normal conditions (behavioral high-sensation seekers). These findings provide the first direct evidence of sensation-seeking behavior being driven by an approach-avoidance-like mechanism, modulated by dopamine, in humans. They provide a framework for investigation of psychopathologies for which extreme sensation-seeking constitutes a vulnerability factor. © The Author 2015. Published by

  10. Acetylated tubulin is essential for touch sensation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Shane J; Qi, Yanmei; Iovino, Loredana; Andolfi, Laura; Guo, Da; Kalebic, Nereo; Castaldi, Laura; Tischer, Christian; Portulano, Carla; Bolasco, Giulia; Shirlekar, Kalyanee; Fusco, Claudia M; Asaro, Antonino; Fermani, Federica; Sundukova, Mayya; Matti, Ulf; Reymond, Luc; De Ninno, Adele; Businaro, Luca; Johnsson, Kai; Lazzarino, Marco; Ries, Jonas; Schwab, Yannick; Hu, Jing; Heppenstall, Paul A

    2016-12-13

    At its most fundamental level, touch sensation requires the translation of mechanical energy into mechanosensitive ion channel opening, thereby generating electro-chemical signals. Our understanding of this process, especially how the cytoskeleton influences it, remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking the α-tubulin acetyltransferase Atat1 in sensory neurons display profound deficits in their ability to detect mechanical stimuli. We show that all cutaneous afferent subtypes, including nociceptors have strongly reduced mechanosensitivity upon Atat1 deletion, and that consequently, mice are largely insensitive to mechanical touch and pain. We establish that this broad loss of mechanosensitivity is dependent upon the acetyltransferase activity of Atat1, which when absent leads to a decrease in cellular elasticity. By mimicking α-tubulin acetylation genetically, we show both cellular rigidity and mechanosensitivity can be restored in Atat1 deficient sensory neurons. Hence, our results indicate that by influencing cellular stiffness, α-tubulin acetylation sets the force required for touch.

  11. The neural mechanisms of re-experiencing mental fatigue sensation: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ishii

    Full Text Available There have been several studies which have tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation; however fatigue sensation has multiple aspects. We hypothesized that past experience related to fatigue sensation is an important factor which contributes to future formation of fatigue sensation through the transfer to memories that are located within specific brain structures. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation related to memory. In the present study, we investigated the neural activity caused by re-experiencing the fatigue sensation that had been experienced during a fatigue-inducing session. Thirteen healthy volunteers participated in fatigue and non-fatigue experiments in a crossover fashion. In the fatigue experiment, they performed a 2-back test session for 40 min to induce fatigue sensation, a rest session for 15 min to recover from fatigue, and a magnetoencephalography (MEG session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body with fatigue that they had experienced in the 2-back test session. In the non-fatigue experiment, the participants performed a free session for 15 min, a rest session for 15 min, and an MEG session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body without fatigue that they had experienced in the free session. Spatial filtering analyses of oscillatory brain activity showed that the delta band power in the left Brodmann's area (BA 39, alpha band power in the right pulvinar nucleus and the left BA 40, and beta band power in the left BA 40 were lower when they re-experienced the fatigue sensation than when they re-experienced the fatigue-free sensation, indicating that these brain regions are related to re-experiencing the fatigue sensation. Our findings may help clarify the neural mechanisms underlying fatigue sensation.

  12. The neural mechanisms of re-experiencing mental fatigue sensation: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Akira; Karasuyama, Takuma; Kikuchi, Taiki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Yamano, Emi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    There have been several studies which have tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation; however fatigue sensation has multiple aspects. We hypothesized that past experience related to fatigue sensation is an important factor which contributes to future formation of fatigue sensation through the transfer to memories that are located within specific brain structures. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation related to memory. In the present study, we investigated the neural activity caused by re-experiencing the fatigue sensation that had been experienced during a fatigue-inducing session. Thirteen healthy volunteers participated in fatigue and non-fatigue experiments in a crossover fashion. In the fatigue experiment, they performed a 2-back test session for 40 min to induce fatigue sensation, a rest session for 15 min to recover from fatigue, and a magnetoencephalography (MEG) session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body with fatigue that they had experienced in the 2-back test session. In the non-fatigue experiment, the participants performed a free session for 15 min, a rest session for 15 min, and an MEG session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body without fatigue that they had experienced in the free session. Spatial filtering analyses of oscillatory brain activity showed that the delta band power in the left Brodmann's area (BA) 39, alpha band power in the right pulvinar nucleus and the left BA 40, and beta band power in the left BA 40 were lower when they re-experienced the fatigue sensation than when they re-experienced the fatigue-free sensation, indicating that these brain regions are related to re-experiencing the fatigue sensation. Our findings may help clarify the neural mechanisms underlying fatigue sensation.

  13. Opponency of astringent and fat sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    des Gachons, Catherine Peyrot; Mura, Emi; Speziale, Camille; Favreau, Charlotte J; Dubreuil, Guillaume F; Breslin, Paul A S

    2012-10-09

    In most cultures, people ingest a variety of astringent foods and beverages during meals, but the reasons for this practice are unclear. Many popular beliefs and heuristics, such as high tannin wines should be balanced with fatty foods, for example 'red wine with red meat', suggest that astringents such as pickles, sorbets, wines, and teas 'cleanse' the palate while eating. Oral astringents elicit 'dry, rough' sensations [1], in part, by breaking down mucinous lubricating proteins in saliva [2,3]. The introduction of oral lubricants, including fats, partially diminishes strong astringent sensations [4,5]. Thus, it appears that astringency and fattiness can oppose each other perceptually on an oral rheological spectrum. Most teas, wines, and 'palate cleansers', however, are only mildly astringent and an explanation of how they could oppose the fattiness of meals is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that weakly astringent stimuli can elicit strong sensations after repeated sampling. Astringency builds with exposures [6] to an asymptotic level determined by the structure and concentration of the compound. We also establish that multiple sips of a mild astringent solution, similar to a wine or tea, decrease oral fat sensations elicited by fatty food consumption when astringent and fatty stimuli alternate, mimicking the patterning that occurs during a real meal. Consequently, we reveal a principle underlying the international practice of 'palate cleansing'. Repeatedly alternating samples of astringent beverages with fatty foods yielded ratings of fattiness and astringency that were lower than if rinsing with water or if presented alone without alternation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy Improves Long-Term Nipple But Not Skin Sensation After Breast Reconstruction: Quantification of Long-Term Sensation in Nipple Sparing Versus Non-nipple Sparing Mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Unda, Nelson A; Bello, Ricardo J; Clarke-Pearson, Emily M; Sanyal, Abanti; Cooney, Carisa M; Manahan, Michele A; Rosson, Gedge D

    2017-06-01

    Changes in breast sensation after reconstruction are expected. Return of breast sensation after reconstruction and whether nipple-sparing mastectomy offers a substantial benefit in terms of sensation has been inconsistently documented in the literature. We conducted the current study using the pressure-specified sensory device to quantify postoperative breast sensation in patients undergoing nipple-sparing versus non-nipple-sparing mastectomy. Consecutive adult women who underwent nipple-sparing (NSM) and non-NSM (NNSM) and were at least 18 months postreconstruction were included. Breast measurements were taken in 4 quadrants (upper/lower lateral, upper/lower medial) and nipple. Averaged skin cutaneous thresholds [(UL+LL+UM+LM)/4] and nipple sensation between NSM and NNSM were compared as the primary outcome measure. A generalized estimating equations model was used; univariate and multivariate variable analyses were done when appropriate. Forty-four patients (74 breasts) were examined (53 NNSM vs 21 NSM). The groups were further subdivided into autologous versus implant-based reconstruction. Averaged cutaneous skin thresholds for quadrants were better for the NSM, 51.8(±24.5) g/mm versus NNSM, 56.5(±25.7) g/mm, although this difference was not statistically significant. However, NSM breasts measured higher nipple or nipple area sensitivity, 44.5(±30.8) g/mm versus NNSM, 83.8(±27.4) g/mm (P sensation was the number of revision surgeries, especially after third revision. Breast sensation is decreased after reconstruction in both NSM and NNSM, but nipple sensation or nipple area is better preserved in NSM breasts. Number of revision surgeries (>3) was a predictor of decreased sensation.

  15. Altered rectal sensory response induced by balloon distention in patients with functional abdominal pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudaira Miwako

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS has chronic unexplained abdominal pain and is similar to the psychiatric diagnosis of somatoform pain disorder. A patient with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS also has chronic unexplained abdominal pain, and rectal hypersensitivity is observed in a majority of the patients. However, no reports have evaluated the visceral sensory function of FAPS precisely. We aimed to test the hypothesis that FAPS would show altered visceral sensation compared to healthy controls or IBS. The present study determined the rectal perceptual threshold, intensity of sensation using visual analogue scale (VAS, and rectal compliance in response to rectal balloon distention by a barostat in FAPS, IBS, and healthy controls. Methods First, the ramp distention of 40 ml/min was induced and the thresholds of discomfort, pain, and maximum tolerance (mmHg were measured. Next, three phasic distentions (60-sec duration separated by 30-sec intervals of 10, 15 and 20 mmHg were randomly loaded. The subjects were asked to mark the VAS in reference to subjective intensity of sensation immediately after each distention. A pressure-volume relationship was determined by plotting corresponding pressures and volumes during ramp distention, and the compliance was calculated over the linear part of the curve by calculating from the slope of the curve using simple regression. Results Rectal thresholds were significantly reduced in IBS but not in FAPS. The VAS ratings of intensity induced by phasic distention (around the discomfort threshold of the controls were increased in IBS but significantly decreased in FAPS. Rectal compliance was reduced in IBS but not in FAPS. Conclusion An inconsistency of visceral sensitivity between lower and higher pressure distention might be a key feature for understanding the pathogenesis of FAPS.

  16. Phantom sensations in people with complete spinal cord lesions: a grounded theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drysdale, Daren G; Shem, Kazuko; Walbom, Agnes; Miner, Maureen D; Maclachlan, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Phantom sensations are somatic phenomena arising from denervated parts of the body. There is very little research, and much diagnostic confusion, regarding such experiences in people with spinal cord injuries. In the case of 'complete' spinal cord lesions, phantom experiences may challenge, and indeed, contradict, the understanding that both clinicians and patients have of such injuries. This paper seeks to provide a better understanding of such 'phantom' sensations in spinal cord injury. We used grounded theory methods to explore 'phantom' sensations as experienced by individuals with complete (ASIA A) spinal lesions. Eight people with complete lesions, who were selected through theoretical sampling, participated in a semi-structured interview. Emergent themes included injury context, sensations experienced, the meaning of sensations, body connectivity, attitude and communication about sensations. Our results provide an enhanced understanding of the embodied experience of phantom sensations, and important insights regarding self-construction and rehabilitative processes in people with spinal cord injury who experience such anomalous sensations.

  17. Children's pain perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, R; Marquina-Aponte, V

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies on children's pain perspectives remain limited to English-speaking populations. An exploratory cross-sectional descriptive design was used to investigate the developmental progression of children's pain perspectives, including their pain experience, its definition and attributes, causality and coping. The Children's Pain Perspectives Inventory was applied to 180 healthy Spanish children. A coding system was developed following the content analysis method. Three age groups were compared: 4-6 years, corresponding to the Piagetian pre-operational stage of cognitive development; 7-11 years, corresponding to stage of concrete operations; and 12-14 years, corresponding to the period of early formal operations. In children between 4 and 6, the predominant narratives related to physical injuries, the notion of causality and the definition of pain. In children between 7 and 11, the predominant narratives were those in which pain was described as a sensation in one part of the body. The view of pain as having an emotional basis significantly increased with age and was more frequent in adolescents. In contrast, children between 4-6 and 7-11 indicated that pain occurs spontaneously. The denial of any positive aspects of pain significantly decreased with age; some children between 7 and 11 referred to the 'possibility of relief', while the view that pain is a 'learning experience' was significantly more frequent among adolescents aged between 12 and 14 years. The use of cognitive strategies to control pain significantly increased with age. Between 12 and 14 years of age, adolescents communicate pain by non-verbal behaviour and reported that they do not express demands for relief. There was a progression from concrete to more complex notions of pain as age increased. These results may be of use to health professionals and parents to understand how children at various developmental stages express and cope with pain and to develop tools that effectively assess and

  18. Interaction of hyperalgesia and sensory loss in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Huge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sensory abnormalities are a key feature of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS. In order to characterise these changes in patients suffering from acute or chronic CRPS I, we used Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST in comparison to an age and gender matched control group. METHODS: 61 patients presenting with CRPS I of the upper extremity and 56 healthy subjects were prospectively assessed using QST. The patients' warm and cold detection thresholds (WDT; CDT, the heat and cold pain thresholds (HPT; CPT and the occurrence of paradoxical heat sensation (PHS were observed. RESULTS: In acute CRPS I, patients showed warm and cold hyperalgesia, indicated by significant changes in HPT and CPT. WDT and CDT were significantly increased as well, indicating warm and cold hypoaesthesia. In chronic CRPS, thermal hyperalgesia declined, but CDT as well as WDT further deteriorated. Solely patients with acute CRPS displayed PHS. To a minor degree, all QST changes were also present on the contralateral limb. CONCLUSIONS: We propose three pathomechanisms of CRPS I, which follow a distinct time course: Thermal hyperalgesia, observed in acute CRPS, indicates an ongoing aseptic peripheral inflammation. Thermal hypoaesthesia, as detected in acute and chronic CRPS, signals a degeneration of A-delta and C-fibres, which further deteriorates in chronic CRPS. PHS in acute CRPS I indicates that both inflammation and degeneration are present, whilst in chronic CRPS I, the pathomechanism of degeneration dominates, signalled by the absence of PHS. The contralateral changes observed strongly suggest the involvement of the central nervous system.

  19. Effects of target-controlled infusion of high-dose naloxone on pain and hyperalgesia in a human thermal injury model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Anders D; Jensen, Elisabeth K; Taylor, Bradley K

    2016-01-01

    /kg, 4 mg/mL) or placebo (normal saline) intravenous. The primary outcome was SHA assessed by weighted-pin instrument (128 mN) 0, 1, 2, and 165 to 169 hours after the thermal injury (day 1-4). The secondary outcomes were pin-prick pain thresholds assessed by weighted-pin instrument (8-512 mN) at primary......Mu-opioid-receptor antagonists have been extensively studied in experimental research as pharmacological tools uncovering mechanisms of pain modulation by the endogenous opioid system. In rodents, administration of high doses of mu-opioid-receptor antagonists after the resolution of an inflammatory...... injury has demonstrated reinstatement of nociceptive hypersensitivity indicating unmasking of latent sensitization. In a recent human study, pain hypersensitivity assessed as secondary hyperalgesia area (SHA), was reinstated 7 days after a mild thermal injury, in 4 out of 12 subjects after a naloxone...

  20. Perioperative intravenous lidocaine decreases the incidence of persistent pain after breast surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grigoras, Anca

    2012-09-01

    Breast cancer surgery is associated with a high incidence of persistent postsurgical pain (PPSP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of intravenous (IV) lidocaine on acute and PPSP, analgesic requirements, and sensation abnormalities in patients undergoing surgery for breast cancer.

  1. Application of vibration to wrist and hand skin affects fingertip tactile sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Kishor; Lauer, Abigail W; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Webster, John G; Seo, Na Jin

    2015-01-01

    A recent study showed that fingertip pads’ tactile sensation can improve by applying imperceptible white-noise vibration to the skin at the wrist or dorsum of the hand in stroke patients. This study further examined this behavior by investigating the effect of both imperceptible and perceptible white-noise vibration applied to different locations within the distal upper extremity on the fingertip pads’ tactile sensation in healthy adults. In 12 healthy adults, white-noise vibration was applied to one of four locations (dorsum hand by the second knuckle, thenar and hypothenar areas, and volar wrist) at one of four intensities (zero, 60%, 80%, and 120% of the sensory threshold for each vibration location), while the fingertip sensation, the smallest vibratory signal that could be perceived on the thumb and index fingertip pads, was assessed. Vibration intensities significantly affected the fingertip sensation (P sensation (P sensation (P sensation (P > 0.01), all compared with the zero vibration condition. This effect with vibration intensity conforms to the stochastic resonance behavior. Nonspecificity to the vibration location suggests the white-noise vibration affects higher level neuronal processing for fingertip sensing. Further studies are needed to elucidate the neural pathways for distal upper extremity vibration to impact fingertip pad tactile sensation. PMID:26177959

  2. Role of interoceptive accuracy in topographical changes in emotion-induced bodily sensations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Won-Mo; Ryu, Yeonhee; Lee, Ye-Seul; Wallraven, Christian; Chae, Younbyoung

    2017-01-01

    The emotion-associated bodily sensation map is composed of a specific topographical distribution of bodily sensations to categorical emotions. The present study investigated whether or not interoceptive accuracy was associated with topographical changes in this map following emotion-induced bodily sensations. This study included 31 participants who observed short video clips containing emotional stimuli and then reported their sensations on the body map. Interoceptive accuracy was evaluated with a heartbeat detection task and the spatial patterns of bodily sensations to specific emotions, including anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness, and neutral, were visualized using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) analyses. Distinct patterns of bodily sensations were identified for different emotional states. In addition, positive correlations were found between the magnitude of sensation in emotion-specific regions and interoceptive accuracy across individuals. A greater degree of interoceptive accuracy was associated with more specific topographical changes after emotional stimuli. These results suggest that the awareness of one’s internal bodily states might play a crucial role as a required messenger of sensory information during the affective process. PMID:28877218

  3. kinesiotaping reduces pain and modulates sensory function in patients with focal dystonia: a randomized crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosin, Elisa; Avanzino, Laura; Marchese, Roberta; Stramesi, Paola; Bilanci, Martina; Trompetto, Carlo; Abbruzzese, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    Pain is one of the most common and disabling "nonmotor" symptoms in patients with dystonia. No recent study evaluated the pharmacological or physical therapy approaches to specifically treat dystonic pain symptoms. To evaluate the effectiveness of KinesioTaping in patients with cervical dystonia (CD) and focal hand dystonia (FHD) on self-reported pain (primary objective) and on sensory functions (secondary objective). Twenty-five dystonic patients (14 with CD and 11 FHD) entered a randomized crossover pilot study. The patients were randomized to 14-day treatment with KinesioTaping or ShamTaping over neck (in CD) or forearm muscles (in FHD), and after a 30-day washout period, they received the other treatment. The were 3 visual analog scales (VASs) for usual pain, worst pain, and pain relief. Disease severity changes were evaluated by means of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (CD) and the Writer's Cramp Rating Scale (FHD). Furthermore, to investigate possible KinesioTaping-induced effects on sensory functions, we evaluated the somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold. Treatment with KinesioTape induced a decrease in the subjective sensation of pain and a modification in the ability of sensory discrimination, whereas ShamTaping had no effect. A significant, positive correlation was found in both groups of patients between the improvement in the subjective sensation of pain and the reduction of somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold values induced by KinesioTaping. These preliminary results suggest that KinesioTaping may be useful in treating pain in patients with dystonia.

  4. Itch and burning pain in women with partial vaginismus with or without vulvar vestibulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engman, Maria; Wijma, Klaas; Wijma, Barbro

    2007-01-01

    Fifty-three women with partial vaginismus with or without vulvar vestibulitis and 27 asymptomatic women estimated sensations of burning pain and itch at 20 standardized moments during a standardized penetration situation, including vaginal muscle contractions. Forty-three women with partial vaginismus (81.1%) reported burning pain, 23 (43.4%) itch, and 22 (41.5%) both complaints, compared to 0% of the asymptomatic women. In 17 of 22 cases, burning pain preceded the appearance of itch and in four cases the two complaints coincided. The median time from the moment when burning pain started until itch appeared was 150 seconds.

  5. Deqi sensations without cutaneous sensory input: results of an RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simang Michael

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deqi is defined in relation to acupuncture needling as a sensory perception of varying character. In a recently published sham laser validation study, we found that subjects in the verum and the sham laser group experienced deqi sensations. Therefore, we aim to further analyze whether the perceptions reported in the two study arms were distinguishable and whether expectancy effects exhibited considerable impact on our results. Methods A detailed re-analysis focusing on deqi sensations was performed from data collected in a previously published placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical cross-over trial for a sham laser evaluation. Thirty-four healthy volunteers (28 ± 10.7 years; 16 women, 18 men received two laser acupuncture treatments at three acupuncture points LI4 (hégu, LU7 (liéque, and LR3 (táichong; once by verum laser and once using a sham device containing an inactive laser in randomized order. Outcome measures were frequency, intensity (evaluated by visual analogue scale; VAS, and quality of the subjects' sensations perceived during treatments (assessed with the "acupuncture sensation scale". Results Both, verum and the sham laser acupuncture result in similar deqi sensations with regard to frequency (p-value = 0.67, intensity (p-value = 0.71 and quality (p-values between 0.15 - 0.98. In both groups the most frequently used adjectives to describe these perceptions were "spreading", "radiating", "tingling", "tugging", "pulsing", "warm", "dull", and "electric". Sensations reported were consistent with the perception of deqi as previously defined in literature. Subjects' conviction regarding the effectiveness of laser acupuncture or the history of having received acupuncture treatments before did not correlate with the frequency or intensity of sensations reported. Conclusions Since deqi sensations, described as sensory perceptions, were elicited without any cutaneous sensory input, we assume that they are a

  6. Sensation seeking as risk factor for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortin, Ana; Lake, Alison M; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S

    2012-12-20

    High sensation seeking in adolescence is associated with engagement in risk-taking behaviors, especially substance use. Although depressed adolescents are prone to increased risk-taking, and suicidal behavior can be considered within the spectrum of risk-taking behaviors, the relationships between sensation seeking, depression, and suicidal behavior have not been explored. A self-report questionnaire assessing sensation seeking, depression, substance use problems, and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts was completed by 9th- through 12th-grade students (n=2189) in six New York State high-schools from 2002 through 2004. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine main and interaction effects between sensation seeking and the four clinical variables. High sensation seeking was positively associated with depressive symptoms and substance use problems. The main effects of sensation seeking on suicidal ideation and suicide attempts remained significant after controlling for depression and substance use. The association between sensation seeking and suicide attempts was moderated by substance use problems. The schools were suburban and predominantly white, limiting the generalizability of the results. Other mental disorders with potential implications for sensation seeking and for suicidal behavior, such as bipolar disorders, were not assessed. The finding that sensation seeking makes an independent contribution to the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts is consistent with findings in literature on novelty seeking and impulsivity. The associations between sensation seeking, depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior may be compatible with the presence of an underlying temperamental dysregulation. Screening for sensation seeking may contribute to the reduction of adolescent suicide risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative sensory testing of temperature, pain, and touch in adults with Down syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Knegt, N.C.; Defrin, R.; Schuengel, C.; Lobbezoo, F.; Evenhuis, H.M.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The spinothalamic pathway mediates sensations of temperature, pain, and touch. These functions seem impaired in children with Down syndrome (DS), but have not been extensively examined in adults. The objective of the present study was to compare the spinothalamic-mediated sensory functions between

  8. Human brain activity associated with painful mechanical stimulation to muscle and bone

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Lynn; Ono, Mayu; Koyama, Tetsuo; Oshiro, Yoshitetsu; Sumitani, Masahiko; Mashimo, Takashi; Shibata, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to elucidate the central processing of painful mechanical stimulation to muscle and bone by measuring blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods Twelve healthy volunteers were enrolled. Mechanical pressure on muscle and bone were applied at the right lower leg by an algometer. Intensities were adjusted to cause weak and strong pain sensation at either target site in preliminary testing. Brain ac...

  9. Sensiprobe—a miniature thermal device incorporating Peltier technology as a diagnostic tool for studying human oesophageal sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, J W; Birch, M J; Al-Zinaty, M; Woodland, P; Sifrim, D; Aziz, Q

    2014-01-01

    Heightened perception of gastrointestinal sensation is termed visceral hypersensitivity (VH) and is commonly observed in patients with gastrointestinal disorders. VH is thought to be a major contributory factor in oesophageal disease, particularly gastro-oesophageal reflux disease that does not respond to standard (proton pump inhibitor) treatment, and in functional heartburn. Clinical tools that can help phenotype according to the mechanism of chronic pain and thus allow targeted drug treatment (e.g. with pain modulator therapy) would be very desirable. A technique that produces repeatable and controllable thermal stimuli within the oesophagus could meet this need. The aims of this study were to develop a method for linear control of the heat stimulation in the oesophagus, to assess the reproducibility of this method, and obtain normal thermal sensitivity values in the distal and proximal oesophagus. The 7 mm diameter Peltier-based thermal device was investigated on 27 healthy subjects using a heating ramp of 0.2 °C s −1 . The pain detection threshold (PDT) temperature was recorded. To assess the reproducibility of the device, each subject underwent the procedure twice, with a minimum of two weeks between each procedure. The mean PDT temperature measured in the distal oesophagus, was 53.8 ± 2.9 °C and 53.6 ± 2.6 °C, for visits 1 and 2 respectively. The mean PDT temperature measured in the proximal oesophagus was 54.1 ± 2.4 °C and 54.0 ± 2.8 °C, for visits 1 and 2 respectively. The reproducibility of the PDT temperature in the distal and proximal oesophagus, was good (intra-class correlation >0.6). Future studies should be aimed to determine whether oesophageal thermal sensitivity can act as a biomarker of transient receptor potential vallanoid 1 upregulation. (paper)

  10. Designing messages with high sensation value: when activation meets reactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Based on two theoretical models--activation model of information exposure and psychological reactance theory--this study examined the individual and combined effects of message sensation value (MSV) and controlling language on young adults' information processing. Two experimental studies on anti-drunken driving and anti-smoking public service announcements were conducted that were conceptual replications of one another. The measures included perceived threat to freedom, sensation seeking, perceived ad effectiveness and state reactance (anger). Across the two studies, MSV was found to advance the perceived ad effectiveness, and controlling language contributed to anger. A consistent interaction was revealed, such that participants responded positively to the high sensation value messages when presented with low controlling language. The effect of high sensation value anti-smoking ads to advance persuasiveness particularly under the condition of low controlling language was more influential to low sensation seekers. This study suggests that increasing MSV coupled with high controlling language can backfire, especially when targeting young adults. The implications for persuasion in general are considered, as well as the specific findings for drunken driving and smoking.

  11. Pain increases during sympathetic arousal in patients with complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, P D; Finch, P M; Skipworth, S; Blockey, P

    2001-10-09

    To investigate the effect of sympathetic arousal on pain and vasomotor responses in healthy control subjects and patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), and to determine whether pain increases in patients with particular symptoms. In experiments 1 and 2, capsaicin was applied to the forearm of 24 healthy subjects to induce thermal hyperalgesia. Vascular responses were monitored and subjects rated thermal hyperalgesia before and after being startled (experiment 1), and before, during, and after mental arithmetic, breath holding, forehead cooling, the Valsalva maneuver, and a cold pressor test in experiment 2. In a third experiment, sensitivity to heat, cold, and mechanical stimulation was investigated in 61 patients with CRPS. Pain ratings and vascular and electrodermal responses were recorded after patients were startled and during forehead cooling. In experiment 1, thermal hyperalgesia decreased in healthy control subjects after they were startled, and digital blood vessels constricted symmetrically. In experiment 2, thermal hyperalgesia decreased during and after other forms of sympathetic arousal. However, in experiment 3, ratings of clinical pain increased during forehead cooling or after being startled in over 70% of patients with CRPS. Pain increased most consistently during forehead cooling in patients with cold allodynia or punctate allodynia. Digital blood vessels constricted more intensely on the symptomatic than the nonsymptomatic side in patients with CRPS during sympathetic arousal. Normal inhibitory influences on pain during sympathetic arousal are compromised in the majority of patients with CRPS. The augmented vasoconstrictor response in the symptomatic limb during sympathetic arousal is consistent with adrenergic supersensitivity. An adrenergic sensitivity in nociceptive afferents might contribute to pain and hyperalgesia during sympathetic arousal in certain patients with CRPS.

  12. Dynamic indoor thermal comfort model identification based on neural computing PMV index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahari, K S Mohamed; Jalal, M F Abdul; Homod, R Z; Eng, Y K

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on modelling and simulation of building dynamic thermal comfort control for non-linear HVAC system. Thermal comfort in general refers to temperature and also humidity. However in reality, temperature or humidity is just one of the factors affecting the thermal comfort but not the main measures. Besides, as HVAC control system has the characteristic of time delay, large inertia, and highly nonlinear behaviour, it is difficult to determine the thermal comfort sensation accurately if we use traditional Fanger's PMV index. Hence, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been introduced due to its ability to approximate any nonlinear mapping. Using ANN to train, we can get the input-output mapping of HVAC control system or in other word; we can propose a practical approach to identify thermal comfort of a building. Simulations were carried out to validate and verify the proposed method. Results show that the proposed ANN method can track down the desired thermal sensation for a specified condition space.

  13. Self-Efficacy for Pain Communication Moderates the Relation Between Ambivalence Over Emotional Expression and Pain Catastrophizing Among Patients With Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Denburg, Alyssa N; Shelby, Rebecca A; Caldwell, David S; O'Sullivan, Madeline L; Keefe, Francis J

    2018-04-06

    Pain catastrophizing (ie, the tendency to focus on and magnify pain sensations and feel helpless in the face of pain) is one of the most important and consistent psychological predictors of the pain experience. The present study examined, in 60 patients with osteoarthritis pain who were married or partnered: 1) the degree to which ambivalence over emotional expression and negative network orientation were associated with pain catastrophizing, and 2) whether self-efficacy for pain communication moderated these relations. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses revealed a significant main effect for the association between ambivalence over emotional expression and pain catastrophizing; as ambivalence over emotional expression increased, the degree of pain catastrophizing increased. In addition, the interaction between ambivalence over emotional expression and self-efficacy for pain communication was significant, such that as self-efficacy for pain communication increased, the association between ambivalence over emotional expression and pain catastrophizing became weaker. Negative network orientation was not significantly associated with pain catastrophizing. Findings suggest that higher levels of self-efficacy for pain communication may help weaken the effects of ambivalence over emotional expression on pain catastrophizing. In light of these results, patients may benefit from interventions that target pain communication processes and emotion regulation. This article examines interpersonal processes involved in pain catastrophizing. This study has the potential to lead to better understanding of maladaptive pain coping strategies and possibly better prevention and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2018 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Melatonin Alters the Mechanical and Thermal Hyperalgesia Induced by Orofacial Pain Model in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarabelot, Vanessa Leal; Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; de Oliveira, Carla; Adachi, Lauren Naomi Spezia; de Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Cioato, Stefania Giotti; de Freitas, Joice S; de Souza, Andressa; Quevedo, Alexandre; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Melatonin is a neuroendocrine hormone that presents a wide range of physiological functions including regulating circadian rhythms and sleep, enhancing immune function, sleep improvement, and antioxidant effects. In addition, melatonin has received special attention in pain treatment since it is effective and presents few adverse effects. In this study, we evaluated the effect of acute dose of melatonin upon hyperalgesia induced by complete Freund's adjuvant in a chronic orofacial pain model in Sprague-Dawley rats. Nociceptive behavior was assessed by facial Von Frey and the hot plate tests at baseline and thereafter 30, 60, and 120 min, 24 h, and 7 days after melatonin treatment. We demonstrated that acute melatonin administration alters mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia induced by an orofacial pain model (TMD), highlighting that the melatonin effect upon mechanical hyperalgesia remained until 7 days after its administration. Besides, we observed specific tissue profiles of neuroimmunomodulators linked to pain conditions and/or melatonin effect (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, and interleukins 6 and 10) in the brainstem levels, and its effects were state-dependent of the baseline of these animals.

  15. Combining motor imagery with selective sensation toward a hybrid-modality BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lin; Meng, Jianjun; Zhang, Dingguo; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2014-08-01

    A hybrid modality brain-computer interface (BCI) is proposed in this paper, which combines motor imagery with selective sensation to enhance the discrimination between left and right mental tasks, e.g., the classification between left/ right stimulation sensation and right/ left motor imagery. In this paradigm, wearable vibrotactile rings are used to stimulate both the skin on both wrists. Subjects are required to perform the mental tasks according to the randomly presented cues (i.e., left hand motor imagery, right hand motor imagery, left stimulation sensation or right stimulation sensation). Two-way ANOVA statistical analysis showed a significant group effect (F (2,20) = 7.17, p = 0.0045), and the Benferroni-corrected multiple comparison test (with α = 0.05) showed that the hybrid modality group is 11.13% higher on average than the motor imagery group, and 10.45% higher than the selective sensation group. The hybrid modality experiment exhibits potentially wider spread usage within ten subjects crossed 70% accuracy, followed by four subjects in motor imagery and five subjects in selective sensation. Six subjects showed statistically significant improvement ( Benferroni-corrected) in hybrid modality in comparison with both motor imagery and selective sensation. Furthermore, among subjects having difficulties in both motor imagery and selective sensation, the hybrid modality improves their performance to 90% accuracy. The proposed hybrid modality BCI has demonstrated clear benefits for those poorly performing BCI users. Not only does the requirement of motor and sensory anticipation in this hybrid modality provide basic function of BCI for communication and control, it also has the potential for enhancing the rehabilitation during motor recovery.

  16. The existence of propagated sensation along the meridian proved by neuroelectrophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinsen; Zheng, Shuxia; Pan, Xiaohua; Zhu, Xiaoxiang; Hu, Xianglong

    2013-01-01

    Propagated sensation along the meridian can occur when acupoints are stimulated by acupuncture or electrical impulses. In this study, participants with notable propagated sensation along the dian were given electro-acupuncture at the Jianyu (LI15) acupoint of the large intestine meridian. When participants stated that the sensation reached the back of their hand, regular nervous system action discharge was examined using a physiological recording electrode placed on the superficial branch of the radial nerve. The topographical maps of brain-evoked potential in the primary cortical somatosensory area were also detected. When Guangming (GB37) acupoint in the lower limb and Hegu (LI4) acupoint in the upper limb were stimulated, subjects without propagated sensation along the meridian exhibited a high potential reaction in the corresponding area of the brain cortical so-matosensory area. For subjects with a notable propagated sensation along the meridian, the tion area was larger and extended into the face representative area. These electrophysiological measures directly prove the existence of propagated sensation along the meridian, and the pheral stimulated site is consistent with the corresponding primary cortical somatosensory area, which presents a high potential reaction. PMID:25206574

  17. Investigating the effect of music on labor pain and progress in the active stage of first labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S E; Bagheri, M; Honarparvaran, N

    2013-06-01

    DESIGN AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of music-therapy on labor pain and progress in parturient primipara. Music-therapy during labor increases tolerance to pain; decreasing anxiety, it increases paturition and uterus activity and shorten labor duration. The subjects of this research were 30 women, selected voluntarily and they have been put in two experimental and control group. This research has been conducted in the form of pre-test and post-test design. The experimental group listened to a relaxing music for 30 minutes in each hour for a two-hour period a nd the control group was not exposed to music during this period. For the purpose of gathering data in both groups, the pain scales (verbal, numeric and visual) was used to measure pain. The independent variable in this research is relaxing music and the dependent variables are the pain level and delivery progress. The independent t for sensations of pain in the experimental and control group before intervention has been (p = 0.875) 0.601 in numeric and visual pain and (p independent t for the duration of delivery in control group before and after intervention shows that music has not had any effect on the rate of serotonin. The results of statistical analysis show the effect of music on the decrease of sensation of pain in the experimental group as compared with the control group.

  18. Pain reduction peripheral arteriographies of the upper and lower extriemities in a double blind test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, K.R.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Huber, R.; Welter, H.

    1980-01-01

    36 aortofemoral and 18 brachial angiographies effected under standardized conditions in a double blind test in approximately two equal parts with Lidocain/Ioglicinate and Metrizamide, respectively, were evaluated with regard to vascular pain and sensation of heat during the examination. With the femoralis angiograms reduction of vascular pain was on the average somewhat greater, although this could not be established statistically when using Metrizamide. In the case of the angiogram of the arm, pain was on the average equally low in both cases. Of the 14 patients who had received injections of both contrast media in varying succession at intervals of 20 minutes, 6 patients considered the Metrizamide injection to be more agreeable, whereas 2 preferred the Lidocain/Ioglicinate injection and 6 patients did not notice any significant difference. The average sensation of heat during contrast medium visualisation of the legs and arms was equal with both substances. Lidocain/Ioglicinate and Metrizamide are approximately equally well suited for peripheral angiography of arms and legs, rendering narcosis and strapping down of the extremities unneccessary in normal cases. (orig.) [de

  19. Laryngeal sensation and pharyngeal delay time after (chemo)radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Takashi; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Ozawa, Kikuko; Hiramatsu, Mariko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nishio, Naoki; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between changes in laryngeal sensation and initiation of swallowing reflex or swallowing function before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital. Thirteen patients who received (chemo)radiotherapy for treatment of laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer were included. Laryngeal sensation was evaluated at the tip of the epiglottis before and 1, 3 months, and 1 year after (chemo)radiotherapy. Videofluoroscopy was performed at the same time. Quantitative determinations included changes in laryngeal sensation, computed analysis of pharyngeal delay time, the distance and velocity of hyoid bone movement during the phase of hyoid excursion, and pharyngeal residue rate (the proportion of the bolus that was left as residue in the pharynx at the first swallow). Laryngeal sensation significantly deteriorated 1 month after (chemo)radiotherapy, but there was a tendency to return to pretreatment levels 1 year after treatment. Neither pharyngeal delay time nor displacement of the hyoid bone changed significantly before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean velocity of hyoid bone movement and the amount of stasis in the pharynx at the first swallow before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. After (chemo)radiotherapy, laryngeal sensation deteriorated. But, in this study, videofluoroscopy showed that swallowing reflex and function were maintained.

  20. Evoked Pressure Pain Sensitivity Is Associated with Differential Analgesic Response to Verum and Sham Acupuncture in Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Noah A; Tsodikov, Alex; Mist, Scott D; Cina, Stephen; Napadow, Vitaly; Harris, Richard E

    2017-08-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain condition with few effective treatments. Many fibromyalgia patients seek acupuncture for analgesia; however, its efficacy is limited and not fully understood. This may be due to heterogeneous pathologies among participants in acupuncture clinical trials. We hypothesized that pressure pain tenderness would differentially classify treatment response to verum and sham acupuncture in fibromyalgia patients. Baseline pressure pain sensitivity at the thumbnail at baseline was used in linear mixed models as a modifier of differential treatment response to sham versus verum acupuncture. Similarly, needle-induced sensation was also analyzed to determine its differential effect of treatment on clinical pain. A cohort of 114 fibromyalgia patients received baseline pressure pain testing and were randomized to either verum (N = 59) or sham (N = 55) acupuncture. Participants received treatments from once a week to three times a week, increasing in three-week blocks for a total of 18 treatments. Clinical pain was measured on a 101-point visual analog scale, and needle sensation was measured by questionnaire throughout the trial. Participants who had higher pain pressure thresholds had greater reduction in clinical pain following verum acupuncture while participants who had lower pain pressure thresholds showed better analgesic response to sham acupuncture. Moreover, patients with lower pressure pain thresholds had exacerbated clinical pain following verum acupuncture. Similar relationships were observed for sensitivity to acupuncture needling. These findings suggest that acupuncture efficacy in fibromyalgia may be underestimated and a more personalized treatment for fibromyalgia may also be possible. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. The effects of pain sensitivity behaviour on Swiss White Mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the effects of Chloroquine phosphate on pain sensation in mice considering the fact that Chloroquine as s chemotherapic agent is known for its neurotoxicity effect. The mice were divided into three groups of 10 mice each. While group 1 as the control, 2 and 3 as the test groups and group 1 received ...

  2. Pain sensation and nociceptive reflex excitability in surgical patients and human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Erichsen, C J; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A

    1992-01-01

    Pain threshold, nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) threshold and responses to suprathreshold stimulation were investigated in 15 female patients (mean age 32 yr (range 22-48 yr)) before and 68 (range 48-96) h after gynaecological laparotomy. Control measurements were performed in 17 healthy human v...

  3. Field study on behaviors and adaptation of elderly people and their thermal comfort requirements in residential environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, R-L; Chen, C-P

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the thermal sensation of elderly people in Taiwan, older than 60 years, in indoor microclimate at home, and their requirements for establishing thermal comfort. The study was conducted using both a thermal sensation questionnaire and measurement of indoor climatic parameters underlying the thermal environment. Survey results were compared with those reported by Cheng and Hwang (2008, J. Tongji Univ., 38, 817-822) for non-elders to study the variation between different age groups in requirements of indoor thermal comfort. The results show that the predominant strategy of thermal adaptation for elders was window-opening in the summer and clothing adjustment in the winter. The temperature of thermal neutrality was 25.2 degrees C and 23.2 degrees C for the summer and the winter, respectively. Logistically regressed probit modeling on percentage of predicted dissatisfied (PPD) against mean thermal sensation vote revealed that the sensation votes corresponding to a PPD of 20% were +/- 0.75 for elders, about +/- 0.10 less than the levels projected by ISO 7730 model. The range of operative temperature for 80% thermal acceptability for elders in the summer was 23.2-27.1 degrees C, narrower than the range of 23.0-28.6 degrees C reported for non-elders. This is likely a result of a difference in the selection of adaptive strategies. Taiwan in the last decade has seen a rapid growth in the elderly population in its societal structure, and as such the quality of indoor thermal comfort increasingly concerns the elderly people. This study presents the results from field-surveying elders residing in major geographical areas of Taiwan, and discusses the requirements of these elders for indoor thermal comfort in different seasons. Through a comparison with the requirements by non-elders, this study demonstrates the unique sensitivity of elders toward indoor thermal quality and the selection of adaptive strategies that need to be considered when a thermal

  4. Altered Developmental Trajectories for Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking among Adolescent Substance Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Nora E.; Ryan, Stacy R.; Bray, Bethany C.; Mathias, Charles W.; Acheson, Ashley; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have associated impulsivity and sensation seeking with level of substance use and risk for developing a substance use disorder. These relationships may be particularly apparent during adolescence, when developmental changes in impulsivity and sensation seeking occur at the same time as increased opportunities for substance use. To examine this, the current study measured impulsivity and sensation seeking from pre-adolescence to mid-adolescence in a sample of youth, the majority of whom were identified as being at risk for developing a substance use disorder based on their family history of substance use disorders. Youth were separated into those who did (n = 117) and did not (n = 269) initiate substance use by mid-adolescence. Results showed that substance users were more impulsive and more sensation seeking during pre-adolescence, prior to any significant substance use, and that greater sensation seeking in pre-adolescence was related to heavier substance use by mid-adolescence. In addition, developmental trajectories for substance-using youth showed a greater increase in sensation seeking but a more modest decrease in impulsivity from pre-adolescence to mid-adolescence. Taken together, these results indicate that increased impulsivity and sensation seeking is apparent in adolescent substance users as early as pre-adolescence, that the difference between substance users and non-users becomes larger across early adolescence as their developmental trajectories diverge, and that greater sensation seeking in pre-adolescence may predict increased substance use by mid-adolescence. PMID:27174219

  5. Pain-related anxiety influences pain perception differently in men and women: a quantitative sensory test across thermal pain modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Michel A; Welch, Patrick G; Katz, Joel; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2013-03-01

    The sexes differ with respect to perception of experimental pain. Anxiety influences pain perception more in men than in women; however, there lacks research exploring which anxiety constructs influence pain perception differentially between men and women. Furthermore, research examining whether depression is associated with pain perception differently between the sexes remains scant. The present investigation was designed to examine how trait anxiety, pain-related anxiety constructs (ie, fear of pain, pain-related anxiety, anxiety sensitivity), and depression are associated with pain perception between the sexes. A total of 95 nonclinical participants (55% women) completed measures assessing the constructs of interest and participated in quantitative sensory testing using heat and cold stimuli administered by a Medoc Pathway Pain and Sensory Evaluation System. The findings suggest that pain-related anxiety constructs, but not trait anxiety, are associated with pain perception. Furthermore, these constructs are associated with pain intensity ratings in men and pain tolerance levels in women. This contrasts with previous research suggesting that anxiety influences pain perception mostly or uniquely in men. Depression was not systematically associated with pain perception in either sex. Systematic relationships were not identified that allow conclusions regarding how fear of pain, pain-related anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity may contribute to pain perception differentially in men and women; however, anxiety sensitivity was associated with increased pain tolerance, a novel finding needing further examination. The results provide directions for future research and clinical endeavors and support that fear and anxiety are important features associated with hyperalgesia in both men and women. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The association of hand preference and sensation seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuderer, Sonja; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    Although the human body shows a superficial symmetry, the disparate functions and skills of both body halves lead to an asymmetrical use. As a result, lateral preferences are detectable, which also include the favoured use of one hand ('handedness'). The collection of questionnaire data on sensation seeking and the conduction of behavioral handedness tasks by 55 research participants enabled the investigation of the interaction of handedness and sensation seeking. For this procedure the age-homogeneous study population is divided according to the Handedness-Index (HI) - a calculated value, indicating the practical hand preference. The results reveal a stronger lateralization in right-handed participants as well as a difference in the mean value of hand use in the three handedness groups. Sensation seeking behavior shows significant negative correlations with age as well as with the HI. Higher scores of left-handers in Experience Seeking (ES), Sensation Seeking (SS) as well as in Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TAS) indicate a larger risk investment in this handedness group. Hence, the results of this study suggest that handedness is a strong indicator of risk behavior.

  7. The Nav1.9 Channel Is a Key Determinant of Cold Pain Sensation and Cold Allodynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Lolignier

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cold-triggered pain is essential to avoid prolonged exposure to harmfully low temperatures. However, the molecular basis of noxious cold sensing in mammals is still not completely understood. Here, we show that the voltage-gated Nav1.9 sodium channel is important for the perception of pain in response to noxious cold. Nav1.9 activity is upregulated in a subpopulation of damage-sensing sensory neurons responding to cooling, which allows the channel to amplify subthreshold depolarizations generated by the activation of cold transducers. Consequently, cold-triggered firing is impaired in Nav1.9−/− neurons, and Nav1.9 null mice and knockdown rats show increased cold pain thresholds. Disrupting Nav1.9 expression in rodents also alleviates cold pain hypersensitivity induced by the antineoplastic agent oxaliplatin. We conclude that Nav1.9 acts as a subthreshold amplifier in cold-sensitive nociceptive neurons and is required for the perception of cold pain under normal and pathological conditions.

  8. Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,…

  9. Impact of shade on outdoor thermal comfort—a seasonal field study in Tempe, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middel, Ariane; Selover, Nancy; Hagen, Björn; Chhetri, Nalini

    2016-12-01

    Shade plays an important role in designing pedestrian-friendly outdoor spaces in hot desert cities. This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade and tree shade on thermal comfort through meteorological observations and field surveys at a pedestrian mall on Arizona State University's Tempe campus. During the course of 1 year, on selected clear calm days representative of each season, we conducted hourly meteorological transects from 7:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. and surveyed 1284 people about their thermal perception, comfort, and preferences. Shade lowered thermal sensation votes by approximately 1 point on a semantic differential 9-point scale, increasing thermal comfort in all seasons except winter. Shade type (tree or solar canopy) did not significantly impact perceived comfort, suggesting that artificial and natural shades are equally efficient in hot dry climates. Globe temperature explained 51 % of the variance in thermal sensation votes and was the only statistically significant meteorological predictor. Important non-meteorological factors included adaptation, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, gender, season, and time of day. A regression of subjective thermal sensation on physiological equivalent temperature yielded a neutral temperature of 28.6 °C. The acceptable comfort range was 19.1 °C-38.1 °C with a preferred temperature of 20.8 °C. Respondents exposed to above neutral temperature felt more comfortable if they had been in air-conditioning 5 min prior to the survey, indicating a lagged response to outdoor conditions. Our study highlights the importance of active solar access management in hot urban areas to reduce thermal stress.

  10. Role of the hippocampus on learning and memory functioning and pain modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haimei Wang

    2008-01-01

    The hippocampus, an important part of the limbic system, is considered to be an important region of the brain for learning and memory functioning. Recent studies have demonstrated that synaptic plasticity is thought to be the basis of learning and memory functioning. A series of studies report that similar synaptic plasticity also exists in the spinal cord in the conduction pathway of pain sensation, which may contribute to hyperalgesia, abnormal pain, and analgesia. The synaptic plasticity of learning and memory functioning and that of the pain conduction pathway have similar mechanisms, which are related to the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor. The hippocampus also has a role in pain modulation. As pain signals can reach the hippocampus, the precise correlation between synaptic plasticity of the pain pathway and that of learning and memory functioning deserves further investigation. The role of the hippocampus in processing pain information requires to be identified.

  11. Anxiety sensitivity as a predictor of anxiety and pain related to third molar removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad; Lindeboom, Jerome A.

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) refers to the fear of anxiety-related symptoms resulting from beliefs that such sensations have negative somatic, social, or psychological consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether AS can predict both anticipated and experienced pain and state and

  12. Anxiety sensitivity as a predictor of anxiety and pain related to third molar removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, A.J.; de Jongh, A.; Lindeboom, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Anxiety sensitivity (AS) refers to the fear of anxiety-related symptoms resulting from beliefs that such sensations have negative somatic, social, or psychological consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether AS can predict both anticipated and experienced pain and

  13. Correlation Factors Describing Primary and Spatial Sensations of Sound Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANDO, Y.

    2002-11-01

    The theory of subjective preference of the sound field in a concert hall is established based on the model of human auditory-brain system. The model consists of the autocorrelation function (ACF) mechanism and the interaural crosscorrelation function (IACF) mechanism for signals arriving at two ear entrances, and the specialization of human cerebral hemispheres. This theory can be developed to describe primary sensations such as pitch or missing fundamental, loudness, timbre and, in addition, duration sensation which is introduced here as a fourth. These four primary sensations may be formulated by the temporal factors extracted from the ACF associated with the left hemisphere and, spatial sensations such as localization in the horizontal plane, apparent source width and subjective diffuseness are described by the spatial factors extracted from the IACF associated with the right hemisphere. Any important subjective responses of sound fields may be described by both temporal and spatial factors.

  14. Feeling the pain of others is associated with self-other confusion and prior pain experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, Stuart W G; Osborn, Jody; Brown, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Some chronic pain patients and healthy individuals experience pain when observing injury or others in pain. To further understand shared pain, we investigated perspective taking, bodily ownership and tooth pain sensitivity. First, participants who reported shared pain (responders) and those who did not (non-responders) viewed an avatar on a screen. Intermittently, 0-3 circles appeared. Sometimes the participant's and avatar's perspective were consistent, both directly viewed the same circles, and sometimes inconsistent, both directly viewed different circles. Responders were faster than non-responders to identify the number of circles when adopting a consistent perspective. Second, participants sat with their left hand hidden while viewing a rubber hand. All participants reported an illusory sensation of feeling stroking in the rubber hand and a sense of ownership of the rubber hand during synchronous stroking of the rubber and hidden hand. The responders also reported feeling the stroking and a sense of ownership of the rubber hand during asynchronous stroking. For experiment three, participants with either low, moderate, or high tooth sensitivity observed a series of images depicting someone eating an ice-popsicle. Low sensitivity participants never reported pain. In contrast, moderate and high sensitivity participants reported pain in response to an image depicting someone eating an ice popsicle (4 and 19% of the time, respectively) and depicting someone eating an ice-popsicle and expressing pain (23 and 40%, respectively). In summary, responders have reduced ability to distinguish their own and others' visual perspective and enhanced ability to integrate a foreign arm into their bodily representation. The tendency to share pain is also enhanced when an observed pain is commonly experienced by the observer. Shared pain may therefore involve reactivation of pain memories or pain schema that are readily integrated into a self perspective and bodily representation.

  15. Feeling the pain of others is associated with self-other confusion and prior pain experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart W G Derbyshire

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Some chronic pain patients and healthy individuals experience pain when observing injury or others in pain. To further understand shared pain, we investigated perspective taking, bodily ownership and tooth pain sensitivity. First, participants who reported shared pain (responders and those who did not (non-responders viewed an avatar on a screen. Intermittently, 0-3 circles appeared. Sometimes the participant's and avatar's perspective were consistent, both directly viewed the same circles, and sometimes inconsistent, both directly viewed different circles. Responders were faster than non-responders to identify the number of circles when adopting a consistent perspective. Second, participants sat with their left hand hidden while viewing a rubber hand. All participants reported an illusory sensation of feeling stroking in the rubber hand and a sense of ownership of the rubber hand during synchronous stroking of the rubber and hidden hand. The responders also reported feeling the stroking and a sense of ownership of the rubber hand during asynchronous stroking. For experiment three, participants with either low, moderate or high tooth sensitivity observed a series of images depicting someone eating an ice-popsicle. Low sensitivity participants never reported pain. In contrast, moderate and high sensitivity participants reported pain in response to an image depicting someone eating an ice popsicle (4% and 19% of the time, respectively and depicting someone eating an ice-popsicle and expressing pain (23% and 40%, respectively. In summary, responders have reduced ability to distinguish their own and others' visual perspective and enhanced ability to integrate a foreign arm into their bodily representation. The tendency to share pain is also enhanced when an observed pain is commonly experienced by the observer. Shared pain may therefore involve reactivation of pain memories or pain schema that are readily integrated into a self perspective and

  16. Randomized trial of opioids versus tricyclic antidepressants for radiation-induced mucositis pain in head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrnrooth, E.; Grau, C.; Zachariae, R.; Andersen, Joern [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Oncology

    2001-11-01

    Patients who receive radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are likely to develop painful mucositis. The pain is characterized by a burning or stinging sensation similar to neuropathic pain sensations. The purpose of the present study was to compare the analgesic effect of a tricyclic antidepressant (TC), commonly used in the treatment of neuropathic pain, with the effect of opioids on radiation-induced mucositis pain. Forty-three patients receiving 66-68 Gy external radiation according to the DAHANCA guidelines (the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Study Group) were randomized to either morphine or TC when mucositis pain was insufficiently managed with weak analgesics. Patients with insufficient pain control in either treatment arm received supplementary medication from the opposite treatment arm. Pain was evaluated weekly using a VAS scale and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. The degree of mucositis and the degree of depression were measured at the same time intervals. Twenty-two patients entered the opioid arm and 21 the TC arm. Two patients in each arm were non-evaluable. VAS pain scores were significantly reduced in the opioid treatment arm one week after randomization (p=0.01). Eight patients in the TC arm were managed with TC alone, but for 11 patients it was necessary to add morphine. The 20 evaluable patients in the morphine arm required no additional treatment. There were no significant differences in side effects between the two groups. Higher pain scores in the TC arm, but not in the opioid arm, were significantly correlated with higher BDI scores. Some head and neck cancer patients with radiation-induced nucositis pain may have sufficient pain control on TC alone. This might be useful in patients with relative counter-indications to opioid treatment.

  17. Randomized trial of opioids versus tricyclic antidepressants for radiation-induced mucositis pain in head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrnrooth, E.; Grau, C.; Zachariae, R.; Andersen, Joern

    2001-01-01

    Patients who receive radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are likely to develop painful mucositis. The pain is characterized by a burning or stinging sensation similar to neuropathic pain sensations. The purpose of the present study was to compare the analgesic effect of a tricyclic antidepressant (TC), commonly used in the treatment of neuropathic pain, with the effect of opioids on radiation-induced mucositis pain. Forty-three patients receiving 66-68 Gy external radiation according to the DAHANCA guidelines (the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Study Group) were randomized to either morphine or TC when mucositis pain was insufficiently managed with weak analgesics. Patients with insufficient pain control in either treatment arm received supplementary medication from the opposite treatment arm. Pain was evaluated weekly using a VAS scale and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. The degree of mucositis and the degree of depression were measured at the same time intervals. Twenty-two patients entered the opioid arm and 21 the TC arm. Two patients in each arm were non-evaluable. VAS pain scores were significantly reduced in the opioid treatment arm one week after randomization (p=0.01). Eight patients in the TC arm were managed with TC alone, but for 11 patients it was necessary to add morphine. The 20 evaluable patients in the morphine arm required no additional treatment. There were no significant differences in side effects between the two groups. Higher pain scores in the TC arm, but not in the opioid arm, were significantly correlated with higher BDI scores. Some head and neck cancer patients with radiation-induced nucositis pain may have sufficient pain control on TC alone. This might be useful in patients with relative counter-indications to opioid treatment

  18. Pain adaptability in individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain is not associated with conditioned pain modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Dawn Wong Lit; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Wang, Kelun

    2018-01-01

    (MSK). CPTs at 2°C and 7°C were used to assess the status of pain adaptability in participants with either chronic non-specific low back pain or knee osteoarthritis. The participants' potency of conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and local inhibition were measured. The strengths of pain adaptability...... at both CPTs were highly correlated. PA and PNA did not differ in their demographics, pain thresholds from thermal and pressure stimuli, or potency of local inhibition or CPM. PA reached their maximum pain faster than PNA (t41=-2.76, p... days whereas PNA did not (F (6,246) = 3.01, p = 0.01). The dichotomy of pain adaptability exists in MSK patients. Consistent with the healthy human study, the strength of pain adaptability and potency of CPM are not related. Pain adaptability could be another form of endogenous pain inhibition which...

  19. Medication overuse reinstates conditioned pain modulation in women with migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Nathalie; Voisin, Daniel; Mulliez, Aurélien; Clavelou, Pierre; Dallel, Radhouane

    2018-05-01

    Background This study investigated the effects of medication overuse and withdrawal on modulation of pain processing in women with migraine. Temporal summation of laser-evoked thermal pain was used to measure the effects of conditioned pain modulation. Methods 36 female participants (12 healthy volunteers, 12 with episodic migraine and 12 with medication overuse headache) were included in a two session protocol. Medication overuse headache subjects were also tested three weeks after medication overuse headache withdrawal. Mechanical and laser-evoked thermal pain thresholds were measured on the back of the non-dominant hand where, later, temporal summation of laser-evoked thermal pain to repetitive thermal stimuli was elicited for 30 min, at an intensity producing moderate pain. Between the 10 th and 20 th minutes, the contralateral foot was immersed into a water bath at a not painful (30℃) or painfully cold (8℃; conditioned pain modulation) temperature. Results Episodic migraine, medication overuse headache and medication overuse headache withdrawal were associated with an increase in extracephalic temporal summation of laser-evoked thermal pain as compared to healthy volunteer subjects, while there was no alteration of laser-evoked thermal and mechanical extracephalic pain thresholds in these subjects. Conditioned pain modulation was highly efficient in temporal summation of laser-evoked thermal pain in healthy volunteer subjects, with a solid post-effect (reduction of pain). Conditioned pain modulation was still present, but reduced, in episodic migraine. By contrast, conditioned pain modulation was normal in medication overuse headache and strongly reduced in medication overuse headache withdrawal. Furthermore, in medication overuse headache withdrawal, the post-effect was no longer a decrease, but a facilitation of pain. Conclusions These data show that a decrease in conditioned pain modulation does not underlie medication overuse headache in women. On

  20. Bodily illusions disrupt tactile sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Pritchett, Lisa M; Harris, Laurence R

    2015-02-01

    To accurately interpret tactile information, the brain needs to have an accurate representation of the body to which to refer the sensations. Despite this, body representation has only recently been incorporated into the study of tactile perception. Here, we investigate whether distortions of body representation affect tactile sensations. We perceptually altered the length of the arm and the width of the waist using a tendon vibration illusion and measured spatial acuity and sensitivity. Surprisingly, we found reduction in both tactile acuity and sensitivity thresholds when the arm or waist was perceptually altered, which indicates a general disruption of low-level tactile processing. We postulate that the disruptive changes correspond to the preliminary stage as the body representation starts to change and may give new insights into sensory processing in people with long-term or sudden abnormal body representation such as are found in eating disorders or following amputation.

  1. The concept of peripheral modulation of bladder sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, Jane E; Gillespie, James I

    2013-01-01

    It is recognized that, as the bladder fills, there is a corresponding increase in sensation. This awareness of the volume in the bladder is then used in a complex decision making process to determine if there is a need to void. It is also part of everyday experience that, when the bladder is full and sensations strong, these sensations can be suppressed and the desire to void postponed. The obvious explanation for such altered perceptions is that they occur centrally. However, this may not be the only mechanism. There are data to suggest that descending neural influences and local factors might regulate the sensitivity of the systems within the bladder wall generating afferent activity. Specifically, evidence is accumulating to suggest that the motor-sensory system within the bladder wall is influenced in this way. The motor-sensory system, first described over 100 years ago, appears to be a key component in the afferent outflow, the afferent "noise," generated within the bladder wall. However, the presence and possible importance of this complex system in the generation of bladder sensation has been overlooked in recent years. As the bladder fills the motor activity increases, driven by cholinergic inputs and modulated, possibly, by sympathetic inputs. In this way information on bladder volume can be transmitted to the CNS. It can be argued that the ability to alter the sensitivity of the mechanisms generating the motor component of this motor-sensory system represents a possible indirect way to influence afferent activity and so the perception of bladder volume centrally. Furthermore, it is emerging that the apparent modulation of sensation by drugs to alleviate the symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB), the anti-cholinergics and the new generation of drugs the β 3 sympathomimetics, may be the result of their ability to modulate the motor component of the motor sensory system. The possibility of controlling sensation, physiologically and pharmacologically, by

  2. Thermal Comfort in Simulated Office Environment with Four Convective and Radiant Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Mustakallio, Panu; Kolencíková, Sona

    2013-01-01

    with overhead mixing ventilation (MVRC). Whole body thermal sensation (TS) and whole body TS acceptability under the four systems in a simulated office room for one hour exposure were collected. The simulated two-man office (4.12 x 4.20 x 2.89 m, L x W x H) was kept at 26 oC room air temperature. Moderate heat...... to “neutral” compared to male, whose votes were closer to the “slightly warm” thermal sensation. The whole body TS acceptability was rated close to ''clearly acceptable'' (EN 15251-2007) and was independent of subject's gender for all tested systems....

  3. Pain perception in major depressive disorder: a neurophysiological case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambito Marsala, Sandro; Pistacchi, Michele; Tocco, Pierluigi; Gioulis, Manuela; Fabris, Federico; Brigo, Francesco; Tinazzi, Michele

    2015-10-15

    Depression and pain may sometimes be related conditions. Occasionally, depression may be associated with physical symptoms, such as back pain and headache. Moreover, depression may impair the subjective response to pain and is likely to influence the pain feeling. Conversely, chronic pain may represent an emotional condition as well as physical sensation, and can influence both the mood and behaviour. To better understand the relationship between pain and depression, we therefore assessed the pain threshold and the tolerance pain threshold in patients with depressive disorders. We conducted a case-control study and selected patients who had recently received a diagnosis of major depression (DSM-IV), before treatment, and without any significant pain complaints. Age- and sex-matched healthy controls were also included. Tactile and pain thresholds were assessed in all subjects through an electrical stimulation test. All results were compared between the groups. 27 patients and 27 age-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Tactile, pain and tolerance thresholds were evaluated in all subjects. The pain threshold and pain tolerance were lower in patients with major depression than controls. All differences were statistically significant (pdepressive disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensationalism in front page photographs : Content analysis of Dutch popular and quality newspapers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Gabi; Pleijter, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    GABI SCHAAP & ALEXANDER PLEIJTER Sensationalism in front page photographs: Content analysis of Dutch popular and quality newspapers Sensation in the news has been a longtime cause for social and scientific debate. Sensational news is thought to substitute 'serious' information needed for serious

  5. The Role of Body Sensations in Understanding One's Own Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balueva O.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There are at least three different viewpoints among all theories of emotions that attempt to explain the role of body sensations in understanding one's own emotions. In order to compare the explanatory resources of these viewpoints we conducted a research in which the subjects (n=59 were shown a series of neutral and emotionally significant slides (taken from the IAPS database. During the slideshow we registered the subjects' pulse and galvanic skin response. The subjects were asked to assess the intensity of their emotional reactions and body sensations in response to the emotionally significant slides, and also filled in a questionnaire on emotional intelligence that enabled us to measure their ability to understand their own emotions as well as those of other people. The outcomes of our research show that sensations accompanying emotional experiences are not the result of interoception as they do not correspond with objective indicators of the changes in physiological arousal, whereas they do correspond in many ways with the subjects' emotional appraisal of the stimuli and selfassessment of sensations. These outcomes also revealed that subjective evaluations of body sensations correlate with emotional valence, while heart rate (the objective indicator of arousal correlates with modality of the emotion

  6. Water Sensation During Passive Propulsion for Expert and Nonexpert Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusanagi, Kenta; Sato, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Norimasa

    2017-06-01

    This study determined whether expert swimmers, compared with nonexperts, have superior movement perception and physical sensations of propulsion in water. Expert (national level competitors, n = 10) and nonexpert (able to swim 50 m in > 3 styles, n = 10) swimmers estimated distance traveled in water with their eyes closed. Both groups indicated their subjective physical sensations in the water. For each of two trials, two-dimensional coordinates were obtained from video recordings using the two-dimensional direct linear transformation method for calculating changes in speed. The mean absolute error of the difference between the actual and estimated distance traveled in the water was significantly lower for expert swimmers (0.90 ± 0.71 meters) compared with nonexpert swimmers (3.85 ± 0.84 m). Expert swimmers described the sensation of propulsion in water in cutaneous terms as the "sense of flow" and sensation of "skin resistance." Therefore, expert swimmers appear to have a superior sense of distance during their movement in the water compared with that of nonexpert swimmers. In addition, expert swimmers may have a better perception of movement in water. We propose that expert swimmers integrate sensations and proprioceptive senses, enabling them to better perceive and estimate distance moved through water.

  7. The Nav1.9 channel is a key determinant of cold pain sensation and cold allodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolignier, Stéphane; Bonnet, Caroline; Gaudioso, Christelle; Noël, Jacques; Ruel, Jérôme; Amsalem, Muriel; Ferrier, Jérémy; Rodat-Despoix, Lise; Bouvier, Valentine; Aissouni, Youssef; Prival, Laetitia; Chapuy, Eric; Padilla, Françoise; Eschalier, Alain; Delmas, Patrick; Busserolles, Jérôme

    2015-05-19

    Cold-triggered pain is essential to avoid prolonged exposure to harmfully low temperatures. However, the molecular basis of noxious cold sensing in mammals is still not completely understood. Here, we show that the voltage-gated Nav1.9 sodium channel is important for the perception of pain in response to noxious cold. Nav1.9 activity is upregulated in a subpopulation of damage-sensing sensory neurons responding to cooling, which allows the channel to amplify subthreshold depolarizations generated by the activation of cold transducers. Consequently, cold-triggered firing is impaired in Nav1.9(-/-) neurons, and Nav1.9 null mice and knockdown rats show increased cold pain thresholds. Disrupting Nav1.9 expression in rodents also alleviates cold pain hypersensitivity induced by the antineoplastic agent oxaliplatin. We conclude that Nav1.9 acts as a subthreshold amplifier in cold-sensitive nociceptive neurons and is required for the perception of cold pain under normal and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neurocognitive determinants of novelty and sensation-seeking in individuals with alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Xavier; Brevers, Damien; Bechara, Antoine; Hanak, Catherine; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Le Bon, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Sober alcoholic abusers exhibit personality traits such as novelty-seeking (NS) and sensation-seeking, which overlap to a limited extent. In parallel, they also show impaired executive and decision-making processes. However, little is known about the specific and common cognitive processes associated with NS and sensation-seeking personality traits in detoxified sober alcoholic abusers. In these present studies, we have investigated the relationships between executive functioning/central executive of working memory (pre-potent response inhibition, manipulation stored in working memory), and decision-making under uncertainty and NS/sensation-seeking traits in such alcoholics. Compared with healthy controls (n = 30, mean age = 40.2), and in agreement with previous studies, alcoholics (n = 30, mean age = 40.4) showed higher levels of both NS and sensation-seeking traits. Alcoholics were also disadvantaged with respect to (a) gambling tasks, as reported previously, and (b) a poor ability to manipulate information stored in working memory and inhibit pre-potent responses. Most importantly, regression analyses and mediation analyses measures showed that poor response inhibition and decision-making were associated with high NS behaviour. In addition, impaired decision-making and manipulation of stored information in working memory were associated with a high sensation-seeking trait. Overall, these results support the existence of specific links between cognitive executive functioning, decision-making under uncertainty and NS/sensation-seeking personality traits in individuals with alcoholism.

  9. A rare case of congenital insensitivity to pain with anhydrosiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govardhani Yanamadala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital insensitivity to pain syndrome with anhydrosis (CIPA is a rare inherited disorder. It is characterized by loss of pain and temperature sensation, lack of sweating and mild mental retardation. This disorder belongs to hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy family (type IV. Because of these abnormalities, patients require special anesthetic care. They include titration of intraoperative opioids, an anesthetic to ensure co-operation and immobility and intra-operative temperature monitoring. Here we report a 7-year-old female child with CIPA posted for restoration and cementation for dental caries along with sural nerve and skin biopsy.

  10. Experimental study on physiological responses and thermal comfort under various ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ye; Lian, Zhiwei; Liu, Weiwei; Shen, Qi

    2008-01-28

    This study mainly explored the thermal comfort from the perspective of physiology. Three physiological parameters, including skin temperature (local and mean), electrocardiograph (ECG) and electroencephalogram (EEG), were investigated to see how they responded to the ambient temperature and how they were related to the thermal comfort sensation. A total of four ambient temperatures (21 degrees C, 24 degrees C, 26 degrees C and 29 degrees C) were created, while the other thermal conditions including the air velocity (about 0.05+/-0.01 m/s) and the air humidity (about 60+/-5 m/s) were kept as stable as possible throughout the experiments. Twenty healthy students were tested with questionnaire investigation under those thermal environments. The statistical analysis shows that the skin temperature (local and mean), the ratio of LF(norm) to HF(norm) of ECG and the global relative power of the different EEG frequency bands will be sensitive to the ambient temperatures and the thermal sensations of the subjects. It is suggested that the three physiological parameters should be considered all together in the future study of thermal comfort.

  11. VGLUTs and Glutamate Synthesis—Focus on DRG Neurons and Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Malet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The amino acid glutamate is the principal excitatory transmitter in the nervous system, including in sensory neurons that convey pain sensation from the periphery to the brain. It is now well established that a family of membrane proteins, termed vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs, serve a critical function in these neurons: they incorporate glutamate into synaptic vesicles. VGLUTs have a central role both under normal neurotransmission and pathological conditions, such as neuropathic or inflammatory pain. In the present short review, we will address VGLUTs in the context of primary afferent neurons. We will focus on the role of VGLUTs in pain triggered by noxious stimuli, peripheral nerve injury, and tissue inflammation, as mostly explored in transgenic mice. The possible interplay between glutamate biosynthesis and VGLUT-dependent packaging in synaptic vesicles, and its potential impact in various pain states will be presented.

  12. Ameliorative effect of ethyl pyruvate in neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha J. Bansode

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP in chronic constriction injury (CCI-induced painful neuropathy in rats. Materials and Methods: EP 50 and 100 mg/kg was administered for 21 consecutive days starting from the day of surgery. The effects of EP in the paw pressure, acetone drop, and tail heat immersion tests were assessed, reflecting the degree of mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, and spinal thermal sensation, respectively. Axonal degeneration of the sciatic nerve was assessed histopathologically. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species, reduced glutathione (GSH, catalase (CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD were determined to assess oxidative stress. Key Findings: Administration of 50 and 100 mg/kg EP attenuated the reduction of nociceptive threshold in the paw pressure, acetone drop, and tail heat immersion tests. EP 100 mg/kg significantly attenuated reactive changes in histopathology and increase in oxidative stress. Conclusion: EP 100 mg/kg showed beneficial activity against nerve trauma-induced neuropathy. Hence, it can be used as a better treatment option in neuropathic pain (NP. The observed antinociceptive effects of EP may possibly be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.

  13. Thermal Interaction of Closely Spaced Persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.; Tøgersen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results from a pilot study on the thermal interaction of closely spaced persons in a large enclosure. The surface temperature at different densities of persons is evaluated using a high resolution thermo vision camera in a controlled thermal environment. The corresponding ther...... thermal sensation is evaluated using questionnaires for the various densities. The results indicate that it may be acceptable to consider persons standalone, in a thermal sense, disregarding thermal interaction at usual densities in the design of large enclosures.......This paper presents results from a pilot study on the thermal interaction of closely spaced persons in a large enclosure. The surface temperature at different densities of persons is evaluated using a high resolution thermo vision camera in a controlled thermal environment. The corresponding...

  14. Sensation seeking indirectly affects perceptions of risk for co-occurrent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittner, James B; Warner, Margaret A; Swickert, Rhonda J

    2016-02-01

    High sensation seekers engage in more frequent substance use and perceive a host of potentially dangerous activities as less risky than do low sensation seekers. However, despite a plethora of research on these topics, no study has examined the extent to which personal substance use mediates the association between sensation seeking and perceived risk of substance use. To address this question, we recruited a sample of 79 young adults (mean age=19.1 years, standard deviation=1.4). Participants completed questionnaire measures of sensation seeking, substance use, and perceived risk of co-occurrent substance use. Results from path-analytic modeling indicated that both alcohol use and marijuana use mediated the influence of sensation seeking on perceptions of risk for moderately risky, but not highly risky, pairs of substances. Strengths and limitations of the present study were discussed and directions for future research were suggested.

  15. POÉSIE, PAYSAGE ET SENSATION / Poetry, landscape and sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Collot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article effectue une refléxion téorique par rapport au paysage, question qui revêt un enjeuconsidérable dans le champ des sciences humaines et des pratiques sociales contemporaines, maisaussi, pour l’art et pour la poésie modernes. Il s’agit d’une notion qui se situe historiquement etstructurellement entre une pensée symbolique du Lieu qui a dominé l’Antiquité classique et leMoyen Âge, et une connaissance scientifique de l’espace qui se développe aux Temps modernes.À partir du Romantisme, notamment la poésie lyrique a fait du paysage un lieu d’expression de lasensibilité. En contrepartie, l’art et la littérature au XXème siècle ont eu tendance à se détournerde la représentation du monde extérieur pour explorer les ressources propres à leurs moyensd’expression. Ainsi, le paysage semble avoir perdu son endroit à la scène esthétique, c’est qui n’estpas vrai du tout, une fois que le thème continue à inspirer beaucoup d’artistes et d’écrivains.Controversée par nature, l’idée de paysage s’ouvre à plusiers interrogations, telques les conceptsde sensation et de de perception, cueillis chez Paul Valéry, lesquels sont amenés à ce text, commeune proposition de jouissance de la poésie entendue à la manière d’un endroit de réactivation dessensations et des affects. Mots-clés: Paysage, Sensation, Perception, Poésie, L’art.

  16. Thermal comfort and IAQ assessment of under-floor air distribution system integrated with personalized ventilation in hot and humid climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ruixin; Sekhar, S.C.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2010-01-01

    The potential for improving occupants' thermal comfort with personalized ventilation (PV) system combined with under-floor air distribution (UFAD) system was explored through human response study. The hypothesis was that cold draught at feet can be reduced when relatively warm air is supplied...... of the results obtained reveal improved acceptability of perceived air quality and improved thermal sensation with PV-UFAD in comparison with the reference case of UFAD alone or mixing ventilation with ceiling supply diffuser. The local thermal sensation at the feet was also improved when warmer UFAD supply air...

  17. Sub-paresthesia spinal cord stimulation reverses thermal hyperalgesia and modulates low frequency EEG in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Suguru; Xia, Jimmy; Leblanc, Brian W; Gu, Jianwen Wendy; Saab, Carl Y

    2018-05-08

    Paresthesia, a common feature of epidural spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for pain management, presents a challenge to the double-blind study design. Although sub-paresthesia SCS has been shown to be effective in alleviating pain, empirical criteria for sub-paresthesia SCS have not been established and its basic mechanisms of action at supraspinal levels are unknown. We tested our hypothesis that sub-paresthesia SCS attenuates behavioral signs of neuropathic pain in a rat model, and modulates pain-related theta (4-8 Hz) power of the electroencephalogram (EEG), a previously validated correlate of spontaneous pain in rodent models. Results show that sub-paresthesia SCS attenuates thermal hyperalgesia and power amplitude in the 3-4 Hz range, consistent with clinical data showing significant yet modest analgesic effects of sub-paresthesia SCS in humans. Therefore, we present evidence for anti-nociceptive effects of sub-paresthesia SCS in a rat model of neuropathic pain and further validate EEG theta power as a reliable 'biosignature' of spontaneous pain.

  18. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Incidence of Altered Sensation of Mandibular Implant Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Shu; Wu, Shih-Yun; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Lai, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Altered sensation (including paresthesia, dysesthesia and hypoesthesia) after mandibular implant surgery may indicate transient or permanent injury of the inferior alveolar nerve and the mental branch, and considerably lower patients’ satisfaction about the therapy. Previous studies have shown a great degree of variability on the incidence of altered sensation. We here reported the incidence of altered sensation after mandibular implant surgery based on a meta-analysis of 26 articles published between 1990.1.1 and 2016.1.1. Study quality and risk of bias was assessed and the studies with a lower score were excluded in the meta-analysis. Data synthesis was performed using the logistic-normal random-effect model. The meta-analyses revealed that the short-term (10 days after implant placement) and long-term (1 year after implant placement) incidence was 13% (95% CI, 6%-25%) and 3% (95% CI, 1%-7%), respectively. (2) For the patients who initially reported altered sensation, 80% (95% CI, 52%-94%) of them would return to normal sensation within 6 months after surgery, and 91% (95% CI, 78%-96%) of them would return to normal sensation one year after surgery. We concluded that dentist-patient communication about the risk of altered sensation is critical to treatment planning, since the short-term incidence of altered sensation is substantial (13%). When a patient reports altered sensation, regular assessment for 6 months would help tracing the changes of symptoms. In terms of long-term follow-up (1 year after surgery), the incidence is much lower (3%) and most patients (91%) would return to normal sensation. PMID:27100832

  19. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Incidence of Altered Sensation of Mandibular Implant Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Shu Lin

    Full Text Available Altered sensation (including paresthesia, dysesthesia and hypoesthesia after mandibular implant surgery may indicate transient or permanent injury of the inferior alveolar nerve and the mental branch, and considerably lower patients' satisfaction about the therapy. Previous studies have shown a great degree of variability on the incidence of altered sensation. We here reported the incidence of altered sensation after mandibular implant surgery based on a meta-analysis of 26 articles published between 1990.1.1 and 2016.1.1. Study quality and risk of bias was assessed and the studies with a lower score were excluded in the meta-analysis. Data synthesis was performed using the logistic-normal random-effect model. The meta-analyses revealed that the short-term (10 days after implant placement and long-term (1 year after implant placement incidence was 13% (95% CI, 6%-25% and 3% (95% CI, 1%-7%, respectively. (2 For the patients who initially reported altered sensation, 80% (95% CI, 52%-94% of them would return to normal sensation within 6 months after surgery, and 91% (95% CI, 78%-96% of them would return to normal sensation one year after surgery. We concluded that dentist-patient communication about the risk of altered sensation is critical to treatment planning, since the short-term incidence of altered sensation is substantial (13%. When a patient reports altered sensation, regular assessment for 6 months would help tracing the changes of symptoms. In terms of long-term follow-up (1 year after surgery, the incidence is much lower (3% and most patients (91% would return to normal sensation.

  20. The Effect of Topical Local Anesthetics on Thermal Pain Sensitivity in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized hypersensitivity that extends into somatic areas is common in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The sensitized state, particularly assessed by experimental methods, is known to persist even during remissions of clinical pain. It was hypothesized that disease-related nociceptive activity in the gut maintains a systemic-sensitized state. The present study evaluated responses to prolonged thermal stimuli maintained at constant temperature or constant pain intensity during stimulation. The effect of topically applied rectal lidocaine on heat sensitivity was also evaluated. The question is whether silencing potential intestinal neural activity (which may not always lead to a conscious pain experience with lidocaine attenuates sensitization of somatic areas. Tests were also performed where lidocaine was applied orally to control for systemic or placebo effects of the drug. The IBS subjects exhibited a greater sensitivity to somatic heat stimuli compared to controls; however, lidocaine had no discernible effect on sensitization in this sample of IBS patients, where most of the individuals did not have clinical pain on the day of testing.

  1. Pulsed Dose Radiofrequency Before Ablation of Medial Branch of the Lumbar Dorsal Ramus for Zygapophyseal Joint Pain Reduces Post-procedural Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsanious, David; Gage, Emmanuel; Koning, Jonathon; Sarhan, Mazin; Chaiban, Gassan; Almualim, Mohammed; Atallah, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    One of the potential side effects with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) includes painful cutaneous dysesthesias and increased pain due to neuritis or neurogenic inflammation. This pain may require the prescription of opioids or non-opioid analgesics to control post-procedural pain and discomfort. The goal of this study is to compare post-procedural pain scores and post-procedural oral analgesic use in patients receiving continuous thermal radiofrequency ablation versus patients receiving pulsed dose radiofrequency immediately followed by continuous thermal radiofrequency ablation for zygopophaseal joint disease. This is a prospective, double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial. Patients who met all the inclusion criteria and were not subject to any of the exclusion criteria were required to have two positive diagnostic medial branch blocks prior to undergoing randomization, intervention, and analysis. University hospital. Eligible patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either receive thermal radiofrequency ablation alone (standard group) or pulsed dose radiofrequency (PDRF) immediately followed by thermal radiofrequency ablation (investigational group), all of which were performed by a single Board Certified Pain Medicine physician. Post-procedural pain levels between the two groups were assessed using the numerical pain Scale (NPS), and patients were contacted by phone on post-procedural days 1 and 2 in the morning and afternoon regarding the amount of oral analgesic medications used in the first 48 hours following the procedure. Patients who received pulsed dose radiofrequency followed by continuous radiofrequency neurotomy reported statistically significantly lower post-procedural pain scores in the first 24 hours compared to patients who received thermal radiofrequency neurotomy alone. These patients also used less oral analgesic medication in the post-procedural period. These interventions were carried out by one board accredited pain physician at one

  2. Does a Better Perfusion of Deconditioned Muscle Tissue Release Chronic Low Back Pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Valdivieso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific chronic low back pain (nsCLBP is a multifactorial condition of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. Physical and genetic factors may influence the predisposition of individuals to CLBP, which in many instances share a musculoskeletal origin. A reduced pain level in low back pain patients that participate in exercise therapy highlights that disuse-related muscle deconditioning may predispose individuals to nsCLBP. In this context, musculoskeletal pain may be the consequence of capillary rarefaction in inactive muscle as this would lower local tissue drainage and washing out of toxic waste. Muscle activity is translated into an angio-adaptative process, which implicates angiogenic-gene expression and individual response differences due to heritable modifications of such genes (gene polymorphisms. The pathophysiologic mechanism underlying nsCLBP is still largely unaddressed. We hypothesize that capillary rarefaction due to a deconditioning of dorsal muscle groups exacerbates nsCLBP by increasing noxious sensation, reducing muscle strength and fatigue resistance by initiating a downward spiral of local deconditioning of back muscles which diminishes their load-bearing capacity. We address the idea that specific factors such as angiotensin-converting enzyme and Tenascin-C might play an important role in altering susceptibility to nsCLBP via their effects on microvascular perfusion and vascular remodeling of skeletal muscle, inflammation, and pain sensation. The genetic profile may help to explain the individual predisposition to nsCLBP, thus identifying subgroups of patients, which could benefit from ad hoc treatment types. Future therapeutic approaches aimed at relieving the pain associated with nsCLBP should be based on the verification of mechanistic processes of activity-induced angio-adaptation and muscle-perfusion.

  3. The relationship between thermal sensation and the rate of hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease in Kermanshah, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Bakhtiyar; Karimi, Shilan

    2017-11-01

    Climate and weather conditions are the most important factors that influence activities and human health. Bioclimatology/biometeorology are concerned with the study of weather effects on living creatures, including humans, plants, and animals. This research was prepared in order to understand the bioclimatic condition of Kermanshah and its relation to the level of hospital admissions of cardiovascular patients in this city. In addition to the climatic variables, the statistics on the number of daily admissions of cardiovascular patients in Kermanshah during March 27, 2009 to April 30, 2015 was prepared. First, Kermanshah's bioclimatic conditions were identified on a daily basis. Then, the relationship between each of the thermal sensations with the level of hospital admissions of cardiovascular patients in Kermanshah using Levene's test, univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA), Scheffe and Games-Howell post hoc tests was investigated. The results of this study showed that in each index, only very few bioclimatic conditions have had an impact on the increase of hospital admissions of cardiovascular diseases. For example, based on the equivalent temperature index (Tek or EqT), there is a significant relationship between extreme conditions and the rate of cardiovascular admissions. But, however, in the effective temperature index (TE), a significant correlation between warm/hot conditions and an increase in the number of cardiovascular admissions was seen. Based on the predicted mean vote (PMV) and physiological equivalent temperature (PET) indices, cool and cold conditions more than warm and comfort conditions have an effect on the number of hospital admissions of cardiovascular patients. Overall, the obtained results showed that the extreme climatic conditions were directly related to an increase in cardiovascular disease in Kermanshah.

  4. Assessment of changes in spine curvatures and the sensations caused in three different types of working seats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caique de Melo do Espírito Santo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims This study aimed to evaluate the changes in the spine curvatures and the sensations caused by different types of seats: standard, ischial support and salli. Methods The analyzes were performed by the kinematics and scales of discomfort and pain in 14 healthy subjects. The data collection occurred in three days, one day for each type of seat. The subjects answered questionnaires and were assessed for placement of kinematic markers used to measure the thoracic, thoraco-lumbar and lumbar angles. Each trial was conducted in a sixty-minute period on each chair. Results and conclusions The results showed that the salli seat type causes larger lumbar angles, which is consistent with the maintenance of lumbar lordosis. Likewise, the salli seat showed smaller thoraco-lumbar angle, which is consistent with smaller inferior thoracic kyphosis. Paradoxically, the ischial support seat produced less discomfort and pain than salli type. And finally, the longer the sitting position was the higher the score on the discomfort scale.

  5. Differential diagnosis of sensory modulation dysfunction (SMD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD: participation, sensation and attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviva eYochman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Differential diagnosis between sensory modulation disorder (SMD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is often challenging, since these disorders occur at a high rate of co-morbidity and share several clinical characteristics. Preliminary studies providing evidence that these are distinct disorders have focused solely on body functions, using sophisticated laboratory measurements. Moreover, no studies have compared participation profiles of these populations. This study is the first to compare the profiles of these populations regarding both ‘body functions’(attention and sensation and ‘participation,’ using measures applicable for clinical use. The study included 19 children with ADHD without SMD and 19 with SMD without ADHD (diagnosed by both pediatric neurologists and occupational therapists, aged 6 to 9, and matched by age and gender. All children underwent a broad battery of evaluations: The Evaluation of Sensory Processing, Fabric Prickliness Test and Von Frey Test to evaluate sensory processing, and Test of Everyday Attention to evaluate attention components. The Participation in Childhood Occupations Questionnaire was used to evaluate participation. Results support significant group differences in all sensory components, including pain intensity to suprathreshold stimuli and pain 'after sensation', as well as in tactile, vestibular, taste and olfactory processing. No differences were found in attention components and participation. This study has both theoretical and clinical importance, inter alia, providing further evidence of two distinct disorders as well as indications of specific clinical instruments that might enable clinicians to implement differential diagnoses. In addition, results accord with other previous statements, which indicate that the clinical diagnosis of children with disabilities may not be a major factor in determining their participation profile.

  6. Relationship between foot sensation and standing balance in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citaker, Seyit; Gunduz, Arzu Guclu; Guclu, Meral Bosnak; Nazliel, Bijen; Irkec, Ceyla; Kaya, Defne

    2011-06-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the relationship between the foot sensations and standing balance in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and find out the sensation, which best predicts balance. Twenty-seven patients with MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale 1-3.5) and 10 healthy volunteers were included. Threshold of light touch-pressure, duration of vibration, and distance of two-point discrimination of the foot sole were assessed. Duration of static one-leg standing balance was measured. Light touch-pressure, vibration, two-point discrimination sensations of the foot sole, and duration of one-leg standing balance were decreased in patients with MS compared with controls (pbalance in patients with MS. In the multiple regression analysis conducted in the 27 MS patients, 47.6% of the variance in the duration of one-leg standing balance was explained by two-point discrimination sensation of the heel (R(2)=0.359, p=0.001) and vibration sensation of the first metatarsal head (R(2)=0.118, p=0.029). As the cutaneous receptors sensitivity decreases in the foot sole the standing balance impairs in patients with MS. Two-point discrimination sensation of the heel and vibration sensation of the first metatarsal head region are the best predictors of the static standing balance in patients with MS. Other factors which could be possible to predict balance and effects of sensorial training of foot on balance should be investigated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of medical cannabis on thermal quantitative measurements of pain in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohet, A; Khlebtovsky, A; Roizen, N; Roditi, Y; Djaldetti, R

    2017-03-01

    Cannabis can alleviate pain of various etiologies. This study assessed the effect of cannabis on motor symptoms and pain parameters in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty patients with PD who were licensed to use cannabis underwent evaluation before and 30 min after cannabis consumption and again after long-term use. Motor function was assessed with the Unified PD Rating scale (UPDRS) by two raters, one blinded. Pain was assessed with the Pain Rating Index (PRI) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire. Thermal quantitative sensory testing (QST) was performed in 18 patients. The two consecutive QST measurements were validated in 12 cannabis-naïve patients with PD. There was a significant decrease from baseline to 30 min after cannabis consumption in mean motor UPDRS score (38.1 ± 18 to 30.4 ± 15.6, p patients who consumed cannabis by vaporizer rather than smoking (19.5 ± 5.2 to 15.6 ± 8.7 °C, p = 0.02). After long-term (median 14 weeks) exposure, mean heat pain threshold decreased significantly in the more affected limb in all treated patients (43.6 ± 3.5 to 40.9 ± 3.3 °C, p = 0.05) and in cannabis smokers (43.7 ± 3.6 to 40.3 ± 2.5 °C, p = 0.008). Cannabis improved motor scores and pain symptoms in PD patients, together with a dissociate effect on heat and cold pain thresholds. Peripheral and central pathways are probably modulated by cannabis. Quantitative sensory test results are significantly altered following cannabis consumption in patients with PD. Cannabis probably acts on pain in PD via peripheral and central pathways. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  8. Revising the negative meaning of chronic pain - A phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Tapio; Häkkinen, Arja; Karppinen, Jaro; Sipilä, Kirsi; Suutama, Timo; Piirainen, Arja

    2015-06-01

    Chronic pain may disable the body, depress the mind and ruin the quality of life. The aim of this study was to use the participants' personal experiences to explore the meaning of the experience of chronic pain and to find successful ways to manage chronic pain. Thirty-four participants with chronic pain were interviewed. The transcribed interviews were analysed using Giorgi's phenomenological method consisting of four phases: (1) reading the transcriptions several times, (2) discriminating meaning units, (3) collecting meaning units into groups and (4) the synthesis. The participants stated that the key to managing chronic pain was to reconsider the individual meaning of the experience of pain. As a result of the interviews, seven subthemes were found based on the 'Negativity of chronic pain', namely, 'State of reflection', 'Reconsidering values', 'Acceptance of pain', 'Support network', 'Altered self', 'Joys in life' and 'Pain dissociation'. Pain is an aversive sensation, which leads to the conclusion that the meaning of the experience is also negative, but it can be reversed. In clinical practice, the focus should be on revising the subjective meaning of pain in order to manage pain and to restore positivity in personal life. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Sensation Seeking and Internet Activities, Music Preference, and Personal Relationships among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.

    Individuals vary in their need for excitement, involving a personality trait known as sensation seeking (SS). Previous research has found that a preference for rock music and participation in more self-disclosing behaviors are characteristic of high sensation seekers. This study examines if college student sensation seeking relates to the…

  10. Tri-wave laser therapy for spinal cord injury, neuropathic pain management, and restoration of motor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chariff, Mark D.; Olszak, Peter

    2015-03-01

    A laser therapy device using three combined wavelengths 532nm, 808nm, and 1064nm has been demonstrated in clinical studies. Primarily, therapeutic lasers have used wavelengths in the ranges of 632nm through 1064nm, where the optical density (OD) pain relief and tissue regeneration. Conventional wisdom would argue against using wavelengths in the region of 532nm, due to poor penetration (OD ~ 8); however, the author's observations are to the contrary. The 532nm light is efficiently absorbed by chromophores such as oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and cytochrome c oxidase thereby providing energy to accelerate the healing process. The 808nm light is known to result in Nitric Oxide production thereby reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. All three laser wavelengths likely contribute to pain relief by inhibiting nerve conduction; however, the 1064nm has the deepest penetration. Through the use of this device on over 1000 patients with a variety of acute and chronic neuro-musculoskeletal disorders, the author observed that a majority of these individuals experienced rapid relief from their presenting conditions and most patients reported a tingling sensation upon irradiation. Patient testimonials and thermal images have been collected to document the results of the laser therapy. These studies demonstrate the ability of laser therapy to rapidly alleviate pain from both acute and chronic conditions.

  11. Impact of shade on outdoor thermal comfort-a seasonal field study in Tempe, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middel, Ariane; Selover, Nancy; Hagen, Björn; Chhetri, Nalini

    2016-12-01

    Shade plays an important role in designing pedestrian-friendly outdoor spaces in hot desert cities. This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade and tree shade on thermal comfort through meteorological observations and field surveys at a pedestrian mall on Arizona State University's Tempe campus. During the course of 1 year, on selected clear calm days representative of each season, we conducted hourly meteorological transects from 7:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. and surveyed 1284 people about their thermal perception, comfort, and preferences. Shade lowered thermal sensation votes by approximately 1 point on a semantic differential 9-point scale, increasing thermal comfort in all seasons except winter. Shade type (tree or solar canopy) did not significantly impact perceived comfort, suggesting that artificial and natural shades are equally efficient in hot dry climates. Globe temperature explained 51 % of the variance in thermal sensation votes and was the only statistically significant meteorological predictor. Important non-meteorological factors included adaptation, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, gender, season, and time of day. A regression of subjective thermal sensation on physiological equivalent temperature yielded a neutral temperature of 28.6 °C. The acceptable comfort range was 19.1 °C-38.1 °C with a preferred temperature of 20.8 °C. Respondents exposed to above neutral temperature felt more comfortable if they had been in air-conditioning 5 min prior to the survey, indicating a lagged response to outdoor conditions. Our study highlights the importance of active solar access management in hot urban areas to reduce thermal stress.

  12. Depression, Sensation Seeking, and Maternal Smoking as Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy van de Venne

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine maternal and adolescent depression, maternal and teen sensation seeking, and maternal smoking, and their associations with adolescent smoking. Data were collected from a sample of 47 male and 66 female adolescents (ages 11—18 years and their mothers from three different health clinics. The findings indicated that maternal sensation seeking was linked indirectly with adolescent smoking through teen sensation seeking, both of which were significantly associated with teen smoking (β = 0.29, p < 0.001 and β = 0.32, p < 0.001, respectively. Teen depression was associated positively with teen smoking (β = 0.24, p < 0.01 when controlling for sensation seeking behaviors. Maternal smoking was also directly linked to adolescent smoking (β = 0.20, p < 0.05. These findings underscore a potentially important role of sensation seeking in the origins of adolescent smoking, and clarify pathways of influence with regard to maternal attitudes and behaviors in subsequent teenage nicotine use.

  13. Aggressive behavior: an alternative model of resting heart rate and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Low resting heart rate is a well-replicated biological correlate of aggression, and sensation seeking is frequently cited as the underlying causal explanation. However, little empirical evidence supports this mediating relationship. Furthermore, the biosocial model of violence and social push theory suggest sensation seeking may moderate the relationship between heart rate and aggression. In a sample of 128 college students (82.0% White; 73.4% female), the current study tested a moderation model as an alternative relationship between resting heart rate and sensation seeking in regard to aggression. Overall, the findings partially supported an interaction effect, whereby the relationship between heart rate and aggression was moderated by sensation seeking. Specifically, the oft-noted relationship between low resting heart rate and increased aggression was found, but only for individuals with low levels of sensation seeking. If replication supports this finding, the results may better inform prevention and intervention work. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Investigation of the Phenomenon of Propagated Sensation along the Channels in the Upper Limb Following Administration of Acupuncture and Mock Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavy, Shohreh; Gadau, Marcus; Zhang, Shi Ping; Wang, Fu Chun; Bangrazi, Sergio; Berle, Christine; Harahap, Mahrita; Li, Tie; Li, Wei Hong; Zaslawski, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Similar to De Qi psychophysical responses, propagated sensation along the channels (PSC) is considered an important phenomenon in traditional Chinese acupuncture. In acupuncture clinical trials, different acupuncture manipulation techniques are used to enhance the propagation of sensation along the channels to facilitate an optimum therapeutic result. To examine and compare the PSC reported by participants in a clinical trial following the administration of acupuncture and inactive mock laser. The study was embedded in a two-arm parallel design multicenter, randomized clinical trial, the Tennis Elbow Acupuncture-International Study-China, Hong Kong, Australia, Italy (TEA IS CHAI). Needle sensations were measured using a validated instrument, the Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture Sensation Spreading Scale. Ninety-six participants with lateral elbow pain were randomly allocated into two groups in a 1:1 ratio; the acupuncture treatment group (n = 47) and the mock laser control group (n = 49). Participants in both groups received the intervention at two acupoints, LI10 and LI11, consisting of 2 minutes of either standardized needle manipulation or mock laser at each acupoint with a rest period between each intervention period. Data were collected immediately following the interventions at the first and the ninth session within the clinical trial. Although participants in both groups perceived PSC radiating to similar sites along the upper limb, the frequency of the reported radiation sites among the two intervention groups for both radiation up the limb (p sensation sites recorded within the two study groups, the sensations were reported as radiating a greater distance down the forearm to the wrist compared to up the arm. Evaluation of PSC across the four study sites revealed a statistically significant difference in frequency of the reported radiation down the limb sites in each study group and radiation up the limb sites only in control group only (p

  15. Subjective study of thermal acceptability of novel enhanced displacement ventilation system and implication of occupants' personal control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Weimeng; Cheong, K.W.D.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2012-01-01

    with DV and constant heat load at different supply air temperatures, namely 20, 22, and 24 °C and room air temperatures, 22, 24, and 26 °C. Subjective assessments were carried out with 32 tropically-acclimatized college students who were given the choice to adjust the fan speed. Subjects' thermal comfort...... of 22 and 24 °C when the fans were in operation. It was also found that the Whole Body Thermal Sensation (WBTS) reported by the subjects was correlated with the Local Thermal Sensation (LTS) at the waist, the arms, the calf and the feet when the novel DV system was employed. An expression which allows...

  16. A Descriptive Study of a Perioperative Pain Service Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    the Renaissance. Leading the forefront was Renee Descartes , a French mathematician. He described nerves as hollow tubes through which fine threads...Sensations had to interact with the mind or soul, which Descartes considered to be separate from the body and unaffected by external and mechanical...forces. Integration of the mind and body, according to Descartes , occurred within the pineal gland. Pain, therefore, was a Co-axial Narcotics 17 state

  17. Outdoor thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2011-06-01

    A review of the various approaches in understanding outdoor thermal comfort is presented. The emphasis on field surveys from around the world, particularly across Europe, enables us to understand thermal perception and evaluate outdoor thermal comfort conditions. The consistent low correlations between objective microclimatic variables, subjective thermal sensation and comfort outdoors, internationally, suggest that thermophysiology alone does not adequate describe these relationships. Focusing on the concept of adaptation, it tries to explain how this influences outdoor comfort, enabling us to inhabit and get satisfaction from outdoor spaces throughout the year. Beyond acclimatization and behavioral adaptation, through adjustments in clothing and changes to the metabolic heat, psychological adaptation plays a critical role to ensure thermal comfort and satisfaction with the outdoor environment. Such parameters include recent experiences and expectations; personal choice and perceived control, more important than whether that control is actually exercised; and the need for positive environmental stimulation suggesting that thermal neutrality is not a pre-requisite for thermal comfort. Ultimately, enhancing environmental diversity can influence thermal perception and experience of open spaces.

  18. Referred pain to the ipsilateral forehead and orbit: An unusual phenomenon during bronchial artery embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakantan, Ravi; Ketkar, Manoj; Maddali, Krishna; Deshmukh, Hemant

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: We report an unusual pattern of referred pain to the ipsilateral forehead and orbit observed during bronchial artery embolization (BAE) for massive hemoptysis due to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and postulate possible neural mechanisms for its occurrence.Methods: Seven men, from a series of 194 patients (171 men, 23 women) undergoing BAE (right bronchial artery 4, left 3) with gelatin sponge for control of massive hemoptysis due to pulmonary TB form the subject of this report.Results: Embolization was successful in achieving control of hemoptysis in these patients and there were no complications following the embolization. Transient, moderately severe, ipsilateral supraorbital and/or retroorbital pain occurred only during the injection of the gelatin sponge contrast mixture into the bronchial artery. The pain did not occur during the injection of heparinized saline or ionic contrast medium.Conclusions: Referred pain during BAE is an unusual phenomenon. Acute vessel distension triggering visceral sensations is probably the causative mechanism. Sympathetic afferents from the bronchi coursing through the posterior pulmonary plexus eventually pass to the trigeminal ganglion via the carotid sympathetic chain. The ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve then mediate pain sensation to the ipsilateral forehead and orbit. Similarly, parasympathetic afferents from the pulmonary plexus crossing the nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve may be responsible for interexchange of impulses to the neurons in this nucleus. Sensory fibers of the ophthalmic and maxillary nerves relaying in this nucleus are then involved in this pain being referred to the forehead and orbit.

  19. Degree of skin denervation and its correlation to objective thermal sensory test in leprosy patients.

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    Ismael Alves Rodrigues Júnior

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprosy is an infectious disease affecting skin and peripheral nerves resulting in increased morbidity and physical deformities. Early diagnosis provides opportune treatment and reduces its complications, relying fundamentally on the demonstration of impaired sensation in suggestive cutaneous lesions. The loss of tactile sensitivity in the lesions is preceded by the loss of thermal sensitivity, stressing the importance of the thermal test in the suspicious lesions approach. The gold-standard method for the assessment of thermal sensitivity is the quantitative sensory test (QST. Morphological study may be an alternative approach to access the thin nerve fibers responsible for thermal sensitivity transduction. The few studies reported in leprosy patients pointed out a rarefaction of thin dermo-epidermal fibers in lesions, but used semi-quantitative evaluation methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This work aimed to study the correlation between the degree of thermal sensitivity impairment measured by QST and the degree of denervation in leprosy skin lesions, evaluated by immunohistochemistry anti-PGP 9.5 and morphometry. Twenty-two patients were included. There were significant differences in skin thermal thresholds among lesions and contralateral skin (cold, warm, cold induced pain and heat induced pain. The mean reduction in the density of intraepidermal and subepidermal fibers in lesions was 79.5% (SD = 19.6 and 80.8% (SD = 24.9, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We observed a good correlation between intraepidermal and subepidermal fibers deficit, but no correlation between these variables and those accounting for the degree of impairment in thermal thresholds, since the thin fibers rarefaction was homogeneously intense in all patients, regardless of the degree of sensory deficit. We believe that the homogeneously intense denervation in leprosy lesions should be objective of further investigations focused on its

  20. Differential pain modulation in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormsen, Lise; Bach, Flemming W; Rosenberg, Raben; Jensen, Troels S

    2017-12-29

    Background The definition of neuropathic pain has recently been changed by the International Association for the Study of Pain. This means that conditions such as fibromyalgia cannot, as sometimes discussed, be included in the neuropathic pain conditions. However, fibromyalgia and peripheral neuropathic pain share common clinical features such as spontaneous pain and hypersensitivity to external stimuli. Therefore, it is of interest to directly compare the conditions. Material and methods In this study we directly compared the pain modulation in neuropathic pain versus fibromyalgia by recording responses to a cold pressor test in 30 patients with peripheral neuropathic pain, 28 patients with fibromyalgia, and 26 pain-free age-and gender-matched healthy controls. Patients were asked to rate their spontaneous pain on a visual analog scale (VAS (0-100 mm) immediately before and immediately after the cold pressor test. Furthermore the duration (s) of extremity immersion in cold water was used as a measure of the pain tolerance threshold, and the perceived pain intensity at pain tolerance on the VAS was recorded on the extremity in the water after the cold pressor test. In addition, thermal (thermo tester) and mechanical stimuli (pressure algometer) were used to determine sensory detection, pain detection, and pain tolerance thresholds in different body parts. All sensory tests were done by the same examiner, in the same room, and with each subject in a supine position. The sequence of examinations was the following: (1) reaction time, (2) pressure thresholds, (3) thermal thresholds, and (4) cold pressor test. Reaction time was measured to ensure that psychomotoric inhibitions did not influence pain thresholds. Results Pain modulation induced by a cold pressor test reduced spontaneous pain by 40% on average in neuropathic pain patients, but increased spontaneous pain by 2.6% in fibromyalgia patients. This difference between fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain patients was

  1. Electroencephalographic evoked pain response is suppressed by spinal cord stimulation in complex regional pain syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylands-White, Nicholas; Duarte, Rui V; Beeson, Paul; Mayhew, Stephen D; Raphael, Jon H

    2016-12-01

    Pain is a subjective response that limits assessment. The purpose of this case report was to explore how the objectivity of the electroencephalographic response to thermal stimuli would be affected by concurrent spinal cord stimulation. A patient had been implanted with a spinal cord stimulator for the management of complex regional pain syndrome of both hands for 8 years. Following ethical approval and written informed consent we induced thermal stimuli using the Medoc PATHWAY Pain & Sensory Evaluation System on the right hand of the patient with the spinal cord stimulator switched off and with the spinal cord stimulator switched on. The patient reported a clinically significant reduction in thermal induced pain using the numerical rating scale (71.4 % reduction) with spinal cord stimulator switched on. Analysis of electroencephalogram recordings indicated the occurrence of contact heat evoked potentials (N2-P2) with spinal cord stimulator off, but not with spinal cord stimulator on. This case report suggests that thermal pain can be reduced in complex regional pain syndrome patients with the use of spinal cord stimulation and offers objective validation of the reported outcomes with this treatment.

  2. Sensation-seeking and impulsivity as predictors of reactive and proactive aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Del Carmen Pérez Fuentes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In adolescence, such matters as substance use and impulsiveness may give rise to problematic behavior repertoires. This study was therefore done to analyze the predictive value of sensation-seeking and impulsiveness dimensions related to the functions of aggression (reactive/proactive and types of expression (physical/relational. A total of 822 high school students in Almeria (Spain aged 13 to 18, were administered the Sensation-Seeking Scale, the State Impulsiveness Scale and Peer Conflict Scale. The results show the existence of a positive correlation of the majority of factors analyzed, both in impulsiveness and sensation-seeking, with respect to the different types of aggression. Furthermore, aggressive behavior is explained by the combination of a sensation-seeking factor (Disinhibition and two impulsiveness factors (Gratification and Automatism. This study shows the need to analyze aggression as a multidimensional construct.

  3. Attachment, Social Value Orientation, Sensation Seeking, and Bullying in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innamorati, Marco; Parolin, Laura; Tagini, Angela; Santona, Alessandra; Bosco, Andrea; De Carli, Pietro; Palmisano, Giovanni L.; Pergola, Filippo; Sarracino, Diego

    2018-01-01

    In this study, bullying is examined in light of the “prosocial security hypothesis”— i.e., the hypothesis that insecure attachment, with temperamental dispositions such as sensation seeking, may foster individualistic, competitive value orientations and problem behaviors. A group of 375 Italian students (53% female; Mean age = 12.58, SD = 1.08) completed anonymous questionnaires regarding attachment security, social values, sensation seeking, and bullying behaviors. Path analysis showed that attachment to mother was negatively associated with bullying of others, both directly and through the mediating role of conservative socially oriented values, while attachment to father was directly associated with victimization. Sensation seeking predicted bullying of others and victimization both directly and through the mediating role of conservative socially oriented values. Adolescents’ gender affected how attachment moderated the relationship between sensation seeking and problem behavior. PMID:29535668

  4. [Dante's Inferno and the McGill Pain Questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, N; Marcolongo, R

    2007-01-01

    To study the images which depict the damned's sufferings in Dante's Inferno, in their expression of the several meanings of "pain", the semantics of "pain" in the poem has been analyzed, eventually trying to determine whether the organization of punishments of Inferno may somehow mirror a disability scale. A detailed analysis of the text was carried out, which proved a valuable tool for interpreting the organization of punishments as a possible disability scale. The semantics of pain in the Divine Comedy was studied through all the forms of the pain descriptors (included the archaic terminological forms) from the Italian version of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MGPQ) by Maiani and Sanavio. In Dante's Inferno a classification of pain is provided, based on the experience of sufferings; Dante's images seem not only instrumental to investigating the sensorial but also the affective and intellectual spheres by introducing a number of characters and describing the impact of punishment onto their souls. Our research highlighted that 46 out of 78 terms from the MGPQ are present in Inferno, though with different forms; the Groups the MGPQ is divided into are also represented with the exception of Group XII, the most frequently detected being Groups XIII-which studies the fear-related sensations in the emotional sphere - XIV, XIX and XX. The great attention emerges that Dante devoted to describing simple sensorial experiences as well as the way punishments affected the soul. As a whole, the terms pertaining to the sensorial sphere are the most frequently encountered. The lack of motion which increases circle after circle in Hell, well matches the progressing physical and psychological impairment caused by some invalidating diseases. Noticeably, Dante created such a complex system centuries before the studies were released on the impact of pain and its quantitative and mostly qualitative definition. In conclusion, this interpretation suggests that the writing on the door to

  5. Thermal and mechanical quantitative sensory testing in Chinese patients with burning mouth syndrome--a probable neuropathic pain condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xueyin; Zhang, Jinglu; Fan, Yuan; Svensson, Peter; Wang, Kelun

    2015-01-01

    To explore the hypothesis that burning mouth syndrome (BMS) probably is a neuropathic pain condition, thermal and mechanical sensory and pain thresholds were tested and compared with age- and gender-matched control participants using a standardized battery of psychophysical techniques. Twenty-five BMS patients (men: 8, women: 17, age: 49.5 ± 11.4 years) and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy control participants were included. The cold detection threshold (CDT), warm detection threshold (WDT), cold pain threshold (CPT), heat pain threshold (HPT), mechanical detection threshold (MDT) and mechanical pain threshold (MPT), in accordance with the German Network of Neuropathic Pain guidelines, were measured at the following four sites: the dorsum of the left hand (hand), the skin at the mental foramen (chin), on the tip of the tongue (tongue), and the mucosa of the lower lip (lip). Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA with repeated measures to compare the means within and between groups. Furthermore, Z-score profiles were generated, and exploratory correlation analyses between QST and clinical variables were performed. Two-tailed tests with a significance level of 5 % were used throughout. CDTs (P < 0.02) were significantly lower (less sensitivity) and HPTs (P < 0.001) were significantly higher (less sensitivity) at the tongue and lip in BMS patients compared to control participants. WDT (P = 0.007) was also significantly higher at the tongue in BMS patients compared to control subjects . There were no significant differences in MDT and MPT between the BMS patients and healthy subjects at any of the four test sites. Z-scores showed that significant loss of function can be identified for CDT (Z-scores = -0.9±1.1) and HPT (Z-scores = 1.5±0.4). There were no significant correlations between QST and clinical variables (pain intensity, duration, depressions scores). BMS patients had a significant loss of thermal function but not

  6. Pulsed radiofrequency of brachial plexus under ultrasound guidance for refractory stump pain: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng B

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bixin Zheng, Li Song, Hui Liu Department of Pain Management, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China Abstract: The post-amputation (pain syndrome, including stump pain, phantom limb sensation, and phantom limb pain is common but difficult to treat. Refractory stump pain in the syndrome is an extremely challenging and troublesome clinical condition. Patients respond poorly to drugs, nerve blocks, and other effective treatments like spinal cord stimulation and surgery. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF technique has been shown to be effective in reducing neuropathic pain. This report describes a patient with persistent and refractory upper limb stump pain being successfully relieved with PRF of brachial plexus under ultrasound guidance after a 6-month follow-up period, suggesting that PRF may be considered as an alternative treatment for refractory stump-neuroma pain. Keywords: ultrasound guidance, pulsed radiofrequency, brachial plexus, refractory stump pain 

  7. Transient receptor potential channel polymorphisms are associated with the somatosensory function in neuropathic pain patients.

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    Andreas Binder

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential channels are important mediators of thermal and mechanical stimuli and play an important role in neuropathic pain. The contribution of hereditary variants in the genes of transient receptor potential channels to neuropathic pain is unknown. We investigated the frequency of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1, transient receptor potential melastin 8 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and their impact on somatosensory abnormalities in neuropathic pain patients. Within the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (Deutscher Forscbungsverbund Neuropathischer Schmerz 371 neuropathic pain patients were phenotypically characterized using standardized quantitative sensory testing. Pyrosequencing was employed to determine a total of eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms in transient receptor potential channel genes of the neuropathic pain patients and a cohort of 253 German healthy volunteers. Associations of quantitative sensory testing parameters and single nucleotide polymorphisms between and within groups and subgroups, based on sensory phenotypes, were analyzed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms frequencies did not differ between both the cohorts. However, in neuropathic pain patients transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 710G>A (rs920829, E179K was associated with the presence of paradoxical heat sensation (p = 0.03, and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 1911A>G (rs8065080, I585V with cold hypoalgesia (p = 0.0035. Two main subgroups characterized by preserved (1 and impaired (2 sensory function were identified. In subgroup 1 transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 1911A>G led to significantly less heat hyperalgesia, pinprick hyperalgesia and mechanical hypaesthesia (p = 0.006, p = 0.005 and pG (rs222747, M315I to cold hypaesthesia (p = 0.002, but there was absence of associations in subgroup 2. In this study we found no evidence that genetic

  8. The Modulation of Pain by Circadian and Sleep-Dependent Processes: A Review of the Experimental Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagenauer, Megan; Crodelle, Jennifer; Piltz, Sofia Helena

    2017-01-01

    conditions, pain sensitivity varies across the 24 h day, with highest sensitivity occurring during the evening in humans. Pain sensitivity is also modulated by sleep behavior, with pain sensitivity increasing in response to the build-up of homeostatic sleep pressure following sleep deprivation or sleep...... of physiologically meaningful stimulation levels. Following this normalization, we find that the estimated impact of the daily rhythm and of sleep deprivation on experimental pain measurements is surprisingly consistent across different pain modalities. We also review evidence documenting the impact of circadian...... rhythms and sleep deprivation on the neural circuitry in the spinal cord underlying pain sensation. The characterization of sleep-dependent and circadian influences on pain sensitivity in this review paper is used to develop and constrain the mathematical models introduced in the two companion articles....

  9. Real-Time Monitoring of Occupants’ Thermal Comfort through Infrared Imaging: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Pavlin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermally comfortable indoor environments are of great importance, as modern lifestyles often require people to spend more than 20 h per day indoors. Since most of the thermal comfort models use a variety of different environmental and personal factors that need to be measured or estimated, real-time and continuous assessment of thermal comfort is often not practically feasible. This work presents a cheap and non-invasive approach based on infrared imaging for monitoring the occupants’ thermal sensation and comfort in real time. Thanks to a mechatronic device developed by the authors, the imaging is performed on the forehead skin, selected because it is always exposed to the environment and, thus, facilitating the monitoring activity in a non-invasive manner. Tests have been performed in controlled conditions on ten subjects to assess the hypothesis that the forehead temperature is correlated with subjects’ thermal sensation. This allows the exploitation of this quantity as a base for a simple monitoring of thermal comfort, which could later be tuned with an extensive experimental campaign.

  10. Selective sensation based brain-computer interface via mechanical vibrotactile stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lin; Meng, Jianjun; Zhang, Dingguo; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2013-01-01

    In this work, mechanical vibrotactile stimulation was applied to subjects' left and right wrist skins with equal intensity, and a selective sensation perception task was performed to achieve two types of selections similar to motor imagery Brain-Computer Interface. The proposed system was based on event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS), which had a correlation with processing of afferent inflow in human somatosensory system, and attentional effect which modulated the ERD/ERS. The experiments were carried out on nine subjects (without experience in selective sensation), and six of them showed a discrimination accuracy above 80%, three of them above 95%. Comparative experiments with motor imagery (with and without presence of stimulation) were also carried out, which further showed the feasibility of selective sensation as an alternative BCI task complementary to motor imagery. Specifically there was significant improvement ([Formula: see text]) from near 65% in motor imagery (with and without presence of stimulation) to above 80% in selective sensation on some subjects. The proposed BCI modality might well cooperate with existing BCI modalities in the literature in enlarging the widespread usage of BCI system.

  11. Selective Sensation Based Brain-Computer Interface via Mechanical Vibrotactile Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lin; Meng, Jianjun; Zhang, Dingguo; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2013-01-01

    In this work, mechanical vibrotactile stimulation was applied to subjects’ left and right wrist skins with equal intensity, and a selective sensation perception task was performed to achieve two types of selections similar to motor imagery Brain-Computer Interface. The proposed system was based on event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS), which had a correlation with processing of afferent inflow in human somatosensory system, and attentional effect which modulated the ERD/ERS. The experiments were carried out on nine subjects (without experience in selective sensation), and six of them showed a discrimination accuracy above 80%, three of them above 95%. Comparative experiments with motor imagery (with and without presence of stimulation) were also carried out, which further showed the feasibility of selective sensation as an alternative BCI task complementary to motor imagery. Specifically there was significant improvement () from near 65% in motor imagery (with and without presence of stimulation) to above 80% in selective sensation on some subjects. The proposed BCI modality might well cooperate with existing BCI modalities in the literature in enlarging the widespread usage of BCI system. PMID:23762253

  12. The precedence effect for lateralization at low sensation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverts, S T; Houtgast, T; van Beek, H H

    2000-10-01

    Using dichotic signals presented by headphone, stimulus onset dominance (the precedence effect) for lateralization at low sensation levels was investigated for five normal hearing subjects. Stimuli were based on 2400-Hz low pass filtered 5-ms noise bursts. We used the paradigm, as described by Aoki and Houtgast (Hear. Res., 59 (1992) 25-30) and Houtgast and Aoki (Hear. Res., 72 (1994) 29-36), in which the stimulus is divided into a leading and a lagging part with opposite lateralization cues (i.e. an interaural time delay of 0.2 ms). The occurrence of onset dominance was investigated by measuring lateral perception of the stimulus, with fixed equal duration of leading and lagging part, while decreasing absolute signal level or adding a filtered white noise with the signal level set at 65 dBA. The dominance of the leading part was quantified by measuring the perceived lateral position of the stimulus as a function of the relative duration of the leading (and thus the lagging) part. This was done at about 45 dB SL without masking noise and also at a signal-to-noise ratio resulting in a sensation level of 10 dB. The occurrence and strength of the precedence effect was found to depend on sensation level, which was decreased either by lowering the signal level or by adding noise. With the present paradigm, besides a decreased lateralization accuracy, a decrease in the precedence effect was found for sensation levels below about 30-40 dB. In daily-life conditions, with a sensation level in noise of typically 10 dB, the onset dominance was still manifest, albeit degraded to some extent.

  13. Dopamine modulates risk-taking as a function of baseline sensation-seeking trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Agnes; Manohar, Sanjay; Rogers, Robert D; Husain, Masud

    2013-08-07

    Trait sensation-seeking, defined as a need for varied, complex, and intense sensations, represents a relatively underexplored hedonic drive in human behavioral neuroscience research. It is related to increased risk for a range of behaviors including substance use, gambling, and risky sexual practice. Individual differences in self-reported sensation-seeking have been linked to brain dopamine function, particularly at D2-like receptors, but so far no causal evidence exists for a role of dopamine in sensation-seeking behavior in humans. Here, we investigated the effects of the selective D2/D3 agonist cabergoline on performance of a probabilistic risky choice task in healthy humans using a sensitive within-subject, placebo-controlled design. Cabergoline significantly influenced the way participants combined different explicit signals regarding probability and loss when choosing between response options associated with uncertain outcomes. Importantly, these effects were strongly dependent on baseline sensation-seeking score. Overall, cabergoline increased sensitivity of choice to information about probability of winning; while decreasing discrimination according to magnitude of potential losses associated with different options. The largest effects of the drug were observed in participants with lower sensation-seeking scores. These findings provide evidence that risk-taking behavior in humans can be directly manipulated by a dopaminergic drug, but that the effectiveness of such a manipulation depends on baseline differences in sensation-seeking trait. This emphasizes the importance of considering individual differences when investigating manipulation of risky decision-making, and may have relevance for the development of pharmacotherapies for disorders involving excessive risk-taking in humans, such as pathological gambling.

  14. [Burning sensation in oral cavity--burning mouth syndrome in everyday medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlinger, Imre

    2012-09-30

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) refers to chronic orofacial pain, unaccompanied by mucosal lesions or other evident clinical signs. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women. BMS is characterized by an intense burning or stinging sensation, typically on the tongue or in other areas of the oral mucosa. It can be accompanied by other sensory disorders such as dry mouth or taste alterations. Probably of multifactorial origin, and often idiopathic, with a still unknown etiopathogenesis in which local, systemic and psychological factors are implicated. Currently there is no consensus on the diagnosis and classification of BMS. This study reviews the literature on this syndrome, with special reference to the etiological factors that may be involved and the clinical aspects they present. The diagnostic criteria that should be followed and the therapeutic management are discussed with reference to the most recent studies.

  15. The Effect of Tear Supplementation with 0.15% Preservative-Free Zinc-Hyaluronate on Ocular Surface Sensations in Patients with Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perényi, Kristóf; Dienes, Lóránt; Kornafeld, Anna; Kovács, Balázs; Kiss, Huba J; Szepessy, Zsuzsanna; Nagy, Zoltán Z; Barsi, Árpád; Acosta, M Carmen; Gallar, Juana; Kovács, Illés

    To evaluate the effect of tear supplementation with preservative free 0.15% zinc-hyaluronate on ocular surface sensations and corneal sensitivity in dry eye patients. Ocular surface sensations were assessed using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire and by recording ocular sensations during forced blinking in parallel with noninvasive tear film breakup time measurement in 20 eyes of 20 dry eye patients. Corneal sensitivity thresholds to selective stimulation of corneal mechano-, thermal- and chemical receptors were measured using the Belmonte gas esthesiometer. All baseline measurements were repeated after 1 month of treatment with 0.15% zinc-hyaluronate. After 1 month, a significant decrease in mean OSDI score (from 35.66 ± 12.36 to 15.03 ± 11.22; P  0.05). Prolonged use of 0.15% zinc-hyaluronate results in an improvement of tear film stability and a decrease of dry eye complaints. The decrease in corneal mechano-and polymodal receptor excitability suggests that zinc-hyaluronate helps to recover normal corneal sensitivity, and thus might have a beneficial additional effect on reducing ocular surface complaints in dry eye patients.

  16. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain.

  17. Sensation seeking and alcohol use by college students: examining multiple pathways of effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanovitzky, Itzhak

    2006-01-01

    This study tests the proposition that peer influence mediates the effect of sensation seeking, a personality trait, on alcohol use among college students. Cross-sectional data to test this proposition were collected from a representative sample of college students at a large public northeastern university (N = 427). Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that, as hypothesized, sensation seeking influenced personal alcohol use both directly and indirectly, through its impact on students' frequency of association with alcohol-using peers and the size of their drinking norm misperception. The findings suggest that interventions that seek to limit the frequency in which high sensation seekers associate with peers whose alcohol use is extreme or, alternatively, seek to facilitate social interactions of high sensation seekers with normative peers, may supplement efforts to influence sensation seekers' alcohol and other drug use through tailored mass media advertisements.

  18. Conscious sensation, conscious perception and sensorimotor theories of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Gamez, David

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the hypothesis that the differences between our conscious sensations (color, sound, smell, etc.) could be linked to the different ways in which our senses process and structure information. It is also proposed that the organization of our conscious sensations into a conscious perception of a three-dimensional world could be linked to our mastery of sensorimotor contingencies. These hypotheses are supported by a number of observations, including the appearance of consciou...

  19. A heteromeric Texas coral snake toxin targets acid-sensing ion channels to produce pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlen, Christopher J; Chesler, Alexander T; Sharif-Naeini, Reza; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Zhou, Sharleen; King, David; Sánchez, Elda E; Burlingame, Alma L; Basbaum, Allan I; Julius, David

    2011-11-16

    Natural products that elicit discomfort or pain represent invaluable tools for probing molecular mechanisms underlying pain sensation. Plant-derived irritants have predominated in this regard, but animal venoms have also evolved to avert predators by targeting neurons and receptors whose activation produces noxious sensations. As such, venoms provide a rich and varied source of small molecule and protein pharmacophores that can be exploited to characterize and manipulate key components of the pain-signalling pathway. With this in mind, here we perform an unbiased in vitro screen to identify snake venoms capable of activating somatosensory neurons. Venom from the Texas coral snake (Micrurus tener tener), whose bite produces intense and unremitting pain, excites a large cohort of sensory neurons. The purified active species (MitTx) consists of a heteromeric complex between Kunitz- and phospholipase-A2-like proteins that together function as a potent, persistent and selective agonist for acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), showing equal or greater efficacy compared with acidic pH. MitTx is highly selective for the ASIC1 subtype at neutral pH; under more acidic conditions (pH 100-fold) proton-evoked activation of ASIC2a channels. These observations raise the possibility that ASIC channels function as coincidence detectors for extracellular protons and other, as yet unidentified, endogenous factors. Purified MitTx elicits robust pain-related behaviour in mice by activation of ASIC1 channels on capsaicin-sensitive nerve fibres. These findings reveal a mechanism whereby snake venoms produce pain, and highlight an unexpected contribution of ASIC1 channels to nociception. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  20. Sensation fiction, gender and identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacDonald, T.; Mangham, A.

    2013-01-01

    The heroine of Wilkie Collins’s The Law and the Lady (1875), Valeria Macallan, is in many ways a typical sensation heroine. She is resilient, independent and determined to get what she wants. What she wants, however, is not to marry rich, hide her bigamous past or inherit a fortune that is

  1. Does exogenous melatonin influence the free radicals metabolism and pain sensation in rat?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pekárková, I.; Parara, S.; Holeček, V.; Stopka, Pavel; Trefil, L.; Racek, J.; Rokyta, R.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 6 (2001), s. 595-602 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd NF4665 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : melatonin * oxidative stress * pain stress Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.027, year: 2001

  2. Psychophysical and cerebral responses to heat stimulation in patients with central pain, painless central sensory loss, and in healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Kenneth L; Geisser, Michael; Lorenz, Jürgen; Morrow, Thomas J; Paulson, Pamela; Minoshima, Satoshi

    2012-02-01

    Patients with central pain (CP) typically have chronic pain within an area of reduced pain and temperature sensation, suggesting an impairment of endogenous pain modulation mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that some brain structures normally activated by cutaneous heat stimulation would be hyperresponsive among patients with CP but not among patients with a central nervous system lesion causing a loss of heat or nociceptive sensation with no pain (NP). We used H(2)(15)O positron emission tomography to measure, in 15 healthy control participants, 10 NP patients, and 10 CP patients, increases in regional cerebral blood flow among volumes of interest (VOI) from the resting (no stimulus) condition during bilateral contact heat stimulation at heat detection, heat pain threshold, and heat pain tolerance levels. Both patient groups had a reduced perception of heat intensity and unpleasantness on the clinically affected side and a bilateral impairment of heat detection. Compared with the HC group, both NP and CP patients had more hyperactive and hypoactive VOI in the resting state and more hyperresponsive and hyporesponsive VOI during heat stimulation. Compared with NP patients, CP patients had more hyperresponsive VOI in the intralaminar thalamus and sensory-motor cortex during heat stimulation. Our results show that focal CNS lesions produce bilateral sensory deficits and widespread changes in the nociceptive excitability of the brain. The increased nociceptive excitability within the intralaminar thalamus and sensory-motor cortex of our sample of CP patients suggests an underlying pathophysiology for the pain in some central pain syndromes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Sensation Seeking as one of the Motivating Factors for Performing Skydiving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bołdak Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For some time, the issue of participating in high-risk sports, including skydiving, has been linked to the trait of sensation seeking, but skydivers do not constitute a homogeneous group in terms of this factor. The aim of the study was to determine the role of the need for sensation in performing skydiving and to examine whether the importance of this factor differs depending on gender. Material and methods. The study included a total of 143 skydivers (98 men and 45 women aged from 17 to 49 years with different levels of expertise in skydiving. In total, 73 respondents were categorised as novices, and 70 were considered experts. Novice skydivers were defined as having completed no more than 10 jumps in their lives. Expert skydivers were persons who had made at least 100 jumps in their lives and had a licence to perform skydiving independently, without instructor supervision. The need for stimulation was measured using the Sensation Seeking Scale IV by Zuckerman, in its Polish version by Oleszkiewicz-Zsurzs. Results. Since a high proportion of individuals with a strong need for sensation was found among both men and women, it can be concluded that it is an important factor in primary selection in skydiving (when the sport is undertaken, regardless of gender. Conclusions. The significance of sensation seeking as a factor in secondary selection in skydiving (when the sport is being performed differs depending on the particular dimension of sensation seeking and gender. Susceptibility to boredom is probably a significant factor in secondary selection in women.

  4. Thermal quantitative sensory testing to assess the sensory effects of three local anesthetic solutions in a randomized trial of interscalene blockade for shoulder surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermeus, Luc A; Hans, Guy H; Schepens, Tom; Bosserez, Nathalie M-L; Breebaart, Margaretha B; Smitz, Carine J; Vercauteren, Marcel P

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether quantitative sensory testing (QST) with thermal stimulations can quantitatively measure the characteristics of an ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block (US-ISB). This was a prospective randomized trial in patients scheduled for arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia and US-ISB. Participants and observers were blinded for the study. We assigned the study participants to one of three groups: 0.5% levobupivacaine 15 mL, 0.5% levobupivacaine 15 mL with 1:200,000 epinephrine, and 0.75% ropivacaine 15 mL. We performed thermal QST within dermatomes C4, C5, C6, and C7 before infiltration and 30 min, six hours, ten hours, and 24 hr after performing the US-ISB. In addition, we used QST, a semi-objective quantitative testing method, to measure the onset, intensity, duration, extent, and functional recovery of the sensory block. We also measured detection thresholds for cold/warm sensations and cold/heat pain. Detection thresholds for all thermal sensations within the ipsilateral C4, C5, C6, and C7 dermatomes increased rapidly (indicating the development of a hypoesthetic state) and reached a steady state after 30 min. This lasted for approximately ten hours and returned to normal detection thresholds by 24 hr. There were no differences detected between the three groups at 24 hr when we compared warm sensation thresholds on one dermatome. Visual inspection of the pooled results per dermatome suggests the ability of QST to detect clinically relevant differences in block intensity per dermatome. Quantitative sensory testing can be useful as a method for detecting the presence and characteristics of regional anesthesia-induced sensory block and may be used for the evaluation of clinical protocols. The three local anesthetic solutions exhibited a similar anesthetic effect. The results support the use of QST to assess block characteristics quantitatively under clinical research conditions. This trial was registered at

  5. An open-label, in-use study assessing the warming sensation accompanying IFF Flavour 316282 and the acceptability and local tolerability of a syrup containing paracetamol and pseudoephedrine for the short-term treatment of symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowland Furcha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective was to assess the warming sensation caused by IFF Flavour 316282 in a syrup used for short-term treatment by patients suffering from nasal congestion and mild to moderate body pain, headache, fever or sore throat associated with an upper respiratory tract infection. Methods: A single cohort, single treatment arm, open-label study. Subjects received one 30 mL dose of syrup containing IFF Flavour 316282, paracetamol and pseudoephedrine and recorded onset and disappearance of any warming sensation in the mouth/throat. Subjects’ assessments of strength and appeal of the sensation, taste, texture and acceptability of the product was investigated using questionnaires. Results: A total of 56 subjects were included; 53 (94.6% experienced a warming sensation. The median duration of the warming sensation was 114 s (95% confidence interval: 87–120 s. All subjects rated the syrup as excellent, good or fair for treating their symptoms; 100% and 94.6% of subjects respectively described texture and taste as excellent, good or fair. There were no safety concerns, and the syrup was well tolerated. Most subjects liked the warming sensation. Conclusions: IFF Flavour 316282 in a syrup for treatment of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms is associated with a warming sensation. The syrup is well tolerated, safe and palatable.

  6. Characterization of cold sensitivity and thermal preference using an operant orofacial assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caudle Robert M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A hallmark of many orofacial pain disorders is cold sensitivity, but relative to heat-related pain, mechanisms of cold perception and the development of cold allodynia are not clearly understood. Molecular mediators of cold sensation such as TRPM8 have been recently identified and characterized using in vitro studies. In this study we characterized operant behavior with respect to individually presented cold stimuli (24, 10, 2, and -4°C and in a thermal preference task where rats chose between -4 and 48°C stimulation. We also evaluated the effects of menthol, a TRPM8 agonist, on operant responses to cold stimulation (24, 10, and -4°C. Male and female rats were trained to drink sweetened milk while pressing their shaved faces against a thermode. This presents a conflict paradigm between milk reward and thermal stimulation. Results We demonstrated that the cold stimulus response function was modest compared to heat. There was a significant effect of temperature on facial (stimulus contacts, the ratio of licking contacts to stimulus contacts, and the stimulus duration/contact ratio. Males and females differed only in their facial contacts at 10°C. In the preference task, males preferred 48°C to -4°C, despite the fact that 48°C and -4°C were equally painful as based on their reward/stimulus and duration/contact ratios. We were able to induce hypersensitivity to cold using menthol at 10°C, but not at 24 or -4°C. Conclusion Our results indicate a strong role for an affective component in processing of cold stimuli, more so than for heat, which is in concordance with human psychophysical findings. The induction of allodynia with menthol provides a model for cold allodynia. This study provides the basis for future studies involving orofacial pain and analgesics, and is translatable to the human experience.