WorldWideScience

Sample records for thermal monitoring strongly

  1. Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Congxin Wei; Yuansheng Zhang; Xiao Guo; Shaoxing Hui; Manzhong Qin; Ying Zhang

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method...

  2. Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congxin Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1 There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of “time-frequency relative power spectrum.” (2 There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3 Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4 Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  3. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  4. Monitoring and thermal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Rainer

    2003-12-01

    Anaesthesia alters normal thermoregulatory control of the body, usually leading to perioperative hypothermia. Hypothermia is associated with a large number of serious complications. To assess perianaesthetic hypothermia, core temperature should be monitored vigorously. Pulmonary artery, tympanic membrane, distal oesophageal or nasopharyngeal temperatures reflect core temperature reliably. Core temperatures can be often estimated with reasonable accuracy using oral, axillary and bladder temperatures, except during extreme thermal perturbations. The body site for measurements should be chosen according to the surgical procedure. Unless hypothermia is specifically indicated, efforts should be made to maintain intraoperative core temperatures above 36 degrees C. Forced air is the most effective, commonly available, non-invasive warming method. Resistive heating electrical blankets and circulating water garment systems are an equally effective alternative. Intravenous fluid warming is also helpful when large volumes are required. In some patients, induction of mild therapeutic hypothermia may become an issue for the future. Recent studies indicate that patients suffering from neurological disease may profit from rapid core cooling.

  5. Modelling and monitoring of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage : impacts of soil heterogeneity, thermal interference and bioremediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, W.T.

    2015-01-01

    Modelling and monitoring of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Impacts of heterogeneity, thermal interference and bioremediation Wijbrand Sommer
    PhD thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, NL (2015)
    ISBN 978-94-6257-294-2 <strong>Abstract> Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is

  6. Monitoring Thermal Conditions in Footwear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Moreno, Alejandra. A.; Lopez Vela, Martín; Alcalá Ochoa, Noe

    2006-09-01

    Thermal conditions inside the foot were evaluated on a volunteer subject. We have designed and constructed an electronic system which can monitors temperature and humidity of the foot inside the shoe. The data is stored in a battery-powered device for later uploading to a host computer for data analysis. The apparatus potentially can be used to provide feedback to patients who are prone to having skin breakdowns.

  7. The ingestible thermal monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutchis, Protagoras N.; Hogrefe, Arthur F.; Lesho, Jeffery C.

    1988-03-01

    A thermal monitoring system for measuring body core temperatures was developed that contains an ingestible pill which is both commandable and rechargeable, and which uses magnetic induction for command and telemetry as well as for recharging. The pill electronics consist of a battery power source, a crystal-controlled oscillator that drives a small air coil, and a command detection circuit. The resulting 262-kHz magnetilc field can be easily detected from a distance of 1 m. The pill oscillator functions at voltages less than 1 V, supplied by a single Ni-Cd battery, which must be recharged after 72 h of continuous transmission. The pill can be recalibrated periodically to compensate for long-term drift.

  8. Strong anisotropic thermal expansion in cristobalite-type BPO 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achary, S. N.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2004-11-01

    In this communication, the thermal expansion behavior of cristobalite-type BPO 4, determined from high-temperature X-ray diffraction studies, is being reported. BPO 4 crystallizes in tetragonal lattice, with space group I-4 (No. 82) at room temperature, with unit cell parameters: a=4.3447(2), c=6.6415(5) Å and V=125.37(1) Å 3. The tetragonal unit cell parameters at 900 °C are: a=4.3939(2), c=6.6539(6) Å and V=128.46(1) Å 3. The results show a very strong anisotropic expansion in the lattice, with the typical thermal expansion coefficients along a- and c-axis 12.9×10 -6 and 2.1×10 -6/°C, respectively. The volume thermal expansion coefficient of the lattice is 28.2×10 -6/°C in the temperature range of 25-900 °C. The variation of the crystal structure with temperature and the thermal expansion behavior are explained in this manuscript. The role of inter-polyhedral angle on the thermal expansion behavior has also been established.

  9. Thermalization and confinement in strongly coupled gauge theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum field theories of strongly interacting matter sometimes have a useful holographic description in terms of the variables of a gravitational theory in higher dimensions. This duality maps time dependent physics in the gauge theory to time dependent solutions of the Einstein equations in the gravity theory. In order to better understand the process by which “real world” theories such as QCD behave out of thermodynamic equilibrium, we study time dependent perturbations to states in a model of a confining, strongly coupled gauge theory via holography. Operationally, this involves solving a set of non-linear Einstein equations supplemented with specific time dependent boundary conditions. The resulting solutions allow one to comment on the timescale by which the perturbed states thermalize, as well as to quantify the properties of the final state as a function of the perturbation parameters. We comment on the influence of the dual gauge theory’s confinement scale on these results, as well as the appearance of a previously anticipated universal scaling regime in the “abrupt quench” limit.

  10. Monitoring Motion of Pigs in Thermal Videos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronskyte, Ruta; Kulahci, Murat; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new approach for monitoring animal movement in thermal videos. The method distinguishes movements as walking in the expected direction from walking in the opposite direction, stopping or lying down. The method utilizes blob detection combined with opti-cal ow to segment the pigs...

  11. From strong to weak coupling in holographic models of thermalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grozdanov, Sašo; Kaplis, Nikolaos [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden University,Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden 2333 CA (Netherlands); Starinets, Andrei O. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-29

    We investigate the analytic structure of thermal energy-momentum tensor correlators at large but finite coupling in quantum field theories with gravity duals. We compute corrections to the quasinormal spectra of black branes due to the presence of higher derivative R{sup 2} and R{sup 4} terms in the action, focusing on the dual to N=4 SYM theory and Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We observe the appearance of new poles in the complex frequency plane at finite coupling. The new poles interfere with hydrodynamic poles of the correlators leading to the breakdown of hydrodynamic description at a coupling-dependent critical value of the wave-vector. The dependence of the critical wave vector on the coupling implies that the range of validity of the hydrodynamic description increases monotonically with the coupling. The behavior of the quasinormal spectrum at large but finite coupling may be contrasted with the known properties of the hierarchy of relaxation times determined by the spectrum of a linearized kinetic operator at weak coupling. We find that the ratio of a transport coefficient such as viscosity to the relaxation time determined by the fundamental non-hydrodynamic quasinormal frequency changes rapidly in the vicinity of infinite coupling but flattens out for weaker coupling, suggesting an extrapolation from strong coupling to the kinetic theory result. We note that the behavior of the quasinormal spectrum is qualitatively different depending on whether the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density is greater or less than the universal, infinite coupling value of ℏ/4πk{sub B}. In the former case, the density of poles increases, indicating a formation of branch cuts in the weak coupling limit, and the spectral function shows the appearance of narrow peaks. We also discuss the relation of the viscosity-entropy ratio to conjectured bounds on relaxation time in quantum systems.

  12. Monitoring non-thermal plasma processes for nanoparticle synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangolini, Lorenzo

    2017-09-01

    Process characterization tools have played a crucial role in the investigation of dusty plasmas. The presence of dust in certain non-thermal plasma processes was first detected by laser light scattering measurements. Techniques like laser induced particle explosive evaporation and ion mass spectrometry have provided the experimental evidence necessary for the development of the theory of particle nucleation in silane-containing non-thermal plasmas. This review provides first a summary of these early efforts, and then discusses recent investigations using in situ characterization techniques to understand the interaction between nanoparticles and plasmas. The advancement of such monitoring techniques is necessary to fully develop the potential of non-thermal plasmas as unique materials synthesis and processing platforms. At the same time, the strong coupling between materials and plasma properties suggest that it is also necessary to advance techniques for the measurement of plasma properties while in presence of dust. Recent progress in this area will be discussed.

  13. Highly thermally conductive and mechanically strong graphene fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Guoqing; Yao, Tiankai; Sun, Hongtao; Scott, Spencer Michael; Shao, Dali; Wang, Gongkai; Lian, Jie

    2015-09-04

    Graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms bonded in a hexagonal lattice, is the thinnest, strongest, and stiffest known material and an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. However, these superior properties have yet to be realized for graphene-derived macroscopic structures such as graphene fibers. We report the fabrication of graphene fibers with high thermal and electrical conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength. The inner fiber structure consists of large-sized graphene sheets forming a highly ordered arrangement intercalated with small-sized graphene sheets filling the space and microvoids. The graphene fibers exhibit a submicrometer crystallite domain size through high-temperature treatment, achieving an enhanced thermal conductivity up to 1290 watts per meter per kelvin. The tensile strength of the graphene fiber reaches 1080 megapascals. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Fiber Optic Thermal Health Monitoring of Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Chou; Winfree, William P.; Moore, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    A recently developed technique is presented for thermographic detection of flaws in composite materials by performing temperature measurements with fiber optic Bragg gratings. Individual optical fibers with multiple Bragg gratings employed as surface temperature sensors were bonded to the surfaces of composites with subsurface defects. The investigated structures included a 10-ply composite specimen with subsurface delaminations of various sizes and depths. Both during and following the application of a thermal heat flux to the surface, the individual Bragg grating sensors measured the temporal and spatial temperature variations. The data obtained from grating sensors were analyzed with thermal modeling techniques of conventional thermography to reveal particular characteristics of the interested areas. Results were compared with the calculations using numerical simulation techniques. Methods and limitations for performing in-situ structural health monitoring are discussed.

  15. Collisional Thermalization in Strongly Coupled Ultracold Neutral Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-25

    White Dwarf Stars," Keynote address at the Joint Spring 2016 Meeting of the Texas Sections of APS, AAPT, and Zone 13 of the SPS, Lamar University... White Dwarf Stars," Physics Department Colloquium, Union College, Schenectady, NY (11/16). ``Studying Collisions and Transport in Strongly

  16. Thermal DBI action for the D3-brane at weak and strong coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grignani, Gianluca; Harmark, Troels; Marini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We study the effective action for finite-temperature D3-branes with an electromagnetic field at weak and strong coupling. We call this action the thermal DBI action. Comparing at low temperature the leading T4 correction for the thermal DBI action at weak and strong coupling we find that the 3/4 ...

  17. More on thermal probes of a strongly coupled anisotropic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnke, Viktor [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo,05314-970 São Paulo (Brazil); Luna, Andrés; Patiño, Leonardo [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,A.P. 50-542, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Trancanelli, Diego [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo,05314-970 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-01-27

    We extend the analysis of arXiv:1211.2199, where the photon production rate of an anisotropic strongly coupled plasma with N{sub f}≪N{sub c} massless quarks was considered. We allow here for non-vanishing quark masses and study how these affect the spectral densities and conductivities. We also compute another important probe of the plasma, the dilepton production rate. We consider generic angles between the anisotropic direction and the photon and dilepton wave vectors, as well as arbitrary quark masses and arbitrary values of the anisotropy parameter. Generically, the anisotropy increases the production rate of both photons and dileptons, compared with an isotropic plasma at the same temperature.

  18. Thermal indicating paints for ammunition health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, James L., III; Iqbal, Zafar

    2010-04-01

    Thermochromic semiconductive polymers that change color in response to external stimuli, such as heat and radiation, can be utilized to monitor the temperature range and elapsed time profiles of stored and prepositioned munitions. These polymers are being tailored to create paints and coatings that will alert Army logistic staff of dangerous temperature exposures. Irreversible indication via color change in multiple thermal bands, 145 F - 164 F (63o-73°C), 165 F - 184 F (74° - 84° C) and over 185 F (>85°C) are possible with these thermochromic polymers. The resulting active coating can be visually inspected to determine if safe temperatures were exceeded. More detailed information, including cumulative time of exposure in certain temperature bands through changes in optical chromaticity describing the vividness or dullness of a color, can be assessed using a hand-held optical densitometer.

  19. Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugurlan, Maria; Tuffner, Francis K; Chassin, David P.

    2016-09-13

    Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage device includes a reservoir configured to hold a thermal energy storage medium, a temperature control system configured to adjust a temperature of the thermal energy storage medium, and a state observation system configured to provide information regarding an energy state of the thermal energy storage device at a plurality of different moments in time.

  20. Thermal sensitivity of Lamb waves for structural health monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, J C; Inman, D J

    2013-03-01

    One of the drawbacks of the current Lamb wave structural health monitoring methods are the false positives due to changing environmental conditions such as temperature. To create an environmental insensitive damage detection scheme, the physics of thermal effects on Lamb waves must be understood. Dispersion and thermal sensitivity curves for an isotropic plate with thermal stress and thermally varying elastic modulus are presented. The thermal sensitivity of dispersion curves is analytically developed and validated by experimental measurements. The group velocity thermal sensitivity highlights temperature insensitive features at two critical frequencies. The thermal sensitivity gives us insight to how temperature affects Lamb wave speeds in different frequency ranges and will help those developing structural health monitoring algorithms. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Performance monitoring pavements with thermal segregation in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This project conducted work to investigate the performance of asphalt surface mixtures that exhibited : thermal segregation during construction. From 2004 to 2009, a total of 14 construction projects were : identified for monitoring. Five of these pr...

  2. Thermal conductivity of local moment models with strong spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamokostas, Georgios L.; Lapas, Panteleimon E.; Fiete, Gregory A.

    2017-02-01

    We study the magnetic and lattice contributions to the thermal conductivity of electrically insulating strongly spin-orbit coupled magnetically ordered phases on a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice using the Kitaev-Heisenberg model. Depending on model parameters, such as the relative strength of the spin-orbit induced anisotropic coupling, a number of magnetically ordered phases are possible. In this work, we study two distinct regimes of thermal transport depending on whether the characteristic energy of the phonons or the magnons dominates, and focus on two different relaxation mechanisms, boundary scattering and magnon-phonon scattering. For spatially anisotropic magnetic phases, the thermal conductivity tensor can be highly anisotropic when the magnetic energy scale dominates, since the magnetic degrees of freedom dominate the thermal transport for temperatures well below the magnetic transition temperature. In the opposite limit in which the phonon energy scale dominates, the thermal conductivity will be nearly isotropic, reflecting the isotropic (at low temperatures) phonon dispersion assumed for the honeycomb lattice. We further discuss the extent to which thermal transport properties are influenced by strong spin-orbit induced anisotropic coupling in the local moment regime of insulating magnetic phases. The developed methodology can be applied to any 2D magnon-phonon system, and more importantly to systems where an analytical Bogoliubov transformation cannot be found and magnon bands are not necessarily isotropic.

  3. Characterization of thermal neutron beam monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Issa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Neutron beam monitors with a wide range of efficiencies, low γ sensitivity, and high time and space resolution are required in neutron beam experiments to continuously diagnose the delivered beam. In this work, commercially available neutron beam monitors have been characterized using the R2D2 beamline at IFE (Norway and using a Be-based neutron source. For the γ sensitivity measurements different γ sources have been used. The evaluation of the monitors includes, the study of their efficiency, attenuation, scattering, and sensitivity to γ. In this work we report the results of this characterization.

  4. A novel technique to monitor thermal discharges using thermal infrared imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthulakshmi, A L; Natesan, Usha; Ferrer, Vincent A; Deepthi, K; Venugopalan, V P; Narasimhan, S V

    2013-09-01

    Coastal temperature is an important indicator of water quality, particularly in regions where delicate ecosystems sensitive to water temperature are present. Remote sensing methods are highly reliable for assessing the thermal dispersion. The plume dispersion from the thermal outfall of the nuclear power plant at Kalpakkam, on the southeast coast of India, was investigated from March to December 2011 using thermal infrared images along with field measurements. The absolute temperature as provided by the thermal infrared (TIR) images is used in the Arc GIS environment for generating a spatial pattern of the plume movement. Good correlation of the temperature measured by the TIR camera with the field data (r(2) = 0.89) make it a reliable method for the thermal monitoring of the power plant effluents. The study portrays that the remote sensing technique provides an effective means of monitoring the thermal distribution pattern in coastal waters.

  5. Thermal conductivity of magnetic insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamokostas, Georgios; Lapas, Panteleimon; Fiete, Gregory A.

    We study the influence of spin-orbit coupling on the thermal conductivity of various types of magnetic insulators. In the absence of spin-orbit coupling and orbital-degeneracy, the strong-coupling limit of Hubbard interactions at half filling can often be adequately described in terms of a pure spin Hamiltonian of the Heisenberg form. However, in the presence of spin-orbit coupling the resulting exchange interaction can become highly anisotropic. The effect of the atomic spin-orbit coupling, taken into account through the effect of magnon-phonon interactions and the magnetic order and excitations, on the lattice thermal conductivity of various insulating magnetic systems is studied. We focus on the regime of low temperatures where the dominant source of scattering is two-magnon scattering to one-phonon processes. The thermal current is calculated within the Boltzmann transport theory. We are grateful for financial support from NSF Grant DMR-0955778.

  6. Mechanism for thermal relic dark matter of strongly interacting massive particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Yonit; Kuflik, Eric; Volansky, Tomer; Wacker, Jay G

    2014-10-24

    We present a new paradigm for achieving thermal relic dark matter. The mechanism arises when a nearly secluded dark sector is thermalized with the standard model after reheating. The freeze-out process is a number-changing 3→2 annihilation of strongly interacting massive particles (SIMPs) in the dark sector, and points to sub-GeV dark matter. The couplings to the visible sector, necessary for maintaining thermal equilibrium with the standard model, imply measurable signals that will allow coverage of a significant part of the parameter space with future indirect- and direct-detection experiments and via direct production of dark matter at colliders. Moreover, 3→2 annihilations typically predict sizable 2→2 self-interactions which naturally address the "core versus cusp" and "too-big-to-fail" small-scale structure formation problems.

  7. Thermal DBI action for the D3-brane at weak and strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grignani, Gianluca [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Perugia, I.N.F.N. Sezione di Perugia,Via Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Harmark, Troels [The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Marini, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Perugia, I.N.F.N. Sezione di Perugia,Via Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Orselli, Marta [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Perugia, I.N.F.N. Sezione di Perugia,Via Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Rome (Italy)

    2014-03-25

    We study the effective action for finite-temperature D3-branes with an electromagnetic field at weak and strong coupling. We call this action the thermal DBI action. Comparing at low temperature the leading T{sup 4} correction for the thermal DBI action at weak and strong coupling we find that the 3/4 factor well-known from the AdS/CFT correspondence extends to the case of arbitrary electric and magnetic fields on the D3-brane. We investigate the reason for this by taking the decoupling limit in both the open and the closed string descriptions thus showing that the AdS/CFT correspondence extends to the case of arbitrary constant electric and magnetic fields on the D3-brane.

  8. Minimally invasive ultrasound thermal therapy with MR thermal monitoring and guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Chris J.; Stafford, R. Jason; Price, Roger E.; Nau, William H.; Tyreus, Per Daniel; Rivera, Belinda; Schomer, Donald; Olsson, Lars; Hazle, John D.

    2001-06-01

    In this study both transurethral and interstitial ultrasound thermal therapy were applied to thermally coagulate targeted portions of the canine prostate or brain and implanted TVT tumors while using MRI-based thermal mapping techniques to monitor the therapy. MRI was also used for target definition, positioning of the applicator, and evaluation of target viability post-therapy. The complex phase-difference mapping technique using an iGE-EPI sequence with lipid suppression was used for determining temperature elevations within the in vivo prostate or brain and surrounding structures. Calculated temperature distributions, thermal dose exposures, T2-wieghted & T1-contrast enhanced images, gross inspection, and histology of sectioned prostates and brains were in good agreement with each other in defining destroyed tissue zones. Interstitial and transurethral ultrasound applicators produce directed zones of thermal coagulation within targeted tissue and implanted tumor, which can be accurately monitored and evaluated by MRI.

  9. Model for Thermal Relic Dark Matter of Strongly Interacting Massive Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Yonit; Kuflik, Eric; Murayama, Hitoshi; Volansky, Tomer; Wacker, Jay G

    2015-07-10

    A recent proposal is that dark matter could be a thermal relic of 3→2 scatterings in a strongly coupled hidden sector. We present explicit classes of strongly coupled gauge theories that admit this behavior. These are QCD-like theories of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, where the pions play the role of dark matter. The number-changing 3→2 process, which sets the dark matter relic abundance, arises from the Wess-Zumino-Witten term. The theories give an explicit relationship between the 3→2 annihilation rate and the 2→2 self-scattering rate, which alters predictions for structure formation. This is a simple calculable realization of the strongly interacting massive-particle mechanism.

  10. The Acceleration of Thermal Ions at a Strong, Quasi-Parallel Interplanetary Shock: A Hybrid Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, Joe

    2017-09-01

    Using a self-consistent hybrid simulation, with kinetic protons and fluid electrons, we investigate the acceleration of thermal protons and minor ions (alphas, 3He ++, and C5+) by a quasi-parallel collisionless shock. The results are compared to spacecraft observations of a strong interplanetary shock seen by the Advanced Composition Explorer on DOY 94, 2001, which was associated with significant increases in the flux of > 50 keV/nuc ions. Our simulation uses similar plasma and shock parameters to those observed. The densities of minor ions for two of the species (alphas and C5+) were based on observations at thermal energies for this shock, and we used a nominal value for the density of 3He ++, since no observations at thermal energies was available to us. Acceleration of the ions by the shock leads to a high-energy tail in the distribution in the post-shock plasma for all ion species. We find that by extrapolating the simulated tails to the higher energies measured by ACE/EPAM and ACE/ULEIS, the intensity matches well the observations for protons, alphas, and carbon. This suggests that thermal solar wind, accelerated directly at the shock, is a significant source of the observed high-energy protons and these minor ions.

  11. Validation of Reef-Scale Thermal Stress Satellite Products for Coral Bleaching Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott F. Heron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite monitoring of thermal stress on coral reefs has become an essential component of reef management practice around the world. A recent development by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Coral Reef Watch (NOAA CRW program provides daily global monitoring at 5 km resolution—at or near the scale of most coral reefs. In this paper, we introduce two new monitoring products in the CRW Decision Support System for coral reef management: Regional Virtual Stations, a regional synthesis of thermal stress conditions, and Seven-day Sea Surface Temperature (SST Trend, describing recent changes in temperature at each location. We describe how these products provided information in support of management activities prior to, during and after the 2014 thermal stress event in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI. Using in situ survey data from this event, we undertake the first quantitative comparison between 5 km satellite monitoring products and coral bleaching observations. Analysis of coral community characteristics, historical temperature conditions and thermal stress revealed a strong influence of coral biodiversity in the patterns of observed bleaching. This resulted in a model based on thermal stress and generic richness that explained 97% of the variance in observed bleaching. These findings illustrate the importance of using local benthic characteristics to interpret the level of impact from thermal stress exposure. In an era of continuing climate change, accurate monitoring of thermal stress and prediction of coral bleaching are essential for stakeholders to direct resources to the most effective management actions to conserve coral reefs.

  12. Incoherent Fermi-Pasta-Ulam Recurrences and Unconstrained Thermalization Mediated by Strong Phase Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasoni, M.; Garnier, J.; Rumpf, B.; Sugny, D.; Fatome, J.; Amrani, F.; Millot, G.; Picozzi, A.

    2017-01-01

    The long-standing and controversial Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem addresses fundamental issues of statistical physics, and the attempt to resolve the mystery of the recurrences has led to many great discoveries, such as chaos, integrable systems, and soliton theory. From a general perspective, the recurrence is commonly considered as a coherent phase-sensitive effect that originates in the property of integrability of the system. In contrast to this interpretation, we show that convection among a pair of waves is responsible for a new recurrence phenomenon that takes place for strongly incoherent waves far from integrability. We explain the incoherent recurrence by developing a nonequilibrium spatiotemporal kinetic formulation that accounts for the existence of phase correlations among incoherent waves. The theory reveals that the recurrence originates in a novel form of modulational instability, which shows that strongly correlated fluctuations are spontaneously created among the random waves. Contrary to conventional incoherent modulational instabilities, we find that Landau damping can be completely suppressed, which unexpectedly removes the threshold of the instability. Consequently, the recurrence can take place for strongly incoherent waves and is thus characterized by a reduction of nonequilibrium entropy that violates the H theorem of entropy growth. In its long-term evolution, the system enters a secondary turbulent regime characterized by an irreversible process of relaxation to equilibrium. At variance with the expected thermalization described by standard Gibbsian statistical mechanics, our thermalization process is not dictated by the usual constraints of energy and momentum conservation: The inverse temperatures associated with energy and momentum are zero. This unveils a previously unrecognized scenario of unconstrained thermalization, which is relevant to a variety of weakly dispersive wave systems. Our work should stimulate the development of new

  13. Strongly anomalous non-thermal fixed point in a quenched two-dimensional Bose gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Markus; Gasenzer, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Universal scaling behavior in the relaxation dynamics of an isolated two-dimensional Bose gas is studied by means of semi-classical stochastic simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii model. The system is quenched far out of equilibrium by imprinting vortex defects into an otherwise phase-coherent condensate. A strongly anomalous non-thermal fixed point is identified, associated with a slowed decay of the defects in the case that the dissipative coupling to the thermal background noise is suppressed. At this fixed point, a large anomalous exponent η ≃ -3 and, related to this, a large dynamical exponent z≃ 5 are identified. The corresponding power-law decay is found to be consistent with three-vortex-collision induced loss. The article discusses these aspects of non-thermal fixed points in the context of phase-ordering kinetics and coarsening dynamics, thus relating phenomenological and analytical approaches to classifying far-from-equilibrium scaling dynamics with each other. In particular, a close connection between the anomalous scaling exponent η, introduced in a quantum-field theoretic approach, and conservation-law induced scaling in classical phase-ordering kinetics is revealed. Moreover, the relation to superfluid turbulence as well as to driven stationary systems is discussed.

  14. Strongly anomalous non-thermal fixed point in a quenched two-dimensional Bose gas

    CERN Document Server

    Karl, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Universal scaling behavior in the relaxation dynamics of an isolated two-dimensional Bose gas is studied by means of semi-classical stochastic simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii model. The system is quenched far out of equilibrium by imprinting vortex defects into an otherwise phase-coherent condensate. A strongly anomalous non-thermal fixed point is identified, associated with a slowed decay of the defects in the case that the dissipative coupling to the thermal background noise is suppressed. At this fixed point, a large anomalous exponent $\\eta \\simeq -3$ and, related to this, a large dynamical exponent $z \\simeq 5$ are identified. The corresponding power-law decay is found to be consistent with three-vortex-collision induced loss. The article discusses these aspects of non-thermal fixed points in the context of phase-ordering kinetics and coarsening dynamics, thus relating phenomenological and analytical approaches to classifying far-from-equilibrium scaling dynamics with each other. In particular, a clo...

  15. Wearable Sweat Rate Sensors for Human Thermal Comfort Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jai Kyoung; Yoon, Sunghyun; Cho, Young-Ho

    2018-01-19

    We propose watch-type sweat rate sensors capable of automatic natural ventilation by integrating miniaturized thermo-pneumatic actuators, and experimentally verify their performances and applicability. Previous sensors using natural ventilation require manual ventilation process or high-power bulky thermo-pneumatic actuators to lift sweat rate detection chambers above skin for continuous measurement. The proposed watch-type sweat rate sensors reduce operation power by minimizing expansion fluid volume to 0.4 ml through heat circuit modeling. The proposed sensors reduce operation power to 12.8% and weight to 47.6% compared to previous portable sensors, operating for 4 hours at 6 V batteries. Human experiment for thermal comfort monitoring is performed by using the proposed sensors having sensitivity of 0.039 (pF/s)/(g/m 2 h) and linearity of 97.9% in human sweat rate range. Average sweat rate difference for each thermal status measured in three subjects shows (32.06 ± 27.19) g/m 2 h in thermal statuses including 'comfortable', 'slightly warm', 'warm', and 'hot'. The proposed sensors thereby can discriminate and compare four stages of thermal status. Sweat rate measurement error of the proposed sensors is less than 10% under air velocity of 1.5 m/s corresponding to human walking speed. The proposed sensors are applicable for wearable and portable use, having potentials for daily thermal comfort monitoring applications.

  16. Monitoring Thermal Pollution in Rivers Downstream of Dams with Landsat ETM+ Thermal Infrared Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ling

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dams play a significant role in altering the spatial pattern of temperature in rivers and contribute to thermal pollution, which greatly affects the river aquatic ecosystems. Understanding the temporal and spatial variation of thermal pollution caused by dams is important to prevent or mitigate its harmful effect. Assessments based on in-situ measurements are often limited in practice because of the inaccessibility of water temperature records and the scarcity of gauges along rivers. By contrast, thermal infrared remote sensing provides an alternative approach to monitor thermal pollution downstream of dams in large rivers, because it can cover a large area and observe the same zone repeatedly. In this study, Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ thermal infrared imagery were applied to assess the thermal pollution caused by two dams, the Geheyan Dam and the Gaobazhou Dam, located on the Qingjiang River, a tributary of the Yangtze River downstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir in Central China. The spatial and temporal characteristics of thermal pollution were analyzed with water temperatures estimated from 54 cloud-free Landsat ETM+ scenes acquired in the period from 2000 to 2014. The results show that water temperatures downstream of both dams are much cooler than those upstream of both dams in summer, and the water temperature remains stable along the river in winter, showing evident characteristic of the thermal pollution caused by dams. The area affected by the Geheyan Dam reaches beyond 20 km along the downstream river, and that affected by the Gaobazhou Dam extends beyond the point where the Qingjiang River enters the Yangtze River. Considering the long time series and global coverage of Landsat ETM+ imagery, the proposed technique in the current study provides a promising method for globally monitoring the thermal pollution caused by dams in large rivers.

  17. Monitoring thermal discharge from a nuclear plant through Landsat 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Difeng; Pan, Delu; Wei, Ji-An; Gong, Fang; Zhu, Qiankun; Chen, Peng

    2016-10-01

    The National Development and Reform Commission of China has approved a large number of nuclear power projects, with a total capacity of 23,000 MW. However, concomitant with the accelerated development of nuclear power stations, the environmental effects of thermal discharge will become a problem that cannot be avoided. Real-time monitoring of water temperature needs to be installed following station construction in order to measure its variation with time and to ensure that the operation of the nuclear plant does not result in adverse environmental damage. Landsat is the world's oldest, continuously acquired collection of space-based, moderate-resolution, land remote sensing data. On May 30, 2013, data from the Landsat 8 satellite became available, and the data quality and radiometric quantization of the thermal infrared sensor (TIRS) are significantly greater than those of previous Landsat instruments. The analysis of sea surface temperature (SST) obtained from Landsat 8's TIRS data was used to enhance information about the plume shape, dimensions, and direction of dispersion of the thermal discharge from the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant in Hangzhou Bay on the East China Sea coast. Both single-channel and split-window algorithms were used and focused. The detection of temperature increases through split-window algorithms is considered a preferable method for warm discharge monitoring. Recent results showed that the thermal discharge from the nuclear plant was controlled over a small area, and that it never breached national water quality standards.

  18. Fiber Optic Thermal Health Monitoring of Aerospace Structures and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Chou; Winfree, William P.; Allison, Sidney G.

    2009-01-01

    A new technique is presented for thermographic detection of flaws in materials and structures by performing temperature measurements with fiber Bragg gratings. Individual optical fibers with multiple Bragg gratings employed as surface temperature sensors were bonded to the surfaces of structures with subsurface defects or thickness variations. Both during and following the application of a thermal heat flux to the surface, the individual Bragg grating sensors measured the temporal and spatial temperature variations. The investigated structures included a 10-ply composite specimen with subsurface delaminations of various sizes and depths. The data obtained from grating sensors were further analyzed with thermal modeling to reveal particular characteristics of the interested areas. These results were found to be consistent with those from conventional thermography techniques. Limitations of the technique were investigated using both experimental and numerical simulation techniques. Methods for performing in-situ structural health monitoring are discussed.

  19. A Sensor-less Method for Online Thermal Monitoring of Switched Reluctance Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Hui; Liu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Stator winding is one of the most vulnerable parts in Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM), especially under thermal stresses during frequently changing operation circumstances and susceptible heat dissipation conditions. Thus real-time online thermal monitoring of the stator winding is of great......, neither machine parameters nor thermal impedance parameters are required in the scheme. Simulation results under various operating conditions confirm the proposed sensor-less online thermal monitoring approach....

  20. Cooperating the BDS, GPS, GLONASS and strong-motion observations for real-time deformation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Rui; Liu, Jinhai; Lu, Cuixian; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Lu, Xiaochun

    2017-06-01

    An approach of cooperating the BDS, GPS, GLONASS and strong-motion (SM) records for real-time deformation monitoring was presented, which was validated by the experimental data. In this approach, the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data were processed with the real-time kinematic positioning technology to retrieve the GNSS displacement, and the SM data were calibrated to acquire the raw acceleration; a Kalman filter was then applied to combine the GNSS displacement and the SM acceleration to obtain the integrated displacement, velocity and acceleration. The validation results show that the advantages of each sensor are completely complementary. For the SM, the baseline shifts are estimated and corrected, and the high-precision velocity and displacement are recovered. While the noise of GNSS can be reduced by using the SM-derived high-resolution acceleration, thus the high-precision and broad-band deformation information can be obtained in real time. The proposed method indicates a promising potential and capability in deformation monitoring of the high-building, dam, bridge and landslide.

  1. Monitoring solar-thermal systems: An outline of methods and procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, A. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Southwest Technology Development Inst.

    1994-04-01

    This manual discusses the technical issues associated with monitoring solar-thermal systems. It discusses some successful monitoring programs that have been implemented in the past. It gives the rationale for selecting a program of monitoring and gives guidelines for the design of new programs. In this report, solar thermal monitoring systems are classified into three levels. For each level, the report discusses the kinds of information obtained by monitoring, the effort needed to support the monitoring program, the hardware required, and the costs involved. Ultimately, all monitoring programs share one common requirement: the collection of accurate data that characterize some aspect or aspects of the system under study. This report addresses most of the issues involved with monitoring solar thermal systems. It does not address such topics as design fundamentals of thermal systems or the relative merits of the many different technologies employed for collection of solar energy.

  2. Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Volume 2 of the ``Survey of Strong Motion Earthquake Effects on Thermal Power Plants in California with Emphasis on Piping Systems`` contains Appendices which detail the detail design and seismic response of several power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes. The particular plants considered include the Ormond Beach, Long Beach and Seal Beach, Burbank, El Centro, Glendale, Humboldt Bay, Kem Valley, Pasadena and Valley power plants. Included is a typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical piping and support installations for the plants surveyed. Detailed piping support spacing data are also included.

  3. Thermal transport in Weyl, double-Weyl, Dirac, and magnetically ordered systems with strong spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiete, Gregory A.

    In this talk I will discuss some of our recent work on the thermal transport properties of Weyl and Dirac semimetals, double-Weyl semimetals, and magnetically ordered insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling. The thermal properties will be described primarily within the context of a Boltzmann transport theory. For the Weyl/Dirac systems we study the temperature, disorder, carrier density, and field (both magnetic and electric) dependent response. The double-Weyl system is predicted to exhibit a spatially anisotropic response that would allow one to distinguish it from the single Weyl system in transport measurements. In addition, I will touch on some of our work related to electronic cooling by phonons in Dirac and Weyl semimetals. For the magnetically ordered insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling, we study the Kitaev-Heisenberg model which exhibits 4 different ordered phases depending on the relative importance of the spin-orbit coupling, and a model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions motivated by thin film pyrochlore iridates. We compute the thermal conductivity tensor and conclude that some properties of the magnetic order and its excitations, including topological magnon bands, can be inferred from the anisotropies and temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the ARO, DARPA, and NSF.

  4. Monitoring thermally grown oxides under thermal barrier coatings using photoluminescence piezospectroscopy (PLPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Corno, A.; De Maria, L.; Rinaldi, C. [ERSE, Milan (Italy); Nalin, L.; Simms, N.J. [Cranfield Univ., Bedford (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Centre

    2010-07-01

    The use of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) on cooled components in industrial gas turbine has enabled higher inlet gas temperatures to be used and hence higher efficiencies to be achieved, without increasing component metal temperatures. However TBCs have a complex coating structure that during high temperature exposure and thermal cycling modifies until TBC spalling which can result in dangerous over-heating of components. This paper reports the results of a TBC exposure programme planned to monitor TGOs development in an example TBC system in terms of both stress evolution within the TGOs and TGO growth. The COST538 reference TBC system was used: an yttria stabilised zirconia TBC applied to an Amdry 995 bond coat on an CMSX-4 substrate. Samples were in the form of 10 mm diameter bars, with the TBC applied to their curved surface. Coated samples were exposed in simulated combustion gases at temperatures 850, 900 and 950 C for periods of up to 10,000 hours. Every 1000 hours samples were cooled and weighed to monitor the progression of the oxidation: selected samples NDT inspected using PLPS and/or destructive examination. Cross-sections were prepared and examined in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at multiple locations to determine TGO thickness distributions. PLPS spectra were measured and elaborated with a system self developed in ERSE, able to calculate and map the TGO residual stress values under columnar TBCs. So the positions could be evidenced where the damage of the TBC /TGO/BC interface is higher on the exposed bars. The data of TGO thickness distributions and PLPS stress measurement distributions were compared to the exposures carried out on samples to identify and quantify trends in their development. Metallography confirmed that the PLPs technique can reliably detect interface cracking before visible EB-PVD TBC spalling. (orig.)

  5. Actualities and Development of Heavy-Duty CNC Machine Tool Thermal Error Monitoring Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zu-De; Gui, Lin; Tan, Yue-Gang; Liu, Ming-Yao; Liu, Yi; Li, Rui-Ya

    2017-09-01

    Thermal error monitoring technology is the key technological support to solve the thermal error problem of heavy-duty CNC (computer numerical control) machine tools. Currently, there are many review literatures introducing the thermal error research of CNC machine tools, but those mainly focus on the thermal issues in small and medium-sized CNC machine tools and seldom introduce thermal error monitoring technologies. This paper gives an overview of the research on the thermal error of CNC machine tools and emphasizes the study of thermal error of the heavy-duty CNC machine tool in three areas. These areas are the causes of thermal error of heavy-duty CNC machine tool and the issues with the temperature monitoring technology and thermal deformation monitoring technology. A new optical measurement technology called the "fiber Bragg grating (FBG) distributed sensing technology" for heavy-duty CNC machine tools is introduced in detail. This technology forms an intelligent sensing and monitoring system for heavy-duty CNC machine tools. This paper fills in the blank of this kind of review articles to guide the development of this industry field and opens up new areas of research on the heavy-duty CNC machine tool thermal error.

  6. Noninvasive monitoring of the thermal stress in RPE using light scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schule, Georg; Huie, Philip; Vankov, Alexander B.; Vitkin, Edward; Fang, Hui; Hanlon, Eugene B.; Perelman, Lev T.; Palanker, Daniel V.

    2004-07-01

    Introduction: Light Scattering Spectroscopy has been a recently developed as a non-invasive technique capable of sizing the cellular organelles. With this technique, we monitor the heat-induced sub-cellular structural transformations in a human RPE cell culture. Material and Methods: A single layer of human RPE cells (ATCC) was grown on a glass slide. Cells are illuminated with light from a fiber-coupled broadband tungsten lamp. The backscattered (180 degree) light spectra are measured with an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA). Spectra are measured during heating of the sample. Results: We reconstructed the size distribution of sub-micron organelles in the RPE cells and observed temperature-related changes in the scattering density of the organelles in the 200-300nm range (which might be peroxisomes, microsomes or lysosomes). The sizes of the organelles did not vary with temperature, so the change in scattering is most probably due to the change in the refractive indexes. As opposed to strong spectral variation with temperature, the total intensity of the backscattered light did not significantly change in the temperature range of 32-49 °C. Conclusion: We demonstrate that Light Scattering Spectroscopy is a powerful tool for monitoring the temperature-induced sub-cellular transformations. This technique providing an insight into the temperature-induced cellular processes and can play an important role in quantitative assessment of the laser-induced thermal effects during retinal laser treatments, such as Transpupillary Thermal Therapy (TTT), photocoagulation, and Photodynamic Therapy (PDT).

  7. Thermal convection in a horizontal duct with strong axial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Zikanov, Oleg

    2015-11-01

    The work is motivated by design of liquid metal blankets of nuclear fusion reactors. The effect of convection on the flow within a toroidally oriented duct is analyzed. Non-uniform strong heating arising from capture of high-speed neutrons is imposed internally, while the walls are assumed to be isothermal. Very strong heating (the Grashof number up to 1011) and strong magnetic field (the Hartmann number up to 104) corresponding to the realistic fusion reactor conditions are considered. Stability of two-dimensional flow states is analyzed using numerical simulations. The unstable modes at high Hartmann and Grashof number are found to have large wavelengths. The integral properties of developed three-dimensional flows are close to those of two-dimensional flows at the typical parameters of a fusion reactor. We also consider the effect of the weak transverse component of the magnetic field on the flow. Financial support was provided by the US NSF (Grant CBET 1232851).

  8. GRID based Thermal Images Processing for volcanic activity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiagli, S.; Coco, S.; Drago, L.; Laudani, A.,; Lodato, L.; Pollicino, G.; Torrisi, O.

    2009-04-01

    Since 2001, the Catania Section of the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV) has been running the video stations recording the volcanic activity of Mount Etna, Stromboli and the Fossa Crater of Vulcano island. The video signals of 11 video cameras (seven operating in the visible band and four in infrared) are sent in real time to INGV Control Centre where they are visualized on monitors and archived on a dedicated NAS storage. The video surveillance of the Sicilian volcanoes, situated near to densely populated areas, helps the volcanologists providing the Civil Protection authorities with updates in real time on the on-going volcanic activity. In particular, five video cameras are operating on Mt. Etna and they record the volcano from the south and east sides 24 hours a day. During emergencies, mobile video stations may also be used to better film the most important phases of the activity. Single shots are published on the Catania Section intranet and internet websites. On June 2006 a A 40 thermal camera was installed in Vulcano La Fossa Crater. The location was in the internal and opposite crater flank (S1), 400 m distant from the fumarole field. The first two-year of data on temperature distribution frequency were recorded with this new methodology of acquisition, and automatically elaborated by software at INGV Catania Section. In fact a dedicated software developed in IDL, denominated Volcano Thermo Analysis (VTA), was appositely developed in order to extract a set of important features, able to characterize with a good approssimation the volcanic activity. In particular the program first load and opportunely convert the thermal images, then according to the Region Of Interest (ROI) and the temperature ranges defined by the user provide to automatic spatial and statistic analysis. In addition the VTA is able to analysis all the temporal series of images available in order to achieve the time-event analysis and the dynamic of the volcanic

  9. Intelligent neonatal monitoring based on a virtual thermal sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Abbas K; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2014-03-02

    Temperature measurement is a vital part of daily neonatal care. Accurate measurements are important for detecting deviations from normal values for both optimal incubator and radiant warmer functioning. The purpose of monitoring the temperature is to maintain the infant in a thermoneutral environmental zone. This physiological zone is defined as the narrow range of environmental temperatures in which the infant maintains a normal body temperature without increasing his or her metabolic rate and thus oxygen consumption. Although the temperature measurement gold standard is the skin electrode, infrared thermography (IRT) should be considered as an effortless and reliable tool for measuring and mapping human skin temperature distribution and assist in assessing thermoregulatory reflexes. Body surface temperature was recorded under several clinical conditions using an infrared thermography imaging technique. Temperature distributions were recorded as real-time video, which was analyzed to evaluate mean skin temperatures. Emissivity variations were considered for optimal neonatal IRT correction for which the compensation vector was overlaid on the tracking algorithm to improve the temperature reading. Finally, a tracking algorithm was designed for active follow-up of the defined region of interest over a neonate's geometry. The outcomes obtained from the thermal virtual sensor demonstrate its ability to accurately track different geometric profiles and shapes over the external anatomy of a neonate. Only a small percentage of the motion detection attempts failed to fit tracking scenarios due to the lack of a properly matching matrix for the ROI profile over neonate's body surface. This paper presents the design and implementation of a virtual temperature sensing application that can assist neonatologists in interpreting a neonate's skin temperature patterns. Regarding the surface temperature, the influence of different environmental conditions inside the incubator has

  10. Modeling of Circuits with Strongly Temperature Dependent Thermal Conductivities for Cryogenic CMOS

    OpenAIRE

    Hamlet, J.; Eng, K.; Gurrieri, T.; Levy, J; Carroll, M

    2010-01-01

    When designing and studying circuits operating at cryogenic temperatures understanding local heating within the circuits is critical due to the temperature dependence of transistor and noise behavior. We have investigated local heating effects of a CMOS ring oscillator and current comparator at T=4.2K. In two cases, the temperature near the circuit was measured with an integrated thermometer. A lumped element equivalent electrical circuit SPICE model that accounts for the strongly temperature...

  11. Computation and modeling of aero-thermal fields in turbine cascades and strongly curved ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced turbulence models are crucial for accurate prediction of rocket engine flows, due to existence of very large extra strain rates, such as strong streamline curvature. Numerical simulation of the turbulent flow in a strongly curved turn-around duct (TAD) has been carried out with a Reynolds stress model (RSM), an algebraic Reynolds stress model (ARSM) and a kappa-epsilon model. the RSM model and the ARSM model are found to capture the turbulence damping due to the convex curvature, but underpredict the turbulence enhancement caused by the concave curvature. To capture the concave curvature effects, it is necessary to modify the epsilon-equation. The modification of episilon-equation suggested by Launder, et.al, provides the correct trend, but over-corrects the curvature effects. A comparative study of two modes of transition in gas turbine, the by-pass transition and the separation-induced transition, has been carried out with several low-Reynolds-number (LRN) kappa-epsilon models. Effects of blade surface pressure gradient, freestream turbulence and Reynolds number on the blade boundary layer development, and particularly the inception of transition are examined in detail. The present study indicates that the turbine blade transition, in the presence of high freestream turbulence, is predicted well with LRN kappa-epsilon models employed.

  12. Thermally robust Mo/CoFeB/MgO trilayers with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T; Zhang, Y; Cai, J W; Pan, H Y

    2014-07-31

    The recent discovery of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) at the CoFeB/MgO interface has accelerated the development of next generation high-density non-volatile memories by utilizing perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs). However, the insufficient interfacial PMA in the typical Ta/CoFeB/MgO system will not only complicate the p-MTJ optimization, but also limit the device density scalability. Moreover, the rapid decreases of PMA in Ta/CoFeB/MgO films with annealing temperature higher than 300°C will make the compatibility with CMOS integrated circuits a big problem. By replacing the Ta buffer layer with a thin Mo film, we have increased the PMA in the Ta/CoFeB/MgO structure by 20%. More importantly, the thermal stability of the perpendicularly magnetized (001)CoFeB/MgO films is greatly increased from 300°C to 425°C, making the Mo/CoFeB/MgO films attractive for a practical p-MTJ application.

  13. In-Situ Real-Time Temperature Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program addresses the need for interfacial and in-depth temperature monitoring of thermal protection systems (TPS). Novel, linear drive, eddy current methods...

  14. On-Orbit Health Monitoring and Repair Assessment of Thermal Protection Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project delivers On-orbit health MoNItoring and repair assessment of THERMal protection systems (OMNI_THERM). OMNI_THERM features impedance-based...

  15. Achieving a Collapsible, Strong, and Highly Thermally Conductive Film Based on Oriented Functionalized Boron Nitride Nanosheets and Cellulose Nanofiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Fang, Jinchao; Ma, Jinrui; Huang, Rui; Chai, Songgang; Chen, Feng; Fu, Qiang

    2017-09-06

    Boron nitride nanosheet (BNNS) films receive wide attention in both academia and industry because of their high thermal conductivity (TC) and good electrical insulation capability. However, the brittleness and low strength of the BNNS film largely limit its application. Herein, functionalized BNNSs (f-BNNSs) with a well-maintained in-plane crystalline structure were first prepared utilizing urea in the aqueous solution via ball-milling for the purpose of improving their stability in water and enhancing the interaction with the polymer matrix. Then, a biodegradable and highly thermally conductive film with an orderly oriented structure based on cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) and f-BNNSs was prepared just by simple vacuum-assisted filtration. The modification of the BNNS and the introduction of the CNF result in a better orientation of the f-BNNS, sufficient connection between f-BNNS themselves, and strong interaction between f-BNNS and CNF, which not only make the prepared composite film strong and tough but also possess higher in-plane TC. An increase of 70% in-plane TC, 63.2% tensile strength, and 77.8% elongation could be achieved for CNF/f-BNNS films, compared with that for CNF/BNNS films at the filler content of 70%. Although at such a high f-BNNS content, this composite film can be bended and folded. It is even more interesting to find that the in-plane TC could be greatly enhanced with the decrease of the thickness of the film, and a value of 30.25 W/m K can be achieved at the thickness of ∼30 μm for the film containing 70 wt % f-BNNS. We believe that this highly thermally conductive film with good strength and toughness could have potential applications in next-generation highly powerful and collapsible electronic devices.

  16. Satellite monitoring of anomalous effects in the ionosphere probably related to strong earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousheva, M.; Glavcheva, R.; Danov, D.; Angelov, P.; Hristov, P.; Kirov, B.; Georgieva, K.

    The paper presents simultaneously a satellite monitoring of plasma density disturbances and quasi-static electric fields on the one hand, and a ground earthquake monitoring, on the other. The INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 satellite was launched on 7th August 1981. It had a perigee of 825 km, an apogee of 906 km and orbit inclination of 81.2°. For satellite’s orbits over sources of earthquakes M ⩾ 5.5 (seismic data of the World Data Center Denver, Colorado), in the time period 12.08.1981 30.12.1981, some ionospheric effects are investigated. These effects can be considered eventually as possible earthquake precursors. The paper discusses specific anomalous effects observed in the ionosphere, which cannot be explained by factors of solar-magnetospheric origin. They could be associated with the earthquake growing processes in the lithosphere and troposphere zones above the source. In conclusion the results of ionosphere anomalous effects monitoring are proposed.

  17. STRONG TIDAL DISSIPATION IN SATURN AND CONSTRAINTS ON ENCELADUS' THERMAL STATE FROM ASTROMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lainey, Valery; Desmars, Josselin; Arlot, Jean-Eudes; Emelyanov, Nicolai; Remus, Francoise [IMCCE-Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8028 du CNRS, UPMC, 77 Av. Denfert-Rochereau, 75014 Paris (France); Karatekin, Oezguer [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Avenue Circulaire 3, 1180 Uccle, Bruxelles (Belgium); Charnoz, Sebastien; Mathis, Stephane [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/SAp Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Le Poncin-Lafitte, Christophe [SyRTE-Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8630 du CNRS, 77 Av. Denfert-Rochereau, 75014 Paris (France); Tobie, Gabriel [Laboratoire de Planetologie et Geodynamique de Nantes, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, UMR 6112, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Zahn, Jean-Paul, E-mail: lainey@imcce.fr [LUTH-Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8102 du CNRS, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon Cedex (France)

    2012-06-10

    Tidal interactions between Saturn and its satellites play a crucial role in both the orbital migration of the satellites and the heating of their interiors. Therefore, constraining the tidal dissipation of Saturn (here the ratio k{sub 2}/Q) opens the door to the past evolution of the whole system. If Saturn's tidal ratio can be determined at different frequencies, it may also be possible to constrain the giant planet's interior structure, which is still uncertain. Here, we try to determine Saturn's tidal ratio through its current effect on the orbits of the main moons, using astrometric data spanning more than a century. We find an intense tidal dissipation (k{sub 2}/Q = (2.3 {+-} 0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}), which is about 10 times higher than the usual value estimated from theoretical arguments. As a consequence, eccentricity equilibrium for Enceladus can now account for the huge heat emitted from Enceladus' south pole. Moreover, the measured k{sub 2}/Q is found to be poorly sensitive to the tidal frequency, on the short frequency interval considered. This suggests that Saturn's dissipation may not be controlled by turbulent friction in the fluid envelope as commonly believed. If correct, the large tidal expansion of the moon orbits due to this strong Saturnian dissipation would be inconsistent with the moon formations 4.5 Byr ago above the synchronous orbit in the Saturnian subnebulae. But it would be compatible with a new model of satellite formation in which the Saturnian satellites formed possibly over a longer timescale at the outer edge of the main rings. In an attempt to take into account possible significant torques exerted by the rings on Mimas, we fitted a constant rate da/dt on Mimas' semi-major axis as well. We obtained an unexpected large acceleration related to a negative value of da/dt = -(15.7 {+-} 4.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} AU day{sup -1}. Such acceleration is about an order of magnitude larger

  18. Preliminary Study of UAS Equipped with Thermal Camera for Volcanic Geothermal Monitoring in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chio, Shih-Hong; Lin, Cheng-Horng

    2017-07-18

    Thermal infrared cameras sense the temperature information of sensed scenes. With the development of UASs (Unmanned Aircraft Systems), thermal infrared cameras can now be carried on a quadcopter UAV (Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle) to appropriately collect high-resolution thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring in a local area. Therefore, the quadcopter UAS used to acquire thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring has been developed in Taiwan as part of this study to overcome the difficult terrain with highly variable topography and extreme environmental conditions. An XM6 thermal infrared camera was employed in this thermal image collection system. The Trimble BD970 GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) board was also carried on the quadcopter UAV to gather dual-frequency GNSS observations in order to determine the flying trajectory data by using the Post-Processed Kinematic (PPK) technique; this will be used to establish the position and orientation of collected thermal images with less ground control points (GCPs). The digital surface model (DSM) and thermal orthoimages were then produced from collected thermal images. Tests conducted in the Hsiaoyukeng area of Taiwan's Yangmingshan National Park show that the difference between produced DSM and airborne LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data are about 37% between -1 m and 1 m, and 66% between -2 m and 2 m in the area surrounded by GCPs. As the accuracy of thermal orthoimages is about 1.78 m, it is deemed sufficient for volcanic geothermal monitoring. In addition, the thermal orthoimages show some phenomena not only more globally than do the traditional methods for volcanic geothermal monitoring, but they also show that the developed system can be further employed in Taiwan in the future.

  19. Monitoring of the thermal deformations on polymer parts using a vision system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Madruga, Daniel González; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    must be monitored and the measurements compensated. In this investigation thermal deformations on polymer parts are monitored using a vision system consisting of a camera equipped with telecentriclenses focused on the surface of the part. The magnification of the optics and an axial illumination allow...

  20. Power Control and Monitoring Requirements for Thermal Vacuum/Thermal Balance Testing of the MAP Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris; Hinkle, R. Kenneth (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The specific heater control requirements for the thermal vacuum and thermal balance testing of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Observatory at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland are described. The testing was conducted in the 10m wide x 18.3m high Space Environment Simulator (SES) Thermal Vacuum Facility. The MAP thermal testing required accurate quantification of spacecraft and fixture power levels while minimizing heater electrical emissions. The special requirements of the MAP test necessitated construction of five (5) new heater racks.

  1. Light and Strong Hierarchical Porous SiC Foam for Efficient Electromagnetic Interference Shielding and Thermal Insulation at Elevated Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Caiyun; Wang, Zhenfeng; Wu, Lina; Zhang, Xiaochen; Wang, Huan; Wang, Zhijiang

    2017-09-06

    A novel light but strong SiC foam with hierarchical porous architecture was fabricated by using dough as raw material via carbonization followed by carbothermal reduction with silicon source. A significant synergistic effect is achieved by embedding meso- and nanopores in a microsized porous skeleton, which endows the SiC foam with high-performance electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, thermal insulation, and mechanical properties. The microsized skeleton withstands high stress. The meso- and nanosized pores enhance multiple reflection of the incident electromagnetic waves and elongate the path of heat transfer. For the hierarchical porous SiC foam with 72.8% porosity, EMI shielding can be higher than 20 dB, and specific EMI effectiveness exceeds 24.8 dB·cm3·g-1 at a frequency of 11 GHz at 25-600 °C, which is 3 times higher than that of dense SiC ceramic. The thermal conductivity reaches as low as 0.02 W·m-1·K-1, which is comparable to that of aerogel. The compressive strength is as high as 9.8 MPa. Given the chemical and high-temperature stability of SiC, the fabricated SiC foam is a promising candidate for modern aircraft and automobile applications.

  2. Wood moisture monitoring during log house thermal insulation mounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Kotásková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current designs of thermal insulation for buildings concentrate on the achievement of the required heat transmission coefficient. However, another factor that cannot be neglected is the assessment of the possible water vapour condensation inside the construction. The aim of the study was to find out whether the designed modification of the cladding structure of an existing log house will or will not lead to a risk of possible water vapour condensation in the walls after an additional thermal insulation mounting. The condensation could result in the increase in moisture of the walls and consequently the constructional timber, which would lead to the reduction of the timber construction strength, wood degradation by biotic factors – wood-destroying insects, mildew or wood-destroying fungi. The main task was to compare the theoretically established values of moisture of the constructional timber with the values measured inside the construction using a specific example of a thermal insulated log house. Three versions of thermal insulation were explored to find the solution of a log house reconstruction which would be the optimum for living purposes. Two versions deal with the cladding structure with the insulation from the interior, the third version deals with an external insulation.In a calculation model the results can be affected to a great degree by input values (boundary conditions. This especially concerns the factor of vapour barrier diffusion resistance, which is entered in accordance with the producer’s specifications; however, its real value can be lower as it depends on the perfectness and correctness of the technological procedure. That is why the study also includes thermal technical calculations of all designed insulation versions in the most unfavourable situation, which includes the degradation of the vapour barrier down to 10% efficiency, i.e. the reduction of the diffusion resistance factor to 10% of the original value

  3. Laser weld process monitoring and control using chromatic filtering of thermal radiation from a weld pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk; Baik, Sung Hoon; Chung, Chin Man

    2000-06-01

    The application of high power Nd: YAG lasers for precision welding in industry has been growing quite fast these days in diverse areas such as the automobile, the electronics and the aerospace industries. These diverse applications also require the new developments for the precise control and the reliable process monitoring. Due to the hostile environment in laser welding, a remote monitoring is required. The present development relates in general to weld process monitoring techniques, and more particularly to improved methods and apparatus for real-time monitoring of thermal radiation of a weld pool to monitor a size variation and a focus shift of the weld pool for weld process control, utilizing the chromatic aberration of focusing lens or lenses. The monitoring technique of the size variation and the focus shift of a weld pool is developed by using the chromatic filtering of the thermal radiation from a weld pool. The monitoring of weld pool size variation can also be used to monitor the weld depth in a laser welding. Furthermore, the monitoring of the size variation of a weld pool is independent of the focus shift of a weld pool and the monitoring of the focus shift of a weld pool is independent of the size variation of a weld pool.

  4. Wearable Physiological Monitoring for Human Thermal-Work Strain Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Mark J; Welles, Alexander Pearson; Friedl, Karl E

    2017-08-10

    Safe performance limits of soldiers and athletes have typically relied on predictive work-rest models of ambient conditions, average work intensity, and characteristics of the population. Bioengineering advances in noninvasive sensor technologies including miniaturization, reduced cost, power requirements, and comfort now make it possible to produce individual predictions of safe thermal-work limits. These precision medicine assessments depend on the development of thoughtful algorithms based on physics and physiology. Both physiological telemetry and thermal-strain indices have been available for more than fifty years but greater computing power and better wearable sensors now make it possible to provide actionable information at the individual level. Core temperature can be practically estimated from time series heart rate data, and, using an adaptive physiological strain index, provides meaningful predictions of safe work limits that cannot be predicted from only core temperature or heart rate measurements. Early adopters of this technology include specialized occupations where individuals operate in complete encapsulation such as chemical protective suits. Emerging technologies that focus on heat flux measurements at the skin show even greater potential for estimating thermal-work strain using a parsimonious sensor set. Applications of these wearable technologies include many sports and military training venues where inexperienced individuals can learn effective work pacing strategies and train to safe personal limits. The same strategies can also provide a technologically-based performance edge for experienced workers and athletes faced with novel and non-intuitive physiological challenges, such as health care providers in full protective clothing treating Ebola patients in West Africa in 2014. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  5. Instrumentation and control systems for monitoring and data acquisition for thermal recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparicio, J.; Hernandez, E.; Perozo, H. [PDVSA Intevep, S.A. (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Thermal recovery methods are often applied to enhance oil recovery in heavy oil reservoirs, one of its challenges is to control the displacement of the thermal front. Methods are thus implemented to obtain data on the temperatures in the wells at any given time and to monitor other variables so that the behaviour of the thermal front can be predicted. The aim of this paper is to present a new control and instrumentation scheme to measure all of the variables. A software was created using Labview a graphs-based programming language software and PostgreSQL, a database management system. Using this software, sensors can be added or removed at any time; trends can be immediately visualized; and quality of the information is ensured since there is no human intervention in the data collection or processing. This paper presented a software which improves monitoring of all of the variables affecting the behaviour of the thermal front.

  6. Thermal anomalies detection before strong earthquakes (M > 6.0 using interquartile, wavelet and Kalman filter methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akhoondzadeh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermal anomaly is known as a significant precursor of strong earthquakes, therefore Land Surface Temperature (LST time series have been analyzed in this study to locate relevant anomalous variations prior to the Bam (26 December 2003, Zarand (22 February 2005 and Borujerd (31 March 2006 earthquakes. The duration of the three datasets which are comprised of MODIS LST images is 44, 28 and 46 days for the Bam, Zarand and Borujerd earthquakes, respectively. In order to exclude variations of LST from temperature seasonal effects, Air Temperature (AT data derived from the meteorological stations close to the earthquakes epicenters have been taken into account. The detection of thermal anomalies has been assessed using interquartile, wavelet transform and Kalman filter methods, each presenting its own independent property in anomaly detection. The interquartile method has been used to construct the higher and lower bounds in LST data to detect disturbed states outside the bounds which might be associated with impending earthquakes. The wavelet transform method has been used to locate local maxima within each time series of LST data for identifying earthquake anomalies by a predefined threshold. Also, the prediction property of the Kalman filter has been used in the detection process of prominent LST anomalies. The results concerning the methodology indicate that the interquartile method is capable of detecting the highest intensity anomaly values, the wavelet transform is sensitive to sudden changes, and the Kalman filter method significantly detects the highest unpredictable variations of LST. The three methods detected anomalous occurrences during 1 to 20 days prior to the earthquakes showing close agreement in results found between the different applied methods on LST data in the detection of pre-seismic anomalies. The proposed method for anomaly detection was also applied on regions irrelevant to earthquakes for which no anomaly was detected

  7. Monitoring system for thermal plasma; Sistema de monitoreo para plasma termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero G, M.; Vilchis P, A.E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In the Thermal plasma applications laboratory it has been the degradation project of oils for isolation in transformers. These are a very hazardous residues and at this time in the country they are stored in metal barrels. It has been the intention to undergo the oils to plasma for degradate them to non-hazardous residues. The system behavior must be monitored to establish the thermal plasma behavior. (Author)

  8. Monitoring thermal processes in low-permeability fractured media using fibre-optics distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brixel, Bernard; Klepikova, Maria; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Loew, Simon; Amann, Florian

    2017-04-01

    Fibre-optics distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) systems constitute arguably one of the main significant advances in the development of modern monitoring techniques in field hydrogeology, both for shallow (e.g. quantification of surface water-groundwater interactions) and deeper applications (borehole temperature monitoring). Deployment of FO-DTS monitoring systems in boreholes has notably allowed further promoting the use of temperature as a tracer to improve the characterization of heterogeneous media, with a strong focus on permeable environments such as shallow unconsolidated aquifers and/or highly-fractured rocks, generally found close to ground surface. However, applying this technology to low-permeability media, as in the case of intact rock mass intersected by isolated, discrete fractures still remains a challenge, perhaps explaining the limited number of field results reported in the scientific literature to date. Yet, understanding the transport, storage and exchange of heat in deep, low-permeability crystalline rocks is critical to many scientific and engineering research topics and applications, including for example deep geothermal energy (DGE). In the present contribution, we describe the use and application of FO-DTS monitoring to a broad range of processes, varying from the propagation and persistence of thermal anomalies (both natural and induced) to the monitoring of the curing of epoxy resin and cement grouts along the annular space of boreholes designed for monitoring discrete, packed-off zones. All data provided herein has been collected as part of a multi-disciplinary research program on hydraulic stimulation and deep geothermal energy carried out at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS), an underground rock laboratory located in the Aar massif, in the Swiss Alps. Through these examples, we illustrate the importance of understanding the spatial and temporal variations of local thermal regimes when planning to monitoring boreholes temperatures

  9. Real-Time Monitoring of Occupants’ Thermal Comfort through Infrared Imaging: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Pavlin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermally comfortable indoor environments are of great importance, as modern lifestyles often require people to spend more than 20 h per day indoors. Since most of the thermal comfort models use a variety of different environmental and personal factors that need to be measured or estimated, real-time and continuous assessment of thermal comfort is often not practically feasible. This work presents a cheap and non-invasive approach based on infrared imaging for monitoring the occupants’ thermal sensation and comfort in real time. Thanks to a mechatronic device developed by the authors, the imaging is performed on the forehead skin, selected because it is always exposed to the environment and, thus, facilitating the monitoring activity in a non-invasive manner. Tests have been performed in controlled conditions on ten subjects to assess the hypothesis that the forehead temperature is correlated with subjects’ thermal sensation. This allows the exploitation of this quantity as a base for a simple monitoring of thermal comfort, which could later be tuned with an extensive experimental campaign.

  10. Optical monitoring of thermal effects in RPE during heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuele, G.; Huie, Ph.; Yellachich, D.; Molnar, F. E.; O'Conell-Rodwell, C.; Vitkin, E.; Perelman, L. T.; Palanker, D.

    2005-04-01

    Fast and non-invasive detection of cellular stress is useful for fundamental research and practical applications in medicine and biology. Using Light Scattering Spectroscopy we extract information about changes in refractive index and size of the cellular organelles. Particle sizes down to 50nm in diameter can be detected using light within the spectral range of 450-850 nm. We monitor the heat-induced sub-cellular structural changes in human RPE cells and, for comparison, in transfected NIH-3T3 cells which express luciferase linked to the heat shock protein (HSP). Using inverse light scattering fitting algorithm, we reconstruct the size distribution of the sub-micron organelles from the light scattering spectrum. The most significant (up to 70%) and rapid (20sec) temperature-related changes can be linked to an increase of refractive index of the 160nm sized mitochondria. The start of this effect coincides with the onset of HSP expression. This technique provides an insight into metabolic processes within organelles larger than 50nm without exogenous staining and opens doors for non-invasive real-time assessment of cellular stress, which can be used for monitoring of retinal laser treatments like transpupillary thermo therapy or PDT.

  11. Urban area thermal monitoring: Liepaja case study using satellite and aerial thermal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbe, Linda; Caune, Vairis; Korats, Gundars

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to explore large (60 m/pixel) and small scale (individual building level) temperature distribution patterns from thermal remote sensing data and to conclude what kind of information could be extracted from thermal remote sensing on regular basis. Landsat program provides frequent large scale thermal images useful for analysis of city temperature patterns. During the study correlation between temperature patterns and vegetation content based on NDVI and building coverage based on OpenStreetMap data was studied. Landsat based temperature patterns were independent from the season, negatively correlated with vegetation content and positively correlated with building coverage. Small scale analysis included spatial and raster descriptor analysis for polygons corresponding to roofs of individual buildings for evaluating insulation of roofs. Remote sensing and spatial descriptors are poorly related to heat consumption data, however, thermal aerial data median and entropy can help to identify poorly insulated roofs. Automated quantitative roof analysis has high potential for acquiring city wide information about roof insulation, but quality is limited by reference data quality and information on building types, and roof materials would be crucial for further studies.

  12. Photoacoustic temperature measurements for monitoring of thermal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiou-Han; Wei, Chen-Wei; Jee, Shiou-Hwa; Li, Pai-Chi

    2009-02-01

    Plasmonic photothermal therapy is a new cancer thermotherapy method based on surface plasmon resonance of nanoparticles. It is important to measure the temperature during thermotherapy for safety and efficacy. In this study, we apply a photoacoustic (PA) method for real-time, non-invasive temperature measurements. In particular, this method can be effectively combined with a photothermal therapy system that we developed in parallel. The method is based on the fact that the PA pressure amplitude is linearly related to temperature. To explore its potential, a home-made, 20 MHz PA transducer was used, in which an optical fiber was inserted in its center for emitting laser pulses while the PA signal was simultaneously detected. Continuous wave (CW) laser was used to heat the subject, including both phantoms and mice. The temperature of the region of interest was also measured by a fine-needle thermal couple. Results show that the temperature was linearly proportional to the PA signal with good correlation with the CW laser irradiation. The in vivo study also demonstrated potential of this technique.

  13. Evaluating the coefficient of thermal expansion using time periods of minimal thermal gradient for a temperature driven structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, J.; Abdel-Jaber, H.; Yarnold, M.; Glisic, B.

    2017-04-01

    Structural Health Monitoring aims to characterize the performance of a structure from a combination of recorded sensor data and analytic techniques. Many methods are concerned with quantifying the elastic response of the structure, treating temperature changes as noise in the analysis. While these elastic profiles do demonstrate a portion of structural behavior, thermal loads on a structure can induce comparable strains to elastic loads. Understanding this relationship between the temperature of the structure and the resultant strain and displacement can provide in depth knowledge of the structural condition. A necessary parameter for this form of analysis is the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE). The CTE of a material relates the amount of expansion or contraction a material undergoes per degree change in temperature, and can be determined from temperature-strain relationship given that the thermal strain can be isolated. Many times with concrete, the actual amount of expansion with temperature in situ varies from the given values for the CTE due to thermally generated elastic strain, which complicates evaluation of the CTE. To accurately characterize the relationship between temperature and strain on a structure, the actual thermal behavior of the structure needs to be analyzed. This rate can vary for different parts of a structure, depending on boundary conditions. In a case of unrestrained structures, the strain in the structure should be linearly related to the temperature change. Thermal gradients in a structure can affect this relationship, as they induce curvature and deplanations in the cross section. This paper proposes a method that addresses these challenges in evaluating the CTE.

  14. On a possibility for early warning of strong earthquakes by satellite monitoring of anomalous effects in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousheva, M. N.; Glavcheva, R. P.; Danov, D. L.; Angelov, P. S.; Hristov, P. L.; Kirov, B. B.; Georgieva, K. Y.

    The paper goal is to present simultaneously a satellite monitoring of plasma density variations and ULF/VLF wave emissions on the one hand and a ground earthquake monitoring, on the other. The INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 satellite was launched on 7th August 1981. It had a perigee of 825 km, an apogee of 906 km and orbit inclination of 81.2. For satellite's orbits over sources of strong earthquakes M>5.5 (seismic data of World Data Center - Denver, Colorado), in six-month time period 12.08. - 30.12.1981, statistical studies and analyses of ionosphere's effects are accomplished. These effects can be considered eventually as possible earthquake precursors. Some morphological peculiarities of electromagnetic radiation disturbances and ion density trough such as their appearance time before the main shock, sensitivity, amplitude, sign and time duration are evaluated. The paper discusses specific anomalous effects, observed in the ionosphere, which can't be explained by factors of solar-magnetosphere origin. They could be associated with the earthquake growing processes in the lithosphere and troposphere zones above the source. In conclusion the use of small satellites' clusters or constellations for ionosphere anomalous effects monitoring is proposed. This way a large amount of data can be ensured. The data can be used for a statistical analysis and further to develop a short-term earthquake forecasting methodology.

  15. [Monitoring method of underground coal fire based on night thermal infrared remote sensing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Guo; Wu, Jian-Jun; Gu, Lei; Yang, Bo; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Xiao-Chen

    2011-02-01

    Land surface temperature is higher in the zones of underground coal fire than in their surroundings areas. It is possible to monitor the coal fire and the heat anomalies using the remote sensing technology of thermal infrared. By taking the coal fire of Wuda in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region as an example, the monitoring methods of underground coal fire were explored based on different seasons night ASTER thermal infrared images. By employing the TES-ADE algorithm and threshold segmentation method, land surface temperature was retrieved and coal fire areas were extracted. Finally the seasonal variation of surface temperature, the surface temperature differences between night and day, and the change and distribution of coal fire area were analyzed. The results showed that (1) it is effective to retrieve land surface temperature and to avoid the interference of sand, bare land and building based on the remote sensing of thermal infrared at night; (2) it is best time to extract the coal fire areas based on the winter night images of thermal infrared; (3) it is effective to monitor the change and distribution of coal fire areas based on the winter night images of thermal infrared.

  16. A new solution of measuring thermal response of prestressed concrete bridge girders for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Pengcheng; Borchani, Wassim; Hasni, Hassene; Lajnef, Nizar

    2017-08-01

    This study develops a novel buckling-based mechanism to measure the thermal response of prestressed concrete bridge girders under continuous temperature changes for structural health monitoring. The measuring device consists of a bilaterally constrained beam and a piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride transducer that is attached to the beam. Under thermally induced displacement, the slender beam is buckled. The post-buckling events are deployed to convert the low-rate and low-frequency excitations into localized high-rate motions and, therefore, the attached piezoelectric transducer is triggered to generate electrical signals. Attaching the measuring device to concrete bridge girders, the electrical signals are used to detect the thermal response of concrete bridges. Finite element simulations are conducted to obtain the displacement of prestressed concrete girders under thermal loads. Using the thermal-induced displacement as input, experiments are carried out on a 3D printed measuring device to investigate the buckling response and corresponding electrical signals. A theoretical model is developed based on the nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and large deformation assumptions to predict the buckling mode transitions of the beam. Based on the presented theoretical model, the geometry properties of the measuring device can be designed such that its buckling response is effectively controlled. Consequently, the thermally induced displacement can be designed as limit states to detect excessive thermal loads on concrete bridge girders. The proposed solution sufficiently measures the thermal response of concrete bridges.

  17. Understanding the thermal sciences in the electron beam melting process through in-situ process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raplee, J.; Plotkowski, A.; Kirka, M. M.; Dinwiddie, R.; Dehoff, R. R.; Babu, S. S.

    2017-04-01

    Additive Manufacturing provides the opportunity to fabricate components of nearly limitless complexity compared to that of traditional manufacturing techniques. However, thermal gyrations imparted into the material from the passing of the heat source cause challenges in fabricating complex structures with the proper process parameters. While the thermal history of the material can be simulated, validating the simulations requires access to thermal data generated through in-situ process monitoring. While generation of in-situ thermal data seems trivial, acquiring and developing reliable calibrations for metallic materials is difficult due to the physical state of the material transitioning from powder to liquid to a solid. To be discussed is the methodology taken to integrate IR in-situ process monitoring within the electron beam melting process and the approach developed to accurately correlate a materials emissivity to temperature during the build process. Further the wealth of information contained within the thermal data will be discussed in the context of understanding of microstructural evolutions within the material during the build process, identification of material defects, and ability to determining the similarity/repeatability of builds fabricated with identical processing parameters as based only on the thermal signature of the build.

  18. Don't get burned: thermal monitoring of vessel sealing using a miniature infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan; Fichera, Loris; Fulton, Mitchell J.; Webster, Robert J.

    2017-03-01

    Miniature infrared cameras have recently come to market in a form factor that facilitates packaging in endoscopic or other minimally invasive surgical instruments. If absolute temperature measurements can be made with these cameras, they may be useful for non-contact monitoring of electrocautery-based vessel sealing, or other thermal surgical processes like thermal ablation of tumors. As a first step in evaluating the feasibility of optical medical thermometry with these new cameras, in this paper we explore how well thermal measurements can be made with them. These cameras measure the raw flux of incoming IR radiation, and we perform a calibration procedure to map their readings to absolute temperature values in the range between 40 and 150 °C. Furthermore, we propose and validate a method to estimate the spatial extent of heat spread created by a cautery tool based on the thermal images.

  19. Biomechanical assessment and monitoring of thermal ablation using Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound (HMIFU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Gary Yi

    Cancer remains, one of the major public health problems in the United States as well as many other countries worldwide. According to According to the World Health Organization, cancer is currently the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 7.6 million deaths annually, and 25% of the annual death was due to Cancer during the year of 2011. In the long history of the cancer treatment field, many treatment options have been established up to date. Traditional procedures include surgical procedures as well as systemic therapies such as biologic therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and radiation therapy. Nevertheless, side-effects are often associated with such procedures due to the systemic delivery across the entire body. Recently technologies have been focused on localized therapy under minimally or noninvasive procedure with imaging-guidance, such as cryoablation, laser ablation, radio-frequency (RF) ablation, and High Intensity F-ocused Ultrasound (HIFU). HIFU is a non-invasive procedure aims to coagulate tissue thermally at a localized focal zone created with noninvasively emitting a set of focused ultrasound beams while the surrounding healthy tissues remain relatively untreated. Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound (HMIFU) is a dynamic, radiation-force-based imaging technique, which utilizes a single HIFU transducer by emitting an Amplitude-modulated (AM) beam to both thermally ablate the tumor while inducing a stable oscillatory tissue displacement at its focal zone. The oscillatory response is then estimated by a cross-correlation based motion tracking technique on the signal collected by a confocally-aligned diagnostic transducer. HMIFU addresses the most critical aspect and one of the major unmet needs of HIFU treatment, which is the ability to perform real-time monitoring and mapping of tissue property change during the HIFU treatment. In this dissertation, both the assessment and monitoring aspects of HMIFU have been investigated

  20. Monitoring bisphenol A and estrogenic chemicals in thermal paper with yeast-based bioreporter assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasärkkä, Johanna; Koponen, Jani; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Virta, Marko

    2014-09-01

    Bioluminescent Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast-based bioreporters were used to monitor bisphenol A and other estrogenic chemicals in thermal paper samples collected mainly from Finland on two occasions in 2010/2011, and 2013. The bisphenol A-targeted (BPA-R) and the human oestrogen receptor (hERα) bioreporters were applied to analyse both non-treated and extracted paper samples. Bisphenol A was readily bioavailable to the yeast bioreporters on the non-treated paper samples without any pre-treatment. Detected concentrations ranged from a detection limit of 9-142 μg/g to over 20 mg/g of bisphenol A equivalents in the thermal papers. Low bisphenol A like activities were detected in many samples, and were considered to be caused by residual bisphenol A or other types of bisphenols, such as bisphenol S. Most of the thermal paper samples were toxic to the yeast bioreporters. The toxicity did not, however, depend on the bisphenol A concentration of the samples. The yeast bioreporters were demonstrated to be a robust and cost-efficient method to monitor thermal paper samples for their bisphenol A content and estrogenicity. Thermal paper was considered as a potential BPA source for both human exposure and environmental emission.

  1. Fabrication of a Micro-Needle Array Electrode by Thermal Drawing for Bio-Signals Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Ren; Qing Jiang; Keyun Chen; Zhipeng Chen; Chengfeng Pan; Lelun Jiang

    2016-01-01

    A novel micro-needle array electrode (MAE) fabricated by thermal drawing and coated with Ti/Au film was proposed for bio-signals monitoring. A simple and effective setup was employed to form glassy-state poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) into a micro-needle array (MA) by the thermal drawing method. The MA was composed of 6 ? 6 micro-needles with an average height of about 500 ?m. Electrode-skin interface impedance (EII) was recorded as the insertion force was applied on the MAE. The inser...

  2. Development of monitoring and modelling tools as basis for sustainable thermal management concepts of urban groundwater bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Matthias H.; Epting, Jannis; Köhler, Mandy; Händel, Falk; Huggenberger, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Increasing groundwater temperatures observed in many urban areas strongly interfere with the demand of thermal groundwater use. The groundwater temperatures in these urban areas are affected by numerous interacting factors: open and closed-loop geothermal systems for heating and cooling, sealed surfaces, constructions in the subsurface (infrastructure and buildings), artificial groundwater recharge, and interaction with rivers. On the one hand, these increasing groundwater temperatures will negatively affect the potential for its use in the future e.g. for cooling purposes. On the other hand, elevated subsurface temperatures can be considered as an energy source for shallow geothermal heating systems. Integrated thermal management concepts are therefore needed to coordinate the thermal use of groundwater in urban areas. These concepts should be based on knowledge of the driving processes which influence the thermal regime of the aquifer. We are currently investigating the processes influencing the groundwater temperature throughout the urban area of Basel City, Switzerland. This involves a three-dimensional numerical groundwater heat-transport model including geothermal use and interactions with the unsaturated zone such as subsurface constructions reaching into the aquifer. The cantonal groundwater monitoring system is an important part of the data base in our model, which will help to develop sustainable management strategies. However, single temperature measurements in conventional groundwater wells can be biased by vertical thermal convection. Therefore, multilevel observation wells are used in the urban areas of the city to monitor subsurface temperatures reaching from the unsaturated zone to the base of the aquifer. These multilevel wells are distributed in a pilot area in order to monitor the subsurface temperatures in the vicinity of deep buildings and to quantify the influence of the geothermal use of groundwater. Based on time series of the conventional

  3. A Sandwiched/Cracked Flexible Film for Multi-Thermal Monitoring and Switching Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2017-08-30

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based flexible films have substantiated advantages in various sensing applications. Here, we demonstrate the highly sensitive and programmable thermal-sensing capability (thermal index, B, up to 126 × 103 K) of flexible films with tunable sandwiched microstructures (PDMS/cracked single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film/PDMS) when a thermal stimulus is applied. We found that this excellent performance results from the following features of the film\\'s structural and material design: (1) the sandwiched structure allows the film to switch from a three-dimensional to a two-dimensional in-plane deformation and (2) the stiffness of the SWCNT film is decreased by introducing microcracks that make deformation easy and that promote the macroscopic piezoresistive behavior of SWCNT crack islands and the microscopic piezoresistive behavior of SWCNT bundles. The PDMS layer is characterized by a high coefficient of thermal expansion (α = 310 × 10-6 K-1) and low stiffness (∼2 MPa) that allow for greater flexibility and higher temperature sensitivity. We determined the efficacy of our sandwiched, cracked, flexible films in monitoring and switching flexible devices when subjected to various stimuli, including thermal conduction, thermal radiation, and light radiation.

  4. Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems Using Robust Self-Organizing Optical Fiber Sensing Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lance

    2013-01-01

    The general aim of this work is to develop and demonstrate a prototype structural health monitoring system for thermal protection systems that incorporates piezoelectric acoustic emission (AE) sensors to detect the occurrence and location of damaging impacts, and an optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network to evaluate the effect of detected damage on the thermal conductivity of the TPS material. Following detection of an impact, the TPS would be exposed to a heat source, possibly the sun, and the temperature distribution on the inner surface in the vicinity of the impact measured by the FBG network. A similar procedure could also be carried out as a screening test immediately prior to re-entry. The implications of any detected anomalies in the measured temperature distribution will be evaluated for their significance in relation to the performance of the TPS during re-entry. Such a robust TPS health monitoring system would ensure overall crew safety throughout the mission, especially during reentry

  5. No strings attached: Physiological Monitoring of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta with Thermal Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanos eIoannou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Methodological challenges make physiological affective observations very restrictive as in many cases they take place in a laboratory setting rather than the animals’ natural habitat. In the current study using Infrared Thermal Imaging we examine the physiological thermal imprints of 5 macaques. The monkeys were exposed in 3 different experimental scenarios. Playing with a toy, food teasing as well as feeding. It was observed that during teasing the temperature of the region surrounding the eyes was higher than play as a result of rapid saccades directed at the food. Compared to play and teasing, a lower temperature accompanied feeding on the upper lip, nose and orbital region suggesting elevated levels of distress. These findings prove that thermal imaging is a reliable method of physiological monitoring the subject at a distance while preserving a semi-experimental setting.

  6. The Porretta thermal springs (Northern Apennines: seismogenic structures and long-term geochemical monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Italiano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermal springs of Porretta are located on a seismically active area of the Northern Apennines. In 19th Century a chemist identified anomalous behaviour of the thermal waters in concomitance with local seismic events. Recent studies assessed the geochemical features of the circulating fluids (e.g., waters carry a dissolved CH4-dominated gas phase with a radiogenic signature of the helium isotopic ratio and observed anomalous hydrologic and geochemical signals possibly related to crustal strain phenomena due to local seismic events. Long-term geochemical monitoring was carried out from 2001 to 2006 with the aim of detecting the behaviour of the circulating fluids possibly coinciding with seismic activity. The collected data reveal a sensitivity of the thermal waters to the activity of the main fault crossing the village of Porretta and identify a «seismogenic» structure crossing the village.

  7. Thermal Transmission through Existing Building Enclosures: Destructive Monitoring in Intermediate Layers versus Non-Destructive Monitoring with Sensors on Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echarri, Víctor; Espinosa, Almudena; Rizo, Carlos

    2017-12-08

    Opaque enclosures of buildings play an essential role in the level of comfort experienced indoors and annual energy demand. The impact of solar radiation and thermal inertia of the materials that make up the multi-layer enclosures substantially modify thermal transmittance behaviour of the enclosures. This dynamic form of heat transfer, additionally affected by indoor HVAC systems, has a substantial effect on the parameters that define comfort. It also has an impact on energy demand within a daily cycle as well as throughout a one-year use cycle. This study describes the destructive monitoring of an existing block of flats located in Alicante. Once the enclosure was opened, sensors of temperature (PT100), air velocity, and relative humidity were located in the different layers of the enclosure, as well as in the interior and exterior surfaces. A pyranometer was also installed to measure solar radiation levels. A temperature data correction algorithm was drawn up to address irregularities produced in the enclosure. The algorithm was applied using a Raspberry Pi processor in the data collection system. The comparative results of temperature gradients versus non-destructive monitoring systems are presented, providing measures of the transmittance value, surface temperatures and indoor and outdoor air temperatures. This remote sensing system can be used in future studies to quantify and compare the energy savings of different enclosure construction solutions.

  8. Thermal Transmission through Existing Building Enclosures: Destructive Monitoring in Intermediate Layers versus Non-Destructive Monitoring with Sensors on Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Echarri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Opaque enclosures of buildings play an essential role in the level of comfort experienced indoors and annual energy demand. The impact of solar radiation and thermal inertia of the materials that make up the multi-layer enclosures substantially modify thermal transmittance behaviour of the enclosures. This dynamic form of heat transfer, additionally affected by indoor HVAC systems, has a substantial effect on the parameters that define comfort. It also has an impact on energy demand within a daily cycle as well as throughout a one-year use cycle. This study describes the destructive monitoring of an existing block of flats located in Alicante. Once the enclosure was opened, sensors of temperature (PT100, air velocity, and relative humidity were located in the different layers of the enclosure, as well as in the interior and exterior surfaces. A pyranometer was also installed to measure solar radiation levels. A temperature data correction algorithm was drawn up to address irregularities produced in the enclosure. The algorithm was applied using a Raspberry Pi processor in the data collection system. The comparative results of temperature gradients versus non-destructive monitoring systems are presented, providing measures of the transmittance value, surface temperatures and indoor and outdoor air temperatures. This remote sensing system can be used in future studies to quantify and compare the energy savings of different enclosure construction solutions.

  9. Evaluation of risk and benefit in thermal effusivity sensor for monitoring lubrication process in pharmaceutical product manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Jumpei; Kato, Yoshiteru; Uemoto, Yoshifumi

    2014-08-01

    In the process design of tablet manufacturing, understanding and control of the lubrication process is important from various viewpoints. A detailed analysis of thermal effusivity data in the lubrication process was conducted in this study. In addition, we evaluated the risk and benefit in the lubrication process by a detailed investigation. It was found that monitoring of thermal effusivity detected mainly the physical change of bulk density, which was changed by dispersal of the lubricant and the coating powder particle by the lubricant. The monitoring of thermal effusivity was almost the monitoring of bulk density, thermal effusivity could have a high correlation with tablet hardness. Moreover, as thermal effusivity sensor could detect not only the change of the conventional bulk density but also the fractional change of thermal conductivity and thermal capacity, two-phase progress of lubrication process could be revealed. However, each contribution of density, thermal conductivity, or heat capacity to thermal effusivity has the risk of fluctuation by formulation. After carefully considering the change factor with the risk to be changed by formulation, thermal effusivity sensor can be a useful tool for monitoring as process analytical technology, estimating tablet hardness and investigating the detailed mechanism of the lubrication process.

  10. H-G Diagram Based Rotor Parameters Identification for Induction Motors Thermal Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Naït-Saïd, Mohamed-Saïd; Benbouzid, Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, an effective on-line method for induction motor parameter identification, especially rotor parameters, based on the H-G diagram is presented for motor thermal monitoring purpose. The H-G diagram is established from the analysis of the induction motor measurement of active and reactive power consumption for each operating point. Computer simulations and experimental tests, carried out for a 4-kW four-pole squirrel cage induction motor, provide an encourag...

  11. Volcanic SO2 and SiF4 visualization and their ratio monitored using 2-D thermal emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stremme, W.; Krueger, A.; Harig, R.; Grutter, M.

    2011-09-01

    The composition and emission rates of volcanic gas plumes provide insight of the geologic internal activity, atmospheric chemistry, aerosol formation and radiative processes around it. Observations are necessary for public security and the aviation industry. Ground-based thermal emission infrared spectroscopy, which uses the radiation of the volcanic gas itself, allows for continuously monitoring during day and night from a save distance. We present measurements on Popocatépetl volcano based on thermal emission spectroscopy during different campaigns between 2006-2009 using a Scanning Infrared Gas Imaging System (SIGIS). The experimental set-up, measurement geometries and analytical algorithms are described. The equipment was operated from a safe distance of 12 km from the volcano at two different spectral resolutions: 0.5 and 4 cm-1. The 2-dimensional scanning capability of the instrument allows for an on-line visualization of the volcanic SO2 plume, animation and determination of its propagation speed. SiF4 was also identified in the infrared spectra recorded at both resolutions. The SiF4/SO2 molecular ratio can be calculated from each image and used as a highly useful parameter to follow changes in volcanic activity. A small Vulcanian eruption was monitored during the night of 16 to 17 November 2008 which was confirmed from the strong ash emission registered around 01:00 a.m. LST (Local Standard Time) and a pronounced SO2 cloud was registered. Enhanced SiF4/SO2 ratios were observed before and after the eruption. A validation of the results from thermal emission measurements with those from absorption spectra of the moon taken at the same time, as well as an error analysis, are presented. The inferred propagation speed from sequential imagees is used to calculate the emission rates at different distances from the crater.

  12. APPLICATION OF MONITORING, DIAGNOSIS, AND PROGNOSIS IN THERMAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HYEONMIN KIM

    2014-12-01

    Although thermal performance tests implemented using industrial codes and standards can provide officially trustworthy results, they are essentially resource-consuming and maybe even a hind-sighted technique rather than a foresighted one, considering their periodicity. Therefore, if more accurate performance monitoring can be achieved using advanced data analysis techniques, we can expect more optimized operations and maintenance. This paper proposes a framework and describes associated methodologies for in-situ thermal performance analysis, which differs from conventional performance monitoring. The methodologies are effective for monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis in pursuit of CBM. Our enabling techniques cover the intelligent removal of random and systematic errors, deviation detection between a best condition and a currently measured condition, degradation diagnosis using a structured knowledge base, and prognosis for decision-making about maintenance tasks. We also discuss how our new methods can be incorporated with existing performance tests. We provide guidance and directions for developers and end-users interested in in-situ thermal performance management, particularly in NPPs with large steam turbines.

  13. Characterization of Terrestrial Discharges into Coastal Waters with Thermal Imagery from a Hierarchical Monitoring Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ferrara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hierarchical use of remotely-sensed imagery from satellites, and then proximally-sensed imagery from helicopter sand drones, can provide a range of spatial and temporal coverage that supports water quality monitoring of complex pollution scenarios. Methods: The study used hierarchical satellite-, helicopter-, and drone-acquired thermal imagery of coastal plumes ranging from 3 to 300 m, near Naples, Italy, and captured temporally- and spatially-overlapping in situ samples to correlate thermal and water quality parameters in each plume and the seawater. Results: In situ sampling determined that between-plume salinity varied by 37%, chlorophyll-a varied by 356%, dissolved oxygen varied by 81%, and turbidity varied by 232%. The radiometric temperature, Trad, for the plume area of interest had a correlation of 0.81 with salinity, 0.74 with chlorophyll-a, 0.98 with dissolved oxygen, and −0.61 with turbidity. Conclusion: This study established hierarchical use of remote and proximal thermal imagery can provide monitoring of complex coastal areas.

  14. An automatic energy-saving and thermal monitoring/controlling system for a pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ching-Chien

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of low temperatures and oxygen in cold water, fish will die when cold currents arrive. This will cause tremendous loss of money. In order reduce the cooling of the pond, an automatic thermal detecting and cold-roofing system using a wind-proofing device, heaters, and thermal detectors is proposed. To reduce heat loss due to thermal convection above the pond surface, a motor-driven wind-proofing device automatically controlled by a PLC controller is adopted. Here, the wind-proofing device, thermal detectors, and heating system are connected to the PLC controller. The PLC will also be connected to the PC interface. The temperature thresholds used to trigger the heater and the wind proofing device can be set at the PC interface. Two options for manipulating the heating and the automatic heating can be selected. The related wind-proofing area and the number of heaters will be determined according to the current temperature. Moreover, the PLC can be wirelessly connected to the server PC in the control room. The pond keeper can monitor everything online and control the pond water's temperature. With this, the problem of fish dying in a cold wave can be solved. Consequently, to reduce the electrical exhaust when heating up the pond water, green energy, solar energy and wind energy, is used.

  15. In Situ Acoustic Monitoring of Thermal Spray Process Using High-Frequency Impulse Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Wolfgang; Walther, Frank; Luo, Weifeng; Haack, Matthias; Nellesen, Jens; Knyazeva, Marina

    2018-01-01

    In order to guarantee their protective function, thermal spray coatings must be free from cracks, which expose the substrate surface to, e.g., corrosive media. Cracks in thermal spray coatings are usually formed because of tensile residual stresses. Most commonly, the crack occurrence is determined after the thermal spraying process by examination of metallographic cross sections of the coating. Recent efforts focus on in situ monitoring of crack formation by means of acoustic emission analysis. However, the acoustic signals related to crack propagation can be absorbed by the noise of the thermal spraying process. In this work, a high-frequency impulse measurement technique was applied to separate different acoustic sources by visualizing the characteristic signal of crack formation via quasi-real-time Fourier analysis. The investigations were carried out on a twin wire arc spraying process, utilizing FeCrBSi as a coating material. The impact of the process parameters on the acoustic emission spectrum was studied. Acoustic emission analysis enables to obtain global and integral information on the formed cracks. The coating morphology and coating defects were inspected using light microscopy on metallographic cross sections. Additionally, the resulting crack patterns were imaged in 3D by means of x-ray microtomography.

  16. Thermal and maternal environments shape the value of early hatching in a natural population of a strongly cannibalistic freshwater fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagel, T.; Bekkevold, Dorte; Pohlmeier, S.

    2015-01-01

    Hatching early in the season is often assumed to elevate fitness, particularly in cannibalistic fish in which size-dependent predation mortality is a major selective force. While the importance of the thermal environment for the growth of fish is undisputed, the relevance of maternal effects...... numbers of high-quality eggs. Our study is among the few to reveal carry-over effects related to past maternal environments on offspring performance in a naturally reproducing fish stock. At the same time, our study underscores recent arguments that size-dependent maternal effects may not be expressed...

  17. Monitoring large enrichment plants using thermal imagery from commercial satellites: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Bernstein

    2000-05-01

    Thermal imagery from commercial satellites is an interesting candidate technology for use as a verification tool for the purpose of monitoring certain types of fissile material production sites. Examples of its potential treaty applications include the Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT) or a Fissile Material Production Moratorium. To help determine the capabilities and limitations of such imagery as a monitoring tool, the author has examined archived LANDSAT-5 images of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, a large US uranium-enrichment facility in Ohio. This analysis indicates that large-scale gaseous diffusion plants can very likely be recognized as operational with thermal imagery throughout most of the year in clear weather conditions. It may also be possible to identify certain other large-scale qualitative changes in operations, such as the shut-down of a single process building in a plant, by a comparison of its temperature with the temperatures of neighboring operational process buildings. However, uncertainties in the current data set prevent a definitive conclusion regarding the latter capability. This study identifies intrinsic weaknesses, including vulnerability to countermeasures, that prevent thermal imagery from satellites from being a robust standalone verification tool, even for very large enrichment plants. Nonetheless, the imagery may be useful as a trigger for an on-site inspection, to alert and train inspectors prior to an inspection, and possibly to reduce the frequency of on-site inspections required at a given site. It could have some immediate utility for monitoring the two large gaseous diffusion plants the US and the French plant at Tricastin, and possibly for determining the operational status of two gaseous diffusion plants in China as well--a total of five plants worldwide. The ease of acquisition and modest cost of thermal commercial imagery further increase its attractiveness as a verification tool. In addition to these basic

  18. Evaluate thermal lesion using Nakagami imaging for monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Siyuan; Li, Chong; Zhou, Fanyu; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2017-03-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is currently being developed as a noninvasive technique for the treatment of cancer located in various tissues. Cavitation microbubbles (MBs) have been potential to aid treatment while the acoustic posterior shadowing effects of MBs influence the accuracy for defining the location and range of ablated thermal lesions during focused ultrasound surgery when using ultrasonic monitoring imaging. This work explored the feasibility of using ultrasonic Nakagami imaging to evaluate the ablated region induced by focused ultrasound exposures at different acoustic power levels in transparent tissue-mimicking phantoms.

  19. Strong thermal acclimation of photosynthesis in tropical and temperate wet-forest tree species: the importance of altered Rubisco content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafaro, Andrew P; Xiang, Shuang; Long, Benedict M; Bahar, Nur H A; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Creek, Danielle; Evans, John R; Reich, Peter B; Atkin, Owen K

    2017-07-01

    Understanding of the extent of acclimation of light-saturated net photosynthesis (An ) to temperature (T), and associated underlying mechanisms, remains limited. This is a key knowledge gap given the importance of thermal acclimation for plant functioning, both under current and future higher temperatures, limiting the accuracy and realism of Earth system model (ESM) predictions. Given this, we analysed and modelled T-dependent changes in photosynthetic capacity in 10 wet-forest tree species: six from temperate forests and four from tropical forests. Temperate and tropical species were each acclimated to three daytime growth temperatures (Tgrowth ): temperate - 15, 20 and 25 °C; tropical - 25, 30 and 35 °C. CO2 response curves of An were used to model maximal rates of RuBP (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate) carboxylation (Vcmax ) and electron transport (Jmax ) at each treatment's respective Tgrowth and at a common measurement T (25 °C). SDS-PAGE gels were used to determine abundance of the CO2 -fixing enzyme, Rubisco. Leaf chlorophyll, nitrogen (N) and mass per unit leaf area (LMA) were also determined. For all species and Tgrowth , An at current atmospheric CO2 partial pressure was Rubisco-limited. Across all species, LMA decreased with increasing Tgrowth . Similarly, area-based rates of Vcmax at a measurement T of 25 °C (Vcmax25 ) linearly declined with increasing Tgrowth , linked to a concomitant decline in total leaf protein per unit leaf area and Rubisco as a percentage of leaf N. The decline in Rubisco constrained Vcmax and An for leaves developed at higher Tgrowth and resulted in poor predictions of photosynthesis by currently widely used models that do not account for Tgrowth -mediated changes in Rubisco abundance that underpin the thermal acclimation response of photosynthesis in wet-forest tree species. A new model is proposed that accounts for the effect of Tgrowth -mediated declines in Vcmax25 on An , complementing current photosynthetic thermal

  20. Facile Route to Transparent, Strong, and Thermally Stable Nanocellulose/Polymer Nanocomposites from an Aqueous Pickering Emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Shuji; Togawa, Eiji; Kuroda, Katsushi

    2017-01-09

    Cellulose nanofibril (CNF) is a promising nanofiller for polymer nanocomposite materials, and a critical challenge in designing these materials is organization of the nanostructure using a facile process. Here, we report a facile aqueous preparation process for nanostructured polystyrene (PS)/CNF composites via the formation of a CNF-stabilized Pickering emulsion. PS nanoparticles, with a narrow size distribution, were synthesized by free radical polymerization in water using CNF as a stabilizer. The nanoparticles were easily collected by filtration, and the resulting material had a composite structure of PS nanoparticles embedded in a CNF framework. The PS/CNF nanocomposite showed high optical transparency, strength, and thermal dimensional stability. Thus, this technique provides a simple and environmentally friendly method for the preparation of novel CNF/polymer nanocomposite materials.

  1. Fabrication of a Micro-Needle Array Electrode by Thermal Drawing for Bio-Signals Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ren

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel micro-needle array electrode (MAE fabricated by thermal drawing and coated with Ti/Au film was proposed for bio-signals monitoring. A simple and effective setup was employed to form glassy-state poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA into a micro-needle array (MA by the thermal drawing method. The MA was composed of 6 × 6 micro-needles with an average height of about 500 μm. Electrode-skin interface impedance (EII was recorded as the insertion force was applied on the MAE. The insertion process of the MAE was also simulated by the finite element method. Results showed that MAE could insert into skin with a relatively low compression force and maintain stable contact impedance between the MAE and skin. Bio-signals, including electromyography (EMG, electrocardiography (ECG, and electroencephalograph (EEG were also collected. Test results showed that the MAE could record EMG, ECG, and EEG signals with good fidelity in shape and amplitude in comparison with the commercial Ag/AgCl electrodes, which proves that MAE is an alternative electrode for bio-signals monitoring.

  2. Exploiting Microwave Imaging Methods for Real-Time Monitoring of Thermal Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Scapaticci

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave thermal ablation is a cancer treatment that exploits local heating caused by a microwave electromagnetic field to induce coagulative necrosis of tumor cells. Recently, such a technique has significantly progressed in the clinical practice. However, its effectiveness would dramatically improve if paired with a noninvasive system for the real-time monitoring of the evolving dimension and shape of the thermally ablated area. In this respect, microwave imaging can be a potential candidate to monitor the overall treatment evolution in a noninvasive way, as it takes direct advantage from the dependence of the electromagnetic properties of biological tissues from temperature. This paper explores such a possibility by presenting a proof of concept validation based on accurate simulated imaging experiments, run with respect to a scenario that mimics an ex vivo experimental setup. In particular, two model-based inversion algorithms are exploited to tackle the imaging task. These methods provide independent results in real-time and their integration improves the quality of the overall tracking of the variations occurring in the target and surrounding regions.

  3. Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems and MMOD using Robust Self-Organizing Optical Fiber Sensing Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lance

    2014-01-01

    The general aim of this work is to develop and demonstrate a prototype structural health monitoring system for thermal protection systems that incorporates piezoelectric acoustic emission (AE) sensors to detect the occurrence and location of damaging impacts, such as those from Micrometeoroid Orbital Debris (MMOD). The approach uses an optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network to evaluate the effect of detected damage on the thermal conductivity of the TPS material. Following detection of an impact, the TPS would be exposed to a heat source, possibly the sun, and the temperature distribution on the inner surface in the vicinity of the impact measured by the FBG network. A similar procedure could also be carried out as a screening test immediately prior to re-entry. The implications of any detected anomalies in the measured temperature distribution will be evaluated for their significance in relation to the performance of the TPS during reentry. Such a robust TPS health monitoring system would ensure overall crew safety throughout the mission, especially during reentry.

  4. Fiber Optic Sensors for Temperature Monitoring during Thermal Treatments: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Schena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During recent decades, minimally invasive thermal treatments (i.e., Radiofrequency ablation, Laser ablation, Microwave ablation, High Intensity Focused Ultrasound ablation, and Cryo-ablation have gained widespread recognition in the field of tumor removal. These techniques induce a localized temperature increase or decrease to remove the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue remains intact. An accurate measurement of tissue temperature may be particularly beneficial to improve treatment outcomes, because it can be used as a clear end-point to achieve complete tumor ablation and minimize recurrence. Among the several thermometric techniques used in this field, fiber optic sensors (FOSs have several attractive features: high flexibility and small size of both sensor and cabling, allowing insertion of FOSs within deep-seated tissue; metrological characteristics, such as accuracy (better than 1 °C, sensitivity (e.g., 10 pm·°C−1 for Fiber Bragg Gratings, and frequency response (hundreds of kHz, are adequate for this application; immunity to electromagnetic interference allows the use of FOSs during Magnetic Resonance- or Computed Tomography-guided thermal procedures. In this review the current status of the most used FOSs for temperature monitoring during thermal procedure (e.g., fiber Bragg Grating sensors; fluoroptic sensors is presented, with emphasis placed on their working principles and metrological characteristics. The essential physics of the common ablation techniques are included to explain the advantages of using FOSs during these procedures.

  5. Fiber Optic Sensors for Temperature Monitoring during Thermal Treatments: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, Emiliano; Tosi, Daniele; Saccomandi, Paola; Lewis, Elfed; Kim, Taesung

    2016-07-22

    During recent decades, minimally invasive thermal treatments (i.e., Radiofrequency ablation, Laser ablation, Microwave ablation, High Intensity Focused Ultrasound ablation, and Cryo-ablation) have gained widespread recognition in the field of tumor removal. These techniques induce a localized temperature increase or decrease to remove the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue remains intact. An accurate measurement of tissue temperature may be particularly beneficial to improve treatment outcomes, because it can be used as a clear end-point to achieve complete tumor ablation and minimize recurrence. Among the several thermometric techniques used in this field, fiber optic sensors (FOSs) have several attractive features: high flexibility and small size of both sensor and cabling, allowing insertion of FOSs within deep-seated tissue; metrological characteristics, such as accuracy (better than 1 °C), sensitivity (e.g., 10 pm·°C(-1) for Fiber Bragg Gratings), and frequency response (hundreds of kHz), are adequate for this application; immunity to electromagnetic interference allows the use of FOSs during Magnetic Resonance- or Computed Tomography-guided thermal procedures. In this review the current status of the most used FOSs for temperature monitoring during thermal procedure (e.g., fiber Bragg Grating sensors; fluoroptic sensors) is presented, with emphasis placed on their working principles and metrological characteristics. The essential physics of the common ablation techniques are included to explain the advantages of using FOSs during these procedures.

  6. Wireless Subsurface Sensors for Health Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems on Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milos, Frank S.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Health diagnostics is an area where major improvements have been identified for potential implementation into the design of new reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) in order to reduce life cycle costs, to increase safety margins, and to improve mission reliability. NASA Ames is leading the effort to develop inspection and health management technologies for thermal protection systems. This paper summarizes a joint project between NASA Ames and industry partners to develop "wireless" devices that can be embedded in the thermal protection system to monitor temperature or other quantities of interest. These devices are sensors integrated with radio-frequency identification (RFID) microchips to enable non-contact communication of sensor data to an external reader that may be a hand-held scanner or a large portal. Both passive and active prototype devices have been developed. The passive device uses a thermal fuse to indicate the occurrence of excessive temperature. This device has a diameter under 0.13 cm. (suitable for placement in gaps between ceramic TPS tiles on an RLV) and can withstand 370 C for 15 minutes. The active device contains a small battery to provide power to a thermocouple for recording a temperature history during flight. The bulk of the device must be placed beneath the TPS for protection from high temperature, but the thermocouple can be placed in a hot location such as near the external surface.

  7. Fiber Optic Sensors for Temperature Monitoring during Thermal Treatments: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, Emiliano; Tosi, Daniele; Saccomandi, Paola; Lewis, Elfed; Kim, Taesung

    2016-01-01

    During recent decades, minimally invasive thermal treatments (i.e., Radiofrequency ablation, Laser ablation, Microwave ablation, High Intensity Focused Ultrasound ablation, and Cryo-ablation) have gained widespread recognition in the field of tumor removal. These techniques induce a localized temperature increase or decrease to remove the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue remains intact. An accurate measurement of tissue temperature may be particularly beneficial to improve treatment outcomes, because it can be used as a clear end-point to achieve complete tumor ablation and minimize recurrence. Among the several thermometric techniques used in this field, fiber optic sensors (FOSs) have several attractive features: high flexibility and small size of both sensor and cabling, allowing insertion of FOSs within deep-seated tissue; metrological characteristics, such as accuracy (better than 1 °C), sensitivity (e.g., 10 pm·°C−1 for Fiber Bragg Gratings), and frequency response (hundreds of kHz), are adequate for this application; immunity to electromagnetic interference allows the use of FOSs during Magnetic Resonance- or Computed Tomography-guided thermal procedures. In this review the current status of the most used FOSs for temperature monitoring during thermal procedure (e.g., fiber Bragg Grating sensors; fluoroptic sensors) is presented, with emphasis placed on their working principles and metrological characteristics. The essential physics of the common ablation techniques are included to explain the advantages of using FOSs during these procedures. PMID:27455273

  8. Development of exploration and monitoring techniques for the sustainable thermal use of the shallow subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienken, Thomas; Dietrich, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The increasing use of shallow geothermal energy, especially the rising numbers of geothermal ground source heat pumps that are installed to nowadays heat entire residential neighborhoods and the increasing use of ground water to cool residential buildings, as well as industrial facilities have led to an increasing need to assess possible effects of the use of shallow geothermal energy and to model subsurface heat transport. Potential effects include depletion of groundwater quality with resulting reduction of ground water ecosystem services. Heat and mass transport by groundwater dispersion and convection may lead to a carryover of effects into groundwater dependent ecosystems. These effects are often not directly accessible. Therefore, conflicting interests between geothermal energy use and groundwater protection as well as conflicting use between geothermal energy users are expected to arise especially in densely populated urban areas where the highest demand for the use of shallow geothermal energy is located but exploitation of shallow geothermal energy is limited and, at the same time, groundwater vulnerability is at its highest. Until now, only limited information about the potential effects of the intensive use of ground source heat pumps are available. Analyses conducted in the course of regulatory permission procedures consider only single applications and often rely on models that are solely parameterized based on standard literature values (e.g. thermal conductivity, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity). In addition, heat transport by groundwater dynamics is not considered. Due to the costs of conventionally applied geothermal in-situ tests (e.g. Geothermal Response Test - GRT) these can often only be applied at larger project scale. In this regard, our study will showcase the necessity for the development of novel geothermal monitoring and exploration concepts and tools based on a case story of a thermal intensively used residential neighborhood. We

  9. The use of thermal desorption in monitoring for the chemical weapons demilitarization program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Martin

    2002-10-01

    Under international treaty, the United States and Russia are disposing of their aging stockpile of chemical weapons. Incineration and chemical neutralization are options for sites in the United States, although Russia prefers the latter. The storage and disposal of bulk and chemical agents and weapons involve unique hazards of handling extremely toxic materials. There are three major areas of concern--the storage stockpile, the disposal area, and the discovery and destruction of "found" material not considered part of the stockpile. Methods have been developed to detect the presence of chemical agents in the air, and these are used to help assure worker protection and the safety of the local population. Exposure limits for all chemical agents are low, sometimes nanograms per cubic meter for worker control limits and picograms per cubic meter for general population limits. There are three types of monitoring used in the USA: alarm, confirmation, and historical. Alarm monitors are required to give relatively immediate real-time responses to agent leaks. They are simple to operate and rugged, and provide an alarm in near real-time (generally a few minutes). Alarm monitors for the demilitarization program are based on sorbent pre-concentration followed by thermal desorption and simple gas chromatography. Alarms may need to be confirmed by another method, such as sample tubes collocated with the alarm monitor and analyzed in a laboratory by more sophisticated chromatography. Sample tubes are also used for historical perimeter monitoring, with sample periods typically of 12 h. The most common detector is the flame photometric detector, in sulfur or phosphorous mode, although others, such as mass-selective detectors, also have been used. All agents have specific problems with collection, chromatography and detection. Monitoring is not made easier by interferences from pesticide spraying, busy roadways or military firing ranges. Exposure limits drive the requirements for

  10. Monitoring and assessment of the outdoor thermal comfort in Bucharest (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Sorin; Ciobotaru, Ana-Maria; Andronache, Ion; Dumitrescu, Alexandru

    2017-04-01

    Bucharest is one of the European cities most at risk of being affected by meteorological hazards. Heat or cold waves, extreme temperature events, heavy rains or prolonged precipitation deficits are all-season phenomena, triggering damages, discomfort or even casualties. Temperature hazards may occur annually and challenge equally the public, local business and administration to find adequate solutions for securing the thermal comfort in the outdoor environment of the city. The accurate and fine resolution monitoring of the air temperature pledges for the comprehensive assessment of the thermal comfort in order to capture as much as possible the urban influence. This study uses sub-hourly temperature data (10-min temporal resolution) retrieved over the period November 2014 - November 2016 collected from nine sensors placed either in plain urban conditions or within the three meteorological stations of the national network which are currently monitoring the climate of Bucharest (Băneasa, Filaret, Afumați). The relative humidity was estimated based on the data available at the three stations placed in WMO standard conditions, and the 10-min values of 8 Thermal Comfort Indices were computed, namely: Heat Index, Humidex, Relative Strain Index, Scharlau, Summer Simmer Index, Physiological Equivalent Index, Temperature-Humidity Index, Thom Discomfort Index. The indices were analysed statistically, both individually and combined. Despite the short range of the available data, this study emphasizes clear spatial differentiations of the thermal comfort, in a very good agreement with the land cover and built zones of the city, while important variations were found in the temporal regime, due to large variations of the temperature values (e.g. >4 centigrade between consecutive hours or >15 centigrade between consecutive days). Ultimately, this study has revealed that the continuous monitoring of the urban climate, at fine temporal and spatial resolution, may deliver

  11. Thermal Analysis of the Al Window for a New CESR-c Luminosity Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yun; Palmer, Mark A; Rice, David

    2005-01-01

    A luminosity monitor using photons from radiative bhabha events at the CLEO interaction point (IP) has been installed in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR). A key vacuum and detector component is the photon window/converter whose uniformity and thickness are critical for determining the resolution of the total energy deposited in the segmented luminosity monitor. The window design must accommodate the operational requirements of the new monitor at CLEO-c beam energies of 1.5-2.5 GeV and also provide sufficient safety margin for operation at 5.3 GeV beam energies for Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) running. During 5.3 GeV operation, intense stripes of synchrotron radiation from the interaction region superconducting quadrupole magnets as well as nearby bending magnets strike the window. During the course of window development, several materials and designs were evaluated. Thermal stresses were calculated using the finite element code ANSYS for various beam conditions to guide the cooling d...

  12. Strong Thermal Anomalies in the Lowermost Mantle Explain a Large Fraction of Deep Earth Seismic Structure (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuberth, B. S.; Bunge, H.

    2010-12-01

    One major challenge in the study of Earth's deep interior is to improve existing conceptual models of mantle flow. Understanding the dynamic behavior of the mantle is important as it drives plate tectonics and controls the way the Earth looses its heat. Thus, it is a crucial factor in tectonic modeling or in simulations of the geodynamo and of the thermal history of the Earth. In the last decade, the classical viewpoint has been put into question that only a small part of the heat leaving the mantle at the top is coming from the underlying core (2-3 TW or ~5% of the total surface heat flux). A number of studies from various fields have recently promoted the idea of a much larger core contribution to the mantle energy budget of as much as 10 TW (~30% of the surface heat flow). For example, finite frequency tomography has produced images of large plumes in the lower mantle, which potentially carry a significant amount of heat to the surface (Nolet et al. [2006]). This strengthens the notion that the dynamic role of these plumes is larger than inferred classically from observation of dynamic topography. Here, we demonstrate that plume structures predicted for such a high core heat flux by high-performance computations of 3-D mantle flow are compatible with seismic tomography and small rates of polar wander. An important aspect in such comparisons is that the resolving power of seismic tomography is limited due to uneven data coverage. One possibility to account for this effect is to apply the resolution operator of the tomographic inversions to our synthetic structures. However, this operator can only be constructed for tomographic models with a small number of free parameters, thus limiting its use. Therefore, we will explore new ways to test dynamic flow calculations for Earth's mantle against seismic data and tomographic models. One possible approach is to perform large-scale simulations of 3-D seismic wave propagation through both tomographic models as well as our

  13. Thermal Activity Monitoring of an Active Volcano Using Landsat 8/OLI-TIRS Sensor Images: A Case Study at the Aso Volcanic Area in Southwest Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Md Bodruddoza Mia; Yasuhiro Fujimitsu; Jun Nishijima

    2017-01-01

    .... For the first time, Landsat 8 TIRS thermal data were used in this study area to evaluate and monitor the recent thermal status of this volcano, situated in Southwest Japan, from 2013 to 2016 using four sets of images...

  14. Local monitoring of atomic steps on GaAs(001) surface under oxidation, wet removal of oxides and thermal smoothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhundov, I.O.; Kazantsev, D.M. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Alperovich, V.L., E-mail: alper@isp.nsc.ru [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sheglov, D.V. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kozhukhov, A.S.; Latyshev, A.V. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Specific atomic steps are monitored on the structured GaAs surface by ex situ AFM. • Oxidation and wet oxide removal keep the position and shape of atomic steps intact. • Thermal surface smoothing is studied on the structured GaAs surface. • The deviation from equilibrium towards growth during smoothing is revealed. • The step length smoothing kinetics is described by Monte Carlo simulation. - Abstract: The GaAs(001) step-terraced surface relief is studied under oxidation, wet oxide removal and thermal smoothing by ex situ atomic force microscopy with local monitoring of specific atomic steps using lithographic marks for surface area localization. Oxidation in the air and wet oxide removal lead to the formation of monatomic dips on terraces, while atomic steps keep their position and shape. Monitoring step mean position under thermal smoothing allows us to determine the deviation from equilibrium. The experimental smoothing kinetics is well described by Monte Carlo simulation.

  15. Video and thermal imaging system for monitoring interiors of high temperature reaction vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Alexei V [Chicago, IL; Zelepouga, Serguei A [Hoffman Estates, IL; Rue, David M [Chicago, IL

    2012-01-10

    A system and method for real-time monitoring of the interior of a combustor or gasifier wherein light emitted by the interior surface of a refractory wall of the combustor or gasifier is collected using an imaging fiber optic bundle having a light receiving end and a light output end. Color information in the light is captured with primary color (RGB) filters or complimentary color (GMCY) filters placed over individual pixels of color sensors disposed within a digital color camera in a BAYER mosaic layout, producing RGB signal outputs or GMCY signal outputs. The signal outputs are processed using intensity ratios of the primary color filters or the complimentary color filters, producing video images and/or thermal images of the interior of the combustor or gasifier.

  16. Biological monitoring of aromatic diisocyanates in workers exposed to thermal degradation products of polyurethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Christina; Nikkilä, Kirsi; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Peltonen, Kimmo; Engströrm, Kerstin

    2002-10-01

    Exposure to diisocyanates was assessed by biological monitoring among workers exposed to the thermal degradation products of polyurethanes (PURs) in five PUR-processing environments. The processes included grinding and welding in car repair shops, milling and turning of PUR-coated metal cylinders, injection moulding of thermoplastic PUR, welding and cutting of PUR-insulated district heating pipes during installation and joint welding, and heat-flexing of PUR floor covering. Isocyanate-derived amines in acid-hydrolysed urine samples were analysed as perfluoroacylated derivatives by gas chromatography mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionisation mode. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for the aromatic diamines 2,4- and 2,6-toluenediamine (2,4- and 2,6-TDA) and 4,4'-methylenedianiline (4,4'-MDA) were 0.25 nmol l(-1), 0.25 nmol l(-1) and 0.15 nmol l(-1), respectively. The LOQ for the aliphatic diamines hexamethylenediamine (HDA), isophoronediamine (IpDA) and 4,4'-diaminodicyclohexyl methane (4,4'-DDHM) was 5 nmol l(-1). TDA and MDA were detected in urine samples from workers in car repair shops and MDA in samples from workers welding district heating pipes. The 2,4-TDA isomer accounted for about 80% of the total TDA detected. No 2.6-TDA was found in the urine of non-exposed workers. The highest measured urinary TDA and MDA concentrations were 0.79 nmol mmol(-1) creatinine and 3.1 nmol mmol(-1) creatinine, respectively. The concentrations found among non-exposed workers were 0.08 nmol mmol(-1) creatinine for TDA and 0.05 nmol mmol(-1) creatinine for MDA (arithmetic means). Exposure to diisocyanates originating from the thermal degradation of PURs are often intermittent and of short duration. Nevertheless, exposure to aromatic diisocyanates can be identified by monitoring diisocyanate-derived amines in acid-hydrolysed urine samples.

  17. Multi-Sensing system for outdoor thermal monitoring: Application to large scale civil engineering components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinière, Antoine; Dumoulin, Jean; Manceau, Jean-Luc; Perez, Laetitia; Bourquin, Frederic

    2014-05-01

    Aging of transport infrastructures combined with traffic and climatic solicitations contribute to the reduction of their performances. To address and quantify the resilience of civil engineering structure, investigations on robust, fast and efficient methods are required. Among research works carried out at IFSTTAR, methods for long term monitoring face an increasing demand. Such works take benefits of this last decade technological progresses in ICT domain. The present study follows the ISTIMES European project [1], which aimed at demonstrate the ability of different electromagnetic sensing techniques, processing methods and ICT architecture, to be used for long term monitoring of critical transport infrastructures. Thanks to this project a multi-sensing techniques system, able to date and synchronize measurements carried out by infrared thermography coupled with various measurements data (i.e. weather parameters), have been designed, developed and implemented on real site [2]. Among experiments carried out on real transport infrastructure, it has been shown, for the "Musmesci" bridge deck (Italy), that by using infrared thermal image sequence with weather measurements during sevral days it was possible to develop analysis methods able to produce qualitative and quantitative data [3]. In the present study, added functionalities were designed and added to the "IrLAW" system in order to reach full autonomy in term of power supply, very long term measurement capability (at least 1 year) and automated data base feeding. The surveyed civil engineering structures consist in two concrete beams of 16 m long and 21 T weight each. One of the two beams was damage by high energy mechanical impact at the IFSTTAR falling rocks test station facilities located in the French Alpes [4]. The system is composed of one IR uncooled microbolometric camera (FLIR SC325) with a 320X240 Focal Plane Array detector in band III, a weather station VAISALA WXT520, a GPS, a failover power supply

  18. Thermal profiling for parallel on-line monitoring of biomass growth in miniature stirred bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, N K; Appleton, M; Lye, G J

    2008-09-01

    Recently we have described the design and operation of a miniature bioreactor system in which 4-16 fermentations can be performed (Gill et al., Biochem Eng J 39:164-176, 2008). Here we report on the use of thermal profiling techniques for parallel on-line monitoring of cell growth in these bioreactors based on the natural heat generated by microbial culture. Results show that the integrated heat profile during E. coli TOP10 pQR239 fermentations followed the same pattern as off-line optical density (OD) measurements. The maximum specific growth rates calculated from off-line OD and on-line thermal profiling data were in good agreement, at 0.66+/-0.04 and 0.69+/-0.05 h(-1) respectively. The combination of a parallel miniature bioreactor system with a non-invasive on-line technique for estimation of culture kinetic parameters provides a valuable approach for the rapid optimisation of microbial fermentation processes.

  19. Monitoring heat losses using Landsat ETM+ thermal infrared data — a case study at Kuju fumarolic area in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mia, Md.; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro

    2013-10-01

    To monitor heat losses using Landsat 7 thermal infrared data from 2002 to 2010 within the active fumarolic region of Kuju volcano in Japan, we used the Stefan-Boltzmann equation for radiative heat flux (RHF) estimation. Heat discharge rate (HDR) was calculated by using the relationship coefficient of RHF and HDR, obtained from two previous studies. The highest total RHF was found to be about 57.7 MW in 2002 and the lowest was about 21.1 MW in 2010. We found the highest HDR, of about 384.5 MW, in 2002 and the lowest, of about 140.8 MW, in 2010. The RHF anomalous areas were showing a declining trend during our study period. The relationship between the land surface temperature (LST) above ambient and RHF was, as expected, in a strong correlation for each result during our study period. Overall, our study was able to delineate the declining trend of heat losses that supports a previous study of similar declining trend of HDR using steam maximum diameter method from the active fumarolic region of Kuju volcano.

  20. Speed of sound estimation for thermal monitoring using an active ultrasound element during liver ablation therapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younsu; Audigier, Chloé; Dillow, Austin; Cheng, Alexis; Boctor, Emad M.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal monitoring for ablation therapy has high demands for preserving healthy tissues while removing malignant ones completely. Various methods have been investigated. However, exposure to radiation, cost-effectiveness, and inconvenience hinder the use of X-ray or MRI methods. Due to the non-invasiveness and real-time capabilities of ultrasound, it is widely used in intraoperative procedures. Ultrasound thermal monitoring methods have been developed for affordable monitoring in real-time. We propose a new method for thermal monitoring using an ultrasound element. By inserting a Lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) element to generate the ultrasound signal in the liver tissues, the single travel time of flight is recorded from the PZT element to the ultrasound transducer. We detect the speed of sound change caused by the increase in temperature during ablation therapy. We performed an ex vivo experiment with liver tissues to verify the feasibility of our speed of sound estimation technique. The time of flight information is used in an optimization method to recover the speed of sound maps during the ablation, which are then converted into temperature maps. The result shows that the trend of temperature changes matches with the temperature measured at a single point. The estimation error can be decreased by using a proper curve linking the speed of sound to the temperature. The average error over time was less than 3 degrees Celsius for a bovine liver. The speed of sound estimation using a single PZT element can be used for thermal monitoring.

  1. A thermal monitoring sheet with low influence from adjacent waterbolus for tissue surface thermometry during clinical hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo F; Stauffer, Paul R

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a complete thermal analysis of a novel conformal surface thermometer design with directional sensitivity for real-time temperature monitoring during hyperthermia treatments of large superficial cancer. The thermal monitoring sheet (TMS) discussed in this paper consists of a 2-D array of fiberoptic sensors embedded between two layers of flexible, low-loss, and thermally conductive printed circuit board (PCB) film. Heat transfer across all interfaces from the tissue surface through multiple layers of insulating dielectrics surrounding the small buried temperature sensor and into an adjacent temperature-regulated water coupling bolus was studied using 3-D thermal simulation software. Theoretical analyses were carried out to identify the most effective differential TMS probe configuration possible with commercially available flexible PCB materials and to compare their thermal responses with omnidirectional probes commonly used in clinical hyperthermia. A TMS sensor design that employs 0.0508-mm Kapton MTB and 0.2032-mm Kapton HN flexible polyimide films is proposed for tissue surface thermometry with low influence from the adjacent waterbolus. Comparison of the thermal simulations with clinical probes indicates the new differential TMS probe design to outperform in terms of both transient response and steady-state accuracy in selectively reading the tissue surface temperature, while decreasing the overall thermal barrier of the probe between the coupling waterbolus and tissue surface.

  2. Thermal, Electrical and Surface Hydrophobic Properties of Electrospun Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers for Structural Health Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarifi, Ibrahim M; Alharbi, Abdulaziz; Khan, Waseem S; Swindle, Andrew; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2015-10-14

    This paper presents an idea of using carbonized electrospun Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers as a sensor material in a structural health monitoring (SHM) system. The electrospun PAN fibers are lightweight, less costly and do not interfere with the functioning of infrastructure. This study deals with the fabrication of PAN-based nanofibers via electrospinning followed by stabilization and carbonization in order to remove all non-carbonaceous material and ensure pure carbon fibers as the resulting material. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to determine the ionic conductivity of PAN fibers. The X-ray diffraction study showed that the repeated peaks near 42° on the activated nanofiber film were α and β phases, respectively, with crystalline forms. Contact angle, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were also employed to examine the surface, thermal and chemical properties of the carbonized electrospun PAN fibers. The test results indicated that the carbonized PAN nanofibers have superior physical properties, which may be useful for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications in different industries.

  3. On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis H. LeMieux

    2005-10-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Power Generation, Inc proposed a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

  4. Process capability index Cpk for monitoring the thermal performance in the distribution of refrigerated products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Galvão Naclério Novaes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The temperature of refrigerated products along the cold chain must be kept within pre-defined limits to ensure adequate safety levels and high product quality. Because temperature largely influences microbial activities, the continuous monitoring of the time-temperature history over the distribution process usually allows for the adequate control of the product quality along both short- and medium-distance distribution routes. Time-Temperature Indicators (TTI are composed of temperature measurements taken at various time intervals and are used to feed analytic models that monitor the impacts of temperature on product quality. Process Capability Indices (PCI, however, are calculated using TTI series to evaluate whether the thermal characteristics of the process are within the specified range. In this application, a refrigerated food delivery route is investigated using a simulated annealing algorithm that considers alternative delivery schemes. The objective of this investigation is to minimize the distance traveled while maintaining the vehicle temperature within the prescribed capability level.

  5. Monitoring of tissue optical properties during thermal coagulation of ex vivo tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Vivek Krishna; Yu, Bing

    2016-09-01

    Real-time monitoring of tissue status during thermal ablation of tumors is critical to ensure complete destruction of tumor mass, while avoiding tissue charring and excessive damage to normal tissues. Currently, magnetic resonance thermometry (MRT), along with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is the most commonly used technique for monitoring and assessing thermal ablation process in soft tissues. MRT/MRI is very expensive, bulky, and often subject to motion artifacts. On the other hand, light propagation within tissue is sensitive to changes in tissue microstructure and physiology which could be used to directly quantify the extent of tissue damage. Furthermore, optical monitoring can be a portable, and cost-effective alternative for monitoring a thermal ablation process. The main objective of this study, is to establish a correlation between changes in tissue optical properties and the status of tissue coagulation/damage during heating of ex vivo tissues. A portable diffuse reflectance spectroscopy system and a side-firing fiber-optic probe were developed to study the absorption (μa (λ)), and reduced scattering coefficients (μ's (λ)) of native and coagulated ex vivo porcine, and chicken breast tissues. In the first experiment, both porcine and chicken breast tissues were heated at discrete temperature points between 24 and 140°C for 2 minutes. Diffuse reflectance spectra (430-630 nm) of native and coagulated tissues were recorded prior to, and post heating. In a second experiment, porcine tissue samples were heated at 70°C and diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded continuously during heating. The μa (λ) and μ's (λ) of the tissues were extracted from the measured diffuse reflectance spectra using an inverse Monte-Carlo model of diffuse reflectance. Tissue heating was stopped when the wavelength-averaged scattering plateaued. The wavelength-averaged optical properties, and , for native porcine tissues (n = 66) at room temperature, were 5.4

  6. MONITORING POWER PLANT EFFICIENCY USING THE MICROWAVE-EXCITED THERMAL-ACOUSTIC EFFECT TO MEASURE UNBURNED CARBON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Robert J. Weber; Jeffrey J. Swetelitsch

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this project is to explore microwave-excited thermal-acoustic (META) phenomena for quantitative analysis of granular and powdered materials, with the culmination of the research to be an on-line carbon-in-ash monitor for coal-fired power plants. This technique of analyzing unburned carbon in fly ash could be a less tedious and time consuming method as compared to the traditional LOI manual procedure. Phase 1 of the research focused on off-line single-frequency thermal-acoustic measurements where an off-line fly ash monitor was constructed that could operate as analytical tool to explore instrument and methodology parameters for quantifying the microwave-excited thermal-acoustic effect of carbon in fly ash, and it was determined that the off-line thermal-acoustic technique could predict the carbon content of a random collection of fly ashes with a linear correlation constant of R{sup 2} = 0.778. Much higher correlations are expected for fly ashes generated from a single boiler. Phase 2 of the research developing a methodology to generate microwave spectra of various powders, including fly ash, coal, and inorganic minerals, and to determine if these microwave spectra could be used for chemical analyses. Although different minerals produced different responses, higher resolution microwave spectra would be required to be able to distinguish among minerals. Phase 3 of the research focused on the development of an on-line fly ash monitor that could be adapted to measure either a thermal-acoustic or thermal-elastic response to due microwave excitation of fly ash. The thermal-acoustic response was successfully employed for this purpose but the thermal-elastic response was too weak to yield a useful on-line device.

  7. Cellulose as an adhesion agent for the synthesis of lignin aerogel with strong mechanical performance, Sound-absorption and thermal Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Xiong, Ye; Fan, Bitao; Yao, Qiufang; Wang, Hanwei; Jin, Chunde; Sun, Qingfeng

    2016-08-01

    The lignin aerogels that are both high porosity and compressibility would have promising implications for bioengineering field to sound-adsorption and damping materials; however, creating this aerogel had a challenge to adhesive lignin. Here we reported cellulose as green adhesion agent to synthesize the aerogels with strong mechanical performance. Our approach—straightforwardly dissolved in ionic liquids and simply regenerated in the deionized water—causes assembly of micro-and nanoscale and even molecule level of cellulose and lignin. The resulting lignin aerogels exhibit Young’s modulus up to 25.1 MPa, high-efficiency sound-adsorption and excellent thermal insulativity. The successful synthesis of this aerogels developed a path for lignin to an advanced utilization.

  8. Cellulose as an adhesion agent for the synthesis of lignin aerogel with strong mechanical performance, Sound-absorption and thermal Insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Xiong, Ye; Fan, Bitao; Yao, Qiufang; Wang, Hanwei; Jin, Chunde; Sun, Qingfeng

    2016-08-26

    The lignin aerogels that are both high porosity and compressibility would have promising implications for bioengineering field to sound-adsorption and damping materials; however, creating this aerogel had a challenge to adhesive lignin. Here we reported cellulose as green adhesion agent to synthesize the aerogels with strong mechanical performance. Our approach-straightforwardly dissolved in ionic liquids and simply regenerated in the deionized water-causes assembly of micro-and nanoscale and even molecule level of cellulose and lignin. The resulting lignin aerogels exhibit Young's modulus up to 25.1 MPa, high-efficiency sound-adsorption and excellent thermal insulativity. The successful synthesis of this aerogels developed a path for lignin to an advanced utilization.

  9. Data Mining of the Thermal Performance of Cool-Pipes in Massive Concrete via In Situ Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded cool-pipes are very important for massive concrete because their cooling effect can effectively avoid thermal cracks. In this study, a data mining approach to analyzing the thermal performance of cool-pipes via in situ monitoring is proposed. Delicate monitoring program is applied in a high arch dam project that provides a good and mass data source. The factors and relations related to the thermal performance of cool-pipes are obtained in a built theory thermal model. The supporting vector machine (SVM technology is applied to mine the data. The thermal performances of iron pipes and high-density polyethylene (HDPE pipes are compared. The data mining result shows that iron pipe has a better heat removal performance when flow rate is lower than 50 L/min. It has revealed that a turning flow rate exists for iron pipe which is 80 L/min. The prediction and classification results obtained from the data mining model agree well with the monitored data, which illustrates the validness of the approach.

  10. Performance evaluation of a conformal thermal monitoring sheet sensor array for measurement of surface temperature distributions during superficial hyperthermia treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, K; Maccarini, P; Juang, T; Gaeta, C; Stauffer, P R

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a novel conformal thermal monitoring sheet (TMS) sensor array with differential thermal sensitivity for measuring temperature distributions over large surface areas. Performance of the sensor array is evaluated in terms of thermal accuracy, mechanical stability and conformity to contoured surfaces, probe self-heating under irradiation from microwave and ultrasound hyperthermia sources, and electromagnetic field perturbation. A prototype with 4 x 4 array of fiber-optic sensors embedded between two flexible and thermally conducting polyimide films was developed as an alternative to the standard 1-2 mm diameter plastic catheter-based probes used in clinical hyperthermia. Computed tomography images and bending tests were performed to evaluate the conformability and mechanical stability respectively. Irradiation and thermal barrier tests were conducted and thermal response of the prototype was compared with round cross-sectional clinical probes. Bending and conformity tests demonstrated higher flexibility, dimensional stability and close conformity to human torso. Minimal perturbation of microwave fields and low probe self-heating was observed when irradiated with 915 MHz microwave and 3.4 MHz ultrasound sources. The transient and steady state thermal responses of the TMS array were superior compared to the clinical probes. A conformal TMS sensor array with improved thermal sensitivity and dimensional stability was investigated for real-time skin temperature monitoring. This fixed-geometry, body-conforming array of thermal sensors allows fast and accurate characterization of two-dimensional temperature distributions over large surface areas. The prototype TMS demonstrates significant advantages over clinical probes for characterizing skin temperature distributions during hyperthermia treatments of superficial tissue disease.

  11. Planning and Computerised Monitoring of an Experiment of Thermal Analysis of the Alloys in the Al-Cu-Si System

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina Cziple

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents an installation conceived for the automatic registration of the temperature in the thermal analysis, at the industrial and laboratory level, with application to the system of non-ferrous alloys Al-Cu-Si. The experiment performed on the above installation is compared to processes monitored through simulation with specialised software.

  12. Real-time monitoring of lubrication properties of magnesium stearate using NIR spectrometer and thermal effusivity sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Kano, Manabu; Hasebe, Shinji; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Wakiyama, Naoki

    2013-01-30

    Real-time monitoring techniques based on an NIR spectrometer and a thermal effusivity sensor for lubrication properties of magnesium stearate (Mg-St) are proposed. The lubrication properties of Mg-St are defined by its concentration distribution and flatting state in a mixture. The concentration distribution of Mg-St significantly affects the absorbance in the NIR wavelength region between 1128 nm and 1240 nm. Thus, the absorbance area in this region after baseline correction was selected as a monitoring index (MI). In laboratory-scale experiments, the difference of Mg-St concentration distribution could be detected by the proposed MI with high sensitivity. In addition, experimental results using spherical mannitol granules confirmed that the changes of the flatting state of Mg-St could also be detected by the proposed MI. Similar experiments with spherical mannitol granules and the thermal effusivity sensor confirmed that effusivity could also be used to detect the changes of the flatting state of Mg-St. The applicability of these monitoring techniques was verified using a 2000 L commercial-scale blender equipped with the NIR spectrometer and the thermal effusivity sensor. The results showed that both lubrication properties could be monitored by the proposed MI, and that the flatting state of Mg-St could be monitored more sensitively by using the effusivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Active layer thermal monitoring of a Dry Valley of the Ellsworth Mountains, Continental Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto; Michel, Roberto; Souza, Karoline; Senra, Eduardo; Bremer, Ulisses

    2015-04-01

    The Ellsworth Mountains occur along the southern edge of the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf and are subdivided by the Minnesota Glacier into the Heritage Range to the east and the Sentinel Range to the West. The climate of the Ellsworth Mountains is strongly controlled by proximity to the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf and elevation. The mean annual air temperature at the 1,000 m level is estimated to be -25°C, and the average annual accumulation of water-equivalent precipitation likely ranges from 150 to 175 mm yr-1 (Weyant, 1966). The entire area is underlain by continuous permafrost of unknown thickness. Based on data collected from 22 pits, 41% of the sites contained dry permafrost below 70 cm, 27% had ice-cemented permafrost within 70 cm of the surface, 27% had bedrock within 70 cm, and 5% contained an ice-core (Bockheim, unpublished; Schaefer et al., 2015). Dry-frozen permafrost, which may be unique to Antarctica, appears to form from sublimation of moisture in ice-cemented permafrost over time. Active-layer depths in drift sheets of the Ellsworth Mountains range from 15 to 50 cm (Bockheim, unpublished); our understanding of Antarctic permafrost is poor, especially at the continent. The active layer monitoring sites were installed at Edson Hills, Ellsworth_Mountains, in the summer of 2012, and consist of thermistors (accuracy ± 0.2 °C) installed at 1 m above ground for air temperature measurements at two soil profiles on quartzite drift deposits, arranged in a vertical array (Lithic Haplorthel 886 m asl, 5 cm, 10 cm, 30 cm and Lithic Anyorthel 850 m asl, 5 cm, 10 cm, 30 cm). All probes were connected to a Campbell Scientific CR 1000 data logger recording data at hourly intervals from January 2nd 2012 until December 29th 2013. We calculated the thawing days (TD), freezing days (FD); isothermal days (ID), freeze thaw days (FTD), thawing degree days (TDD) and freezing degree days (FDD); all according to Guglielmin et al. (2008). Temperature at 5 cm reaches a maximum

  14. X-ray CT monitoring of iceball growth and thermal distribution during cryosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandison, G.A.; Loye, M.P.; Rewcastle, J.C. [Departments of Oncology and Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Canada T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada T2N 2N4 (Canada); Hahn, L.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada T2N 2N4 (Canada); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Foothills Hospital, Calgary, Canada T2N 2T7 (Canada); Saliken, J.C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Foothills Hospital, Calgary, Canada T2N 2T7 (Canada); Department of Surgery, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Canada T2N 4N2 (Canada); McKinnon, J.G. [Department of Surgery, Foothills Hospital, Calgary, Canada T2N 2T7 (Canada); Donnelly, B.J. [Department of Surgery, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Canada T2N 4N2 (Canada)

    1998-11-01

    X-ray CT is able to image the internal architecture of frozen tissue. Phantoms of distilled water, a saline-gelatin mixture, lard and a calf liver-gelatin suspension cooled by a plastic tube acting as a long liquid nitrogen cryoprobe were used to study the relationship between Hounsfield unit (HU) values and temperature. There is a signature change in HU value from unfrozen to completely frozen tissue. No discernible relation exists between temperature in a completely frozen tissue and its HU value for the temperature range achieved with commercial cryoprobes. However, such a relation does exist in the typically narrow region of phase change and it is this change in HU value that is the parameter of concern for quantitative monitoring of the freezing process. Calibration of temperature against change in HU value allows a limited set of isotherms to be generated in the phase change region for direct monitoring of iceball growth. The phase change temperature range, mid-phase change temperature and the absolute value of HU change from completely frozen to unfrozen tissue are shown to be sensitive to the medium. Modelling of the temperature distribution within the region of completely frozen phantom using the infinite cylinder solution to the Fourier heat equation allows the temperature history of the phantom to be predicted. A set of isotherms, generated using a combination of thermal modelling and calibrated HU values demonstrates the feasibility of routine x-ray CT assisted cryotherapy. Isotherm overlay will be a major aid to the cryosurgeon who adopts a fixed target temperature as the temperature below which there is a certainty of ablation of the diseased tissue. (author)

  15. Geochemical and geophysical monitoring of thermal waters in Sloveniain relation to seismic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dolenec

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Pre-seismic related strains in the Earth s crust are the main cause of the observed geophysical and geochemical anomalies in ground waters preceding an earthquake. Posoc?je Region, situated along the Soc?a River, is one of the most seismically active areas of Slovenia. Our measuring stations close to the Posoc?je Region were installed in the thermal springs at Bled in 1998 and at Zatolmin in 1999. Since the beginning of our survey, radon concentration, electrical conductivity and water temperature have been measured continuously once every hour. In May 2002, the number of geochemical parameters monitored was extended to ionic concentration, pH and Eh, which are analysed once a month. Before seeking a correlation between geochemical and geophysical anomalies with seismic events, the influence of meteorological (atmospheric precipitation, barometric pressure and hydrological (water table of the Tolminka River factors on observed anomalies were studied. Results at Zatolmin showed that some radon variation during the period from June to October 2002 may be related to seismic activity and not only to meteorological effects.

  16. Monitoring of atmospheric composition using the thermal infrared IASI/MetOp sounder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Clerbaux

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric remote sounding from satellites is an essential component of the observational strategy deployed to monitor atmospheric pollution and changing composition. The IASI nadir looking thermal infrared sounder onboard MetOp will provide 15 years of global scale observations for a series of key atmospheric species, with unprecedented spatial sampling and coverage. This paper gives an overview of the instrument's capability for measuring atmospheric composition in the perspective of chemistry and air quality. The assessment is made in terms of species, accuracy and vertical information. Global distributions are presented for CO, CH4, O3 (total and tropospheric, HNO3, NH3, and volcanic SO2. Local distributions of organic species measured during fire events, such as C2H4, CH3OH, HCOOH, and PAN are also shown. For each species or process, the link is made to specialized papers in this issue.

  17. Digital thermal monitoring (DTM) of vascular reactivity closely correlates with Doppler flow velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuilkin, Gary L; Panthagani, David; Metcalfe, Ralph W; Hassan, Haider; Yen, Albert A; Naghavi, Morteza; Hartley, Craig J

    2009-01-01

    The noninvasive measurement of peripheral vascular reactivity, as an indicator of vascular function, provides a valuable tool for cardiovascular screening of at-risk populations. Practical and economical considerations demand that such a test be low-cost and simple to use. To this end, it is advantageous to substitute digital thermal monitoring (DTM) for the more costly and complex Doppler system commonly used for this measurement. A signal processing model was developed to establish the basis for the relationship between finger temperature reactivity and blood flow reactivity following a transient brachial artery occlusion and reperfusion protocol (reactive hyperemia). Flow velocity signals were acquired from the radial artery of human subjects via an 8 MHz Doppler probe while simultaneous DTM signals were acquired from a distal fingertip via DTM sensors. The model transforms the DTM temperature signals into normalized flow signals via a deconvolution method which employs an exponential impulse function. The DTM normalized flow signals were compared to simultaneous, low-frequency, normalized flow signals computed from Doppler sensors. The normalized flow signals, derived from DTM and Doppler sensors, were found to yield similar reactivity responses during reperfusion. The reactivity areas derived from DTM and Doppler sensors, indicative of hyperemic volumes, were found to be within +/- 15%. In conclusion, this signal processing model provides a means to measure vascular reactivity using DTM sensors, that is equivalent to that obtained by more complex Doppler systems.

  18. RST analysis of thermal infrared satellite data for a continuous oil spill detection and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, C. S. L.; Coviello, I.; Lacava, T.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2012-04-01

    Oil spills is one of the main sea pollution sources causing remarkable ecological impact on maritime and coastal environments. Oil spills can derive both from natural phenomena (hurricanes, landslides, earthquakes) and "human errors" (tankers collisions, shipwrecks, platform accidents), even if the main contribution to this kind of technological hazard comes from operational discharge from tankers (i.e. oil dumped during cleaning operations) representing 45% of total hydrocarbons marine pollution. Mainly for this reason, the developing of systems able to provide a high frequent sampling and observation of sea surface is fundamental. Satellite remote sensing, thanks to global coverage and continuity of observations, might effectively contribute to mitigate oil spill environmental impact, provided that reliable and effective detection techniques are developed and that relevant information and products are timely delivered and made available. In particular, satellite remote sensing by passive optical sensors on board meteorological satellites, thanks to their high temporal resolution (from a few hours to 15 minutes, depending on the characteristics of the platform/sensor), can give a significant opportunity in this field. Unfortunately, up to now, optical satellite data found a poor application in oil spill alert system mainly for the lack of data analysis techniques suitable for an automatic oil spill detection. The few methods up to now proposed are only able to manually and interactively localize the presence of an already known oil spill, mainly for "a posteriori" mapping purpose, often requiring the intervention of an expert operator. In particular, techniques based on Thermal Infrared (TIR) records exploit oil and water different thermal inertia in order to map spill sea pollution. Oil thermal inertia, in fact, is lower than sea water one, so that oil polluted areas usually show Brightness Temperature (BT) higher than sea water in TIR images collected in daytime

  19. Game species monitoring using road-based distance sampling in association with thermal imagers: a covariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morelle, K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of game species populations is necessary to adequately assess culling by hunters in areas where natural large predators are absent. However, game managers have to control several species and they often lack of an efficient and convenient survey design method. Monitoring several species at that same time over large areas could thus be cost– and time–effective. We tested the influence of several factors during monitoring of three common game species, (wild boar, roe deer and red fox, using road–based distance sampling in association with thermal imagers. This pilot survey based on 20 night counts in five contrasting sites studied the effect of several covariates (species, thermal imaging, observer, group size, and habitat type on the detection probabilities (= dp. No differences were observed between thermal imagers (dpJENOPTIK: 0.186, dpFLIR: 0.193 and group sizes (dp1ind.: 0.243, dp2ind.: 0.259, dp> 2ind.: 0.223, but we found differences between observers (dpobs1: 0.207, dpobs2: 0.274, dpobs3: 0.159. Expected differences were also observed between species (dpwild boar: 0.22, dproe deer: 0.35, dpred fox: 0.32 and between habitat type (dpforest: 0.27, dpedge: 0.74, dpopen: 0.35. Our results show that the detectability of low cost thermal imaging equipment is similar to that of more expensive methods, highlighting new possibilities for the use of thermal imagery by game managers. Although adjustments should be made to the study design our findings suggest that large–scale multi–species monitoring could be an efficient method for common game species.

  20. Permafrost in vegetated scree slopes below the timberline - characterization of thermal properties and permafrost conditions by temperature measurements and geoelectrical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Daniel; Kneisel, Christof

    2010-05-01

    Discontinuous alpine permafrost is expected to exist at altitudes above 2400m a.s.l. at mean annual air temperatures (MAAT) of less than -1°C. Below timberline only a few sites are known, where sporadic permafrost exists in vegetated talus slopes with positive MAAT. Aim of the study is to characterize permafrost-humus interaction, the thermal regime and its influence on temporal and spatial permafrost variability. Results of geophysical and thermal measurements from three talus slopes, located in the Swiss Alps (Engadin, Appenzell) at elevations between 1200 and 1800m a.s.l. with MAAT between 2.8°C and 5.5°C are presented. Parent rock-material of the slopes are granite (Bever Valley, Engadin) and dolomite (Susauna Valley, Engadin; Brüeltobel, Appenzell). Joint application of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and refraction seismic tomography (RST) is used to detect and characterize permafrost. To observe temporal and spatial variability in ice content and characteristics year-around geoelectrical monitoring and quasi-3D ERT are used. A forward modeling approach has been applied to validate the results of geoelectrical monitoring. A number of temperature data loggers were installed in different depth of the humus layer and in different positions of the slope to monitor the ground thermal regime. Isolated permafrost has been detected by the combination of ERT and RST in the lower parts of the investigated talus slopes. Results from geophysical measurements and monitoring indicate a high spatial and temporal variability in ice content and ice characteristics (temperature, density, content of unfrozen water) for all sites. A distinct rise of resistivities between November and December indicates a decrease of unfrozen water content, caused by a pronounced cooling in the lower parts of the slope. Decreasing ice content and extent of the permafrost lenses can be observed in decreasing seismic velocities from 2600m/sec in spring to only 1500m/sec in October. Ice

  1. Evidences of volcanic unrest on high-temperature fumaroles by satellite thermal monitoring: The case of Santa Ana volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, M.; Coppola, D.; Barahona, F.; Benítez, J. E.; Cigolini, C.; Escobar, D.; Funes, R.; Gutierrez, E.; Henriquez, B.; Hernandez, A.; Montalvo, F.; Olmos, R.; Ripepe, M.; Finizola, A.

    2017-06-01

    On October 1st, 2005, Santa Ana volcano (El Salvador) underwent a VEI 3 phreatomagmatic eruption after approximately one century of rest. Casualties and damages to some of the local infrastructures and surrounding plantations were followed by the evacuation of the nearby communities. The analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) infrared data reveals that the main explosion was preceded by a one-year-long thermal unrest, associated to the development of a fumaroles field, located at the western rim of the summit crater lake. By combining space-based thermal flux and ground-based measurements (seismicity, sulfur emissions and lake temperatures), we suggest that the activity observed at Santa Ana between 2004 and 2005 was driven by the gradual intrusion of an undegassed magma body at a very shallow depth. Magma injection induced thermal anomalies associated with sustained degassing from the fumaroles field and promoted the interaction between the magmatic-hydrothermal system and the overlying water table. This process culminated into the VEI 3 phreatomagmatic eruption of October 2005 that strongly modified the shallow structure of the crater area. The subsequent three-years-long activity resulted from self-sealing of the fracture system and by the opening of a new fracture network directly connecting the deeper hydrothermal system with the crater lake. Our results show that satellite-based thermal data allow us to detect the expansion of the high-temperature fumarolic field. This may precede an explosive eruption and/or a lava dome extrusion. In particular, we show that thermal records can be analyzed with other geochemical (i.e. SO2 emissions) and geophysical (seismicity) data to track a shallow magmatic intrusion interacting with the surrounding hydrothermal system. This provides a remarkable support for volcano monitoring and eruption forecasting, particularly in remote areas where permanent ground data acquisition is hazardous, expensive

  2. Considerations for theoretical modelling of thermal ablation with catheter-based ultrasonic sources: implications for treatment planning, monitoring and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Punit; Diederich, Chris J

    2012-01-01

    To determine the impact of including dynamic changes in tissue physical properties during heating on feedback controlled thermal ablation with catheter-based ultrasound. Additionally, we compared the impact of several indicators of thermal damage on predicted extents of ablation zones for planning and monitoring ablations with this modality. A 3D model of ultrasound ablation with interstitial and transurethral applicators incorporating temperature-based feedback control was used to simulate thermal ablations in prostate and liver tissue. We investigated five coupled models of heat dependent changes in tissue acoustic attenuation/absorption and blood perfusion of varying degrees of complexity. Dimensions of the ablation zone were computed using temperature, thermal dose, and Arrhenius thermal damage indicators of coagulative necrosis. A comparison of the predictions by each of these models was illustrated on a patient-specific anatomy in the treatment planning setting. Models including dynamic changes in blood perfusion and acoustic attenuation as a function of thermal dose/damage predicted near-identical ablation zone volumes (maximum variation models using constant values for acoustic attenuation predicted ablation zone volumes up to 50% larger or 47% smaller in liver and prostate tissue, respectively. Thermal dose (t(43) ≥ 240 min) and thermal damage (Ω ≥ 4.6) thresholds for coagulative necrosis are in good agreement for all heating durations, temperature thresholds in the range of 54°C for short (thermal dose and Arrhenius damage measures of ablation zone dimensions are in good agreement, while appropriately selected temperature thresholds provide a computationally cheaper surrogate.

  3. ANALYSIS OF COMBINED UAV-BASED RGB AND THERMAL REMOTE SENSING DATA: A NEW APPROACH TO CROWD MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schulte

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Collecting vast amount of data does not solely help to fulfil information needs related to crowd monitoring, it is rather important to collect data that is suitable to meet specific information requirements. In order to address this issue, a prototype is developed to facilitate the combination of UAV-based RGB and thermal remote sensing datasets. In an experimental approach, image sensors were mounted on a remotely piloted aircraft and captured two video datasets over a crowd. A group of volunteers performed diverse movements that depict real world scenarios. The prototype is deriving the movement on the ground and is programmed in MATLAB. This novel detection approach using combined data is afterwards evaluated against detection algorithms that only use a single data source. Our tests show that the combination of RGB and thermal remote sensing data is beneficial for the field of crowd monitoring regarding the detection of crowd movement.

  4. Analysis of Combined Uav-Based RGB and Thermal Remote Sensing Data: a New Approach to Crowd Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, S.; Hillen, F.; Prinz, T.

    2017-08-01

    Collecting vast amount of data does not solely help to fulfil information needs related to crowd monitoring, it is rather important to collect data that is suitable to meet specific information requirements. In order to address this issue, a prototype is developed to facilitate the combination of UAV-based RGB and thermal remote sensing datasets. In an experimental approach, image sensors were mounted on a remotely piloted aircraft and captured two video datasets over a crowd. A group of volunteers performed diverse movements that depict real world scenarios. The prototype is deriving the movement on the ground and is programmed in MATLAB. This novel detection approach using combined data is afterwards evaluated against detection algorithms that only use a single data source. Our tests show that the combination of RGB and thermal remote sensing data is beneficial for the field of crowd monitoring regarding the detection of crowd movement.

  5. Nine year active layer thermal monitoring at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Roberto; Andrade, André; Simas, Felipe; Silva, Tássio; Loureiro, Diego; Schaefer, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Most global circulation models predict enhanced rates of climate change, particularly temperature increase, at higher latitudes witch are currently faced with rapid rates of regional climate change (Convey 2006, Vaughan et al. 2003, Quayle et al. 2002), Antarctic ecosystems are expected to show particular sensitivity and rapid responses (Freckman and Virginia 1997, Quayle et al. 2002, 2003). The active layer and permafrost are important components of the cryosphere due to their role in energy flux regulation and sensitivity to climate change (Kane et al., 2001; Smith and Brown, 2009). Compared with other regions of the globe, our understanding of Antarctic permafrost is poor, especially in relation to its thermal state and evolution, (Bockheim, 1995, Bockheim et al., 2008). The active layer monitoring site was installed in the summer of 2008, and consists of thermistors (accuracy ± 0.2 °C) arranged in a vertical array (Turbic Eutric Cryosol 60 m asl, 10.5 cm, 32.5 cm, 67.5 cm and 83.5 cm). All probes were connected to a Campbell Scientific CR 1000 data logger recording data at hourly intervals from March 1st 2008 until November 30th 2012. We calculated the thawing days (TD), freezing days (FD); thawing degree days (TDD) and freezing degree days (FDD); all according to Guglielmin et al. (2008). The active lawyer thickness was calculated as the 0 °C depth by extrapolating the thermal gradient from the two deepest temperature measurements (Guglielmin, 2006). The temperature at 10.5 cm reaches a maximum daily average (5.6 °C) in late January 2015, reaching a minimum (-9.6 °C) in in early August 2011, at 83.5 cm maximum daily average (0.6 °C) was reached in mid March 2009 and minimum (-5.5 °C) also in early August 2011. The years of 2008, 2009 and 2011 recorded thaw days at the bottom of the profile (62 and 49 in 2009 and 2011), and logged the highest soil moisture contents of the time series (62%, 59% and 63%). Seasonal variability of the active layer shows

  6. Active layer thermal monitoring at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Roberto; Schaefer, Carlos; Simas, Felipe; Pregesbauer, Michael; Bockheim, James

    2013-04-01

    International attention on the climate change phenomena has grown in the last decade, intense modelling of climate scenarios were carried out by scientific investigations searching the sources and trends of these changes. The cryosphere and its energy flux became the focus of many investigations, being recognised as a key element for the understanding of future trends. The active layer and permafrost are key components of the terrestrial cryosphere due to their role in energy flux regulation and high sensitivity to climate change (Kane et al., 2001; Smith and Brown, 2009). Compared with other regions of the globe, our understanding of Antarctic permafrost is poor, especially in relation to its thermal state and evolution, its physical properties, links to pedogenesis, hydrology, geomorphic dynamics and response to global change (Bockheim, 1995, Bockheim et al., 2008). The active layer monitoring site was installed in the summer of 2008, and consist of thermistors (accuracy ± 0.2 °C) arranged in a vertical array (Turbic Eutric Cryosol 600 m asl, 10.5 cm, 32.5 cm, 67.5 cm and 83.5 cm). King George Island experiences a cold moist maritime climate characterized by mean annual air temperatures of -2°C and mean summer air temperatures above 0°C for up to four months (Rakusa-Suszczewski et al., 1993, Wen et al., 1994). Ferron et al., (2004) found great variability when analysing data from 1947 to1995 and identified cycles of 5.3 years of colder conditions followed by 9.6 years of warmer conditions. All probes were connected to a Campbell Scientific CR 1000 data logger recording data at hourly intervals from March 1st 2008 until November 30th 2012. Meteorological data for Fildes was obtained from the near by stations. We calculated the thawing days, freezing days; thawing degree days and freezing degree days; all according to Guglielmin et al. (2008). The active lawyer thickness was calculated as the 0 °C depth by extrapolating the thermal gradient from the two

  7. Photoacoustic Monitoring of Internal Plastification in Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate Copolymers: Measurements of Thermal Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez Ruben R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic data on thermophysical properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate copolymers poly(3HB-co-3HV were investigated with the aim of understanding the role of 3-hydroxyvalerate monomeric units (3HV incorporated during random copolymerization. The results show strong evidence that internal plastification is produced by the introduction of 3HV units in the copolymer. It was observed that copolymer thermal conductivity increased approximately linearly with the 3HV content. On the other hand, thermal diffusivity was very sensitive to the change in the copolymer composition showing a sudden rise that attained a saturation plateau. Amplitude-frequency plots indicate that a thermoelastic bending mechanism is operating. In this paper a new photoacoustic arrangement for the measurement of thermal effusivity is presented.

  8. Temperature monitoring during thermal treatments using magnetic resonance imaging incorporating novel multi spatial and temporal resolution strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljallad, Mohammed H.

    Thermal therapy is widely used for the treatment of tumors such as uterine fibroid tumors. When heating the fibroid volume, continuous and fast temperature monitoring is required to limit the damage to healthy tissue. The phase component of the Magnetic Resonance (MR) image changes with heating; this phase change can be converted to temperature using a scaling parameter. One plane alone can be imaged in the current treatments while monitoring the temperature during heating because of time limitations. This plane is usually prescribed at the focus of the transducer (focal plane) to cover the maximum heat deposition. However, the heat distribution is not limited to the focal plane only, which requires temperature monitoring in more than one plane. MUltiple Resolution along Phase-encode and Slice-select-dimensions (MURPS) was a method previously introduced [7] to produce a variable slice thickness in the z-direction and variable phase encodings in the y-direction. MURPS is implemented to address the need for very fast imaging of multiple planes. Because only a small portion of the field of view (FOV) has real clinical value in the thermotherapy of a large volume, the FOV can be reduced to image that portion and speed up the scanning. The MURPS method, combined with half reduced field of view (rFOV), can image three planes in the same time needed to image a single full field of view plane without MURPS. The proposed technique of MURPS with rFOV should have a significant advantage for monitoring thermal therapies and should provide more robust temperature control for current thermal therapy treatment procedures.

  9. Monitoring chemical degradation of thermally cycled glass-fibre composites using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, V. M.; Müller, B.; Hagenbeek, M.; Sinke, J.; Groves, R. M.

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the application of glass-fibre composites in light-weight structures is growing. Although mechanical characterizations of those structures are commonly performed in testing, chemical changes of materials under stresses have not yet been well documented. In the present work coupon tests and Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) have been used to categorise possible chemical changes of glass-fibre reinforced polymers (GFRP) which are currently used in the aircraft industry. HSI is a hybrid technique that combines spectroscopy with imaging. It is able to detect chemical degradation of surfaces and has already been successfully applied in a wide range of fields including astronomy, remote sensing, cultural heritage and medical sciences. GFRP specimens were exposed to two different thermal loading conditions. One thermal loading condition was a continuous thermal exposure at 120°C for 24h, 48 h and 96h, i.e. ageing at a constant temperature. The other thermal loading condition was thermal cycling with three different numbers of cycles (4000, 8000, 12000) and two temperature ranges (0°C to 120°C and -25°C to 95°C). The effects of both conditions were measured using both HSI and interlaminar shear (ILSS) tests. No significant changes of the physical properties of the thermally cycled GFRP specimens were detected using interlaminar shear strength tests and optical microscopy. However, when using HIS, differences of the surface conditions were detected. The results showed that the different thermal loading conditions could be successfully clustered in different colours, using the HSI linear unmixing technique. Each different thermal loading condition showed a different chemical degradation level on its surface which was indicated using different colours.

  10. Robust Vehicle Detection under Various Environmental Conditions Using an Infrared Thermal Camera and Its Application to Road Traffic Flow Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Nakamiya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We have already proposed a method for detecting vehicle positions and their movements (henceforth referred to as “our previous method” using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. Our experiments have shown that our previous method detects vehicles robustly under four different environmental conditions which involve poor visibility conditions in snow and thick fog. Our previous method uses the windshield and its surroundings as the target of the Viola-Jones detector. Some experiments in winter show that the vehicle detection accuracy decreases because the temperatures of many windshields approximate those of the exterior of the windshields. In this paper, we propose a new vehicle detection method (henceforth referred to as “our new method”. Our new method detects vehicles based on tires’ thermal energy reflection. We have done experiments using three series of thermal images for which the vehicle detection accuracies of our previous method are low. Our new method detects 1,417 vehicles (92.8% out of 1,527 vehicles, and the number of false detection is 52 in total. Therefore, by combining our two methods, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environmental conditions. Finally, we apply the traffic information obtained by our two methods to traffic flow automatic monitoring, and show the effectiveness of our proposal.

  11. Robust vehicle detection under various environmental conditions using an infrared thermal camera and its application to road traffic flow monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Misumi, Masato; Nakamiya, Toshiyuki

    2013-06-17

    We have already proposed a method for detecting vehicle positions and their movements (henceforth referred to as "our previous method") using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. Our experiments have shown that our previous method detects vehicles robustly under four different environmental conditions which involve poor visibility conditions in snow and thick fog. Our previous method uses the windshield and its surroundings as the target of the Viola-Jones detector. Some experiments in winter show that the vehicle detection accuracy decreases because the temperatures of many windshields approximate those of the exterior of the windshields. In this paper, we propose a new vehicle detection method (henceforth referred to as "our new method"). Our new method detects vehicles based on tires' thermal energy reflection. We have done experiments using three series of thermal images for which the vehicle detection accuracies of our previous method are low. Our new method detects 1,417 vehicles (92.8%) out of 1,527 vehicles, and the number of false detection is 52 in total. Therefore, by combining our two methods, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environmental conditions. Finally, we apply the traffic information obtained by our two methods to traffic flow automatic monitoring, and show the effectiveness of our proposal.

  12. Tracking of Thermal Infrared Anomaly before One Strong Earthquake-In the Case of Ms6.2 Earthquake in Zadoi, Qinghai on October 17th, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Yuansheng; Tian, Xiufeng; Zhang, Qiaoli; Tian, Jie

    2017-10-01

    The detection and tracking process of thermal infrared anomaly before Ms6.2 earthquake in Zadio, Qinghai on October 17th, 2016, are reviewed and analyzed; then the different characteristics of thermal infrared brightness temperature data before this earthquake is described in details. According to these characteristics, the tracking process of thermal anomaly is divided into four stages, respectively identification stage, pre-judgment stage, tracking and approaching stage and verification stage. The anomaly forms and turning signals focused in each stage can provide clear indication information for earthquake pre-judgment; finally, the prediction efficiency and technical issues of this method are illustrated and discussed.

  13. Historical Consumption of Heating Natural Gas and Thermal Monitoring of a Multifamily High-Rise Building in a Temperate/Cold Climate in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Filippín

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the historical consumption of natural gas in a multifamily high-rise building and the monitored winter thermal behavior of an apartment sample. The building is located in the center of Argentina (latitude: 36º27’S; longitude: 64º27’W, where the climate is a cold temperate with an absolute minimum temperature that may reach −10 °C. The building has two blocks, North and South. The building’s annual gas consumption and its variability between 1996 and 2008 are shown. The South block consumed 78% more gas, a situation expected due to lower solar resource availability and greater vulnerability regarding strong and cold SW winds. Indoor temperatures monitored during 2009 in four apartments are described. The outdoor minimum temperature reached −5 °C, with solar irradiance around 500 W/m2 at midday. Results showed that the average indoor temperatures were 20.1, 20.6, 24.0 and 22.1 °C. The highest consumption value corresponded to the apartment exposed to SW cold winds. Compared to the rest of the building, the apartment on the top floor consumes 59% more energy than the average for the gas consumed throughout the year. The authors assume that the energy potentials of intervention are different, and not necessarily all the apartments should have the same technological response.

  14. Live cell monitoring of mu-opioid receptor-mediated G-protein activation reveals strong biological activity of close morphine biosynthetic precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; Boettcher, Chotima; Dees, Christian; Bünemann, Moritz; Lohse, Martin J; Zenk, Meinhart H

    2007-09-14

    G-protein activation by receptors is generally measured using (35)S-GTPgammaS binding assays in cell membranes and cannot be well assessed in intact cells. We have recently developed a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based approach to monitor G(i)-protein activation in living cells. Here we report that this technique can be used to determine structure-activity relationships of receptor agonists in intact cells. We have recently shown that morphine is biosynthesized de novo by mammals via a multistep pathway different from that in plants. However, the pharmacological properties of morphine precursors are poorly understood. Here, we directly monitored mu-opioid receptor (MOR)-mediated G(i)-protein activation in living cells by FRET and validated this method with classical GTPgammaS binding assays. Receptor binding studies and FRET measurements demonstrated that several (R)-configurated morphine precursors such as (R)-reticuline, salutaridine, salutaridinol, thebaine, and codeine were partial MOR agonists. Some closer precursors such as oripavine, codeinone, and morphinone activated G(i)-proteins as strongly as morphine, but with slightly lower potencies. The more distant the precursors were positioned in the pathway with respect to morphine, the less efficient and potent they were at MOR. Comparison of pharmacological properties of close morphine precursors and concentrations in which they occur in animal tissues suggests that they might activate MOR signaling under physiological conditions. Taken together, our data indicate that FRET-based assays of G-protein activation can serve to determine the abilities of compounds to activate G-protein signaling directly and in living cells.

  15. Dynamic Angular Control Of Thermal Therapy With Stationary Multi-Sectored Tubular Ultrasound Applicators Under MR Temperature Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Adam M.; Diederich, Chris J.; Nau, William H.; Ross, Anthony B.; Butts Pauly, Kim; Rieke, Viola; Sommer, Graham

    2006-05-01

    Multi-sectored ultrasound heating applicators with dynamic angular and longitudinal control of heating profiles are being investigated for the thermal treatment of tumors in sites such as prostate, uterus, and brain. Multi-sectored tubular ultrasound transducers with independent sector power control were incorporated into interstitial and transurethral applicators and provided dynamic angular control of a heating pattern without requiring device manipulation during treatment. Acoustic beam measurements of each applicator type demonstrated a 35-40° acoustic dead zone between each independent sector, with negligible mechanical or electrical coupling. Despite the acoustic dead zone between sectors, simulations and experiments under MR temperature (MRT) monitoring showed that the variance from the maximum lesion radius (scalloping) with all elements activated on a transducer was minimal and did not affect conformal heating of a target area. A biothermal model with a multi-point controller was used to adjust the applied power and treatment time of individual transducer segments as the tissue temperature changed in simulations of thermal lesions with both interstitial and transurethral applicators. Transurethral ultrasound applicators for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treatment with either three or four sectors conformed a thermal dose to a simulated target area in the angular and radial dimensions. The simulated treatment was controlled to a maximum temperature of 85°C, and had a maximum duration of 5 min when power was turned off as the 52°C temperature contour reach a predetermined control point for each sector in the tissue. Experiments conducted with multi-sectored applicators under MRT monitoring showed thermal ablation and hyperthermia treatments had little or no border `scalloping', conformed to a pretreatment target area, and correlated very well with the simulated thermal lesions. The radial penetration of the heat treatments in tissue with interstitial

  16. Combined use of thermal methods and seepage meters to efficiently locate, quantify, and monitor focused groundwater discharge to a sand-bed stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Briggs, Martin; Delin, Geoffrey N.; Hare, Danielle K.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying flow of groundwater through streambeds often is difficult due to the complexity of aquifer-scale heterogeneity combined with local-scale hyporheic exchange. We used fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS), seepage meters, and vertical temperature profiling to locate, quantify, and monitor areas of focused groundwater discharge in a geomorphically simple sand-bed stream. This combined approach allowed us to rapidly focus efforts at locations where prodigious amounts of groundwater discharged to the Quashnet River on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, northeastern USA. FO-DTS detected numerous anomalously cold reaches one to several m long that persisted over two summers. Seepage meters positioned upstream, within, and downstream of 7 anomalously cold reaches indicated that rapid groundwater discharge occurred precisely where the bed was cold; median upward seepage was nearly 5 times faster than seepage measured in streambed areas not identified as cold. Vertical temperature profilers deployed next to 8 seepage meters provided diurnal-signal-based seepage estimates that compared remarkably well with seepage-meter values. Regression slope and R2 values both were near 1 for seepage ranging from 0.05 to 3.0 m d−1. Temperature-based seepage model accuracy was improved with thermal diffusivity determined locally from diurnal signals. Similar calculations provided values for streambed sediment scour and deposition at subdaily resolution. Seepage was strongly heterogeneous even along a sand-bed river that flows over a relatively uniform sand and fine-gravel aquifer. FO-DTS was an efficient method for detecting areas of rapid groundwater discharge, even in a strongly gaining river, that can then be quantified over time with inexpensive streambed thermal methods.

  17. Fiber-optic combined FPI/FBG sensors for monitoring of radiofrequency thermal ablation of liver tumors: ex vivo experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Daniele; Macchi, Edoardo Gino; Braschi, Giovanni; Cigada, Alfredo; Gallati, Mario; Rossi, Sandro; Poeggel, Sven; Leen, Gabriel; Lewis, Elfed

    2014-04-01

    We present a biocompatible, all-glass, 0.2 mm diameter, fiber-optic probe that combines an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometry and a proximal fiber Bragg grating sensor; the probe enables dual pressure and temperature measurement on an active 4 mm length, with 40 Pa and 0.2°C nominal accuracy. The sensing system has been applied to monitor online the radiofrequency thermal ablation of tumors in liver tissue. Preliminary experiments have been performed in a reference chamber with uniform heating; further experiments have been carried out on ex vivo porcine liver, which allowed the measurement of a steep temperature gradient and monitoring of the local pressure increase during the ablation procedure.

  18. Context-Aware Fusion of RGB and Thermal Imagery for Traffic Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alldieck, Thiemo; Bahnsen, Chris Holmberg; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    introduces a new approach for fusing color RGB and thermal video streams by using not only the information from the videos themselves, but also the available contextual information of a scene. The contextual information is used to judge the quality of a particular modality and guides the fusion of two...... parallel segmentation pipelines of the RGB and thermal video streams. The potential of the proposed context-aware fusion is demonstrated by extensive tests of quantitative and qualitative characteristics on existing and novel video datasets and benchmarked against competing approaches to multi-modal fusion....

  19. In-line monitoring of Li-ion battery electrode porosity and areal loading using active thermal scanning - modeling and initial experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupnowski, Przemyslaw; Ulsh, Michael; Sopori, Bhushan; Green, Brian G.; Wood, David L.; Li, Jianlin; Sheng, Yangping

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on a new technique called active thermal scanning for in-line monitoring of porosity and areal loading of Li-ion battery electrodes. In this technique a moving battery electrode is subjected to thermal excitation and the induced temperature rise is monitored using an infra-red camera. Static and dynamic experiments with speeds up to 1.5 m min-1 are performed on both cathodes and anodes and a combined micro- and macro-scale finite element thermal model of the system is developed. It is shown experimentally and through simulations that during thermal scanning the temperature profile generated in an electrode depends on both coating porosity (or area loading) and thickness. It is concluded that by inverting this relation the porosity (or areal loading) can be determined, if thermal response and thickness are simultaneously measured.

  20. Increasing the Performance and Reliability of Power Boiler by Monitoring Thermal and Strength Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Sobota Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a method for determination of thermo-flow parameters for steam boilers. This method allows to perform the calculations of the boiler furnace chamber and heat flow rates absorbed by superheater stages. These parameters are important for monitoring the performance of the power unit. Knowledge of these parameters allows determining the degree of the furnace chamber slagging. The calculation can be performed in online mode and use to monitoring of steam boiler. The presented me...

  1. Monitoring of Thermal and Gas Activities in Mining Dump Hedvika, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surovka, D.; Pertile, E.; Dombek, V.; Vastyl, M.; Leher, V.

    2017-10-01

    The negative consequences of mining of the black coal is occurrence of extractive waste storage locations - mining dumps. The mining activities carried out within the area of Ostrava are responsible for at least six mine dumps of loose materials arising as wastes from mining of mineral resources, many of which show presence of thermal processes. The thermal activity in dumps is responsible for many hazardous substances that pollute the environment and harm human health in the surroundings. This paper deals with the results of the first phase of project CZ.11.4.120/0.0/0.0/15_006/0000074 TERDUMP, on exploration of thermally active mining dumps are published in the article. As a first studied thermally active dump was a Hedvika dump. To localize of hot spots with hot gas emission was used a thermovision scanning by drone. The place with high temperature (49.8 °C) identified natural gas emission through natural cracks. Analysing the occurring pollutants in Hedvika Dump using the GC-MS or HPLC, respectively and the inert gases (CO2, CO and SO2) were determined by ion chromatography. The pollutants were determined in five sampling points during two measurements executed from July to August 2017.

  2. Thermal management and prototype testing of Compton scattering X-ray beam position monitor for the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Yang, B. X.; Collins, J. T.; Ramanathan, M.

    2017-02-01

    Accurate and stable x-ray beam position monitors (XBPMs) are key elements in obtaining the desired user beam stability in the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade. In the next-generation XBPMs for the canted-undulator front ends, where two undulator beams are separated by 1.0 mrad, the lower beam power (changes through the interface via thermal simulations, the thermal contact resistance (TCR) of TIMs at an interface between two solid materials under even contact pressure must be known. This paper addresses the TCR measurements of several TIMs, including gold, silver, pyrolytic graphite sheet, and 3D graphene foam. In addition, a prototype of a Compton-scattering XBPM with diamond blades was installed at APS Beamline 24-ID-A in May 2015 and has been tested. This paper presents the design of the Compton-scattering XBPM, and compares thermal simulation results obtained for the diamond blade of this XBPM by the finite element method with in situ empirical measurements obtained by using reliable infrared technology.

  3. Monitoring Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coating During Interrupted High-Heat Flux Laser Testing Using Upconversion Luminescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    Upconversion luminescence imaging of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has been shown to successfully monitor TBC delamination progression during interrupted furnace cycling. However, furnace cycling does not adequately model engine conditions where TBC-coated components are subjected to significant heat fluxes that produce through-thickness temperature gradients that may alter both the rate and path of delamination progression. Therefore, new measurements are presented based on luminescence imaging of TBC-coated specimens subjected to interrupted high-heat-flux laser cycling exposures that much better simulate the thermal gradients present in engine conditions. The TBCs tested were deposited by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and were composed of 7wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) with an integrated delamination sensing layer composed of 7YSZ co-doped with erbium and ytterbium (7YSZ:Er,Yb). The high-heat-flux exposures that produce the desired through-thickness thermal gradients were performed using a high power CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 10.6 microns. Upconversion luminescence images revealed the debond progression produced by the cyclic high-heat-flux exposures and these results were compared to that observed for furnace cycling.

  4. Simulation of a collision-less planar electrostatic shock in a proton-electron plasma with a strong initial thermal pressure change

    CERN Document Server

    Dieckmann, M E; Romagnani, L; Kourakis, I; Borghesi, M

    2009-01-01

    The localized deposition of the energy of a laser pulse, as it ablates a solid target, introduces high thermal pressure gradients in the plasma. The thermal expansion of this laser-heated plasma into the ambient medium (ionized residual gas) triggers the formation of non-linear structures in the collision-less plasma. Here an electron-proton plasma is modelled with a particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation to reproduce aspects of this plasma expansion. A jump is introduced in the thermal pressure of the plasma, across which the otherwise spatially uniform temperature and density change by the factor 100. The electrons from the hot plasma expand into the cool one and the charge imbalance drags a beam of cool electrons into the hot plasma. This double layer reduces the electron temperature gradient. The presence of the low-pressure plasma modifies the proton dynamics compared to the plasma expansion into a vacuum. The jump in the thermal pressure develops into a primary shock. The fast protons, which move from the ho...

  5. Partial shadowing detection based on equivalent thermal voltage monitoring for PV module diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Partial shadowing of photovoltaic systems can overproportionally reduce the energy yield and lead to early ageing and failure of the shadowed cells. Large area shadows are relatively easy to detect due to the eminent power reduction and decrease of fill factor. However, small area partial shadows...... in a larger system do not have a very obvious effect on the output power or fill factor of the PV array and can remain undetected, leading to failure. In this paper a method for detecting small area partial shadows, based on equivalent thermal voltage, is presented. A simplified expression of the equivalent...... thermal voltage is proposed, which increases the robustness against measurement errors and model limitations at low irradiation conditions. Experimental results confirm the high sensitivity of the method even to a relatively small area shadow, while showing very good robustness against increase in series...

  6. A database for the monitoring of thermal anomalies over the Amazon forest and adjacent intertropical oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Muñoz, Juan C; Mattar, Cristian; Sobrino, José A; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2015-01-01

    Advances in information technologies and accessibility to climate and satellite data in recent years have favored the development of web-based tools with user-friendly interfaces in order to facilitate the dissemination of geo/biophysical products. These products are useful for the analysis of the impact of global warming over different biomes. In particular, the study of the Amazon forest responses to drought have recently received attention by the scientific community due to the occurrence of two extreme droughts and sustained warming over the last decade. Thermal Amazoni@ is a web-based platform for the visualization and download of surface thermal anomalies products over the Amazon forest and adjacent intertropical oceans using Google Earth as a baseline graphical interface (http://ipl.uv.es/thamazon/web). This platform is currently operational at the servers of the University of Valencia (Spain), and it includes both satellite (MODIS) and climatic (ERA-Interim) datasets. Thermal Amazoni@ is composed of the viewer system and the web and ftp sites with ancillary information and access to product download.

  7. Increasing the Performance and Reliability of Power Boiler by Monitoring Thermal and Strength Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobota Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method for determination of thermo-flow parameters for steam boilers. This method allows to perform the calculations of the boiler furnace chamber and heat flow rates absorbed by superheater stages. These parameters are important for monitoring the performance of the power unit. Knowledge of these parameters allows determining the degree of the furnace chamber slagging. The calculation can be performed in online mode and use to monitoring of steam boiler. The presented method allows to the operation of steam boiler with high efficiency.

  8. A Comparison of Multiple Datasets for Monitoring Thermal Time in Urban Areas over the U.S. Upper Midwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Krehbiel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional studies of urban climate used air temperature observations from local urban/rural weather stations in order to analyze the general pattern of higher temperatures in urban areas compared with corresponding rural regions, also known as the Urban Heat Island (UHI effect. More recently, satellite remote sensing datasets of land surface temperature have been exploited to monitor UHIs. While closely linked, air temperature and land surface temperature (LST observations do not measure the same variables. Here we analyze land surface temperature vs. air temperature-based characterization and seasonality of the UHI and the surface UHI (SUHI from 2003 to 2012 over the Upper Midwest region of the United States using LST from MODIS, and air temperature from the Daymet modeled gridded daily air temperature dataset, and compare both datasets to ground station data from first-order weather stations of the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN located in eleven urban areas spanning our study region. We first convert the temperature data to metrics of nocturnal, diurnal, and daily thermal time and their annual accumulations to draw conclusions on nighttime vs. daytime and seasonal dynamics of the UHI. In general, the MODIS LST-derived results are able to capture urban–rural differences in daytime, nighttime, and daily thermal time while the Daymet air temperature-derived results show very little urban–rural differences in thermal time. Compared to the GHCN ground station air temperature-derived observations, MODIS LST-derived results are closer in terms of urban–rural differences in nighttime thermal time, while the results from Daymet are closer to the observations from GHCN during the daytime. We also found differences in the seasonal dynamics of UHIs measured by air temperature observations and SUHIs measured by LST observations.

  9. Thermal impact of a small alas-valley river in a continuous permafrost area - insights and issues raised from a field monitoring Site in Syrdakh (Central Yakutia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Christophe; Nicolas, Roux; Fedorov, Alexander; Konstantinov, Pavel; Séjourné, Antoine; Costard, François; Marlin, Christelle; Khristoforov, Ivan; Saintenoy, Albane

    2017-04-01

    Lakes are probably the most prominent surface water bodies in continuous permafrost areas. As a consequence, they are also the most studied features in these regions (e.g. Fedorov et al. 2014). They are indeed of great interest, not only for local populations that use the water resource they represent both in winter and summer, but also from a climatic point of view as they can be a specific source of green-house gases due to the relatively warmer environment they create, especially associated with their taliks (thawed zone surrounded by permafrost located beneath large enough lakes). From a hydrogeological perspective, such taliks can form complex groundwater networks, thus possibly connecting sub-permafrost groundwater with surface water in the present context of climate change. On the other hand, rivers, another important feature of permafrost landscapes providing similar challenges, have drawn less attention so that only a few studies focus on river interactions with permafrost (e.g. Costard et al. 2014, Grenier et al. 2013). However, the processes of heat transfer at stake between river and permafrost strongly differ from lake systems for several reasons. The geometries differ, the river water flow and thermal regimes and interactions with the lateral slopes (valley) are specific. Of particular importance is the fact that the water, in the case of rivers, is in motion leading to specific heat exchange phenomena between water and soil. (Roux et al., accepted) addressed this issue recently by means of an experimental study in a cold room and associated numerical simulations. The present study focuses on a real river-permafrost system with its full natural complexity. A small alas-valley in the vicinity of Yakutsk (Central Yakutia, Siberia) was chosen. Monitoring was started in October 2012 to study the thermal and hydrological interactions between a river and its underground in this continuous permafrost environment. Thermal sensors were installed inside the

  10. Description of the behavior of an aquifer by using continuous radon monitoring in a thermal spa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainz, Carlos, E-mail: sainzc@unican.es; Rábago, Daniel; Fuente, Ismael; Celaya, Santiago; Quindós, Luis Santiago

    2016-02-01

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn) levels in air and water have been analyzed continuously for almost a year in Las Caldas de Besaya thermal spa, north Spain. Radon is a naturally occurring noble gas from the decay of radium ({sup 226}Ra) both constituents of radioactive uranium 238 series. It has been recognized as a lung carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Furthermore the Royal Decree R.D 1439/2010 of November, 2010 establishes the obligation to study occupational activities where workers and, where appropriate, members of the public are exposed to inhalation of radon in workplaces such as spas. Together with radon measures several physico-chemical parameters were obtained such as pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity and air and water temperature. The devices used for the study of the temporal evolution of radon concentration have been the RTM 2100, the Radon Scout and gamma spectrometry was complementarily used to determine the transfer factor of the silicone tubes in the experimental device. Radon concentrations obtained in water and air of the spa are high, with an average of 660 Bq/l and 2900 Bq/m{sup 3} respectively, where water is the main source of radon in the air. Radiation dose for workers and public was estimated from these levels of radon. The data showed that the thermal processes can control the behavior of radon which can be also influenced by various physical and chemical parameters such as pH and redox potential. - Highlights: • Radon in water is the major source of indoor air radon concentration in thermal facilities. • Radon in water has been used to characterize the origin of water used for treatments in a spa. • Preliminary dose assessment from radon exposure has been performed.

  11. Monitoring the Degradation Process of Inconel 600 and its Aluminide Coatings under Molten Sulfate Film with Thermal Cycles by Electrochemical Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Take, S.; Yoshinaga, S.; Yanagita, M.; Itoi, Y. [Oyama College, Tochigi (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    With a specially designed electrochemical cell, the changes in impedance behavior for Inconel 600 and aluminide diffusion coatings under molten sulfate film with thermal cycles (from 800 ℃ to 350 ℃) were monitored with electrochemical impedance measurements. It was found that corrosion resistance for both materials increased with lower temperatures. At the same time, the state of molten salt was also monitored successfully by measuring the changes in impedance at high frequency, which generally represents the resistance of molten salt itself. After two thermal cycles, both Inconel 600 and aluminide diffusion coatings showed excellent corrosion resistance. The results from SEM observation and EDS analysis correlated well with the results obtained by electrochemical impedance measurements. It is concluded that electrochemical impedance is very useful for monitoring the corrosion resistance of materials under molten salt film conditions even with thermal cycles.

  12. [Monitoring the thermal plume from coastal nuclear power plant using satellite remote sensing data: modeling, and validation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhao, Li-Min; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Ai-Ling; Wu, Chuan-Qing; Li, Jia-Guo; Shi, Ji-Xiang

    2014-11-01

    Thermal plume from coastal nuclear power plant is a small-scale human activity, mornitoring of which requires high-frequency and high-spatial remote sensing data. The infrared scanner (IRS), on board of HJ-1B, has an infrared channel IRS4 with 300 m and 4-days as its spatial and temporal resolution. Remote sensing data aquired using IRS4 is an available source for mornitoring thermal plume. Retrieval pattern for coastal sea surface temperature (SST) was built to monitor the thermal plume from nuclear power plant. The research area is located near Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS), where synchronized validations were also implemented. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) data was interpolated spatially and temporally. The interpolated data as well as surface weather conditions were subsequently employed into radiative transfer model for the atmospheric correction of IRS4 thermal image. A look-up-table (LUT) was built for the inversion between IRS4 channel radiance and radiometric temperature, and a fitted function was also built from the LUT data for the same purpose. The SST was finally retrieved based on those preprocessing procedures mentioned above. The bulk temperature (BT) of 84 samples distributed near GNPS was shipboard collected synchronically using salinity-temperature-deepness (CTD) instruments. The discrete sample data was surface interpolated and compared with the satellite retrieved SST. Results show that the average BT over the study area is 0.47 degrees C higher than the retrieved skin temperature (ST). For areas far away from outfall, the ST is higher than BT, with differences less than 1.0 degrees C. The main driving force for temperature variations in these regions is solar radiation. For areas near outfall, on the contrary, the retrieved ST is lower than BT, and greater differences between the two (meaning > 1.0 degrees C) happen when it gets closer to the outfall. Unlike the former case, the convective heat

  13. Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 1, Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Since 1982, there has been a major effort expended to evaluate the susceptibility of nuclear Power plant equipment to failure and significant damage during seismic events. This was done by making use of data on the performance of electrical and mechanical equipment in conventional power plants and other similar industrial facilities during strong motion earthquakes. This report is intended as an extension of the seismic experience data collection effort and a compilation of experience data specific to power plant piping and supports designed and constructed US power piping code requirements which have experienced strong motion earthquakes. Eight damaging (Richter Magnitude 7.7 to 5.5) California earthquakes and their effects on 8 power generating facilities in use natural gas and California were reviewed. All of these facilities were visited and evaluated. Seven fossel-fueled (dual use natural gas and oil) and one nuclear fueled plants consisting of a total of 36 individual boiler or reactor units were investigated. Peak horizontal ground accelerations that either had been recorded on site at these facilities or were considered applicable to these power plants on the basis of nearby recordings ranged between 0.20g and 0.5lg with strong motion durations which varied from 3.5 to 15 seconds. Most US nuclear power plants are designed for a safe shutdown earthquake peak ground acceleration equal to 0.20g or less with strong motion durations which vary from 10 to 15 seconds.

  14. Monitoring vegetation recovery patterns on Mount St. Helens using thermal infrared multispectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langran, Kenneth J.

    1986-01-01

    The Mount St. Helens 1980 eruption offers an opportunity to study vegetation recovery rates and patterns in a perturbed ecosystem. The eruptions of Mount St. Helens created new surfaces by stripping and implacing large volumes of eroded material and depositing tephra in the blast area and on the flanks of the mountain. Areas of major disturbance are those in the blast zone that were subject to debris avalanche, pyroclastic flows, mudflows, and blowdown and scorched timber; and those outside the blast zone that received extensive tephra deposits. It was observed that during maximum daytime solar heating, surface temperatures of vegetated areas are cooler than surrounding nonvegetated areas, and that surface temperature varies with percent vegetation cover. A method of measuring the relationship between effective radiant temperature (ERT) and percent vegetation cover in the thermal infrared (8 to 12 microns) region of the electromagnetic spectrum was investigated.

  15. Operation and maintenance of thermal power stations best practices and health monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Chanda, Pradip

    2016-01-01

    This book illustrates operation and maintenance practices/guidelines for economic generation and managing health of a thermal power generator beyond its regulatory life. The book provides knowledge for professionals managing power station operations, through its unique approach to chemical analysis of water, steam, oil etc. to identify malfunctioning/defects in equipment/systems much before the physical manifestation of the problem. The book also contains a detailed procedure for conducting performance evaluation tests on different equipment, and for analyzing test results for predicting maintenance requirements, which has lent a new dimension to power systems operation and maintenance practices. A number of real life case studies also enrich the book. This book will prove particularly useful to power systems operations professionals in the developing economies, and also to researchers and students involved in studying power systems operations and control. .

  16. Description of the behavior of an aquifer by using continuous radon monitoring in a thermal spa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, Carlos; Rábago, Daniel; Fuente, Ismael; Celaya, Santiago; Quindós, Luis Santiago

    2016-02-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) levels in air and water have been analyzed continuously for almost a year in Las Caldas de Besaya thermal spa, north Spain. Radon is a naturally occurring noble gas from the decay of radium ((226)Ra) both constituents of radioactive uranium 238 series. It has been recognized as a lung carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Furthermore the Royal Decree R.D 1439/2010 of November, 2010 establishes the obligation to study occupational activities where workers and, where appropriate, members of the public are exposed to inhalation of radon in workplaces such as spas. Together with radon measures several physico-chemical parameters were obtained such as pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity and air and water temperature. The devices used for the study of the temporal evolution of radon concentration have been the RTM 2100, the Radon Scout and gamma spectrometry was complementarily used to determine the transfer factor of the silicone tubes in the experimental device. Radon concentrations obtained in water and air of the spa are high, with an average of 660 Bq/l and 2900 Bq/m(3) respectively, where water is the main source of radon in the air. Radiation dose for workers and public was estimated from these levels of radon. The data showed that the thermal processes can control the behavior of radon which can be also influenced by various physical and chemical parameters such as pH and redox potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring the Impacts of Severe Drought on Southern California Chaparral Species using Hyperspectral and Thermal Infrared Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin R. Coates

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Airborne hyperspectral and thermal infrared imagery acquired in 2013 and 2014, the second and third years of a severe drought in California, were used to assess drought impacts on dominant plant species. A relative green vegetation fraction (RGVF calculated from 2013–2014 Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS data using linear spectral unmixing revealed seasonal and multi-year changes relative to a pre-drought 2011 reference AVIRIS image. Deeply rooted tree species and tree species found in mesic areas showed the least change in RGVF. Coastal sage scrub species demonstrated the highest seasonal variability, as well as a longer-term decline in RGVF. Ceanothus species were apparently least well-adapted to long-term drought among chaparral species, showing persistent declines in RGVF over 2013 and 2014. Declining RGVF was associated with higher land surface temperature retrieved from MODIS-ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER data. Combined collection of hyperspectral and thermal infrared imagery may offer new opportunities for mapping and monitoring drought impacts on ecosystems.

  18. Biopolymer/gold nanoparticles composite plasmonic thermal history indicator to monitor quality and safety of perishable bioproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Cheng; Lu, Lin; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2017-06-15

    Quality and safety of perishable products such as foods, pharmaceutics, and biologicals is a constant concern. We have developed a plasmonic thermal history indicator (THI) taking advantage of the localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesized in situ in alginate, a natural polysaccharide. The color of the THIs becomes more intense with increased storage temperature and/or duration, with the color changing from grey to red with time of exposure at high temperature (40°C). The results suggest that decreasing viscosity with increasing number of AuNPs being synthesized in the system, along with aggregation of newly synthesized AuNPs onto larger ones and their settling are potentially responsible for the distinct color change observed. The use of alginate in the THIs also facilitates fabricating them as solid hydrogel matrices by adding divalent calcium ions. This alginate-AuNPs THI system is tunable by altering its composition to suit different time-temperature monitoring scenarios and the color-change reaction is irreversible. The THI provides a convenient, reliable, safe, and inexpensive means for tracking the thermal history of perishable products without the need for a read-out device. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Monitoring Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coatings by Near-Infrared and Upconversion Luminescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, J. I.; Martin, R. E.; Singh, Jogender; Wolfe, Doug E.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that TBC delamination can be monitored by incorporating a thin luminescent sublayer that produces greatly increased luminescence intensity from delaminated regions of the TBC. Initial efforts utilized visible-wavelength luminescence from either europium or erbium doped sublayers. This approach exhibited good sensitivity to delamination of electron-beam physical-vapor-deposited (EB-PVD) TBCs, but limited sensitivity to delamination of the more highly scattering plasma-sprayed TBCs due to stronger optical scattering and to interference by luminescence from rare-earth impurities. These difficulties have now been overcome by new strategies employing near-infrared (NIR) and upconversion luminescence imaging. NIR luminescence at 1550 nm was produced in an erbium plus ytterbium co-doped yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) luminescent sublayer using 980-nm excitation. Compared to visible-wavelength luminescence, these NIR emission and excitation wavelengths are much more weakly scattered by the TBC and therefore show much improved depth-probing capabilities. In addition, two-photon upconversion luminescence excitation at 980 nm wavelength produces luminescence emission at 562 nm with near-zero fluorescence background and exceptional contrast for delamination indication. The ability to detect TBC delamination produced by Rockwell indentation and by furnace cycling is demonstrated for both EB-PVD and plasma-sprayed TBCs. The relative strengths of the NIR and upconversion luminescence methods for monitoring TBC delamination are discussed.

  20. Strategy of high efficiency and refined high-intensity focused ultrasound and ultrasound monitoring imaging of thermal lesion and cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Mingxi; Zhang, Siyuan; Lu, Mingzhu; Hu, Hong; Jing, Bowen; Liu, Runna; Zhong, Hui

    2017-03-01

    We proposed that high efficiency high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) could be achieved by using a splitting transducer with various frequencies and focusing patterns, and explored the feasibility of using ultrafast active cavitation imaging (UACI), pulse inversion (PI) sub-harmonic cavitation imaging and bubble wavelet transform imaging for monitoring of cavitation during HIFU, as well as the ultrasonic B-mode images, differential integrated backscatter (IBS) images, Nakagami images and elastography for monitoring HIFU-induced lesion. The use of HIFU splitting transducer had the potential to increase the size of the thermal lesion in a shorter duration and may improve the ablation efficiency of HIFU and would shorten the exposure duration significantly. The spatial-temporal evolution of residual cavitation bubbles at the tissue-water interface was obtained by UACI and the results showed that the UACI had a frame rate high enough to capture the transient behavior of the cavitation bubbles. The experiments demonstrated that comparing with normal sub-harmonic and PI harmonic images, PI sub-harmonic images had higher sensitivity and CTR, which was conducive to showing cavitation bubbles. The CTR would be further improved by combining PI ultrafast plane wave transmitting with cavitation bubble wavelet transform.

  1. Effects of mirror distortion by thermal deformation in an interferometry beam size monitor system at PLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ji-Gwang [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4, Gongneung-dong, Nowon-t, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-San, E-mail: eskim1@korea.ac.kr [Department of Accelerator Science, Graduate School, Korea University Sejong Campus, Sejong 30019, Republica of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Changbum; Huang, Jung-Yun; Kim, Dotae [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 135-703 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-11

    Extraction mirrors installed at the most upstream position of interferometry beam size monitor are frequently used for measuring the beam size in storage rings. These mirrors receive the high power synchrotron radiation and are distorted owing to the heat distribution that depends on the position on the mirror surface. The distortion of the mirror changes the effective separation of the slit in the interferometry beam size monitor. Estimation of the effects of the front-end mirror distortion is important for measuring the beam size accurately. In this paper, we present the result of the numerical simulation of the temperature distribution and thermal expansion of the front-end mirror using ANSYS code, the theoretical basis of the effects of mirror distortion and compare with experimental results from Pohang Light Source II (PLS-II) at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL). The equipment in the beam diagnosis line in PLS-II and experimental set-up for measuring the distortion of the front-end mirror using a multi-hole square array Hartmann screen are described.

  2. Fiber-Optic Thermal Sensor for TiN Film Crack Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiang-Chang; Hsieh, Tso-Sheng; Chen, Yi-Chian; Chen, Hung-En; Tsai, Liren; Chiang, Chia-Chin

    2017-11-11

    The study focuses on the thermal and temperature sensitivity behavior of an optical fiber sensor device. In this article, a titanium nitride (TiN)-coated fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor fabricated using an ion beam sputtering system was investigated. The reflection spectra of the FBG sensor were tested using R-soft optical software to simulate the refractive index sensitivity. In these experiments, the temperature sensitivity of the TiN FBG was measured at temperatures ranging from 100 to 500 °C using an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). The results showed that the temperature sensitivity of the proposed TiN FBG sensor reached 12.8 pm/°C for the temperature range of 100 to 300 °C and 20.8 pm/°C for the temperature range of 300 to 500 °C. Additionally, we found that the produced oxidation at temperatures of 400-500 °C caused a crack, with the crack becoming more and more obvious at higher and higher temperatures.

  3. The automated infrared thermal imaging system for the continuous long-term monitoring of the surface temperature of the Vesuvius crater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Sansivero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Infrared remote sensing monitoring is a significant tool aimed to integrated surveillance system of active volcanic areas. In this paper we describe the realization and the technological evolution of the permanent image thermal infrared (TIR surveillance system of the Vesuvius volcano. The TIR monitoring station was installed on the Vesuvius crater rim on July 2004 in order to acquire scenes of the SW inner slope of Vesuvius crater that is characterized by a significant thermal emission. At that time, it represented the first achievement all over the world of a permanent surveillance thermal imaging system on a volcano. It has been working in its prototypal configuration till May 2007. The experience gained over years about the engineering, management and maintenance of TIR remote acquisition systems in extreme environmental conditions, allows us to design and realize a new release of the TIR monitoring station with improved functionalities and more flexibility for the IR image acquisition, management and storage, which became operational in June 2011. In order to characterize the thermal background of the Vesuvius crater at present state of volcanic quiescence, the time series of TIR images gathered between July 2004 and May 2012 were analyzed using a statistical approach. Results show no significant changes in the thermal radiation during the observation periods, so they can be assumed as representative of a background level to which refer for the interpretation of possible future anomalies related to a renewal of the volcanic dynamics of the Vesuvius volcano.

  4. Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease and Diabetes Blood Glucose Monitoring Insulin Injection Resources Mental Health and Diabetes Healthy Holiday Eating Lifestyle Resources Improve Medication Taking Spanish Language Resources AADE7 Self-Care Behaviors ...

  5. Biomonitoring of bees. Upgrading of electronic monitoring of thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuhalev, I.; Rajh-Alatic, Z. [Electroinstitute Ljubljana (Slovakia)

    1995-12-31

    Environmental monitoring of the air quality associates procedures whose task is to acquire data about the measurement of the polluted air in the real time and on-line mode. Air quality measurements are made at the point of the measurement site which is the most exposed to pollution. Apart from the point measurements, there are also line measurements carried out. They are made in a particular area where they provide better results about the environmental pollution. Data that are obtained in this way provide the basis for adequate procedures for the air protection. The effect of noxious substances from the air on living organisms under laboratory conditions is known to a certain degree. The real extent of the effect of the air pollution under existing conditions in a particular area and time can only be established with biomonitoring. One of its most frequent forms is observation of a particular plant specimen which is sensitive to some noxious components from the air. Biomonitoring of plants provides data about the complex pollution stress to which an observed plant is exposed. It covers a certain time period and gives point results of an area. To get a complete insight into the effect of the pollution stress in an area biomonotoring was expanded onto bees

  6. Thermal monitoring as a method for estimation of technical state of digital devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrich Yu. N.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Requirements to the reliability level of modern element base are so high that traditional methods of assessing the technical condition of electronics become ineffective, the modern theory of reliability has almost no practical applications [1], and reliability index does not reflect the true state of an electronic device due to an insufficient amount of information received during testing of electronic devices. The majority of modern electronics are limitedly easy-to-test. They are equipped with small number of tools for direct measurement that leads to a delayed troubleshooting and the inability to take measures efficiently. Despite the fact that new generations of electronics use modern components and new design technologies, their performance is still defined by two states — serviceability or failure, and the failure still happens unexpectedly. We may note, that failure is an uncontrolled result of an irreversible degradation process, taking place in time and having appropriate time parameters, but it's not the critical act. Research of various structural and hierarchical levels of functional units of digital electronics show that temperature control can be used for automatic condition monitoring of such devices in real time. As a generalized control parameter, it is advisable to use the temperature of the case of the element, and the case itself — as a generalized point.

  7. T1 and T2 temperature dependence of female human breast adipose tissue at 1.5 T : groundwork for monitoring thermal therapies in the breast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, Paul; Deckers, RHR; Knuttel, Floor M.; Bartels, LW

    2015-01-01

    The T-1 and T-2 temperature dependence of female breast adipose tissue was investigated at 1.5 T in order to evaluate the applicability of relaxation-based MR thermometry in fat for the monitoring of thermal therapies in the breast. Relaxation times T-1, T-2 and T-2TSE (the apparent T-2 measured

  8. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes availab...... at the CPH STL can give this guarantee for all operations. In spite of the safety requirements, the strict running-time requirements specified in the C++ standard, and additional requirements specified in the CPH STL design documents, must be fulfilled....

  9. Potential of the future thermal infrared space-borne sensor IASI-NG to monitor lower tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellitto, P.; Dufour, G.; Eremenko, M.; Cuesta, J.; Dauphin, P.; Forêt, G.; Gaubert, B.; Beekmann, M.; Peuch, V.-H.; Flaud, J.-M.

    2012-09-01

    The lower tropospheric (LT) ozone concentration is a key factor for air quality (AQ). Observing efficiently LT ozone from space is crucial to monitor and better understand pollution phenomena occurring from inter-continental to local scales, and that have a proven noxious effect on the human health and the biosphere. The Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI) flies on MetOp-A spacecraft and is planned to be launched in the next future as part of the other MetOp modules, i.e. MetOp-B and C. IASI has demonstrated to have the capability to single out the LT ozone signal only at favourable conditions, i.e. in presence of high thermal contrast scenarios. New generation satellite instruments are being designed to address several pressing geophysical issues, including a better observation capability of LT ozone. IASI-NG (New Generation), now having reached the accomplishment of design phase-A for launch in the 2020 timeframe as part of the EPS-SG (EUMETSAT Polar System-Second Generation, formerly post-EPS) mission, may render feasible a better observation of AQ in terms of LT ozone. To evaluate the added-value brought by IASI-NG in this context, we developed a pseudo-observation simulator, including a direct simulator of thermal infrared spectra and a full inversion scheme to retrieve ozone concentration profiles. We produced one month (August 2009) of tropospheric ozone pseudo-observations based on both IASI and IASI-NG instrumental configurations. We compared the pseudo-observations and we found a clear improvement of LT ozone (up to 6 km altitude) pseudo-observations quality for IASI-NG. The estimated total error is expected to be more than 35% smaller at 5 km, and 20% smaller for the LT ozone column. The total error on the LT ozone column is, on average, lower than 10% for IASI-NG. IASI-NG is expected to have a significantly better vertical sensitivity (monthly average degrees of freedom surface-6 km of 0.70) and to be sensitive at lower altitudes (more

  10. Thermally induced crystallization kinetics of uncrosslinked and unfilled synthetic cis-1,4-polyisoprene rubber monitored by shear rheological tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Hong, Daesun; Kim, Hyungsu; Kim, Byungsoo; Chang, Wenji V.

    2016-11-01

    This study demonstrates the unique capability of a shear rotational rheometer for studying the thermally induced crystallization (TIC) of uncrosslinked and unfilled cis-1,4-polyisoprene rubber (IR). At temperatures below -15°C, a crystallization phenomenon (TIC) occurred in a quasi-unstrained IR specimen. Such a distinguished phenomenon was determined from the steady and sharp changes of both tanδ and the modulus. The changing ratio of those parameters with time characterizes the crystallization rate, on which the effects of the compressive force magnitude, testing repeat, and temperature are studied. The crystallization rate was shown to depend less on the magnitude of normal force, but depended largely on the specimen's previous testing history. A specimen not fully recovered from the previous crystallized memory showed a faster rate than before. More cooling to -25°C increased the crystallization rate, but the slow crystallization helped increase the final crystallinity. The crystallization rate was further interpreted by the Avrami equation to propose the crystal structure, whose morphological feature was shown in agreement with the reported TEM and X-ray results. However, our study found a thermo-mechanically aged specimen showed a very different rheological behavior at the late stage of crystallization suggesting the crystalline metamorphosis. But this unexpected behavior turned out to be unrecoverable indicating a property failure due to material aging more plausibly. All these findings were successfully monitored by the rheometer. It is expected the well-organized rheometric measurements can sufficiently supplement some instrumental limitations of the traditional crystallization monitoring analyzers on soft materials.

  11. Assessing the thermal dissipation sap flux density method for monitoring cold season water transport in seasonally snow-covered forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Allison M; Bowling, David R

    2017-07-01

    Productivity of conifers in seasonally snow-covered forests is high before and during snowmelt when environmental conditions are optimal for photosynthesis. Climate change is altering the timing of spring in many locations, and changes in the date of transition from winter dormancy can have large impacts on annual productivity. Sap flow methods provide a promising approach to monitor tree activity during the cold season and the winter-spring and fall-winter transitions. Although sap flow techniques have been widely used, cold season results are generally not reported. Here we examine the feasibility of using the Granier thermal dissipation (TD) sap flux density method to monitor transpiration and dormancy of evergreen conifers during the cold season. We conducted a laboratory experiment which demonstrated that the TD method reliably detects xylem water transport (when it occurs) both at near freezing temperature and at low flow rate, and that the sensors can withstand repeated freeze-thaw events. However, the dependence between sensor output and water transport rate in these experiments differed from the established TD relation. In field experiments, sensors installed in two Abies forests lasted through two winters and a summer with low failure. The baseline (no-flow) sensor output varied considerably with temperature during the cold season, and a new baseline algorithm was developed to accommodate this variation. The Abies forests differed in elevation (2070 and 2620 m), and there was a clear difference in timing of initiation and cessation of transpiration between them. We conclude that the TD method can be reliably used to examine water transport during cold periods with associated low flow conditions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. New Indices of Endothelial Function Measured by Digital Thermal Monitoring of Vascular Reactivity: Data from 6084 Patients Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Naghavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endothelial function is viewed as a barometer of cardiovascular health and plays a central role in vascular reactivity. Several studies showed digital thermal monitoring (DTM as a simple noninvasive method to measure vascular reactivity that is correlated with atherosclerosis risk factors and coronary artery disease. Objectives. To further evaluate the relations between patient characteristics and DTM indices in a large patient registry. Methods. DTM measures were correlated with age, sex, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 6084 patients from 18 clinics. Results. DTM vascular reactivity index (VRI was normally distributed and inversely correlated with age (r=-0.21, p<0.0001. Thirteen percent of VRI tests were categorized as poor vascular reactivity (VRI < 1.0, 70 percent as intermediate (1.0 ≤ VRI < 2.0, and 17 percent as good (VRI ≥ 2.0. Poor VRI (<1.0 was noted in 6% of <50 y, 10% of 50–70 y, and 18% of ≥70 y. In multiple linear regression analyses, age, sex, and diastolic blood pressure were significant but weak predictors of VRI. Conclusions. As the largest database of finger-based vascular reactivity measurement, this report adds to prior findings that VRI is a meaningful physiological marker and reflects a high level of residual risk found in patients currently under care.

  13. Thermal and electrochemical C-X activation (X = Cl, Br, I) by the strong Lewis acid Pd3(dppm)3(CO)2+ cluster and its catalytic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaître, Frédéric; Lucas, Dominique; Groison, Katherine; Richard, Philippe; Mugnier, Yves; Harvey, Pierre D

    2003-05-07

    The stoichiometric and catalytic activations of alkyl halides and acid chlorides by the unsatured Pd(3)(dppm)(3)(CO)(2+) cluster (Pd(3)(2+)) are investigated in detail. A series of alkyl halides (R-X; R = t-Bu, Et, Pr, Bu, allyl; X = Cl, Br, I) react slowly with Pd(3)(2+) to form the corresponding Pd(3)(X)(+) adduct and "R(+)". This activation can proceed much faster if it is electrochemically induced via the formation of the paramagnetic species Pd(3)(+). The latter is the first confidently identified paramagnetic Pd cluster. The kinetic constants extracted from the evolution of the UV-vis spectra for the thermal activation, as well as the amount of electricity to bring the activation to completion for the electrochemically induced reactions, correlate the relative C-X bond strength and the steric factors. The highly reactive "R(+)" species has been trapped using phenol to afford the corresponding ether. On the other hand, the acid chlorides react rapidly with Pd(3)(2+) where no induction is necessary. The analysis of the cyclic voltammograms (CV) establishes that a dissociative mechanism operates (RCOCl --> RCO(+) + Cl(-); R = t-Bu, Ph) prior to Cl(-) scavenging by the Pd(3)(2+) species. For the other acid chlorides (R = n-C(6)H(13), Me(2)CH, Et, Me, Pr), a second associative process (Pd(3)(2+) + RCOCl --> Pd(3)(2+.....)Cl(CO)(R)) is seen. Addition of Cu(NCMe)(4)(+) or Ag(+) leads to the abstraction of Cl(-) from Pd(3)(Cl)(+) to form Pd(3)(2+) and the insoluble MCl materials (M = Cu, Ag) allowing to regenerate the starting unsaturated cluster, where the precipitation of MX drives the reaction. By using a copper anode, the quasi-quantitative catalytic generation of the acylium ion ("RCO(+)") operates cleanly and rapidly. The trapping of "RCO(+)" with PF(6)(-) or BF(4)(-) leads to the corresponding acid fluorides and, with an alcohol (R'OH), to the corresponding ester catalytically, under mild conditions. Attempts were made to trap the key intermediates "Pd(3)(Cl

  14. Evaluation of thermal infrared hyperspectral imagery for the detection of onshore methane plumes: Significance for hydrocarbon exploration and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafutto, Rebecca DeĺPapa Moreira; de Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto; Riley, Dean N.; de Oliveira, Wilson Jose

    2018-02-01

    accurately. These results indicate that thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging can support the oil industry profusely, by revealing new petroleum plays through direct detection of gaseous hydrocarbon seepages, serving as tools to monitor leaks along pipelines and oil processing plants, while simultaneously refining estimates of CH4 emissions.

  15. Use of thermal infrared remote sensing data for fisheries, environmental monitoring, oil and gas exploration, and ship routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffer, M. A.; Gawlikowski, G.; Muller-Karger, F.; Schaudt, K.; Upton, M.; Wall, C.; Westhaver, D.

    2006-12-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) and ocean color remote sensing data (1.1 - 4.0 km) are being used as the primary data source in decision making systems for fisheries management, commercial and recreational fishing advisory services, fisheries research, environmental monitoring, oil and gas operations, and ship routing. Experience over the last 30 years suggests that while ocean color and other remote sensing data (e.g. altimetry) are important data sources, TIR presently yields the most useful data for studying ocean surface circulation synoptically on a daily basis. This is due primarily to the greater temporal resolution, but also due to one's better understanding of the dynamics of sea surface temperature compared with variations in ocean color and the spatial limitations of altimeter data. Information derived from commercial operations and research is being used to improve the operational efficiency of fishing vessels (e.g. reduce search time and increase catch rate) and to improve our understanding of the variations in catch distribution and rate needed to properly manage fisheries. This information is also being used by the oil and gas industry to minimize transit time and thus, save costs (e.g., tug charter, insurance), to increase production and revenue up to 500K dollars a day. The data are also be used to reduce the risk of equipment loss, loss of time and revenue to sudden and unexpected currents such as eddies. Sequential image analysis integrating TIR and ocean color provided near-real time, synoptic visualization of the rapid and wide dispersal of coastal waters from the northern Gulf of Mexico following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in September 2005. The satellite data and analysis techniques have also been used to monitor the effects and movement of other potential environmentally damaging substances, such as dispersing nutrient enriched waste water offshore. A review of our experience in several commercial applications and research efforts will reinforce the

  16. Thermal Activity Monitoring of an Active Volcano Using Landsat 8/OLI-TIRS Sensor Images: A Case Study at the Aso Volcanic Area in Southwest Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Bodruddoza Mia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal remote sensing is currently an emerging technique for monitoring active volcanoes around the world. The study area, the Aso volcano, is currently the most active and has erupted almost every year since 2012. For the first time, Landsat 8 TIRS thermal data were used in this study area to evaluate and monitor the recent thermal status of this volcano, situated in Southwest Japan, from 2013 to 2016 using four sets of images. The total heat discharged rate (HDR, radiative heat flux (RHF, land surface temperature (LST, and land cover (LC were evaluated, and the relationship between them was determined, to understand the thermal status of the study area. We used the NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index for land cover, the NDVI-threshold method for emissivity, the split-window algorithm for LST, and the Stefan–Boltzmann equation for radiative heat flux estimation in this study. The total heat discharge rate was computed using a relationship coefficient of RHF and HDR here. The highest HDR was obtained in 2013, at about 4715 MW, and was the lowest in 2016, at about 3819 MW. The total heat loss showed a declining trend, overall, from 2013 to 2016. The highest pixel RHF was in 2013 and the lowest was in 2014; after that, it increased gradually until 2016, coinciding with the LST of this study area. LC showed that, with decreasing heat loss, the vegetated coverage increased and bare land or mixed land decreased, and vice versa. From the spatial distribution of RHF, we saw that, within the Nakadake craters of the Aso volcano, Crater 1 was the most active part of this volcano throughout the study period, and Crater 3 was the most active after 2014. We inferred that the applied methods using the continuous Landsat 8 TIRS data showed an effective and efficient method of monitoring the thermal status of this active volcano.

  17. Monitoring results and analysis of thermal comfort conditions in experimental buildings for different heating systems and ventilation regimes during heating and cooling seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendelis, S.; Jakovičs, A.; Ratnieks, J.; Bandeniece, L.

    2017-10-01

    This paper focuses on the long-term monitoring of thermal comfort and discomfort parameters in five small test buildings equipped with different heating and cooling systems. Calculations of predicted percentage of dissatisfied people (PPD) index and discomfort factors are provided for the room in winter season running three different heating systems – electric heater, air-air heat pump and air-water heat pump, as well as for the summer cooling with split type air conditioning systems. It is shown that the type of heating/cooling system and its working regime has an important impact on thermal comfort conditions in observed room. Recommendations for the optimal operating regimes and choice of the heating system from the thermal comfort point of view are summarized.

  18. Potential of the Thermal Infrared Wavelength Region to predict semi-arid Soil Surface Properties for Remote Sensing Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisele, Andreas; Chabrillat, Sabine; Lau, Ian; Hecker, Christoph; Hewson, Robert; Carter, Dan; Wheaton, Buddy; Ong, Cindy; Cudahy, Thomas John; Kaufmann, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    Digital soil mapping with the means of passive remote sensing basically relies on the soils' spectral characteristics and an appropriate atmospheric window, where electromagnetic radiation transmits without significant attenuation. Traditionally the atmospheric window in the solar-reflective wavelength region (visible, VIS: 0.4 - 0.7 μm; near infrared, NIR: 0.7 - 1.1 μm; shortwave infrared, SWIR: 1.1 - 2.5 μm) has been used to quantify soil surface properties. However, spectral characteristics of semi-arid soils, typically have a coarse quartz rich texture and iron coatings that can limit the prediction of soil surface properties. In this study we investigated the potential of the atmospheric window in the thermal wavelength region (long wave infrared, LWIR: 8 - 14 μm) to predict soil surface properties such as the grain size distribution (texture) and the organic carbon content (SOC) for coarse-textured soils from the Australian wheat belt region. This region suffers soil loss due to wind erosion processes and large scale monitoring techniques, such as remote sensing, is urgently required to observe the dynamic changes of such soil properties. The coarse textured sandy soils of the investigated area require methods, which can measure the special spectral response of the quartz dominated mineralogy with iron oxide enriched grain coatings. By comparison, the spectroscopy using the solar-reflective region has limitations to discriminate such arid soil mineralogy and associated coatings. Such monitoring is important for observing potential desertification trends associated with coarsening of topsoil texture and reduction in SOC. In this laboratory study we identified the relevant LWIR wavelengths to predict these soil surface properties. The results showed the ability of multivariate analyses methods (PLSR) to predict these soil properties from the soil's spectral signature, where the texture parameters (clay and sand content) could be predicted well in the models

  19. Monitoring the restoration of interfacial contact for self healing thermal interface materials for LED and microelectronic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafont, U.L.; Van Zeijl, H.W.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2013-01-01

    While conventional self healing materials focus on the restoration of mechanical properties, newer generations of self healing materials focus on the restoration of other functional (i.e. non-mechanical) properties. Thermal conductivity is an example of an important functional property of a Thermal

  20. Thermal regime and potential bedrock weathering in alpine rockwalls of Austria: Results from eight years of monitoring (2006-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Wecht, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Bedrock temperature at sites with a minor winter snow cover gives a good indication for the effects of air temperature anomalies on ground thermal conditions as well as for the intensity of near-surface physical weathering in bedrock. In this study we present results from an ongoing bedrock temperature monitoring program initiated in 2006. Within the framework of this program nine surface boreholes in rockwalls with different slope orientations and two additional boreholes at flat bedrock sites were drilled between August and September 2006 and subsequently instrumented. The altogether eleven rock temperature sites (RTS) are located in the alpine periglacial zone of the Austrian Alps at latitude 46°55' to 47°22' and longitude 12°44' to 14°41'. All RTS have been installed in metamorphic rock (5 x mica schist; 6 x gneiss) at elevations between 1960 and 2725 m asl (mean 2491 m asl.). Three temperature sensors (PT1000) have been inserted at each borehole site at vertical depths of 3, 10 and 30-40 cm. At each RTS the three sensors are connected to a 3-channel miniature temperature datalogger (MTD) manufactured by GeoPrecision, Germany. Our analysis focussed on (a) the variation of mean and extreme daily temperatures at the rock surface and at depth, (b) the variation of the daily temperature range, (c) the number of freeze-thaw-cycles (FTC) and (d) effective freeze-thaw cycles for frost shattering (eFTC), (e) the duration and intensity of freeze-thaw-cycles (DI-FTC), (f) the number of hours and days within the so-called frost-cracking-window (FCW), and effects of (g) aspect and (h) snow cover on the thermal regimes in the bedrock. Results show for instance that the number of FTC and eFTC varied substantially during the observation period at all eleven RTS and at all sensor depths. However, this variation differs from site to site related to snow cover condition, elevation and aspect. For instance, at one lower-elevated (2255 m asl) north exposed RTS the number of

  1. Monitoring of active layer thermal regime and depth on CALM-S site, James Ross Island, Eastern Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrbáček, Filip; Kňažková, Michaela; Nývlt, Daniel; Láska, Kamil; Mueller, Carsten W.; Ondruch, Jakub

    2017-04-01

    Active layer thickness and its dynamic are considered one of the key parameters of permafrost-affected ground. They variability are very sensitive to specific local conditions, especially climate, vegetation, snow cover or soil texture and moisture. To better understand the local variability of active layer thickness in Antarctica, the original Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring protocol (CALM) was adapted as its southern form (CALM-S) with respect to specific conditions of Antarctica. To date, almost 40 CALM-S sites were registered across the Antarctic continent with the highest density on western Antarctic Peninsula (South Shetlands) and Victoria Land in East Antarctica (McMurdo region). On James Ross Island, CALM-S site was established in February 2014 as the first CALM-S in the eastern Antarctic Peninsula region. The CALM-S site is located near the Johann Gregor Mendel Station on the northern coast of James Ross Island. The area delimited to 80 × 70 m is elevated at 8 to 11 m asl. Geologically it consists of a Holocene marine terrace ( 80% of CALM-S area) with typical sandy material and passes to lithified to poorly disintegrated sedimentary rocks of Cretaceous Whisky Bay Formation ( 20% of CALM-S area) with a more muddy material and a typical bimodal composition. For both geologically different parts of CALM-S site, ground temperature was measured at two profiles at several levels up to 200 cm depth using resistance thermometers Pt100/8 (accuracy ± 0.15 °C). The air temperature at 2 m above surface was monitored at the automatic weather station near Johann Gregor Mendel Station using resistance thermometer Pt100/A (accuracy ± 0.15 °C). Data used in this study were obtained during the period from 1 March 2013 to 6 February 2016. Mechanical probing of active layer depth was performed in 72 grid points at the end of January, or beginning of February in 2014 to 2016. During the whole study period, mean annual air temperature varied between -7.0 °C (2013

  2. In Situ Monitoring the Thermal Degradation of PCPDTBT Low Band Gap Polymers with Varying Alkyl Side-Chain Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, Lidia; Penxten, Huguette; Van Mierloo, Sarah; Carleer, Robert; Lutsen, Laurence; Vanderzande, Dirk; Maes, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    The degradation pattern of a series of low band gap PCPDTBT polymers under thermal stress is investigated by in situ UV-vis and FT-IR techniques combined with thermal degradation analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis is used to predetermine the decomposition intervals, revealing that thermolysis occurs in two stages. TG-TD-GC/MS shows that loss of the alkyl side chains predominantly happens within the first temperature regime and degradation of the polymer backbone occurs thereafter. UV-vis sp...

  3. Recommendations on the choice of gas analysis equipment for systems of continuous monitoring and accounting of emissions from thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat'eva, O. E.; Roslyakov, P. V.; Burdyukov, D. A.; Khudolei, O. D.; Loktionov, O. A.

    2017-10-01

    According to Federal Law no. 219-FZ, dated July 21, 2014, all enterprises that have a significant negative impact on the environment shall continuously monitor and account emissions of harmful substances into the atmospheric air. The choice of measuring equipment that is included in continuous emission monitoring and accounting systems (CEM&ASs) is a complex technical problem; in particular, its solution requires a comparative analysis of gas analysis systems; each of these systems has its advantages and disadvantages. In addition, the choice of gas analysis systems for CEM&ASs should be maximally objective and not depend on preferences of separate experts and specialists. The technique of choosing gas analysis equipment that was developed in previous years at Moscow Power Engineering Institute (MPEI) has been analyzed and the applicability of the mathematical tool of a multiple criteria analysis to choose measuring equipment for the continuous emission monitoring and accounting system have been estimated. New approaches to the optimal choice of gas analysis equipment for systems of the continuous monitoring and accounting of harmful emissions from thermal power plants have been proposed, new criteria of evaluation of gas analysis systems have been introduced, and weight coefficients have been determined for these criteria. The results of this study served as a basis for the Preliminary National Standard of the Russian Federation "Best Available Technologies. Automated Systems of Continuous Monitoring and Accounting of Emissions of Harmful (Polluting) Substances from Thermal Power Plants into the Atmospheric Air. Basic Requirements," which was developed by the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, National Research University, in cooperation with the Council of Power Producers and Strategic Electric Power Investors Association and the All-Russia Research Institute for Materials and Technology Standardization.

  4. Change detection and characterization of volcanic activity using ground based low-light and near infrared cameras to monitor incandescence and thermal signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrild, Martin; Webley, Peter; Dehn, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge and understanding of precursory events and thermal signatures are vital for monitoring volcanogenic processes, as activity can often range from low level lava effusion to large explosive eruptions, easily capable of ejecting ash up to aircraft cruise altitudes. Using ground based remote sensing techniques to monitor and detect this activity is essential, but often the required equipment and maintenance is expensive. Our investigation explores the use of low-light cameras to image volcanic activity in the visible to near infrared (NIR) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These cameras are ideal for monitoring as they are cheap, consume little power, are easily replaced and can provide near real-time data. We focus here on the early detection of volcanic activity, using automated scripts, that capture streaming online webcam imagery and evaluate image pixel brightness values to determine relative changes and flag increases in activity. The script is written in Python, an open source programming language, to reduce the overall cost to potential consumers and increase the application of these tools across the volcanological community. In addition, by performing laboratory tests to determine the spectral response of these cameras, a direct comparison of collocated low-light and thermal infrared cameras has allowed approximate eruption temperatures and effusion rates to be determined from pixel brightness. The results of a field campaign in June, 2013 to Stromboli volcano, Italy, are also presented here. Future field campaigns to Latin America will include collaborations with INSIVUMEH in Guatemala, to apply our techniques to Fuego and Santiaguito volcanoes.

  5. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules.

  6. Combining monitoring and modelling tools as a basis for city-scale concepts for a sustainable thermal management of urban groundwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Matthias H; Huggenberger, Peter; Epting, Jannis

    2018-02-05

    Increasing anthropogenic impacts lead to elevated temperatures of the shallow subsurface, including the unsaturated and groundwater saturated zone, in many urban areas in comparison to unaffected natural thermal states. The "current thermal state" of four groundwater bodies in the urban area of Basel-City, Switzerland, was investigated by means of high-resolution multilevel temperature wells and numerical 3D groundwater flow and heat transport models. The calibrated and validated numerical groundwater flow and heat transport models allow evaluating and comparing groundwater and heat fluxes for the investigated groundwater bodies and defined cross-sections for differing urban districts, e.g. residential and industrial areas under development. We present the overall and the specific advective heat fluxes within two urban districts, which will be restructured in the near future. The management of groundwater resources in urban areas plays an important role not only for groundwater quantity but also for its quality, i.e. thermal subsurface and groundwater regimes. We demonstrate how monitoring and modelling tools can be the basis for a sustainable management of complex urban groundwater resources. Furthermore, we argue that such tools should be integrated in the thermal management of urban groundwater bodies. Such tools also allow integrating the potentially available energy of shallow subsurface resources into energetic management strategies on the urban scale. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Satellite thermal monitoring of the 2010 - 2013 eruption of Kizimen volcano (Kamchatka) using MIROVA hot-spot detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimetti, Francesco; Coppola, Diego; Laiolo, Marco; Cigolini, Corrado

    2017-04-01

    After 81 years of rest, the Holocenic stratovolcano of Kizimen (Kamchatka, Russia) began a new eruptive phase on December 2010. The eruption was preceded by a year-long seismic unrest and fumarole activity, and persisted for 3 years showing a transition from explosive to effusive style. The initial explosive phase caused the partial disruption of the volcano summit and was followed by the effusion of andesitic lava flow along the eastern side of the edifice. Here we used an automatic hot-spot detection system named MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), in order to track the thermal evolution of the eruption and to understand the eruptive dynamic. MIROVA is based on the analysis IR images acquired by the MODIS sensor (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and is able to provide thermal maps (1 km resolution) and Volcanic Radiative Power (VRP, in Watt) time series in near real time (1-4 hours from satellite overpass). Each image with a thermal alert has been classified, distinguishing different quality level of the data based on cloud cover, viewing geometry and coherence with the VRP trend. The analysis of VRP variation show different thermal phases that have been correlated with independent observations of KVERT (Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team). Finally, we show that the relation between total thermal energy radiated (VRE, in Joule) and erupted lava volume is consistent with the typical radiant density of an intermediate-silicic lava flow (Coppola et al., 2013).

  8. Interleukin-6 Induced "Acute" Phenotypic Microenvironment Promotes Th1 Anti-Tumor Immunity in Cryo-Thermal Therapy Revealed By Shotgun and Parallel Reaction Monitoring Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ting; Liu, Ping; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Kun; Yang, Li; Moritz, Robert L; Yan, Wei; Xu, Lisa X

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-thermal therapy has been emerged as a promising novel therapeutic strategy for advanced breast cancer, triggering higher incidence of tumor regression and enhanced remission of metastasis than routine treatments. To better understand its anti-tumor mechanism, we utilized a spontaneous metastatic mouse model and quantitative proteomics to compare N-glycoproteome changes in 94 serum samples with and without treatment. We quantified 231 highly confident N-glycosylated proteins using iTRAQ shotgun proteomics. Among them, 53 showed significantly discriminated regulatory patterns over the time course, in which the acute phase response emerged as the most enhanced pathway. The anti-tumor feature of the acute response was further investigated using parallel reaction monitoring target proteomics and flow cytometry on 23 of the 53 significant proteins. We found that cryo-thermal therapy reset the tumor chronic inflammation to an "acute" phenotype, with up-regulation of acute phase proteins including IL-6 as a key regulator. The IL-6 mediated "acute" phenotype transformed IL-4 and Treg-promoting ICOSL expression to Th1-promoting IFN-γ and IL-12 production, augmented complement system activation and CD86(+)MHCII(+) dendritic cells maturation and enhanced the proliferation of Th1 memory cells. In addition, we found an increased production of tumor progression and metastatic inhibitory proteins under such "acute" environment, favoring the anti-metastatic effect. Moreover, cryo-thermal on tumors induced the strongest "acute" response compared to cryo/hyperthermia alone or cryo-thermal on healthy tissues, accompanying by the most pronounced anti-tumor immunological effect. In summary, we demonstrated that cryo-thermal therapy induced, IL-6 mediated "acute" microenvironment shifted the tumor chronic microenvironment from Th2 immunosuppressive and pro-tumorigenic to Th1 immunostimulatory and tumoricidal state. Moreover, the magnitude of "acute" and "danger" signals play a key

  9. Magma extrusion during the Ubinas 2013–2014 eruptive crisis based on satellite thermal imaging (MIROVA) and ground-based monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Diego; Macedo, Orlando; Ramos, Domingo; Finizola, Anthony; Delle Donne, Dario; del Carpio, Jose; White, Randall A.; McCausland, Wendy; Centeno, Riky; Rivera, Marco; Apaza, Fredy; Ccallata, Beto; Chilo, Wilmer; Cigolini, Corrado; Laiolo, Marco; Lazarte, Ivonne; Machaca, Roger; Masias, Pablo; Ortega, Mayra; Puma, Nino; Taipe, Edú

    2015-01-01

    After 3 years of mild gases emissions, the Ubinas volcano entered in a new eruptive phase on September 2nd, 2013. The MIROVA system (a space-based volcanic hot-spot detection system), allowed us to detect in near real time the thermal emissions associated with the eruption and provided early evidence of magma extrusion within the deep summit crater. By combining IR data with plume height, sulfur emissions, hot spring temperatures and seismic activity, we interpret the thermal output detected over Ubinas in terms of extrusion rates associated to the eruption. We suggest that the 2013–2014 eruptive crisis can be subdivided into three main phases: (i) shallow magma intrusion inside the edifice, (ii) extrusion and growing of a lava plug at the bottom of the summit crater coupled with increasing explosive activity and finally, (iii) disruption of the lava plug and gradual decline of the explosive activity. The occurrence of the 8.2 Mw Iquique (Chile) earthquake (365 km away from Ubinas) on April 1st, 2014, may have perturbed most of the analyzed parameters, suggesting a prompt interaction with the ongoing volcanic activity. In particular, the analysis of thermal and seismic datasets shows that the earthquake may have promoted the most intense thermal and explosive phase that culminated in a major explosion on April 19th, 2014.These results reveal the efficiency of space-based thermal observations in detecting the extrusion of hot magma within deep volcanic craters and in tracking its evolution. We emphasize that, in combination with other geophysical and geochemical datasets, MIROVA is an essential tool for monitoring remote volcanoes with rather difficult accessibility, like those of the Andes that reach remarkably high altitudes.

  10. Airborne thermal imaging for the leakage monitoring and state estimation in Dresden. Leak location and leak monitoring; Luftgestuetzte Thermografie zur Leckueberwachung und Zustandsermittlung in Dresden. Leckortung und -ueberwachung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doehnert, Frank [Drewag Netz GmbH, Dresden (Germany). Anlagenmanagement Rohrnetze; Krickau, Hans-Joerg [Scandat Gesellschaft fuer Fernerkundungstechnologien mbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    In the spring of 2012, Drewag Netz GmbH (Dresden, Federal Republic of Germany) engaged Scandad GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) to map the complete district heating grid of Dresden by means of airborne thermal imaging. The recommendation came from district heating operators already having applied this technology successfully. The scope of this technology is to get information on leaks in district heating grids as well as supplementary information on the state of the total district heating grid. These information are directly included in the strategy of maintenance for the next twenty years.

  11. An In-Core Power Deposition and Fuel Thermal Environmental Monitor for Long-Lived Reactor Cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don W. Miller

    2004-09-28

    The primary objective of this program is to develop the Constant Temperature Power Sensor (CTPS) as in-core instrumentation that will provide a detailed map of local nuclear power deposition and coolant thermal-hydraulic conditions during the entire life of the core.

  12. Is it possible to create a thermal model of warm-up? Monitoring of the training process in athletic decathlon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Jakub Grzegorz; Olszewska, Magdalena; Boguszewski, Dariusz; Białoszewski, Dariusz; Reaburn, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to define if the athletes may vary their warm-up according to the specific demands of event they are preparing for and that higher-level athletes may differ in their thermal responses than lower-level athletes. Ten top level Polish male decathletes (19.9 ± 3.0 yr, 187.9 ± 4.7 cm, 82.7 ± 6.7 kg) who participated in the study were examined with a thermographic camera. Thermal imaging of each athlete was undertaken three times: at rest before the warm-up began, immediately after the general warm-up, and immediately after the specific warm-up. As significant changes in skin surface temperatures were observed between rest and both general and specific warm-ups (p body surface temperature within the decathletes as a cohort. Interestingly, correlation was found between decathlon result measured by points and decrease of temperatures after commencing the general or specific warm-up exercises (r = 0.62; p imaging can be useful observe thermoregulatory responses. Due to these observed individual thermal reactions to the physical effort of warm-up, the present findings suggest it is possible to individually adapt the warm-up to the needs of both the event being prepared for and the level of athlete.

  13. Thermal performance monitoring side of NPP ASCO (BOP); Monitorizacion del rendimiento termico del secundario de C. N. Asco (BOP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, S.

    2013-07-01

    Monitoring of the BOP's main objectives are the improvement of the reliability and safety, maximize the electric power generated by the floor, minimizing the heat rejected to the environment, measures of improvement or correction, as well as feedback to the maintenance schedule preventive.

  14. Real-time monitoring of radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors using thermal-dose calculation by MR temperature imaging: initial results in nine patients, including follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit-Coiffe, Matthieu; Quesson, Bruno; Moonen, Chrit T.W. [Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Laumonier, Herve; Trillaud, Herve [Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Service de Radiologie, Hopital Saint-Andre, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Seror, Olivier [Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Service de Radiologie, Hopital Jean Verdier, Bondy (France); Sesay, Musa-Bahazid [Service d' Anesthesie Reanimation III, Hopital Pellegrin, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Grenier, Nicolas [Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Service d' Imagerie Diagnostique et Therapeutique de l' Adulte, Hopital Pellegrin, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France)

    2010-01-15

    To assess the practical feasibility and effectiveness of real-time magnetic resonance (MR) temperature monitoring for the radiofrequency (RF) ablation of liver tumours in a clinical setting, nine patients (aged 49-87 years, five men and four women) with one malignant tumour (14-50 mm, eight hepatocellular carcinomas and one colorectal metastasis), were treated by 12-min RF ablation using a 1.5-T closed magnet for real-time temperature monitoring. The clinical monopolar RF device was filtered at 64 MHz to avoid electromagnetic interference. Real-time computation of thermal-dose (TD) maps, based on Sapareto and Dewey's equation, was studied to determine its ability to provide a clear end-point of the RF procedure. Absence of local recurrence on follow-up MR images obtained 45 days after the RF ablation was used to assess the apoptotic and necrotic prediction obtained by real-time TD maps. Seven out of nine tumours were completely ablated according to the real-time TD maps. Compared with 45-day follow-up MR images, TD maps accurately predicted two primary treatment failures, but were not relevant in the later progression of one case of secondary local tumour. The real-time TD concept is a feasible and promising monitoring method for the RF ablation of liver tumours. (orig.)

  15. THERMAL CONDUCTANCE IN AQUATIC BIRDS IN RELATION TO THE DEGREE OF WATER CONTACT, BODY-MASS, AND BODY-FAT - ENERGETIC IMPLICATIONS OF LIVING IN A STRONG COOLING ENVIRONMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, J; VANEERDEN, MR

    1995-01-01

    Thermal conductance of carcasses of 14 aquatic bird species was determined by the warming constant technique. The effect on thermal conductance of body mass, age sex, fat deposits, and the degree of contact with water were studied. Only body mass and the degree of submergence in water had an effect.

  16. Nd{sup 3+} doped LaF{sub 3} nanoparticles as self-monitored photo-thermal agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Uéslen; Upendra Kumar, K.; Jacinto, Carlos [Grupo de Fotônica e Fluidos Complexos, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió, Alagoas (Brazil); Ramiro, Julio; Caamaño, Antonio J. [Department of Signal Theory and Communication, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid 28943 (Spain); García Solé, José; Jaque, Daniel [Fluorescence Imaging Group, Departamento de Física de Materiales C-04, Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-02-03

    In this work, we demonstrate how LaF{sub 3} nanoparticles activated with large concentrations (up to 25%) of Nd{sup 3+} ions can simultaneously operate as biologically compatible efficient nanoheaters and fluorescent nanothermometers under single beam (808 nm) infrared laser excitation. Nd{sup 3+}:LaF{sub 3} nanoparticles emerge as unique multifunctional agents that could constitute the first step towards the future development of advanced platforms capable of simultaneous deep tissue fluorescence bio-imaging and controlled photo-thermal therapies.

  17. Real-time monitoring of initial thermal oxidation on Si(001) surfaces by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshigoe, A; Teraoka, Y

    2003-01-01

    The thermal oxidation of Si(001) surfaces at 860 K, 895 K, 945 K and 1000 K under the O sub 2 pressure of 1 x 10 sup - sup 4 Pa has been investigated by time-resolved photoemission measurements with synchrotron radiation. Based on time evolution analyses by reaction kinetics models, it was found that the oxidation at 860 K, 895 K and 945 K has progressed with the Langmuir adsorption type, whereas the oxidation at 1000 K has showed the character of the two-dimensional island growth involving SiO desorption. The oxidation rates increases with increasing surface temperature in the passive oxidation condition. The time evolution of each Si oxidation state (Si sup n sup + : n = 1, 2, 3, 4) derived from the Si-2p core-level shifts has also been analyzed. The results revealed that the thermal energy contribution to the migration process of the adsorbed oxygen and the emission of the bulk silicon atoms. Thus, the fraction of the Si sup 4 sup + bonding state, i.e. SiO sub 2 structure, was increased. (author)

  18. Adaptive management, monitoring, and the ecological sustainability of a thermal-polluted water ecosystem: a case in SW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado Contador, J F

    2005-05-01

    The construction of the Almaraz nuclear power plant in Spain in the 1970s posed interesting environmental problems concerning the construction of a cooling reservoir (Arrocampo reservoir) to cool the steam condensers and the consequent heating of the reservoir's water. The socio-political context forced decision makers to set up a project for the monitoring and management of the environmental impacts derived from the construction and operation of the power plant. Numerous scientific and technical specialists collaborated with the representatives of social groups towards two goals: the improvement of the biodiversity and of the efficiency of the cooling system. These goals involved the monitoring and managing of the system with respect to different biological aspects, mainly limnology, ichthyology, avian fauna and vegetation. The management plan yielded numerous results. The control of the water eutrophy is one of the most important due to its repercussion on the rest of the ecosystem, especially the fish fauna. The development of the shore vegetation slowly increased the patchwork nature of the reservoir, leading to a greater diversity of the avian species. This paper describes the monitoring and management of the Arrocampo ecosystem, the condition before and after the construction of the reservoir and the results obtained concerning some biological communities.

  19. Monitoring Heat Losses Using Landsat ETM + Thermal Infrared Data: a Case Study in Unzen Geothermal Field, Kyushu, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mia, Md. Bodruddoza; Bromley, Chris J.; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro

    2013-12-01

    The Unzen geothermal field, our study area, is situated in the Shimabara Peninsula of Kyushu Island in Japan and is an area of active fumaroles.. Our prime objectives were (1) to estimate radiative heat flux (RHF), (2) to calculate approximately the heat discharge rate (HDR) using the relationship of RHF with the total heat loss derived from two geothermal field studies, and (3) finally, to monitor RHF as well as HDR in our study area using seven sets of Landsat 7 ETM + images from 2000 to 2009. We used the normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) method for spectral emissivity estimation, the mono-window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST), and the Stefan-Boltzmann equation analyzing those satellite TIR images for RHF. We estimated that the maximum RHF was about 251 W/m2 in 2005 and minimum was about 27 W/m2 in 2001. The highest total RHF was about 39.1 MW in 2005 and lowest was about 12 MW in 2001 in our study region. We discovered that the estimated RHF was about 15.7 % of HDR from our studies. We applied this percentage to estimate HDR in Unzen geothermal area. The monitoring results showed a single fold trend of HDR from 2000 to 2009 with highest about 252 MW in 2005 and lowest about 78 MW in 2001. In conclusion, TIR remote sensing is thought as the best option for monitoring heat losses from fumaroles with high efficiency and low cost.

  20. Holographic thermalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramanian, V.; Bernamonti, A.; de Boer, J.; Copland, N.; Craps, B.; Keski-Vakkuri, E.; Müller, B.; Schäfer, A.; Shigemori, M.; Staessens, W.

    2011-01-01

    Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we probe the scale-dependence of thermalization in strongly coupled field theories following a quench, via calculations of two-point functions, Wilson loops and entanglement entropy in d=2,3,4. In the saddlepoint approximation these probes are computed in AdS space

  1. Mitochondrial DNA Fragmentation as a Molecular Tool to Monitor Thermal Processing of Plant-Derived, Low-Acid Foods, and Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jane M; Pérez-Díaz, Ilenys M; Sandeep, K P; Simunovic, Josip; Harris, Keith; Osborne, Jason A; Hassan, Hosni M

    2015-08-01

    Cycle threshold (Ct) increase, quantifying plant-derived DNA fragmentation, was evaluated for its utility as a time-temperature integrator. This novel approach to monitoring thermal processing of fresh, plant-based foods represents a paradigm shift. Instead of using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to detect pathogens, identify adulterants, or authenticate ingredients, this rapid technique was used to quantify the fragmentation of an intrinsic plant mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene over time-temperature treatments. Universal primers were developed which amplified a mitochondrial gene common to plants (atp1). These consensus primers produced a robust qPCR signal in 10 vegetables, 6 fruits, 3 types of nuts, and a biofuel precursor. Using sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) puree as a model low-acid product and simple linear regression, Ct value was highly correlated to time-temperature treatment (R(2) = 0.87); the logarithmic reduction (log CFU/mL) of the spore-forming Clostridium botulinum surrogate, Geobacillus stearothermophilus (R(2) = 0.87); and cumulative F-value (min) in a canned retort process (R(2) = 0.88), all comparisons conducted at 121 °C. D121 and z-values were determined for G. stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 and were 2.71 min and 11.0 °C, respectively. D121 and z-values for a 174-bp universal plant amplicon were 11.3 min and 9.17 °C, respectively, for mtDNA from sweet potato puree. We present these data as proof-of-concept for a molecular tool that can be used as a rapid, presumptive method for monitoring thermal processing in low-acid plant products. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Monitoring thermally induced structural deformation and framework decomposition of ZIF-8 through in situ temperature dependent measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ben; Mei, Yingjie; Xiao, Zhenyu; Kang, Zixi; Wang, Rongming; Sun, Daofeng

    2017-10-18

    ZIF-8 is an easily synthesized porous material which is widely applied in gas storage/separation, catalysis, and nanoarchitecture fabrication. Thermally induced atomic displacements and the resultant framework deformation/collapse significantly influence the application of ZIF-8, and therefore, in situ temperature dependent FTIR spectroscopy was utilized to study the framework changes during heating in the oxidative environment. The results suggest that ZIF-8 undergoes three transition stages, which are the lattice expansion stage below 200 °C, the "reversible" structural deformation stage from 200 to 350 °C, and the decomposition/collapse stage over 350 °C. Our research indicates that the Zn-N bond breaks at a temperature of 350 °C in the oxidant environment, leading to a drastic deformation of the ZIF-8 structure.

  3. Molecular Beam-Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (MB-TDS) Monitoring of Hydrogen Desorbed from Storage Fuel Cell Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Rui F M; Santos, Diogo M F; Sequeira, Cesar A C; Ribeiro, Jorge H F

    2012-02-06

    Different types of experimental studies are performed using the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA) MlNi3.6Co0.85Al0.3Mn0.3 (Ml: La-rich mischmetal), chemically surface treated, as the anode active material for application in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The recently developed molecular beam-thermal desorption spectrometry (MB-TDS) technique is here reported for detecting the electrochemical hydrogen uptake and release by the treated HSA. The MB-TDS allows an accurate determination of the hydrogen mass absorbed into the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA), and has significant advantages in comparison with the conventional TDS method. Experimental data has revealed that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) using such chemically treated alloy presents an enhanced surface capability for hydrogen adsorption.

  4. Molecular Beam-Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (MB-TDS Monitoring of Hydrogen Desorbed from Storage Fuel Cell Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge H. F. Ribeiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Different types of experimental studies are performed using the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA MlNi3.6Co0.85Al0.3Mn0.3 (Ml: La-rich mischmetal, chemically surface treated, as the anode active material for application in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. The recently developed molecular beam—thermal desorption spectrometry (MB-TDS technique is here reported for detecting the electrochemical hydrogen uptake and release by the treated HSA. The MB-TDS allows an accurate determination of the hydrogen mass absorbed into the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA, and has significant advantages in comparison with the conventional TDS method. Experimental data has revealed that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA using such chemically treated alloy presents an enhanced surface capability for hydrogen adsorption.

  5. Molecular Beam-Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (MB-TDS) Monitoring of Hydrogen Desorbed from Storage Fuel Cell Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Rui F. M.; Santos, Diogo M. F.; Sequeira, Cesar A. C.; Ribeiro, Jorge H. F.

    2012-01-01

    Different types of experimental studies are performed using the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA) MlNi3.6Co0.85Al0.3Mn0.3 (Ml: La-rich mischmetal), chemically surface treated, as the anode active material for application in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The recently developed molecular beam—thermal desorption spectrometry (MB-TDS) technique is here reported for detecting the electrochemical hydrogen uptake and release by the treated HSA. The MB-TDS allows an accurate determination of the hydrogen mass absorbed into the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA), and has significant advantages in comparison with the conventional TDS method. Experimental data has revealed that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) using such chemically treated alloy presents an enhanced surface capability for hydrogen adsorption. PMID:28817043

  6. Development of elements of the condition monitoring system of turbo generators of thermal power stations and nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumenko, A. I.; Kostyukov, V. N.; Kuz'minykh, N. Yu.; Boichenko, S. N.; Timin, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    The rationale is given for the improvement of the regulatory framework for the use of shaft sensors for the in-service condition monitoring of turbo generators and the development of control systems of shaft surfacing and misalignments of supports. A modern concept and a set of methods are proposed for the condition monitoring of the "shaft line-thrust bearing oil film-turbo generator supports" system elements based on the domestic COMPACS® technology. The system raw data are design, technology, installation, and operating parameters of the turbo generator as well as measured parameters of the absolute vibration of supports and mechanical quantities, relative displacements and relative vibration of the rotor teeth in accordance with GOST R 55263-2012. The precalculated shaft line assembly line in the cold state, the nominal parameters of rotor teeth positions on the dynamic equilibrium curve, the static and dynamic characteristics of the oil film of thrust bearings, and the shaft line stiffness matrix of unit support displacements have been introduced into the system. Using the COMPACS-T system, it is planned to measure positions and oscillations of rotor teeth, to count corresponding static and dynamic characteristics of the oil film, and the static and dynamic loads in the supports in real time. Using the obtained data, the system must determine the misalignments of supports and corrective alignments of rotors of coupling halves, voltages in rotor teeth, welds, and bolts of the coupling halves, and provide automatic conclusion if condition monitoring parameters correspond to standard values. A part of the methodological support for the proposed system is presented, including methods for determining static reactions of supports under load, the method for determining shaft line stiffness matrices, and the method for solving the inverse problem, i.e., the determination of the misalignments of the supports by measurements of rotor teeth relative positions in bearing

  7. Using airborne hyperspectral scanner to monitoring the oceanic thermal plume produced by the surface discharge of the cooling water from Angra dos Reis nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio S. C. Esposito

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first results obtained using a hyperspectral scanner system (HSS and field measurements of the sea surface temperature to map a heated liquid effluent jet (plume produced by the surface discharge of the cooling water from two nuclear power plants into a rather closed bay in southeastern Brazil. The adopted methodology is based on the flight and imaging of study area using the HSS sensor, collecting temperature data from the sea surface and acquiring the imagery at the same time and finally, the statistical analysis of data collected in the field and those ones from the imageries. At this phase, beyond the identification of the best suited IVT channel for the characterization of temperature variations of the thermal plume, coefficients were also generated to create an image of this channel with corrected temperature values for the effects caused by atmosphere acting in data collected by the sensor. Results obtained show that this sensor and the used metodology of data acquisition and processing are well suitable for the study and the monitoring of local thermal plumes. The absolute temperature values from the sea surface obtained from the images after the use of coefficients obtained from statistical analysis agree in average with the measured values from the field with an uncertainty of 0,8oC.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and molecular weight monitoring of a novel Schiff base polymer containing phenol group: Thermal stability, conductivity and antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz Baran, Nuray; Saçak, Mehmet

    2017-10-01

    A novel Schiff base polymer containing phenol group, Poly(3-[[4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene]amino]phenol) P(3-DBAP), was prepared by oxidative polycondensation reaction of 3-[[4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene]amino]phenol (3-DBAP) using NaOCl, H2O2, O2 oxidants in aqueous alkaline medium. Yield and molecular weight distribution of P(3-DBAP) were monitored depending on oxidant types and concentration, monomer concentration and as well as polymerization temperature and time. UV-Vis, FTIR and 1HNMR techniques were used to identify the structures of Schiff base monomer and polymer. Thermal behavior of P(3-DBAP), which was determined to be thermally stable up to 1200 °C via TG-DTG techniques, was illuminated by Thermo-IR spectra recorded in the temperature range of 25-800 °C. It was determined that the electrical conductivity value of the P(3-DBAP) increased 108 fold after doped with iodine for 24 h at 60 °C according to undoped form and it was measured 4.6 × 10-4 S/cm. Also, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the monomer and polymer were assayed against Sarcina lutea, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus Feacalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis bacteria, and Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi.

  9. The effect of thermal processing on the behaviour of peanut allergen peptide targets used in multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, R L; Johnson, P E; Marsh, J T; Barran, P; Brown, H; Mills, E N C

    2016-06-20

    Mass spectrometry-based methods offer an alternative means of determining allergens in foods. Whilst targeted methods are likely to offer the most robust approach for detection and quantification, little is known about how food processing may affect the behaviour of peptide targets. A systematic study has been undertaken to investigate the effects of thermal processing (boiling, roasting, frying) on the behaviour of a suite of peanut peptide targets representing the major clinically-relevant allergens. Initially the effect of thermal processing on protein extractability was investigated and a mass spectrometry-compatible buffer identified comprising 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.8 containing 50 mM dithiothreitol and 0.04% (w/v) acid labile detergent which was able to extract 45-100% of protein from raw, boiled, roasted and fried peanuts using sonication at 60 °C. Eight peptide targets were identified including two peptides from each cupin allergen, Ara h1 and Ara h3 and four peptides from the prolamin superfamily allergens Ara h2, 6 and 7. AQUA peptide standards were synthesised and used to undertake multiple-reaction monitoring experiments, giving assay sensitivities of 0.1-30 amoles of peptide on-column (3 : 1 signal : noise), calculated limits of quantification between 96-1343 amoles of peptide on-column and a linear dynamic range of 4-5 orders of magnitude. Absolute quantification of individual peanut allergens in thermally processed samples showed that peptide targets in the cupin allergens were more prone to processing-induced effects than those from Ara h2, 6 and 7. Targets flanked by arginine residues showed greater thermostability. Identification of processing-stable targets, coupled with more efficient extraction procedures and a wide dynamic range, shows that targeted mass spectrometry methods have great potential as an additional method for quantifying peanut allergens in complex food matrices.

  10. Potential of the future thermal infrared space-borne sensor IASI-NG to monitor lower tropospheric ozone

    OpenAIRE

    P. Sellitto; Dufour, G.; M. Eremenko; Cuesta, J.; P. Dauphin; G. Forêt; Gaubert, B.; Beekmann, M.; V.-H. Peuch; J.-M. Flaud

    2012-01-01

    The lower tropospheric (LT) ozone concentration is a key factor for air quality (AQ). Observing efficiently LT ozone from space is crucial to monitor and better understand pollution phenomena occurring from inter-continental to local scales, and that have a proven noxious effect on the human health and the biosphere. The Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI) flies on MetOp-A spacecraft and is planned to be launched in the next future as part of the other MetOp modules, i.e...

  11. Monitoring the formation of carbide crystal phases during the thermal decomposition of 3d transition metal dicarboxylate complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huba, ZJ; Carpenter, EE

    2014-06-06

    Single molecule precursors can help to simplify the synthesis of complex alloys by minimizing the amount of necessary starting reagents. However, single molecule precursors are time consuming to prepare with very few being commercially available. In this study, a simple precipitation method is used to prepare Fe, Co, and Ni fumarate and succinate complexes. These complexes were then thermally decomposed in an inert atmosphere to test their efficiency as single molecule precursors for the formation of metal carbide phases. Elevated temperature X-ray diffraction was used to identify the crystal phases produced upon decomposition of the metal dicarboxylate complexes. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with an infrared detector was used to identify the developed gaseous decomposition products. All complexes tested showed a reduction from the starting M2+ oxidation state to the M oxidation state, upon decomposition. Also, each complex tested showed CO2 and H2O as gaseous decomposition products. Nickel succinate, iron succinate, and iron fumarate complexes were found to form carbide phases upon decomposition. This proves that transition metal dicarboxylate salts can be employed as efficient single molecule precursors for the formation of metal carbide crystal phases.

  12. Requirements and Implementation Feasibility for a CubeSat Thermal Infrared Imaging System to Monitor the Structure of Volcanic Ash Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, D.; Carroll, R.; Webley, P.; Hawkins, J.

    2014-12-01

    The 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland caused the cancellation of approximately 108,000 flights over an 8-day period, disrupted air traffic worldwide, and cost the airline industry more than $400 million per day. The inconvenience and economic impact of this and similar events, such as Puyehue-Cordon-Caulle in 2011, have heightened the interest in developing improved satellite remote sensing techniques for monitoring volcanic plumes and drifting clouds. For aviation safety, the operational/research community has started to move towards classifying the concentrations within volcanic plumes and clouds. Additionally, volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models are often used for forecasting ash cloud locations and they require knowledge of the structure of the erupting column to improve their ash simulations and also downwind 3-D maps of the ash cloud to calibrate/validate their modeling output. Existing remote sensing satellites utilize a brightness temperature method with thermal infrared (TIR) measurements from 10 - 12 μm to determine mass loading of volcanic ash along a single line of sight, but they have infrequent revisit times and they cannot resolve the three-dimensional structure of the ash clouds. A cluster of CubeSats dedicated to the monitoring of volcanic ash and plumes could provide both more frequent updates and the multi-aspect images needed to resolve the density structure of volcanic ash clouds and plumes. In this presentation, we discuss the feasibility and requirements for a CubeSat TIR imaging system and the associated on-board image processing that would be required to monitor the structure of volcanic ash clouds from Low Earth Orbit.

  13. <strong>PRAYER INDUCED ANALGESIAstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt

    , 40 healthy subjects (20 highly religious protestants and 20 non-religious men and women) received painful electrical stimulation during prayer to God, ‘secular prayer’ and a ‘pain only’ condition. Subjects were continuously monitored with a Task Force Monitor (heart rate variability, blood pressure......, respiration, cardiac baroreceptor sensitivity) and a Biopack system (skin conductance) to assess the correlation between the subjective ratings of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness on mechanical visual analogy scales (M-VAS) and the autonomic, physiological response to pain. Furthermore, psychological......This study is an ongoing study. The data analyses will be completed for presentation at the meeting in August. AIM: The aim of our study was to investigate whether personal prayer to God reduces pain more than a ‘secular prayer’ and a ‘pain only’ condition. We hypothesised that for religious...

  14. Monitoring Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coatings During Interrupted High-Heat-Flux Laser Testing using Luminescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation showed progress made in extending luminescence-base delamination monitoring to TBCs exposed to high heat fluxes, which is an environment that much better simulates actual turbine engine conditions. This was done by performing upconversion luminescence imaging during interruptions in laser testing, where a high-power CO2 laser was employed to create the desired heat flux. Upconverison luminescence refers to luminescence where the emission is at a higher energy (shorter wavelength) than the excitation. Since there will be negligible background emission at higher energies than the excitation, this methods produces superb contrast. Delamination contrast is produced because both the excitation and emission wavelengths are reflected at delamination cracks so that substantially higher luminescence intensity is observed in regions containing delamination cracks. Erbium was selected as the dopant for luminescence specifically because it exhibits upconversion luminescence. The high power CO2 10.6 micron wavelength laser facility at NASA GRC was used to produce the heat flux in combination with forced air backside cooling. Testing was performed at a lower (95 W/sq cm) and higher (125 W/sq cm) heat flux as well as furnace cycling at 1163C for comparison. The lower heat flux showed the same general behavior as furnace cycling, a gradual, "spotty" increase in luminescence associated with debond progression; however, a significant difference was a pronounced incubation period followed by acceleration delamination progression. These results indicate that extrapolating behavior from furnace cycling measurements will grossly overestimate remaining life under high heat flux conditions. The higher heat flux results were not only accelerated, but much different in character. Extreme bond coat rumpling occurred, and delamination propagation extended over much larger areas before precipitating macroscopic TBC failure. This indicates that under the higher heat flux (and

  15. Long-term energy balance and vegetation water stress monitoring of Mediterranean oak savanna using satellite thermal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Dugo, Maria P.; Chen, Xuelong; Andreu, Ana; Carpintero, Elisabet; Gómez-Giraldez, Pedro; Su, Z.(Bob)

    2017-04-01

    Drought is one of the major hazards faced by natural and cropped vegetation in the Mediterranean Sea Basin. Water scarcity is likely to be worsened under the predicted conditions of climate change, which is expected to make this region both warmer and drier. A Holm oak savanna, known as dehesa in Spain and montado in Portugal, is an agro-silvo-pastoral system occupying more than 3 million hectares the Iberian Peninsula and Greece. It consists of widely-spaced oak trees (mostly Quercus ilex L.), combined with crops, pasture and Mediterranean shrubs. This ecosystem is considered an example of sustainable land use, supporting a large number of species and diversity of habitats and for its importance in rural economy. A similar ecosystem is worldwide distributed in areas with Mediterranean climate (as California or South Africa) and shares structural and functional properties with tropical savannas in Africa, Australia and South America. Remote sensing time series can assist the monitoring of the energy balance components, with special attention to the evapotranspiration and vegetation water stress over these areas. Long-term data analysis may improve our understanding of the functioning of the system, helping to assess drought impacts and leading to reduce the economic and environmental vulnerability of this ecosystem. This work analyzes the evolution the surface energy balance components, mapping the evapotranspiration and moisture stress of holm oak woodlands of Spain and Portugal during the last 15 years (2001-2015). The surface energy balance model (SEBS) has been applied over the Iberian Peninsula on a monthly time scale and 0.05° spatial resolution, using multi-satellite and meteorological forcing data. Modelled energy and water fluxes have been validated using ground measurements of two eddy covariance towers located in oak savanna sites during 3 years, resulting in moderate deviations from observations (10-25 W/m2). The departure of actual ET from the

  16. Strong moderate deviation theorems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inglot, Tadeusz; Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Ledwina, Teresa

    1992-01-01

    Strong moderate deviation theorems are concerned with relative errors in the tails caused by replacing the exact distribution function by its limiting distribution function. A new approach for deriving such theorems is presented using strong approximation inequalities. In this way a strong moderate

  17. Estimation and monitoring heat discharge rates using Landsat ETM+ thermal infrared data: a case study in Unzen geothermal field, Kyushu, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mia, Md. B.; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro; Bromely, Chris J.

    2012-10-01

    The Unzen geothermal field, our study area is active fumaroles, situated in Shimabara Peninsula of Kyushu Island in Japan. Our prime objectives were (1) to estimate radiative heat flux (RHF), (2) to calculate approximately heat discharge rate (HDR) using the relationship of radiative heat flux with the total heat loss derived from two geothermal field studies and (3) finally, to monitor RHF as well as HDR in our study area using seven sets of Landsat 7 ETM+ images from 2000 to 2009. We used the NDVI (Normalized differential vegetation index) method for spectral emissivity estimation, the mono-window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) and the Stefan-Boltzmann equation analyzing those satellite TIR images for RHF. We obtained a desired strong correlation of LST above ambient with RHF using random samples. We estimated that the maximum RHF was about 251 W/m2 in 2005 and minimum was about 27 W/m2 in 2001. The highest total RHF was about 39.1 MW in 2005 and lowest was about 12 MW in 2001 in our study region. We discovered that the estimated RHF was about 15.7 % of HDR from our studies. We applied this percentage to estimate heat discharge rate in Unzen geothermal area. The monitoring results showed a single fold trend of HDR from 2000 to 2009 with highest about 252 MW in 2005 and lowest about 78 MW in 2001. In conclusion, TIR remote sensing is thought as the best option for monitoring heat losses from fumaroles with high efficiency and low cost.

  18. Metal temperature monitoring in corrosive gases at high temperature and high thermal flows; Monitoreo de temperaturas de metal en gases corrosivos a alta temperatura y altos flujos termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta Espino, Mario; Martinez Flores, Marco Antonio; Martinez Villafane, Alberto; Porcayo Calderon, Jesus; Gomez Guzman, Roberto; Reyes Cervantes, Fernando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    The direct measurement of metal temperatures during operation in superheater, reheater, and water wall tubes in zones exposed to high thermal flows is of great interest for the operation and analysis of the correct functioning of a steam generator. The operation temperature measurement of these zones differs very much of the monitored temperature in headers in the dead chamber, since the temperature measured in this zone is the steam temperature that does not reflect the one detected in the gas zone. For this reason, the thermocouples implant in gas zones will detect the real metal temperature and the incidence that some operation variables might have on it (Martinez et al., (1990). [Espanol] La medicion directa de temperaturas de metal durante operacion en tubos de sobrecalentador, recalentador y pared de agua en zonas expuestas a altos flujos termicos es de gran interes para la operacion y analisis del buen funcionamiento de un generador de vapor. La medicion de la temperatura de operacion de estas zonas, difiere mucho de la temperatura monitoreada en cabezales en zona de camara muerta, ya que la temperatura registrada en esta zona es la de vapor que no es un reflejo de la detectada en zona de gases. Por esta razon, la implantacion de termopares en zona de gases detectara la temperatura de metal real y la incidencia que algunas variables de operacion tengan sobre esta (Martinez et al., 1990).

  19. Editorial : Optimal Satellite Sensor Selection Utilized to Monitor the Impact of Urban Sprawl on the Thermal Environment in Doha City, Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Al Kuwari, NY; Ahmed, S; Kaiser, MF

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the most appropriate Landsat and ASTER Image spatial and spectral resolutions were selected to extract thermal infrared data in Doha City, Qatar from 1990-2015. Results indicated Urban Heat Island(UHI) calculated from Landsat sensor data was more consistent with ground truthed temperatures. Landsat TM thermal infrared data with low spatial resolution (60-120 m) was more appropriate for large-scale thermal studies, but was not suitable to assess complex urban thermal e...

  20. High speed imaging, lightning mapping arrays and thermal imaging: a synergy for the monitoring of electrical discharges at the onset of volcanic explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Damien; Cimarelli, Corrado; Behnke, Sonja; Cigala, Valeria; Edens, Harald; McNutt, Stefen; Smith, Cassandra; Thomas, Ronald; Van Eaton, Alexa

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic lightning is being increasingly studied, due to its great potential for the detection and monitoring of ash plumes. Indeed, it is observed in a large number of ash-rich volcanic eruptions and it produces electromagnetic waves that can be detected remotely in all weather conditions. Electrical discharges in volcanic plume can also significantly change the structural, chemical and reactivity properties of the erupted material. Although electrical discharges are detected in various regions of the plume, those happening at the onset of an explosion are of particular relevance for the early warning and the study of volcanic jet dynamics. In order to better constrain the electrical activity of young volcanic plumes, we deployed at Sakurajima (Japan) in 2015 a multiparametric set-up including: i) a lightning mapping array (LMA) of 10 VHF antennas recording the electromagnetic waves produced by lightning at a sample rate of 25 Msps; ii) a visible-light high speed camera (5000 frames per second, 0.5 m pixel size, 300 m field of view) shooting short movies (approx. duration 1 s) at different stages of the plume evolution, showing the location of discharges in relation to the plume; and iii) a thermal camera (25 fps, 1.5 m pixel size, 800 m field of view) continuously recording the plume and allowing the estimation of its main source parameters (volume, rise velocity, mass eruption rate). The complementarity of these three setups is demonstrated by comparing and aggregating the data at various stages of the plume development. In the earliest stages, the high speed camera spots discrete small discharges, that appear on the LMA data as peaks superimposed to the continuous radio frequency (CRF) signal. At later stages, flashes happen less frequently and increase in length. The correspondence between high speed camera and LMA data allows to define a direct correlation between the length of the flash and the intensity of the electromagnetic signal. Such correlation is

  1. Search for stable energy levels in materials exhibiting strong anomalous fading: The case of apatites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polymeris, George S., E-mail: polymers@auth.gr [Laboratory of Radiation Applications and Archaeological Dating, Department of Archaeometry and Physicochemical Measurements, ‘Athena’—Research and Innovation Center in Information, Communication and Knowledge Technologies, Kimmeria University Campus, GR-67100 Xanthi (Greece); Solid State Physics Section, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Giannoulatou, Valeria; Sfampa, Ioanna K. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Tsirliganis, Nestor C. [Laboratory of Radiation Applications and Archaeological Dating, Department of Archaeometry and Physicochemical Measurements, ‘Athena’—Research and Innovation Center in Information, Communication and Knowledge Technologies, Kimmeria University Campus, GR-67100 Xanthi (Greece); Kitis, George [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2014-09-15

    The thermally assisted OSL signal resulting from very deep traps was studied in the case of three fluorapatite samples, one chlorapatite as well as one collophanite cryptocrystalline carbonite phosphorite sample of various origins. Intense thermally assisted OSL signal was monitored while stimulating at 200 °C in all samples subjected to the present study, indicating the prevalence of the existence of these very deep traps. Anomalous fading effect is ubiquitous for all TL and OSL signals of all apatite samples subjected to the present study. The anomalous fading of the thermally assisted OSL signal arising from very deep traps is strongly differentiated from the anomalous fading of electron trap excited at temperatures below 500 °C. The thermally assisted OSL signal arising from very deep traps was found to clearly be more stable, showing much less anomalous fading over time. The possible implications of this finding in dating of both apatites and feldspars are also briefly discussed. - Highlights: • All apatite samples of the present study yield strong thermally assisted OSL (TA-OSL) signal. • In all cases, TA-OSL signal is much more stable compared to TL and conventional OSL, based on the corresponding anomalous fading rates. • This experimental feature could be extremely beneficial for luminescence dating.

  2. Temperature monitoring along the Rhine River based on airborne thermal infrared remote sensing: qualitative results compared to satellite data and validation with in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Katharina; Baschek, Björn

    2014-10-01

    Water temperature is an important parameter of water quality and influences other physical and chemical parameters. It also directly influences the survival and growth of animal and plant species in river ecosystems. In situ measurements do not allow for a total spatial coverage of water bodies and rivers that is necessary for monitoring and research at the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Germany. Hence, the ability of different remote sensing products to identify and investigate water inflows and water temperatures in Federal waterways is evaluated within the research project 'Remote sensing of water surface temperature'. The research area for a case study is the Upper and Middle Rhine River from the barrage in Iffezheim to Koblenz. Satellite products (e. g. Landsat and ASTER imagery) can only be used for rivers at least twice as wide as the spatial resolution of the satellite images. They can help to identify different water bodies only at tributaries with larger inflow volume (Main and Mosel) or larger temperature differences between the inflow (e. g. from power plants working with high capacity) and the river water. To identify and investigate also smaller water inflows and temperature differences, thermal data with better ground and thermal resolution is required. An aerial survey of the research area was conducted in late October 2013. Data of the surface was acquired with two camera systems, a digital camera with R, G, B, and Near-IR channels, and a thermal imaging camera measuring the brightness temperature in the 8-12 m wavelength region (TIR). The resolution of the TIR camera allowed for a ground resolution of 4 m, covering the whole width of the main stream and larger branches. The RGB and NIR data allowed to eliminate land surface temperatures from the analysis and to identify clouds and shadows present during the data acquisition. By degrading the spatial resolution and adding sensor noise, artificial Landsat ETM+ and TIRS datasets were created

  3. The application of two-step linear temperature program to thermal analysis for monitoring the lipid induction of Nostoc sp. KNUA003 in large scale cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bongmun; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2015-02-01

    Recently, microalgae was considered as a renewable energy for fuel production because its production is nonseasonal and may take place on nonarable land. Despite all of these advantages, microalgal oil production is significantly affected by environmental factors. Furthermore, the large variability remains an important problem in measurement of algae productivity and compositional analysis, especially, the total lipid content. Thus, there is considerable interest in accurate determination of total lipid content during the biotechnological process. For these reason, various high-throughput technologies were suggested for accurate measurement of total lipids contained in the microorganisms, especially oleaginous microalgae. In addition, more advanced technologies were employed to quantify the total lipids of the microalgae without a pretreatment. However, these methods are difficult to measure total lipid content in wet form microalgae obtained from large-scale production. In present study, the thermal analysis performed with two-step linear temeperature program was applied to measure heat evolved in temperature range from 310 to 351 °C of Nostoc sp. KNUA003 obtained from large-scale cultivation. And then, we examined the relationship between the heat evolved in 310-351 °C (HE) and total lipid content of the wet Nostoc cell cultivated in raceway. As a result, the linear relationship was determined between HE value and total lipid content of Nostoc sp. KNUA003. Particularly, there was a linear relationship of 98% between the HE value and the total lipid content of the tested microorganism. Based on this relationship, the total lipid content converted from the heat evolved of wet Nostoc sp. KNUA003 could be used for monitoring its lipid induction in large-scale cultivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  5. Monitoring the kinetic evolution of self-assembled SiGe islands grown by Ge surface thermal diffusion from a local source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacore, G. M.; Zani, M.; Bollani, M.; Bonera, E.; Nicotra, G.; Osmond, J.; Capellini, Giovanni; Isella, G.; Tagliaferri, A.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we experimentally study the growth of self-assembled SiGe islands formed on Si(001) by exploiting the thermally activated surface diffusion of Ge atoms from a local Ge source stripe in the temperature range 600-700 °C. This new growth strategy allows us to vary continuously the Ge coverage from 8 to 0 monolayers as the distance from the source increases, and thus enables the investigation of the island growth over a wide range of dynamical regimes at the same time, providing a unique birds eye view of the factors governing the growth process and the dominant mechanism for the mass collection by a critical nucleus. Our results give experimental evidence that the nucleation process evolves within a diffusion limited regime. At a given annealing temperature, we find that the nucleation density depends only on the kinetics of the Ge surface diffusion resulting in a universal scaling distribution depending only on the Ge coverage. An analytical model is able to reproduce quantitatively the trend of the island density. Following the nucleation, the growth process appears to be driven mainly by short-range interactions between an island and the atoms diffusing within its vicinities. The islands volume distribution is, in fact, well described in the whole range of parameters by the Mulheran’s capture zone model. The complex growth mechanism leads to a strong intermixing of Si and Ge within the island volume. Our growth strategy allows us to directly investigate the correlation between the Si incorporation and the Ge coverage in the same experimental conditions: higher intermixing is found for lower Ge coverage. This confirms that, besides the Ge gathering from the surface, also the Si incorporation from the substrate is driven by the diffusion kinetics, thus imposing a strict constraint on the initial Ge coverage, its diffusion properties and the final island volume

  6. On Strong Anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, N; Turvey, M T

    2010-06-01

    We examine Dubois's (2003) distinction between weak anticipation and strong anticipation. Anticipation is weak if it arises from a model of the system via internal simulations. Anticipation is strong if it arises from the system itself via lawful regularities embedded in the system's ordinary mode of functioning. The assumption of weak anticipation dominates cognitive science and neuroscience and in particular the study of perception and action. The assumption of strong anticipation, however, seems to be required by anticipation's ubiquity. It is, for example, characteristic of homeostatic processes at the level of the organism, organs, and cells. We develop the formal distinction between strong and weak anticipation by elaboration of anticipating synchronization, a phenomenon arising from time delays in appropriately coupled dynamical systems. The elaboration is conducted in respect to (a) strictly physical systems, (b) the defining features of circadian rhythms, often viewed as paradigmatic of biological behavior based in internal models, (c) Pavlovian learning, and (d) forward models in motor control. We identify the common thread of strongly anticipatory systems and argue for its significance in furthering understanding of notions such as "internal", "model" and "prediction".

  7. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...... wrong even though that human being is not being deprived of a "valuable future". So Marquis would be wrong in thinking that what is essential about the wrongness of killing an adult human being is that they are being deprived of a valuable future. This paper shows that whichever way the concept...... of "valuable future" is interpreted, the proposed counterexamples fail: if it is interpreted as "future like ours", the proposed counterexamples have no bearing on Marquis's argument. If the concept is interpreted as referring to the patient's preferences, it must be either conceded that the patients in Strong...

  8. Thermal insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, R.; Asada, Y.; Matsuo, Y.; Mikoda, M.

    1985-07-16

    A thermal insulator comprises an expanded resin body having embedded therein an evacuated powder insulation portion which consists of fine powder and a container of film-like plastics or a film-like composite of plastics and metal for enclosing the powder. The resin body has been expanded by a Freon gas as a blowing agent. Since a Freon gas has a larger molecular diameter than the constituent gases of air, it is less likely to permeate through the container than air. Thus present invention provides a novel composite insulator which fully utilizes the benefits of vacuum insulation without necessitating a strong and costly material for a vacuum container.

  9. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  10. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Condensed Matter, Topological Phases of Matter REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S...Fractional Quantum Hall effect, but unlike it, can potentially exist in more than 2-dimensional quantum wells. By using a mix of numerical and analytical...intricate surface physics. Another direction we have explored focuses on breaking the barriers of numerical simulations for interacting topological phases

  11. Strong managers, weak boards?

    OpenAIRE

    Renee B. Adams; Daniel Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Many governance reform proposals are based on the view that boards have been too friendly to executives, for example, by awarding them excessive pay. Although boards are often on friendly terms with executives, it is less clear that they have systematically failed to function in the interests of shareholders. Understanding board monitoring requires a theory of boards that takes into account how firms provide incentives for their Chief Executive Officer's (CEOs) through other means. We develop...

  12. In-situ monitoring by Raman spectroscopy of the thermal doping of graphene and MoS2 in O2-controlled atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Piazza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of temperature and atmosphere (air and O2 on the doping of monolayers of graphene (Gr on SiO2 and Si substrates, and on the doping of MoS2 multilayer flakes transferred on the same substrates have been investigated. The investigations were carried out by in situ micro-Raman spectroscopy during thermal treatments up to 430 °C, and by atomic force microscopy (AFM. The spectral positions of the G and 2D Raman bands of Gr undergo only minor changes during treatment, while their amplitude and full width at half maximum (FWHM vary as a function of the temperature and the used atmosphere. The thermal treatments in oxygen atmosphere show, in addition to a thermal effect, an effect attributable to a p-type doping through oxygen. The thermal broadening of the line shape, found during thermal treatments by in situ Raman measurements, can be related to thermal phonon effects. The absence of a band shift results from the balance between a red shift due to thermal effects and a blue shift induced by doping. This shows the potential of in situ measurements to follow the doping kinetics. The treatment of MoS2 in O2 has evidenced a progressive erosion of the flakes without relevant spectral changes in their central zone during in situ measurements. The formation of MoO3 on the edges of the flakes is observed indicative of the oxygen-activated transformation.

  13. Quantum Thermal Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joulain, Karl; Drevillon, Jérémie; Ezzahri, Younès; Ordonez-Miranda, Jose

    2016-05-20

    We demonstrate that a thermal transistor can be made up with a quantum system of three interacting subsystems, coupled to a thermal reservoir each. This thermal transistor is analogous to an electronic bipolar one with the ability to control the thermal currents at the collector and at the emitter with the imposed thermal current at the base. This is achieved by determining the heat fluxes by means of the strong-coupling formalism. For the case of three interacting spins, in which one of them is coupled to the other two, that are not directly coupled, it is shown that high amplification can be obtained in a wide range of energy parameters and temperatures. The proposed quantum transistor could, in principle, be used to develop devices such as a thermal modulator and a thermal amplifier in nanosystems.

  14. Strong Field Spherical Dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Dormy, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Numerical models of the geodynamo are usually classified in two categories: those denominated dipolar modes, observed when the inertial term is small enough, and multipolar fluctuating dynamos, for stronger forcing. I show that a third dynamo branch corresponding to a dominant force balance between the Coriolis force and the Lorentz force can be produced numerically. This force balance is usually referred to as the strong field limit. This solution co-exists with the often described viscous branch. Direct numerical simulations exhibit a transition from a weak-field dynamo branch, in which viscous effects set the dominant length scale, and the strong field branch in which viscous and inertial effects are largely negligible. These results indicate that a distinguished limit needs to be sought to produce numerical models relevant to the geodynamo and that the usual approach of minimizing the magnetic Prandtl number (ratio of the fluid kinematic viscosity to its magnetic diffusivity) at a given Ekman number is mi...

  15. The design, construction, and monitoring of photovoltaic power system and solar thermal system on the Georgia Institute of Technology Aquatic Center. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    This is a report on the feasibility study, design, and construction of a PV and solar thermal system for the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The topics of the report include a discussion of site selection and system selection, funding, design alternatives, PV module selection, final design, and project costs. Included are appendices describing the solar thermal system, the SAC entrance canopy PV mockup, and the PV feasibility study.

  16. Finding quantum effects in strong classical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelich, B. Manuel; Labun, Lance; Labun, Ou Z.

    2017-06-01

    The long-standing challenge to describing charged particle dynamics in strong classical electromagnetic fields is how to incorporate classical radiation, classical radiation reaction and quantized photon emission into a consistent unified framework. The current, semiclassical methods to describe the dynamics of quantum particles in strong classical fields also provide the theoretical framework for fundamental questions in gravity and hadron-hadron collisions, including Hawking radiation, cosmological particle production and thermalization of particles created in heavy-ion collisions. However, as we show, these methods break down for highly relativistic particles propagating in strong fields. They must therefore be improved and adapted for the description of laser-plasma experiments that typically involve the acceleration of electrons. Theory developed from quantum electrodynamics, together with dedicated experimental efforts, offer the best controllable context to establish a robust, experimentally validated foundation for the fundamental theory of quantum effects in strong classical potentials.

  17. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  18. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harben, Philip E. (Oakley, CA); Rodgers, Peter W. (Santa Barbara, CA); Ewert, Daniel W. (Patterson, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A seismic switching device that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period.

  19. <strong>Anonysense>: privacy-aware people-centric sensingstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triandopoulos, Nikolaos; Cornelius, Cory; Kapadia, Apu

    2008-01-01

    Personal mobile devices are increasingly equipped with the capability to sense the physical world (through cameras, microphones, and accelerometers, for example) and the, network world (with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth interfaces). Such devices offer many new opportunities for cooperative sensing...... applications. For example, users' mobile phones may contribute data to community-oriented information services, from city-wide pollution monitoring to enterprise-wide detection of unauthorized Wi-Fi access points. This people-centric mobile-sensing model introduces a new security challenge in the design...... sensing model. We describe our trust model, and the security properties that drove the design of the AnonySense system. We evaluate our prototype implementation through experiments that indicate the feasibility of this approach, and through two applications: a Wi-Fi rogue access point detector and a lost...

  20. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  1. A minimal-invasive method for systemic bio-monitoring of the environmental pollutant phenanthrene in humans: Thermal extraction and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry from 1 mL capillary blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Beate; Schneider, Julian; Föhlinger, Michael; Buters, Jeroen; Zimmermann, Ralf; Matuschek, Georg

    2017-03-03

    Phenanthrene is present in numerous environmental media and serves as a model substrate for the biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). PAH exposure studies are commonly focused on urinary metabolites, concentrations of which are dependent on absorption, biotransformation and excretion. Monitoring of unmetabolized PAHs in blood would allow more reliable exposure assessment, but requires invasive sampling and extensive sample preparation. We describe the analysis of phenanthrene in 1μL capillary blood using thermal extraction (TE) combined with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Less invasive sampling of 1μL capillary blood does not require the assistance of medical staff. Compared to previous studies, analysis time was improved significantly by TE due to minimization of sample preparation steps. The evaluate method was applied successfully to the monitoring of phenanthrene blood levels. This is the first report presenting the pharmacokinetics of unmetabolized PAHs in human. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Operational Near-real-time Twice-weekly Global 50 km Satellite Coral Bleaching Thermal Stress Monitoring Product Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Coral Reef Watch program produces a suite of near-real-time global 50 km monitoring products, based on sea surface temperature (SST) observations from NOAA's...

  3. Life cycle monitoring of lithium-ion polymer batteries using cost-effective thermal infrared sensors with applications for lifetime prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xunfei; Malik, Anav; Hsieh, Sheng-Jen

    2017-05-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have become indispensable parts of our lives for their high-energy density and long lifespan. However, failure due to from abusive usage conditions, flawed manufacturing processes, and aging and adversely affect battery performance and even endanger people and property. Therefore, battery cells that are failing or reaching their end-of-life need to be replaced. Traditionally, battery lifetime prediction is achieved by analyzing data from current, voltage and impedance sensors. However, such a prognostic system is expensive to implement and requires direct contact. In this study, low-cost thermal infrared sensors were used to acquire thermographic images throughout the entire lifetime of small scale lithium-ion polymer batteries (410 cycles). The infrared system (non-destructive) took temperature readings from multiple batteries during charging and discharging cycles of 1C. Thermal characteristics of the batteries were derived from the thermographic images. A time-dependent and spatially resolved temperature mapping was obtained and quantitatively analyzed. The developed model can predict cycle number using the first 10 minutes of surface temperature data acquired through infrared imaging at the beginning of the cycle, with an average error rate of less than 10%. This approach can be used to correlate thermal characteristics of the batteries with life cycles, and to propose cost-effective thermal infrared imaging applications in battery prognostic systems.

  4. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Document Server

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  5. Oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance in cod, Gadus morhua L., studied by magnetic resonance imaging and on-line venous oxygen monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannig, Gisela; Bock, Christian; Sartoris, Franz J; Pörtner, Hans O

    2004-10-01

    The hypothesis of an oxygen-limited thermal tolerance due to restrictions in cardiovascular performance at extreme temperatures was tested in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua (North Sea). Heart rate, changes in arterial and venous blood flow, and venous oxygen tensions were determined during an acute temperature change to define pejus ("getting worse") temperatures that border the thermal optimum range. An exponential increase in heart rate occurred between 2 and 16 degrees C (Q(10) = 2.38 +/- 0.35). Thermal sensitivity was reduced beyond 16 degrees C when cardiac arrhythmia became visible. Flow-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of temperature-dependent blood flow revealed no exponential but a hyperbolic increase of blood flow with a moderate linear increase at temperatures >4 degrees C. Therefore, temperature-dependent heart rate increments are not mirrored by similar increments in blood flow. Venous Po(2) (Pv(O(2))), which reflects the quality of oxygen supply to the heart of cod (no coronary circulation present), followed an inverse U-shaped curve with highest Pv(O(2)) levels at 5.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C. Thermal limitation of circulatory performance in cod set in below 2 degrees C and beyond 7 degrees C, respectively, characterized by decreased Pv(O(2)). Further warming led to a sharp drop in Pv(O(2)) beyond 16.1 +/- 1.2 degrees C in accordance with the onset of cardiac arrhythmia and, likely, the critical temperature. In conclusion, progressive cooling or warming brings cod from a temperature range of optimum cardiac performance into a pejus range, when aerobic scope falls before critical temperatures are reached. These patterns might cause a shift in the geographical distribution of cod with global warming.

  6. Experimental Investigation of Thermal Behaviors in Window Systems by Monitoring of Surface Condensation Using Full-Scale Measurements and Simulation Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goopyo Hong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the thermal performance of window systems using full-scale measurements and simulation tools. A chamber was installed on the balcony of an apartment to control the temperatures which can create condensation on the interior surfaces of window systems. The condensation process on the window was carefully scrutinized when outdoor and indoor temperature and indoor relative humidity ranged from −15 °C to −20 °C, 23 °C to 24 °C, and 50% to 65%, respectively. The results of these investigations were analyzed to determine how the moisture is influenced by changing temperatures. It appears that the glass-edge was highly susceptible to the temperature variations and the lowest temperature on the glass edge was caused by the heat transfer through the spacer, between the two glass panels of the window. The results from the simulation used in this study confirm that the thermal performance of window systems can be improved the use of super insulated or thermally broken spacers. If the values of the indoor humidity and temperature are given, then the outdoor temperature when condensation forms can be obtained by using Temperature Difference Ratio (TDR. This methodology can be employed to predict the possible occurrence of condensation.

  7. Adaption of a PIN-diode detector as an online neutron monitor for the thermal column of the TRIGA research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Tobias; Blaickner, Matthias

    2017-10-01

    A BNCT online neutron monitoring system was tested in a TRIGA reactor, using a silicon PIN-diode with a conversion foil. The setup was tested with different reactor powers at the hot and cold ends of the irradiation channel, using activation foils to compare with measured fluxes. The results demonstrate good reproducibility and show a linear correlation between signal of the PIN-diode and neutron flux at all positions, demonstrating this approach to be suitable for online monitoring of the neutron flux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Optothermal window method for on-line monitoring of decay kinetics of trans-á-carotene in thermally treated vegetable oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganguli, O.; Bicanic, D.D.; BonifaSi', M.; Nicoli, M.C.; Chirtoc, M.

    2003-01-01

    The optothermal window detection method at 488 nm was used to monitor on-line the concentration of trans-ß-carotene that was added to several vegetable oils after treating them at 200 °C in the presence of air for varying amounts of time. Results obtained for extra virgin oil show a direct

  9. Monitoring of bisphenol A and bisphenol S in thermal paper receipts from the Italian market and estimated transdermal human intake: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giacomo; Barbato, Francesco; Grumetto, Lucia

    2017-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a synthetic xenoestrogen widely used in various industrial fields, can be present, in its un-reacted form, as an additive in thermal paper. BPA is virtually ubiquitous in industrialized societies and humans are exposed to this chemical via dietary and non-dietary sources. Since in 2015 European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) indicated that thermal paper is the second source of BPA exposure after the food chain, some suppliers replaced BPA with its analogue Bisphenol S (BPS), speculatively supposed to be safer. In this work BPA and BPS concentration levels were determined in thermal paper receipts collected in Italy from 50 different sources by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem fluorescence and ultraviolet detection. BPA was found in 44 samples at mean concentration of 107.47μg/100mg of paper (from below Limits of Quantification (LOQ) to 1533.733μg/100mg of paper). BPS was found in 31 samples at mean concentration of 41.97μg/100mg of paper (from below the LOQ to 357.989μg/100mg of paper). 26 samples were positive to both BPA and BPS. The estimate daily intake (EDI) values of BPA and BPS occurring through dermal absorption were calculated for 70kg body weight individuals. For general population, they were 0.0625μg/day for BPA and 0.0244μg/day for BPS, based on the mean content of bisphenols found. For occupationally exposed individuals, they were 66.8μg/day for BPA and 15.6μg/day for BPS, based on the worst scenario. Such levels would produce a dermal intake below the Tolerable Day Intake established by EFSA (4μg/kg·bw/day); nevertheless, the occurrence of co-exposure to dietary and non-dietary sources should be considered in the health risk assessment, mainly for people frequently exposed to thermal paper contact for occupational reason. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Junction temperature measurements via thermo-sensitive electrical parameters and their application to condition monitoring and active thermal control of power converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Liserre, Marco; Dupont, L.

    2013-01-01

    implementation of active thermal control to reduce losses and increase lifetime can be performed given an accurate knowledge of temperature. Temperature measurements via thermo-sensitive electrical parameters (TSEP) are one way to carry out immediate temperature readings on fully packaged devices. However......, successful implementation of these techniques during the actual operation of a device has not yet been achieved. This paper provides an overview of literature where the usage of TSEPs has been hypothesised or realised in realistic power electronic converter setups. Barriers and limitations preventing wider...

  11. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  12. <strong>Improved indicators and monitoring of pesticide usestrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Borgen; Kjær, Christian; Kudsk, Per

    separately: (1) Terrestrial nature; (2) Steams; (3) Ponds and lakes. GIS is used to combine data for agriculture praxis in terms of the crop distribution with distance to the nature elements. Pesticide application was estimated based on crop distribution and the toxicity for a series of toxic end...

  13. Thermal imaging in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Ogorevc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Body temperature monitoring is one of the oldest and still one of the most basic diagnostic methods in medicine. In recent years thermal imaging has been increasingly used in measurements of body temperature for diagnostic purposes. Thermal imaging is non-invasive, non-contact method for measuring surface body temperature. Method is quick, painless and patient is not exposed to ionizing radiation or any other body burden.Application of thermal imaging in medicine: Pathological conditions can be indicated as hyper- or hypothermic patterns in many cases. Thermal imaging is presented as a diagnostic method, which can detect such thermal anomalies. This article provides an overview of the thermal imaging applications in various fields of medicine. Thermal imaging has proven to be a suitable method for human febrile temperature screening, for the detection of sites of fractures and infections, a reliable diagnostic tool in the detection of breast cancer and determining the type of skin cancer tumour. It is useful in monitoring the course of a therapy after spinal cord injury, in the detection of food allergies and detecting complications at hemodialysis and is also very effective at the course of treatment of breast reconstruction after mastectomy. With thermal imaging is possible to determine the degrees of burns and early detection of osteomyelitis in diabetic foot phenomenon. The most common and the oldest application of thermal imaging in medicine is the field of rheumatology.Recommendations for use and standards: Essential performance of a thermal imaging camera, measurement method, preparation of a patient and environmental conditions are very important for proper interpretation of measurement results in medical applications of thermal imaging. Standard for screening thermographs was formed for the human febrile temperature screening application.Conclusion: Based on presented examples it is shown that thermal imaging can

  14. Technology monitoring; Technologie-Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicher, H.; Rigassi, R. [Eicher und Pauli AG, Liestal (Switzerland); Ott, W. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This study made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines ways of systematically monitoring energy technology development and the cost of such technologies in order to pave the way to a basis for judging the economic development of new energy technologies. Initial results of a survey of the past development of these technologies are presented and estimates are made of future developments in the areas of motor-based combined heat and power systems, fuel-cell heating units for single-family homes and apartment buildings, air/water heat pumps for new housing projects and high-performance thermal insulation. The methodology used for the monitoring and analysis of the various technologies is described. Tables and diagrams illustrate the present situation and development potential of various fields of technology.

  15. THERMAL DIGITAL TERRAIN MODEL OF A COAL SPOIL TIP – A WAY OF IMPROVING MONITORING AND EARLY DIAGNOSTICS OF POTENTIAL SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Lewińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Spoil tips are anthropomorphic terrain structures built out of leftover materials from underground or open pit mining. Usually the term spoil tips refers to those build out of unusable particles from coal exploration. As such they consist mostly of slate and various types of sandstone or mudstone. But also include some amount of coal and, what is more important, coal dust. Fires of spoil tips are dangerous to the environment and humans. They can cause degradation of air, and water qualities. Sometimes degradation to the environment can be irreversible. The presented survey was done in two stages. the first included creating a general terrain model. This was done with the use of long range laser scanner. The second step was a more detailed analysis of spatial and temperature conditions. Two measuring seasons ware performed. The first included a survey made with a short range laser scanner and a hand-held inferred camera. The obtained point cloud was supplemented with temperature value with the use of software and hardware provided by the authors. The visualization of 3D discreet thermal model was done in Bentley MicrioStation. The second included a usage of Z+F IMAGER 5010 laser scanner equipped with T-Cam Rev 1.0 thermal camera insole. A new and unique device that connects laser scanner with infrared camera. This season also provide a point cloud with attached temperature value of measured points. This article provides the description of those two methods including a comparison of their effectiveness and costs. It also describes the heat conditions occurring on spoil tip of Lubelski Węgiel "Bogdanka" S.A coal mine surveyed in December 2015.

  16. Supervisory system for real time monitoring of transient thermal stresses in turbines rotors; Sistema supervisorio para el monitoreo en tiempo real de esfuerzos termicos transitorios en rotores de turbinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquiza Beltran, Gustavo; Rios Miranda, Edmundo; Venegas Guzman, Ricardo; Alvarez Garcia, Gabriela [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    This article presents a supervisory system that, as its main functions, assists the operator on base of the thermal stresses, monitoring in real time the high pressure (HP) and intermediate pressure rotors (IP) of a steam turbine during the start, shut down and/or sudden load changes. The system is based on a thermal model uni-dimensional integrated to the SIMPER (Information System for the Predictive Maintenance of Rotating Equipment), tested in a 300 MW unit of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta un sistema supervisorio que, como funciones principales, asiste al operador con base en el monitoreo de esfuerzos termicos en tiempo real en los rotores de presion alta (PA) y presion intermedia (PI) de una turbina de vapor durante un arranque, paro y/o variaciones bruscas de carga. El sistema esta basado en un modelo termico unidimensional integrado al SIMPER (sistema informatico para el mantenimiento predictivo de equipo rotatorio), experimentado en una unidad de 300 MW de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE).

  17. Application of MCR-ALS to reveal intermediate conformations in the thermally induced α-β transition of poly-L-lysine monitored by FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaráz, Mirta R.; Schwaighofer, Andreas; Goicoechea, Héctor; Lendl, Bernhard

    2017-10-01

    Temperature-induced conformational transitions of poly-L-lysine were monitored with Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy between 10 °C and 70 °C. Chemometric analysis of dynamic IR spectra was performed by multivariate curve analysis-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) of the amide I‧ and amide II‧ spectral region. With this approach, the pure spectral and concentration profiles of the conformational transition were obtained. Beside the initial α-helical, the intermediate random coil/extended helices and the final β-sheet structure, an additional intermediate PLL conformation was identified and attributed to a transient β-sheet structure.

  18. Influence of Coral Community Structure and Thermal Stress Exposure on Observed Patterns of Bleaching across the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, L.; Heron, S. F.; Johnson, S.; Okano, R.; Benavente, D.; Iguel, J.; Perez, D. I.; Liu, G.; Geiger, E.; Eakin, C. M.

    2016-02-01

    In 2013 and 2014, the Mariana Archipelago experienced consecutive thermal stress events that resulted in widespread coral bleaching and mortality. Using in situ survey data collected across seven of the Northern Mariana Islands during the 2014 event, we undertook the first quantitative comparison between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Coral Reef Watch 5 km satellite monitoring products and coral bleaching observations. Analysis of coral community characteristics, historical temperature conditions and thermal stress revealed a strong influence of coral biodiversity in the patterns of observed bleaching. This illustrates the importance of using local benthic characteristics to interpret the level of impact from thermal stress exposure. In an era of continuing climate change, accurate monitoring of thermal stress and prediction of coral bleaching are essential for resource managers and stakeholders to direct resources to the most effective management actions to conserve coral reefs.

  19. Thermographic measurement of thermal bridges in buildings under dynamic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, G.; Bison, P.; Bortolin, A.; Cadelano, G.; De Carli, M.

    2016-05-01

    The accurate knowledge of the thermal performance could reduce significantly the impact of buildings on global energy consumption. Infrared thermography is widely recognized as one of the key technologies for building surveys, thanks to its ability to acquire at a glance thermal images of the building envelope. However, a spot measurement could be misleading when the building is under dynamic thermal conditions. In this case data should be acquired for hours or days, depending on the thermal properties of the walls. Long term thermographic monitoring are possible but imply strong challenges from a practical standpoint. This work investigates the possibilities and limitations of spot thermographic surveys coupled with contact probes, that are able to acquire continuously the thermal signal for days, to investigate the thermal bridges of a building. The goal is the estimation of the reliability and accuracy of the measurement under realistic environmental conditions. Firstly, numerical simulations are performed to determine the reference value of an experimental case. Then a long term thermographic survey is performed and integrated with the contact probe measurement, assessing the feasibility of the method.

  20. Using open hole and cased-hole resistivity logs to monitor gas hydrate dissociation during a thermal test in the mallik 5L-38 research well, Mackenzie Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B.I.; Collett, T.S.; Lewis, R.E.; Dubourg, I.

    2008-01-01

    Gas hydrates, which are naturally occurring ice-like combinations of gas and water, have the potential to provide vast amounts of natural gas from the world's oceans and polar regions. However, producing gas economically from hydrates entails major technical challenges. Proposed recovery methods such as dissociating or melting gas hydrates by heating or depressurization are currently being tested. One such test was conducted in northern Canada by the partners in the Mallik 2002 Gas Hydrate Production Research Well Program. This paper describes how resistivity logs were used to determine the size of the annular region of gas hydrate dissociation that occurred around the wellbore during the thermal test in the Mallik 5L-38 well. An open-hole logging suite, run prior to the thermal test, included array induction, array laterolog, nuclear magnetic resonance and 1.1-GHz electromagnetic propagation logs. The reservoir saturation tool was run both before and after the thermal test to monitor formation changes. A cased-hole formation resistivity log was run after the test.Baseline resistivity values in each formation layer (Rt) were established from the deep laterolog data. The resistivity in the region of gas hydrate dissociation near the wellbore (Rxo) was determined from electromagnetic propagation and reservoir saturation tool measurements. The radius of hydrate dissociation as a function of depth was then determined by means of iterative forward modeling of cased-hole formation resistivity tool response. The solution was obtained by varying the modeled dissociation radius until the modeled log overlaid the field log. Pretest gas hydrate production computer simulations had predicted that dissociation would take place at a uniform radius over the 13-ft test interval. However, the post-test resistivity modeling showed that this was not the case. The resistivity-derived dissociation radius was greatest near the outlet of the pipe that circulated hot water in the wellbore

  1. Thermal comfort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available wider range of temperature limits, saving energy while still satisfying the majority of building occupants. It is also noted that thermal comfort varies significantly between individuals and it is generally not possible to provide a thermal environment...

  2. Graphene thermal flux transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafranjuk, S E

    2016-11-24

    Insufficient flexibility of existing approaches to controlling the thermal transport in atomic monolayers limits their capability for use in many applications. Here, we examine the means of electrode doping to control the thermal flux Q due to phonons propagating along the atomic monolayer. We found that the frequency of the electron-restricted phonon scattering strongly depends on the concentration nC. of the electric charge carriers, established by the electric potentials applied to local gates. As a result of the electrode doping, nC is increased, causing a sharp rise in both the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, while the thermal conductivity tumbles. Therefore, the effect of the thermal transistor improves the figure of merit of nanoelectronic circuits.

  3. Robust satellite techniques (RST for the thermal monitoring of earthquake prone areas: the case of Umbria-Marche October, 1997 seismic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tramutoli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Several authors claim a space-time correlation between increases in Earth’s emitted Thermal Infra-Red (TIR radiation and earthquake occurrence. The main problems of such studies regard data analysis and interpretation, which are often done without a validation/confutation control. In this context, a robust data analysis technique (RST, i.e. Robust Satellite Techniques is proposed which permits a statistically based definition of TIR «anomaly » and uses a validation/confutation approach. This technique was already applied to satellite TIR surveys in seismic regions for about twenty earthquakes that occurred in the world. In this work RST is applied for the first time to a time sequence of seismic events. Nine years of Meteosat TIR observations have been analyzed to characterize the unperturbed TIR signal behaviour at specific observation times and locations. The main seismic events of the October 1997 Umbria-Marche sequence have been considered for validation, and relatively unperturbed periods (no earthquakes with Mb ? 4 were taken for confutation purposes. Positive time-space persistent TIR anomalies were observed during seismic periods, generally overlapping the principal tectonic lineaments of the region and sometimes focusing on the vicinity of the epicentre. No similar (in terms of relative intensity and space-time persistence TIR anomalies were detected during seismically unperturbed periods.

  4. Thermal Annealing Effect on Structural, Morphological, and Sensor Performance of PANI-Ag-Fe Based Electrochemical E. coli Sensor for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norshafadzila Mohammad Naim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films based electrochemical E. coli sensor was developed with thermal annealing. PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films were prepared by oxidative polymerization of aniline and the reduction process of Ag-Fe bimetallic compound with the presence of nitric acid and PVA. The films were deposited on glass substrate using spin-coating technique before they were annealed at 300°C. The films were characterized using XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and FESEM to study the structural and morphological properties. The electrochemical sensor performance was conducted using I-V measurement electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The sensitivity upon the presence of E. coli was measured in clean water and E. coli solution. From XRD analysis, the crystallite sizes were found to become larger for the samples after annealing. UV-Vis absorption bands for samples before and after annealing show maximum absorbance peaks at around 422 nm–424 nm and 426 nm–464 nm, respectively. FESEM images show the diameter size for nanospherical Ag-Fe alloy particles increases after annealing. The sensor performance of PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films upon E. coli cells in liquid medium indicates the sensitivity increases after annealing.

  5. Thermal Annealing Effect on Structural, Morphological, and Sensor Performance of PANI-Ag-Fe Based Electrochemical E. coli Sensor for Environmental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Naim, Norshafadzila; Abdullah, H; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Abdul Hamid, Aidil; Shaari, Sahbudin

    2015-01-01

    PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films based electrochemical E. coli sensor was developed with thermal annealing. PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films were prepared by oxidative polymerization of aniline and the reduction process of Ag-Fe bimetallic compound with the presence of nitric acid and PVA. The films were deposited on glass substrate using spin-coating technique before they were annealed at 300 °C. The films were characterized using XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and FESEM to study the structural and morphological properties. The electrochemical sensor performance was conducted using I-V measurement electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The sensitivity upon the presence of E. coli was measured in clean water and E. coli solution. From XRD analysis, the crystallite sizes were found to become larger for the samples after annealing. UV-Vis absorption bands for samples before and after annealing show maximum absorbance peaks at around 422 nm-424 nm and 426 nm-464 nm, respectively. FESEM images show the diameter size for nanospherical Ag-Fe alloy particles increases after annealing. The sensor performance of PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films upon E. coli cells in liquid medium indicates the sensitivity increases after annealing.

  6. The memory of volcanic waters: Shallow magma degassing revealed by halogen monitoring in thermal springs of La Soufrière volcano (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemant, Benoît; Hammouya, Gilbert; Michel, Agnès; Semet, Michel P.; Komorowski, Jean-Christophe; Boudon, Georges; Cheminée, Jean-Louis

    2005-09-01

    The halogen contents of thermal waters collected since 1979 at La Soufrière volcano (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles) are interpreted as a retarded record of magma degassing pulses dispersed into the hydrothermal system. The further the spring is located from the source, the larger the time delay and the older the event recorded in water chemistry. Using advection-dispersion transport models in porous media, we reconstruct the time-series of degassing pulses for the period 1971-1992 and show that it correlates with the seismic records. The 1975-1977 sismo-volcanic crisis at La Soufrière is thereby interpreted as the result of a magma intrusion at shallow depth (˜3 km) which likely began in approximately 1973 and degassed in a pulsatory regime during ˜15 yr. The recent recrudescence of fumarolic and seismic activity could represent the initial stage of new magma injection. Measurement of halogen contents in hydrothermal waters collected around active volcanoes may provide a powerful tool for detection of the initial stages of magma intrusions.

  7. Cosmology with strong lensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiada, Marek

    2017-08-01

    Strong gravitational lensing has now developed into a mature tool for investigating galactic structure and dynamics as well as cosmological models. In this lecture the phenomenon of strong gravitational lensing, its history and applications are reviewed with an emphasis on the recent ideas developed by the author. Expected massive discoveries of strong lensing galactic scale systems in forthcoming projects like Euclid or LSST herald the bright future of gravitational lensing in cosmology.

  8. Numerical Modeling of Water Thermal Plumes Emitted by Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azucena Durán-Colmenares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the study of thermal dispersion of plumes emitted by power plants into the sea. Wastewater discharge from power stations causes impacts that require investigation or monitoring. A study to characterize the physical effects of thermal plumes into the sea is carried out here by numerical modeling and field measurements. The case study is the thermal discharges of the Presidente Adolfo López Mateos Power Plant, located in Veracruz, on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. This plant is managed by the Federal Electricity Commission of Mexico. The physical effects of such plumes are related to the increase of seawater temperature caused by the hot water discharge of the plant. We focus on the implementation, calibration, and validation of the Delft3D-FLOW model, which solves the shallow-water equations. The numerical simulations consider a critical scenario where meteorological and oceanographic parameters are taken into account to reproduce the proper physical conditions of the environment. The results show a local physical effect of the thermal plumes within the study zone, given the predominant strong winds conditions of the scenario under study.

  9. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  10. Thermalized axion inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ricardo Z.; Notari, Alessio

    2017-09-01

    We analyze the dynamics of inflationary models with a coupling of the inflaton phi to gauge fields of the form phi F tilde F/f, as in the case of axions. It is known that this leads to an instability, with exponential amplification of gauge fields, controlled by the parameter ξ= dot phi/(2fH), which can strongly affect the generation of cosmological perturbations and even the background. We show that scattering rates involving gauge fields can become larger than the expansion rate H, due to the very large occupation numbers, and create a thermal bath of particles of temperature T during inflation. In the thermal regime, energy is transferred to smaller scales, radically modifying the predictions of this scenario. We thus argue that previous constraints on ξ are alleviated. If the gauge fields have Standard Model interactions, which naturally provides reheating, they thermalize already at ξgtrsim2.9, before perturbativity constraints and also before backreaction takes place. In absence of SM interactions (i.e. for a dark photon), we find that gauge fields and inflaton perturbations thermalize if ξgtrsim3.4 however, observations require ξgtrsim6, which is above the perturbativity and backreaction bounds and so a dedicated study is required. After thermalization, though, the system should evolve non-trivially due to the competition between the instability and the gauge field thermal mass. If the thermal mass and the instabilities equilibrate, we expect an equilibrium temperature of Teq simeq ξ H/bar g where bar g is the effective gauge coupling. Finally, we estimate the spectrum of perturbations if phi is thermal and find that the tensor to scalar ratio is suppressed by H/(2T), if tensors do not thermalize.

  11. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  12. Strong nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2017-01-01

    This book outlines an analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system, offering a solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter. Includes exercises.

  13. Compactons in strongly nonlinear lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Ahnert, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, we study wave phenomena in strongly nonlinear lattices. Such lattices are characterized by the absence of classical linear waves. We demonstrate that compactons – strongly localized solitary waves with tails decaying faster than exponential – exist and that they play a major role in the dynamics of the system under consideration. We investigate compactons in different physical setups. One part deals with lattices of dispersively coupled limit cycle oscillators which find ...

  14. Microminiature thermocouple monitors own installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, A. J.; Sellers, J. P., Jr.

    1966-01-01

    Microminiature thermocouple makes precision gas sidewall temperature readings inside large thrust chambers. It is installed by a technique whereby the sensor monitors its own installation to insure against thermal damage to the thermocouple and ensure minimum disturbance to chamber surfaces.

  15. Weak and strong typicality in quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lea F; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Rigol, Marcos

    2012-07-01

    We study the properties of mixed states obtained from eigenstates of many-body lattice Hamiltonians after tracing out part of the lattice. Two scenarios emerge for generic systems: (i) The diagonal entropy becomes equivalent to the thermodynamic entropy when a few sites are traced out (weak typicality); and (ii) the von Neumann (entanglement) entropy becomes equivalent to the thermodynamic entropy when a large fraction of the lattice is traced out (strong typicality). Remarkably, the results for few-body observables obtained with the reduced, diagonal, and canonical density matrices are very similar to each other, no matter which fraction of the lattice is traced out. Hence, for all physical quantities studied here, the results in the diagonal ensemble match the thermal predictions.

  16. Strongly Interacting Matter at High Energy Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran,L.

    2008-09-07

    This lecture concerns the properties of strongly interacting matter (which is described by Quantum Chromodynamics) at very high energy density. I review the properties of matter at high temperature, discussing the deconfinement phase transition. At high baryon density and low temperature, large N{sub c} arguments are developed which suggest that high baryonic density matter is a third form of matter, Quarkyonic Matter, that is distinct from confined hadronic matter and deconfined matter. I finally discuss the Color Glass Condensate which controls the high energy limit of QCD, and forms the low x part of a hadron wavefunction. The Glasma is introduced as matter formed by the Color Glass Condensate which eventually thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma.

  17. A modified commercial gas chromatograph for the continuous monitoring of the thermal degradation of sunflower oil and off-line solid phase extraction gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry characterization of released volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontañon, I; Sanz, J; Escudero, A; de Marcos, S; Ferreira, V; Galbán, J

    2015-04-03

    A homemade flow cell attached to a commercial Gas Chromatograph equipped with a Flame Ionization Detector (FID) has been designed for the continuous monitoring of volatile compounds released during heating edible oils. Analytical parameters such as mass of sample, temperature and flow rates have been optimized and the obtained results have been compared with the corresponding thermographs from standard TG systems. Results show that under optimum conditions, the profiles of volatiles released upon heating are comparable to the profiles of TG curves, suggesting that the FID based system could be an alternative to TGA. Additionally, volatiles have been retained in a Lichrolut EN(®) resin, eluted and analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. In this case, forty five compounds have been identified (acids, alcohols, alkanes, aldehydes, ketones and furans) and compared with the FID signals, working both in air or nitrogen atmosphere. It has been concluded that the oxidative thermal degradation is prevented in the presence of a nitrogen atmosphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Monitoring the thermal performance of a heat pump with borehole heat exchangers in Lugano (TI); Projet: mesure des performances thermiques d'une PAC sur sondes geothermiques a Lugano (TI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahud, D.; Lachal, B.

    2001-07-01

    This report presents a heat pump system installed in a single-family house in Lugano, Switzerland, and the results of its monitoring for nine months. The 14 kW heat pump is meant exclusively for space heating while the domestic hot water is provided by a solar water heater with 7.8 m{sup 2} collector area. The cold source of the heat pump is formed by three 80 m deep underground wells from which the geothermal energy is extracted by water circulation. The installation allows to transfer excess heat from the solar collector to the underground wells. The whole system is equipped with a couple of flow meters, temperature sensors and electric counters, in order to characterise its dynamic response and efficiency. Diagrams show monthly values of the thermal energy extracted from the wells, the energy re-injected to the wells, the energy delivered by the heat pump as well as its electrical energy consumption. The heat pump coefficient of performance, which is roughly 4, is discussed.

  19. PV-enhanced solar thermal power

    OpenAIRE

    Platzer, W.

    2014-01-01

    Solar electricity generation using concentrating solar thermal collectors faces the challenge of strongly decreased levelized electricity costs by photovoltaic power plants. One of the selling points favouring solar thermal power is the possibility to generate dispatchable power. Concepts discussed here are solar hybridization of conventional or biomass thermal power plants. Another option is the use of thermal energy storage (TES) charged with solar heat which allow to drive the generation o...

  20. Supernova forecast with strong lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwa, Yudai

    2018-02-01

    In the coming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope era, we will observe O(100) of lensed supernovae (SNe). In this paper, we investigate the possibility for predicting time and sky position of an SN using strong lensing. We find that it will be possible to predict the time and position of the fourth image of SNe which produce four images by strong lensing, with combined information from the three previous images. It is useful to perform multimessenger observations of the very early phase of SN explosions including the shock breakout.

  1. ASSESSING LONGITUDINAL THERMAL CONNECTIVITY ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water temperature is a key driver of ecological processes in aquatic environments and can influence biological connectivity among riverine habitats. Riverine fish and other mobile aquatic species often must navigate a variety of physical barriers such as dams and culverts. For Pacific salmon, warm water can also pose barriers to migration, but the presence of patches of cooler water within rivers can serve as important refuges and potentially as stepping stones at times of day when temperatures are elsewhere unsuitable along the migratory corridor. Rising water temperature associated with climate change has become a major conservation concern for freshwater species and poses challenges for natural resource managers who must consider multiple factors in addition to uncertainty in climate predictions. Thermal refuges can contribute to watershed-scale thermal resilience and are increasingly considered in water quality regulations; however, monitoring such refuges and effectively operationalizing the concept for management has proved difficult. We review what is known about use of thermal refuges by coldwater fishes in natural systems, and then we present two case study applications in which we characterize thermal patterns in rivers (e.g., the frequency, size, spacing, and location of thermal patches) and consider effects on salmon in a management context. In our first example, we illustrate methods for quantifying spatial heterogeneity in stream temperatures at bi

  2. Terrestrial Applications of the Thermal Infrared Sensor, TIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ramsey L.; Thome, Kurtis; Richardson, Cathleen; Irons, James; Reuter, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Landsat satellites have acquired single-band thermal images since 1978. The next satellile in the heritage, Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), is scheduled to launch in December 2012. LDCM will contain the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), where TIRS operates in concert with, but independently of OLI. This paper will provide an overview of the remote sensing instrument TIRS. The T1RS instrument was designed at National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) where it will be fabricated and calibrated as well. Protecting the integrity of the Scientific Data that will be collected from TIRS played a strong role in definition of the calibration test equipment and procedures used for the optical, radiometric, and spatial calibration. The data that will be produced from LCDM will continue to be used world wide for environment monitoring and resource management.

  3. Thermoelectric properties of a strongly correlated layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titvinidze, Irakli; Dorda, Antonius; von der Linden, Wolfgang; Arrigoni, Enrico

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of strong electronic interactions on the thermoelectric properties of a simple generic system, consisting of a single correlated layer sandwiched between two metallic leads. Results will be given for the linear response regime as well as beyond, for which a full nonequilibrium many-body calculation is performed, based on nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). As impurity solver we use the auxiliary master equation approach, which addresses the impurity problem within a finite auxiliary system consisting of a correlated impurity, a small number of uncorrelated bath sites, and Markovian environments. For the linear response regime, results will be presented for the Seebeck coefficient, the electrical conductance, and the electronic contribution to the thermal conductance. Beyond linear response, i.e., for finite differences in the temperatures and/or the bias voltages in the leads, we study the dependence of the current on various model parameters, such as gate voltage and Hubbard interaction of the central layer. We will give a detailed parameter study as far as the thermoelectric efficiency is concerned. We find that strong correlations can indeed increase the thermopower of the device. In addition, some general theoretical requirements for an efficient thermoelectric device will be given.

  4. PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, David; Senatore, Gaetano

    2009-05-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS), held from 29 July-2 August 2008 at the University of Camerino. Camerino is an ancient hill-top town located in the Apennine mountains of Italy, 200 kilometres northeast of Rome, with a university dating back to 1336. The Camerino conference was the 11th in a series which started in 1977: 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (hosted by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (hosted by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, New York, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) 2005: Moscow, Russia (hosted by Vladimir E Fortov and Vladimir Vorob'ev). The name of the series was changed in 1996 from Strongly Coupled Plasmas to Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems to reflect a wider range of topics. 'Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems' encompasses diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. The purpose of the conferences is to provide a regular international forum for the presentation and discussion of research achievements and ideas relating to a variety of plasma, liquid and condensed matter systems that are dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphases that have followed new discoveries and new techniques. The field has continued to see new experimental tools and access to new strongly coupled conditions, most recently in the areas of warm matter, dusty plasmas

  5. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  6. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting ... representation for the two-point functions, anticipating the QCD sum rules. The latter are obtained ... resentation of SU(2)V. In particular, if they belong to the adjoint (triplet) representation, such as the vector and ...

  7. Strong gravitational lensing with SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, LVE; Browne, IWA; Jackson, NJ

    2004-01-01

    The advent of new observational facilities in the last two decades has allowed the rapid discovery and high-resolution optical imaging of many strong lens systems from galaxy to cluster scales, as well as their spectroscopic follow-up. Radio telescopes have played the dominant role in the systematic

  8. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  9. Effects of thermal discharge on marine ecosystems. A case study from a coastal power station in Southern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, G.; De Zio, V.; Pastorelli, A. M.; Rizzi, E.; Rositani, L.; Ungaro, N. [Laboratorio Provinciale di Biologia Marina, Molo Pizzoli, Bari (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Environmental impact of thermal effluent from a fuel power station (potential production 660x4 MW) was monitored during 1998, when the production was 50%; the thermal discharge area was located on the south-western Adriatic coast (Mediterranean Sea) and two sampling surveys were carried out (February and November) in order to analyze the composition and distribution of phytoplankton and macrobenthos communities. The biological assemblages seemed to be poorly influenced by heat diffusion. Some differences were observed among macrozoobenthos species distribution, nearby the discharge point, probably due to the influence of strong water flow coming out of the discharge duct; in fact, the strong flowing current could affect the bottom features (sedimentation) of the nearest areas. Because of the monitoring design (sampling scheme, short and seasonal time period), the reported results have a preliminary character; additional information from other surveys (to be carried out during the hot seasons and at maximum power station capacity) is needed.

  10. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  11. Strong Motion Seismograph Based On MEMS Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Y.; Hu, X.

    2013-12-01

    The MEMS strong motion seismograph we developed used the modularization method to design its software and hardware.It can fit various needs in different application situation.The hardware of the instrument is composed of a MEMS accelerometer,a control processor system,a data-storage system,a wired real-time data transmission system by IP network,a wireless data transmission module by 3G broadband,a GPS calibration module and power supply system with a large-volumn lithium battery in it. Among it,the seismograph's sensor adopted a three-axis with 14-bit high resolution and digital output MEMS accelerometer.Its noise level just reach about 99μg/√Hz and ×2g to ×8g dynamically selectable full-scale.Its output data rates from 1.56Hz to 800Hz. Its maximum current consumption is merely 165μA,and the device is so small that it is available in a 3mm×3mm×1mm QFN package. Furthermore,there is access to both low pass filtered data as well as high pass filtered data,which minimizes the data analysis required for earthquake signal detection. So,the data post-processing can be simplified. Controlling process system adopts a 32-bit low power consumption embedded ARM9 processor-S3C2440 and is based on the Linux operation system.The processor's operating clock at 400MHz.The controlling system's main memory is a 64MB SDRAM with a 256MB flash-memory.Besides,an external high-capacity SD card data memory can be easily added.So the system can meet the requirements for data acquisition,data processing,data transmission,data storage,and so on. Both wired and wireless network can satisfy remote real-time monitoring, data transmission,system maintenance,status monitoring or updating software.Linux was embedded and multi-layer designed conception was used.The code, including sensor hardware driver,the data acquisition,earthquake setting out and so on,was written on medium layer.The hardware driver consist of IIC-Bus interface driver, IO driver and asynchronous notification driver. The

  12. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  13. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  14. Rigidly framed earth retaining structures thermal soil structure interaction of buildings supporting unbalanced lateral earth pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Aboumoussa, Walid

    2014-01-01

    Structures placed on hillsides often present a number of challenges and a limited number of economical choices for site design. An option sometimes employed is to use the building frame as a retaining element, comprising a Rigidly Framed Earth Retaining Structure (RFERS). The relationship between temperature and earth pressure acting on RFERS, is explored in this monograph through a 4.5 year monitoring program of a heavily instrumented in service structure. The data indicated that the coefficient of earth pressure behind the monitored RFERS had a strong linear correlation with temperature. The study also revealed that thermal cycles, rather than lateral earth pressure, were the cause of failure in many structural elements. The book demonstrates that depending on the relative stiffness of the retained soil mass and that of the structural frame, the developed lateral earth pressure, during thermal expansion, can reach magnitudes several times larger than those determined using classical earth pressure theories....

  15. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  16. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  17. Thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the indoor environmental quality due to its effects on well-being, people's performance and building energy requirements. Its attainment is not an easy task requiring advanced design and operation of building and HVAC systems, taking...... under specific conditions. At operation level, only few variables are taken into account with unpredictable effects on the assessment of comfort indices. In this paper, the main criteria for the design and assessment of thermal comfort are discussed in order to help building and HVAC systems designers...... into account all parameters involved. Even though thermal comfort fundamentals are consolidated topics for more than forty years, often designers seem to ignore or apply them in a wrong way. Design input values from standards are often considered as universal values rather than recommended values to be used...

  18. Titanium Alloy Strong Back for IXO Mirror Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Glenn P.; Kai-Wang, Chan

    2011-01-01

    A titanium-alloy mirror-holding fixture called a strong back allows the temporary and permanent bonding of a 50 degree D263 glass x-ray mirror (IXO here stands for International X-ray Observatory). The strong back is used to hold and position a mirror segment so that mounting tabs may be bonded to the mirror with ultra-low distortion of the optical surface. Ti-15%Mo alloy was the material of choice for the strong back and tabs because the coefficient of thermal expansion closely matches that of the D263 glass and the material is relatively easy to machine. This invention has the ability to transfer bonded mounting points from a temporary location on the strong back to a permanent location on the strong back with minimal distortion. Secondly, it converts a single mirror segment into a rigid body with an acceptable amount of distortion of the mirror, and then maneuvers that rigid body into optical alignment such that the mirror segment can be bonded into a housing simulator or mirror module. Key problems are that the mirrors are 0.4-mm thick and have a very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because the mirrors are so thin, they are very flexible and are easily distorted. When permanently bonding the mirror, the goal is to achieve a less than 1-micron distortion. Temperature deviations in the lab, which have been measured to be around 1 C, have caused significant distortions in the mirror segment.

  19. Strong moduli stabilization and phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Dudas, Emilian; Mambrini, Yann; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A

    2013-01-01

    We describe the resulting phenomenology of string theory/supergravity models with strong moduli stabilization. The KL model with F-term uplifting, is one such example. Models of this type predict universal scalar masses equal to the gravitino mass. In contrast, A-terms receive highly suppressed gravity mediated contributions. Under certain conditions, the same conclusion is valid for gaugino masses, which like A-terms, are then determined by anomalies. In such models, we are forced to relatively large gravitino masses (30-1000 TeV). We compute the low energy spectrum as a function of m_{3/2}. We see that the Higgs masses naturally takes values between 125-130 GeV. The lower limit is obtained from the requirement of chargino masses greater than 104 GeV, while the upper limit is determined by the relic density of dark matter (wino-like).

  20. Natural selection on thermal performance in a novel thermal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Michael L; Cox, Robert M; Calsbeek, Ryan

    2014-09-30

    Tropical ectotherms are thought to be especially vulnerable to climate change because they are adapted to relatively stable temperature regimes, such that even small increases in environmental temperature may lead to large decreases in physiological performance. One way in which tropical organisms may mitigate the detrimental effects of warming is through evolutionary change in thermal physiology. The speed and magnitude of this response depend, in part, on the strength of climate-driven selection. However, many ectotherms use behavioral adjustments to maintain preferred body temperatures in the face of environmental variation. These behaviors may shelter individuals from natural selection, preventing evolutionary adaptation to changing conditions. Here, we mimic the effects of climate change by experimentally transplanting a population of Anolis sagrei lizards to a novel thermal environment. Transplanted lizards experienced warmer and more thermally variable conditions, which resulted in strong directional selection on thermal performance traits. These same traits were not under selection in a reference population studied in a less thermally stressful environment. Our results indicate that climate change can exert strong natural selection on tropical ectotherms, despite their ability to thermoregulate behaviorally. To the extent that thermal performance traits are heritable, populations may be capable of rapid adaptation to anthropogenic warming.

  1. Subsystem eigenstate thermalization hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymarsky, Anatoly; Lashkari, Nima; Liu, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Motivated by the qualitative picture of canonical typicality, we propose a refined formulation of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) for chaotic quantum systems. This formulation, which we refer to as subsystem ETH, is in terms of the reduced density matrix of subsystems. This strong form of ETH outlines the set of observables defined within the subsystem for which it guarantees eigenstate thermalization. We discuss the limits when the size of the subsystem is small or comparable to its complement. In the latter case we outline the way to calculate the leading volume-proportional contribution to the von Neumann and Renyi entanglment entropies. Finally, we provide numerical evidence for the proposal in the case of a one-dimensional Ising spin chain.

  2. Giant thermal Hall effect in multiferroics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideue, T.; Kurumaji, T.; Ishiwata, S.; Tokura, Y.

    2017-08-01

    Multiferroics, in which dielectric and magnetic orders coexist and couple with each other, attract renewed interest for their cross-correlated phenomena, offering a fundamental platform for novel functionalities. Elementary excitations in such systems are strongly affected by the lattice-spin interaction, as exemplified by the electromagnons and the magneto-thermal transport. Here we report an unprecedented coupling between magnetism and phonons in multiferroics, namely, the giant thermal Hall effect. The thermal transport of insulating polar magnets (ZnxFe1-x)2Mo3O8 is dominated by phonons, yet extremely sensitive to the magnetic structure. In particular, large thermal Hall conductivities are observed in the ferrimagnetic phase, indicating unconventional lattice-spin interactions and a new mechanism for the Hall effect in insulators. Our results show that the thermal Hall effect in multiferroic materials can be an effective probe for strong lattice-spin interactions and provide a new tool for magnetic control of thermal currents.

  3. Thermal defoliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The negative perception some consumers hold regarding agricultural chemicals has resulted in an increased demand for organic foods and fibers, and in increasing political pressure for the regulation of agricultural production practices. This has revived interest in thermal defoliation of cotton and ...

  4. Strong Winds over the Keel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The latest ESO image reveals amazing detail in the intricate structures of one of the largest and brightest nebulae in the sky, the Carina Nebula (NGC 3372), where strong winds and powerful radiation from an armada of massive stars are creating havoc in the large cloud of dust and gas from which the stars were born. ESO PR Photo 05a/09 The Carina Nebula ESO PR Video 05a/09 Pan over the Carina Nebula ESO PR Video 05b/09 Carina Nebula Zoom-in The large and beautiful image displays the full variety of this impressive skyscape, spattered with clusters of young stars, large nebulae of dust and gas, dust pillars, globules, and adorned by one of the Universe's most impressive binary stars. It was produced by combining exposures through six different filters from the Wide Field Imager (WFI), attached to the 2.2 m ESO/MPG telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory, in Chile. The Carina Nebula is located about 7500 light-years away in the constellation of the same name (Carina; the Keel). Spanning about 100 light-years, it is four times larger than the famous Orion Nebula and far brighter. It is an intensive star-forming region with dark lanes of cool dust splitting up the glowing nebula gas that surrounds its many clusters of stars. The glow of the Carina Nebula comes mainly from hot hydrogen basking in the strong radiation of monster baby stars. The interaction between the hydrogen and the ultraviolet light results in its characteristic red and purple colour. The immense nebula contains over a dozen stars with at least 50 to 100 times the mass of our Sun. Such stars have a very short lifespan, a few million years at most, the blink of an eye compared with the Sun's expected lifetime of ten billion years. One of the Universe's most impressive stars, Eta Carinae, is found in the nebula. It is one of the most massive stars in our Milky Way, over 100 times the mass of the Sun and about four million times brighter, making it the most luminous star known. Eta Carinae is highly

  5. Thermal Hardware for the Thermal Analyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, David

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). NCTS 21070-1. Most Thermal analysts do not have a good background into the hardware which thermally controls the spacecraft they design. SINDA and Thermal Desktop models are nice, but knowing how this applies to the actual thermal hardware (heaters, thermostats, thermistors, MLI blanketing, optical coatings, etc...) is just as important. The course will delve into the thermal hardware and their application techniques on actual spacecraft. Knowledge of how thermal hardware is used and applied will make a thermal analyst a better engineer.

  6. Distributed fiber-optic sensor for real-time monitoring of energized transformer cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Byerly, Kevin; Buric, Michael; Zandhuis, Paul; Sun, Chenhu; Leary, A.; Beddingfield, R.; McHenry, M. E.; Ohodnicki, Paul R.

    2017-05-01

    Real-time temperature mapping is important to offer an optimized thermal design of efficient power transformers by solving local overheating problems. In addition, internal temperature monitoring of power transformers in operation can be leveraged for asset monitoring applications targeted at fault detection to enable condition based maintenance programs. However transformers present a variety of challenging environments such as high levels of electromagnetic interference and limited space for conventional sensing systems to operate. Immersion of some power transformers within insulation oils for thermal management during operation and the presence of relatively large and time varying electrical and magnetic fields in some cases also make sensing and measurement technologies that require electrical wires or active power at the sensing location highly undesirable. In this work, we investigate the dynamic thermal response of standard single-mode optical fiber instrumented on a compact transformer core by using an optical frequency-domain reflectometry scheme, and the spatially resolved on-line monitoring of transformer core temperature rise has been successfully demonstrated. It is found that spectral shifts of the fiber-optic sensor induced by the temperature rises are strongly related to the locations inside the transformer as would be expected. Correlation between thermal behavior of the transformer core as derived from standard IR-based thermal imaging cameras and fiber-optic sensing results is also discussed. The proposed method can easily be extended to cover situations in which high accuracy and high spatial resolution thermal surveillance are required, and offers the potential for unprecedented optimization of magnetic core designs for power transformer applications as well as a novel approach to power transformer asset monitoring.

  7. Enhanced mechanical, thermal, and electric properties of graphene aerogels via supercritical ethanol drying and high-temperature thermal reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Yehong Cheng; Shanbao Zhou; Ping Hu; Guangdong Zhao; Yongxia Li; Xinghong Zhang; Wenbo Han

    2017-01-01

    Graphene aerogels with high surface areas, ultra-low densities and thermal conductivities have been prepared to exploit their wide applications from pollution adsorption to energy storage, supercapacitor, and thermal insulation. However, the low mechanical properties, poor thermal stability and electric conductivity restrict these aerogels? applications. In this paper, we prepared mechanically strong graphene aerogels with large BET surface areas, low thermal conductivities, high thermal stab...

  8. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  9. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a ...

  10. Outdoor comfort study in Rio de Janeiro: site-related context effects on reported thermal sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, E.; Drach, P.; Broede, P.

    2017-03-01

    Aimed at climate-responsive urban design for tropical areas, the paper attempts to answer the question whether the site-related context affects in some way the perceptual assessment of the microclimate by users of outdoor spaces. Our hypothesis was that visual cues resulting from urban design are important components of the outdoor thermal perception. Monitoring was carried out alongside the administration of standard comfort questionnaires throughout summer periods in 2012-2015 in pedestrian areas of downtown Rio de Janeiro (22° 54 10 S, 43° 12 27 W), Brazil. Campaigns took place at different points, pre-defined in respect of urban geometry attributes. For the measurements, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station was employed to which a gray globe thermometer was attached. Two thermal indices were used for assessing the overall meteorological conditions and comfort levels in the outdoor locations: physiological equivalent temperature (PET) and universal thermal climate index (UTCI). Our results suggest that thermal sensation in Rio depends to a large extent on the thermal environment as described by air temperature, PET, or UTCI, and that urban geometry (expressed by the sky-view factor (SVF)) may modify this relationship with increased building density associated to warmer sensation votes under moderate heat stress conditions. This relationship however reverses under strong heat stress with warmer sensations in less obstructed locations, and disappears completely under still higher heat stress, where meteorological conditions, and not the site's SVF, will drive thermal sensation.

  11. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  12. Total Energy Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S

    2008-08-11

    The total energy monitor (TE) is a thermal sensor that determines the total energy of each FEL pulse based on the temperature rise induced in a silicon wafer upon absorption of the FEL. The TE provides a destructive measurement of the FEL pulse energy in real-time on a pulse-by-pulse basis. As a thermal detector, the TE is expected to suffer least from ultra-fast non-linear effects and to be easy to calibrate. It will therefore primarily be used to cross-calibrate other detectors such as the Gas Detector or the Direct Imager during LCLS commissioning. This document describes the design of the TE and summarizes the considerations and calculations that have led to it. This document summarizes the physics behind the operation of the Total Energy Monitor at LCLS and derives associated engineering specifications.

  13. Length-dependent thermal transport and ballistic thermal conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Woei Huang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Probing length-dependent thermal conductivity of a given material has been considered as an important experimental method to determine the length of ballistic thermal conduction, or equivalently, the averaged phonon mean free path (l. However, many previous thermal transport measurements have focused on varying the lateral dimensions of samples, rendering the experimental interpretation indirect. Moreover, deducing l is model-dependent in many optical measurement techniques. In addition, finite contact thermal resistances and variations of sample qualities are very likely to obscure the effect in practice, leading to an overestimation of l. We point out that directly investigating one-dimensional length-dependent (normalized thermal resistance is a better experimental method to determine l. In this regard, we find that no clear experimental data strongly support ballistic thermal conduction of Si or Ge at room temperature. On the other hand, data of both homogeneously-alloyed SiGe nanowires and heterogeneously-interfaced Si-Ge core-shell nanowires provide undisputed evidence for ballistic thermal conduction over several micrometers at room temperature.

  14. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  15. Thermal Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Gateway Technologies, Inc. is marketing and developing textile insulation technology originally developed by Triangle Research and Development Corporation. The enhanced thermal insulation stems from Small Business Innovation Research contracts from NASA's Johnson Space Center and the U.S. Air Force. The effectiveness of the insulation comes from the microencapsulated phase-change materials originally made to keep astronauts gloved hands warm. The applications for the product range from outer wear, housing insulation, and blankets to protective firefighting gear and scuba diving suits. Gateway has developed and begun marketing thermal regulating products under the trademark, OUTLAST. Products made from OUTLAST are already on the market, including boot and shoe liners, winter headgear, hats and caps for hunting and other outdoor sports, and a variety of men's and women's ski gloves.

  16. Turbulent Thermalization

    CERN Document Server

    Micha, Raphael; Micha, Raphael; Tkachev, Igor I.

    2004-01-01

    We study, analytically and with lattice simulations, the decay of coherent field oscillations and the subsequent thermalization of the resulting stochastic classical wave-field. The problem of reheating of the Universe after inflation constitutes our prime motivation and application of the results. We identify three different stages of these processes. During the initial stage of ``parametric resonance'', only a small fraction of the initial inflaton energy is transferred to fluctuations in the physically relevant case of sufficiently large couplings. A major fraction is transfered in the prompt regime of driven turbulence. The subsequent long stage of thermalization classifies as free turbulence. During the turbulent stages, the evolution of particle distribution functions is self-similar. We show that wave kinetic theory successfully describes the late stages of our lattice calculation. Our analytical results are general and give estimates of reheating time and temperature in terms of coupling constants and...

  17. The strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma created at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Heinz, Ulrich W

    2009-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was built to re-create and study in the laboratory the extremely hot and dense matter that filled our entire universe during its first few microseconds. Its operation since June 2000 has been extremely successful, and the four large RHIC experiments have produced an impressive body of data which indeed provide compelling evidence for the formation of thermally equilibrated matter at unprecedented temperatures and energy densities -- a "quark-gluon plasma (QGP)". A surprise has been the discovery that this plasma behaves like an almost perfect fluid, with extremely low viscosity. Theorists had expected a weakly interacting gas of quarks and gluons, but instead we seem to have created a strongly coupled plasma liquid. The experimental evidence strongly relies on a feature called "elliptic flow" in off-central collisions, with additional support from other observations. This article explains how we probe the strongly coupled QGP, describes the ideas and measurements whi...

  18. Noise Spectroscopy in Strongly Correlated Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaqqa, Ali M.

    Strongly correlated materials are an interesting class of materials, thanks to the novel electronic and magnetic phenomena they exhibit as a result of the interplay of various degrees of freedom. This gives rise to an array of potential applications, from Mott-FET to magnetic storage. Many experimental probes have been used to study phase transitions in strongly correlated oxides. Among these, resistance noise spectroscopy, together with conventional transport measurements, provides a unique viewpoint to understand the microscopic dynamics near the phase transitions in these oxides. In this thesis, utilizing noise spectroscopy and transport measurements, four different strongly correlated materials were studied: (1) neodymium nickel oxide (NdNiO 3) ultrathin films, (2) vanadium dioxide (VO2) microribbons, (3) copper vanadium bronze (CuxV2O 5) microribbons and (4) niobium triselenide (NbSe3) microribbons. Ultra thin films of rare-earth nickelates exhibit several temperature-driven phase transitions. In this thesis, we studied the metal-insulator and Neel transitions in a series of NdNiO3 films with different lattice mismatches. Upon colling down, the metal-insulator phase transition is accompanied by a structural (orthorohombic to monoclinic) and magnetic (paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic) transitions as well, making the problem more interesting and complex at the same time. The noise is of the 1/f type and is Gaussian in the high temperature phase, however deviations are seen in the low temperature phases. Below the metal-insulator transition, noise magnitude increases by orders of magnitude: a sign of inhomogeneous electrical conduction as result of phase separation. This is further assured by the non-Gaussian noise signature. At very low temperatures (T noise behavior switches between Gaussian and non-Gaussian over several hours, possibly arising from dynamically competing ground states. VO2 is one of the most widely studied strongly correlated oxides and is

  19. Degradation Characterization of Thermal Interface Greases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paret, Paul P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blackman, Gregory [DuPont; Wong, Arnold [DuPont; Meth, Jeffery [DuPont

    2018-02-12

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are used in power electronics packaging to minimize thermal resistance between the heat generating component and the heat sink. Thermal greases are one such class. The conformability and thin bond line thickness (BLT) of these TIMs can potentially provide low thermal resistance throughout the operation lifetime of a component. However, their performance degrades over time due to pump-out and dry-out during thermal and power cycling. The reliability performance of greases through operational cycling needs to be quantified to develop new materials with superior properties. NREL, in collaboration with DuPont, has performed thermal and reliability characterization of several commercially available thermal greases. Initial bulk and contact thermal resistance of grease samples were measured, and then the thermal degradation that occurred due to pump-out and dry-out during temperature cycling was monitored. The thermal resistances of five different grease materials were evaluated using NREL's steady-state thermal resistance tester based on the ASTM test method D5470. Greases were then applied, utilizing a 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm stencil, between invar and aluminum plates to compare the thermomechanical performance of the materials in a representative test fixture. Scanning Acoustic microscopy, thermal, and compositional analyses were performed periodically during thermal cycling from -40 degrees C to 125 degrees C. Completion of this characterization has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of thermal greases both for their initial bulk and contact thermal performance, as well as their degradation mechanisms under accelerated thermal cycling conditions.

  20. Degradation Characterization of Thermal Interface Greases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoto, Douglas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Major, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paret, Paul P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blackman, Gregory S. [DuPont Experimental Station; Wong, Arnold [DuPont Experimental Station; Meth, Jeffery S. [DuPont Experimental Station

    2017-07-27

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are used in power electronics packaging to minimize thermal resistance between the heat generating component and the heat sink. Thermal greases are one such class. The conformability and thin bond line thickness (BLT) of these TIMs can potentially provide low thermal resistance throughout the operation lifetime of a component. However, their performance degrades over time due to pump-out and dry-out during thermal and power cycling. The reliability performance of greases through operational cycling needs to be quantified to develop new materials with superior properties. NREL, in collaboration with DuPont, has performed thermal and reliability characterization of several commercially available thermal greases. Initial bulk and contact thermal resistance of grease samples were measured, and then the thermal degradation that occurred due to pump-out and dry-out during temperature cycling was monitored. The thermal resistances of five different grease materials were evaluated using NREL's steady-state thermal resistance tester based on the ASTM test method D5470. Greases were then applied, utilizing a 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm stencil, between invar and aluminum plates to compare the thermomechanical performance of the materials in a representative test fixture. Scanning Acoustic microscopy, thermal, and compositional analyses were performed periodically during thermal cycling from -40 degrees Celcius to 125 degrees Celcius. Completion of this characterization has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of thermal greases both for their initial bulk and contact thermal performance, as well as their degradation mechanisms under accelerated thermal cycling conditions.

  1. Degradation Characterization of Thermal Interface Greases: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoto, Douglas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Major, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paret, Paul P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blackman, G. S. [DuPont Experimental Station; Wong, A. [DuPont Experimental Station; Meth, J. S. [DuPont Experimental Station

    2017-08-03

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are used in power electronics packaging to minimize thermal resistance between the heat generating component and the heat sink. Thermal greases are one such class. The conformability and thin bond line thickness (BLT) of these TIMs can potentially provide low thermal resistance throughout the operation lifetime of a component. However, their performance degrades over time due to pump-out and dry-out during thermal and power cycling. The reliability performance of greases through operational cycling needs to be quantified to develop new materials with superior properties. NREL, in collaboration with DuPont, has performed thermal and reliability characterization of several commercially available thermal greases. Initial bulk and contact thermal resistance of grease samples were measured, and then the thermal degradation that occurred due to pump-out and dry-out during temperature cycling was monitored. The thermal resistances of five different grease materials were evaluated using NREL's steady-state thermal resistance tester based on the ASTM test method D5470. Greases were then applied, utilizing a 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm stencil, between invar and aluminum plates to compare the thermomechanical performance of the materials in a representative test fixture. Scanning Acoustic microscopy, thermal, and compositional analyses were performed periodically during thermal cycling from -40 degrees Celcius to 125 degrees Celcius. Completion of this characterization has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of thermal greases both for their initial bulk and contact thermal performance, as well as their degradation mechanisms under accelerated thermal cycling conditions.

  2. Thermal properties of graphite oxide, thermally reduced graphene and chemically reduced graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovský, Ondřej; Sedmidubský, David; Lojka, Michal; Sofer, Zdeněk

    2017-07-01

    We compared thermal behavior and other properties of graphite oxide, thermally reduced graphene and chemically reduced graphene. Graphite was oxidized according to the Hofmann method using potassium chlorate as oxidizing agent in strongly acidic environment. In the next step, the formed graphite oxide was chemically or thermally reduced yielding graphene. The mechanism of thermal reduction was studied using STA-MS. Graphite oxide and both thermally and chemically reduced graphenes were analysed by SEM, EDS, elemental combustion analysis, XPS, Raman spectroscopy, XRD and BET. These findings will help for the large scale production of graphene with appropriate chemical composition.

  3. Early detection of oil-induced stress in crops using spectral and thermal responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emengini, Ebele Josephine; Blackburn, George Alan; Theobald, Julian Charles

    2013-01-01

    Oil pollution is a major source of environmental degradation, and requires accurate monitoring and timely detection for an effective control of its occurrence. This paper examines the potential of a remote sensing approach using the spectral and thermal responses of crops for the early detection of stress caused by oil pollution. In a glasshouse, pot-grown maize was treated with oil at sublethal and lethal applications. Thereafter, leaf thermal, spectral and physiological measurements were taken every two to three days to monitor the development of stress responses. Our results indicate that absolute leaf temperature was a poor indicator of developing stress. However, a derived thermal index (IG) responded consistently in the early stages of physiological damage. Various spectral reflectance features were highly sensitive to oil-induced stress. A narrow-band index using wavelengths in the near-infrared and red-edge region, (R755-R716)/(R755+R716), was optimal for previsual detection of oil-induced stress. This index had a strong linear relationship with photosynthetic rate. This indicates that by detecting vegetation stress, thermal and hyperspectral remote sensing has considerable potential for the timely detection of oil pollution in the environment.

  4. Plasmonic photo-thermal therapy (PPTT)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xiaohua Huang

    irradiation to electromagnetic radiation, strong surface fields are induced due to the coherent excitation of the electrons in the nanogold. The rapid relaxation of these excited electrons produces strong localized heat capable of destroying surrounding targeted cancer cells via hyperthermia or other thermal-based effects.

  5. Factors Influencing the Thermal Efficiency of Horizontal Ground Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Di Sipio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The performance of very shallow geothermal systems (VSGs, interesting the first 2 m of depth from ground level, is strongly correlated to the kind of sediment locally available. These systems are attractive due to their low installation costs, less legal constraints, easy maintenance and possibility for technical improvements. The Improving Thermal Efficiency of horizontal ground heat exchangers Project (ITER aims to understand how to enhance the heat transfer of the sediments surrounding the pipes and to depict the VSGs behavior in extreme thermal situations. In this regard, five helices were installed horizontally surrounded by five different backfilling materials under the same climatic conditions and tested under different operation modes. The field test monitoring concerned: (a monthly measurement of thermal conductivity and moisture content on surface; (b continuous recording of air and ground temperature (inside and outside each helix; (c continuous climatological and ground volumetric water content (VWC data acquisition. The interactions between soils, VSGs, environment and climate are presented here, focusing on the differences and similarities between the behavior of the helix and surrounding material, especially when the heat pump is running in heating mode for a very long time, forcing the ground temperature to drop below 0 °C.

  6. Strong superconducting strength in ε-PbBi microcubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, Ashish Chhaganlal; Wu, Sheng Yun, E-mail: sywu@mail.ndhu.edu.tw

    2016-06-01

    Single phase ε-PbBi microcubes were synthesized using a simple thermal evaporation method. Synchrotron x-ray measurement of the crystal structure of the ε-PbBi microcubes revealed a space group of P6{sub 3}/mmc. Enhanced superconducting transitions were observed from the temperature dependent magnetization, showing a main diamagnetic Meissner state below a T{sub C} of ~8.66(2) K. An extremely strong superconducting strength (α=2.51(1)) and electron-phonon constant (λ{sub EP}=2.25) are obtained from the modified Allen and Dynes theory, which give rise to higher T{sub C} superconductivity in this type of structure. The electron–phonon coupling to low lying phonons is found to be the leading mechanism for the observed strong-coupling superconductivity in the PbBi system. - Highlights: • The morphology of ε-PbBi microcubes could be controlled using thermal evaporation method. • An extremely strong superconducting strength for ε-PbBi microcubes is proposed. • The electron–phonon coupling is found to be the leading mechanism for superconductivity.

  7. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Operational Near-real-time Twice-weekly Global 50 km Satellite Coral Bleaching Thermal Stress Monitoring Product Suite from 2014-12-29 to 2015-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0142124)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Coral Reef Watch program produces a suite of near-real-time global 50 km monitoring products, based on sea surface temperature (SST) observations from NOAA's...

  8. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Operational Near-real-time Twice-weekly Global 50 km Satellite Coral Bleaching Thermal Stress Monitoring Product Suite from 2012-12-31 to 2013-12-30 (NCEI Accession 0141324)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Coral Reef Watch program produces a suite of near-real-time global 50 km monitoring products, based on sea surface temperature (SST) observations from NOAA's...

  9. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Operational Near-real-time Twice-weekly Global 50 km Satellite Coral Bleaching Thermal Stress Monitoring Product Suite from 2013-12-30 to 2014-12-29 (NCEI Accession 0142123)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Coral Reef Watch program produces a suite of near-real-time global 50 km monitoring products, based on sea surface temperature (SST) observations from NOAA's...

  10. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Operational Near-real-time Twice-weekly Global 50 km Satellite Coral Bleaching Thermal Stress Monitoring Product Suite from 2011-12-29 to 2012-12-31 (NODC Accession 0101762)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Coral Reef Watch program produces a suite of near-real-time global 50 km monitoring products, based on sea surface temperature (SST) observations from NOAA's...

  11. Non-invasive thermal IR detection of breast tumor development in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jason R.; Young, Madison A.; Dréau, D.; Trammell, Susan R.

    2015-03-01

    Lumpectomy coupled with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy comprises the treatment of breast cancer for many patients. We are developing an enhanced thermal IR imaging technique that can be used in real-time to guide tissue excision during a lumpectomy. This novel enhanced thermal imaging method is a combination of IR imaging (8- 10 μm) and selective heating of blood (~0.5 °C) relative to surrounding water-rich tissue using LED sources at low powers. Post-acquisition processing of these images highlights temporal changes in temperature and is sensitive to the presence of vascular structures. In this study, fluorescent and enhanced thermal imaging modalities were used to estimate breast cancer tumor volumes as a function of time in 19 murine subjects over a 30-day study period. Tumor volumes calculated from fluorescent imaging follow an exponential growth curve for the first 22 days of the study. Cell necrosis affected the tumor volume estimates based on the fluorescent images after Day 22. The tumor volumes estimated from enhanced thermal imaging show exponential growth over the entire study period. A strong correlation was found between tumor volumes estimated using fluorescent imaging and the enhanced IR images, indicating that enhanced thermal imaging is capable monitoring tumor growth. Further, the enhanced IR images reveal a corona of bright emission along the edges of the tumor masses. This novel IR technique could be used to estimate tumor margins in real-time during surgical procedures.

  12. Influence of urbanization on the thermal environment of meteorological station: Satellite-observed evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Shi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, five national meteorological stations in Anhui province are taken as typical examples to explore the effects of local urbanization on their thermal environment by using Landsat data from 1990 to 2010. Satellite-based land use/land cover (LULC, land surface temperature (LST, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI are used to investigate the effects. The study shows that LULC around meteorological stations changed significantly due to urban expansion. Fast urbanization is the main factor that affects the spatial-temporal distribution of thermal environment around meteorological stations. Moreover, the normalized LST and NDVI exhibit strong inverse correlations around meteorological stations, so the variability of LST can be monitored through evaluating the variability of NDVI. In addition, station-relocation plays an important role in improving representativeness of thermal environment. Notably, the environment representativeness was improved, but when using the data from the station to study climate change, the relocation-induced inhomogeneous data should be considered and adjusted. Consequently, controlling the scale and layout of the urban buildings and constructions around meteorological stations is an effective method to ameliorate observational thermal environment and to improve regional representativeness of station observation. The present work provides observational evidences that high resolution Landsat images can be used to evaluate the thermal environment of meteorological stations.

  13. Experimental Verification of Modeled Thermal Distribution Produced by a Piston Source in Physiotherapy Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Haro, S. A.; Leija, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To present a quantitative comparison of thermal patterns produced by the piston-in-a-baffle approach with those generated by a physiotherapy ultrasonic device and to show the dependency among thermal patterns and acoustic intensity distributions. Methods. The finite element (FE) method was used to model an ideal acoustic field and the produced thermal pattern to be compared with the experimental acoustic and temperature distributions produced by a real ultrasonic applicator. A thermal model using the measured acoustic profile as input is also presented for comparison. Temperature measurements were carried out with thermocouples inserted in muscle phantom. The insertion place of thermocouples was monitored with ultrasound imaging. Results. Modeled and measured thermal profiles were compared within the first 10 cm of depth. The ideal acoustic field did not adequately represent the measured field having different temperature profiles (errors 10% to 20%). Experimental field was concentrated near the transducer producing a region with higher temperatures, while the modeled ideal temperature was linearly distributed along the depth. The error was reduced to 7% when introducing the measured acoustic field as the input variable in the FE temperature modeling. Conclusions. Temperature distributions are strongly related to the acoustic field distributions. PMID:27999801

  14. Experimental Verification of Modeled Thermal Distribution Produced by a Piston Source in Physiotherapy Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To present a quantitative comparison of thermal patterns produced by the piston-in-a-baffle approach with those generated by a physiotherapy ultrasonic device and to show the dependency among thermal patterns and acoustic intensity distributions. Methods. The finite element (FE method was used to model an ideal acoustic field and the produced thermal pattern to be compared with the experimental acoustic and temperature distributions produced by a real ultrasonic applicator. A thermal model using the measured acoustic profile as input is also presented for comparison. Temperature measurements were carried out with thermocouples inserted in muscle phantom. The insertion place of thermocouples was monitored with ultrasound imaging. Results. Modeled and measured thermal profiles were compared within the first 10 cm of depth. The ideal acoustic field did not adequately represent the measured field having different temperature profiles (errors 10% to 20%. Experimental field was concentrated near the transducer producing a region with higher temperatures, while the modeled ideal temperature was linearly distributed along the depth. The error was reduced to 7% when introducing the measured acoustic field as the input variable in the FE temperature modeling. Conclusions. Temperature distributions are strongly related to the acoustic field distributions.

  15. Precursory seismicity pattern before strong earthquakes in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Baskoutas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variation of seismicity, based on the retrospective analyses of three seismic parameters i.e., number of earthquakes, bvalue and energy released, have shown significant changes. Their remarkable relation with strong earthquakes occurrence was formulated as a qualitative character precursory seismicity pattern, which were interpreted in terms of a strong earthquakes occurrence preparation phases. The main characteristic of this pattern is that permits the identification of two period of low and high probability for an earthquake occurrence, suggesting its utility in the current seismic hazard assessment, by the continuous monitoring of the temporal variation of the seismic parameters in a given area. This paper investigates the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the proposed precursory seismicity pattern, before al strong earthquakes occurrence in Greece the time period 2000-2008.

  16. A useful strong lower bound on two-qubit concurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarpour, Mojtaba; Sabour, Abbass

    2012-12-01

    A new strong lower bound on concurrence for two-qubit states is derived. Its equality with the concurrence itself for the pure- and X-states is proved analytically; while extensive numerical computations show that equality for a general mixed state may also exist. Being a very simple function and easy to calculate, it is more convenient and practical than the exact value in some cases, including entanglement investigations in spin chains. We study thermal localizable entanglement in spin chains as an example, to demonstrate the convenience of this bound.

  17. Real-time noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of nanoparticle-mediated photothermal therapy of tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esenaliev, R. O.; Petrov, Y. Y.; Cicenaite, I.; Chumakova, O. V.; Petrova, I. Y.; Patrikeev, I.; Liopo, A.

    2007-02-01

    We proposed and have been developing real-time, noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation, total hemoglobin concentration, and thermotherapy including hyperthermia, coagulation, and cryotherapy. In this paper we propose to use the optoacoustic technique for monitoring of nanoparticle-mediated photothermal therapy (NPT) of tumors. NPT is based on heating exogenous strongly-absorbing nanoparticles selectively delivered in tumors. Real-time monitoring of NPT is necessary for precise tumor therapy with minimal damage to normal tissues. In this study we injected PEGylated and non-PEGylated carbon nanoparticles in nude mice bearing human tumors (5-15 mm) and irradiated the tumors for 10 minutes with nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses which produced both thermal damage to the tumors and optoacoustic signals for monitoring NPT in real time. Irradiation of tumors was performed during or after (3 or 24 hours) nanoparticle injection. Amplitude and temporal parameters of optoacoustic signals (measured with a custom-made wide-band optoacoustic probe) correlated well with nanoparticle injection, temperature rise in tumors, and tumor coagulation. Substantial thermal damage in large areas of the tumors was produced when optimal irradiation parameters were used. Monte Carlo modeling of light distribution in tumors and optoacoustic theory were applied to study kinetics of nanoparticle concentration in the tumors. Our results demonstrated that the optoacoustic technique can be used for real-time monitoring of NTP and provide precise tumor therapy with minimal damage to normal tissues.

  18. Laser Energy Monitor for Double-Pulsed 2-Micrometer IPDA Lidar Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben; Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is a remote sensing technique for monitoring different atmospheric species. The technique relies on wavelength differentiation between strong and weak absorbing features normalized to the transmitted energy. 2-micron double-pulsed IPDA lidar is best suited for atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements. In such case, the transmitter produces two successive laser pulses separated by short interval (200 microseconds), with low repetition rate (10Hz). Conventional laser energy monitors, based on thermal detectors, are suitable for low repetition rate single pulse lasers. Due to the short pulse interval in double-pulsed lasers, thermal energy monitors underestimate the total transmitted energy. This leads to measurement biases and errors in double-pulsed IPDA technique. The design and calibration of a 2-micron double-pulse laser energy monitor is presented. The design is based on a high-speed, extended range InGaAs pin quantum detectors suitable for separating the two pulse events. Pulse integration is applied for converting the detected pulse power into energy. Results are compared to a photo-electro-magnetic (PEM) detector for impulse response verification. Calibration included comparing the three detection technologies in single-pulsed mode, then comparing the pin and PEM detectors in double-pulsed mode. Energy monitor linearity will be addressed.

  19. Strong Costs and Benefits of Winter Acclimatization in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Fristrup Schou

    Full Text Available Studies on thermal acclimation in insects are often performed on animals acclimated in the laboratory under conditions that are not ecologically relevant. Costs and benefits of acclimation responses under such conditions may not reflect costs and benefits in natural populations subjected to daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations. Here we estimated costs and benefits in thermal tolerance limits in relation to winter acclimatization of Drosophila melanogaster. We sampled flies from a natural habitat during winter in Denmark (field flies and compared heat and cold tolerance of these to that of flies collected from the same natural population, but acclimated to 25 °C or 13 °C in the laboratory (laboratory flies. We further obtained thermal performance curves for egg-to-adult viability of field and laboratory (25 °C flies, to estimate possible cross-generational effects of acclimation. We found much higher cold tolerance and a lowered heat tolerance in field flies compared to laboratory flies reared at 25 °C. Flies reared in the laboratory at 13 °C exhibited the same thermal cost-benefit relations as the winter acclimatized flies. We also found a cost of winter acclimatization in terms of decreased egg-to-adult viability at high temperatures of eggs laid by winter acclimatized flies. Based on our findings we suggest that winter acclimatization in nature can induce strong benefits in terms of increased cold tolerance. These benefits can be reproduced in the laboratory under ecologically relevant rearing and testing conditions, and should be incorporated in species distribution modelling. Winter acclimatization also leads to decreased heat tolerance. This may create a mismatch between acclimation responses and the thermal environment, e.g. if temperatures suddenly increase during spring, under current and expected more variable future climatic conditions.

  20. Strong Costs and Benefits of Winter Acclimatization in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup; Loeschcke, Volker; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard

    2015-01-01

    Studies on thermal acclimation in insects are often performed on animals acclimated in the laboratory under conditions that are not ecologically relevant. Costs and benefits of acclimation responses under such conditions may not reflect costs and benefits in natural populations subjected to daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations. Here we estimated costs and benefits in thermal tolerance limits in relation to winter acclimatization of Drosophila melanogaster. We sampled flies from a natural habitat during winter in Denmark (field flies) and compared heat and cold tolerance of these to that of flies collected from the same natural population, but acclimated to 25 °C or 13 °C in the laboratory (laboratory flies). We further obtained thermal performance curves for egg-to-adult viability of field and laboratory (25 °C) flies, to estimate possible cross-generational effects of acclimation. We found much higher cold tolerance and a lowered heat tolerance in field flies compared to laboratory flies reared at 25 °C. Flies reared in the laboratory at 13 °C exhibited the same thermal cost-benefit relations as the winter acclimatized flies. We also found a cost of winter acclimatization in terms of decreased egg-to-adult viability at high temperatures of eggs laid by winter acclimatized flies. Based on our findings we suggest that winter acclimatization in nature can induce strong benefits in terms of increased cold tolerance. These benefits can be reproduced in the laboratory under ecologically relevant rearing and testing conditions, and should be incorporated in species distribution modelling. Winter acclimatization also leads to decreased heat tolerance. This may create a mismatch between acclimation responses and the thermal environment, e.g. if temperatures suddenly increase during spring, under current and expected more variable future climatic conditions.

  1. Discovering Classes of Strongly Equivalent Logic Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y.; Lin, F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we apply computer-aided theorem discovery technique to discover theorems about strongly equivalent logic programs under the answer set semantics. Our discovered theorems capture new classes of strongly equivalent logic programs that can lead to new program simplification rules that preserve strong equivalence. Specifically, with the help of computers, we discovered exact conditions that capture the strong equivalence between a rule and the empty set, between two rules, between t...

  2. Enhanced mechanical, thermal, and electric properties of graphene aerogels via supercritical ethanol drying and high-temperature thermal reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yehong; Zhou, Shanbao; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Guangdong; Li, Yongxia; Zhang, Xinghong; Han, Wenbo

    2017-05-03

    Graphene aerogels with high surface areas, ultra-low densities and thermal conductivities have been prepared to exploit their wide applications from pollution adsorption to energy storage, supercapacitor, and thermal insulation. However, the low mechanical properties, poor thermal stability and electric conductivity restrict these aerogels' applications. In this paper, we prepared mechanically strong graphene aerogels with large BET surface areas, low thermal conductivities, high thermal stability and electric conductivities via hydrothermal reduction and supercritical ethanol drying. Annealing at 1500 °C resulted in slightly increased thermal conductivity and further improvement in mechanical properties, oxidation temperature and electric conductivity of the graphene aerogel. The large BET surface areas, together with strong mechanical properties, low thermal conductivities, high thermal stability and electrical conductivities made these graphene aerogels feasible candidates for use in a number of fields covering from batteries to sensors, electrodes, lightweight conductor and insulation materials.

  3. Molecular Dynamics Simulations for Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of Borophene

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Yue; Li, Chun; Jiang, Jin-Wu; Wei, Ning; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Yongjie Jessica

    2017-01-01

    The present work carries out molecular dynamics simulations to compute the thermal conductivity of the borophene nanoribbon and the borophene nanotube using the Muller-Plathe approach. We investigate the thermal conductivity of the armchair and zigzag borophenes, and show the strong anisotropic thermal conductivity property of borophene. We compare the results of the borophene nanoribbon and the borophene nanotube, and find the thermal conductivity of the borophene is structure dependent.

  4. Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2003-01-01

    We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv) ...

  5. Performance of a quantum heat engine at strong reservoir coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, David; Mintert, Florian; Nazir, Ahsan

    2017-03-01

    We study a quantum heat engine at strong coupling between the system and the thermal reservoirs. Exploiting a collective coordinate mapping, we incorporate system-reservoir correlations into a consistent thermodynamic analysis, thus circumventing the usual restriction to weak coupling and vanishing correlations. We apply our formalism to the example of a quantum Otto cycle, demonstrating that the performance of the engine is diminished in the strong coupling regime with respect to its weakly coupled counterpart, producing a reduced net work output and operating at a lower energy conversion efficiency. We identify costs imposed by sudden decoupling of the system and reservoirs around the cycle as being primarily responsible for the diminished performance, and we define an alternative operational procedure which can partially recover the work output and efficiency. More generally, the collective coordinate mapping holds considerable promise for wider studies of thermodynamic systems beyond weak reservoir coupling.

  6. Weak and strong coupling equilibration in nonabelian gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Keegan, Liam; Romatschke, Paul; van der Schee, Wilke; Zhu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    We present a direct comparison studying equilibration through kinetic theory at weak coupling and through holography at strong coupling in the same set-up. The set-up starts with a homogeneous thermal state, which then smoothly transitions through an out-of-equilibrium phase to an expanding system undergoing boost-invariant flow. This first apples-to-apples comparison of equilibration provides a benchmark for similar equilibration processes in heavy-ion collisions, where the equilibration mechanism is still under debate. We find that results at weak and strong coupling can be smoothly connected by simple, empirical power-laws for the viscosity, equilibration time and entropy production of the system.

  7. Envisioning, quantifying, and managing thermal regimes on river networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, E. Ashley; Beechie, Timothy J.; Torgersen, Christian; Fullerton, Aimee H.

    2017-01-01

    Water temperatures fluctuate in time and space, creating diverse thermal regimes on river networks. Temporal variability in these thermal landscapes has important biological and ecological consequences because of nonlinearities in physiological reactions; spatial diversity in thermal landscapes provides aquatic organisms with options to maximize growth and survival. However, human activities and climate change threaten to alter the dynamics of riverine thermal regimes. New data and tools can identify particular facets of the thermal landscape that describe ecological and management concerns and that are linked to human actions. The emerging complexity of thermal landscapes demands innovations in communication, opens the door to exciting research opportunities on the human impacts to and biological consequences of thermal variability, suggests improvements in monitoring programs to better capture empirical patterns, provides a framework for suites of actions to restore and protect the natural processes that drive thermal complexity, and indicates opportunities for better managing thermal landscapes.

  8. Robust tracking of respiratory rate in high-dynamic range scenes using mobile thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngjun; Julier, Simon J.; Marquardt, Nicolai; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    The ability to monitor the respiratory rate, one of the vital signs, is extremely important for the medical treatment, healthcare and fitness sectors. In many situations, mobile methods, which allow users to undertake everyday activities, are required. However, current monitoring systems can be obtrusive, requiring users to wear respiration belts or nasal probes. Alternatively, contactless digital image sensor based remote-photoplethysmography (PPG) can be used. However, remote PPG requires an ambient source of light, and does not work properly in dark places or under varying lighting conditions. Recent advances in thermographic systems have shrunk their size, weight and cost, to the point where it is possible to create smart-phone based respiration rate monitoring devices that are not affected by lighting conditions. However, mobile thermal imaging is challenged in scenes with high thermal dynamic ranges (e.g. due to the different environmental temperature distributions indoors and outdoors). This challenge is further amplified by general problems such as motion artifacts and low spatial resolution, leading to unreliable breathing signals. In this paper, we propose a novel and robust approach for respiration tracking which compensates for the negative effects of variations in the ambient temperature and motion artifacts and can accurately extract breathing rates in highly dynamic thermal scenes. The approach is based on tracking the nostril of the user and using local temperature variations to infer inhalation and exhalation cycles. It has three main contributions. The first is a novel Optimal Quantization technique which adaptively constructs a color mapping of absolute temperature to improve segmentation, classification and tracking. The second is the Thermal Gradient Flow method that computes thermal gradient magnitude maps to enhance the accuracy of the nostril region tracking. Finally, we introduce the Thermal Voxel method to increase the reliability of the

  9. Robust tracking of respiratory rate in high-dynamic range scenes using mobile thermal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngjun; Julier, Simon J; Marquardt, Nicolai; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia

    2017-10-01

    The ability to monitor the respiratory rate, one of the vital signs, is extremely important for the medical treatment, healthcare and fitness sectors. In many situations, mobile methods, which allow users to undertake everyday activities, are required. However, current monitoring systems can be obtrusive, requiring users to wear respiration belts or nasal probes. Alternatively, contactless digital image sensor based remote-photoplethysmography (PPG) can be used. However, remote PPG requires an ambient source of light, and does not work properly in dark places or under varying lighting conditions. Recent advances in thermographic systems have shrunk their size, weight and cost, to the point where it is possible to create smart-phone based respiration rate monitoring devices that are not affected by lighting conditions. However, mobile thermal imaging is challenged in scenes with high thermal dynamic ranges (e.g. due to the different environmental temperature distributions indoors and outdoors). This challenge is further amplified by general problems such as motion artifacts and low spatial resolution, leading to unreliable breathing signals. In this paper, we propose a novel and robust approach for respiration tracking which compensates for the negative effects of variations in the ambient temperature and motion artifacts and can accurately extract breathing rates in highly dynamic thermal scenes. The approach is based on tracking the nostril of the user and using local temperature variations to infer inhalation and exhalation cycles. It has three main contributions. The first is a novel Optimal Quantization technique which adaptively constructs a color mapping of absolute temperature to improve segmentation, classification and tracking. The second is the Thermal Gradient Flow method that computes thermal gradient magnitude maps to enhance the accuracy of the nostril region tracking. Finally, we introduce the Thermal Voxel method to increase the reliability of the

  10. Contours Based Approach for Thermal Image and Terrestrial Point Cloud Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, A.; Bombardier, V.; Thiriet, P.; Brie, D.

    2013-07-01

    Building energetic performances strongly depend on the thermal insulation. However the performance of the insulation materials tends to decrease over time which necessitates the continuous monitoring of the building in order to detect and repair the anomalous zones. In this paper, it is proposed to couple 2D infrared images representing the surface temperature of the building with 3D point clouds acquired with Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) resulting in a semi-automatic approach allowing the texturation of TLS data with infrared image of buildings. A contour-based algorithm is proposed whose main features are : 1) the extraction of high level primitive is not required 2) the use of projective transform allows to handle perspective effects 3) a point matching refinement procedure allows to cope with approximate control point selection. The procedure is applied to test modules aiming at investigating the thermal properties of material.

  11. CONTOURS BASED APPROACH FOR THERMAL IMAGE AND TERRESTRIAL POINT CLOUD REGISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bennis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Building energetic performances strongly depend on the thermal insulation. However the performance of the insulation materials tends to decrease over time which necessitates the continuous monitoring of the building in order to detect and repair the anomalous zones. In this paper, it is proposed to couple 2D infrared images representing the surface temperature of the building with 3D point clouds acquired with Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS resulting in a semi-automatic approach allowing the texturation of TLS data with infrared image of buildings. A contour-based algorithm is proposed whose main features are : 1 the extraction of high level primitive is not required 2 the use of projective transform allows to handle perspective effects 3 a point matching refinement procedure allows to cope with approximate control point selection. The procedure is applied to test modules aiming at investigating the thermal properties of material.

  12. Provisional maps of thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park, based on satellite thermal infrared imaging and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Heasler, Henry; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

    2014-01-01

    Maps that define the current distribution of geothermally heated ground are useful toward setting a baseline for thermal activity to better detect and understand future anomalous hydrothermal and (or) volcanic activity. Monitoring changes in the dynamic thermal areas also supports decisions regarding the development of Yellowstone National Park infrastructure, preservation and protection of park resources, and ensuring visitor safety. Because of the challenges associated with field-based monitoring of a large, complex geothermal system that is spread out over a large and remote area, satellite-based thermal infrared images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were used to map the location and spatial extent of active thermal areas, to generate thermal anomaly maps, and to quantify the radiative component of the total geothermal heat flux. ASTER thermal infrared data acquired during winter nights were used to minimize the contribution of solar heating of the surface. The ASTER thermal infrared mapping results were compared to maps of thermal areas based on field investigations and high-resolution aerial photos. Field validation of the ASTER thermal mapping is an ongoing task. The purpose of this report is to make available ASTER-based maps of Yellowstone’s thermal areas. We include an appendix containing the names and characteristics of Yellowstone’s thermal areas, georeferenced TIFF files containing ASTER thermal imagery, and several spatial data sets in Esri shapefile format.

  13. Radial Distribution Functions of Strongly Coupled Two-Temperature Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Nathaniel R.; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Baalrud, Scott D.

    2017-10-01

    We present tests of three theoretical models for the radial distribution functions (RDFs) in two-temperature strongly coupled plasmas. RDFs are useful in extending plasma thermodynamics and kinetic theory to strong coupling, but they are usually known only for thermal equilibrium or for approximate one-component model plasmas. Accurate two-component modeling is necessary to understand the impact of strong coupling on inter-species transport, e.g., ambipolar diffusion and electron-ion temperature relaxation. We demonstrate that the Seuferling-Vogel-Toeppfer (SVT) extension of the hypernetted chain equations not only gives accurate RDFs (as compared with classical molecular dynamics simulations), but also has a simple connection with the Yukawa OCP model. This connection gives a practical means to recover the structure of the electron background from knowledge of the ion-ion RDF alone. Using the model RDFs in Effective Potential Theory, we report the first predictions of inter-species transport coefficients of strongly coupled plasmas far from equilibrium. This work is supported by NSF Grant No. PHY-1453736, AFSOR Award No. FA9550-16-1-0221, and used XSEDE computational resources.

  14. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  15. Fundamentals of Thermal Expansion and Thermal Contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zi-Kui; Shang, Shun-Li; Wang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Thermal expansion is an important property of substances. Its theoretical prediction has been challenging, particularly in cases the volume decreases with temperature, i.e., thermal contraction or negative thermal expansion at high temperatures. In this paper, a new theory recently developed by the authors has been reviewed and further examined in the framework of fundamental thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Its applications to cerium with colossal thermal expansion and Fe3Pt with th...

  16. Thermal Insulation from Hardwood Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, I.; Grinfelds, U.; Vikele, L.; Rozenberga, L.; Zeps, M.; Luguza, S.

    2015-11-01

    Adequate heat is one of the prerequisites for human wellbeing; therefore, building insulation is required in places where the outside temperature is not suitable for living. The climate change, with its rising temperatures and longer dry periods, promotes enlargement of the regions with conditions more convenient for hardwood species than for softwood species. Birch (Betula pendula) is the most common hardwood species in Latvia. The aim of this work was to obtain birch fibres from wood residues of plywood production and to form low-density thermal insulation boards. Board formation and production was done in the presence of water; natural binder, fire retardant and fungicide were added in different concentrations. Board properties such as density, transportability or resistance to particulate loss, thermal conductivity and reaction to fire were investigated. This study included thermal insulation boards with the density of 102-120 kg/m3; a strong correlation between density and the binder amount was found. Transportability also improved with the addition of a binder, and 0.1-0.5% of the binder was the most appropriate amount for this purpose. The measured thermal conductivity was in the range of 0.040-0.043 W/(m·K). Fire resistance increased with adding the fire retardant. We concluded that birch fibres are applicable for thermal insulation board production, and it is possible to diversify board properties, changing the amount of different additives.

  17. Thermal infrared remote sensing sensors, methods, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuenzer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the field of thermal infrared remote sensing. Temperature is one of the most important physical environmental variables monitored by earth observing remote sensing systems. Temperature ranges define the boundaries of habitats on our planet. Thermal hazards endanger our resources and well-being. In this book renowned international experts have contributed chapters on currently available thermal sensors as well as innovative plans for future missions. Further chapters discuss the underlying physics and image processing techni

  18. Selective thermal emission from thin-film metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streyer, W.; Law, S.; Mason, J.; Adams, D. C.; Rooney, G.; Jacobs, T.; Wasserman, D.

    2013-09-01

    The mid-infrared (mid-IR), as the spectral range where all finite temperature biological and mechanical objects emit thermal radiation, and where numerous molecular species have strong vibrational absorption resonances, is of significant importance for both security and sensing applications. The design of materials with engineered absorption resonances, which by Kirchoff's Law, should give strongly selective emission at the design resonance upon thermal excitation, allows for the control of the spectral character of the material's thermal emission. Designed as a thin film coating, these structures can be applied to grey-body emitters to shift the grey-body thermal emission into predetermined spectral bands, altering their appearance on a thermal imaging system. Here we demonstrate strongly selective mid-infrared absorption and thermal emission from three classes of subwavelength thin-film materials. First, we demonstrate selective thermal emission from patterned, commerciallyavailable steel films, via selective out-coupling of thermally-excited surface modes. Subsequently, we show nearperfect absorption (and strongly selective thermal emission) for wavelengths between 5 - 9μm with patterned metal-dielectric-metal structures. Finally, we demonstrate strong absorption from large area, unpatterned, thinfilm high-index dielectric coatings on highly-doped Si substrates, tunable across the mid-IR (5 - 12μm). Our results are compared to numerical simulations, as well as analytical models, with good agreement between experiments and models.

  19. Bearing Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Health monitoring of bearings is a widely researched topic and has been attempted by analysing acoustic, thermal and vibration signatures. The methods usually require signal of a healthy bearing to be used as a baseline. This limits their use in practical scenarios. This work proposes a kurtosis based baseline free method of analysing vibration signals to identify the bearing which has generated a fault. It then reports a detailed study on empirical mode decomposition technique for extracting intrinsic mode functions and suggests a set of steps which are necessary and sufficient for the purpose of bearing health monitoring. Thereafter, it compares a few dominant frequencies with the expected ones based on known bearing dimensions. This process has been shown to be fairly accurate in identifying the location of fault in a bearing.

  20. Mobility Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schæbel, Anne-Lise; Dybbro, Karina Løvendahl; Andersen, Lisbeth Støvring

    2015-01-01

    Undersøgelse af digital monitorering af plejehjemsbeboeres vendinger under søvn på Fremtidens Plejehjem, Nørresundby......Undersøgelse af digital monitorering af plejehjemsbeboeres vendinger under søvn på Fremtidens Plejehjem, Nørresundby...

  1. Natural selection on thermal preference, critical thermal maxima and locomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Anthony L; Miles, Donald B

    2017-08-16

    Climate change is resulting in a radical transformation of the thermal quality of habitats across the globe. Whereas species have altered their distributions to cope with changing environments, the evidence for adaptation in response to rising temperatures is limited. However, to determine the potential of adaptation in response to thermal variation, we need estimates of the magnitude and direction of natural selection on traits that are assumed to increase persistence in warmer environments. Most inferences regarding physiological adaptation are based on interspecific analyses, and those of selection on thermal traits are scarce. Here, we estimate natural selection on major thermal traits used to assess the vulnerability of ectothermic organisms to altered thermal niches. We detected significant directional selection favouring lizards with higher thermal preferences and faster sprint performance at their optimal temperature. Our analyses also revealed correlational selection between thermal preference and critical thermal maxima, where individuals that preferred warmer body temperatures with cooler critical thermal maxima were favoured by selection. Recent published estimates of heritability for thermal traits suggest that, in concert with the strong selective pressures we demonstrate here, evolutionary adaptation may promote long-term persistence of ectotherms in altered thermal environments. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Permafrost monitoring K12 outreach program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Saito, T.; Romanovsky, V.

    2007-12-01

    experience and educational participation at levels ranging from elementary school to high school. 2). To provide high-resolution spatial distribution of the thermal state of permafrost, especially in Alaska. 3). To assist in improving the general knowledge of the Earth's climatic pattern and opportunity to take part in understanding the climatic systems for younger generations. The obtained data and Internet Q&A systems help understand the relationship between permafrost condition and the arctic climate system. As well as being a strong outreach program to support village science education, the date sets form this project will establish a baseline for future permafrost monitoring investigations.

  3. Thermal Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Philipp Andreas

    Accidental ignition of flammable gases is a critical safety concern in many industrial applications. Particularly in the aviation industry, the main areas of concern on an aircraft are the fuel tank and adjoining regions, where spilled fuel has a high likelihood of creating a flammable mixture. To this end, a fundamental understanding of the ignition phenomenon is necessary in order to develop more accurate test methods and standards as a means of designing safer air vehicles. The focus of this work is thermal ignition, particularly auto-ignition with emphasis on the effect of heating rate, hot surface ignition and flame propagation, and puffing flames. Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels is traditionally separated into slow reaction, cool flame, and ignition regimes based on pressure and temperature. Standard tests, such as the ASTM E659, are used to determine the lowest temperature required to ignite a specific fuel mixed with air at atmospheric pressure. It is expected that the initial pressure and the rate at which the mixture is heated also influences the limiting temperature and the type of combustion. This study investigates the effect of heating rate, between 4 and 15 K/min, and initial pressure, in the range of 25 to 100 kPa, on ignition of n-hexane air mixtures. Mixtures with equivalence ratio ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 were investigated. The problem is also modeled computationally using an extension of Semenov's classical auto-ignition theory with a detailed chemical mechanism. Experiments and simulations both show that in the same reactor either a slow reaction or an ignition event can take place depending on the heating rate. Analysis of the detailed chemistry demonstrates that a mixture which approaches the ignition region slowly undergoes a significant modification of its composition. This change in composition induces a progressive shift of the explosion limit until the mixture is no longer flammable. A mixture that approaches the ignition region

  4. Exciton condensation in strongly correlated electron bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademaker, Louk; van den Brink, J.; Zaanen, Jan; Hilgenkamp, H.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the possibility of exciton condensation in Mott insulating bilayers. In these strongly correlated systems, an exciton is the bound state of a double occupied and empty site. In the strong coupling limit, the exciton acts as a hard-core boson. Its physics is captured by the exciton t -J

  5. Lattice QCD with strong external electric fields

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Arata

    2012-01-01

    We study particle generation by a strong electric field in lattice QCD. To avoid the sign problem of the Minkowskian electric field, we adopt the "isospin" electric charge. When a strong electric field is applied, the insulating vacuum is broken down and pairs of charged particles are produced by the Schwinger mechanism. The competition against the color confining force is also discussed.

  6. Theoretical studies of strongly correlated fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, D. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Strongly correlated fermions are investigated. An understanding of strongly correlated fermions underpins a diverse range of phenomena such as metal-insulator transitions, high-temperature superconductivity, magnetic impurity problems and the properties of heavy-fermion systems, in all of which local moments play an important role. (author).

  7. Strong List Edge Coloring of Subcubic Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongping Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study strong list edge coloring of subcubic graphs, and we prove that every subcubic graph with maximum average degree less than 15/7, 27/11, 13/5, and 36/13 can be strongly list edge colored with six, seven, eight, and nine colors, respectively.

  8. Monitoring the thermal performance of a heat pump coupled to geothermal probes at Lugano (Switzerland); Mesure des performances thermiques d'une pompe a chaleur couplee sur des sondes geothermiques a Lugano (TI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahud, D. [Scuola Universitaria Professionale della Svizzera Italiana (SUPSI), Laboratorio Energia Ecologia ed Economia (LEEE), Dipartimento Ambiente, Costruzioni e Design DACD, Trevano-Canobbio (Switzerland); Lachal, B. [Universite de Geneve, Centre Universitaire d' Etude des Problemes de l' Energie (CUEPE), Geneve (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    A heat pump system was experimentally investigated in a measuring campaign over two years and in additional dynamic system simulations using a model based on TRNSYS. The water-water heat pump delivers 14 kW thermal power at 0 {sup o}C/35 {sup o}C and uses 3 borehole heat exchangers of 80 m length each. It heats a single-family house of about 250 m{sup 2} of heated floor area, built in the 80es, which is also equipped with 7.8 m{sup 2} of solar collectors for hot water preparation. After two years of measurements, the thermal performances of the system are still very high and no performance decrease has been detected. The heat pump reaches quite a high seasonal performance factor of 4.1 to 4.2. A linear dependence between the monthly performance factor and the mean temperature difference between the heat carrier fluids circulating in the condenser and the evaporator has been identified.

  9. Strongly correlated quantum spin liquid in herbertsmithite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, V. R., E-mail: vrshag@thd.pnpi.spb.ru [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Popov, K. G. [Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Komi Science Center (Russian Federation); Khodel, V. A. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15

    Strongly correlated Fermi systems are among the most intriguing and fundamental systems in physics. We show that the herbertsmithite ZnCu{sub 3}(OH){sub 6}Cl{sub 2} can be regarded as a new type of strongly correlated electrical insulator that possesses properties of heavy-fermion metals with one exception: it resists the flow of electric charge. We demonstrate that herbertsmithite's low-temperature properties are defined by a strongly correlated quantum spin liquid made with hypothetic particles such as fermionic spinons that carry spin 1/2 and no charge. Our calculations of its thermodynamic and relaxation properties are in good agreement with recent experimental facts and allow us to reveal their scaling behavior, which strongly resembles that observed in heavy-fermion metals. Analysis of the dynamic magnetic susceptibility of strongly correlated Fermi systems suggests that there exist at least two types of its scaling.

  10. In Situ Diagnostic Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Low-profile, embedded sensors are proposed for condition monitoring and health management (HM) of thermal protection systems. The sensors will be fabricated using a...

  11. Strong Coupling Gauge Theories in LHC ERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, H.; Harada, M.; Tanabashi, M.; Yamawaki, K.

    2011-01-01

    Higgs, or techni-dilaton - composite Higgs near conformality / Koichi Yamawaki -- Phase diagram of strongly interacting theories / Francesco Sannino -- Resizing conformal windows / O. Antipin and K. Tuominen -- Nearly conformal gauge theories on the lattice / Zoltan Fodor ... [et al.] -- Going beyond QCD in lattice gauge theory / G. T. Fleming -- Phases of QCD from small to large N[symbol]: (some) lattice results / A. Deuzeman, E. Pallante and M. P. Lombardo -- Lattice gauge theory and (quasi)-conformal technicolor / D. K. Sinclair and J. B. Kogut -- Study of the running coupling constant in 10-flavor QCD with the Schrodinger functional method / N. Yamada ... [et al.] -- Study of the running coupling in twisted Polyakov scheme / T. Aoyama ... [et al.].Running coupling in strong gauge theories via the lattice / Zoltan Fodor ... [et al.] -- Higgsinoless supersymmetry and hidden gravity / Michael L. Graesser, Ryuichiro Kitano and Masafumi Kurachi -- The latest status of LHC and the EWSB physics / S. Asai -- Continuum superpartners from supersymmetric unparticles / Hsin-Chia Cheng -- Review of minimal flavor constraints for technicolor / Hidenori S. Fukano and Francesco Sannino -- Standard model and high energy Lorentz violation / Damiano Anselmi -- Dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking and fourth family / Michio Hashimoto -- Holmorphic supersymmetric Nambu-Jona-Lasino model and dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking / Dong-Won Jung, Otto C. W. Kong and Jae Sik Lee -- Ratchet model of Baryogenesis / Tatsu Takeuchi, Azusa Minamizaki and Akio Sugamoto -- Classical solutions of field equations in Einstein Gauss-Bonnet gravity / P. Suranyi, C. Vaz and L. C. R. Wijewardhana -- Black holes constitute all dark matter / Paul H. Frampton -- Electroweak precision test and Z [symbol] in the three site Higgsless model / Tomohiro Abe -- Chiral symmetry and BRST symmetry breaking, quaternion reality and the lattice simulation / Sadataka Furui -- Holographic techni-dilaton, or

  12. Thermal feature extraction of servers in a datacenter using thermal image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Ran, Jian; Xie, Ting; Gao, Shan

    2017-09-01

    Thermal cameras provide fine-grained thermal information that enhances monitoring and enables automatic thermal management in large datacenters. Recent approaches employing mobile robots or thermal camera networks can already identify the physical locations of hot spots. Other distribution information used to optimize datacenter management can also be obtained automatically using pattern recognition technology. However, most of the features extracted from thermal images, such as shape and gradient, may be affected by changes in the position and direction of the thermal camera. This paper presents a method for extracting the thermal features of a hot spot or a server in a container datacenter. First, thermal and visual images are registered based on textural characteristics extracted from images acquired in datacenters. Then, the thermal distribution of each server is standardized. The features of a hot spot or server extracted from the standard distribution can reduce the impact of camera position and direction. The results of experiments show that image registration is efficient for aligning the corresponding visual and thermal images in the datacenter, and the standardization procedure reduces the impacts of camera position and direction on hot spot or server features.

  13. Strong and ultrastrong coupling with free-space radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, S.; Vasanelli, A.; Pegolotti, G.; Todorov, Y.; Sirtori, C.

    2016-10-01

    Strong and ultrastrong light-matter coupling are remarkable phenomena of quantum electrodynamics occurring when the interaction between matter excitation and an electromagnetic field cannot be described by usual perturbation theory. This is generally achieved by coupling an excitation with large oscillator strength to the confined electromagnetic mode of an optical microcavity. In this work, we demonstrate that strong/ultrastrong coupling can also take place in the absence of optical confinement. We have studied the nonperturbative spontaneous emission of collective excitations in a dense two-dimensional electron gas that superradiantly decays into free space. By using a quantum model based on the input-output formalism, we have derived the linear optical properties of the coupled system, and we demonstrated that its eigenstates are mixed light-matter particles, as in any system displaying strong or ultrastrong light-matter interaction. Moreover, we have shown that in the ultrastrong coupling regime, i.e., when the radiative broadening is comparable to the matter excitation energy, the commonly used rotating-wave and Markov approximations yield unphysical results. Finally, the input-output formalism has allowed us to prove that Kirchhoff's law, describing thermal emission properties, applies to our system in all the light-matter coupling regimes considered in this work.

  14. Kinetic approach to the dynamics of strongly coupled inhomogeneous plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kählert, Hanno; Kalman, Gabor J.; Bonitz, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Based on the BBGKY hierarchy and an extended STLS ansatz for the two-particle distribution function, we derive kinetic and fluid equations for strongly coupled inhomogeneous plasmas that take both strong coupling and thermal effects into account. The kinetic equation is employed to study the collective modes in a uniform plasma. The fluid equations are used to study the temperature dependence of the breathing mode of confined dusty plasmas, where excellent agreement with molecular dynamics simulations is observed. In the limit of weak density inhomogeneities, they can be reduced to the equations of linearized elasticity theory. The bulk and shear moduli emerge directly from the theory as integrals over the pair correlation function, and previous results in the literature are recovered. The theory should be useful to study the collective modes of confined strongly coupled plasmas, where large density variations make the application of methods that were developed for uniform systems impractical. Supported by the DAAD via a postdoctoral scholarship and the DFG via SFB-TR24.

  15. Recombination monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-02-03

    This is a brief report on LEReC recombination monitor design considerations. The recombination produced Au78+ ion rate is reviewed. Based on this two designs are discussed. One is to use the large dispersion lattice. It is shown that even with the large separation of the Au78+ beam from the Au79+ beam, the continued monitoring of the recombination is not possible. Accumulation of Au78+ ions is needed, plus collimation of the Au79+ beam. In another design, it is shown that the recombination monitor can be built based on the proposed scheme with the nominal lattice. From machine operation point of view, this design is preferable. Finally, possible studies and the alternative strategies with the basic goal of the monitor are discussed.

  16. Monitoring Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Gurmukh

    2015-01-01

    This book is useful for Hadoop administrators who need to learn how to monitor and diagnose their clusters. Also, the book will prove useful for new users of the technology, as the language used is simple and easy to grasp.

  17. Semi-strong split domination in graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Alwardi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph $G = (V,E$, a dominating set $D subseteq V$ is called a semi-strong split dominating set of $G$ if $|V setminus D| geq 1$ and the maximum degree of the subgraph induced by $V setminus D$ is 1. The minimum cardinality of a semi-strong split dominating set (SSSDS of G is the semi-strong split domination number of G, denoted $gamma_{sss}(G$. In this work, we introduce the concept and prove several results regarding it.

  18. Strong experiences of music in university students

    OpenAIRE

    Lamont, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Research in Sweden has recently defined and explored the concept of strong experiences of music, which had been hitherto ignored by much research in the psychology of music and emotion. From a large-scale study of over 900 adults, Gabrielsson and Lindström Wik (2003) found that strong experiences of music included positive and negative responses to music, and could occur with any genre of music. The current research explores the generalisability of the strong experiences of music studied by G...

  19. Strong versus Weak Ties in Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Giulietti, Corrado; Wahba, Jackline; Zenou, Yves

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the role of strong versus weak ties in the rural-to-urban migration decision in China. We first develop a network model that puts forward the different roles of weak and strong ties in helping workers to migrate to the city. We then use a unique longitudinal data that allows us to test our model by focusing on first-time migration. Strong ties are measured by the closest family contact (excluding household members) while weak ties are determined by the fraction of migrants ...

  20. The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus......, which satisfies all seven conditions. In particular, we show how to circumvent Mellies counter-example to strong normalization by a slight restriction of the congruence rules. The calculus is implemented as the core data structure of the Celf logical framework. All meta-theoretic aspects of this work...

  1. Combination Thermal Barrier And Wear Coatings For Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingart, Mike; Moller, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Thermal-barrier layers covered with self-lubricating surface layers. Zirconia thermal-barrier coat applied to surface of combustion chamber in engine by plasma-arc spraying. Then PS-200 plasma-arc sprayed onto zirconia. Self-lubricating coat prevents sliding contact between thermal barrier and piston ring, effectively preventing both wear and production of additional heat via friction. Other combinations of thermal-barrier and self-lubricating, wear-resistant coating materials used as long as two materials adhere to each other, applied by use of similar or compatible processes, have similar coefficients of thermal expansion, sufficiently strong at high temperatures, and affordable.

  2. Thermal analysis of LED lamps for optimal driver integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perpiñà, X.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Vellvehi, M.; Jakovenko, J.; Jordà, X.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Bancken, P.; Bolt, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the thermal influence of a light-emitting diode (LED) driver on a retrofit LED lamp, also reporting on a procedure for its thermal characterization and multiscale modeling. In this analysis, temperature is measured by infrared thermography and monitoring specific locations with

  3. Detection of Perforators Using Smartphone Thermal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwicke, Joseph T; Osmani, Omer; Skillman, Joanna M

    2016-01-01

    Thermal imaging detects infrared radiation from an object, producing a thermogram that can be interpreted as a surrogate marker for cutaneous blood flow. To date, high-resolution cameras typically cost tens of thousands of dollars. The FLIR ONE is a smartphone-compatible miniature thermal imaging camera that currently retails at under $200. In a proof-of-concept study, patients and healthy volunteers were assessed with thermal imaging for (1) detecting and mapping perforators, (2) defining perforasomes, and (3) monitoring free flaps. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative thermograms can assist in the planning, execution, and monitoring of free flaps, and the FLIR ONE provides a low-cost adjunct that could be applied to other areas of burns and plastic surgery.

  4. Strong Ground Motion Database System for the Mexican Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Yanez, C.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Ruiz, A. L.; Delgado, R.; Macías, M. A.; Sandoval, H.; Alcántara, L.; Quiroz, A.

    2014-12-01

    A web-based system for strong Mexican ground motion records dissemination and archival is presented. More than 50 years of continuous strong ground motion instrumentation and monitoring in Mexico have provided a fundamental resource -several thousands of accelerograms- for better understanding earthquakes and their effects in the region. Lead by the Institute of Engineering (IE) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), the engineering strong ground motion monitoring program at IE relies on a continuously growing network, that at present includes more than 100 free-field stations and provides coverage to the seismic zones in the country. Among the stations, approximately 25% send the observed acceleration to a processing center in Mexico City in real-time, and the rest require manual access, remote or in situ, for later processing and cataloguing. As part of a collaboration agreement between UNAM and the National Center for Disaster Prevention, regarding the construction and operation of a unified seismic network, a web system was developed to allow access to UNAM's engineering strong motion archive and host data from other institutions. The system allows data searches under a relational database schema, following a general structure relying on four databases containing the: 1) free-field stations, 2) epicentral location associated with the strong motion records available, 3) strong motion catalogue, and 4) acceleration files -the core of the system. In order to locate and easily access one or several records of the data bank, the web system presents a variety of parameters that can be involved in a query (seismic event, region boundary, station name or ID, radial distance to source or peak acceleration). This homogeneous platform has been designed to facilitate dissemination and processing of the information worldwide. Each file, in a standard format, contains information regarding the recording instrument, the station, the corresponding earthquake

  5. Dynamic thermal environment and thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Ouyang, Q; Cao, B; Zhou, X; Yu, J

    2016-02-01

    Research has shown that a stable thermal environment with tight temperature control cannot bring occupants more thermal comfort. Instead, such an environment will incur higher energy costs and produce greater CO2 emissions. Furthermore, this may lead to the degeneration of occupants' inherent ability to combat thermal stress, thereby weakening thermal adaptability. Measured data from many field investigations have shown that the human body has a higher acceptance to the thermal environment in free-running buildings than to that in air-conditioned buildings with similar average parameters. In naturally ventilated environments, occupants have reported superior thermal comfort votes and much greater thermal comfort temperature ranges compared to air-conditioned environments. This phenomenon is an integral part of the adaptive thermal comfort model. In addition, climate chamber experiments have proven that people prefer natural wind to mechanical wind in warm conditions; in other words, dynamic airflow can provide a superior cooling effect. However, these findings also indicate that significant questions related to thermal comfort remain unanswered. For example, what is the cause of these phenomena? How we can build a comfortable and healthy indoor environment for human beings? This article summarizes a series of research achievements in recent decades, tries to address some of these unanswered questions, and attempts to summarize certain problems for future research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Nuclear physics from strong coupling QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Fromm, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The strong coupling limit (beta_gauge = 0) of QCD offers a number of remarkable research possibilities, of course at the price of large lattice artifacts. Here, we determine the complete phase diagram as a function of temperature T and baryon chemical potential mu_B, for one flavor of staggered fermions in the chiral limit, with emphasis on the determination of a tricritical point and on the T ~ 0 transition to nuclear matter. The latter is known to happen for mu_B substantially below the baryon mass, indicating strong nuclear interactions in QCD at infinite gauge coupling. This leads us to studying the properties of nuclear matter from first principles. We determine the nucleon-nucleon potential in the strong coupling limit, as well as masses m_A of nuclei as a function of their atomic number A. Finally, we clarify the origin of nuclear interactions at strong coupling, which turns out to be a steric effect.

  7. Poll shows strong ties in religious families

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coday, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    ..., the report found that those in families heavily involved in religious activities are more likely to have strong relationships with their parents and participate in family activities and less likely to run away from home....

  8. Strong-force theorists scoop Noble Prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Durrani, Matin

    2004-01-01

    Three US theorists have shared the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction". Their theoretical work explains why quarks behave almost as free particles at high energies (½ page)

  9. Diffusive Mixing in Strongly Coupled Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaw, Abdourahmane; Murillo, Michael

    2016-10-01

    A multispecies hydrodynamic model based on moments of the Born-Bogolyubov-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy is developed for physical conditions relevant to astrophysical plasmas. The modified transport equations incorporate strong correlations through a density functional theory closure, while fluctuations enters through a mixture BGK operator. This model extends the usual Burgers equations for a dilute gas to strongly coupled and isothermal plasmas mixtures. The diffusive currents for these strongly coupled plasmas is self-consistently derived. The settling of impurities and its impact on cooling of white dwarfs and neutron stars can be greatly affected by strong Coulomb coupling, which we show can be quantified using the direct-correlation function. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Grant No. FA9550-12-1-0344).

  10. On the generation of 'strong' magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainshtein, S. I.; Parker, E. N.; Rosner, R.

    1993-01-01

    We rediscuss the nature of magnetic field generation in astrophysical systems. We show that as a result of ineffective three-dimensional turbulent diffusion in the presence of strong azimuthal magnetic fields, the standard dynamo equations are not likely to provide a reasonable description of magnetic dynamos in systems such as late-type stars and galaxies. Instead, we propose a new set of dynamo equations, which take into account the modifications of turbulent diffusion by strong magnetic fields.

  11. Building strong brands – does it matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Aure, Kristin Gaaseide; Nervik, Kristine Dybvik

    2014-01-01

    Brand equity has proven, through several decades of research, to be a primary source of competitive advantage and future earnings (Yoo & Donthu, 2001). Building strong brands has therefore become a priority for many organizations, with the presumption that building strong brands yields these advantages (Yasin et al., 2007). A quantitative survey was conducted at Sunnmøre in Norway in order to answer the two developed research questions. - Does the brand equity dimensions; brand...

  12. Strong Coupling Optimization With Planar Spiral Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Avraham; 10.1016/j.cap.2011.02.017

    2011-01-01

    Planar spirals offer a highly scalable geometry appropriate for wireless power transfer via strongly coupled inductive resonators. We numerically derive a set of geometric scale and material independent coupling terms, and analyze a simple model to identify design considerations for a variety of different materials. We use our model to fabricate integrated planar resonators of handheld sizes, and optimize them to achieve high Q factors, comparable to much larger systems, and strong coupling over significant distances with approximately constant efficiency.

  13. Debye screening in strongly coupled Script N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Dongsu; Karch, Andreas; Yaffe, Laurence G.

    2007-08-01

    Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we examine the behavior of correlators of Polyakov loops and other operators in Script N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory at non-zero temperature. The implications for Debye screening in this strongly coupled non-Abelian plasma, and comparisons with available results for thermal QCD, are discussed.

  14. Photoinduced femtosecond formation of ferromagnetism in a strongly correlated antiferromagentic manganite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perakis I. E.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a pump threshold behavior in fs photoinduced magnetization in a strongly correlated manganite, which indicates the establishment of thermally-inaccessible ferromagnetic ground state and build-up of new magnetic order parameters at fs time scales

  15. Thermal strain analysis of optic fiber sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Huang, Chih-Ying

    2013-01-31

    An optical fiber sensor surface bonded onto a host structure and subjected to a temperature change is analytically studied in this work. The analysis is developed in order to assess the thermal behavior of an optical fiber sensor designed for measuring the strain in the host structure. For a surface bonded optical fiber sensor, the measuring sensitivity is strongly dependent on the bonding characteristics which include the protective coating, adhesive layer and the bonding length. Thermal stresses can be generated due to a mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between the optical fiber and host structure. The optical fiber thermal strain induced by the host structure is transferred via the adhesive layer and protective coating. In this investigation, an analytical expression of the thermal strain and stress in the optical fiber is presented. The theoretical predictions are validated using the finite element method. Numerical results show that the thermal strain and stress are linearly dependent on the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the optical fiber and host structure and independent of the thermal expansion coefficients of the adhesive and coating.

  16. Thermal Strain Analysis of Optic Fiber Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An optical fiber sensor surface bonded onto a host structure and subjected to a temperature change is analytically studied in this work. The analysis is developed in order to assess the thermal behavior of an optical fiber sensor designed for measuring the strain in the host structure. For a surface bonded optical fiber sensor, the measuring sensitivity is strongly dependent on the bonding characteristics which include the protective coating, adhesive layer and the bonding length. Thermal stresses can be generated due to a mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between the optical fiber and host structure. The optical fiber thermal strain induced by the host structure is transferred via the adhesive layer and protective coating. In this investigation, an analytical expression of the thermal strain and stress in the optical fiber is presented. The theoretical predictions are validated using the finite element method. Numerical results show that the thermal strain and stress are linearly dependent on the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the optical fiber and host structure and independent of the thermal expansion coefficients of the adhesive and coating.

  17. Measuring signatures of quantum chaos in strongly-interacting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsen, Gregory; Swingle, Brian; Schleier-Smith, Monika; Hayden, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Strongly-coupled many-body quantum systems generically exhibit signatures of quantum chaos. Recent theoretical work on black holes has focused on probing these signatures using so-called ``out-of-time-order'' (OTO) correlation functions, which measure a quantum-mechanical version of the classical butterfly effect. We propose a general echo-type protocol to experimentally measure these correlators in arbitrary many-body systems that involves reversing the sign of the Hamiltonian. We detail a realistic implementation in a single-body system employing cold atoms and cavity quantum electrodynamics to verify feasibility with current technology. Applying this protocol to diverse experimental systems could place bounds on quantum information processing, uncover new bounds on transport coefficients, offer insight into closed-system thermalization, and perhaps even enable experimental tests of the holographic principle. NSF, AFOSR, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, Simons Foundation, CIFAR.

  18. Coherence of strongly interacting 2D quantum gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobirey, Lennart; Siegl, Jonas; Luick, Niclas; Hueck, Klaus; Lompe, Thomas; Moritz, Henning

    2017-04-01

    The dimensionality of a quantum system has a profound impact on its coherence and superfluid properties. In 2D systems true long-range coherence is precluded by thermal fluctuations, nevertheless they can still become superfluid as predicted by Berezinskii, Kosterlitz and Thouless. In this superfluid regime the first order coherence decays algebraically, free of any characteristic length scale. Here, we show coherence measurements in a strongly interacting 2D gas of diatomic 6Li molecules. A self-interference technique allows us to locally extract the algebraic decay exponent, which is directly linked to the superfluid density. Furthermore, we present our realization of a homogeneous ultracold 2D Fermi gas. It should enable the direct measurement of non-local quantities such as the momentum distribution, without the complication of averaging over the different densities present in a harmonic trap.

  19. Elevator mode convection in flows with strong magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Li; Zikanov, Oleg, E-mail: zikanov@umich.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan-Dearborn, 48128-1491 Michigan (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Instability modes in the form of axially uniform vertical jets, also called “elevator modes,” are known to be the solutions of thermal convection problems for vertically unbounded systems. Typically, their relevance to the actual flow state is limited by three-dimensional breakdown caused by rapid growth of secondary instabilities. We consider a flow of a liquid metal in a vertical duct with a heated wall and strong transverse magnetic field and find elevator modes that are stable and, thus, not just relevant, but a dominant feature of the flow. We then explore the hypothesis suggested by recent experimental data that an analogous instability to modes of slow axial variation develops in finite-length ducts, where it causes large-amplitude fluctuations of temperature. The implications for liquid metal blankets for tokamak fusion reactors that potentially invalidate some of the currently pursued design concepts are discussed.

  20. Enhancement of low-temperature thermometry by strong coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Correa, Luis A.; Perarnau-Llobet, Marti; Hovhannisyan, Karen V.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the temperature T of a very cold equilibrium sample. The temperature estimates are drawn from measurements performed on a quantum Brownian probe strongly coupled to it. We model this scenario by resorting to the canonical Caldeira-Leggett Hamiltonian and find......-sample coupling may be engineered to further improve thermometric performance. These observations may find applications in practical nanoscale thermometry at low temperatures-a regime which is particularly relevant to quantum technologies....... analytically the exact stationary state of the probe for arbitrary coupling strength. In general, the probe does not reach thermal equilibrium with the sample, due to their nonperturbative interaction. We argue that this is advantageous for low-temperature thermometry, as we show in our model that (i...

  1. Effect of strong correlations on transport properties of disordered cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Peter

    2007-03-01

    The theory of thermal transport in a d-wave superconductor predicts a universal T-linear term κ0 at low temperatures. Measurements on several cuprate families down to the 50 milliKelvin range indicate that the linear term decreases with underdoping, from which a substantial increase of the slope of the order parameter near the nodes is usually deduced by comparison with the standard theory. We discuss ways in which low-T universal transport can break down, and in particular focus on the importance of strong correlations, which can induce local magnetism in the presence of disorder or other spatial perturbations. Static magnetism coexisting with superconductivity has been detected in some but not all cuprate families, particularly at low temperatures and for strongly underdoped samples, We present an interpretation of this superconducting ``spin glass'' state as local antiferromagnetic order driven by dopant atoms, particularly in the LSCO and BSCCO systems. Within this framework, recent NMR experiments on Zn-doped YBCO can also be quantitatively explained, down to detailed description of the lineshapes. Both the strong correlations and the quantum interference of impurity states appear to be vital to understand these results. In either more disordered or more underdoped systems, the tendency towards static magnetism is enhanced. Numerical solutions of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations of a disordered d-wave superconductor with Hubbard-like correlations show that in this case κ0 is in fact strongly suppressed, universality of quasiparticle transport is violated and κ0 may no longer be used to extract the size of the gap near the node directly. B.M. Andersen and P.J. Hirschfeld, cond-mat/0607682, J.W. Harter et al., cond-mat/0609721

  2. Tuning carbon nanotube assembly for flexible, strong and conductive films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjie; Li, Min; Gu, Yizhuo; Zhang, Xiaohua; Wang, Shaokai; Li, Qingwen; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2015-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes are ideal scaffolds for designing and architecting flexible graphite films with tunable mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. Herein, we demonstrate that the assembly of aligned carbon nanotubes with different aggregation density and morphology leads to different mechanical properties and anisotropic electrical conduction along the films. Using drying evaporation under tension treatment, the carbon nanotubes can be assembled into strong films with tensile strength and Young's modulus as high as 3.2 GPa and 124 GPa, respectively, leading to a remarkable toughness of 54.38 J g-1, greatly outperforming conventional graphite films, spider webs and even Kevlar fiber films. Different types of solvents may result in the assembly of CNTs with different aggregation morphology and therefore different modulus. In addition, we reveal that the high density assembly of aligned CNTs correlates with better electric conduction along the axial direction, enabling these flexible graphite films to be both strong and conductive.Carbon nanotubes are ideal scaffolds for designing and architecting flexible graphite films with tunable mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. Herein, we demonstrate that the assembly of aligned carbon nanotubes with different aggregation density and morphology leads to different mechanical properties and anisotropic electrical conduction along the films. Using drying evaporation under tension treatment, the carbon nanotubes can be assembled into strong films with tensile strength and Young's modulus as high as 3.2 GPa and 124 GPa, respectively, leading to a remarkable toughness of 54.38 J g-1, greatly outperforming conventional graphite films, spider webs and even Kevlar fiber films. Different types of solvents may result in the assembly of CNTs with different aggregation morphology and therefore different modulus. In addition, we reveal that the high density assembly of aligned CNTs correlates with better electric conduction

  3. Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms, 1933-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms is a database of over 15,000 digitized and processed accelerograph records from...

  4. On Work and Heat in Time-Dependent Strong Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Aurell

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper revisits the classical problem of representing a thermal bath interacting with a system as a large collection of harmonic oscillators initially in thermal equilibrium. As is well known, the system then obeys an equation, which in the bulk and in the suitable limit tends to the Kramers–Langevin equation of physical kinetics. I consider time-dependent system-bath coupling and show that this leads to an additional harmonic force acting on the system. When the coupling is switched on and switched off rapidly, the force has delta-function support at the initial and final time. I further show that the work and heat functionals as recently defined in stochastic thermodynamics at strong coupling contain additional terms depending on the time derivative of the system-bath coupling. I discuss these terms and show that while they can be very large if the system-bath coupling changes quickly, they only give a finite contribution to the work that enters in Jarzynski’s equality. I also discuss that these corrections to standard work and heat functionals provide an explanation for non-standard terms in the change of the von Neumann entropy of a quantum bath interacting with a quantum system found in an earlier contribution (Aurell and Eichhorn, 2015.

  5. Satellite observations of fumarole activity at Aluto volcano, Ethiopia: Implications for geothermal monitoring and volcanic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Mathilde; Biggs, Juliet; Watson, Iain M.; Hutchison, William; Pyle, David M.; Mather, Tamsin A.

    2017-07-01

    Fumaroles are the surface manifestation of hydrothermal circulation and can be influenced by magmatic, hydrothermal, hydrological and tectonic processes. This study investigates the temporal changes in fumarole temperatures and spatial extent on Aluto, a restless volcano in the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), in order to better understand the controls on fluid circulation and the interaction between the magmatic and hydrothermal systems. Thermal infrared (TIR) satellite images, acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) over the period of 2004 to 2016, are used to generate time series of the fumarole temperatures and areas. The thermal anomalies identified in the ASTER images coincide with known fumaroles with temperatures > 80 °C and are located on or close to fault structures, which provide a pathway for the rising fluids. Most of the fumaroles, including those along the major zone of hydrothermal upwelling, the Artu Jawe Fault Zone, have pixel-integrated temperature variations of only 2 ± 1.5 °C. The exception are the Bobesa fumaroles located on a hypothesised caldera ring fault which show pixel-integrated temperature changes of up to 9 °C consistent with a delayed response of the hydrothermal system to precipitation. We conclude that fumaroles along major faults are strongly coupled to the magmatic-hydrothermal system and are relatively stable with time, whereas those along shallower structures close to the rift flank are more strongly influenced by seasonal variations in groundwater flow. The use of remote sensing data to monitor the thermal activity of Aluto provides an important contribution towards understanding the behaviour of this actively deforming volcano. This method could be used at other volcanoes around the world for monitoring and geothermal exploration.

  6. Strong Motion Recording in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, R. J.; Fletcher, J. B.; Shakal, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The United States strong motion program began in 1932 when the Coast and Geodetic Survey (C&GS) installed eight strong motion accelerographs in California. During the March 1933 Long Beach earthquake, three of these produced the first strong motion records. With this success the C&GS expanded the number of accelerographs to 71 by 1964. With development of less expensive, mass-produced accelerographs the number of strong motion accelerographs expanded to ~575 by 1972. Responsibilities for operating the network and disseminating data were transferred to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in 1970 and then to the U.S. Geological Survey in 1973. In 1972 the California Legislature established the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP). CSMIP operates accelerographs at 812 ground stations, with multi-channel accelerographs in 228 buildings, 125 lifelines and 37 geotechnical arrays, in California. The USGS and the ANSS effort operate accelerographs at 1584 ground stations, 96 buildings, 14 bridges, 70 dams, and 15 multi-channel geotechnical arrays. The USC Los Angeles array has 78 ground stations; UCSB operates 5 geotechnical arrays; other government and private institutions also operate accelerographs. Almost all accelerographs are now digital with a sampling rate of 200 Hz. Most of the strong motion data can be downloaded from the Center for Engineering Strong Motion Data (http://strongmotioncenter.org). As accelerographs have become more sophisticated, the concept of what constitutes strong motion has blurred because small earthquakes (M ~3) are well recorded on accelerometers as well as seismometers. However, when accelerations are over ~10%g and velocities over ~1 cm/s, the accelerometers remain on scale, providing the unclipped data necessary to analyze the ground motion and its consequences. Strong motion data are essential to the development of ground motion prediction equations, understanding structural response, performance

  7. Surveillance system for radiation monitoring in HTTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Takashi; Yasu, Katsuji; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Ashikagaya, Yoshinobu; Kikuchi, Toshiki; Minowa, Yuuji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Sato, Kouichi; Nomura, Toshibumi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR: thermal output of 30 MW) went critical for the first time on November 10, 1998. Radiation monitoring in the HTTR Rise-to-Power Test was carried out using the surveillance system. This report will be used in radiation monitoring in Rise-to-Power Tests and also in periodic inspection work etc. in HTTR. This report describes the design and specification of the surveillance system for the radiation monitoring which consists of radiation monitors, radiation measuring instruments and personal computers in HTTR. The outline of HTTR is also described. (author)

  8. Monitoring Leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geanakoplos, John; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We argue that leverage is a central element of economic cycles and discuss how leverage can be properly monitored. While traditionally the interest rate has been regarded as the single key feature of a loan, we contend that the size of the loan, i.e., the leverage, is in fact a more important...... measure of systemic risk. Indeed, systemic crises tend to erupt when highly leveraged economic agents are forced to deleverage, sending the economy into recession. We emphasize the importance of measuring both the average leverage on old loans (which captures the economy's vulnerability) and the leverage...... and monitored....

  9. Electromagnetic Processes in strong Crystalline Fields

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  10. Strong Coupling between Plasmons and Organic Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Bellessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the properties of organic material in strong coupling with plasmon, mainly based on our work in this field of research. The strong coupling modifies the optical transitions of the structure, and occurs when the interaction between molecules and plasmon prevails on the damping of the system. We describe the dispersion relation of different plasmonic systems, delocalized and localized plasmon, coupled to aggregated dyes and the typical properties of these systems in strong coupling. The modification of the dye emission is also studied. In the second part, the effect of the microscopic structure of the organics, which can be seen as a disordered film, is described. As the different molecules couple to the same plasmon mode, an extended coherent state on several microns is observed.

  11. Patterns of Strong Coupling for LHC Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Da; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Riva, Francesco

    2016-11-23

    Even though the Standard Model (SM) is weakly coupled at the Fermi scale, a new strong dynamics involving its degrees of freedom may conceivably lurk at slightly higher energies, in the multi TeV range. Approximate symmetries provide a structurally robust context where, within the low energy description, the dimensionless SM couplings are weak, while the new strong dynamics manifests itself exclusively through higher-derivative interactions. We present an exhaustive classification of such scenarios in the form of effective field theories, paying special attention to new classes of models where the strong dynamics involves, along with the Higgs boson, the SM gauge bosons and/or the fermions. The IR softness of the new dynamics suppresses its effects at LEP energies, but deviations are in principle detectable at the LHC, even at energies below the threshold for production of new states. Our construction provides the so far unique structurally robust context where to motivate several searches in Higgs physics, d...

  12. A strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuryak, Edward [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University at Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Successful description of robust collective flow phenomena at RHIC by ideal hydrodynamics, recent observations of bound c-barc,q-barq states on the lattice, and other theoretical developments indicate that QGP produced at RHIC, and probably in a wider temperature region T{sub c} < T < 4T{sub c}, is not a weakly coupled quasiparticle gas as believed previously. We discuss how strong the interaction is and why it seems to generate hundreds of binary channels with bound states, surviving well inside the QGP phase. We in particular discuss their effect on pressure and viscosity. We conclude by reviewing the similar phenomena for other 'strongly coupled systems', such as (i) strongly coupled supersymmetric theories studied via Maldacena duality; (ii) trapped ultra-cold atoms with very large scattering length, tuned to Feschbach resonances.

  13. Electronic Structure of Strongly Correlated Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Anisimov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Electronic structure and physical properties of strongly correlated materials containing elements with partially filled 3d, 4d, 4f and 5f electronic shells is analyzed by Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT). DMFT is the most universal and effective tool used for the theoretical investigation of electronic states with strong correlation effects. In the present book the basics of the method are given and its application to various material classes is shown. The book is aimed at a broad readership: theoretical physicists and experimentalists studying strongly correlated systems. It also serves as a handbook for students and all those who want to be acquainted with fast developing filed of condensed matter physics.

  14. Strongly interacting matter in magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Landsteiner, Karl; Schmitt, Andreas; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2013-01-01

    The physics of strongly interacting matter in an external magnetic field is presently emerging as a topic of great cross-disciplinary interest for particle, nuclear, astro- and condensed matter physicists. It is known that strong magnetic fields are created in heavy ion collisions, an insight that has made it possible to study a variety of surprising and intriguing phenomena that emerge from the interplay of quantum anomalies, the topology of non-Abelian gauge fields, and the magnetic field. In particular, the non-trivial topological configurations of the gluon field induce a non-dissipative electric current in the presence of a magnetic field. These phenomena have led to an extended formulation of relativistic hydrodynamics, called chiral magnetohydrodynamics. Hitherto unexpected applications in condensed matter physics include graphene and topological insulators. Other fields of application include astrophysics, where strong magnetic fields exist in magnetars and pulsars. Last but not least, an important ne...

  15. Strong Anticipation: Complexity Matching in Interpersonal Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delignières Didier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anticipation in sensori-motor synchronization tasks is often attributed to the presence of internal model based on situation regularities. However this interpretation seems unable to explain the synchronization of an organism with a complex environment. Instead the notion of “strong anticipation” provides a new point of view about synchronization between complex systems. It implies a global coordination on non-local time scales between an organism and its environment. The matching between the long-range correlations of the organism and the long-range correlations of the environment could attest for the presence of such a strong anticipatory process. We propose here to test the presence of strong anticipation in interpersonal coordination task. Results show a close matching of fractal exponents of participants within a dyad. Moreover this matching cannot be attributed to only short-term adaptations as revealed by the low percentage of local cross-correlations.

  16. Streak Camera for Strong-Field Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübel, M.; Dube, Z.; Naumov, A. Yu.; Spanner, M.; Paulus, G. G.; Kling, M. F.; Villeneuve, D. M.; Corkum, P. B.; Staudte, A.

    2017-11-01

    Ionization of an atom or molecule by a strong laser field produces suboptical cycle wave packets whose control has given rise to attosecond science. The final states of the wave packets depend on ionization and deflection by the laser field, which are convoluted in conventional experiments. Here, we demonstrate a technique enabling efficient electron deflection, separate from the field driving strong-field ionization. Using a midinfrared deflection field permits one to distinguish electron wave packets generated at different field maxima of an intense few-cycle visible laser pulse. We utilize this capability to trace the scattering of low-energy electrons driven by the midinfrared field. Our approach represents a general technique for studying and controlling strong-field ionization dynamics on the attosecond time scale.

  17. Thermally robust Mo/CoFeB/MgO trilayers with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, T; Zhang, Y; Cai, J W; Pan, H Y

    2014-01-01

    The recent discovery of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) at the CoFeB/MgO interface has accelerated the development of next generation high-density non-volatile memories by utilizing perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs...

  18. Mechanically Strong, Thermally Stable, and Electrically Conductive Nanocomposite Structure and Method of Fabricating Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Working, Dennis C. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A nanocomposite structure and method of fabricating same are provided. The nanocomposite structure is a polymer in an extruded shape with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) longitudinally disposed and dispersed in the extruded shape along a dimension thereof. The polymer is characteristically defined as having a viscosity of at least approximately 100,000 poise at a temperature of 200 C.

  19. NASA's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Mike; Mitchell, Sonny; Kim, Tony; Borowski, Stan; Power, Kevin; Scott, John; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steve

    2015-01-01

    HEOMD's (Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate) AES (Advanced Exploration Systems) Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) project is making significant progress. First of four FY 2015 milestones achieved this month. Safety is the highest priority for NTP (as with other space systems). After safety comes affordability. No centralized capability for developing, qualifying, and utilizing an NTP system. Will require a strong, closely integrated team. Tremendous potential benefits from NTP and other space fission systems. No fundamental reason these systems cannot be developed and utilized in a safe, affordable fashion.

  20. Solar Thermal Energy Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Pitsenbarger, J. [eds.

    1996-02-01

    Solar Thermal Energy Technology (PST) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required for the advancement of solar thermal systems as a significant energy resource.

  1. Ouellette Thermal Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Test Facility is a joint Army/Navy state-of-the-art facility (8,100 ft2) that was designed to:Evaluate and characterize the effect of flame and thermal...

  2. Experimental investigation of strong field trident production

    CERN Document Server

    Esberg, J; Knudsen, H; Thomsen, H D; Uggerhøj, E; Uggerhøj1, U I; Sona, P; Mangiarotti, A; Ketel, T J; Dizdar, A; Dalton, M M; Ballestrero, S; Connell, S H

    2010-01-01

    We show by experiment that an electron impinging on an electric field that is of critical magnitude in its rest frame, may produce an electron-positron pair. Our measurements address higher-order QED, using the strong electric fields obtainable along particular crystallographic directions in single crystals. For the amorphous material our data are in good agreement with theory, whereas a discrepancy with theory on the magnitude of the trident enhancement is found in the precisely aligned case where the strong electric field acts.

  3. Nonlinear Electron Waves in Strongly Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1980-01-01

    Weakly nonlinear dispersive electron waves in strongly magnetized plasma are considered. A modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation is derived taking into account the effect of particles resonating with the group velocity of the waves (nonlinear Landau damping). The possibility of including the ion...... dynamics in the analysis is also demonstrated. As a particular case the authors investigate nonlinear waves in a strongly magnetized plasma filled wave-guide, where the effects of finite geometry are important. The relevance of this problem to laboratory experiments is discussed....

  4. ATS-6 engineering performance report. Volume:Program and systems summaries: Mechanical and thermal details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, R. O. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The overall mission and spacecraft systems, testing, and operations are summarized. The mechanical subsystems are reviewed, encompassing mechanical design requirements; separation and deployment mechanisms; design and performance evaluation; and the television camera reflector monitor. Thermal control and contamination are discussed in terms of thermal control subsystems, design validation, subsystems performance, the advanced flight experiment, and the quartz-crystal microbalance contamination monitor.

  5. Therapeutic drug monitoring of aminoglycosides in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, Daniël J; Westerman, Elsbeth M; Sprij, Arwen J

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy and toxicity of aminoglycosides show a strong direct positive relationship with blood drug concentrations, therefore, therapy with aminoglycosides in adults is usually guided by therapeutic drug monitoring. Dosing regimens in adults have evolved from multiple daily dosing to

  6. Shear Induced Reaction Localizations and Mechanisms of Energy Dissipation in PBX Subjected to Strong Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaksin, Igor

    2007-06-01

    Paper addresses two emerging topics: how reaction initiation arises when PBX is subjected to shock and how detonation wave becomes oscillating. We apply the 96-channel optical analyzer for simultaneous measurements of radiation from the reaction spots surface and stress field caused by shock or detonation reaction zone in multi-layer optical monitor. This metrology allows meso-scale probing of the 3-D structure of shock- or detonation- reaction-zone as well as revealing mechanisms of its formation at different initiation scenarios. The dominant role of the shear driven plastic deformation in initiation scenario is disclosed in all tested PBX-s (including simulants of PBXN-110, PBAN-128, PBXN-109, 111, 121 and B-2208), in wide range of PBX sample sizes: from 1 mm^3 (single crystal within the binder) up to few cm^3. This research is complementing a separate, longer running, theoretical effort by Dr. Steve Coffey that examines the solid state--quantum physics responsible for initiation of explosive crystals subjected to shock or impact. Finally, this represents a novel research effort to relate plastic deformation, energy dissipation and localization in crystals to shear and shear deformation. The accompanying experimental results strongly support Coffey's theoretical prediction that initiation is due to shear driven plastic deformation and is not due solely to uniform shock pressure. Finally, we will present and discuss the recently revealed phenomenon of the thermal precursor origination caused by the reaction front radiation. The role of this earlier unknown energy localization mechanism, at Shock-to-Detonation transition in PBX, will be shown as a function of HMX particle sizes and the PBX porosity.

  7. Strong, Multi-Scale Heterogeneity in Earth's Lowermost Mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkalčić, Hrvoje; Young, Mallory; Muir, Jack B; Davies, D Rhodri; Mattesini, Maurizio

    2015-12-17

    The core mantle boundary (CMB) separates Earth's liquid iron outer core from the solid but slowly convecting mantle. The detailed structure and dynamics of the mantle within ~300 km of this interface remain enigmatic: it is a complex region, which exhibits thermal, compositional and phase-related heterogeneity, isolated pockets of partial melt and strong variations in seismic velocity and anisotropy. Nonetheless, characterising the structure of this region is crucial to a better understanding of the mantle's thermo-chemical evolution and the nature of core-mantle interactions. In this study, we examine the heterogeneity spectrum from a recent P-wave tomographic model, which is based upon trans-dimensional and hierarchical Bayesian imaging. Our tomographic technique avoids explicit model parameterization, smoothing and damping. Spectral analyses reveal a multi-scale wavelength content and a power of heterogeneity that is three times larger than previous estimates. Inter alia, the resulting heterogeneity spectrum gives a more complete picture of the lowermost mantle and provides a bridge between the long-wavelength features obtained in global S-wave models and the short-scale dimensions of seismic scatterers. The evidence that we present for strong, multi-scale lowermost mantle heterogeneity has important implications for the nature of lower mantle dynamics and prescribes complex boundary conditions for Earth's geodynamo.

  8. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  9. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  10. Bizarre Waveforms in Strong Motion Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baofeng Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper collects a rich set of strong motion records in some typical earthquakes domestic and abroad, checks its seismic events, converts the data format, corrects the zeroline and draws the waveform. Four kinds of abnormal phenomena on the acceleration waveform are revealed, such as spike, asymmetric waveform, obvious baseline drift, and strong motion records packets separation. Then reasonable processing approaches are derived from the preliminary analysis of the generation mechanism for abnormal phenomena. In addition to the effects on time history, Fourier amplitude spectrum and response spectrum are studied before and after strong motion records correction. It is shown that (1 mechanism of spikes is rather complicated; however spikes can be eliminated by “jerk” method, ratio method, and the consistency of the three-component PGA time; (2 mechanism of the asymmetric waveform is of diversity; however, to some extent, the Butterworth low-pass filtering can be applied to correct it; (3 two pieces of strong motion record packets can be connected by searching continuous and repeated data; (4 the method of cumulative adding can be used to find the clear baseline drift; (5 the abnormal waveform directly affects the characteristics of time history and frequency spectrum.

  11. Strong lensing interferometry for compact binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, U.L.; Yang, I.S.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a possibility to improve the current precision measurements on compact binaries. When the orbital axis is almost perpendicular to our line of sight, a pulsar behind its companion can form two strong lensing images. These images cannot be resolved, but we can use multiwavelength

  12. Super-strong Magnetic Field in Sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Takenori J.; Sakurai, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Sunspots are the most notable structure on the solar surface with strong magnetic fields. The field is generally strongest in a dark area (umbra), but sometimes stronger fields are found in non-dark regions, such as a penumbra and a light bridge. The formation mechanism of such strong fields outside umbrae is still puzzling. Here we report clear evidence of the magnetic field of 6250 G, which is the strongest field among Stokes I profiles with clear Zeeman splitting ever observed on the Sun. The field was almost parallel to the solar surface and located in a bright region sandwiched by two opposite-polarity umbrae. Using a time series of spectral data sets, we discuss the formation process of the super-strong field and suggest that this strong field region was generated as a result of compression of one umbra pushed by the horizontal flow from the other umbra, such as the subduction of the Earth’s crust in plate tectonics.

  13. Strong industrial base vital for economic revival

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    At the inauguration of a 2-day conference on nuclear technology in Islamabad, the chairman of PAEC said that Pakistan needs to develop a strong industrial base and capability to export equipment to improve the economic condition of the country. He descibed how Pakistan has already had a breakthrough with the export of equipment to CERN, Geneva (1 page).

  14. Riesz basis for strongly continuous groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, Heiko J.

    Given a Hilbert space and the generator of a strongly continuous group on this Hilbert space. If the eigenvalues of the generator have a uniform gap, and if the span of the corresponding eigenvectors is dense, then these eigenvectors form a Riesz basis (or unconditional basis) of the Hilbert space.

  15. Riesz basis for strongly continuous groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, Heiko J.

    Given a Hilbert space and the generator of a strongly continuous group on this Hilbert space. If the eigenvalues of the generator have a uniform gap, and if the span of the corresponding eigenvectors is dense, then these eigenvectors form a Riesz basis (or unconditional basis) of the Hilbert space.

  16. Strong Ties in a Small World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van der Leij (Marco); S. Goyal (Sanjeev)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we test the celebrated `Strength of weak ties' theory of Granovetter (1973). We test two hypotheses on the network structure in a data set of collaborating economists. While we find support for the hypothesis of transitivity of strong ties, we reject the hypothesis that

  17. Particle Ratios from Strongly Interacting Hadronic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Bashir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the particle ratios K+/π+, K-/π-, and Λ/π- for a strongly interacting hadronic matter using nonlinear Walecka model (NLWM in relativistic mean field (RMF approximation. It is found that interactions among hadrons modify K+/π+ and Λ/π- particle ratios, while K-/π- is found to be insensitive to these interactions.

  18. Congruence of Strong and Kuder Interest Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard W.

    1971-01-01

    Scores on scales with identical or similar names on the Strong Vocational Interest Blank for Women and the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey were compared by means of both scale and profile analyses. The individual scales were only moderately intercorrelated; however, the total profiles revealed substantial agreement for most subjects. (Author)

  19. Strongly 2-connected orientations of graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    We prove that a graph admits a strongly 2-connected orientation if and only if it is 4-edge-connected, and every vertex-deleted subgraph is 2-edge-connected. In particular, every 4-connected graph has such an orientation while no cubic 3-connected graph has such an orientation....

  20. Three Strands Form Strong School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saphier, Jon; King, Matt; D'Auria, John

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors illustrate the three fundamental elements of school leadership: academic focus, shared beliefs and values, and productive professional relationships. These three elements purportedly produce strong organizational cultures, more teaching expertise, and better student achievement and more thoughtful and caring citizens.…

  1. Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Relativistic heavy-ion collisions; fluctuation phenomena; relativistic diffusion model; net-proton rapidly ... cients on the available relativistic energy, results at 40 A•GeV/c are obtained. Extrapolat- ing to higher ... proached for times t ^τs larger than the time τs that is characteristic for strong coupling. – when all secondary ...

  2. Controlling Josephson dynamics by strong microwave fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesca, B.; Savel'ev, E.; Rakhmanov, A.L.; Smilde, H.J.H.; Hilgenkamp, Johannes W.M.

    2008-01-01

    We observe several sharp changes in the slope of the current-voltage characteristics (CVCs) of thin-film ramp-edge Josephson junctions between YBa2Cu3O7−delta and Nb when applying strong microwave fields. Such behavior indicates an intriguing Josephson dynamics associated with the switching from a

  3. Reducing Weak to Strong Bisimilarity in CCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Aristizábal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent constraint programming (ccp is a well-established model for concurrency that singles out the fundamental aspects of asynchronous systems whose agents (or processes evolve by posting and querying (partial information in a global medium. Bisimilarity is a standard behavioural equivalence in concurrency theory. However, only recently a well-behaved notion of bisimilarity for ccp, and a ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding the strong version of this equivalence have been proposed. Weak bisimiliarity is a central behavioural equivalence in process calculi and it is obtained from the strong case by taking into account only the actions that are observable in the system. Typically, the standard partition refinement can also be used for deciding weak bisimilarity simply by using Milner's reduction from weak to strong bisimilarity; a technique referred to as saturation. In this paper we demonstrate that, because of its involved labeled transitions, the above-mentioned saturation technique does not work for ccp. We give an alternative reduction from weak ccp bisimilarity to the strong one that allows us to use the ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding this equivalence.

  4. Spin Wave Theory of Strongly Anisotropic Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1977-01-01

    A strong anisotropy gives rise to a non-spherical precession of the spins with different amplitudes in the x and y directions. The highly anharmonic exchange interaction thereby becomes effectively anisotropic. The possibility of detecting a genuine two-ion anisotropy is discussed, and comments a...

  5. Tennis Ball Flight under Strong Wind

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 11. Tennis Ball Flight under Strong Wind. K R Y Simha. Classroom Volume 7 Issue 11 November 2002 pp 70-76. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/11/0070-0076. Author Affiliations.

  6. Strong wind climatic zones in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, AC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper South Africa is divided into strong wind climate zones, which indicate the main sources of annual maximum wind gusts. By the analysis of wind gust data of 94 weather stations, which had continuous climate time series of 10 years...

  7. Bottomonia: open bottom strong decays and spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santopinto E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present our results for the bottomonium spectrum with self energy corrections. The bare masses used in the calculation are computed within Godfrey and Isgur’s relativized quark model. We also discuss our results for the open bottom strong decay widths of higher bottomonia in the 3P0 pair-creation model.

  8. Patterns of strong coupling for LHC searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da; Pomarol, Alex; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Riva, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Even though the Standard Model (SM) is weakly coupled at the Fermi scale, a new strong dynamics involving its degrees of freedom may conceivably lurk at slightly higher energies, in the multi TeV range. Approximate symmetries provide a structurally robust context where, within the low energy description, the dimensionless SM couplings are weak, while the new strong dynamics manifests itself exclusively through higher-derivative interactions. We present an exhaustive classification of such scenarios in the form of effective field theories, paying special attention to new classes of models where the strong dynamics involves, along with the Higgs boson, the SM gauge bosons and/or the fermions. The IR softness of the new dynamics suppresses its effects at LEP energies, but deviations are in principle detectable at the LHC, even at energies below the threshold for production of new states. We believe our construction provides the so far unique structurally robust context where to motivate several LHC searches in Higgs physics, diboson production, or W W scattering. Perhaps surprisingly, the interplay between weak coupling, strong coupling and derivatives, which is controlled by symmetries, can override the naive expansion in operator dimension, providing instances where dimension-8 dominates dimension-6, well within the domain of validity of the low energy effective theory. This result reveals the limitations of an analysis that is both ambitiously general and restricted to dimension-6 operators.

  9. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Kennedy, R.P. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Yorba Linda, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

  10. Phase Transition in Strongly Degenerate Hydrogen Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Filinov, V. S.; Fortov, V. E.; Bonitz, M.; Levashov, P. R.

    2001-01-01

    Direct fermionic path-integral Monte-Carlo simulations of strongly coupled hydrogen are presented. Our results show evidence for the hypothetical plasma phase transition. Its most remarkable manifestation is the appearance of metallic droplets which are predicted to be crucial for the electrical conductivity allowing to explain the rapid increase observed in recent shock compression measurments.

  11. Analysis on energy consumption index system of thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J. B.; Zhang, N.; Li, H. F.

    2017-05-01

    Currently, the increasingly tense situation in the context of resources, energy conservation is a realistic choice to ease the energy constraint contradictions, reduce energy consumption thermal power plants has become an inevitable development direction. And combined with computer network technology to build thermal power “small index” to monitor and optimize the management system, the power plant is the application of information technology and to meet the power requirements of the product market competition. This paper, first described the research status of thermal power saving theory, then attempted to establish the small index system and build “small index” monitoring and optimization management system in thermal power plant. Finally elaborated key issues in the field of small thermal power plant technical and economic indicators to be further studied and resolved.

  12. A potential thermal dynamo and its astrophysical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingam, Manasvi, E-mail: mlingam@princeton.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Mahajan, Swadesh M., E-mail: mahajan@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Uttar Pradesh 201314 (India)

    2016-05-15

    It is shown that thermal turbulence, not unlike the standard kinetic and magnetic turbulence, can be an effective driver of a mean-field dynamo. In simple models, such as hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics, both vorticity and induction equations can have strong thermal drives that resemble the α and γ effects in conventional dynamo theories; the thermal drives are likely to be dominant in systems that are endowed with subsonic, low-β turbulence. A pure thermal dynamo is quite different from the conventional dynamo in which the same kinetic/magnetic mix in the ambient turbulence can yield a different ratio of macroscopic magnetic/vortical fields. The possible implications of the similarities and differences between the thermal and non-thermal dynamos are discussed. The thermal dynamo is shown to be highly important in the stellar and planetary context, and yields results broadly consistent with other theoretical and experimental approaches.

  13. Strong biotic influences on regional patterns of climate regulation services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Chavez, H. M.; Swenson, N. G.; Weiser, M. D.; van Loon, E. E.; Bouten, W.; Davidson, M. D.; van Bodegom, P. M.

    2017-05-01

    Climate regulation services from forests are an important leverage in global-change mitigation treaties. Like most ecosystem services, climate regulation is the product of various ecological phenomena with unique spatial features. Elucidating which abiotic and biotic factors relate to spatial patterns of climate regulation services advances our understanding of what underlies climate-mitigation potential and its variation within and across ecosystems. Here we quantify and contrast the statistical relations between climate regulation services (albedo and evapotranspiration, primary productivity, and soil carbon) and abiotic and biotic factors. We focus on 16,955 forest plots in a regional extent across the eastern United States. We find the statistical effects of forest litter and understory carbon on climate regulation services to be as strong as those of temperature-precipitation interactions. These biotic factors likely influence climate regulation through changes in vegetation and canopy density, radiance scattering, and decomposition rates. We also find a moderate relation between leaf nitrogen traits and primary productivity at this regional scale. The statistical relation between climate regulation and temperature-precipitation ranges, seasonality, and climatic thresholds highlights a strong feedback with global climate change. Our assessment suggests the expression of strong biotic influences on climate regulation services at a regional, temperate extent. Biotic homogenization and management practices manipulating forest structure and succession will likely strongly impact climate-mitigation potential. The identity, strength, and direction of primary influences differed for each process involved in climate regulation. Hence, different abiotic and biotic factors are needed to monitor and quantify the full climate-mitigation potential of temperate forest ecosystems.

  14. Eliminating thermal violin spikes from LIGO noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamore, D. H.; Levin, Yuri

    2001-08-15

    We have developed a scheme for reducing LIGO suspension thermal noise close to violin-mode resonances. The idea is to monitor directly the thermally induced motion of a small portion of (a 'point' on) each suspension fiber, thereby recording the random forces driving the test-mass motion close to each violin-mode frequency. One can then suppress the thermal noise by optimally subtracting the recorded fiber motions from the measured motion of the test mass, i.e., from the LIGO output. The proposed method is a modification of an analogous but more technically difficult scheme by Braginsky, Levin and Vyatchanin for reducing broad-band suspension thermal noise. The efficiency of our method is limited by the sensitivity of the sensor used to monitor the fiber motion. If the sensor has no intrinsic noise (i.e. has unlimited sensitivity), then our method allows, in principle, a complete removal of violin spikes from the thermal-noise spectrum. We find that in LIGO-II interferometers, in order to suppress violin spikes below the shot-noise level, the intrinsic noise of the sensor must be less than {approx}2 x 10{sup -13} cm/Hz. This sensitivity is two orders of magnitude greater than that of currently available sensors.

  15. Efficient thermal spin injection in metallic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tatsuya; Ariki, Taisei; Hu, Shaojie; Kimura, Takashi

    2017-11-01

    Thermal spin injection is a unique and fascinating method for generating spin current. If magnetization can be controlled by thermal spin injection, various advantages will be provided in spintronic devices, through its wireless controllability. However, the generation efficiency of thermal spin injection is believed to be lower than that of electrical spin injection. Here, we explore a suitable ferromagnetic metal for an efficient thermal spin injection, via systematic experiments based on diffusive spin transport under temperature gradients. Since a ferromagnetic metal with strong spin splitting is expected to have a large spin-dependent Seebeck coefficient, a lateral spin valve based on CoFe electrodes has been fabricated. However, the superior thermal spin injection property has not been observed, because the CoFe electrode retained its crystalline signature—where s-like electrons dominate the transport property in the ferromagnet. To suppress the crystalline signature, we adopt a CoFeAl electrode, in which the Al impurity significantly reduces the contribution from s-like electrons. Highly efficient thermal spin injection has been demonstrated using this CoFeAl electrode. Further optimization for thermal spin injection has been demonstrated by adjusting the Co and Fe composition.

  16. COSTS OF THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrayan Bravo Hidalgo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal accumulation facilities allow energy to be available in the absence of sunlight. This fact reduces the difficulty of the intermittence in the incidence of the king star in our planet. Thermal accumulation technology also contributes to smooth the fluctuations in energy demand during different times of the day. This contribution identifies the nations with the most favorable research results in this area; as well as the main research lines that are being developed today. A compendium of various thermal energy storage materials, their current costs per unit mass, and their physical properties are presented. Techniques for implementing thermal accumulation technologies can be classified as areas of high, medium and low temperature. In the high temperature area, inorganic materials such as nitrate salts are the most widely used thermal energy storage materials, while in the medium and lower temperature areas; organic materials such as commercial paraffin are more common. Currently, one of the research trends in this area are the projects aimed at optimizing the chemical and physical characteristics of thermal storage materials, because the success of any thermos-energetic storage technology has a strong dependence on the cost of the materials selected for thermal storage.

  17. Pulsed Neutron Scattering Studies of Strongly Fluctuating solids, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin Broholm

    2006-06-22

    The conventional description of a solid is based on a static atomic structure with small amplitude so-called harmonic fluctuations about it. This is a final technical report for a project that has explored materials where fluctuations are sufficiently strong to severely challenge this approach and lead to unexpected and potentially useful materials properties. Fluctuations are enhanced when a large number of configurations share the same energy. We used pulsed spallation source neutron scattering to obtain detailed microscopic information about structure and fluctuations in such materials. The results enhance our understanding of strongly fluctuating solids and their potential for technical applications. Because new materials require new experimental techniques, the project has also developed new techniques for probing strongly fluctuating solids. Examples of material that were studied are ZrW2O8 with large amplitude molecular motion that leads to negative thermal expansion, NiGa2S4 where competing interactions lead to an anomalous short range ordered magnet, Pr1- xBixRu2O7 where a partially filled electron shell (Pr) in a weakly disordered environment produces anomalous metallic properties, and TbMnO3 where competing interactions lead to a magneto-electric phase. The experiments on TbMnO3 exemplify the relationship between research funded by this project and future applications. Magneto-electric materials may produce a magnetic field when an electric field is applied or vise versa. Our experiments have clarified the reason why electric and magnetic polarization is coupled in TbMnO3. While this knowledge does not render TbMnO3 useful for applications it will focus the search for a practical room temperature magneto-electric for applications.

  18. MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF A LONG-SPAN RAIWAY BRIDGE USING SENTINEL-1 DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on displacement monitoring of a bridge, which is one of the key aspects of its structural health monitoring. A simplified Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI approach is used to monitor the displacements of the Nanjing Dashengguan Yangtze River High-speed Railway Bridge (China. This bridge is 1272 m long and hosts a total of 6 railway lines. The analysis was based on a set of twenty-nine Sentinel-1A images, acquired from April 2015 to August 2016. A dense set of measurement points were selected on the bridge. The PSI results show a maximum longitudinal displacement of 150 mm, on each side of the bridge. The displacements are strongly correlated with the temperature, showing that they are due to thermal expansion. Using the PSI results, the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE of the whole bridge was estimated. The result agrees well with the CTE of the bridge materials. Using a regression model, the PSI-measured displacements were compared with in-situ measurements. The paper proposes a procedure to assess the performance of the movable bearings of the bridge, which is based on the PSI measurements.

  19. Monitoring and Evaluation of a Long-Span Raiway Bridge Using SENTINEL-1 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q.; Crosetto, M.; Monserrat, O.; Crippa, B.

    2017-09-01

    This paper is focused on displacement monitoring of a bridge, which is one of the key aspects of its structural health monitoring. A simplified Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) approach is used to monitor the displacements of the Nanjing Dashengguan Yangtze River High-speed Railway Bridge (China). This bridge is 1272 m long and hosts a total of 6 railway lines. The analysis was based on a set of twenty-nine Sentinel-1A images, acquired from April 2015 to August 2016. A dense set of measurement points were selected on the bridge. The PSI results show a maximum longitudinal displacement of 150 mm, on each side of the bridge. The displacements are strongly correlated with the temperature, showing that they are due to thermal expansion. Using the PSI results, the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) of the whole bridge was estimated. The result agrees well with the CTE of the bridge materials. Using a regression model, the PSI-measured displacements were compared with in-situ measurements. The paper proposes a procedure to assess the performance of the movable bearings of the bridge, which is based on the PSI measurements.

  20. Interfacial thermal resistance and thermal rectification in carbon nanotube film-copper systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zheng; Liu, Danyang; Zhang, Guang; Li, Qingwei; Liu, Changhong; Fan, Shoushan

    2017-03-02

    Thermal rectification occurring at interfaces is an important research area, which contains deep fundamental physics and has extensive application prospects. In general, the measurement of interfacial thermal rectification is based on measuring interfacial thermal resistance (ITR). However, ITRs measured via conventional methods cannot avoid extra thermal resistance asymmetry due to the contact between the sample and the thermometer. In this study, we employed a non-contact infrared thermal imager to monitor the temperature of super-aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) films and obtain the ITRs between the CNT films and copper. The ITRs along the CNT-copper direction and the reverse direction are in the ranges of 2.2-3.6 cm(2) K W(-1) and 9.6-11.9 cm(2) K W(-1), respectively. The obvious difference in the ITRs of the two directions shows a significant thermal rectification effect, and the rectifying coefficient ranges between 0.57 and 0.68. The remarkable rectification factor is extremely promising for the manufacture of thermal transistors with a copper/CNT/copper structure and further thermal logic devices. Moreover, our method could be extended to other 2-dimensional materials, such as graphene and MoS2, for further explorations.

  1. Thermal Management and Thermal Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Aqib

    2016-01-01

    During my internship in the Thermal Design Branch (ES3), I contributed to two main projects: i) novel passive thermal management system for future human exploration, ii) AVCOAT undercut thermal analysis. i) As NASA prepares to further expand human and robotic presence in space, it is well known that spacecraft architectures will be challenged with unprecedented thermal environments. Future exploration activities will have the need of thermal management systems that can provide higher reliability, mass and power reduction and increased performance. In an effort to start addressing the current technical gaps the NASA Johnson Space Center Passive Thermal Discipline has engaged in technology development activities. One of these activities was done through an in-house Passive Thermal Management System (PTMS) design for a lunar lander. The proposed PTMS, functional in both microgravity and gravity environments, consists of three main components: a heat spreader, a novel hybrid wick Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP), and a radiator. The aim of this PTMS is to keep electronics on a vehicle within their temperature limits (0 and 50 C for the current design) during all mission phases including multiple lunar day/night cycles. The VCHP was tested to verify its thermal performance. I created a thermal math model using Thermal Desktop (TD) and analyzed it to predict the PTMS performance. After testing, the test data provided a means to correlate the thermal math model. This correlation took into account conduction and convection heat transfer, representing the actual benchtop test. Since this PTMS is proposed for space missions, a vacuum test will be taking place to provide confidence that the system is functional in space environments. Therefore, the model was modified to include a vacuum chamber with a liquid nitrogen shroud while taking into account conduction and radiation heat transfer. Infrared Lamps were modelled and introduced into the model to simulate the sun

  2. Energy Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus T.; Madsen, Dines; Christiensen, Thomas

    Energy measurement has become an important aspect of our daily lives since we have learned that energy consumption, is one of the main source of global warming. Measuring instruments varies from a simple watt-meter to more sophisticated microprocessor control devices. The negative effects...... that fossil fuels induce on our environment has forced us to research renewable energy such as sunlight, wind etc. This new environmental awareness has also helped us to realize the importance of monitoring and controlling our energy use. The main purpose in this research is to introduce a more sophisticated...... but affordable way to monitor energy consumption of individuals or groups of home appliances. By knowing their consumption the utilization can be regulated for more efficient use. A prototype system has been constructed to demonstrate our idea....

  3. Screening in strongly coupled mathcal{N} = {2^*} supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Carlos; Paik, Steve; Yaffe, Laurence G.

    2011-10-01

    Using gauge-gravity duality, we extend thermodynamic studies and present results for thermal screening masses in strongly coupled mathcal{N} = {2^*} supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. This non-conformal theory is a mass deformation of maximally supersymmetric mathcal{N} = 4 gauge theory. Results are obtained for the entropy density, pressure, specific heat, equation of state, and screening masses, down to previously unexplored low temperatures. The temperature dependence of screening masses in various symmetry channels, which characterize the longest length scales over which thermal fluctuations in the non-Abelian plasma are correlated, is examined and found to be asymptotically linear in the low temperature regime.

  4. Quantum Transport in Strongly Correlated Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Dan

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade there has been a trend towards studying ever smaller devices. Improved experimental techniques have made new experiments possible, one class of which is electron transport through molecules and artificially manufactured structures like quantum dots. In this type of systems...... screening plays a much less significant role than in bulk systems due to the reduced size of the objects, therefore making it necessary to consider the importance of correlations between electrons. The work presented in this thesis deals with quantum transport through strongly correlated systems using...... onto the contact links leads to a strong enhancement of the off-resonance transport, and further that this behavior is non-monotonic. By considering both a single level model and short interacting chains we demonstrate that the off-resonance transport enhancement is stronger than the corresponding...

  5. Cosmogenic photons strongly constrain UHECR source models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Vliet Arjen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the newest version of our Monte Carlo code for ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR propagation, CRPropa 3, the flux of neutrinos and photons due to interactions of UHECRs with extragalactic background light can be predicted. Together with the recently updated data for the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB by Fermi LAT, it is now possible to severely constrain UHECR source models. The evolution of the UHECR sources especially plays an important role in the determination of the expected secondary photon spectrum. Pure proton UHECR models are already strongly constrained, primarily by the highest energy bins of Fermi LAT’s IGRB, as long as their number density is not strongly peaked at recent times.

  6. Model reduction of strong-weak neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bosen; Sorensen, Danny; Cox, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    We consider neurons with large dendritic trees that are weakly excitable in the sense that back propagating action potentials are severly attenuated as they travel from the small, strongly excitable, spike initiation zone. In previous work we have shown that the computational size of weakly excitable cell models may be reduced by two or more orders of magnitude, and that the size of strongly excitable models may be reduced by at least one order of magnitude, without sacrificing the spatio-temporal nature of its inputs (in the sense we reproduce the cell's precise mapping of inputs to outputs). We combine the best of these two strategies via a predictor-corrector decomposition scheme and achieve a drastically reduced highly accurate model of a caricature of the neuron responsible for collision detection in the locust.

  7. The colourful story of the strong force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-01

    The development of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is one of the greatest achievements of human intellect, or so Andrew Watson claims in The Quantum Quark. I am a little reluctant to go along with such a grand statement, given that I personally developed QCD together with Murray Gell-Mann in 1971. But certainly the invention of QCD - the theory that describes the strong force - was a big step in particle physics and in physics in general. The Quantum Quark describes the story of QCD very well. Physics is not a very logical science, and the physics of the strong force in particular is full of bizarre phenomena and strange ideas. Watson does a good job in describing this strange world and in leading the reader to the idea of QCD itself. (U.K.)

  8. Strong sum distance in fuzzy graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Mini; Sunitha, Muraleedharan Shetty

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the idea of strong sum distance which is a metric, in a fuzzy graph is introduced. Based on this metric the concepts of eccentricity, radius, diameter, center and self centered fuzzy graphs are studied. Some properties of eccentric nodes, peripheral nodes and central nodes are obtained. A characterisation of self centered complete fuzzy graph is obtained and conditions under which a fuzzy cycle is self centered are established. We have proved that based on this metric, an eccentric node of a fuzzy tree G is a fuzzy end node of G and a node is an eccentric node of a fuzzy tree if and only if it is a peripheral node of G and the center of a fuzzy tree consists of either one or two neighboring nodes. The concepts of boundary nodes and interior nodes in a fuzzy graph based on strong sum distance are introduced. Some properties of boundary nodes, interior nodes and complete nodes are studied.

  9. Orbits in weak and strong bars

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, George

    1980-01-01

    The authors study the plane orbits in simple bar models embedded in an axisymmetric background when the bar density is about 1% (weak), 10% (intermediate) or 100% (strong bar) of the axisymmetric density. Most orbits follow the stable periodic orbits. The basic families of periodic orbits are described. In weak bars with two Inner Lindblad Resonances there is a family of stable orbits extending from the center up to the Outer Lindblad Resonance. This family contains the long period orbits near corotation. Other stable families appear between the Inner Lindblad Resonances, outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, around corotation (short period orbits) and around the center (retrograde). Some families become unstable or disappear in strong bars. A comparison is made with cases having one or no Inner Lindblad Resonance. (12 refs).

  10. Strong Turbulence in Low-beta Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchen, C. M.; Pécseli, Hans; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the spectral structure of turbulence in a plasma confined by a strong homogeneous magnetic field was made by means of a fluid description. The turbulent spectrum is divided into subranges. Mean gradients of velocity and density excite turbulent motions, and govern the producti......-cathode reflex arc, Stellarator, Zeta discharge, ionospheric plasmas, and auroral plasma turbulence.......An investigation of the spectral structure of turbulence in a plasma confined by a strong homogeneous magnetic field was made by means of a fluid description. The turbulent spectrum is divided into subranges. Mean gradients of velocity and density excite turbulent motions, and govern the production...... subrange. The spectra of velocity and potential fluctuations interact in the coupling subrange, and the energy is transferred along the spectrum in the inertia subrange. Applying the method of cascade decomposition, the spectral laws k-3, k-3, k-2 are obtained for the velocity fluctuations, and k-3, k-5, k...

  11. Strong negative terahertz photoconductivity in photoexcited graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Maixia; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) response of a chemical vapor deposited graphene on a quartz substrate has been investigated by using an ultrafast optical-pump THz-probe spectroscopy. Without photoexcitation, the frequency-dependence optical conductivity shows a strong carrier response owing to the intrinsically doped graphene. Upon photoexcitation, an enhancement in THz transmission is observed and the transmission increases nonlinearly with the increase of pump power, which is rooted in a reduction of intrinsic conductivity arising from the strong enhancement of carrier scattering rather than THz emission occurrence. The modulation depth of 18.8% was experimentally achieved, which is more than four times greater than that of the previous reported. The photoinduced response here highlights the variety of response possible in graphene depending on the sample quality, carrier mobility and doping level. The graphene provides promising applications in high-performance THz modulators and THz photoelectric devices.

  12. Gallstone ileus resulting in strong intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Szajnbok

    Full Text Available Mechanic intestinal obstruction, caused by the passage of biliary calculus from vesicle to intestine, through fistulization, although not frequent, deserve study due to the morbi-mortality rates. Incidence in elder people explains the association with chronic degenerative diseases, increasing complexity in terms of therapy decision. Literature discusses the need and opportunity for the one or two-phase surgical attack of the cholecystenteric fistule, in front of the resolution on the obstructive urgency and makes reference to Gallstone Ileus as an exception for strong intestinal obstruction. The more frequent intestinal obstruction observed is when it occurs a Gallstone Ileus impacting in terms of ileocecal valve. The authors submit a Gallstone Ileus manifestation as causing strong intestinal obstruction, discussing aspects regarding diagnostic and treatment.

  13. Electroweak and Strong Interactions Phenomenology, Concepts, Models

    CERN Document Server

    Scheck, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Electroweak and Strong Interaction: Phenomenology, Concepts, Models, begins with relativistic quantum mechanics and some quantum field theory which lay the foundation for the rest of the text. The phenomenology and the physics of the fundamental interactions are emphasized through a detailed discussion of the empirical fundamentals of unified theories of strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions. The principles of local gauge theories are described both in a heuristic and a geometric framework. The minimal standard model of the fundamental interactions is developed in detail and characteristic applications are worked out. Possible signals of physics beyond that model, notably in the physics of neutrinos are also discussed. Among the applications scattering on nucleons and on nuclei provide salient examples. Numerous exercises with solutions make the text suitable for advanced courses or individual study. This completely updated revised new edition contains an enlarged chapter on quantum chromodynamics an...

  14. Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paraficz, Danuta

    by Refsdal (1964), H0, !m and !! can be measured based on the time delay ("t) between multiply lensed images of QSOs, because "t depends on H0 and on the distances to lens and source, hence!m and !!. Determination of cosmological parameters using gravitational lensing suffers from some degeneracies......, but it is based on well understood physics and unlike distance ladder methods there are no calibration issues. Moreover, it has an advantage over some of the leading methods (such as Type Ia SNe) in that it is a purely cosmological approach. In this thesis, the property of strong gravitational lensing - time...... delay - is extensively explored. Strong gravitational lensing, and in particular time delays, are investigated here both theoretically and observationally. The focus is on the time delay as a cosmological and astrophysical tool to constrain H0, !m, !!, and to measure the masses of lensing galaxies...

  15. Strong ground motion prediction using virtual earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denolle, M A; Dunham, E M; Prieto, G A; Beroza, G C

    2014-01-24

    Sedimentary basins increase the damaging effects of earthquakes by trapping and amplifying seismic waves. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in sedimentary basins capture this effect; however, there exists no method to validate these results for earthquakes that have not yet occurred. We present a new approach for ground motion prediction that uses the ambient seismic field. We apply our method to a suite of magnitude 7 scenario earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault and compare our ground motion predictions with simulations. Both methods find strong amplification and coupling of source and structure effects, but they predict substantially different shaking patterns across the Los Angeles Basin. The virtual earthquake approach provides a new approach for predicting long-period strong ground motion.

  16. Peltier effect in strongly driven quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzejewski, M.; Crivelli, D.; Prelovšek, P.

    2014-08-01

    We study a microscopic model of a thermocouple device with two connected correlated quantum wires driven by a constant electric field. In such a closed system we follow the time and position dependence of the entropy density using the concept of the reduced density matrix. At weak driving, the initial changes of the entropy at the junctions can be described by the linear Peltier response. At longer times the quasiequilibrium situation is reached with well defined local temperatures which increase due to an overall Joule heating. On the other hand, a strong electric field induces a nontrivial nonlinear thermoelectric response, e.g., the Bloch oscillations of the energy current. Moreover, we show for the doped Mott insulators that strong driving can reverse the Peltier effect.

  17. Tennis Ball Flight under Strong Wind

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (x - a z Y = 2 (a vzo - vxo ). zVxo. - xVzo g. This equation represents a tilted parabola. The angle of tilt is z. --IR------X given by arctan(lJ a) with respect to the ground. The wind effect Figure 1. is like playing on a mountain slope. Thus, strong winds and level playing grounds do not go together! Some typical trajectories are ...

  18. Concepts in strong Langmuir turbulence theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, D. F.; Rose, Harvey A.

    Some of the basic concepts of strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) theory are reviewed. In SLT system, a major fraction of the turbulent energy is carried by local, time-dependent, nonlinear excitations called cavitons. Modulational instability, localization of Langmuir fields by density fluctuations, caviton nucleation, collapse, and burnout and caviton correlations are reviewed. Recent experimental evidence will be presented for SLT phenomena in the interaction of powerful high-frequency (HF) waves with the ionosphere and in laser-plasma interaction experiments.

  19. TITANIA-COATINGS ON STRONGLY PASSIVATED SUBSTRATES

    OpenAIRE

    Haenni, W.; Hintermann, H.; Morel, D.; Simmen, A.

    1989-01-01

    Titanium oxide can be deposited by pyrolysis of the corresponding alkoxide on metallic substrates after their preoxidation by water-vapor. To improve adhesion, the natural oxide film has first to be removed mechanically and/or chemically from the strongly passivated substrates, such as aluminium, titanium, alloys thereof, stainless steel and super-alloys. To completely remove the oxide film on AISI 316L stainless steel and similar alloys, chemical vapor etching is necessary. The preoxidation ...

  20. SUSY strong production (leptonic) with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Tomoyuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Supersymmetry is one of the most motivated scenarios for physics beyond the Standard Model. This article summarizes recent ATLAS results on searches for supersymmetry in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV at LHC, which target supersymmetric particles produced by strong interaction in events with leptonic fi nal states. No signi ficant excess above the Standard Model expectation is observed and exclusion limits have been set on squark and gluino masses in various scenarios.