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Sample records for thermal mechanical chemical

  1. Quantum chemical aided prediction of the thermal decomposition mechanisms and temperatures of ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroon, Maaike C.; Buijs, Wim; Peters, Cor J.; Witkamp, Geert-Jan

    2007-01-01

    The long-term thermal stability of ionic liquids is of utmost importance for their industrial application. Although the thermal decomposition temperatures of various ionic liquids have been measured previously, experimental data on the thermal decomposition mechanisms and kinetics are scarce. It is desirable to develop quantitative chemical tools that can predict thermal decomposition mechanisms and temperatures (kinetics) of ionic liquids. In this work ab initio quantum chemical calculations (DFT-B3LYP) have been used to predict thermal decomposition mechanisms, temperatures and the activation energies of the thermal breakdown reactions. These quantum chemical calculations proved to be an excellent method to predict the thermal stability of various ionic liquids

  2. Response of mechanical properties of glasses to their chemical, thermal and mechanical histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng

    , surface, thermal history or excess entropy of the final glass state. Here I review recent progresses in understanding of the responses of mechanical properties of oxide glasses to the compositional variation, thermal history and mechanical deformation. The tensile strength, elastic modulus and hardness...... of glass fibers are dependent on the thermal history (measured as fictive temperature), tension, chemical composition and redox state. However, the fictive temperature affects the hardness of bulk glass in a complicated manner, i.e., the effect does not exhibit a clear regularity in the range...... and micro-cracks occurring during indentation of a glass is discussed briefly. Finally I describe the future perspectives and challenges in understanding responses of mechanical properties of oxide glasses to compositional variation, thermal history and mechanical deformation....

  3. Review on effect of chemical, thermal, additive treatment on mechanical properties of basalt fiber and their composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Naman; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Chauhan, Sakshi

    2017-12-01

    Basalt fiber is emerging out the new reinforcing material for composites. To overcome some of the disadvantages of fibers such as poor bonding to polymers, low thermal stability and high moisture absorption fiber characteristics are modified with chemical, thermal and additive treatments. Chemical treatment corrosive resistance to alkali and acid were investigated which were used to clean and modify the surface of fiber for higher bonding with resins. To improve the thermal stability and reduce moisture uptake thermal treatment such as plasma and non thermal plasma were used which increased the surface roughness and change the chemical composition of surface of basalt fiber. Additive treatment is used to improve the mechanical properties of fibers, in basalt fiber additive treatment was done with SiO2 additive because of its chemical composition which contains major content of SiO2. In present investigation review on the effect of different treatment such as chemical, thermal and additive were studied. Effect of these treatment on chemical composition of the surface of basalt fiber and corrosion to acidic and alkali solution were studied with their effect on mechanical properties of basalt fiber and their composite.

  4. Computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics for geosystems management.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davison, Scott; Alger, Nicholas; Turner, Daniel Zack; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Carnes, Brian; Martinez, Mario J.; Notz, Patrick K.; Klise, Katherine A.; Stone, Charles Michael; Field, Richard V., Jr.; Newell, Pania; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Red-Horse, John Robert; Bishop, Joseph E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Hopkins, Polly L.; Mesh, Mikhail; Bean, James E.; Moffat, Harry K.; Yoon, Hongkyu

    2011-09-01

    This document summarizes research performed under the SNL LDRD entitled - Computational Mechanics for Geosystems Management to Support the Energy and Natural Resources Mission. The main accomplishment was development of a foundational SNL capability for computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics analysis of geosystems. The code was developed within the SNL Sierra software system. This report summarizes the capabilities of the simulation code and the supporting research and development conducted under this LDRD. The main goal of this project was the development of a foundational capability for coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical, chemical (THMC) simulation of heterogeneous geosystems utilizing massively parallel processing. To solve these complex issues, this project integrated research in numerical mathematics and algorithms for chemically reactive multiphase systems with computer science research in adaptive coupled solution control and framework architecture. This report summarizes and demonstrates the capabilities that were developed together with the supporting research underlying the models. Key accomplishments are: (1) General capability for modeling nonisothermal, multiphase, multicomponent flow in heterogeneous porous geologic materials; (2) General capability to model multiphase reactive transport of species in heterogeneous porous media; (3) Constitutive models for describing real, general geomaterials under multiphase conditions utilizing laboratory data; (4) General capability to couple nonisothermal reactive flow with geomechanics (THMC); (5) Phase behavior thermodynamics for the CO2-H2O-NaCl system. General implementation enables modeling of other fluid mixtures. Adaptive look-up tables enable thermodynamic capability to other simulators; (6) Capability for statistical modeling of heterogeneity in geologic materials; and (7) Simulator utilizes unstructured grids on parallel processing computers.

  5. The testing of thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical processes using a large block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.; Wilder, D.G.; Blink, J.A.; Blair, S.C.; Buscheck, T.A.; Chesnut, D.A.; Glassley, W.E.; Lee, K.; Roberts, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    The radioactive decay heat from nuclear waste packages may, depending on the thermal load, create coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical (TMHC) processes in the near-field environment of a repository. A group of tests on a large block (LBT) are planned to provide a timely opportunity to test and calibrate some of the TMHC model concepts. The LBT is advantageous for testing and verifying model concepts because the boundary conditions are controlled, and the block can be characterized before and after the experiment. A block of Topopah Spring tuff of about 3 x 3 x 4.5 m will be sawed and isolated at Fran Ridge, Nevada Test Site. Small blocks of the rock adjacent to the large block will be collected for laboratory testing of some individual thermal-mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes. A constant load of about 4 MPa will be applied to the top and sides of the large block. The sides will be sealed with moisture and thermal barriers. The large block will be heated with one heater in each borehole and guard heaters on the sides so that a dry-out zone and a condensate zone will exist simultaneously. Temperature, moisture content, pore pressure, chemical composition, stress and displacement will be measured throughout the block during the heating and cool-down phases. The results from the experiments on small blocks and the tests on the large block will provide a better understanding of some concepts of the coupled TMHC processes

  6. Neutralization of Aerosolized Bio-Agents by Filled Nanocomposite Materials through Thermal and Chemical Inactivation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Bio -agents by Filled Nanocomposite Materials through Thermal and Chemical Inactivation Mechanisms Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...of Cincinnati Project Title: Neutralization of Aerosolized Bio -agents by Filled Nanocomposite Materials through Thermal and Chemical Inactivation...fire ball, where they will not effectively interact with any viable bio -aerosol. 1.1.4. Conclusions Cryo-milling is necessary to achieve a

  7. Thermal properties of graphite oxide, thermally reduced graphene and chemically reduced graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovský, Ondřej; Sedmidubský, David; Lojka, Michal; Sofer, Zdeněk

    2017-07-01

    We compared thermal behavior and other properties of graphite oxide, thermally reduced graphene and chemically reduced graphene. Graphite was oxidized according to the Hofmann method using potassium chlorate as oxidizing agent in strongly acidic environment. In the next step, the formed graphite oxide was chemically or thermally reduced yielding graphene. The mechanism of thermal reduction was studied using STA-MS. Graphite oxide and both thermally and chemically reduced graphenes were analysed by SEM, EDS, elemental combustion analysis, XPS, Raman spectroscopy, XRD and BET. These findings will help for the large scale production of graphene with appropriate chemical composition.

  8. Effect of Chemical Treatment on Physical, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Ladies Finger Natural Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In present research, natural fiber obtained from ladies finger plant was chemically treated separately using alkali (2% NaOH, chromium sulfate (4% , and chromium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate (4% . Both raw and chemically treated fibers were subsequently characterized using mechanical (tensile, structural (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and thermal (thermogravimetric analysis. Fourier analysis showed the presence of (−OH group in the ladies plant fiber. Scanning electron micrographs revealed rougher surface in case of alkali treated fiber, while thin coating layer was formed on the fiber surface during other two treatments. Tensile test on ladies finger single fiber was carried out by varying span length. The tensile strength and Young's modulus values were found to be increased after chemical treatment. For both raw and chemically treated fibers, Young's modulus increased and tensile strength decreased with increase in span length. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated the same level of thermal stability for both raw and treated ladies finger fibers.

  9. Comparison of physico-chemical properties of various lignites treated by mechanical thermal expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janine Hulston; Alan L. Chaffee; Christian Bergins; Karl Strauss [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). School of Chemistry and CRC for Clean Power from Lignite

    2005-12-01

    This study investigates how the Mechanical Thermal Expression (MTE) process affects the physico-chemical properties of low rank lignites sourced from Australia, Greece, and Germany. The MTE process was effective in reducing the moisture content of all three coals and resulted in significant Na reductions in both the Australian and German coals. However, the organic composition of the coals investigated remained relatively unaffected. Upon oven drying, all wet MTE products underwent significant shrinkage, the degree of which was dependent upon the temperature and pressure used during the MTE process. Upon rehydration, the oven-dried MTE products underwent significant swelling, which is most likely related to the chemical composition of the coals.

  10. Thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical responses in the single heater test at the ESF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.; Blair, S.; Buettner, M

    1997-01-01

    The Single Heater Test (SHT) is conducted in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) to study the thermal-mechanical responses of the rock mass. A set of boreholes were drilled in the test region for conducting a scoping test of the coupled thermal-mechanical- hydrological-chemical (TMHC) processes. The holes for the TMHC tests include electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), neutron logging/temperature, hydrological, and optical multiple point borehole extensometers. A 4-kW heater was installed in the heater hole, and was energized on August 26, 1996. Some observed movements of the water around the heater are associated with a possible dry-out region near the heater. The water that has been moved is more dilute than the in situ ground water, except for the concentration of Ca. This indicates that fractures are the major water pathways, and the displaced water may have reached an equilibrium with carbonate minerals on the fracture surfaces. No mechanical-hydrological coupling has been observed. The tests are on-going, and more data will be collected and analyzed

  11. Changes in mechanical, chemical, and thermal sensitivity of the cornea after topical application of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, M Carmen; Berenguer-Ruiz, Leticia; García-Gálvez, Alberto; Perea-Tortosa, David; Gallar, Juana; Belmonte, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    In addition to their well-known anti-inflammatory actions, some of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) appear to have an analgesic effect. In human subjects, the changes in threshold and intensity of sensations evoked by mechanical, chemical, and thermal stimulation of the cornea induced by topical administration of two commercial NSAIDs, diclofenac sodium (Voltaren; Novartis, Basel, Switzerland) and flurbiprofen (Ocuflur; Allergan, Irvine, CA), were studied. Corneal sensitivity was measured in 10 young, healthy subjects with a gas esthesiometer. Chemical (10%-70% CO2 in air), mechanical (0-264 mL/min), and thermal (corneal temperature changes between -4.5 degrees C and +3 degrees C around the normal value) stimuli were applied to the center of the cornea. The intensity and perceived magnitude of the psychophysical attributes of the evoked sensation were scored at the end of the pulse in a 10-cm, continuous visual analog scale (VAS). The threshold was expressed as the stimulus intensity that evoked a VAS score >0.5. Sensitivity was measured in both eyes of each subject on two separate days, one without treatment and the other 30 minutes after topical application of 0.03% flurbiprofen (seven subjects) or 0.1% diclofenac sodium (six subjects). Diclofenac attenuated significantly all the sensation parameters evoked by high-intensity mechanical, chemical, and thermal stimuli. Flurbiprofen produced a slight reduction of the sensations evoked by mechanical and chemical stimulation that became significant only for the irritation caused by chemical stimuli of maximum intensity (70% CO2). None of the drugs modified significantly the detection threshold of the different stimuli. Flurbiprofen had a very limited effect on sensations evoked by corneal stimulation, whereas diclofenac reduced the intensity of sensations evoked by stimuli of different modality, suggesting a mild local anesthetic effect of this drug on all types of corneal sensory fibers. Such

  12. Chemical and mechanical efficiencies of molecular motors and implications for motor mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongyun

    2005-01-01

    Molecular motors operate in an environment dominated by viscous friction and thermal fluctuations. The chemical reaction in a motor may produce an active force at the reaction site to directly move the motor forward. Alternatively a molecular motor may generate a unidirectional motion by rectifying thermal fluctuations using free energy barriers established in the chemical reaction. The reaction cycle has many occupancy states, each having a different effect on the motor motion. The average effect of the chemical reaction on the motor motion can be characterized by the motor potential profile. The biggest advantage of studying the motor potential profile is that it can be reconstructed from the time series of motor positions measured in single-molecule experiments. In this paper, we use the motor potential profile to express the Stokes efficiency as the product of the chemical efficiency and the mechanical efficiency. We show that both the chemical and mechanical efficiencies are bounded by 100% and, thus, are properly defined efficiencies. We discuss implications of high efficiencies for motor mechanisms: a mechanical efficiency close to 100% implies that the motor potential profile is close to a constant slope; a chemical efficiency close to 100% implies that (i) the chemical transitions are not slower than the mechanical motion and (ii) the equilibrium constant of each chemical transition is close to one

  13. A Model to Couple Flow, Thermal and Reactive Chemical Transport, and Geo-mechanics in Variably Saturated Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, G. T.; Tsai, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the development of a THMC (thermal-hydrology-mechanics-chemistry) process model in variably saturated media. The governing equations for variably saturated flow and reactive chemical transport are obtained based on the mass conservation principle of species transport supplemented with Darcy's law, constraint of species concentration, equation of states, and constitutive law of K-S-P (Conductivity-Degree of Saturation-Capillary Pressure). The thermal transport equation is obtained based on the conservation of energy. The geo-mechanic displacement is obtained based on the assumption of equilibrium. Conventionally, these equations have been implicitly coupled via the calculations of secondary variables based on primary variables. The mechanisms of coupling have not been obvious. In this paper, governing equations are explicitly coupled for all primary variables. The coupling is accomplished via the storage coefficients, transporting velocities, and conduction-dispersion-diffusion coefficient tensor; one set each for every primary variable. With this new system of equations, the coupling mechanisms become clear. Physical interpretations of every term in the coupled equations will be discussed. Examples will be employed to demonstrate the intuition and superiority of these explicit coupling approaches. Keywords: Variably Saturated Flow, Thermal Transport, Geo-mechanics, Reactive Transport.

  14. Thermal chemical-mechanical reactive flow model of shock initiation in solid explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, A.L. III; Tarver, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    The three dimensional Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian hydrodynamic computer code ALE3D with fully coupled thermal-chemical-mechanical material models provides the framework for the development of a physically realistic model of shock initiation and detonation of solid explosives. The processes of hot spot formation during shock compression, subsequent ignition of reaction or failure to react, growth of reaction in individual hot spots, and coalescence of reacting hot spots during the transition to detonation can now be modeled using Arrhenius chemical kinetic rate laws and heat transfer to propagate the reactive flow. This paper discusses the growth rates of reacting hot spots in HMX and TATB and their coalescence during shock to detonation transition. Hot spot deflagration rates are found to be fast enough to consume explosive particles less than 10 mm in diameter during typical shock duration times, but larger particles must fragment and create more reactive surface area in order to be rapidly consumed

  15. A coupled mechanical-chemical model for reflecting the influence of stress on oxidation reactions in thermal barrier coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Yueming, Li

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a coupled mechanical-chemical model is established based on the thermodynamic framework, in which the contribution of chemical expansion to free energy is introduced. The stress-dependent chemical potential equilibrium at the gas-solid interface and the stress gradient-dependent diffusion equation as well as a so-called generalized force which is conjugate to the oxidation rate are derived from the proposed model, which could reflect the influence of stresses on the oxidation reaction. Based on the proposed coupled mechanical-chemical model, a user element subroutine is developed in ABAQUS. The numerical simulation of the high temperature oxidation in the thermal barrier coating is carried out to verify the accuracy of the proposed model, and then the influence of stresses on the oxidation reaction is investigated. In thermally grown oxide, the considerable stresses would be induced by permanent volumetric swelling during the oxidation. The stresses play an important role in the chemical potential equilibrium at the gas-solid interface and strongly affect the oxidation reaction. The gradient of the stresses, however, only occurs in the extremely thin oxidation front layer, which plays a very limited role in the oxidation reaction. The generalized force could be divided into the stress-dependent and the stress-independent parts. Comparing with the stress-independent part, the stress-dependent part is smaller, which has little influence on oxidation reaction.

  16. A progress report for the large block test of the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.; Wilder, D.G.; Blink, J.

    1994-10-01

    This is a progress report on the Large Block Test (LBT) project. The purpose of the LBT is to study some of the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical (TMHC) processes in the near field of a nuclear waste repository under controlled boundary conditions. To do so, a large block of Topopah Spring tuff will be heated from within for about 4 to 6 months, then cooled down for about the same duration. Instruments to measure temperature, moisture content, stress, displacement, and chemical changes will be installed in three directions in the block. Meanwhile, laboratory tests will be conducted on small blocks to investigate individual thermal-mechanical, thermal-hydrological, and thermal-chemical processes. The fractures in the large block will be characterized from five exposed surfaces. The minerals on fracture surfaces will be studied before and after the test. The results from the LBT will be useful for testing and building confidence in models that will be used to predict TMHC processes in a repository. The boundary conditions to be controlled on the block include zero moisture flux and zero heat flux on the sides, constant temperature on the top, and constant stress on the outside surfaces of the block. To control these boundary conditions, a load-retaining frame is required. A 3 x 3 x 4.5 m block of Topopah Spring tuff has been isolated on the outcrop at Fran Ridge, Nevada Test Site. Pre-test model calculations indicate that a permeability of at least 10 -15 m 2 is required so that a dryout zone can be created within a practical time frame when the block is heated from within. Neutron logging was conducted in some of the vertical holes to estimate the initial moisture content of the block. It was found that about 60 to 80% of the pore volume of the block is saturated with water. Cores from the vertical holes have been used to map the fractures and to determine the properties of the rock. A current schedule is included in the report

  17. Thermal and mechanical behaviour of oxygen carrier materials for chemical looping combustion in a packed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.; Van Noyen, J.; Larring, Y.; Mccann, M.; Pishahang, M.; Amini, S.; Ortiz, M.; Galluci, F.; Sint-Annaland, M.V.; Tournigant, D.; Louradour, E.; Snijkers, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ilmenite-based oxygen carriers were developed for packed-bed chemical looping. • Addition of Mn_2O_3 increased mechanical strength and microstructure of the carriers. • Oxygen carriers were able to withstand creep and thermal cycling up to 1200 °C. • Ilmenite-based granules are a promising shape for packed-bed reactor conditions. - Abstract: Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a promising carbon capture technology where cyclic reduction and oxidation of a metallic oxide, which acts as a solid oxygen carrier, takes place. With this system, direct contact between air and fuel can be avoided, and so, a concentrated CO_2 stream is generated after condensation of the water in the exit gas stream. An interesting reactor system for CLC is a packed bed reactor as it can have a higher efficiency compared to a fluidized bed concept, but it requires other types of oxygen carrier particles. The particles must be larger to avoid a large pressure drop in the reactor and they must be mechanically strong to withstand the severe reactor conditions. Therefore, oxygen carriers in the shape of granules and based on the mineral ilmenite were subjected to thermal cycling and creep tests. The mechanical strength of the granules before and after testing was investigated by crush tests. In addition, the microstructure of these oxygen particles was studied to understand the relationship between the physical properties and the mechanical performance. It was found that the granules are a promising shape for a packed bed reactor as no severe degradation in strength was noticed upon thermal cycling and creep testing. Especially, the addition of Mn_2O_3 to the ilmenite, which leads to the formation of an iron–manganese oxide, seems to results in stronger granules than the other ilmenite-based granules.

  18. Microstructures, Mechanical Properties and Thermal Conductivities of W-0.5 wt.%TiC Alloys Prepared via Ball Milling and Wet Chemical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Shaoting; Yan, Qingzhi; Sun, Ningbo; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Ge, Changchun

    2017-10-01

    Two kinds of W-0.5 wt.%TiC alloys were prepared, one by ball milling and the other by the wet chemical method. For comparison, pure tungsten powders were chemically prepared and sintered by the same process. The microstructures, mechanical properties and thermal conductivities of the prepared samples were characterized. It has been found that the wet chemical method resulted in finer sizes and more uniform distribution of TiC particles in the sintered tungsten matrix than the ball milling method. The W-TiC alloy prepared by the wet chemical method achieved the highest bending strength (1065.72 MPa) among the samples. Further, it also exhibited obviously higher thermal conductivities in the temperature range of room temperature to 600°C than did the W-TiC alloy prepared by ball milling, but the differences in their thermal conductivities could be ignored in the range of 600-800°C.

  19. Failure mechanism for thermal fatigue of thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giolli, C.; Scrivani, A.; Rizzi, G. [Turbocoating S.p.A., Rubbiano di Solignano (Italy); Borgioli, F. [Firenze Univ., Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bolelli, G.; Lusvarghi, L. [Univ. di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    High temperature thermal fatigue causes the failure of Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) systems. Due to the difference in thickness and microstructure between thick TBCs and traditional thin TBCs, they cannot be assumed a-priori to possess the same failure mechanisms. Thick TBCs, consisting of a CoNiCrAlY bond coat and Yttria Partially Stabilised Zirconia top coat with different values of porosity, were produced by Air Plasma Spray. Thermal fatigue resistance limit of TBCs was tested by Furnace Cycling Tests (FCT) according to the specifications of an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM). TBC systems were analyzed before and after FCT. The morphological and chemical evolution of CoNiCrAlY/TGO microstructure was studied. Sintering effect, residual stress, phase transformation and fracture toughness were evaluated in the ceramic Top Coat. All the tested samples passed FCT according to the specification of an important OEM. Thermal fatigue resistance increases with the amount of porosity in the top coat. The compressive in-plane stresses increase in the TBC systems after thermal cycling, nevertheless the increasing rate has a trend contrary to the porosity level of top coat. The data suggest that the spallation happens at the TGO/Top Coat interface. The failure mechanism of thick TBCs subjected to thermal fatigue was eventually found to be similar to the failure mechanism of thin TBC systems made by APS. (orig.)

  20. A comparative study on thermal, mechanical and dielectric characteristics of low density polyethylene crosslinked by radiation and chemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.H.; Ling, D.Y.; Kim, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    A comparative study on thermal, static mechanical and dielectric characteristics were made over a temperature range of ca. 20 0 C to 320 0 C and a frequency range of KHZ band on low density polyethylene specimens crosslinked, respectively, by radiation and chemical method. The thermal property of both specimens shows that softening point appears to unchange by crosslinking however, melting and liquidizing temperatures attain rapid increase at the imitation of crosslinking. Mechanical properties show little difference to both specimens crosslinked by different method, further the behaviors were discussed in connection with the relaxation of molecular segments in amorphous phase. Dose dependent dielectric characteristics observed at ambient temperature under several fixed frequencies exhibit extremities at ca. 20 Mrad and the behaviors also were interpreted qualitatively by taking into consideration of dipole concentration change in amorphous phase together with the role of specimen geometry to the depth of oxidative layer. Observing frequency dependent dielectric characteristics, it was also proved that ionic conduction loss is appreciably greater in the specimen prepared by chemical method than that by radiation. (author)

  1. Thermal depolymerization mechanisms of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hengxue Xiang; Xiaoshuang Wen; Xiaohui Miu; Yan Li; Zhe Zhou; Meifang Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Thermal degradation processes and decomposition mechanisms of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) were investigated by using thermal gravity analysis(TGA), Gel permeation chromatography (GPC), elemental analyzer, pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PyGC-MS) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). The degradation activation energy was calculated via the dependence of residual mass on isothermal temperature. 1H NMR and PyGC-MS were used to investigate the chemical structure and component proportion of volatile gases and degradation residues which were produced by thermal decomposition, and to infer the process of macromolecular chain scission. Besides, the influence of the factors, such as outfield atmosphere, residual metal ions, on the degradation behaviors of PHBV was also studied. Finally, the PHBV thermal decomposition mechanisms were speculated on the basis of the degradation behaviors of molecular and chemical structure.

  2. Thermal-Chemical Model Of Subduction: Results And Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyk, W.; Gerya, T. V.; Connolly, J. A.; Yuen, D. A.; Rudolph, M.

    2005-12-01

    Seismic structures with strong positive and negative velocity anomalies in the mantle wedge above subduction zones have been interpreted as thermally and/or chemically induced phenomena. We have developed a thermal-chemical model of subduction, which constrains the dynamics of seismic velocity structure beneath volcanic arcs. Our simulations have been calculated over a finite-difference grid with (201×101) to (201×401) regularly spaced Eulerian points, using 0.5 million to 10 billion markers. The model couples numerical thermo-mechanical solution with Gibbs energy minimization to investigate the dynamic behavior of partially molten upwellings from slabs (cold plumes) and structures associated with their development. The model demonstrates two chemically distinct types of plumes (mixed and unmixed), and various rigid body rotation phenomena in the wedge (subduction wheel, fore-arc spin, wedge pin-ball). These thermal-chemical features strongly perturb seismic structure. Their occurrence is dependent on the age of subducting slab and the rate of subduction.The model has been validated through a series of test cases and its results are consistent with a variety of geological and geophysical data. In contrast to models that attribute a purely thermal origin for mantle wedge seismic anomalies, the thermal-chemical model is able to simulate the strong variations of seismic velocity existing beneath volcanic arcs which are associated with development of cold plumes. In particular, molten regions that form beneath volcanic arcs as a consequence of vigorous cold wet plumes are manifest by > 20% variations in the local Poisson ratio, as compared to variations of ~ 2% expected as a consequence of temperature variation within the mantle wedge.

  3. Thermal/chemical degradation of ceramic cross-flow filter materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvin, M.A.; Lane, J.E.; Lippert, T.E.

    1989-11-01

    This report summarizes the 14-month, Phase 1 effort conducted by Westinghouse on the Thermal/Chemical Degradation of Ceramic Cross-Flow Filter Materials program. In Phase 1 expected filter process conditions were identified for a fixed-bed, fluid-bed, and entrained-bed gasification, direct coal fired turbine, and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system. Ceramic cross-flow filter materials were also selected, procured, and subjected to chemical and physical characterization. The stability of each of the ceramic cross-flow materials was assessed in terms of potential reactions or phase change as a result of process temperature, and effluent gas compositions containing alkali and fines. In addition chemical and physical characterization was conducted on cross-flow filters that were exposed to the METC fluid-bed gasifier and the New York University pressurized fluidized-bed combustor. Long-term high temperature degradation mechanisms were proposed for each ceramic cross-flow material at process operating conditions. An experimental bench-scale test program is recommended to be conducted in Phase 2, generating data that support the proposed cross-flow filter material thermal/chemical degradation mechanisms. Papers on the individual subtasks have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  4. Mechanisms of fuel-cladding chemical interaction: US interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, M.G.

    1977-01-01

    Proposed mechanisms of fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) in LMFBR fuel pins are reviewed and examined in terms of in-pile and out-of-pile data. From this examination several factors are identified which may govern the occurrence of localized deep intergranular penetrations of Type-316SS cladding. Using a plausible mechanistic hypothesis for FCCI, first steps have been taken towards developing a quantitative, physically-meaningful, mathematical method of predicting cladding wastage in operating fuel pins. Both kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of FCCI are considered in the development of this prediction method, together with a fuel chemistry model that describes the evolution of thermochemical conditions at the fuel-cladding gap. On the basis of results from recent fuel pin and laboratory tests a thermal transport mechanism has been proposed to explain the thermal gradient-induced migration of Fe, Cr, and Ni from cladding into the fuel. This mechanism involves chemical transport of the metallic cladding components (as tellurides) in liquid Cs-Te. (author)

  5. Mechanisms of fuel-cladding chemical interaction: US interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M G [General Electric Company, Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1977-04-01

    Proposed mechanisms of fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) in LMFBR fuel pins are reviewed and examined in terms of in-pile and out-of-pile data. From this examination several factors are identified which may govern the occurrence of localized deep intergranular penetrations of Type-316SS cladding. Using a plausible mechanistic hypothesis for FCCI, first steps have been taken towards developing a quantitative, physically-meaningful, mathematical method of predicting cladding wastage in operating fuel pins. Both kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of FCCI are considered in the development of this prediction method, together with a fuel chemistry model that describes the evolution of thermochemical conditions at the fuel-cladding gap. On the basis of results from recent fuel pin and laboratory tests a thermal transport mechanism has been proposed to explain the thermal gradient-induced migration of Fe, Cr, and Ni from cladding into the fuel. This mechanism involves chemical transport of the metallic cladding components (as tellurides) in liquid Cs-Te. (author)

  6. Chemical and thermal stability of insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huus, Kasper; Havelund, Svend; Olsen, Helle B

    2006-01-01

    To study the correlation between the thermal and chemical stability of insulin formulations with various insulin hexamer ligands.......To study the correlation between the thermal and chemical stability of insulin formulations with various insulin hexamer ligands....

  7. Mechanical properties of moso bamboo treated with chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhua Fei; Zhijia Liu; Zehui Jiang; Zhiyong Cai

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo is a type of biomass material and has great potential as a bioenergy resource for the future in China. Surface chemical and thermal–mechanical behavior play an important role in the manufacturing process of bamboo composites and pellets. In this study, moso bamboo was treated by sodium hydrate solution and acetic acid solution. Surface chemical and dynamic...

  8. Improvement of the chemical, thermal, mechanical and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-16

    May 16, 2018 ... mal stability and thermal conductivity, it has limitation due its poor thermal .... graphene composites can help determine the percent of carbonyl .... between the glass transition temperature Tg and the amounts of graphene ...

  9. Thermal-mechanical-chemical responses of polymer-bonded explosives using a mesoscopic reactive model under impact loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, XinJie; Wu, YanQing; Huang, FengLei

    2017-01-05

    A mesoscopic framework is developed to quantify the thermal-mechanical-chemical responses of polymer-bonded explosive (PBX) samples under impact loading. A mesoscopic reactive model is developed for the cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX) crystal, which incorporates nonlinear elasticity, crystal plasticity, and temperature-dependent chemical reaction. The proposed model was implemented in the finite element code ABAQUS by the user subroutine VUMAT. A series of three-dimensional mesoscale models were constructed and calculated under low-strength impact loading scenarios from 100m/s to 600m/s where only the first wave transit is studied. Crystal anisotropy and microstructural heterogeneity are responsible for the nonuniform stress field and fluctuations of the stress wave front. At a critical impact velocity (≥300m/s), a chemical reaction is triggered because the temperature contributed by the volumetric and plastic works is sufficiently high. Physical quantities, including stress, temperature, and extent of reaction, are homogenized from those across the microstructure at the mesoscale to compare with macroscale measurements, which will advance the continuum-level models. The framework presented in this study has important implications in understanding hot spot ignition processes and improving predictive capabilities in energetic materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Stress hysteresis during thermal cycling of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurn, Jeremy; Cook, Robert F.

    2002-02-01

    The mechanical response of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited SiO2 to thermal cycling is examined by substrate curvature measurement and depth-sensing indentation. Film properties of deposition stress and stress hysteresis that accompanied thermal cycling are elucidated, as well as modulus, hardness, and coefficient of thermal expansion. Thermal cycling is shown to result in major plastic deformation of the film and a switch from a compressive to a tensile state of stress; both athermal and thermal components of the net stress alter in different ways during cycling. A mechanism of hydrogen incorporation and release from as-deposited silanol groups is proposed that accounts for the change in film properties and state of stress.

  11. Thermal-mechanical deformation modelling of soft tissues for thermal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhong, Yongmin; Jazar, Reza; Subic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Modeling of thermal-induced mechanical behaviors of soft tissues is of great importance for thermal ablation. This paper presents a method by integrating the heating process with thermal-induced mechanical deformations of soft tissues for simulation and analysis of the thermal ablation process. This method combines bio-heat transfer theories, constitutive elastic material law under thermal loads as well as non-rigid motion dynamics to predict and analyze thermal-mechanical deformations of soft tissues. The 3D governing equations of thermal-mechanical soft tissue deformation are discretized by using the finite difference scheme and are subsequently solved by numerical algorithms. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively predict the thermal-induced mechanical behaviors of soft tissues, and can be used for the thermal ablation therapy to effectively control the delivered heat energy for cancer treatment.

  12. Chemical warfare agents identification by thermal neutron detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Boxue; Ai Xianyun; Tan Daoyuan; Zhang Dianqin

    2000-01-01

    The hydrogen concentration determination by thermal neutron detection is a non-destructive, fast and effective method to identify chemical warfare agents and TNT that contain different hydrogen fraction. When an isotropic neutron source is used to irradiate chemical ammunition, hydrogen atoms of the agent inside shell act as a moderator and slow down neutrons. The number of induced thermal neutrons depends mainly upon hydrogen content of the agent. Therefore measurement of thermal neutron influence can be used to determine hydrogen atom concentration, thereby to determine the chemical warfare agents. Under a certain geometry three calibration curves of count rate against hydrogen concentration were measured. According to the calibration curves, response of a chemical agent or TNT could be calculated. Differences of count rate among chemical agents and TNT for each kind of shells is greater than five times of standard deviations of count rate for any agent, so chemical agents or TNT could be identified correctly. Meanwhile, blast tube or liquid level of chemical warfare agent could affect the response of thermal neutron count rate, and thereby the result of identification. (author)

  13. Enhanced thermal and mechanical properties of PVA composites formed with filamentous nanocellulose fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wu, Qiong; Zhao, Xin; Huang, Zhanhua; Cao, Jun; Li, Jian; Liu, Shouxin

    2014-11-26

    Long filamentous nanocellulose fibrils (NCFs) were prepared from chemical-thermomechanical pulps (CTMP) using ultrasonication. Their contribution to enhancements in thermal stability and mechanical properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) films were investigated. The unique chemical pretreatment and mechanical effects of CTMP loosen and unfold fibers during the pulping process, which enables further chemical purification and subsequent ultrasound treatment for formation of NCFs. The NCFs exhibited higher crystallinity (72.9%) compared with that of CTMP (61.5%), and had diameters ranging from 50 to 120 nm. A NCF content of 6 wt% was found to yield the best thermal stability, light transmittance, and mechanical properties in the PVA/NCF composites. The composites also exhibited a visible light transmittance of 73.7%, and the tensile strength and Young's modulus were significantly improved, with values 2.8 and 2.4 times larger, respectively, than that of neat PVA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-Fourier based thermal-mechanical tissue damage prediction for thermal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhong, Yongmin; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2017-01-02

    Prediction of tissue damage under thermal loads plays important role for thermal ablation planning. A new methodology is presented in this paper by combing non-Fourier bio-heat transfer, constitutive elastic mechanics as well as non-rigid motion of dynamics to predict and analyze thermal distribution, thermal-induced mechanical deformation and thermal-mechanical damage of soft tissues under thermal loads. Simulations and comparison analysis demonstrate that the proposed methodology based on the non-Fourier bio-heat transfer can account for the thermal-induced mechanical behaviors of soft tissues and predict tissue thermal damage more accurately than classical Fourier bio-heat transfer based model.

  15. Electro Thermal Chemical Gun Technology Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diamond, P

    1999-01-01

    .... Michael Stroscio. Electro Thermal Chemical (ETC) gun technology refers to the use of plasma devices in place of traditional chemical ignitors to initiate the burning of high energy propellants in a controlled manner...

  16. Predicting Formation Damage in Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems Utilizing a Coupled Hydraulic-Thermal-Chemical Reservoir Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Daniel; Regenspurg, Simona; Milsch, Harald; Blöcher, Guido; Kranz, Stefan; Saadat, Ali

    2014-05-01

    In aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems, large amounts of energy can be stored by injecting hot water into deep or intermediate aquifers. In a seasonal production-injection cycle, water is circulated through a system comprising the porous aquifer, a production well, a heat exchanger and an injection well. This process involves large temperature and pressure differences, which shift chemical equilibria and introduce or amplify mechanical processes. Rock-fluid interaction such as dissolution and precipitation or migration and deposition of fine particles will affect the hydraulic properties of the porous medium and may lead to irreversible formation damage. In consequence, these processes determine the long-term performance of the ATES system and need to be predicted to ensure the reliability of the system. However, high temperature and pressure gradients and dynamic feedback cycles pose challenges on predicting the influence of the relevant processes. Within this study, a reservoir model comprising a coupled hydraulic-thermal-chemical simulation was developed based on an ATES demonstration project located in the city of Berlin, Germany. The structural model was created with Petrel, based on data available from seismic cross-sections and wellbores. The reservoir simulation was realized by combining the capabilities of multiple simulation tools. For the reactive transport model, COMSOL Multiphysics (hydraulic-thermal) and PHREEQC (chemical) were combined using the novel interface COMSOL_PHREEQC, developed by Wissmeier & Barry (2011). It provides a MATLAB-based coupling interface between both programs. Compared to using COMSOL's built-in reactive transport simulator, PHREEQC additionally calculates adsorption and reaction kinetics and allows the selection of different activity coefficient models in the database. The presented simulation tool will be able to predict the most important aspects of hydraulic, thermal and chemical transport processes relevant to

  17. Thermally emissive sensing materials for chemical spectroscopy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Zsolt; Ohodnicki, Paul R.

    2018-05-08

    A sensor using thermally emissive materials for chemical spectroscopy analysis includes an emissive material, wherein the emissive material includes the thermally emissive materials which emit electromagnetic radiation, wherein the electromagnetic radiation is modified due to chemical composition in an environment; and a detector adapted to detect the electromagnetic radiation, wherein the electromagnetic radiation is indicative of the chemical interaction changes and hence chemical composition and/or chemical composition changes of the environment. The emissive material can be utilized with an optical fiber sensor, with the optical fiber sensor operating without the emissive material probed with a light source external to the material.

  18. Photo, thermal and chemical degradation of riboflavin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Sheraz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Riboflavin (RF, also known as vitamin B2, belongs to the class of water-soluble vitamins and is widely present in a variety of food products. It is sensitive to light and high temperature, and therefore, needs a consideration of these factors for its stability in food products and pharmaceutical preparations. A number of other factors have also been identified that affect the stability of RF. These factors include radiation source, its intensity and wavelength, pH, presence of oxygen, buffer concentration and ionic strength, solvent polarity and viscosity, and use of stabilizers and complexing agents. A detailed review of the literature in this field has been made and all those factors that affect the photo, thermal and chemical degradation of RF have been discussed. RF undergoes degradation through several mechanisms and an understanding of the mode of photo- and thermal degradation of RF may help in the stabilization of the vitamin. A general scheme for the photodegradation of RF is presented.

  19. Thermodynamic aspects of power production in thermal, chemical and electrochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieniutycz, Stanisław; Poświata, Artur

    2012-01-01

    We apply optimization methods to study power generation limits for various energy converters, such as thermal, solar, chemical, and electrochemical engines. Methodological similarity is observed when analysing power limits in thermal machines and fuel cells which are electrochemical flow engines. Operative driving forces and voltage are suitable indicators of imperfect phenomena in energy converters. The results obtained generalize our previous findings for power yield limits in purely thermal systems with finite rates. While temperatures T i of participating media were only necessary variables in purely thermal systems, in the present work both temperatures and chemical potentials μ k are essential. This case is associated with engines propelled by fluxes of both energy and substance. In dynamical systems downgrading or upgrading of resources may occur. Energy flux (power) is created in the generator located between the resource fluid (‘upper’ fluid 1) and the environmental fluid (‘lower’ fluid, 2). Fluid properties, transfer mechanisms and conductance values of dissipative layers or conductors influence the rate of power production. Numerical approaches to the dynamical solutions are based on the dynamic programming or maximum principle. Here we focus especially on the latter method, which involves discrete algorithms of Pontryagin’s type. Downgrading or upgrading of resources may also occur in electrochemical systems of fuel cell type. Yet, in this paper we restrict ourselves to the steady-state fuel cells. We present a simple analysis showing that, in linear systems, only at most ¼ of power dissipated in the natural transfer process can be transformed into the noble form of mechanical power.

  20. The chemical consequences of thermal neutron capture in alkali selenates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplatre, G.; Vargas, J.I.

    1977-01-01

    The initial retention of the SeO 4 2- ion after thermal neutron capture has been studied in various matrices by chemical analysis. A comparison between the thermal behaviour of the chemically analyzed Sesup(IV) and the disappearance of the E.P.R. species SeO 3 - and SeO 4 3- showed that the retention fraction would include all species with oxidation state higher or equal to VI. The retentions observed in the different matrices show the existence of four families with respective retentions of: 2.6%[K 2 SeO 4 diluted in (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ], 9.2% [anhydrous and hydrated Li and Ca selenates; K 2 SeO 4 diluted in NaIO 3 ; Se + implanted in K 2 SeO 4 ; Triglycine selenate], 21.5% [K 2 SeO 4 diluted in KNO 3 , K 2 SO 4 , Na 2 WO 4 and Na 2 WO 4 .2H 2 O] and 32.0% [Na,K and Cs selenates]. Whereas chemical considerations may be invoked for the (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 matrix, a mechanical model is proposed for the three other groups. (author)

  1. Swelling, Mechanics, and Thermal/Chemical Stability of Hydrogels Containing Phenylboronic Acid Side Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We report here studies of swelling, mechanics, and thermal stability of hydrogels consisting of 20 mol % methacrylamidophenylboronic acid (MPBA and 80 mol % acrylamide (AAm, lightly crosslinked with methylenebisacrylamide (Bis. Swelling was measured in solutions of fixed ionic strength, but with varying pH values and fructose concentrations. Mechanics was studied by compression and hold. In the absence of sugar or in the presence of fructose, the modulus was mostly maintained during the hold period, while a significant stress relaxation was seen in the presence of glucose, consistent with reversible, dynamic crosslinks provided by glucose, but not fructose. Thermal stability was determined by incubating hydrogels at pH 7.4 at room temperature, and 37, 50, and 65 °C, and monitoring swelling. In PBS (phosphate buffered saline solutions containing 9 mM fructose, swelling remained essentially complete for 50 days at room temperature, but decreased substantially with time at the higher temperatures, with accelerated reduction of swelling with increasing temperature. Controls indicated that over long time periods, both the MPBA and AAm units were experiencing conversion to different species.

  2. Mechanical properties and chemical stability of pivalolactone-based poly(ether ester)s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsma, E.J.; Tijsma, E.J.; van der Does, L.; Bantjes, A.; Bantjes, A.; Vulic, I.

    1994-01-01

    The processing, mechanical and chemical properties of poly(ether ester)s, prepared from pivalolactone (PVL), 1,4-butanediol (4G) and dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), were studied. The poly(ether ester)s could easily be processed by injection moulding, owing to their favourable rheological and thermal

  3. Degradation mechanism and thermal stability of urea nitrate below the melting point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desilets, Sylvain; Brousseau, Patrick; Chamberland, Daniel; Singh, Shanti; Feng, Hongtu; Turcotte, Richard; Anderson, John

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Decomposition mechanism of urea nitrate. → Spectral characterization of the decomposition mechanism. → Thermal stability of urea nitrate at 50, 70 and 100 o C. → Chemical balance of decomposed products released. - Abstract: Aging and degradation of urea nitrate below the melting point, at 100 o C, was studied by using thermal analysis and spectroscopic methods including IR, Raman, 1 H and 13 C NMR techniques. It was found that urea nitrate was completely degraded after 72 h at 100 o C into a mixture of solids (69%) and released gaseous species (31%). The degradation mechanism below the melting point was clearly identified. The remaining solid mixture was composed of ammonium nitrate, urea and biuret while unreacted residual nitric and isocyanic acids as well as traces of ammonia were released as gaseous species at 100 o C. The thermal stability of urea nitrate, under extreme storage conditions (50 o C), was also examined by isothermal nano-calorimetry.

  4. Thermal and mechanical stability of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks polymorphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila Bouëssel du Bourg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical studies on the experimental feasibility of hypothetical Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs have focused so far on relative energy of various polymorphs by energy minimization at the quantum chemical level. We present here a systematic study of stability of 18 ZIFs as a function of temperature and pressure by molecular dynamics simulations. This approach allows us to better understand the limited stability of some experimental structures upon solvent or guest removal. We also find that many of the hypothetical ZIFs proposed in the literature are not stable at room temperature. Mechanical and thermal stability criteria thus need to be considered for the prediction of new MOF structures. Finally, we predict a variety of thermal expansion behavior for ZIFs as a function of framework topology, with some materials showing large negative volume thermal expansion.

  5. Purification process of natural graphite as anode for Li-ion batteries: chemical versus thermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghib, K.; Song, X.; Guerfi, A.; Rioux, R.; Kinoshita, K.

    The intercalation of Li ions in natural graphite that was purified by chemical and thermal processes was investigated. A new chemical process was developed that involved a mixed aqueous solution containing 30% H 2SO 4 and 30% NH xF y heated to 90 °C. The results of this process are compared to those obtained by heating the natural graphite from 1500 to 2400 °C in an inert environment (thermal process). The first-cycle coulombic efficiency of the purified natural graphite obtained by the chemical process is 91 and 84% after the thermal process at 2400 °C. Grinding the natural graphite before or after purification had no significant effect on electrochemical performance at low currents. However, grinding to a very small particle size before purification permitted optimization of the size distribution of the particles, which gives rise to a more homogenous electrode. The impurities in the graphite play a role as microabrasion agents during grinding which enhances its hardness and improves its mechanical properties. Grinding also modifies the particle morphology from a 2- to a 3-D structure (similar in shape to a potato). This potato-shaped natural graphite shows high reversible capacity at high current densities (about 90% at 1 C rate). Our analysis suggests that thermal processing is considerably more expensive than the chemical process to obtain purified natural graphite.

  6. Thermal energy storage using thermo-chemical heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, M.A.; Rossides, S.D.; Haj Khalil, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Understanding of the performance of thermo chemical heat pump. ► Tool for storing thermal energy. ► Parameters that affect the amount of thermal stored energy. ► Lithium chloride has better effect on storing thermal energy. - Abstract: A theoretical study was performed to investigate the potential of storing thermal energy using a heat pump which is a thermo-chemical storage system consisting of water as sorbet, and sodium chloride as the sorbent. The effect of different parameters namely; the amount of vaporized water from the evaporator, the system initial temperature and the type of salt on the increase in temperature of the salt was investigated and hence on the performance of the thermo chemical heat pump. It was found that the performance of the heat pump improves with the initial system temperature, with the amount of water vaporized and with the water remaining in the system. Finally it was also found that lithium chloride salt has higher effect on the performance of the heat pump that of sodium chloride.

  7. Thermal, dielectric characteristics and conduction mechanism of azodyes derived from quinoline and their copper complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghamaz, N A; Diab, M A; El-Bindary, A A; El-Sonbati, A Z; Nozha, S G

    2015-05-15

    A novel series of (5-(4'-derivatives phenyl azo)-8-hydroxy-7-quinolinecarboxaldehyde) (AQLn) (n=1, p-OCH3; n=2, R=H; and n=3; p-NO2) and their complexes [Cu(AQLn)2]·5H2O are synthesized and investigated. The optimized bond lengths, bond angles and the calculated quantum chemical parameters for AQLn are investigated. HOMO-LUMO energy gap, absolute electronegativities, chemical potentials, and absolute hardness are also calculated. The thermal properties, dielectric properties, alternating current conductivity (σac) and conduction mechanism are investigated in the frequency range 0.1-100kHz and temperature range 293-568K for AQL1-3 and 318-693K for [Cu(AQL1-3)2]·5H2O complexes. The thermal properties are of ligands (AQLn) and their Cu(II) complexes investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The temperature and frequency dependence of the real and the imaginary part of the dielectric constant are studied. The values of the thermal activation energy of conduction mechanism for AQLn and their complexes [Cu(AQLn)2]·5H2O under investigation are calculated at different test frequencies. The values of thermal activation energies ΔE1 and ΔE2 for AQLn and [Cu(AQLn)2]·5H2O decrease with increasing the values of frequency. The ac conductivity is found to be depending on the chemical structure of the compounds. Different conduction mechanisms have been proposed to explain the obtained experimental data. The small polaron tunneling (SPT) is the dominant conduction mechanism for AQL1 and its complex [Cu(AQL1)2]·5H2O. The quantum mechanical tunneling (QMT) is the dominant conduction mechanism for AQL2 and its complex [Cu(AQL2)2]·5H2O. The correlated barrier hopping (CBH) is the dominant conduction mechanism for AQL3 and its complex [Cu(AQL3)2]·5H2O, and the values of the maximum barrier height (Wm) are calculated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Negative thermal expansion in functional materials: controllable thermal expansion by chemical modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Hu, Lei; Deng, Jinxia; Xing, Xianran

    2015-06-07

    Negative thermal expansion (NTE) is an intriguing physical property of solids, which is a consequence of a complex interplay among the lattice, phonons, and electrons. Interestingly, a large number of NTE materials have been found in various types of functional materials. In the last two decades good progress has been achieved to discover new phenomena and mechanisms of NTE. In the present review article, NTE is reviewed in functional materials of ferroelectrics, magnetics, multiferroics, superconductors, temperature-induced electron configuration change and so on. Zero thermal expansion (ZTE) of functional materials is emphasized due to the importance for practical applications. The NTE functional materials present a general physical picture to reveal a strong coupling role between physical properties and NTE. There is a general nature of NTE for both ferroelectrics and magnetics, in which NTE is determined by either ferroelectric order or magnetic one. In NTE functional materials, a multi-way to control thermal expansion can be established through the coupling roles of ferroelectricity-NTE, magnetism-NTE, change of electron configuration-NTE, open-framework-NTE, and so on. Chemical modification has been proved to be an effective method to control thermal expansion. Finally, challenges and questions are discussed for the development of NTE materials. There remains a challenge to discover a "perfect" NTE material for each specific application for chemists. The future studies on NTE functional materials will definitely promote the development of NTE materials.

  9. Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Modeling of Water Leak-Off Process during Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The water leak-off during hydraulic fracturing in shale gas reservoirs is a complicated transport behavior involving thermal (T, hydrodynamic (H, mechanical (M and chemical (C processes. Although many leak-off models have been published, none of the models fully coupled the transient fluid flow modeling with heat transfer, chemical-potential equilibrium and natural-fracture dilation phenomena. In this paper, a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC model based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics, hydrodynamics, thermo-poroelastic rock mechanics, and non-isothermal chemical-potential equations is presented to simulate the water leak-off process in shale gas reservoirs. The THMC model takes into account a triple-porosity medium, which includes hydraulic fractures, natural fractures and shale matrix. The leak-off simulation with the THMC model involves all the important processes in this triple-porosity medium, including: (1 water transport driven by hydraulic, capillary, chemical and thermal osmotic convections; (2 gas transport induced by both hydraulic pressure driven convection and adsorption; (3 heat transport driven by thermal convection and conduction; and (4 natural-fracture dilation considered as a thermo-poroelastic rock deformation. The fluid and heat transport, coupled with rock deformation, are described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The semi-implicit finite-difference algorithm is proposed to solve these equations. The evolution of pressure, temperature, saturation and salinity profiles of hydraulic fractures, natural fractures and matrix is calculated, revealing the multi-field coupled water leak-off process in shale gas reservoirs. The influences of hydraulic pressure, natural-fracture dilation, chemical osmosis and thermal osmosis on water leak-off are investigated. Results from this study are expected to provide a better understanding of the

  10. Thermal and chemical durability of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hao; Zhang Yong; Li Ruying; Sun Xueliang; Abou-Rachid, Hakima

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (CN x tubes) with nitrogen content of 7.6 at.% are synthesized on carbon papers. Thermal and chemical stability of the nanotubes are investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The results indicate that the nitrogen can be firmly kept in the nanotubes after annealing at 300 °C in air. Under an argon atmosphere, the nitrogen would not release until 670 °C, and half of the nitrogen incorporated is released after annealing at 700 °C for 30 min. Chemical stability investigation indicates that the nitrogen incorporated in the nanotubes is very stable under the thermal and acid environment comparable to working condition of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Profile of the nitrogen species inside the nanotubes reveals that graphite-like nitrogen releases slower than any other kind of nitrogen in the nanotubes during the chemical stability measurement. These CN x tubes synthesized by this simple chemical vapor deposition method are expected to be suitable for many applications, such as PEM fuel cells that work under both thermal and corrosive conditions and some other mild thermal environments.

  11. Thermal-chemical-mechanical feedback during fluid-rock interactions: Implications for chemical transport and scales of equilibria in the crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutrow, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Our research evaluates the hypothesis that feedback amongst thermal-chemical-mechanical processes operative in fluid-rock systems alters the fluid flow dynamics of the system which, in turn, affects chemical transport and temporal and spatial scales of equilibria, thus impacting the resultant mineral textural development of rocks. Our methods include computational experimentation and detailed analyses of fluid-infiltrated rocks from well-characterized terranes. This work focuses on metamorphic rocks and hydrothermal systems where minerals and their textures are utilized to evaluate pressure (P), temperature (T), and time (t) paths in the evolution of mountain belts and ore deposits, and to interpret tectonic events and the timing of these events. Our work on coupled processes also extends to other areas where subsurface flow and transport in porous media have consequences such as oil and gas movement, geothermal system development, transport of contaminants, nuclear waste disposal, and other systems rich in fluid-rock reactions. Fluid-rock systems are widespread in the geologic record. Correctly deciphering the products resulting from such systems is important to interpreting a number of geologic phenomena. These systems are characterized by complex interactions involving time-dependent, non-linear processes in heterogeneous materials. While many of these interactions have been studied in isolation, they are more appropriately analyzed in the context of a system with feedback. When one process impacts another process, time and space scales as well as the overall outcome of the interaction can be dramatically altered. Our goals to test this hypothesis are: to develop and incorporate algorithms into our 3D heat and mass transport code to allow the effects of feedback to be investigated numerically, to analyze fluid infiltrated rocks from a variety of terranes at differing P-T conditions, to identify subtle features of the infiltration of fluids and/or feedback, and

  12. CH4/air homogeneous autoignition: A comparison of two chemical kinetics mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Tingas, Efstathios Al.

    2018-03-11

    Reactions contributing to the generation of the explosive time scale that characterise autoignition of homogeneous stoichiometric CH4/air mixture are identified using two different chemical kinetics models; the well known GRI-3.0 mechanism (53/325 species/reactions with N-chemistry) and the AramcoMech mechanism from NUI Galway (113/710 species/reactions without N-chemistry; Combustion and Flame 162:315-330, 2015). Although the two mechanisms provide qualitatively similar results (regarding ignition delay and profiles of temperature, of mass fractions and of explosive time scale), the 113/710 mechanism was shown to reproduce the experimental data with higher accuracy than the 53/325 mechanism. The present analysis explores the origin of the improved accuracy provided by the more complex kinetics mechanism. It is shown that the reactions responsible for the generation of the explosive time scale differ significantly. This is reflected to differences in the length of the chemical and thermal runaways and in the set of the most influential species.

  13. Thermal and thermo-mechanical behavior of butyl based rubber exposed to silicon oil at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Ramzan, S.; Raza, R.; Ahmed, F.; Hussain, R.; Ullah, S.; Ali, S.

    2013-01-01

    Silica reinforced rubbers are used as chemical resistant seals at high temperature. In this study the effect of alkali and silicon oil on the thermal and thermo-mechanical properties of the silica reinforced butyl rubber exposed as an interface between two liquid media at elevated temperature is investigated. Rubber bladder containing alkaline solution was immersed in silicon oil at 195+-5 degree C for multiple cycles and loss in its thermal, thermo-mechanical and mechanical properties were studied by TGA, DMA and Tinius Olsen Testing Machine supported by FTIR and Optical microscopy. It was observed that the thermal and thermo-mechanical properties of butyl rubber were negatively affected due to leaching out of silica filler embedded in an organic matrix at elevated temperature. The thermal stability of exposed rubber was decreased around 200 degree C and the loss of storage modulus was observed up to 99.5% at -59 degree C. (author)

  14. Soft Thermal Sensor with Mechanical Adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Qi, Dianpeng; Liu, Zhiyuan; Chandran, Bevita K; Wang, Ting; Yu, Jiancan; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-11-01

    A soft thermal sensor with mechanical adaptability is fabricated by the combination of single-wall carbon nanotubes with carboxyl groups and self-healing polymers. This study demonstrates that this soft sensor has excellent thermal response and mechanical adaptability. It shows tremendous promise for improving the service life of soft artificial-intelligence robots and protecting thermally sensitive electronics from the risk of damage by high temperature. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Mechanical and thermal properties of short-coirfiber-reinforced natural rubber/polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zh. H.; Kong, Zh. N.

    2014-07-01

    Natural rubber (NR) and polyethylene (PE) composites were compounded with chemically treated coir fibers by using a heated two-roll mill. Two chemical treatments of the fibers — by silane and sodium hydroxide — were carried out to improve the interfacial adhesion between them and the polyethylene matrix. The mechanical properties of the composites obtained were evaluated and compared with those made from a neat polymer and untreated fibers. The mechanical properties of the composites, such as the tensile strength, Young's modulus, and the elongation at break, were examined, and their shrinkage and flame retardant characteristics were measured. From these experiments, the effect of plasma treatment on the mechanical-physical behavior of coconut-fiberreinforced NR/PE composites was identified. In addition, their thermal characteristics were evaluated, and the results showed a slight decrease in them with increasing content of coir fibers.

  16. Engineered Barrier System Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical Column Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W.E. Lowry

    2001-01-01

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Column Tests provide data needed for model validation. The EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Modeling Report (PMR) will be based on supporting models for in-drift THC coupled processes, and the in-drift physical and chemical environment. These models describe the complex chemical interaction of EBS materials, including granular materials, with the thermal and hydrologic conditions that will be present in the repository emplacement drifts. Of particular interest are the coupled processes that result in mineral and salt dissolution/precipitation in the EBS environment. Test data are needed for thermal, hydrologic, and geochemical model validation and to support selection of introduced materials (CRWMS M and O 1999c). These column tests evaluated granular crushed tuff as potential invert ballast or backfill material, under accelerated thermal and hydrologic environments. The objectives of the THC column testing are to: (1) Characterize THC coupled processes that could affect performance of EBS components, particularly the magnitude of permeability reduction (increases or decreases), the nature of minerals produced, and chemical fractionation (i.e., concentrative separation of salts and minerals due to boiling-point elevation). (2) Generate data for validating THC predictive models that will support the EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport PMR, Rev. 01

  17. Evaluation of ethanol aged PVDF: diffusion, crystallinity and dynamic mechanical thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Agmar J.J.; Costa, Marysilvia F.

    2015-01-01

    This work discuss firstly the effect of the ethanol fuel absorption by PVDF at 60°C through mass variation tests. A Fickian character was observed for the ethanol absorption kinetics of the aged PVDF at 60°C. In the second step, the dynamic mechanical thermal properties (E’, E’, E” and tan δ) of the PVDF were evaluated through dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The chemical structure of the materials was analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and significant changes in the degree of crystallinity were verified after the aging. However, DMTA results showed a reduction in the storage modulus (E') of the aged PVDF, which was associated to diffusion of ethanol and swelling of the PVDF, which generated a prevailing plasticizing effect and led to reduction of its structural stiffness. (author)

  18. Technical basis and programmatic requirements for large block testing of coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wunan.

    1993-09-01

    This document contains the technical basis and programmatic requirements for a scientific investigation plan that governs tests on a large block of tuff for understanding the coupled thermal- mechanical-hydrological-chemical processes. This study is part of the field testing described in Section 8.3.4.2.4.4.1 of the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain Project. The first, and most important objective is to understand the coupled TMHC processes in order to develop models that will predict the performance of a nuclear waste repository. The block and fracture properties (including hydrology and geochemistry) can be well characterized from at least five exposed surfaces, and the block can be dismantled for post-test examinations. The second objective is to provide preliminary data for development of models that will predict the quality and quantity of water in the near-field environment of a repository over the current 10,000 year regulatory period of radioactive decay. The third objective is to develop and evaluate the various measurement systems and techniques that will later be employed in the Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (EBSFT)

  19. Statistical mechanics of microscopically thin thermalized shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmrlj, Andrej

    Recent explosion in fabrication of microscopically thin free standing structures made from graphene and other two-dimensional materials has led to a renewed interest in the mechanics of such structures in presence of thermal fluctuations. Since late 1980s it has been known that for flat solid sheets thermal fluctuations effectively increase the bending rigidity and reduce the bulk and shear moduli in a scale-dependent fashion. However, much is still unknown about the mechanics of thermalized flat sheets of complex geometries and about the mechanics of thermalized shells with non-zero background curvature. In this talk I will present recent development in the mechanics of thermalized ribbons, spherical shells and cylindrical tubes. Long ribbons are found to behave like hybrids between flat sheets with renormalized elastic constants and semi-flexible polymers, and these results can be used to predict the mechanics of graphene kirigami structures. Contrary to the anticipated behavior for ribbons, the non-zero background curvature of shells leads to remarkable novel phenomena. In shells, thermal fluctuations effectively generate negative surface tension, which can significantly reduce the critical buckling pressure for spherical shells and the critical axial load for cylindrical tubes. For large shells this thermally generated load becomes big enough to spontaneously crush spherical shells and cylindrical tubes even in the absence of external loads. I will comment on the relevance for crushing of microscopic shells (viral capsids, bacteria, microcapsules) due to osmotic shocks and for crushing of nanotubes.

  20. Epitaxial Growth and Cracking Mechanisms of Thermally Sprayed Ceramic Splats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Yang, Guan-jun

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, the epitaxial growth and cracking mechanisms of thermally sprayed ceramic splats were explored. We report, for the first time, the epitaxial growth of various splat/substrate combinations at low substrate temperatures (100 °C) and large lattice mismatch (- 11.26%). Our results suggest that thermal spray deposition was essentially a liquid-phase epitaxy, readily forming chemical bonding. The interface temperature was also estimated. The results convincingly demonstrated that atoms only need to diffuse and rearrange over a sufficiently short range during extremely rapid solidification. Concurrently, severe cracking occurred in the epitaxial splat/substrate systems, which indicated high tensile stress was produced during splat deposition. The origin of the tensile stress was attributed to the strong constraint of the locally heated substrate by its cold surroundings.

  1. Mechanism of antioxidant interaction on polymer oxidation by thermal and radiation ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguchi, Tadao; Tamura, Kiyotoshi; Shimada, Akihiko; Sugimoto, Masaki; Kudoh, Hisaaki

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of polymer oxidation by radiation and thermal ageing was investigated for the life evaluation of cables installed in radiation environments. The antioxidant as a stabilizer was very effective for thermal oxidation with a small content in polymers, but was not effective for radiation oxidation. The ionizing radiation induced the oxidation to result in chain scission even at low temperature, because the free radicals were produced and the antioxidant could not stop the oxidation of radicals with the chain scission. A new mechanism of antioxidant effect for polymer oxidation was proposed. The effect of antioxidant was not the termination of free radicals in polymer chains such as peroxy radicals, but was the depression of initial radical formation in polymer chains by thermal activation. The antioxidant molecule was assumed to delocalize the activated energy in polymer chains by the Boltzmann statics (distribution) to result in decrease in the probability of radical formation at a given temperature. The interaction distance (delocalization volume) by one antioxidant molecule was estimated to be 5–10 nm by the radius of sphere in polymer matrix, though the value would depend on the chemical structure of antioxidant. - Highlights: ► Interaction of antioxidant on polymer oxidation is discussed for thermal and radiation ageings. ► Antioxidant is very effective for thermal oxidation, but not for radiation induced oxidation. ► Interaction of antioxidant is not the termination reaction of radicals on polymers. ► Antioxidant is supposed to reduce the provability of polymer radical formation by thermal activation. ► Mechanism of polymer oxidation may not be chain reaction via peroxy radical and hydro-peroxide.

  2. Chemically linked metal-matrix nanocomposites of boron nitride nanosheets and silver as thermal interface materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagabandi, N.; Yegin, C.; Feng, X.; King, C.; Oh, J. K.; Scholar, E. A.; Narumanchi, S.; Akbulut, M.

    2018-03-01

    Herein, novel hybrid nanocomposite thermal interface materials (TIMs) relying on the chemical linkage of silver, boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs), and organic ligands are reported. These TIMs were prepared using a co-electrodeposition/chemisorption approach where the electrolytic reduction of silver ions into silver nano-/micro-crystals was coupled with the conjugation of ligand-coated nanosheets onto silver crystals. Furthermore, the influence of the bond strength of silver/nanosheet links on the thermal, mechanical, and structural properties is investigated using a combination of techniques including laser flash analysis, phase-sensitive transient thermoreflectance, nanoindentation, and electron microscopy. The internal nanostructure was found to be strongly dependent on the linker chemistry. While the chemical grafting of 4-cyano-benzoyl chloride (CBC) and 2-mercapto-5-benzimidazole carboxylic acid (MBCA) on BNNSs led to the uniform distribution of functionalized-nanosheets in the silver crystal matrix, the physical binding of 4-bromo-benzoyl chloride linkers on nanosheets caused the aggregation and phase separation. The thermal conductivity was 236-258 W m-1 K and 306-321 W m-1 K for physically and chemically conjugated TIMs, respectively, while their hardness varied from 400-495 MPa and from 240 to 360 MPa, respectively. The corresponding ratio of thermal conductivity to hardness, which is a critical parameter controlling the performance of TIMs, was ultrahigh for the chemically conjugated TIMs: 1.3 × 10-6 m2 K-1 s for MBCA-BNNS and 8.5 × 10-7 m2 K-1 s for CBC-BNNS. We anticipate that these materials can satisfy some of the emerging thermal management needs arising from the improved performance and efficiency, miniaturization, and/or high throughput of electronic devices, energy storage devices, energy conversion systems, light-emitting diodes, and telecommunication components.

  3. Numerical analysis of thermal impact on hydro-mechanical properties of clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuerui Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As is known, high-level radioactive waste (HLW is commonly heat-emitting. Heat output from HLW will dissipate through the surrounding rocks and induce complex thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC processes. In highly consolidated clayey rocks, thermal effects are particularly significant because of their very low permeability and water-saturated state. Thermal impact on the integrity of the geological barriers is of most importance with regard to the long-term safety of repositories. This study focuses on numerical analysis of thermal effects on hydro-mechanical properties of clayey rock using a coupled thermo-mechanical multiphase flow (TH2M model which is implemented in the finite element programme OpenGeoSys (OGS. The material properties of the numerical model are characterised by a transversal isotropic elastic model based on Hooke's law, a non-isothermal multiphase flow model based on van Genuchten function and Darcy's law, and a transversal isotropic heat transport model based on Fourier's law. In the numerical approaches, special attention has been paid to the thermal expansion of three different phases: gas, fluid and solid, which could induce changes in pore pressure and porosity. Furthermore, the strong swelling and shrinkage behaviours of clayey material are also considered in the present model. The model has been applied to simulate a laboratory heating experiment on claystone. The numerical model gives a satisfactory representation of the observed material behaviour in the laboratory experiment. The comparison of the calculated results with the laboratory findings verifies that the simulation with the present numerical model could provide a deeper understanding of the observed effects.

  4. Removal of Cd (II from Aqueous Media by Adsorption onto Chemically and Thermally Treated Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Camila Hoyos-Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemically and thermally treated rice husks were evaluated as a potential decontaminant of toxic Cd (II in aqueous media. Rice husk (RH, a by-product from rice milling, was chemically treated with HCl and NaOH. Then, thermal treatments to 300, 500, and 700°C were applied. The chemical composition and morphological characteristics of RH were evaluated by different techniques. The specific surface area analysis of RH samples by BET nitrogen adsorption method provided specific surface areas ranging from 6 to 14 m2/g. SEM, FTIR, and EDX analyses of RH were carried out to determine the surface morphology, functional groups involved in metal binding mechanism, and C/O and C/Si ratios, respectively. The maximum Cd (II adsorption capacity was 28.27 mg/g at an optimum pH, 6.0. The kinetic studies revealed that adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  5. Osteo-Odonto-Keratoprosthesis in Severe Thermal and Chemical Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez-Perez, Alfonso; Zarei-Ghanavati, Mehran; Avadhanam, Venkata; Liu, Christopher

    2018-05-16

    To report the results of osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) surgery in patients who sustained severe chemical and thermal injuries. This is a noncomparative retrospective case series of 14 patients who underwent OOKP surgery between 2001 and 2016 at the Sussex Eye Hospital, Brighton, UK, because of severe chemical and thermal injuries RESULTS:: OOKP surgery was performed in 14 eyes of 14 patients. Eight patients (57%) sustained thermal injuries and 6 patients (43%) chemical injuries. Every eye had previously undergone adnexal or ocular surgery, including 2 cases that underwent synthetic keratoprosthesis implantation. One case had choroidal hemorrhage during stage 2. Laminar retention was observed in 11 cases (85%) at the end of the study. The Kaplan-Meier curve showed a probability of 81% of laminar retention at 5 years and a decrease at 15 years to 61%. Functional visual success was observed in only 7 patients (50%) because of end-stage glaucomatous optic neuropathy in 4 cases and macular scar in 1 case. Two cases developed endophthalmitis. Two cases required removal of laminae, one because of endophthalmitis, bone resorption and aqueous leak and the other because of development of a retroprosthetic membrane. Glaucoma was the most frequent complication (79%) and required surgical intervention with tube shunts in 5 cases. Six cases (43%) required buccal mucosal repair, which included two cases that developed endophthalmitis. Anatomic success was achieved in 11 of 13 cases in this series of OOKP surgery after severe chemical and thermal trauma; 8 of these cases had at least 5 years of follow-up and thus qualified as long-term.

  6. Mechanical properties and shape memory effect of thermal-responsive polymer based on PVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liulan; Zhang, Lingfeng; Guo, Yanwei

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the effect of content of glutaraldehyde (GA) on the shape memory behavior of a shape memory polymer based on polyvinyl alcohol chemically cross-linked with GA was investigated. Thermal-responsive shape memory composites with three different GA levels, GA-PVA (3 wt%, 5 wt%, 7 wt%), were prepared by particle melting, mold forming and freeze-drying technique. The mechanical properties, thermal properties and shape memory behavior were measured by differential scanning calorimeter, physical bending test and cyclic thermo-mechanical test. The addition of GA to PVA led to a steady shape memory transition temperature and an improved mechanical compressive strength. The composite with 5 wt% of GA exhibited the best shape recoverability. Further increase in the crosslinking agent content of GA would reduce the recovery force and prolong the recovery time due to restriction in the movement of the soft PVA chain segments. These results provide important information for the study on materials in 4D printing.

  7. Development of corn starch based green composites reinforced with Saccharum spontaneum L fiber and graft copolymers--evaluation of thermal, physico-chemical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaith, B S; Jindal, R; Jana, A K; Maiti, M

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, corn starch based green composites reinforced with graft copolymers of Saccharum spontaneum L. (Ss) fiber and methyl methacrylates (MMA) and its mixture with acrylamide (AAm), acrylonitrile (AN), acrylic acid (AA) were prepared. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (Rf) was used as the cross-linking agent in corn starch matrix and different physico-chemical, thermal and mechanical properties were evaluated. The matrix and composites were found to be thermally more stable than the natural corn starch backbone. Further the matrix and composites were subjected for biodegradation studies through soil composting method. Different stages of biodegradation were evaluated through FT-IR and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. S. spontaneum L fiber-reinforced composites were found to exhibit better tensile strength. On the other hand Ss-g-poly (MMA) reinforced composites showed maximum compressive strength and wear resistance than other graft copolymers reinforced composite and the basic matrix. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Method of operating a thermal engine powered by a chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.; Escher, C.

    1988-06-07

    The invention involves a novel method of increasing the efficiency of a thermal engine. Heat is generated by a non-linear chemical reaction of reactants, said heat being transferred to a thermal engine such as Rankine cycle power plant. The novel method includes externally perturbing one or more of the thermodynamic variables of said non-linear chemical reaction. 7 figs.

  9. Effect of thermal, chemical and thermo-chemical pre-treatments to enhance methane production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Rashad; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Murphy, Jerry D.; Kiely, Gerard [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork (Ireland); Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm [Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University (Denmark); Asam, Zaki-ul-Zaman [Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland)

    2010-12-15

    The rise in oil price triggered the exploration and enhancement of various renewable energy sources. Producing biogas from organic waste is not only providing a clean sustainable indigenous fuel to the number of on-farm digesters in Europe, but also reducing the ecological and environmental deterioration. The lignocellulosic substrates are not completely biodegraded in anaerobic digesters operating at commercial scale due to their complex physical and chemical structure, which result in meager energy recovery in terms of methane yield. The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of pre-treatments: thermal, thermo-chemical and chemical pre-treatments on the biogas and methane potential of dewatered pig manure. A laboratory scale batch digester is used for these pre-treatments at different temperature range (25 C-150 C). Results showed that thermo-chemical pretreatment has high effect on biogas and methane potential in the temperature range (25-100 C). Maximum enhancement is observed at 70 C with increase of 78% biogas and 60% methane production. Thermal pretreatment also showed enhancement in the temperature range (50-10 C), with maximum enhancement at 100 C having 28% biogas and 25% methane increase. (author)

  10. Exploring Chemical and Thermal Non-equilibrium in Nitrogen Arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorui, S; Das, A K

    2012-01-01

    Plasma torches operating with nitrogen are of special importance as they can operate with usual tungsten based refractory electrodes and offer radical rich non-oxidizing high temperature environment for plasma chemistry. Strong gradients in temperature as well as species densities and huge convective fluxes lead to varying degrees of chemical non-equilibrium in associated regions. An axi-symmetric two-temperature chemical non-equilibrium model of a nitrogen plasma torch has been developed to understand the effects of thermal and chemical non-equilibrium in arcs. A 2-D finite volume CFD code in association with a non-equilibrium property routine enabled extraction of steady state self-consistent distributions of various plasma quantities inside the torch under various thermal and chemical non-equilibrium conditions. Chemical non-equilibrium has been incorporated through computation of diffusive and convective fluxes in each finite volume cell in every iteration and associating corresponding thermodynamic and transport properties through the scheme of 'chemical non-equilibrium parameter' introduced by Ghorui et. al. Recombination coefficient data from Nahar et. al. and radiation data from Krey and Morris have been used in the simulation. Results are presented for distributions of temperature, pressure, velocity, current density, electric potential, species densities and chemical non-equilibrium effects. Obtained results are compared with similar results under LTE.

  11. Examination of lignocellulosic fibers for chemical, thermal, and separations properties: Addressing thermo-chemical stability issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carter David

    Natural fiber-plastic composites incorporate thermoplastic resins with fibrous plant-based materials, sometimes referred to as biomass. Pine wood mill waste has been the traditional source of natural fibrous feedstock. In anticipation of a waste wood shortage other fibrous biomass materials are being investigated as potential supplements or replacements. Perennial grasses, agricultural wastes, and woody biomass are among the potential source materials. As these feedstocks share the basic chemical building blocks; cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, they are collectively called lignocellulosics. Initial investigation of a number of lignocellulosic materials, applied to fiber-plastic composite processing and material testing, resulted in varied results, particularly response to processing conditions. Less thermally stable lignocellulosic filler materials were physically changed in observable ways: darkened color and odor. The effect of biomass materials' chemical composition on thermal stability was investigated an experiment involving determination of the chemical composition of seven lignocellulosics: corn hull, corn stover, fescue, pine, soy hull, soy stover, and switchgrass. These materials were also evaluated for thermal stability by thermogravimetric analysis. The results of these determinations indicated that both chemical composition and pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials can have an effect on their thermal stability. A second study was performed to investigate what effect different pretreatment systems have on hybrid poplar, pine, and switchgrass. These materials were treated with hot water, ethanol, and a 2:1 benzene/ethanol mixture for extraction times of: 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours. This factorial experiment demonstrated that both extraction time and medium have an effect on the weight percent of extractives removed from all three material types. The extracted materials generated in the above study were then subjected to an evaluation of thermal

  12. Biodegradable compounds: Rheological, mechanical and thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Lucia, G.; Santella, M.; Malinconico, M.; Cerruti, P.; Pantani, R.

    2015-12-01

    Recently great attention from industry has been focused on biodegradable polyesters derived from renewable resources. In particular, PLA has attracted great interest due to its high strength and high modulus and a good biocompatibility, however its brittleness and low heat distortion temperature (HDT) restrict its wide application. On the other hand, Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) is a biodegradable polymer with a low tensile modulus but characterized by a high flexibility, excellent impact strength, good thermal and chemical resistance. In this work the two aliphatic biodegradable polyesters PBS and PLA were selected with the aim to obtain a biodegradable material for the industry of plastic cups and plates. PBS was also blended with a thermoplastic starch. Talc was also added to the compounds because of its low cost and its effectiveness in increasing the modulus and the HDT of polymers. The compounds were obtained by melt compounding in a single screw extruder and the rheological, mechanical and thermal properties were investigated. The properties of the two compounds were compared and it was found that the values of the tensile modulus and elongation at break measured for the PBS/PLA/Talc compound make it interesting for the production of disposable plates and cups. In terms of thermal resistance the compounds have HDTs high enough to contain hot food or beverages. The PLA/PBS/Talc compound can be, then, considered as biodegradable substitute for polystyrene for the production of disposable plates and cups for hot food and beverages.

  13. CFX-10 Analysis of the High Temperature Thermal- Chemical Experiment (CS28-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyoung Tae; Park, Joo Hwan; Rhee, Bo Wook

    2008-02-15

    A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of a post-blowdown fuel channel analysis for aged CANDU reactors with crept pressure tube has been developed, and validated against a high temperature thermal-chemical experiment: CS28-2. The CS28-2 experiment is one of three series of experiments to simulate the thermal-chemical behavior of a 28-element fuel channel at a high temperature and a low steam flow rate which may occur in severe accident conditions such as a LBLOCA (Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident) of CANDU reactors. Pursuant to the objective of this study, the current study has focused on understanding the involved phenomena such as the thermal radiation and convection heat transfer, and the high temperature zirconium-steam reaction in a multi-ring geometry. Therefore, a zirconium-steam oxidation model based on a parabolic rate law was implemented into the CFX-10 code, which is a commercial CFD code offered from ANSYS Inc., and other heat transfer mechanisms in the 28-element fuel channel were modeled by the original CFX-10 heat transfer packages. To assess the capability of the CFX-10 code to model the thermal-chemical behavior of the 28-element fuel channel, the measured temperatures of the Fuel Element Simulators (FES) of three fuel rings in the test bundle and the pressure tube, and the hydrogen production in the CS28-2 experiment were compared with the CFX-10 predictions. In spite of some discrepancy between the measurement data and CFX results, it was found that the CFX-10 prediction based on the Urbanic-Heidrick correlation of the zirconium-steam reaction as well as the Discrete Transfer Model for a radiation heat transfer among the FES of three rings and the pressure tube are quite accurate and sound even for the offset a cluster fuel bundle of an aged fuel channel.

  14. CFX-10 Analysis of the High Temperature Thermal- Chemical Experiment (CS28-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoung Tae; Park, Joo Hwan; Rhee, Bo Wook

    2008-02-01

    A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of a post-blowdown fuel channel analysis for aged CANDU reactors with crept pressure tube has been developed, and validated against a high temperature thermal-chemical experiment: CS28-2. The CS28-2 experiment is one of three series of experiments to simulate the thermal-chemical behavior of a 28-element fuel channel at a high temperature and a low steam flow rate which may occur in severe accident conditions such as a LBLOCA (Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident) of CANDU reactors. Pursuant to the objective of this study, the current study has focused on understanding the involved phenomena such as the thermal radiation and convection heat transfer, and the high temperature zirconium-steam reaction in a multi-ring geometry. Therefore, a zirconium-steam oxidation model based on a parabolic rate law was implemented into the CFX-10 code, which is a commercial CFD code offered from ANSYS Inc., and other heat transfer mechanisms in the 28-element fuel channel were modeled by the original CFX-10 heat transfer packages. To assess the capability of the CFX-10 code to model the thermal-chemical behavior of the 28-element fuel channel, the measured temperatures of the Fuel Element Simulators (FES) of three fuel rings in the test bundle and the pressure tube, and the hydrogen production in the CS28-2 experiment were compared with the CFX-10 predictions. In spite of some discrepancy between the measurement data and CFX results, it was found that the CFX-10 prediction based on the Urbanic-Heidrick correlation of the zirconium-steam reaction as well as the Discrete Transfer Model for a radiation heat transfer among the FES of three rings and the pressure tube are quite accurate and sound even for the offset a cluster fuel bundle of an aged fuel channel

  15. Influence Of Gamma Irradiation On Mechanical And Thermal Properties Of Waste Polyethylene / Nitrile Butadiene Rubber Blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, R.O.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma irradiation radical-radical interaction crosslinking of elastomers and thermoplastic is a special type of crosslinking technique that has gained importance over conventional chemical crosslinking method as process is fast, pollution free and simple. In this study, a blend polymer, based on waste polyethylene and nitrile butadiene rubber, has been irradiated with gamma rays then mechanically and thermally investigated at varying NBR content. FTIR and SEM techniques were used in addition to the swelling behaviour by toluene solvent to emphasize the blend formation. The mechanical properties like tensile strength, elongation at break and modulus at different elongations were studied and compared with those of non-irradiated ones. A relatively low radiation dose was found effective in improving the level of mechanical properties. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis were used to study the thermal characteristics of the irradiated polymer. Enhancement in thermal stability has been observed for higher NBR containing blends and via radiation-induced crosslinking up to ≅ 50 kGy

  16. Influence of gamma irradiation on mechanical and thermal properties of waste polyethylene/nitrile butadiene rubber blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf O. Aly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gamma irradiation radical–radical interaction crosslinking of elastomers and thermoplastic is a special type of crosslinking technique that has gained importance over conventional chemical crosslinking method as process is fast, pollution free, and simple. In this work a blend polymer, based on waste polyethylene and nitrile butadiene rubber, has been irradiated with gamma-rays, mechanically and thermally investigated at varying NBR content. FTIR and SEM techniques were used in addition to the swelling behavior to emphasize the blend formation. Mechanical properties like tensile strength, elongation at break and modulus at different elongations were studied and compared with those of unirradiated ones. A relatively low-radiation dose was found effective in improving the level of mechanical properties. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis were used to study the thermal characteristics of the irradiated polymer. Enhancement in thermal stability has been observed for higher NBR containing blends and via radiation-induced crosslinking up to ≈50 kGy.

  17. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K.

    2015-01-01

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass. - Highlights: • Pre-treatments reduce ash, extractives, alkalines and hemicellulose from biomass. • Torrefaction of Douglas fir yields more solid product than hybrid poplar. • Salt pretreatment significantly increases the activation energy of biomass. • Acid and salt pretreatment bestows thermal stability in biomass.

  18. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Oisik [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman 99164-6120, WA (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2015-12-15

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass. - Highlights: • Pre-treatments reduce ash, extractives, alkalines and hemicellulose from biomass. • Torrefaction of Douglas fir yields more solid product than hybrid poplar. • Salt pretreatment significantly increases the activation energy of biomass. • Acid and salt pretreatment bestows thermal stability in biomass.

  19. Applying chemical engineering concepts to non-thermal plasma reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro AFFONSO, NOBREGA; Alain, GAUNAND; Vandad, ROHANI; François, CAUNEAU; Laurent, FULCHERI

    2018-06-01

    Process scale-up remains a considerable challenge for environmental applications of non-thermal plasmas. Undersanding the impact of reactor hydrodynamics in the performance of the process is a key step to overcome this challenge. In this work, we apply chemical engineering concepts to analyse the impact that different non-thermal plasma reactor configurations and regimes, such as laminar or plug flow, may have on the reactor performance. We do this in the particular context of the removal of pollutants by non-thermal plasmas, for which a simplified model is available. We generalise this model to different reactor configurations and, under certain hypotheses, we show that a reactor in the laminar regime may have a behaviour significantly different from one in the plug flow regime, often assumed in the non-thermal plasma literature. On the other hand, we show that a packed-bed reactor behaves very similarly to one in the plug flow regime. Beyond those results, the reader will find in this work a quick introduction to chemical reaction engineering concepts.

  20. Thermalization with chemical potentials, and higher spin black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Gautam; Sinha, Ritam; Sorokhaibam, Nilakash

    2015-01-01

    We study the long time behaviour of local observables following a quantum quench in 1+1 dimensional conformal field theories possessing additional conserved charges besides the energy. We show that the expectation value of an arbitrary string of local observables supported on a finite interval exponentially approaches an equilibrium value. The equilibrium is characterized by a temperature and chemical potentials defined in terms of the quenched state. For an infinite number of commuting conserved charges, the equilibrium ensemble is a generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE). We compute the thermalization rate in a systematic perturbation in the chemical potentials, using a new technique to sum over an infinite number of Feynman diagrams. The above technique also allows us to compute relaxation times for thermal Green’s functions in the presence of an arbitrary number of chemical potentials. In the context of a higher spin (hs[λ]) holography, the partition function of the final equilibrium GGE is known to agree with that of a higher spin black hole. The thermalization rate from the CFT computed in our paper agrees with the quasinormal frequency of a scalar field in this black hole.

  1. Approach to chemical equilibrium in thermal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boal, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    The experimentally measured (μ - , charged particle)/(μ - ,n) and (p,n/p,p') ratios for the emission of energetic nucleons are used to estimate the time evolution of a system of secondary nucleons produced in a direct interaction of a projectile or captured muon. The values of these ratios indicate that chemical equilibrium is not achieved among the secondary nucleons in noncomposite induced reactions, and this restricts the time scale for the emission of energetic nucleons to be about 0.7 x 10 -23 sec. It is shown that the reason why thermal equilibrium can be reached so rapidly for a particular nucleon species is that the sum of the particle spectra produced in multiple direct reactions looks surprisingly thermal. The rate equations used to estimate the reaction times for muon and nucleon induced reactions are then applied to heavy ion collisions, and it is shown that chemical equilibrium can be reached more rapidly, as one would expect

  2. Impacts of thermal and chemical discharges to surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stober, Q.J.

    1974-01-01

    Various aspects of thermal and chemical discharges to surface water are outlined. The major impacts of nuclear power plants on aquatic resources are disruption during construction, intake of cooling water, discharge problems, and interactions with other water users. The following topics are included under the heading, assessment of aquatic ecology: identification of flora and fauna; abundance of aquatic organisms; species-environment relationships; and identification of pre-existing environmental stress. The following topics are included under the heading, environmental effects of plant operation: entrapment of fish by cooling water; passage of plankton through cooling system; discharge area and thermal plume; chemical effluents; and plant construction. (U.S.)

  3. In-Situ Preparation of Aramid-Multiwalled CNT Nano-Composites: Morphology, Thermal Mechanical and Electric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Shiju

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work in-situ polymerization technique has been used to chemically link the functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs with aramid matrix chains. Phenylene diamine monomers were reacted in the first stage with the carboxylic acid functionalized CNTs and then amidized in-situ using terephthaloyl chloride generating chemically bonded CNTs with the matrix. Various proportions of the CNTs were used to prepare the hybrid materials. The functionalization procedure was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and composite morphology investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Thermal mechanical properties of these hybrids, together with those where pristine CNTs with similar loadings were used, are compared using tensile and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. The tensile strength and temperature involving α-relaxations on CNT loading increased with CNT loading in both systems, but much higher values, i.e., 267 MPa and 353 °C, respectively, were obtained in the chemically bonded system, which are related to the nature of the interface developed as observed in SE micrographs. The water absorption capacity of the films was significantly reduced from 6.2 to 1.45% in the presence pristine CNTs. The inclusion of pristine CNTs increased the electric conductivity of the aramid films with a minimum threshold value at the loading of 3.5 wt % of CNTs. Such mechanically strong and thermally stable aramid and easily processable composites can be suitable for various applications including high performance films, electromagnetic shielding and radar absorption.

  4. Thulium oxide fuel characterization study: Part 2, Environmental behavior and mechanical, thermal and chemical stability enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.A.

    1970-12-01

    A study was performed of the correlation between fuel form stability and exposure environment of (temperature and atmosphere). 100% Tm 2 O 3 , 80% Tm 2 O 3 /20% Yb 2 O 3 and 100% Yb 2 O 3 wafers were subjected to air, dynamic vacuum and static vacuum at temperatures to 2000 0 C for times to 100 hours. Results showed the Tm 2 O 3 /Yb 2 O 3 cubic structure to be unaffected by elemental levels of iron, aluminum, magnesium and silicon and unaffected by the environmental conditions imposed on the wafers. A second task emphasized the optimization of the thermal, mechanical and chemical stability of Tm 2 O 3 fuel forms. Enhancement was sought through process variable optimization and the addition of metal oxides to Tm 2 O 3 . CaO, TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 were added to form a grain boundary precipitate to control fines generation. The presence of 1% additive was inadequate to depress the melting point of Tm 2 O 3 or to change the cubic crystalline structure of Tm 2 O 3 /Yb 2 O 3 . Tm 2 O 3 /Yb 2 O 3 wafers containing CaO developed a grain boundary phase that improved the resistance to fines generation. The presence of Yb 2 O 3 did not appear to measurably influence behavior

  5. Forensic analysis methodology for thermal and chemical characterization of homemade explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarian, Ashot; Presser, Cary

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Identification of homemade explosives (HME) is critical for determining the origin of explosive precursor materials. • A novel laser-heating technique was used to obtain the thermal/chemical signatures of HME precursor materials. • Liquid-fuel saturation of the pores of a solid porous oxidizer affected the total specific heat release. • Material thermal signatures were dependent on sample mass and heating rate. • This laser-heating technique can be a useful diagnostic tool for characterizing the thermochemical behavior of HMEs. - Abstract: Forensic identification of homemade explosives is critical for determining the origin of the explosive materials and precursors, and formulation procedures. Normally, the forensic examination of the pre- and post-blast physical evidence lacks specificity for homemade-explosive identification. The focus of this investigation was to use a novel measurement technique, referred to as the laser-driven thermal reactor, to obtain the thermal/chemical signatures of homemade-explosive precursor materials. Specifically, nitromethane and ammonium nitrate were studied under a variety of operating conditions and protocols. Results indicated that liquid-fuel saturation of the internal pores of a solid particle oxidizer appear to be a limiting parameter for the total specific heat release during exothermic processes. Results also indicated that the thermal signatures of these materials are dependent on sample mass and heating rate, for which this dependency may not be detectable by other commercially available thermal analysis techniques. This study has demonstrated that the laser-driven thermal reactor can be a useful diagnostic tool for characterizing the thermal and chemical behavior of trace amounts of homemade-explosive materials

  6. The thermal and mechanical properties of electron beam-irradiated polylactide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuk, In Seol; Jung, Chan Hee; Hwang, In Tae; Choi, Jae Hak; Nho, Young Chang

    2010-01-01

    The effect of electron beam irradiation on the thermal and mechanical properties of polylactide (PLA) was investigated in this research. PLA films were irradiated by electron beams at different absorption doses ranging from 20 to 200 kGy. The thermal and mechanical properties of the irradiated PLA films were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimeter, thermogravimetric analyzer, universal testing machine, dynamic mechanical analyzer, and thermal mechanical analyzer. The results revealed that the chain scission of the PLA predominated over the crosslinking during the irradiation, which considerably deteriorated the thermal and mechanical properties of the PLA

  7. Effects of chemical contamination on HDPE - thermo-mechanical and characterisation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, G.

    2002-01-01

    Studying the effects of chemical contamination on HDPE is an important precursor in recycling of plastic packaging and polymer reprocessing. This research involves and discusses the results of an in-depth investigation into the effects of chemically contaminating, using various acids, commercial grade high density polyethylene (HDPE) used commonly in packaging applications. An extensive formulation study was conducted and it became obvious that in some cases degradation had occurred to HDPE when chemically contaminated with particular functional group types. The functional groups in contaminated HDPE were successfully identified. A variety of analytical techniques such as Fourier transform Infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray Florescence, x-ray photo electron spectroscopy could identify compounds such as HCl acid, HNO/sub 3/ acid and other related contaminants. Some chemical additives had effects on the mechanical and thermal properties when added in the most appropriate concentration. The results have shown lower tensile modulus and strength tensile elongation, lower modular weight, melt flow index and crystallinity. The amount of contaminant concentration, the type of chemical functional groups used and the type of test selected to affect degradation are important factors in proving the effects of chemical contamination on HDPE in the melt state. (author)

  8. Transient thermal-mechanical coupling behavior analysis of mechanical seals during start-up operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, B. C.; Meng, X. K.; Shen, M. X.; Peng, X. D.

    2016-05-01

    A transient thermal-mechanical coupling model for a contacting mechanical seal during start-up has been developed. It takes into consideration the coupling relationship among thermal-mechanical deformation, film thickness, temperature and heat generation. The finite element method and multi-iteration technology are applied to solve the temperature distribution and thermal-mechanical deformation as well as their evolution behavior. Results show that the seal gap transforms from negative coning to positive coning and the contact area of the mechanical seal gradually decreases during start-up. The location of the maximum temperature and maximum contact pressure move from the outer diameter to inside diameter. The heat generation and the friction torque increase sharply at first and then decrease. Meanwhile, the contact force decreases and the fluid film force and leakage rate increase.

  9. Thermal and mechanical improvement of aluminum open-cells foams through electrodeposition of copper and graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoncini Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to its planar structure, graphene is characterized by unique properties, such as excellent chemical inactivity, high electrical and thermal conductivity, high optical transparency, extraordinary flexibility and high mechanical resistance, which make it suitable in a very wide range of applications. This paper details the state of the art in graphene coating applied to aluminum open-cells foams for the improvement of their mechanical and thermal behavior. Metallic foams are highly porous materials with extremely high convective heat transfer coefficients, thanks to their complex structure of three-dimensional open-cells. Graphene nanoplatelets have been used to improve thermal conductivity of aluminum foams, to make them better suitable during heat transfer in transient state. Also, an improvement of mechanical resistance has been observed. Before electrodeposition, all the samples have been subjected to sandblasting process, to eliminate the oxide layer on the surface, enabling a better adhesion of the coating. Different nanoparticles of graphene have been used. The experimental findings revealed a higher thermal conductivity for aluminum open cells foams electroplated with graphene. Considered the relatively low process costs and the improvements obtainable, these materials are very promising in many technological fields. The topics covered include surface modification, electrochemical plating, thermo-graphic analysis.

  10. Thermal-chemical Mantle Convection Models With Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, W.; Zhong, S.

    2008-12-01

    In numerical modeling of mantle convection, resolution is often crucial for resolving small-scale features. New techniques, adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), allow local mesh refinement wherever high resolution is needed, while leaving other regions with relatively low resolution. Both computational efficiency for large- scale simulation and accuracy for small-scale features can thus be achieved with AMR. Based on the octree data structure [Tu et al. 2005], we implement the AMR techniques into the 2-D mantle convection models. For pure thermal convection models, benchmark tests show that our code can achieve high accuracy with relatively small number of elements both for isoviscous cases (i.e. 7492 AMR elements v.s. 65536 uniform elements) and for temperature-dependent viscosity cases (i.e. 14620 AMR elements v.s. 65536 uniform elements). We further implement tracer-method into the models for simulating thermal-chemical convection. By appropriately adding and removing tracers according to the refinement of the meshes, our code successfully reproduces the benchmark results in van Keken et al. [1997] with much fewer elements and tracers compared with uniform-mesh models (i.e. 7552 AMR elements v.s. 16384 uniform elements, and ~83000 tracers v.s. ~410000 tracers). The boundaries of the chemical piles in our AMR code can be easily refined to the scales of a few kilometers for the Earth's mantle and the tracers are concentrated near the chemical boundaries to precisely trace the evolvement of the boundaries. It is thus very suitable for our AMR code to study the thermal-chemical convection problems which need high resolution to resolve the evolvement of chemical boundaries, such as the entrainment problems [Sleep, 1988].

  11. Thermal integrity in mechanics and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorr, Boris F.

    2015-01-01

    The book is targeted at engineers, university lecturers, postgraduates, and final year undergraduate students involved in computational modelling and experimental and theoretical analysis of the high-temperature behavior of engineering structures. It will also be of interest to researchers developing the thermal strength theory as a branch of continuum mechanics. Thermal integrity is a multidisciplinary field combining the expertise of mechanical engineers, material scientists and applied mathematicians, each approaching the problem from their specific viewpoint. This monograph draws on the research of a broad scientific community including the author's contribution. The scope of thermal strength analysis was considerably extended thanks to modern computers and the implementation of FEM codes. However, the author believes that some material models adopted in the advanced high-performance software, are not sufficiently justificated due to lack of easy-to-follow books on the theoretical and experimental aspects of thermal integrity. The author endeavors to provide a thorough yet sufficiently simple presentation of the underlying concepts, making the book compelling to a wide audience.

  12. Thermal integrity in mechanics and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorr, Boris F. [Central Institute of Aviation Motors (CIAM), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    The book is targeted at engineers, university lecturers, postgraduates, and final year undergraduate students involved in computational modelling and experimental and theoretical analysis of the high-temperature behavior of engineering structures. It will also be of interest to researchers developing the thermal strength theory as a branch of continuum mechanics. Thermal integrity is a multidisciplinary field combining the expertise of mechanical engineers, material scientists and applied mathematicians, each approaching the problem from their specific viewpoint. This monograph draws on the research of a broad scientific community including the author's contribution. The scope of thermal strength analysis was considerably extended thanks to modern computers and the implementation of FEM codes. However, the author believes that some material models adopted in the advanced high-performance software, are not sufficiently justificated due to lack of easy-to-follow books on the theoretical and experimental aspects of thermal integrity. The author endeavors to provide a thorough yet sufficiently simple presentation of the underlying concepts, making the book compelling to a wide audience.

  13. Thermal integrity in mechanics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Shorr, Boris F

    2015-01-01

    The book is targeted at engineers, university lecturers, postgraduates, and final year undergraduate students involved in computational modelling and experimental and theoretical analysis of the high-temperature behavior of engineering structures. It will also be of interest to researchers developing the thermal strength theory as a branch of continuum mechanics. Thermal integrity is a multidisciplinary field combining the expertise of mechanical engineers, material scientists and applied mathematicians, each approaching the problem from their specific viewpoint. This monograph draws on the research of a broad scientific community including the author’s contribution. The scope of thermal strength analysis was considerably extended thanks to modern computers and the implementation of FEM codes. However, the author believes that some material models adopted in the advanced high-performance software, are not sufficiently justificated due to lack of easy-to-follow books on the theoretical and experimental aspec...

  14. Waste energy harvesting mechanical and thermal energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ling Bing, Kong; Hng, Huey Hoon; Boey, Freddy; Zhang, Tianshu

    2014-01-01

    Waste Energy Harvesting overviews the latest progress in waste energy harvesting technologies, with specific focusing on waste thermal mechanical energies. Thermal energy harvesting technologies include thermoelectric effect, storage through phase change materials and pyroelectric effect. Waste mechanical energy harvesting technologies include piezoelectric (ferroelectric) effect with ferroelectric materials and nanogenerators. The book aims to strengthen the syllabus in energy, materials and physics and is well suitable for students and professionals in the fields.

  15. Vulcanization Kinetics and Mechanical Properties of Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer Thermal Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Irfan Fathurrohman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The vulcanization kinetics of Ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM rubber thermal insulation was studied by using rheometer under isothermal condition at different temperatures. The rheometry analysis was used to determining the cure kinetic parameters and predicting the cure time of EPDM thermal insulation. The experimental results revealed that the curing curves of EPDM thermal insulation were marching and the optimum curing time decreased with increasing the temperature. The kinetic parameters were determined from the autocatalytic model showed close fitting with the experimental results, indicating suitability of autocatalytic model in characterizing the cure kinetics. The activation energy was determined from the autocatalytic model is 46.3661 kJ mol-1. The cure time were predicted from autocatalytic model and the obtained kinetic parameter by using the relationship among degree of conversion, cure temperature, and cure time. The predictions of cure time provide information for the actual curing characteristic of EPDM thermal insulation. The mechanical properties of EPDM thermal insulation with different vulcanization temperatures showed the same hardness, tensile strength and modulus at 300%, except at temperature 70 °C, while the elongation at breaking point decreased with increasing temperature of vulcanization. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 8th April 2014; Revised: 7th January 2015; Accepted: 16th January 2015How to Cite: Fathurrohman, M.I., Maspanger, D.R., Sutrisno, S. (2015. Vulcanization Kinetics and Mechanical Properties of Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer Thermal Insulation. Bulletin of Chemi-cal Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (2, 104-110. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.2.6682.104-110Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.2.6682.104-110 

  16. Mechanisms Underpinning Degradation of Protective Oxides and Thermal Barrier Coatings in High Hydrogen Content (HHC) - Fueled Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumm, Daniel

    2013-08-31

    The overarching goal of this research program has been to evaluate the potential impacts of coal-derived syngas and high-hydrogen content fuels on the degradation of turbine hot-section components through attack of protective oxides and thermal barrier coatings. The primary focus of this research program has been to explore mechanisms underpinning the observed degradation processes, and connections to the combustion environments and characteristic non-combustible constituents. Based on the mechanistic understanding of how these emerging fuel streams affect materials degradation, the ultimate goal of the program is to advance the goals of the Advanced Turbine Program by developing materials design protocols leading to turbine hot-section components with improved resistance to service lifetime degradation under advanced fuels exposures. This research program has been focused on studying how: (1) differing combustion environments – relative to traditional natural gas fired systems – affect both the growth rate of thermally grown oxide (TGO) layers and the stability of these oxides and of protective thermal barrier coatings (TBCs); and (2) how low levels of fuel impurities and characteristic non-combustibles interact with surface oxides, for instance through the development of molten deposits that lead to hot corrosion of protective TBC coatings. The overall program has been comprised of six inter-related themes, each comprising a research thrust over the program period, including: (i) evaluating the role of syngas and high hydrogen content (HHC) combustion environments in modifying component surface temperatures, heat transfer to the TBC coatings, and thermal gradients within these coatings; (ii) understanding the instability of TBC coatings in the syngas and high hydrogen environment with regards to decomposition, phase changes and sintering; (iii) characterizing ash deposition, molten phase development and infiltration, and associated corrosive/thermo-chemical

  17. Thermodynamic chemical energy transfer mechanisms of non-equilibrium, quasi-equilibrium, and equilibrium chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Heui-Seol

    2015-01-01

    Chemical energy transfer mechanisms at finite temperature are explored by a chemical energy transfer theory which is capable of investigating various chemical mechanisms of non-equilibrium, quasi-equilibrium, and equilibrium. Gibbs energy fluxes are obtained as a function of chemical potential, time, and displacement. Diffusion, convection, internal convection, and internal equilibrium chemical energy fluxes are demonstrated. The theory reveals that there are chemical energy flux gaps and broken discrete symmetries at the activation chemical potential, time, and displacement. The statistical, thermodynamic theory is the unification of diffusion and internal convection chemical reactions which reduces to the non-equilibrium generalization beyond the quasi-equilibrium theories of migration and diffusion processes. The relationship between kinetic theories of chemical and electrochemical reactions is also explored. The theory is applied to explore non-equilibrium chemical reactions as an illustration. Three variable separation constants indicate particle number constants and play key roles in describing the distinct chemical reaction mechanisms. The kinetics of chemical energy transfer accounts for the four control mechanisms of chemical reactions such as activation, concentration, transition, and film chemical reactions. - Highlights: • Chemical energy transfer theory is proposed for non-, quasi-, and equilibrium. • Gibbs energy fluxes are expressed by chemical potential, time, and displacement. • Relationship between chemical and electrochemical reactions is discussed. • Theory is applied to explore nonequilibrium energy transfer in chemical reactions. • Kinetics of non-equilibrium chemical reactions shows the four control mechanisms

  18. The thermal and mechanical deformation study of up-stream pumping mechanical seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H L; Xu, C; Zuo, M Z; Wu, Q B

    2015-01-01

    Taking the viscosity-temperature relationship of the fluid film into consideration, a 3-D numerical model was established by ANSYS software which can simulate the heat transfer between the upstream pumping mechanical seal stationary and rotational rings and the fluid film between them as well as simulate the thermal deformation, structure deformation and the coupling deformation of them. According to the calculation result, thermal deformation causes the seal face expansion and the maximum thermal deformation appears at the inside of the seal ring. Pressure results in a mechanical deformation, the maximum deformation occurs at the top of the spiral groove and the overall trend is inward the mating face, opposite to the thermal deformation. The coupling deformation indicate that the thermal deformation can be partly counteracted by pressure deformation. Using this model, the relationship between deformation and shaft speed and the sealing liquid pressure was studied. It's found that the shaft speed will both enhance the thermal and structure deformation and the fluid pressure will enhance the structure deformation but has little to do with the thermal deformation. By changing the sealing material, it's found that material with low thermal expansion coefficient and low elastic modulus will suffer less thermal-pressure deformation

  19. The thermal and mechanical deformation study of up-stream pumping mechanical seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. L.; Xu, C.; Zuo, M. Z.; Wu, Q. B.

    2015-01-01

    Taking the viscosity-temperature relationship of the fluid film into consideration, a 3-D numerical model was established by ANSYS software which can simulate the heat transfer between the upstream pumping mechanical seal stationary and rotational rings and the fluid film between them as well as simulate the thermal deformation, structure deformation and the coupling deformation of them. According to the calculation result, thermal deformation causes the seal face expansion and the maximum thermal deformation appears at the inside of the seal ring. Pressure results in a mechanical deformation, the maximum deformation occurs at the top of the spiral groove and the overall trend is inward the mating face, opposite to the thermal deformation. The coupling deformation indicate that the thermal deformation can be partly counteracted by pressure deformation. Using this model, the relationship between deformation and shaft speed and the sealing liquid pressure was studied. It's found that the shaft speed will both enhance the thermal and structure deformation and the fluid pressure will enhance the structure deformation but has little to do with the thermal deformation. By changing the sealing material, it's found that material with low thermal expansion coefficient and low elastic modulus will suffer less thermal-pressure deformation.

  20. Biodegradable multifunctional oil production chemicals: Thermal polyaspartates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, R.J.; Ravenscroft, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with biodegradable oil production chemicals. Control of both mineral scale and corrosion with a single, environmentally acceptable material is an ambitious goal. Polyaspartate polymers represent a significant milestone in the attainment of this goal. Thermal polyaspartates (TPA) are polycarboxylate polymers derived via thermal condensation of the naturally occurring amino acid aspartic acid. These protein-like polymers are highly biodegradable and non-toxic, and are produced by an environmentally benign manufacturing process. TPAs exhibit excellent mineral scale inhibition activity and CO 2 corrosion control. Laboratory data on scale inhibition and corrosion control in the North Sea oil field production applications is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Biodegradable multifunctional oil production chemicals: Thermal polyaspartates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, R J [Donlar Corporation (United States); Ravenscroft, P D [BP Exploration Operating Company, (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The paper deals with biodegradable oil production chemicals. Control of both mineral scale and corrosion with a single, environmentally acceptable material is an ambitious goal. Polyaspartate polymers represent a significant milestone in the attainment of this goal. Thermal polyaspartates (TPA) are polycarboxylate polymers derived via thermal condensation of the naturally occurring amino acid aspartic acid. These protein-like polymers are highly biodegradable and non-toxic, and are produced by an environmentally benign manufacturing process. TPAs exhibit excellent mineral scale inhibition activity and CO{sub 2} corrosion control. Laboratory data on scale inhibition and corrosion control in the North Sea oil field production applications is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Experimental studies of thermal and chemical interactions between molten aluminum and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, A.A.; Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The possibility of rapid physical and chemical aluminum/water interactions during a core melt accident in a noncommercial reactor (e.g., HFIR, ATR) has resulted in extensive research to determine the mechanism by which these interactions occur and propagate on an explosive time scale. These events have been reported in nuclear testing facilities, i.e., during SPERT 1D experiment, and also in aluminum casting industries. Although rapid chemical reactions between molten aluminum and water have been subject of many studies, very few reliable measurements of the extent of the chemical reactions have thus far been made. We have modified an existing 1-D shock tube facility to perform experiments in order to determine the extent of the explosive thermal/chemical interactions between molton aluminum and water by measuring important physical quantities such as the maximum dynamic pressure and the amount of the generated hydrogen. Experimental results show that transient pressures greater than 69 MPa with a rise time of less than 125 {mu}sec can occur as the result of the chemical reaction of 4.2 grams of molton aluminum (approximately 15% of the total mass of the fuel of 28 grams) at 980 C with room temperature water.

  3. Mechanical properties and microstructure of long term thermal aged WWER 440 RPV steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolluri, M., E-mail: kolluri@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research & Consultancy Group (NRG), P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Kryukov, A. [Scientific and Engineering Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, 107140 Moscow (Russian Federation); Magielsen, A.J. [Nuclear Research & Consultancy Group (NRG), P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Hähner, P. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Directorate G – Nuclear Safety and Security, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Petrosyan, V. [Armenian Scientific Research Institute for Nuclear Plant Operation (ARMATOM), 0027 Yerevan (Armenia); Sevikyan, G. [Armenian Nuclear Power Plant (ANPP), 0911, Metsamor, Armavir Marz (Armenia); Szaraz, Z. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Directorate G – Nuclear Safety and Security, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2017-04-01

    The integrity assessment of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) is essential for the safe and Long Term Operation (LTO) of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Hardening and embrittlement of RPV caused by neutron irradiation and thermal ageing are main reasons for mechanical properties degradation during the operation of an NPP. The thermal ageing-induced degradation of RPV steels becomes more significant with extended operational lives of NPPs. Consequently, the evaluation of thermal ageing effects is important for the structural integrity assessments required for the lifetime extension of NPPs. As a part of NRG's research programme on Structural Materials for safe-LTO of Light Water Reactor (LWR) RPVs, WWER-440 surveillance specimens, which have been thermal aged for 27 years (∼200,000 h) at 290 °C in a surveillance channel of Armenian-NPP, are investigated. Results from the mechanical and microstructural examination of these thermal aged specimens are presented in this article. The results indicate the absence of significant long term thermal ageing effect of 15Cr2MoV-A steel. No age hardening was detected in aged tensile specimens compared with the as-received condition. There is no difference between the impact properties of as-received and thermal aged weld metals. The upper shelf energy of the aged steel remains the same as for the as-received material at a rather high level of about 120 J. The T{sub 41} value did not change and was found to be about 10 °C. The microstructure of thermal aged weld, consisting carbides, carbonitrides and manganese-silicon inclusions, did not change significantly compared to as-received state. Grain-boundary segregation of phosphorus in long term aged weld is not significant either which has been confirmed by the absence of intergranular fracture increase in the weld. Negligible hardening and embrittlement observed after such long term thermal ageing is attributed to the optimum chemical composition of 15Cr2MoV-A for high

  4. Effects of Nanofillers on the Thermo-Mechanical Properties and Chemical Resistivity of Epoxy Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchudan, Raji; Pandurangan, Arumugam; Joo, Jin

    2015-06-01

    MWCNTs was synthesized using Ni-Cr/MgO by CVD method and were purified. The purified MWCNT was used as a filler material for the fabrication of epoxy nanocomposites. The epoxy nanocomposites with different amount (wt% = 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0) of nanofillers (CB, SiO2 and MWCNTs) were prepared by casting method. The effects of nanofillers on the properties of neat epoxy matrix were well studied. The thermal properties of nanocomposites were studied using DSC, TGA and flame retardant, and also the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, compressive strength, impact strength, determination of hardness and chemical resistance were studied extensively. Based on the experiment's results, 2 wt% MWCNTs loading in epoxy resin showed the highest improvement in tensile strength, as compared to neat epoxy and to other epoxy systems (CB/epoxy, SiO2/epoxy). Improvements in tensile strength, glass transition temperature and decomposition temperature were observed by the addition of MWCNTs. The mechanical properties of the epoxy nanocomposites were improved due to the interfacial bonding between the MWCNTs and epoxy resin. Strain hardening behavior was higher for MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites compared with CB/epoxy and SiO2/epoxy nanocomposites. The investigation of thermal and mechanical properties reveals that the incorporation of MWCNTs into the epoxy nanocomposites increases its thermal stability to a great extent. Discrete increase of glass transition temperature of nanocomposites is linearly dependent on MWCNTs content. Due to strong interfacial bonding between MWCNTs and epoxy resin, the chemical resistivity of MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites is superior to neat epoxy and other epoxy systems.

  5. Crack assessment of pipe under combined thermal and mechanical load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yun Jae

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, J-integral and transient C(t)-integral, which were key parameters in low temperature and high temperature fracture mechanics, under combined thermal and mechanical load were estimated via 3-dimensional finite element analyses. Various type of thermal and mechanical load, material hardening were considered to decrease conservatism in existing solutions. As a results, V-factor and redistribution time for combined thermal and mechanical load were proposed to calculate J-integral and C(t)-integral, respectively.

  6. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  7. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  8. Integrating Thermal Tools Into the Mechanical Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.; Siebes, Georg; Novak, Keith S.; Kinsella, Gary M.

    1999-01-01

    The intent of mechanical design is to deliver a hardware product that meets or exceeds customer expectations, while reducing cycle time and cost. To this end, an integrated mechanical design process enables the idea of parallel development (concurrent engineering). This represents a shift from the traditional mechanical design process. With such a concurrent process, there are significant issues that have to be identified and addressed before re-engineering the mechanical design process to facilitate concurrent engineering. These issues also assist in the integration and re-engineering of the thermal design sub-process since it resides within the entire mechanical design process. With these issues in mind, a thermal design sub-process can be re-defined in a manner that has a higher probability of acceptance, thus enabling an integrated mechanical design process. However, the actual implementation is not always problem-free. Experience in applying the thermal design sub-process to actual situations provides the evidence for improvement, but more importantly, for judging the viability and feasibility of the sub-process.

  9. Thermal and chemical treatment of polymer optical fiber Bragg grating sensors for enhanced mechanical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pospori, Andreas; Marques, C. A. F.; Saez-Rodriguez, D.

    2017-01-01

    An investigation of the thermal annealing effects on the strain, stress, and force sensitivities of polymer optical fiber Bragg grating sensors is performed. We demonstrate for the first time that the fiber annealing can enhance both stress and force sensitivities of Bragg grating sensors......, with the possible cause being the molecular relaxation of the polymer when fiber is raised above the β-transition temperature. A simple, cost-effective, but well controlled method for fiber annealing is also presented in this work. In addition, the effects of chemical etching on the strain, stress, and force...... sensitivities have been investigated. Results show that fiber etching too can increase the force sensitivity, and it can also affect the strain and stress sensitivities of the Bragg grating sensors....

  10. Thermal and chemical treatment of polymer optical fiber Bragg grating sensors for enhanced mechanical sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospori, A.; Marques, C. A. F.; Sáez-Rodríguez, D.; Nielsen, K.; Bang, O.; Webb, D. J.

    2017-07-01

    An investigation of the thermal annealing effects on the strain, stress, and force sensitivities of polymer optical fiber Bragg grating sensors is performed. We demonstrate for the first time that the fiber annealing can enhance both stress and force sensitivities of Bragg grating sensors, with the possible cause being the molecular relaxation of the polymer when fiber is raised above the β -transition temperature. A simple, cost-effective, but well controlled method for fiber annealing is also presented in this work. In addition, the effects of chemical etching on the strain, stress, and force sensitivities have been investigated. Results show that fiber etching too can increase the force sensitivity, and it can also affect the strain and stress sensitivities of the Bragg grating sensors.

  11. Chemical kinetics and reaction mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ou Sik; Park, Youn Yeol

    1996-12-01

    This book is about chemical kinetics and reaction mechanism. It consists of eleven chapters, which deal with reaction and reaction speed on reaction mechanism, simple reaction by rate expression, reversible reaction and simultaneous reaction, successive reaction, complicated reaction mechanism, assumption for reaction mechanism, transition state theory, successive reaction and oscillating reaction, reaction by solution, research method high except kinetics on reaction mechanism, high reaction of kinetics like pulsed radiolysis.

  12. Effect of chemical treatment on thermal properties of fibers from pineapple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Rafael I.M.; Mulinari, Daniella R.; Carvalho, Kelly C.C.; Conejo, Luiza dos Santos; Voorwald, Herman J.C.; Cioffi, Maria Odila H.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the effect of the chemical modification of natural fibres from of pineapple fibres with alkaline solution was studied. After modification the in nature and modified fibres were analyzed by XRD diffractometry and thermogravimetry with objective to evaluate influence chemical treatment in surface and in the thermal properties fibres. With the obtained results it was possible to verify an increase of 10.4 % in the crystallinity index of fibres beyond the increase around 4.5% in the degradation temperature, what it indicates an increase in the stability thermal of the fibres. (author)

  13. Chemical influence on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of high-density bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos, E.; Romero, E.; Lioret, A. [Technical Univ. of Catalonia UPC, Barcelona (Spain); Musso, G. [Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    In radioactive waste disposal schemes, during the operational period of clay barriers, solute transport an d thermal gradients may alter the solute concentration of pore water. These induced changes have important consequences on hydro-mechanical properties and microstructural alterations (mineral composition and pore size distribution changes) of the clay barrier. Chemically induced changes originated by different imbibition fluids and soil mineral compositions have been a subject with a long research tradition. These researches have been mainly focused on the behaviour of reconstituted soils starting from slurry and saturated wit h saline solutions at elevated concentrations, where hydro-mechanical changes (soil compressibility and water permeability changes) are clearly detected. In contrast, available information concerning the response of high-density clays subjected to chemically induced actions with a wide range of pore solution concentrations is very limited in spite of its practical relevance to environmental geotechnics. This situation has been caused, at least in part, by the difficulties in detecting important hydro-mechanical changes when clays with low water storage capacity have been used. Nevertheless, this paper will demonstrate that even in the case of high-density fabrics, considerable changes can be observed when high-activity clays (bentonites) are imbibed with different pore fluid compositions. (authors)

  14. Enhanced thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy composites by mixing thermotropic liquid crystalline epoxy grafted graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Qi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide (GO sheets were chemically grafted with thermotropic liquid crystalline epoxy (TLCP. Then we fabricated composites using TLCP-g-GO as reinforcing filler. The mechanical properties and thermal properties of composites were systematically investigated. It is found that the thermal and mechanical properties of the composites are enhanced effectively by the addition of fillers. For instance, the composites containing 1.0 wt% of TLCP-g-GO present impact strength of 51.43 kJ/m2, the tensile strength of composites increase from 55.43 to 80.85 MPa, the flexural modulus of the composites increase by more than 48%. Furthermore, the incorporation of fillers is effective to improve the glass transition temperature and thermal stability of the composites. Therefore, the presence of the TLCP-g-GO in the epoxy matrix could make epoxy not only stronger but also tougher.

  15. Mechanical design of thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus with optimized thermal contact and crystal strain for coherence preservation x-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Shvydko, Yury; Stoupin, Stanislav; Kim, Kwang-Je

    2018-05-08

    A method and mechanical design for a thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus for coherence preservation x-ray optics with optimized thermal contact and minimized crystal strain are provided. The novel thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus mounts a thin-film diamond crystal supported by a thick chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond film spacer with a thickness slightly thicker than the thin-film diamond crystal, and two groups of thin film thermal conductors, such as thin CVD diamond film thermal conductor groups separated by the thick CVD diamond spacer. The two groups of thin CVD film thermal conductors provide thermal conducting interface media with the thin-film diamond crystal. A piezoelectric actuator is integrated into a flexural clamping mechanism generating clamping force from zero to an optimal level.

  16. Mechanical properties of chemically modified portuguese pinewood

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Duarte B; Mai, Carsten; Militz, Holger

    2014-01-01

    To turn wood into a construction material with enhanced properties, many methods of chemical modification have been developed in the last few decades. In this work, mechanical properties of pine wood were chemically modified, compared and evaluated. Maritime pine wood (Pinus pinaster) was modified with four chemical processes: 1,3-dimethylol-4,5- dihydroxyethyleneurea, N-methylol melamine formaldehyde, tetra-alkoxysilane and wax. The following mechanical properties were assessed experiment...

  17. A coupled THC model of the FEBEX in situ test with bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2011-04-01

    The performance assessment of a geological repository for radioactive waste requires quantifying the geochemical evolution of the bentonite engineered barrier. This barrier will be exposed to coupled thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes. This paper presents a coupled THC model of the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test which accounts for bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis. Model results attest the relevance of thermal osmosis and bentonite swelling for the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier while chemical osmosis is found to be almost irrelevant. The model has been tested with data collected after the dismantling of heater 1 of the in situ test. The model reproduces reasonably well the measured temperature, relative humidity, water content and inferred geochemical data. However, it fails to mimic the solute concentrations at the heater-bentonite and bentonite-granite interfaces because the model does not account for the volume change of bentonite, the CO{sub 2}(g) degassing and the transport of vapor from the bentonite into the granite. The inferred HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and pH data cannot be explained solely by solute transport, calcite dissolution and protonation/deprotonation by surface complexation, suggesting that such data may be affected also by other reactions.

  18. A coupled THC model of the FEBEX in situ test with bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2011-01-01

    The performance assessment of a geological repository for radioactive waste requires quantifying the geochemical evolution of the bentonite engineered barrier. This barrier will be exposed to coupled thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes. This paper presents a coupled THC model of the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test which accounts for bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis. Model results attest the relevance of thermal osmosis and bentonite swelling for the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier while chemical osmosis is found to be almost irrelevant. The model has been tested with data collected after the dismantling of heater 1 of the in situ test. The model reproduces reasonably well the measured temperature, relative humidity, water content and inferred geochemical data. However, it fails to mimic the solute concentrations at the heater-bentonite and bentonite-granite interfaces because the model does not account for the volume change of bentonite, the CO 2 (g) degassing and the transport of vapor from the bentonite into the granite. The inferred HCO 3 - and pH data cannot be explained solely by solute transport, calcite dissolution and protonation/deprotonation by surface complexation, suggesting that such data may be affected also by other reactions.

  19. Chemical and thermal stability of core-shelled magnetite nanoparticles and solid silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Sikora, Pawel; Zielinska, Beata; Horszczaruk, Elzbieta; Mijowska, Ewa

    2017-06-01

    Pristine nanoparticles of magnetite were coated by solid silica shell forming core/shell structure. 20 nm thick silica coating significantly enhanced the chemical and thermal stability of the iron oxide. Chemical and thermal stability of this structure has been compared to the magnetite coated by mesoporous shell and pristine magnetite nanoparticles. It is assumed that six-membered silica rings in a solid silica shell limit the rate of oxygen diffusion during thermal treatment in air and prevent the access of HCl molecules to the core during chemical etching. Therefore, the core/shell structure with a solid shell requires a longer time to induce the oxidation of iron oxide to a higher oxidation state and, basically, even strong concentrated acid such as HCl is not able to dissolve it totally in one month. This leads to the desired performance of the material in potential applications such as catalysis and environmental protection.

  20. Electro-Thermal-Mechanical Simulation Capability Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D

    2008-01-01

    This is the Final Report for LDRD 04-ERD-086, 'Electro-Thermal-Mechanical Simulation Capability'. The accomplishments are well documented in five peer-reviewed publications and six conference presentations and hence will not be detailed here. The purpose of this LDRD was to research and develop numerical algorithms for three-dimensional (3D) Electro-Thermal-Mechanical simulations. LLNL has long been a world leader in the area of computational mechanics, and recently several mechanics codes have become 'multiphysics' codes with the addition of fluid dynamics, heat transfer, and chemistry. However, these multiphysics codes do not incorporate the electromagnetics that is required for a coupled Electro-Thermal-Mechanical (ETM) simulation. There are numerous applications for an ETM simulation capability, such as explosively-driven magnetic flux compressors, electromagnetic launchers, inductive heating and mixing of metals, and MEMS. A robust ETM simulation capability will enable LLNL physicists and engineers to better support current DOE programs, and will prepare LLNL for some very exciting long-term DoD opportunities. We define a coupled Electro-Thermal-Mechanical (ETM) simulation as a simulation that solves, in a self-consistent manner, the equations of electromagnetics (primarily statics and diffusion), heat transfer (primarily conduction), and non-linear mechanics (elastic-plastic deformation, and contact with friction). There is no existing parallel 3D code for simulating ETM systems at LLNL or elsewhere. While there are numerous magnetohydrodynamic codes, these codes are designed for astrophysics, magnetic fusion energy, laser-plasma interaction, etc. and do not attempt to accurately model electromagnetically driven solid mechanics. This project responds to the Engineering R and D Focus Areas of Simulation and Energy Manipulation, and addresses the specific problem of Electro-Thermal-Mechanical simulation for design and analysis of energy manipulation systems

  1. Thermal inertia in thermal infrared: porosity and chemical components of rocks; Inercia termica no infravermelho termal: porosidade e componentes quimicos de rochas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Admilson P.; Ehlers, Ricardo Sandes [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Vitorello, Icaro [Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    The effect of porosity, and the relation between thermal inertia values and chemical components were determined. The thermal inertia values and chemical components were determined. The thermal inertia determinations were performed using radiometric observations, in the range 8 to 14 {mu}, of the surface temperature variations of the sample, induced by an incident heat flux. The results show that the increase in porosity tends to reduce the thermal inertia values, when the rock is in a dry state. In the water saturation state, the inertia also tends to show small values, only for porous rocks with thermal inertia values larger than the water values. The acid rocks show thermal inertia values smaller than those of the basic rocks. The intermediate and basic rocks show strong positive correlation between thermal inertia and Si O{sub 2}. 7 refs., 3 figs

  2. Mechanical property degradation and microstructural evolution of cast austenitic stainless steels under short-term thermal aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Timothy G.; Byun, Thak Sang; Leonard, Keith J.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical testing and microstructural characterization were performed on short-term thermally aged cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS) to understand the severity and mechanisms of thermal-aging degradation experienced during extended operation of light water reactor (LWR) coolant systems. Four CASS materials-CF3, CF3M, CF8, and CF8M-were thermally aged for 1500 h at 290 °C, 330 °C, 360 °C, and 400 °C. All four alloys experienced insignificant change in strength and ductility properties but a significant reduction in absorbed impact energy. The primary microstructural and compositional changes during thermal aging were spinodal decomposition of the δ-ferrite into α/α‧, precipitation of G-phase in the δ-ferrite, segregation of solute to the austenite/ferrite interphase boundary, and growth of M23C6 carbides on the austenite/ferrite interphase boundary. These changes were shown to be highly dependent on chemical composition, particularly the concentration of C and Mo, and aging temperature. The low C, high Mo CF3M alloys experienced the most spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation coinciding the largest reduction in impact properties.

  3. Thermal mixtures in stochastic mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, F [Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica; Loffredo, M I [Salerno Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica

    1981-01-17

    Stochastic mechanics is extended to systems in thermal equilibrium. The resulting stochastic processes are mixtures of Nelson processes. Their Markov property is investigated in some simple cases. It is found that in order to inforce Markov property the algebra of observable associated to the present must be suitably enlarged.

  4. Chemical and thermal properties of VIP latrine sludge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-04

    Jul 4, 2015 ... This study investigated the chemical and thermal properties of faecal sludge from 10 dry VIP latrines in Bester's Camp in the eThekwini Municipality, Durban, ... emptying and treatment equipment. A manual sorting of the pit .... (LaDePa) plant (Harrison and Wilson, 2012). Figure 3 illustrates the depths of the ...

  5. Mechanical properties of chemical vapor deposited coatings for fusion reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullendore, A.W.; Whitley, J.B.; Pierson, H.O.; Mattox, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposited coatings of TiB 2 , TiC and boron on graphite substrates are being developed for application as limiter materials in magnetic confinement fusion reactors. In this application severe thermal shock conditions exist and to do effective thermo-mechanical modelling of the material response it is necessary to acquire elastic moduli, fracture strength and strain to fracture data for the coatings. Four point flexure tests have been conducted from room temperature to 2000 0 C on TiB 2 and boron coated graphite with coatings in tension and compression and the mechanical properties extracted from the load-deflection data. In addition, stress relaxation tests from 500 to 1150 0 C were performed on TiB 2 and TiC coated graphite beams to assess the low levels of plastic deformation which occur in these coatings. Significant differences have been observed between the effective mechanical properties of the coatings and literature values of the bulk properties

  6. Quantum mechanical tunneling in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Quantum mechanical tunneling plays important roles in a wide range of natural sciences, from nuclear and solid-state physics to proton transfer and chemical reactions in chemistry and biology. Responding to the need for further understanding of multidimensional tunneling, the authors have recently developed practical methods that can be applied to multidimensional systems. Quantum Mechanical Tunneling in Chemical Physics presents basic theories, as well as original ones developed by the authors. It also provides methodologies and numerical applications to real molecular systems. The book offers information so readers can understand the basic concepts and dynamics of multidimensional tunneling phenomena and use the described methods for various molecular spectroscopy and chemical dynamics problems. The text focuses on three tunneling phenomena: (1) energy splitting, or tunneling splitting, in symmetric double well potential, (2) decay of metastable state through tunneling, and (3) tunneling effects in chemical...

  7. Mechanical synthesis of copper-carbon nanocomposites: Structural changes, strengthening and thermal stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, D.; Livramento, V.; Mateus, R.; Correia, J.B.; Alves, L.C.; Vilarigues, M.; Carvalho, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The study characterized Cu-nanodiamond (Cu-nD) and Cu-graphite (Cu-G) composites. → Preservation of nD crystalline structure during high-energy milling was demonstrated. → Higher refinement of matrix in Cu-nD comparing to Cu-G is due to a milling mechanism. → Remarkable thermal stability and microhardness have been achieved in Cu-nD and Cu-G. → Strengthening resulted mainly from grain refinement and second-phase reinforcement. - Abstract: Processing of copper-carbon nanocomposites by mechanical synthesis poses specific challenges as carbon phases are prone to amorphization and exhibit an intrinsically difficult bonding with copper. The present work investigates Cu-nanodiamond (Cu-nD) and Cu-graphite (Cu-G) composites produced by mechanical synthesis and subsequent heat treatments. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed homogeneous particle distributions and intimate bonding between the metallic matrix and the carbon phases. Ring diffraction patterns of chemically extracted carbon phases demonstrated that milled nanodiamond preserved crystallinity, while an essentially amorphous nature could be inferred for milled graphite. Raman spectra confirmed that nanodiamond particles remained essentially unaffected by the mechanical synthesis, whereas the bands of milled graphite were significantly changed into the typical amorphous carbon fingerprint. Particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy showed that the total contamination originating from the milling media remained below 0.7 wt.%. The Cu-nanodiamond composite exhibited remarkable microhardness and microstructural thermal stability when compared with pure nanostructured copper.

  8. Mechanical synthesis of copper-carbon nanocomposites: Structural changes, strengthening and thermal stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, D., E-mail: daniela.nunes@ist.utl.pt [Associacao Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); LNEG, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Livramento, V. [Associacao Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); LNEG, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Mateus, R. [Associacao Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, J.B. [LNEG, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [ITN, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Vilarigues, M. [Departamento de Conservacao e Restauro e R and D Unit Vidro e da Ceramica Para as Artes, FCT-UNL, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Carvalho, P.A. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Bioengenharia, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} The study characterized Cu-nanodiamond (Cu-nD) and Cu-graphite (Cu-G) composites. {yields} Preservation of nD crystalline structure during high-energy milling was demonstrated. {yields} Higher refinement of matrix in Cu-nD comparing to Cu-G is due to a milling mechanism. {yields} Remarkable thermal stability and microhardness have been achieved in Cu-nD and Cu-G. {yields} Strengthening resulted mainly from grain refinement and second-phase reinforcement. - Abstract: Processing of copper-carbon nanocomposites by mechanical synthesis poses specific challenges as carbon phases are prone to amorphization and exhibit an intrinsically difficult bonding with copper. The present work investigates Cu-nanodiamond (Cu-nD) and Cu-graphite (Cu-G) composites produced by mechanical synthesis and subsequent heat treatments. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed homogeneous particle distributions and intimate bonding between the metallic matrix and the carbon phases. Ring diffraction patterns of chemically extracted carbon phases demonstrated that milled nanodiamond preserved crystallinity, while an essentially amorphous nature could be inferred for milled graphite. Raman spectra confirmed that nanodiamond particles remained essentially unaffected by the mechanical synthesis, whereas the bands of milled graphite were significantly changed into the typical amorphous carbon fingerprint. Particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy showed that the total contamination originating from the milling media remained below 0.7 wt.%. The Cu-nanodiamond composite exhibited remarkable microhardness and microstructural thermal stability when compared with pure nanostructured copper.

  9. Simultaneously Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Simulation of Lithium-Ion Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sprague, Michael A.; Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the combined electrochemical-thermal and mechanical response of a system has a variety of applications, for example, structural failure from electrochemical fatigue and the potential induced changes of material properties. For lithium-ion batteries, there is an added concern over the safety of the system in the event of mechanical failure of the cell components. In this work, we present a generic multi-scale simultaneously coupled mechanical-electrochemical-thermal model to examine the interaction between mechanical failure and electrochemical-thermal responses. We treat the battery cell as a homogeneous material while locally we explicitly solve for the mechanical response of individual components using a homogenization model and the electrochemical-thermal responses using an electrochemical model for the battery. A benchmark problem is established to demonstrate the proposed modeling framework. The model shows the capability to capture the gradual evolution of cell electrochemical-thermal responses, and predicts the variation of those responses under different short-circuit conditions.

  10. Mechanical properties and thermal behaviour of LLDPE/MWNTs nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Jin-hua

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs were incorporated into a linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE matrix through using screw extrusion and injection technique. The effect of different weight percent loadings of MWNTs on the morphology, mechanical, and thermal of LLDPE/MWNTs nanocomposite had been investigated. It was found that, at low concentration of MWNTs, it could uniformly disperse into a linear low-density polyethylene matrix and provide LLDPE/MWNTs nanocomposites much improved mechanical properties. Thermal analysis showed that a clear improvement of thermal stability for LLDPE/MWNTs nanocomposites increased with increasing MWNTs content.

  11. A chemo-mechanical model coupled with thermal effect on the hollow core–shell electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrode is a key component to remain durability and safety of lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries. Li-ion insertion/removal and thermal expansion mismatch may induce high stress in electrode during charging and discharging processes. In this paper, we present a continuum model based on COMSOL Multiphysics software, which involves thermal, chemical and mechanical behaviors of electrodes. The results show that, because of diffusion-induced stress and thermal mismatch, the electrode geometry plays an important role in diffusion kinetics of Li-ions. A higher local compressive stress results in a lower Li-ion concentration and thus a lower capacity when a particle is embedded another, which is in agreement with experimental observations. Keywords: Lithium-ion battery, Diffusion-induced stress, COMSOL, Chemo-mechanical, Electrode

  12. Regulatory requirements to the thermal-hydraulic and thermal-mechanical computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkova, M.; Kalchev, B.; Stefanova, S.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the regulatory requirements to the thermal-hydraulic and thermal-mechanical computer codes, which are used for safety assessment of the fuel design and the fuel utilization. Some requirements to the model development, verification and validation of the codes and analysis of code uncertainties are also define. Questions concerning Quality Assurance during development and implementation of the codes as well as preparation of a detailed verification and validation plan are briefly discussed

  13. Thermal analysis experiment for elucidating sodium-water chemical reaction mechanism in steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Shin; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of elucidating the mechanism of the sodium-water surface reaction in a steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactors, kinetic study of the sodium (Na)-sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reaction has been carried out by using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) technique. The parameters, including melting points of Na and NaOH, phase transition temperature of NaOH, Na-NaOH reaction temperature, and decomposition temperature of sodium hydride (NaH) have been identified from DTA curves. Based on the measured reaction temperature, rate constant of sodium monoxide (Na 2 O) generation was obtained. Thermal analysis results indicated that Na 2 O generation at the secondary overall reaction should be considered during the sodium-water reaction. (author)

  14. ANALYSIS OF THERMAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMASS ENERGY PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Gluvakov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern life conditions, when emphasis is on environmental protection and sustainable development, fuels produced from biomass are increasingly gaining in importance, and it is necessary to consider the quality of end products obtained from biomass. Based on the existing European standards, collected literature and existing laboratory methods, this paper presents results of testing individual thermal - chemical properties of biomass energy pellets after extrusion and cooling the compressed material. Analysing samples based on standard methods, data were obtained on the basis of which individual thermal-chemical properties of pellets were estimated. Comparing the obtained results with the standards and literature sources, it can be said that moisture content, ash content and calorific values are the most important parameters for quality analysis which decide on applicability and use-value of biomass energy pellets, as biofuel. This paper also shows the impact of biofuels on the quality of environmental protection. The conclusion provides a clear statement of quality of biomass energy pellets.

  15. Chemical and thermal analysis for characterisation of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.C.; Sudersanan, M.; Ravindran, P.V.; Kalekar, B.B.; Mathur, P.K.

    2000-01-01

    Cement and other construction materials are extensively used for the construction of shielding materials for nuclear and high energy radiations. The design and optimum utilisation of such materials need an accurate analysis of their chemical composition. The moisture content and presence of bound water and other volatile materials are also important. The use of thermal analysis supplements the data obtained by chemical analysis and enables a distinction of moisture and chemically bound water. It also enables an identification of the process leading to the loss on ignition. The work carried out on the analysis of sand, cement and other aggregate materials used for the preparation of concrete is described in the paper. (author)

  16. Unravelling the fundamentals of thermal and chemical expansion of BaCeO3 from first principles phonon calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løken, Andreas; Haugsrud, Reidar; Bjørheim, Tor S

    2016-11-16

    Differentiating chemical and thermal expansion is virtually impossible to achieve experimentally. While thermal expansion stems from a softening of the phonon spectra, chemical expansion depends on the chemical composition of the material. In the present contribution, we, for the first time, completely decouple thermal and chemical expansion through first principles phonon calculations on BaCeO 3 , providing new fundamental insights to lattice expansion. We assess the influence of defects on thermal expansion, and how this in turn affects the interpretation of chemical expansion and defect thermodynamics. The calculations reveal that the linear thermal expansion coefficient is lowered by the introduction of oxygen vacancies being 10.6 × 10 -6 K -1 at 300 K relative to 12.2 × 10 -6 K -1 for both the protonated and defect-free bulk lattice. We further demonstrate that the chemical expansion coefficient upon hydration varies with temperature, ranging from 0.070 to 0.115 per mole oxygen vacancy. Ultimately, we find that, due to differences in the thermal expansion coefficients under dry and wet conditions, the chemical expansion coefficients determined experimentally are grossly underestimated - around 55% lower in the case of 10 mol% acceptor doped BaCeO 3 . Lastly, we evaluate the effect of these volume changes on the vibrational thermodynamics.

  17. Characterization of nociceptive response to chemical, mechanical, and thermal stimuli in adolescent rats with neonatal dopamine depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, M; Noda, K; Akita, H; Ishibashi, H

    2015-03-19

    Rats with dopamine depletion caused by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) treatment during adulthood and the neonatal period exhibit akinetic motor activity and spontaneous motor hyperactivity during adolescence, respectively, indicating that the behavioral effects of dopamine depletion depend on the period of lesion development. Dopamine depletion during adulthood induces hyperalgesic response to mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical stimuli, whereas the effects of neonatal dopamine depletion on nociceptive response in adolescent rats are yet to be examined. The latter aspect was addressed in this study, and behavioral responses were examined using von-Frey, tail flick, and formalin tests. The formalin test revealed that rats with neonatal dopamine depletion exhibited a significant increase in nociceptive response during interphase (6-15min post formalin injection) and phase 2 (16-75min post formalin injection). This increase in nociceptive response to the formalin injection was not reversed by pretreatment with methamphetamine, which ameliorates motor hyperactivity observed in adolescent rats with neonatal 6-OHDA treatment. The von-Frey filament and tail flick tests failed to reveal significant differences in withdrawal thresholds between neonatal 6-OHDA-treated and vehicle-treated rats. The spinal neuronal response to the formalin injection into the rat hind paw was also examined through immunohistochemical analysis of c-Fos protein. Significantly increased numbers of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells were observed in laminae I-II and V-VI of the ipsilateral spinal cord to the site of the formalin injection in rats with neonatal dopamine depletion compared with vehicle-treated rats. These results suggest that the dopaminergic neural system plays a crucial role in the development of a neural network for tonic pain, including the spinal neural circuit for nociceptive transmission, and that the mechanism underlying hyperalgesia to tonic pain is not always consistent with that of

  18. Rate and State Friction Relation for Nanoscale Contacts: Thermally Activated Prandtl-Tomlinson Model with Chemical Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kaiwen; Goldsby, David L.; Carpick, Robert W.

    2018-05-01

    Rate and state friction (RSF) laws are widely used empirical relationships that describe macroscale to microscale frictional behavior. They entail a linear combination of the direct effect (the increase of friction with sliding velocity due to the reduced influence of thermal excitations) and the evolution effect (the change in friction with changes in contact "state," such as the real contact area or the degree of interfacial chemical bonds). Recent atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments and simulations found that nanoscale single-asperity amorphous silica-silica contacts exhibit logarithmic aging (increasing friction with time) over several decades of contact time, due to the formation of interfacial chemical bonds. Here we establish a physically based RSF relation for such contacts by combining the thermally activated Prandtl-Tomlinson (PTT) model with an evolution effect based on the physics of chemical aging. This thermally activated Prandtl-Tomlinson model with chemical aging (PTTCA), like the PTT model, uses the loading point velocity for describing the direct effect, not the tip velocity (as in conventional RSF laws). Also, in the PTTCA model, the combination of the evolution and direct effects may be nonlinear. We present AFM data consistent with the PTTCA model whereby in aging tests, for a given hold time, static friction increases with the logarithm of the loading point velocity. Kinetic friction also increases with the logarithm of the loading point velocity at sufficiently high velocities, but at a different increasing rate. The discrepancy between the rates of increase of static and kinetic friction with velocity arises from the fact that appreciable aging during static contact changes the energy landscape. Our approach extends the PTT model, originally used for crystalline substrates, to amorphous materials. It also establishes how conventional RSF laws can be modified for nanoscale single-asperity contacts to provide a physically based friction

  19. Effect of Thermal Environment on the Mechanical Behaviors of Building Marble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijian Su

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature and thermal environment can influence the mechanical properties of building materials worked in the civil engineering, for example, concrete, building rock, and steel. This paper examines standard cylindrical building marble specimens (Φ50 × 100 mm that were treated with high temperatures in two different thermal environments: vacuum (VE and airiness (AE. Uniaxial compression tests were also carried out on those specimens after heat treatment to study the effect that the thermal environment has on mechanical behaviors. With an increase in temperature, the mechanical behavior of marble in this study indicates a critical temperature of 600°C. Both the peak stress and elasticity modulus were larger for the VE than they were for the AE. The thermal environment has an obvious influence on the mechanical properties, especially at temperatures of 450∼750°C. The failure mode of marble specimens under uniaxial compression is mainly affected by the thermal environment at 600°C.

  20. Microstructural, thermal and mechanical behavior of co-sputtered binary Zr–Cu thin film metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apreutesei, M. [MATEIS Laboratory-INSA de Lyon, Bât. B. Pascal, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Steyer, P., E-mail: philippe.steyer@insa-lyon.fr [MATEIS Laboratory-INSA de Lyon, Bât. B. Pascal, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Joly-Pottuz, L. [MATEIS Laboratory-INSA de Lyon, Bât. B. Pascal, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Billard, A. [LERMPS-UTBM, Site de Montbéliard, 90010 Belfort Cédex (France); Qiao, J.; Cardinal, S. [MATEIS Laboratory-INSA de Lyon, Bât. B. Pascal, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Sanchette, F. [LASMIS-UTT, UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, CS 42060, 10004 Troyes Cedex (France); Pelletier, J.M.; Esnouf, C. [MATEIS Laboratory-INSA de Lyon, Bât. B. Pascal, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2014-06-30

    Bulk metallic glasses have attracted considerable attention over the last decades for their outstanding mechanical features (high strength, super-elasticity) and physico-chemical properties (corrosion resistance). Recently, some attempts to assign such original behavior from bulk materials to modified surfaces have been reported in the literature based on multicomponent alloys. In this paper we focused on the opportunity to form a metallic glass coating from the binary Zr–Cu system using a magnetron co-sputtering physical vapor deposition process. The composition of the films can be easily controlled by the relative intensities applied to both pure targets, which made possible the study of the whole Zr–Cu system (from 13.4 to 85.0 at.% Cu). The chemical composition of the films was obtained by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and their microstructure was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The thermal stability of the films was deduced from an in situ X-ray diffraction analysis (from room temperature up to 600 °C) and correlated with the results of the differential scanning calorimetry technique. Their mechanical properties were determined by nanoindentation experiments. - Highlights: • We reported deposition of Zr-Cu thin film metallic glasses by co-sputtering • Films were XRD-amorphous in a wide composition range (33.3 – 85.0 at.% Cu) • Microstructure investigation revealed some local nanodomains • We examined the thermal stability by means of in situ X-ray diffraction • Nanoindentation was used to obtained mechanical properties of thin films.

  1. Mechanical and Thermal Characterization of Silica Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Anthony Lamar

    Polymer nanocomposites are a class of materials containing nanoparticles with a large interfacial surface area. Only a small quantity of nanoparticles are needed to provide superior multifunctional properties; such as mechanical, thermal, electrical, and moisture absorption properties in polymers. Nanoparticles tend to agglomerate, so special techniques are required for homogeneous distribution. Nanosilica is now readily available as colloidal sols, for example; Nanopox RTM F400 (supplied by Evonik Nanoresins AG, Germany). The nanoparticles are first synthesized from aqueous sodium silicate solution, and then undergo a surface modification process with organosilane and matrix exchange. F400 contains 40%wt silica nanoparticles colloidally dispersed in a DGEBA epoxy resin. The mean particle diameter is about 20 nm with a narrow distribution range of about 5 to 35 nm. The objectives of this study are to develop a reproducible processing method for nanosilica enhanced resin systems used in the manufacturing of fiber reinforced composites that will be characterized for mechanical and thermal properties. Research has concluded that shows improvements in the properties of the matrix material when processed in loading variations of 0 to 25%wt silica nanoparticles. The loadings were also used to manufacture fiberglass reinforced nanocomposite laminates and also tested for mechanical and thermal properties.

  2. Numerical investigation of biogas diffusion flames characteristics under several operation conditions in counter-flow configuration with an emphasis on thermal and chemical effects of CO2 in the fuel mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameri, A.; Tabet, F.; Hadef, A.

    2017-08-01

    This study addresses the influence of several operating conditions (composition and ambient pressure) on biogas diffusion flame structure and NO emissions with particular attention on thermal and chemical effect of CO2. The biogas flame is modeled by a counter flow diffusion flame and analyzed in mixture fraction space using flamelet approach. The GRI Mech-3.0 mechanism that involves 53 species and 325 reactions is adopted for the oxidation chemistry. It has been observed that flame properties are very sensitive to biogas composition and pressure. CO2 addition decreases flame temperature by both thermal and chemical effects. Added CO2 may participate in chemical reaction due to thermal dissociation (chemical effect). Excessively supplied CO2 plays the role of pure diluent (thermal effect). The ambient pressure rise increases temperature and reduces flame thickness, radiation losses and dissociation amount. At high pressure, recombination reactions coupled with chain carrier radicals reduction, diminishes NO mass fraction.

  3. Effects of coupled thermal, hydrological and chemical processes on nuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1987-03-01

    Coupled thermal, hydrological and chemical processes can be classified in two categories. One category consists of the ''Onsager'' type of processes driven by gradients of thermodynamic state variables. These processes occur simultaneously with the direct transport processes. In particular, thermal osmosis, chemical osmosis and ultrafiltration may be prominent in semipermeable materials such as clays. The other category consists of processes affected indirectly by magnitudes of thermodynamic state variables. An important example of this category is the effect of temperature on rates of chemical reactions and chemical equilibria. Coupled processes in both categories may affect transport of radionuclides. Although computational models of limited extent have been constructed, there exists no model that accounts for the full set of THC-coupled processes. In the category of Onsager coupled processes, further model development and testing is severely constrained by a deficient data base of phenomenological coefficients. In the second category, the lack of a general description of effects of heterogeneous chemical reactions on permeability of porous media inhibits progress in quantitative modeling of hydrochemically coupled transport processes. Until fundamental data necessary for further model development have been acquired, validation efforts will be limited necessarily to testing of incomplete models of nuclide transport under closely controlled experimental conditions. 34 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Relationships between chemical structure, mechanical properties and materials processing in nanopatterned organosilicate fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Stan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of nanoscale size effects to create new nanostructured materials necessitates the development of an understanding of relationships between molecular structure, physical properties and material processing at the nanoscale. Numerous metrologies capable of thermal, mechanical, and electrical characterization at the nanoscale have been demonstrated over the past two decades. However, the ability to perform nanoscale molecular/chemical structure characterization has only been recently demonstrated with the advent of atomic-force-microscopy-based infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR and related techniques. Therefore, we have combined measurements of chemical structures with AFM-IR and of mechanical properties with contact resonance AFM (CR-AFM to investigate the fabrication of 20–500 nm wide fin structures in a nanoporous organosilicate material. We show that by combining these two techniques, one can clearly observe variations of chemical structure and mechanical properties that correlate with the fabrication process and the feature size of the organosilicate fins. Specifically, we have observed an inverse correlation between the concentration of terminal organic groups and the stiffness of nanopatterned organosilicate fins. The selective removal of the organic component during etching results in a stiffness increase and reinsertion via chemical silylation results in a stiffness decrease. Examination of this effect as a function of fin width indicates that the loss of terminal organic groups and stiffness increase occur primarily at the exposed surfaces of the fins over a length scale of 10–20 nm. While the observed structure–property relationships are specific to organosilicates, we believe the combined demonstration of AFM-IR with CR-AFM should pave the way for a similar nanoscale characterization of other materials where the understanding of such relationships is essential.

  5. Catalysis and luminescence in mechanically activated polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakobs, R.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanochemistry refers to chemical reactions that are induced by the direct absorption of mechanical energy. In this respect, mechanical energy can be seen as an alternative method of supplying energy to promote chemical reactions, alongside thermal energy, electrical energy and (photo)chemical

  6. Thermal transformation of bioactive caffeic acid on fumed silica seen by UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature programmed desorption mass spectrometry and quantum chemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Tetiana V; Lipkovska, Natalia O; Barvinchenko, Valentyna M; Palyanytsya, Borys B; Kazakova, Olga A; Dudik, Olesia O; Menyhárd, Alfréd; László, Krisztina

    2016-05-15

    Thermochemical studies of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and their surface complexes are important for the pharmaceutical industry, medicine and for the development of technologies of heterogeneous biomass pyrolysis. In this study, structural and thermal transformations of caffeic acid complexes on silica surfaces were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature programmed desorption mass spectrometry (TPD MS) and quantum chemical methods. Two types of caffeic acid surface complexes are found to form through phenolic or carboxyl groups. The kinetic parameters of the chemical reactions of caffeic acid on silica surface are calculated. The mechanisms of thermal transformations of the caffeic chemisorbed surface complexes are proposed. Thermal decomposition of caffeic acid complex chemisorbed through grafted ester group proceeds via three parallel reactions, producing ketene, vinyl and acetylene derivatives of 1,2-dihydroxybenzene. Immobilization of phenolic acids on the silica surface improves greatly their thermal stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A literature review of coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes pertinent to the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manteufel, R.D.; Ahola, M.P.; Turner, D.R.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1993-07-01

    A literature review has been conducted to determine the state of knowledge available in the modeling of coupled thermal (T), hydrologic (H), mechanical (M), and chemical (C) processes relevant to the design and/or performance of the proposed high-level waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The review focuses on identifying coupling mechanisms between individual processes and assessing their importance (i.e., if the coupling is either important, potentially important, or negligible). The significance of considering THMC-coupled processes lies in whether or not the processes impact the design and/or performance objectives of the repository. A review, such as reported here, is useful in identifying which coupled effects will be important, hence which coupled effects will need to be investigated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in order to assess the assumptions, data, analyses, and conclusions in the design and performance assessment of a geologic reposit''. Although this work stems from regulatory interest in the design of the geologic repository, it should be emphasized that the repository design implicitly considers all of the repository performance objectives, including those associated with the time after permanent closure. The scope of this review is considered beyond previous assessments in that it attempts with the current state-of-knowledge) to determine which couplings are important, and identify which computer codes are currently available to model coupled processes

  8. A literature review of coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes pertinent to the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manteufel, R.D.; Ahola, M.P.; Turner, D.R.; Chowdhury, A.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1993-07-01

    A literature review has been conducted to determine the state of knowledge available in the modeling of coupled thermal (T), hydrologic (H), mechanical (M), and chemical (C) processes relevant to the design and/or performance of the proposed high-level waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The review focuses on identifying coupling mechanisms between individual processes and assessing their importance (i.e., if the coupling is either important, potentially important, or negligible). The significance of considering THMC-coupled processes lies in whether or not the processes impact the design and/or performance objectives of the repository. A review, such as reported here, is useful in identifying which coupled effects will be important, hence which coupled effects will need to be investigated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in order to assess the assumptions, data, analyses, and conclusions in the design and performance assessment of a geologic reposit``. Although this work stems from regulatory interest in the design of the geologic repository, it should be emphasized that the repository design implicitly considers all of the repository performance objectives, including those associated with the time after permanent closure. The scope of this review is considered beyond previous assessments in that it attempts with the current state-of-knowledge) to determine which couplings are important, and identify which computer codes are currently available to model coupled processes.

  9. Thermal stability of Trichoderma reesei c30 cellulase and aspergillus niger; -glucosidase after ph and chemical modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J.; Whaley, K.S.; Zachry, G.S.; Wohlpart, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Treatment of Trichoderma reesei C30 cellulase at pH 10.0 for 1 h at room temperature increased its pH and thermal stability. Chemical modification of the free epsilon-amino groups of cellulase at pH 10.0 resulted in no further increase in stability. Such chemical modification, however, decreased the thermal stability of the cellulose-cellulase complex. On the contrary, the chemical modification of Aspergillus niger glucosidase with glutaraldehyde at pH 8.0 increased the thermal stability of this enzyme.

  10. Mechanism of crack initiation and crack growth under thermal and mechanical fatigue loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utz, S.; Soppa, E.; Silcher, H.; Kohler, C. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Materials Testing Inst.

    2013-07-01

    The present contribution is focused on the experimental investigations and numerical simulations of the deformation behaviour and crack development in the austenitic stainless steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under thermal and mechanical cyclic loading in HCF and LCF regimes. The main objective of this research is the understanding of the basic mechanisms of fatigue damage and the development of simulation methods, which can be applied further in safety evaluations of nuclear power plant components. In this context the modelling of crack initiation and crack growth inside the material structure induced by varying thermal or mechanical loads are of particular interest. The mechanisms of crack initiation depend among other things on the type of loading, microstructure, material properties and temperature. The Nb-stabilized austenitic stainless steel in the solution-annealed condition was chosen for the investigations. Experiments with two kinds of cyclic loading - pure thermal and pure mechanical - were carried out and simulated. The fatigue behaviour of the steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under thermal loading was studied within the framework of the joint research project [4]. Interrupted thermal cyclic tests in the temperature range of 150 C to 300 C combined with non-destructive residual stress measurements (XRD) and various microscopic investigations, e.g. in SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), were used to study the effects of thermal cyclic loading on the material. This thermal cyclic loading leads to thermal induced stresses and strains. As a result intrusions and extrusions appear inside the grains (at the surface), at which microcracks arise and evolve to a dominant crack. Finally, these microcracks cause a continuous and significant decrease of residual stresses. The fatigue behaviour of the steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under mechanical loading at room temperature was studied within the framework of the research project [5], [8]. With a combination of interrupted LCF tests and EBSD

  11. Mechanism of crack initiation and crack growth under thermal and mechanical fatigue loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utz, S.; Soppa, E.; Silcher, H.; Kohler, C.

    2013-01-01

    The present contribution is focused on the experimental investigations and numerical simulations of the deformation behaviour and crack development in the austenitic stainless steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under thermal and mechanical cyclic loading in HCF and LCF regimes. The main objective of this research is the understanding of the basic mechanisms of fatigue damage and the development of simulation methods, which can be applied further in safety evaluations of nuclear power plant components. In this context the modelling of crack initiation and crack growth inside the material structure induced by varying thermal or mechanical loads are of particular interest. The mechanisms of crack initiation depend among other things on the type of loading, microstructure, material properties and temperature. The Nb-stabilized austenitic stainless steel in the solution-annealed condition was chosen for the investigations. Experiments with two kinds of cyclic loading - pure thermal and pure mechanical - were carried out and simulated. The fatigue behaviour of the steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under thermal loading was studied within the framework of the joint research project [4]. Interrupted thermal cyclic tests in the temperature range of 150 C to 300 C combined with non-destructive residual stress measurements (XRD) and various microscopic investigations, e.g. in SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), were used to study the effects of thermal cyclic loading on the material. This thermal cyclic loading leads to thermal induced stresses and strains. As a result intrusions and extrusions appear inside the grains (at the surface), at which microcracks arise and evolve to a dominant crack. Finally, these microcracks cause a continuous and significant decrease of residual stresses. The fatigue behaviour of the steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under mechanical loading at room temperature was studied within the framework of the research project [5], [8]. With a combination of interrupted LCF tests and EBSD

  12. Characterization of chemical interactions during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Mahn

    2003-10-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has received much attention as an unique technique to provide a wafer level planarization in semiconductor manufacturing. However, despite the extensive use of CMP, it still remains one of the least understood areas in semiconductor processing. The lack of the fundamental understanding is a significant barrier to further advancements in CMP technology. One critical aspect of metal CMP is the formation of a thin surface layer on the metal surface. The formation and removal of this layer controls all the aspects of the CMP process, including removal rate, surface finish, etc. In this dissertation, we focus on the characterization of the formation and removal of the thin surface layer on the copper surface. The formation dynamics was investigated using static and dynamic electrochemical techniques, including potentiodynamic scans and chronoamperometry. The results were validated using XPS measurements. The mechanical properties of the surface layer were investigated using nanoindentation measurements. The electrochemical investigation showed that the thickness of the surface layer is controlled by the chemicals such as an oxidizer (hydrogen peroxide), a corrosion inhibitor (benzotriazole), a complexing agent (citric acid), and their concentrations. The dynamic electrochemical measurements indicated that the initial layer formation kinetics is unaffected by the corrosion inhibitors. The passivation due to the corrosion inhibitor becomes important only on large time scales (>200 millisecond). The porosity and the density of the chemically modified surface layer can be affected by additives of other chemicals such as citric acid. An optimum density of the surface layer is required for high polishing rate while at the same time maintaining a high degree of surface finish. Nanoindentation measurements indicated that the mechanical properties of the surface layer are strongly dependent on the chemical additives in the slurry. The CMP

  13. Physico-chemical characterization of slag waste coming from GICC thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, A.; Aineto, M.; Iglesias, I. [Laboratory of Applied Mineralogy, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real Madrid (Spain); Romero, M.; Rincon, J.Ma. [The Glass-Ceramics Laboratory, Insituto Eduardo Torroja de Ciencias de la Construccion, CSIC, c/Serrano Galvache s/n, 28033, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-09-01

    The new gas installations of combined cycle (GICC) thermal power plants for production of electricity are more efficient than conventional thermal power plants, but they produce a high quantity of wastes in the form of slags and fly ashes. Nowadays, these by-products are stored within the production plants with, until now, no applications of recycling in other industrial processes. In order to evaluate the capability of these products for recycling in glass and ceramics inductory, an investigation for the full characterization has been made by usual physico-chemical methods such as: chemical analysis, mineralogical analysis by XRD, granulometry, BET, DTA/TG, heating microscopy and SEM/EDX.

  14. Chemically and Thermally Stable High Energy Density Silicone Composites, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal energy storage systems with 300 -- 1000 kJ/kg energy density through either phase changes or chemical heat absorption are sought by NASA. This proposed...

  15. Reaction Mechanism Generator: Automatic construction of chemical kinetic mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Connie W.; Allen, Joshua W.; Green, William H.; West, Richard H.

    2016-06-01

    Reaction Mechanism Generator (RMG) constructs kinetic models composed of elementary chemical reaction steps using a general understanding of how molecules react. Species thermochemistry is estimated through Benson group additivity and reaction rate coefficients are estimated using a database of known rate rules and reaction templates. At its core, RMG relies on two fundamental data structures: graphs and trees. Graphs are used to represent chemical structures, and trees are used to represent thermodynamic and kinetic data. Models are generated using a rate-based algorithm which excludes species from the model based on reaction fluxes. RMG can generate reaction mechanisms for species involving carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. It also has capabilities for estimating transport and solvation properties, and it automatically computes pressure-dependent rate coefficients and identifies chemically-activated reaction paths. RMG is an object-oriented program written in Python, which provides a stable, robust programming architecture for developing an extensible and modular code base with a large suite of unit tests. Computationally intensive functions are cythonized for speed improvements.

  16. Multispectral linear array (MLA) focal plane mechanical and thermal design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A. S.; Kaminski, E. F.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanical and thermal design of an integrated focal plane subsystem of a Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) instrument is discussed in terms of focal-plane alignment, thermoelastic performance, and thermal requirements. The modular construction and thermal control of the focal plane array are discussed.

  17. Parameters affecting mechanical and thermal responses in bone drilling: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JuEun; Chavez, Craig L; Park, Joorok

    2018-04-11

    Surgical bone drilling is performed variously to correct bone fractures, install prosthetics, or for therapeutic treatment. The primary concern in bone drilling is to extract donor bone sections and create receiving holes without damaging the bone tissue either mechanically or thermally. We review current results from experimental and theoretical studies to investigate the parameters related to such effects. This leads to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical and thermal aspects of bone drilling to reduce their unwanted complications. This review examines the important bone-drilling parameters of bone structure, drill-bit geometry, operating conditions, and material evacuation, and considers the current techniques used in bone drilling. We then analyze the associated mechanical and thermal effects and their contributions to bone-drilling performance. In this review, we identify a favorable range for each parameter to reduce unwanted complications due to mechanical or thermal effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Double stratification effects in chemically reactive squeezed Sutterby fluid flow with thermal radiation and mixed convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A current analysis is carried out to study theoretically the mixed convection characteristics in squeezing flow of Sutterby fluid in squeezed channel. The constitutive equation of Sutterby model is utilized to characterize the rheology of squeezing phenomenon. Flow characteristics are explored with dual stratification. In flowing fluid which contains heat and mass transport, the first order chemical reaction and radiative heat flux affect the transport phenomenon. The systems of non-linear governing equations have been modulating which then solved by mean of convergent approach (Homotopy Analysis Method. The graphs are reported and illustrated for emerging parameters. Through graphical explanations, drag force, rate of heat and mass transport are conversed for different pertinent parameters. It is found that heat and mass transport rate decays with dominant double stratified parameters and chemical reaction parameter. The present two-dimensional examination is applicable in some of the engineering processes and industrial fluid mechanics. Keywords: Squeezing flow, Sutterby fluid model, Mixed convection, Double stratification, Thermal radiation, Chemical reaction

  19. Effects of Graphene Oxide and Chemically-Reduced Graphene Oxide on the Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Amine Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Monteserín

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Composites based on epoxy/graphene oxide (GO and epoxy/reduced graphene oxide (rGO were investigated for thermal-mechanical performance focusing on the effects of the chemical groups present on nanoadditive-enhanced surfaces. GO and rGO obtained in the present study have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD demonstrating that materials with different oxidation degrees have been obtained. Thereafter, GO/epoxy and rGO/epoxy nanocomposites were successfully prepared and thoroughly characterized by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. A significant increase in the glass transition temperature was found in comparison with the neat epoxy. The presence of functional groups on the graphene surface leads to chemical interactions between these functional groups on GO and rGO surfaces with the epoxy, contributing to the possible formation of covalent bonds between GO and rGO with the matrix. The presence of oxidation groups on GO also contributes to an improved exfoliation, intercalation, and distribution of the GO sheets in the composites with respect to the rGO based composites.

  20. Chemical transitions of Areca semen during the thermal processing revealed by temperature-resolved ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibiao; Wang, Xu; Pei, Wenxuan; Li, Sen; Sun, Suqin; Zhou, Qun; Chen, Jianbo

    2018-03-01

    Areca semen is a common herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, but alkaloids in this herb are categorized as Group I carcinogens by IARC. It has been proven that the stir-baking process can reduce alkaloids in Areca semen while keep the activity for promoting digestion. However, the changes of compositions other than alkaloids during the thermal processing are unclear. Understanding the thermal chemical transitions of Areca semen is necessary to explore the processing mechanisms and optimize the procedures. In this research, FTIR spectroscopy with a temperature-controlled ATR accessory is employed to study the heating process of Areca semen. Principal component analysis and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy are used to interpret the spectra to reveal the chemical transitions of Areca semen in different temperature ranges. The loss of a few volatile compounds in the testa and sperm happens below 105 °C, while some esters in the sperm decreases above 105 °C. As the heating temperature is close to 210 °C, Areca semen begins to be scorched and the decomposition of many compounds can be observed. This research shows the potential of the temperature-resolved ATR-FTIR spectroscopy in exploring the chemical transitions of the thermal processing of herbal materials.

  1. Thermal and mechanical cutting of concrete and steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloj, G.; Tittel, G.

    1984-01-01

    Various thermal and mechanical processes for dismantling radioactive large components and concrete structures were investigated in order to determine the optimal handling conditions and their respective efficiency. For the thermal processes, the separation of heavy concrete and steel components by means of oxygen lances, powder cutting, ocyacetylene cutting, and plasma cutting processes were tested. In order to gain the necessary data for designing filtering equipment with regard to use in nuclear power stations, the amount of dust deposition and particle size distribution for these thermal processes were measured. The largest particle size proportion occurs for a particle size of ca. 0.3 μm. For the mechanical processes, stationary saws were used. Due to the large dimensions of the components which are to be found in a nuclear installation, it is not possible to use such saws for the initial dismantling. These saws can be used for both low-alloy and austenitic types of steel, and for separating materials not containing iron. In order to compare the efficiency of the saws with that of the thermal processes, to some extent the same test pieces were used that were used for the thermal tests. The advantage of the saw technique in comparison to the thermal separation processes lies in that next to no gas or dust contamination can become released. Also, the amount of shavings produced (secondary waste) is low. Furthermore, some of the saws can be used under remote control

  2. Thermal and Chemical Characterization of Non-Metallic Materials Using Coupled Thermogravimetric Analysis and Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is widely employed in the thermal characterization of non-metallic materials, yielding valuable information on decomposition characteristics of a sample over a wide temperature range. However, a potential wealth of chemical information is lost during the process, with the evolving gases generated during thermal decomposition escaping through the exhaust line. Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is a powerful analytical technique for determining many chemical constituents while in any material state, in this application, the gas phase. By linking these two techniques, evolving gases generated during the TGA process are directed into an appropriately equipped infrared spectrometer for chemical speciation. Consequently, both thermal decomposition and chemical characterization of a material may be obtained in a single sample run. In practice, a heated transfer line is employed to connect the two instruments while a purge gas stream directs the evolving gases into the FT-IR. The purge gas can be either high purity air or an inert gas such as nitrogen to allow oxidative and pyrolytic processes to be examined, respectively. The FT-IR data is collected realtime, allowing continuous monitoring of chemical compositional changes over the course of thermal decomposition. Using this coupled technique, an array of diverse materials has been examined, including composites, plastics, rubber, fiberglass epoxy resins, polycarbonates, silicones, lubricants and fluorocarbon materials. The benefit of combining these two methodologies is of particular importance in the aerospace community, where newly developing materials have little available data with which to refer. By providing both thermal and chemical data simultaneously, a more definitive and comprehensive characterization of the material is possible. Additionally, this procedure has been found to be a viable screening technique for certain materials, with the generated data useful in

  3. Thermal and chemical stabilities of some synthesized inorganic ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Naggar, I.M.; Abou-Mesalam, M.M.; El-Shorbagy, M.M.; Shady, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Chromium and cerium titanate as inorganic ion exchange materials were synthesized by the reaction of potassium chromate or ammonium eerie nitrate with titanium tetrachloride with molar ratio equal unity. The crystal system of both chromium and cerium titanates were determined and set to be monoclinic and orthorhombic system's, respectively. The chemical composition of both chromium and cerium titanates was determined by X-ray fluorescence technique and based on the data obtained with other different techniques. A molecular formula for chromium and cerium titanates as Cr 2 Ti 12 O 27 . 13H 2 O and Ce 2 Ti 3 O 10 . 7.46H 2 O, respectively, was proposed. Thermal stabilities of both ion exchangers were investigated at different heating temperatures. Also the stability of chromium and cerium titanates for chemical attack was studied in different media. The data obtained showed high thermal and chemical stabilities of chromium and cerium titanate ion exchangers compared with the same group of ion exchange materials. The ion exchange capacities of chromium and cerium titanates at different heating temperature were also investigated

  4. Thermal and chemical stabilities of some synthesized inorganic ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, I.M.; Abou-Mesalam, M. M.; El-Shorbagy, M.M.; Shady, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Chromium and cerium titanate as inorganic ion exchange materials were synthesized by the reaction of potassium chromate or ammonium ceric nitrate with titanium tetrachloride with molar ratio equal unity. The crystal system of both chromium and cerium titanates were determined and set to be monoclinic and orthorhombic systems, respectively. The chemical composition of both chromium and cerium titanates were determined by X-ray fluorescence technique and based on the data obtained with other different techniques. We can proposed molecular formula for chromium and cerium titanates as Cr 2 Ti 1 2O27. 13H 2 O and Ce 2 ThO10. 7.46 H 2 O, respectively. Thermal stability of both ion exchangers was investigated at different heating temperatures. Also the stability of chromium and cerium titanates for chemical attack was studied in different media. The data obtained showed high thermal and chemical stabilities of chromium and cerium titanate ion exchangers compared to the same group of ion exchange materials. The ion exchange capacities of chromium and cerium titanates at different heating temperature were investigated

  5. Mechanics and thermal management of stretchable inorganic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jizhou; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-03-01

    Stretchable electronics enables lots of novel applications ranging from wearable electronics, curvilinear electronics to bio-integrated therapeutic devices that are not possible through conventional electronics that is rigid and flat in nature. One effective strategy to realize stretchable electronics exploits the design of inorganic semiconductor material in a stretchable format on an elastomeric substrate. In this review, we summarize the advances in mechanics and thermal management of stretchable electronics based on inorganic semiconductor materials. The mechanics and thermal models are very helpful in understanding the underlying physics associated with these systems, and they also provide design guidelines for the development of stretchable inorganic electronics.

  6. Mechanics and thermal management of stretchable inorganic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jizhou; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    Stretchable electronics enables lots of novel applications ranging from wearable electronics, curvilinear electronics to bio-integrated therapeutic devices that are not possible through conventional electronics that is rigid and flat in nature. One effective strategy to realize stretchable electronics exploits the design of inorganic semiconductor material in a stretchable format on an elastomeric substrate. In this review, we summarize the advances in mechanics and thermal management of stretchable electronics based on inorganic semiconductor materials. The mechanics and thermal models are very helpful in understanding the underlying physics associated with these systems, and they also provide design guidelines for the development of stretchable inorganic electronics. PMID:27547485

  7. Chemical adhesion rather than mechanical retention enhances resin bond durability of a dental glass-ceramic with leucite crystallites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, X F; Yoshida, K; Gu, N

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of chemical adhesion by a silane coupler and mechanical retention by hydrofluoric acid (HFA) etching on the bond durability of resin to a dental glass ceramic with leucite crystallites. Half of the ceramic plates were etched with 4.8% HFA (HFA group) for 60 s, and the other half were not treated (NoHFA group). The scale of their surface roughness and rough area was measured by a 3D laser scanning microscope. These plates then received one of the following two bond procedures to form four bond test groups: HFA/cement, NoHFA/cement, HFA/silane/cement and NoHFA/silane/cement. The associated micro-shear bond strength and bond failure modes were tested after 0 and 30 000 thermal water bath cycles. Four different silane/cement systems (Monobond S/Variolink II, GC Ceramic Primer/Linkmax HV, Clearfil Ceramic Primer/Clearfil Esthetic Cement and Porcelain Liner M/SuperBond C and B) were used. The data for each silane/cement system were analyzed by three-way ANOVA. HFA treatment significantly increased the surface R a and R y values and the rough area of the ceramic plates compared with NoHFA treatment. After 30 000 thermal water bath cycles, the bond strength of all the test groups except the HFA/Linkmax HV group was significantly reduced, while the HFA/Linkmax HV group showed only adhesive interface failure. The other HFA/cement groups and all NoHFA/cement groups lost bond strength completely, and all NoHFA/silane/cement groups with chemical adhesion had significantly higher bond strength and more ceramic cohesive failures than the respective HFA/cement groups with mechanical retention. The result of the HFA/silane/cement groups with both chemical adhesion and mechanical retention revealed that HFA treatment could enhance the bond durability of resin/silanized glass ceramics, which might result from the increase of the chemical adhesion area on the ceramic rough surface and subsequently reduced degradation speed of the silane coupler

  8. High-pressure treatment of wood - combination of mechanical and thermal drying in the ''I/D process''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, M. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Ernaehrung, Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik, Haid-und-Neu-Str. 9, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bentz, M. [Institut fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (T.H.), D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    Thermal drying of materials with internal pores is always a time-consuming and energy-intensive step within a production process. For chemical and pharmaceutical mass products and, in particular, for wood as an important raw material it is desirable to reduce the water content before thermal treatment by mechanical operations. The wood-processing industry, facing a rising stress of competition, is forced more than ever to offer high-quality products at lowest prices. Today, drying of timber is mostly done by air drying or by technical drying in kiln dryers. In any case, drying is necessary to prevent deterioration in quality by shrinkage, formation of cracks, discoloration or infestation. A new process of dewatering wood by combining mechanical and thermal means has been developed at the University of Karlsruhe. Compared to conventional drying processes, short drying times and a low residual moisture content can be achieved and, thus, energy consumption and costs can be reduced. In industrial wood drying only thermal processes (e.g., convective kiln drying, vacuum drying, etc.) have been established because so far no method has been known for removing liquid by mechanical force without significant change in wood structure. With the new I/D process chances for alternatives to conventional thermal drying or for mechanothermal applications are offered. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Fuels and chemicals from biomass using solar thermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giori, G.; Leitheiser, R.; Wayman, M.

    1981-01-01

    The significant nearer term opportunities for the application of solar thermal energy to the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from biomass are summarized, with some comments on resource availability, market potential and economics. Consideration is given to the production of furfural from agricultural residues, and the role of furfural and its derivatives as a replacement for petrochemicals in the plastics industry.

  10. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, CRYSTALLINITY, AND THERMAL DEGRADATION OF BLEACHED AND UNBLEACHED KENAF BAST (Hibiscus cannabinus PULP AND NANOFIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jonoobi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus nanofibers were isolated from unbleached and bleached pulp by a combination of chemical and mechanical treatments. The chemical methods were based on NaOH-AQ (anthraquinone and three-stage bleaching (DEpD processes, whereas the mechanical techniques involved refining, cryo-crushing, and high-pressure homogenization. The size and morphology of the obtained fibers were characterized by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and the studies showed that the isolated nanofibers from unbleached and bleached pulp had diameters between 10-90 nm, while their length was in the micrometer range. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated that the content of lignin and hemicellulose decreased in the pulping process and that lignin was almost completely removed during bleaching. Moreover, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA indicated that both pulp types as well as the nanofibers displayed a superior thermal stability as compared to the raw kenaf. Finally, X-ray analyses showed that the chemo-mechanical treatments altered the crystallinity of the pulp and the nanofibers: the bleached pulp had a higher crystallinity than its unbleached counterpart, and the bleached nanofibers presented the highest crystallinity of all the investigated materials.

  11. Chemically different non-thermal plasmas target distinct cell death pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, O.; Zablotskyy, V.; Chrupina, O.; Lunova, M.; Jirsa, M.; Dejneka, A.; Kubinová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, apr (2017), s. 600 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : chemically different * non-thermal plasmas * target distinct cell death pathways Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  12. Mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties of methylcellulose/cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Alves Silvério

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effects of incorporating cellulose nanocrystals from soy hulls (WSH30 on the mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties of methylcellulose (MC nanocomposites were evaluated. MC/WSH30 nanocomposite films with different filler levels (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% were prepared by casting. Compared to neat MC film, improvements in the mechanical and barrier properties were observed, while thermal stability was retained. The improved mechanical properties of nanocomposites prepared may be attributed to mechanical percolation of WSH30, formation of a continuous network of WSH30 linked by hydrogen interactions and a close association between filler and matrix.

  13. Mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties of methylcellulose/cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverio, Hudson Alves; Flauzino Neto, Wilson Pires; Silva, Ingrid Souza Vieira da; Rosa, Joyce Rover; Pasquini, Daniel, E-mail: pasquini@iqufu.ufu.br, E-mail: danielpasquini2005@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Uberlandia (USU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Assuncao, Rosana Maria Nascimento de [Universidade de Uberlandia (USU), Ituiutaba, MG (brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Integradas do Pontal; Barud, Hernane da Silva; Ribeiro, Sidney Jose Lima [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2014-11-15

    In this work, the effects of incorporating cellulose nanocrystals from soy hulls (WSH{sub 30}) on the mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties of methylcellulose (MC) nanocomposites were evaluated. MC/WSH{sub 30} nanocomposite films with different filler levels (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10%) were prepared by casting. Compared to neat MC film, improvements in the mechanical and barrier properties were observed, while thermal stability was retained. The improved mechanical properties of nanocomposites prepared may be attributed to mechanical percolation of WSH{sub 30}, formation of a continuous network of WSH{sub 30} linked by hydrogen interactions and a close association between filler and matrix. (author)

  14. Deposition of thermal and hot-wire chemical vapor deposition copper thin films on patterned substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitropoulos, G; Davazoglou, D

    2011-09-01

    In this work we study the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) of copper films on blanket and patterned substrates at high filament temperatures. A vertical chemical vapor deposition reactor was used in which the chemical reactions were assisted by a tungsten filament heated at 650 degrees C. Hexafluoroacetylacetonate Cu(I) trimethylvinylsilane (CupraSelect) vapors were used, directly injected into the reactor with the aid of a liquid injection system using N2 as carrier gas. Copper thin films grown also by thermal and hot-wire CVD. The substrates used were oxidized silicon wafers on which trenches with dimensions of the order of 500 nm were formed and subsequently covered with LPCVD W. HWCVD copper thin films grown at filament temperature of 650 degrees C showed higher growth rates compared to the thermally ones. They also exhibited higher resistivities than thermal and HWCVD films grown at lower filament temperatures. Thermally grown Cu films have very uniform deposition leading to full coverage of the patterned substrates while the HWCVD films exhibited a tendency to vertical growth, thereby creating gaps and incomplete step coverage.

  15. Temperature buffer test. Hydro-mechanical and chemical/ mineralogical characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Olsson, Siv; Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Karnland, Ola [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Kiviranta, Leena; Kumpulainen, Sirpa [BandTech Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Linden, Johan [Aabo Akademi, Aabo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    TEM), iron oxidation state (Moessbauer spectroscopy). The retention tests, the CEC-determinations, the chemical analyses by ICP, and the mineralogical analyses by XRD and FTIR were performed on bulk samples as well as on a Na-converted fine fraction (<0.5 {mu}m). The latter fraction was subjected also to TEM analyses. The hydro-mechanical characterizations of the bentonite resulted in the following observations: i) compared to the reference material no large deviation was seen in the retention curves for the Na converted fine fraction of the material from the innermost positions, and for the bulk material from the same positions a marked deviation was observed for equilibrium with RH = 97%; ii) a reduction in swelling pressure was observed on re-saturated samples from the field experiment, especially on those from the innermost part. Measured hydraulic conductivity values were generally scattered, but displayed a tendency with increased values on re-saturated specimens drilled from the innermost part, and a similar tendency was also observed on ground and re-compacted specimens and specimens prepared from dried material; iii) the triaxial test performed on the one specimen from the inner part demonstrated a brittle behaviour involving high stiffness, high shear strength, and low strain at failure; and iv) the unconfined compression tests demonstrated a reduced strain at failure on all specimens from the field material, and also a reduced maximum deviator stress on the re-saturated specimens from the innermost position. The chemical/mineralogical characterization indicated that: i) sulfate was redistributed under the thermal and hydration gradients that were prevalent during the test. Anhydrite accumulated at some distance from the heater, whereas gypsum was dissolved in the peripheral parts of the buffer where water was supplied; ii) cristobalite was dissolved at the bentonite/heater contact; iii) calcite was dissolved in the warmest parts of the block; iv

  16. ZnO/SnO{sub 2} nanoflower based ZnO template synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sin, N. D. Md., E-mail: diyana0366@johor.uitm.edu.my; Amalina, M. N., E-mail: amalina0942@johor.uitm.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Johor, Kampus Pasir Gudang, 81750 Masai, Johor (Malaysia); Ismail, Ahmad Syakirin, E-mail: kyrin-samaxi@yahoo.com; Shafura, A. K., E-mail: shafura@ymail.com; Ahmad, Samsiah, E-mail: samsiah.ahmad@johor.uitm.edu.my; Mamat, M. H., E-mail: mhmamat@salam.uitm.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Rusop, M., E-mail: rusop@salam.uitm.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    The ZnO/SnO{sub 2} nanoflower like structures was grown on a glass substrate deposited with seed layer using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with combining two source materials. The ZnO/SnO{sub 2} nanoflower like structures had diameter in the range 70 to 100 nm. The atomic percentage of ZnO nanoparticle , SnO{sub 2} nanorods and ZnO/SnO{sub 2} nanoflower was taken using EDS. Based on the FESEM observations, the growth mechanism is applied to describe the growth for the synthesized nanostructures.

  17. On the fluid mechanics of fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TIESZEN,SHELDON R.

    2000-02-29

    Fluid mechanics research related to fire is reviewed with focus on canonical flows, multiphysics coupling aspects, experimental and numerical techniques. Fire is a low-speed, chemically-reacting, flow in which buoyancy plans an important role. Fire research has focused on two canonical flows, the reacting boundary-layer and the reacting free plume. There is rich, multi-lateral, bi-directional, coupling among fluid mechanics and scalar transport, combustion, and radiation. There is only a limited experimental fluid-mechanics database for fire due to measurement difficulties in the harsh environment, and the focus within the fire community on thermal/chemical consequences. Increasingly, computational fluid dynamics techniques are being used to provide engineering guidance on thermal/chemical consequences and to study fire phenomenology.

  18. Mechanical, Hygric and Thermal Properties of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tesárek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The reference measurements of basic mechanical, thermal and hygric parameters of hardened flue gas desulfurization gypsum are carried out. Moisture diffusivity, water vapor diffusion coefficient, thermal conductivity, volumetric heat capacity and linear thermal expansion coefficient are determined with the primary aim of comparison with data obtained for various types of modified gypsum in the future. 

  19. A hybrid solar and chemical looping combustion system for solar thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarian, Mehdi; Arjomandi, Maziar; Nathan, Graham J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel solar–CLC hybrid system is proposed which integrates a CLC with solar thermal energy. ► The oxygen carrier particles are used as storage medium for thermal energy storage. ► A solar cavity reactor is proposed for fuel reactor. ► The absorbed solar energy is stored in the particles to produce a base heat load. -- Abstract: A novel hybrid of a solar thermal energy and a chemical looping combustion (CLC) system is proposed here, which employs the oxygen carrier particles in a CLC system to provide diurnal thermal energy storage for concentrated solar thermal energy. In taking advantage of the chemical and sensible energy storage systems that are an inherent part of a CLC system, this hybrid offers potential to achieve cost effective, base load power generation for solar energy. In the proposed system, three reservoirs have been added to a conventional CLC system to allow storage of the oxygen carrier particles, while a cavity solar receiver has been chosen for the fuel reactor. The performance of the system is evaluated using ASPEN PLUS software, with the model being validated using independent simulation result reported previously. Operating temperature, solar efficiency, solar fraction, exergy efficiency and the fraction of the solar thermal energy stored for a based load power generation application are reported.

  20. Chemical kinetics of gas reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kondrat'Ev, V N

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Kinetics of Gas Reactions explores the advances in gas kinetics and thermal, photochemical, electrical discharge, and radiation chemical reactions. This book is composed of 10 chapters, and begins with the presentation of general kinetic rules for simple and complex chemical reactions. The next chapters deal with the experimental methods for evaluating chemical reaction mechanisms and some theories of elementary chemical processes. These topics are followed by discussions on certain class of chemical reactions, including unimolecular, bimolecular, and termolecular reactions. The rema

  1. Study on chemical mechanical polishing of silicon wafer with megasonic vibration assisted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Ke; He, Qing; Li, Liang; Ren, Yi

    2017-09-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is the primary method to realize the global planarization of silicon wafer. In order to improve this process, a novel method which combined megasonic vibration to assist chemical mechanical polishing (MA-CMP) is developed in this paper. A matching layer structure of polishing head was calculated and designed. Silicon wafers are polished by megasonic assisted chemical mechanical polishing and traditional chemical mechanical polishing respectively, both coarse polishing and precision polishing experiments were carried out. With the use of megasonic vibration, the surface roughness values Ra reduced from 22.260nm to 17.835nm in coarse polishing, and the material removal rate increased by approximately 15-25% for megasonic assisted chemical mechanical polishing relative to traditional chemical mechanical polishing. Average Surface roughness values Ra reduced from 0.509nm to 0.387nm in precision polishing. The results show that megasonic assisted chemical mechanical polishing is a feasible method to improve polishing efficiency and surface quality. The material removal and finishing mechanisms of megasonic vibration assisted polishing are investigated too. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermal assault and polyurethane foam-evaluating protective mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, C.L.; Iams, Z.L.

    2004-01-01

    Rigid polyurethane foam utilizes a variety of mechanisms to mitigate the thermal assault of a ''regulatory burn''. Polymer specific heat and foam k-factor are of limited usefulness in predicting payload protection. Properly formulated rigid polyurethane foam provides additional safeguards by employing ablative mechanisms which are effective even when the foam has been crushed or fractured as a result of trauma. The dissociative transitions from polymer to gas and char, and the gas transport of heat from inside the package out into the environment are also thermal mitigators. Additionally, the in-situ production of an intumescent, insulative, carbonaceous char, confers thermal protection even when a package's outer steel skin has been breached. In this test program, 19 liter, ''Five gallon'' steel pails are exposed on one end to the flame of an ''Oil Burner'' as described in the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) ''Aircraft Materials Fire Test Handbook''. When burning 2 diesel at a nominal rate of 8.39 kg (18.5 pounds)/hr, the burner generates a high emissivity flame that impinges on the pail face with the thermal intensity of a full scale pool-fire environment. Results of these tests, TGA and MDSC analysis on the subject foams are reported, and their relevance to full size packages and pool fires are discussed

  3. A high-response transparent heater based on a CuS nanosheet film with superior mechanical flexibility and chemical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuyao; Li, Teng; Xu, Zijie; Wang, Yanan; Liu, Xiangyang; Guo, Wenxi

    2018-04-05

    Transparent heaters are widely used in technologies such as window defrosting/defogging, displays, gas sensing, and medical equipment. Apart from mechanical robustness and electrical and optical reliabilities, outstanding chemical stability is also critical to the application of transparent heaters. In this regard, we first present a highly flexible and large-area CuS transparent heater fabricated by a colloidal crackle pattern method with an optimized sheet resistance (Rs) as low as 21.5 Ω sq-1 at a ∼80% transmittance. The CuS transparent heater exhibits remarkable mechanical robustness during bending tests as well as high chemical stability against acid and alkali environments. In the application as a transparent heater, the CuS heater demonstrates a high thermal resistance of 197 °C W-1 cm2 with a fast switching time (solar panels. These CuS network TCEs with high flexibility, transparency, conductivity, and chemical stability could be widely used in wearable electronic products.

  4. Chemical dynamics in the gas phase: Time-dependent quantum mechanics of chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, S.K. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A major goal of this research is to obtain an understanding of the molecular reaction dynamics of three and four atom chemical reactions using numerically accurate quantum dynamics. This work involves: (i) the development and/or improvement of accurate quantum mechanical methods for the calculation and analysis of the properties of chemical reactions (e.g., rate constants and product distributions), and (ii) the determination of accurate dynamical results for selected chemical systems, which allow one to compare directly with experiment, determine the reliability of the underlying potential energy surfaces, and test the validity of approximate theories. This research emphasizes the use of recently developed time-dependent quantum mechanical methods, i.e. wave packet methods.

  5. Progress Toward a Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical-Biological (THMCB) Experiment in the Homestake Mine Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenthal, E. L.; Maher, K.; Elsworth, D.; Lowell, R. P.; Uzunlar, N.; Mailloux, B. J.; Conrad, M. E.; Olsen, N. J.; Jones, T. L.; Cruz, M. F.; Torchinsky, A.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of performing a long-term hydrothermal experiment in a deep mine is to gain a scientific understanding of the coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes taking place in fractured rock under the influence of mechanical stress, thermal effects, and fluid flow. Only in a controlled experiment in a well-characterized rock mass, can a fractured rock be probed in 3-D through geophysical imaging, in situ measurements, geochemical/biological sampling, and numerical modeling. Our project is focused on the feasibility of a THMCB experiment in the Homestake Mine, South Dakota to study the long-term evolution (10+ years) of a perturbed heterogeneous rock mass. In addition to the experiment as a laboratory for studying crustal processes, it has direct application to Enhanced Geothermal Systems, carbon sequestration, and contaminant transport. Field activities have focused on fracture and feature mapping, flux measurements from flowing fractures, and collection of water and rock samples for geochemical, biological, and isotopic analyses. Fracture mapping and seepage measurements are being used to develop estimates of permeability and fluxes at different length scales and design the location and orientation of the heater array. Fluxes measured up to several liters/minute indicate localized regions of very high fracture permeability, likely in excess of 10-10 m2. Isotopic measurements indicate heterogeneity in the fracture network on the scale of tens of meters in addition to the large-scale geochemical heterogeneity observed in the mine. New methods for sampling and filtering water samples were developed and tested with the goal of performing radiocarbon analyses in DNA and phospholipid fatty acids. Analytical and numerical models of the thermal perturbation have been used to design the heater orientation and spacing. Reaction path and THC simulations were performed to assess geochemical and porosity/permeability changes as a function of the heat input

  6. Rapid Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition for Dual-Gated Sub-100 nm MOSFET's

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sturm, James

    2001-01-01

    ... (such as microprocessors and memory chips) is based. This project examines the scaling of MOSFET's to very small channel dimensions using a vertical structure which is defined by Rapid Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition...

  7. Thermal analysis of iron hydroxide microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcanu, C.N.; Cornescu, M.

    1979-03-01

    The thermal treatment is an important step in the preparative technology of the iron oxids microspheres with well established mechanical, physical and chemical characteristics. The first indications on the heating procedure have been obtained from the thermal analysis on iron hydroxide microspheres prepared by the support precipitation and internal gelification methods. (author)

  8. Characterization of Thermal and Mechanical Impact on Aluminum Honeycomb Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Christen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study supports NASA Kennedy Space Center's research in the area of intelligent thermal management systems and multifunctional thermal systems. This project addresses the evaluation of the mechanical and thermal properties of metallic cellular solid (MCS) materials; those that are lightweight; high strength, tunable, multifunctional and affordable. A portion of the work includes understanding the mechanical properties of honeycomb structured cellular solids upon impact testing under ambient, water-immersed, liquid nitrogen-cooled, and liquid nitrogen-immersed conditions. Additionally, this study will address characterization techniques of the aluminum honeycomb's ability to resist multiple high-rate loadings or impacts in varying environmental conditions, using various techniques for the quantitative and qualitative determination for commercial applicability.

  9. Reduced Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms for JP-8 Combustion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montgomery, Christopher J; Cannon, S. M; Mawid, M. A; Sekar, B

    2002-01-01

    Using CARM (Computer Aided Reduction Method), a computer program that automates the mechanism reduction process, six different reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for JP-8 combustion have been generated...

  10. Thermal stability of Trichoderma reesei C30 cellulase and Aspergillus niger. beta. -glucosidase after pH and chemical modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J.; Whaley, K.S.; Zachry, G.S.; Wohlpart, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Treatment of Trichoderma reesei C30 cellulase at pH 10.0 for 1 h at room temperature increased its pH and thermal stability. Chemical modification of the free epsilon-amino groups of cellulase at pH 10.0 resulted in no further increase in stability. Such chemical modification, however, decreased the thermal stability of the cellulose-cellulase complex. On the contrary, the chemical modification of Aspergillus niger ..beta..-glucosidase with glutaraldehyde at pH 8.0 increased the thermal stability of this enzyme.

  11. Thermal hydraulics and mechanics core design programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinecke, J.

    1992-10-01

    The report documents the work performed within the Research and Development Task T hermal hydraulics and mechanics core design programs , funded by the German government. It contains the development of new codes, the extension of existing codes, the qualification and verification of codes and the development of a code library. The overall goal of this work was to adapt the system of thermal hydraulics and mechanics codes to the permanently growing requirements of the status of science and technology

  12. Effect of thermal-treatment sequence on sound absorbing and mechanical properties of porous sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chen-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to recent rapid commercial and industrial development, mechanical equipment is supplemented massively in the factory and thus mechanical operation causes noise which distresses living at home. In livelihood, neighborhood, transportation equipment, jobsite construction noises impact on quality of life not only factory noise. This study aims to preparation technique and property evaluation of porous sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites. Hollow three-dimensional crimp PET fibers blended with low-melting PET fibers were fabricated into hollow PET/low-melting PET nonwoven after opening, blending, carding, lapping and needle-bonding process. Then, hollow PET/low-melting PET nonwovens were laminated into sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites by changing sequence of needle-bonding and thermal-treatment. The optimal thermal-treated sequence was found by tensile strength, tearing strength, sound-absorbing coefficient and thermal conductivity coefficient tests of porous composites.

  13. Chemically different non-thermal plasmas target distinct cell death pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Churpita, Olexandr; Lunova, M.; Jirsa, M.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kubinová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-17, č. článku 600. ISSN 2045-2322 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : chemically different * non-thermal plasmas * target distinct cell death pathways Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  14. Modern Cast Irons in Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1934-11-09

    fl’ceew. T I SOCIETY OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GROUP MODERN CAST IRONS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING By J. G. PEARCE, M.Sc., F.Inst.P...CAST IRONS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING By J. G. PEARCE, M.Sc., F.Inst.P., M.I.E.E.* INTRODUCTION to chemical or thermal resistance. Small blow-holes Any...consideration of modern cast irons in chemical seldom appear to reduce the mechanical strength of engineering should strictly be prefaced by a definition

  15. Probing the role of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) -coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes in the thermal and mechanical properties of polycarbonate nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian

    2014-03-05

    The role played by multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) in the thermal and mechanical properties of polycarbonate (PC) nanocomposites was analyzed. We used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) to demonstrate that the glass transition temperature of polycarbonate nanocomposites decreased whereas the storage modulus of the samples increased by including PEDOT/PSS-coated MWCNTs. These results indicated that PEDOT/PSS acts as an antiplasticizer. We attributed the enhancement of the storage modulus to the strong hydrogen bonding between PSS and the PC matrix and the reduction of the free volume in the PC matrix due to the shrinkage of PEDOT/PSS upon heating. We also investigated changes in the thermal conductivity and thermal degradation behavior of the nanocomposites. The results indicated that PEDOT/PSS did not play a significant role in improving the thermal conductivity and thermal stability of PC nanocomposites. The relative improvements in the conductivity and thermal stability of the samples that contained PEDOT/PSS were attributed to the better dispersion of the MWCNTs in the PC matrix. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  16. The effects of MWNT on thermal conductivity and thermal mechanical properties of epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismadi, A. I.; Othman, R. N.

    2017-12-01

    Multiwall nanotube (MWNT) was used as filler in various studies to improve thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of epoxy. Present study varied different weight loading (0, 0.1 %, 0.5 %, 1 %, 1.5 %, 3 % and 5 %) of MWNT in order to observe the effects on the epoxy. Nanocomposite was analyzed by dynamic-mechanical thermal analyser (DMTA) and KD2 pro analyzer. DMTA measured storage modulus (E') and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the nanocomposite. Result showed that Tg value of neat epoxy is higher than all MWNT epoxy nanocomposite. Tg values drop from 81.55 °C (neat epoxy) to 65.03 °C (at 0.1 wt%). This may happen due to the agglomeration of MWNT in the epoxy. However, Tg values increases with the increase of MWNT wt%. Tg values increased from 65.03 °C to 78.53 °C at 1 wt%. Increment of storage modulus (E') at 3 °C (glassy region) was observed as the MWNT loading increases. Maximum value of E' during glassy region was observed to be at 5 wt% with (7.26±0.7) E+08 Pa compared to neat epoxy. On the contrary, there is slight increased and slight decreased with E' values at 100 °C (rubbery region) for all nanocomposite. Since epoxy exhibits low thermal conductivity properties, addition of MWNT has enhanced the properties. Optimum value of thermal conductivity was observed at 3 wt%. The values increased up to 9.03 % compared to neat epoxy. As expected, the result showed decrease value in thermal conductivity at 5 wt% as a result of agglomeration of MWNT in the epoxy.

  17. Computationally efficient thermal-mechanical modelling of selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yabin; Ayas, Can

    2017-10-01

    The Selective laser melting (SLM) is a powder based additive manufacturing (AM) method to produce high density metal parts with complex topology. However, part distortions and accompanying residual stresses deteriorates the mechanical reliability of SLM products. Modelling of the SLM process is anticipated to be instrumental for understanding and predicting the development of residual stress field during the build process. However, SLM process modelling requires determination of the heat transients within the part being built which is coupled to a mechanical boundary value problem to calculate displacement and residual stress fields. Thermal models associated with SLM are typically complex and computationally demanding. In this paper, we present a simple semi-analytical thermal-mechanical model, developed for SLM that represents the effect of laser scanning vectors with line heat sources. The temperature field within the part being build is attained by superposition of temperature field associated with line heat sources in a semi-infinite medium and a complimentary temperature field which accounts for the actual boundary conditions. An analytical solution of a line heat source in a semi-infinite medium is first described followed by the numerical procedure used for finding the complimentary temperature field. This analytical description of the line heat sources is able to capture the steep temperature gradients in the vicinity of the laser spot which is typically tens of micrometers. In turn, semi-analytical thermal model allows for having a relatively coarse discretisation of the complimentary temperature field. The temperature history determined is used to calculate the thermal strain induced on the SLM part. Finally, a mechanical model governed by elastic-plastic constitutive rule having isotropic hardening is used to predict the residual stresses.

  18. Thermal mechanical analysis of applications with internal heat generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Srisharan Garg

    The radioactive tracer Technetium-99m is widely used in medical imaging and is derived from its parent isotope Molybedenum-99 (Mo-99) by radioactive decay. The majority of Molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) produced internationally is extracted from high enriched uranium (HEU) dispersion targets that have been irradiated. To alleviate proliferation risks associated with HEU-based targets, the use of non-HEU sources is being mandated. However, the conversion of HEU to LEU based dispersion targets affects the Mo-99 available for chemical extraction. A possible approach to increase the uranium density, to recover the loss in Mo-99 production-per-target, is to use an LEU metal foil placed within an aluminum cladding to form a composite structure. The target is expected to contain the fission products and to dissipate the generated heat to the reactor coolant. In the event of interfacial separation, an increase in the thermal resistance could lead to an unacceptable rise in the LEU temperature and stresses in the target. The target can be deemed structurally safe as long as the thermally induced stresses are within the yield strength of the cladding and welds. As with the thermal and structural safety of the annular target, the thermally induced deflection of the BORALRTM-based control blades, used by the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURRRTM ), during reactor operation has been analyzed. The boron, which is the neutron absorber in BORAL, and aluminum mixture (BORAL meat) and the aluminum cladding are bonded together through powder metallurgy to establish an adherent bonded plate. As the BORAL absorbs both neutron particles and gamma rays, there is volumetric heat generation and a corresponding rise in temperature. Since the BORAL meat and aluminum cladding materials have different thermal expansion coefficients, the blade may have a tendency to deform as the blade temperature changes and the materials expand at different rates. In addition to the composite nature of the

  19. Sunburn, Thermal, and Chemical Injuries to the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monseau, Aaron J; Reed, Zebula M; Langley, Katherine Jane; Onks, Cayce

    2015-12-01

    Sunburn, thermal, and chemical injuries to the skin are common in the United States and worldwide. Initial management is determined by type and extent of injury with special care to early management of airway, breathing, and circulation. Fluid management has typically been guided by the Parkland formula, whereas some experts now question this. Each type of skin injury has its own pathophysiology and resultant complications. All primary care physicians should have at least a basic knowledge of management of acute and chronic skin injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Improvement of chemical control in the water-steam cycle of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajakovic-Ognjanovic, Vladana N.; Zivojinovic, Dragana Z.; Grgur, Branimir N.; Rajakovic, Ljubinka V.

    2011-01-01

    A more effective chemical control in the water-steam cycle (WSC) of thermal power plants (TPP) is proposed in this paper. Minimization of corrosion effects by the production of ultra pure water and its strict control is the basis of all the investigated processes. The research involved the analysis of water samples in the WSC through key water quality parameters and by the most convenient analytical tools. The necessity for the stricter chemical control is demonstrated through a concrete example of the TPP Nikola Tesla, Serbia. After a thorough analysis of the chemical control system of the WSC, diagnostic and control parameters were chosen for continuous systematic measurements. Sodium and chloride ions were recognized as the ions which indicate the corrosion potential of the water and give insight into the proper production and maintenance of water within the WSC. Chemical transformations of crucial corrosion elements, iron and silica, were considered and related to their quantitative values. - Research highlights: → The more effective chemical control in the water-steam cycle of thermal power plant Nikola Tesla, Serbia. → In chemical control the diagnostic and control parameters were optimized and introduced for the systematic measurements in the water-steam cycle. → Sodium and chloride ions were recognized as ions which indicate corrosion potential of water and give insight to proper function of production and maintenance of water within water-team cycle. → Chemical transformations of crucial corrosion elements, iron and silica are considered and related with their quantitative values.

  1. Chemical adhesion rather than mechanical retention enhances resin bond durability of a dental glass-ceramic with leucite crystallites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, X F [Department of Prosthodontics, The Stomatological Hospital Affiliated Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yoshida, K [Division of Applied Prosthodontics, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8588 (Japan); Gu, N, E-mail: mengsoar@nju.edu.c [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biomaterials and Devices, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2010-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of chemical adhesion by a silane coupler and mechanical retention by hydrofluoric acid (HFA) etching on the bond durability of resin to a dental glass ceramic with leucite crystallites. Half of the ceramic plates were etched with 4.8% HFA (HFA group) for 60 s, and the other half were not treated (NoHFA group). The scale of their surface roughness and rough area was measured by a 3D laser scanning microscope. These plates then received one of the following two bond procedures to form four bond test groups: HFA/cement, NoHFA/cement, HFA/silane/cement and NoHFA/silane/cement. The associated micro-shear bond strength and bond failure modes were tested after 0 and 30 000 thermal water bath cycles. Four different silane/cement systems (Monobond S/Variolink II, GC Ceramic Primer/Linkmax HV, Clearfil Ceramic Primer/Clearfil Esthetic Cement and Porcelain Liner M/SuperBond C and B) were used. The data for each silane/cement system were analyzed by three-way ANOVA. HFA treatment significantly increased the surface R{sub a} and R{sub y} values and the rough area of the ceramic plates compared with NoHFA treatment. After 30 000 thermal water bath cycles, the bond strength of all the test groups except the HFA/Linkmax HV group was significantly reduced, while the HFA/Linkmax HV group showed only adhesive interface failure. The other HFA/cement groups and all NoHFA/cement groups lost bond strength completely, and all NoHFA/silane/cement groups with chemical adhesion had significantly higher bond strength and more ceramic cohesive failures than the respective HFA/cement groups with mechanical retention. The result of the HFA/silane/cement groups with both chemical adhesion and mechanical retention revealed that HFA treatment could enhance the bond durability of resin/silanized glass ceramics, which might result from the increase of the chemical adhesion area on the ceramic rough surface and subsequently reduced degradation speed of the silane

  2. Dependence of Glass Mechanical Properties on Thermal and Pressure History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Bauchy, Mathieu

    Predicting the properties of new glasses prior to manufacturing is a topic attracting great industrial and scientific interest. Mechanical properties are currently of particular interest given the increasing demand for stronger, thinner, and more flexible glasses in recent years. However, as a non......-equilibrium material, the structure and properties of glass depend not only on its composition, but also on its thermal and pressure histories. Here we review our recent findings regarding the thermal and pressure history dependence of indentation-derived mechanical properties of oxide glasses....

  3. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of Inconel 718 after thermal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Z.S., E-mail: yuzaisong@tpri.com.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi’an 710049 (China); Xi' an Thermal Power Research Institute Co. Ltd., No. 136, Xingqing Road, Xi’an 710032 (China); Zhang, J.X. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi’an 710049 (China); Yuan, Y.; Zhou, R.C.; Zhang, H.J.; Wang, H.Z. [Xi' an Thermal Power Research Institute Co. Ltd., No. 136, Xingqing Road, Xi’an 710032 (China)

    2015-05-14

    Inconel 718 was subjected to various heat treatments, i.e., solution heat treatment, standard ageing treatment and standard ageing plus 700 °C thermal exposure. The mechanical properties of the alloys were determined using tensile tests and Charpy pendulum impact tests at 650 °C and room temperature, respectively. The highest yield strength of 988 MPa was attained in the standard aged specimen, whereas a maximum impact toughness of 217 J cm{sup −2} was attained in the solution-treated specimen. After thermal exposure, the mechanical properties of the specimens degrade. Both the yield strength and impact toughness decreased monotonically with increasing thermal exposure time. Subjected to a 10000-h long-term thermal exposure, the yield strength dramatically decreased to 475 MPa (almost 50% of the maximum strength), and the impact toughness reduced to only 18 J cm{sup −2}. The microstructures of the specimens were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Coarsening of γ′ and γ″ and the transformation of γ″ to δ-Ni{sub 3}Nb was observed after thermal exposure. However, a complete transformation from metastable γ″ to δ-Ni{sub 3}Nb was never accomplished, even after the 10000-h long-term thermal exposure. Based on the obtained experimental results, the effects of the microstructural evolution on the mechanical properties are discussed.

  4. Assessment of the physico-chemical properties of phases in the Na-U-Pu-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleykamp, H.

    1990-05-01

    A critical review is given on the physico-chemical properties of phases in the Na-O, Na-U-O, Na-Pu-O and Na-U-Pu-O systems. This includes the phase diagrams as well as the crystallographic, mechanical, thermal, thermodynamic, transport, optical and chemical properties. This data is to be used for the modelling of the thermal, mechanical and chemical behaviour of defective LMFBR mixed oxide pins during and after reactor operation. (orig.) [de

  5. Mechanistic, kinetic, and processing aspects of tungsten chemical mechanical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, David

    This dissertation presents an investigation into tungsten chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). CMP is the industrially predominant unit operation that removes excess tungsten after non-selective chemical vapor deposition (CVD) during sub-micron integrated circuit (IC) manufacture. This work explores the CMP process from process engineering and fundamental mechanistic perspectives. The process engineering study optimized an existing CMP process to address issues of polish pad and wafer carrier life. Polish rates, post-CMP metrology of patterned wafers, electrical test data, and synergy with a thermal endpoint technique were used to determine the optimal process. The oxidation rate of tungsten during CMP is significantly lower than the removal rate under identical conditions. Tungsten polished without inhibition during cathodic potentiostatic control. Hertzian indenter model calculations preclude colloids of the size used in tungsten CMP slurries from indenting the tungsten surface. AFM surface topography maps and TEM images of post-CMP tungsten do not show evidence of plow marks or intergranular fracture. Polish rate is dependent on potassium iodate concentration; process temperature is not. The colloid species significantly affects the polish rate and process temperature. Process temperature is not a predictor of polish rate. A process energy balance indicates that the process temperature is predominantly due to shaft work, and that any heat of reaction evolved during the CMP process is negligible. Friction and adhesion between alumina and tungsten were studied using modified AFM techniques. Friction was constant with potassium iodate concentration, but varied with applied pressure. This corroborates the results from the energy balance. Adhesion between the alumina and the tungsten was proportional to the potassium iodate concentration. A heuristic mechanism, which captures the relationship between polish rate, pressure, velocity, and slurry chemistry, is presented

  6. Effect of Isomorphous Substitution on the Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of Hydrotalcites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Crosby

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrotalcites have many important applications in catalysis, wastewater treatment, gene delivery and polymer stabilization, all depending on preparation history and treatment scenarios. In catalysis and polymer stabilization, thermal decomposition is of great importance. Hydrotalcites form easily with atmospheric carbon dioxide and often interfere with the study of other anion containing systems, particularly if formed at room temperature. The dehydroxylation and decomposition of carbonate occurs simultaneously, making it difficult to distinguish the dehydroxylation mechanisms directly. To date, the majority of work on understanding the decomposition mechanism has utilized hydrotalcite precipitated at room temperature. In this study, evolved gas analysis combined with thermal analysis has been used to show that CO2 contamination is problematic in materials being formed at RT that are poorly crystalline. This has led to some dispute as to the nature of the dehydroxylation mechanism. In this paper, data for the thermal decomposition of the chloride form of hydrotalcite are reported. In addition, carbonate-free hydrotalcites have been synthesized with different charge densities and at different growth temperatures. This combination of parameters has allowed a better understanding of the mechanism of dehydroxylation and the role that isomorphous substitution plays in these mechanisms to be delineated. In addition, the effect of anion type on thermal stability is also reported. A stepwise dehydroxylation model is proposed that is mediated by the level of aluminum substitution.

  7. A Study on the Interaction Mechanism between Thermal Radiation and Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dehong XIA; Tao YU; Chuangu WU; Qingqing CHANG; Honglei JIAO

    2005-01-01

    From the viewpoint of field synergy principle and dipole radiation theory, the interaction between the incident thermal radiation wave and materials is analyzed to reveal the mechanism of selective absorption of incident thermal radiation. It is shown that the frequency of the incident thermal radiation and the damping constant of damping oscillators in materials are of vital importance for the thermal radiation properties (reflectivity, absorptivity, transmissivity, etc.) of materials.

  8. Method and apparatus for obtaining enhanced production rate of thermal chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA

    2003-04-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus (vessel) for providing a heat transfer rate from a reaction chamber through a wall to a heat transfer chamber substantially matching a local heat transfer rate of a catalytic thermal chemical reaction. The key to the invention is a thermal distance defined on a cross sectional plane through the vessel inclusive of a heat transfer chamber, reaction chamber and a wall between the chambers. The cross sectional plane is perpendicular to a bulk flow direction of the reactant stream, and the thermal distance is a distance between a coolest position and a hottest position on the cross sectional plane. The thermal distance is of a length wherein the heat transfer rate from the reaction chamber to the heat transfer chamber substantially matches the local heat transfer rate.

  9. Evaluation of the thermal-mechanical performance of fuel rods of a BWR during a power ramp using the FUELSIM code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantoja C, R.

    2010-01-01

    To avoid the risk to environment due to release of radioactive material, because of occurrence of an accident, it is the priority of the design and performance of the diverse systems of safety of a commercial nuclear power plant. The safety of nuclear power plants requires, therefore, monitoring those parameters having some direct or indirect effect on safety. The thermal limits are values set for those parameters considered having most impact on the safe operation of a nuclear power reactor. Some thermal limits monitoring requires the thermal-mechanical analysis of the rods containing the nuclear fuel. The fuel rod thermal-mechanical behavior under irradiation is a complex process in which there exists a great deal of interrelated physical and chemical phenomena, so that the fuel rod performance analysis in the core of a nuclear power reactor is generally accomplished by using computer codes, which integrate several of the phenomena that are expected to occur during the lifetime of the fuel rod in the core. The main application of the thermal-mechanical analysis codes is the prediction of occurrence of conditions and/or phenomena that could lead to the deterioration or even mechanical failure of the fuel rod cladding, as, for example, the pellet-cladding interaction. In the operation of a nuclear power reactor, fuel preconditioning operations refer to the operational procedures employed to reduce the fuel rod failure probability due to fuel-cladding interaction, specially during reactor startup. Preconditioning simulations are therefore necessary to determine in advance limit values for the power that can be generated in a fuel rod, and thus avoiding any rod damage. In this work, a first analysis of the thermal-mechanical performance of typical fuel rods used in nuclear reactors of the type BWR 5/6, as those two nuclear reactors in Laguna Verde, Veracruz, is performed. This study includes two types of fuel rods: one from a fuel assembly design with an array 8 x 8

  10. Thermal and chemical variations of the Nigerian Benue trough lead-zinc-barite-fluorite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundipe, Ibukun Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    The Benue trough is an intra-continental rift initiated in the Cretaceous during the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. Lead-zinc-barite-fluorite mineralization occurs along the 600 km axis of the trough in three discrete sub-basins which coincide with the lower, middle and upper mineral districts of the Benue Valley. Lithologically these sub-basins are dominated by black carbonaceous shale in the Lower Benue, platform carbonates in the Middle Benue and sandstones in the Upper Benue. Micro-thermometric analysis of fluid inclusions in sphalerite, fluorite, barite and quartz have shown that each mineral district has its own unique thermal and chemical imprint. For example, the temperature can be bracketed between 109 °C and 160 °C for lower Benue, 89 °C-144 °C for the Middle Benue and 176 °C-254 °C for the Upper Benue. Chemical differentiation also exists between each mineral district with the Lower Benue having 22 wt % equivalent NaCl while the Middle and Upper Benue have 18 and 16 wt % equivalent NaCl respectively. This study shows that inter-district thermal and chemical variations exist between the ore-stage sulfide and post-sulfide gangue minerals of the entire Benue Valley. Similarly, intra-district thermal and chemical variations have also been observed among all the paragenetic minerals of each district. The thermal variations may be as a result of variations in the geothermal gradient accompanying continental rifting from one district to the other. The variations in the chemistry between the Lower Benue and the Upper Benue paragenic minerals may be as a result of the distinct lithological differences across the Benue Trough.

  11. Effect of mechanical activation on structure and thermal decomposition of aluminum sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasri-Khouzani, M.; Meratian, M.; Panjepour, M.

    2009-01-01

    The thermal decompositions of both non-activated and mechanically activated aluminum sulfates were studied by thermogravimetry (TG). The structural disorder, the specific surface area (SSA) and the morphology of mechanically activated aluminum sulfates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser particle-size analyzer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Thermal analyses results indicated that the initial temperature of thermal decomposition (T i ) in TG curves for mechanically activated aluminum sulfates decreased gradually with increasing the milling time. It was also found that the SSA of mechanically activated aluminum sulfates remained almost constant after a certain milling time, and lattice strains (ε) rose but the crystallite sizes (D) decreased with increasing the milling time. These results showed that the decrease of T i in TG curves of mechanically activated aluminum sulfates was mainly caused by the increase of lattice distortions and decrease of the crystallite sizes with increasing the milling time

  12. Thermal behaviors of mechanically activated pyrites by thermogravimetry (TG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Huiping; Chen Qiyuan; Yin Zhoulan; Zhang Pingmin

    2003-01-01

    The thermal decompositions of mechanically activated and non-activated pyrites were studied by thermogravimetry (TG) at the heating rate of 10 K min -1 in argon. Results indicate that the initial temperature of thermal decomposition (T di ) in TG curves for mechanically activated pyrites decreases gradually with increasing the grinding time. The specific granulometric surface area (S G ), the structural disorder of mechanically activated pyrites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction laser particle size analyzer, and X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. The results show that the S G of mechanically activated pyrites remains almost constant after a certain grinding time, and lattice distortions (ε) rise but the crystallite sizes (D) decrease with increasing the grinding time. All these results imply that the decrease of T di in TG curves of mechanically activated pyrites is mainly caused by the increase of lattice distortions ε and the decrease of the crystallite sizes D of mechanically activated pyrite with increasing the grinding time. The differences in the reactivity between non-activated and mechanically activated pyrites were observed using characterization of the products obtained from 1 h treatment of non-activated and mechanically activated pyrites at 713 K under inert atmosphere and characterization of non-activated and mechanically activated pyrites exposed to ambient air for a certain period

  13. The mechanisms of heavy metal immobilization by cementitious material treatments and thermal treatments: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Liu, Bo; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Shengen

    2017-05-15

    Safe disposal of solid wastes containing heavy metals is a significant task for environment protection. Immobilization treatment is an effective technology to achieve this task. Cementitious material treatments and thermal treatments are two types of attractive immobilization treatments due to that the heavy metals could be encapsulated in their dense and durable wasteforms. This paper discusses the heavy metal immobilization mechanisms of these methods in detail. Physical encapsulation and chemical stabilization are two fundamental mechanisms that occur simultaneously during the immobilization processes. After immobilization treatments, the wasteforms build up a low permeable barrier for the contaminations. This reduces the exposed surface of wastes. Chemical stabilization occurs when the heavy metals transform into more stable and less soluble metal bearing phases. The heavy metal bearing phases in the wasteforms are also reviewed in this paper. If the heavy metals are incorporated into more stable and less soluble metal bearing phases, the potential hazards of heavy metals will be lower. Thus, converting heavy metals into more stable phases during immobilization processes should be a common way to enhance the immobilization effect of these immobilization methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Densely crosslinked polycarbosiloxanes .2. Thermal and mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipsen, T.A C; Derks, R.; van der Vegt, H.A.; Stenekes, R.; Pennings, A.J; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    The thermal and mechanical properties of two densely crosslinked polycarbosiloxane systems were investigated in relation to the molecular structure. The networks were prepared from functional branched prepolymers and crosslinked via a hydrosilylation curing reaction. The prepolymers having only

  15. The I2 dissociation mechanisms in the chemical oxygen-iodine laser revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waichman, K; Barmashenko, B D; Rosenwaks, S

    2012-06-28

    The recently suggested mechanism of I(2) dissociation in the chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) [K. Waichman, B. D. Barmashenko, and S. Rosenwaks, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 063108 (2009); and J. Chem. Phys. 133, 084301 (2010)] was largely based on the suggestion of V. N. Azyazov, S. Yu. Pichugin, and M. C. Heaven [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 104306 (2009)] that the vibrational population of O(2)(a) produced in the chemical generator is high enough to play an essential role in the dissociation. The results of model calculations based on this mechanism agreed very well with measurements of the small signal gain g, I(2) dissociation fraction F, and temperature T in the COIL. This mechanism is here revisited, following the recent experiments of M. V. Zagidullin [Quantum Electron. 40, 794 (2010)] where the observed low population of O(2)(b, v = 1) led to the conclusion that the vibrational population of O(2)(a) at the outlet of the generator is close to thermal equilibrium value. This value corresponds to a very small probability, ∼0.05, of O(2)(a) energy pooling to the states O(2)(X,a,b, v > 0). We show that the dissociation mechanism can reproduce the experimentally observed values of g, F, and T in the COIL only if most of the energy released in the processes of O(2)(a) energy pooling and O(2)(b) quenching by H(2)O ends up as vibrational energy of the products, O(2)(X,a,b), where the vibrational states v = 2 and 3 are significantly populated. We discuss possible reasons for the differences in the suggested vibrational population and explain how these differences can be reconciled.

  16. Technology of combined chemical-mechanical fabrication of durable coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentsev, V. P.; Ivanov, V. V.; Portnykh, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the scientific fundamentals of methodology for calculating the modes and structuring the technological processes of combined chemical-mechanical fabrication of durable coatings. It is shown that they are based on classical patterns, describing the processes of simultaneous chemical and mechanical impact. The paper demonstrates the possibility of structuring a technological process, taking into account the systematic approach to impact management and strengthening the reciprocal positive influence of each impact upon the combined process. The combined processes have been planned for fabricating the model types of chemical-mechanical coatings of durable products in machine construction. The planning methodology is underpinned by a scientific hypothesis of a single source of impact management through energy potential of process components themselves, or by means of external energy supply through mechanical impact. The control of it is fairly thoroughly studied in the case of pulsed external strikes of hard pellets, similar to processes of vibroimpact hardening, thoroughly studied and mastered in many scientific schools of Russia.

  17. A model for chemically-induced mechanical loading on MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amiot, Fabien

    2007-01-01

    The development of full displacement field measurements as an alternative to the optical lever technique to measure the mechanical response for microelectro-mechanical systems components in their environment calls for a modeling of chemically-induced mechanical fields (stress, strain, and displac......The development of full displacement field measurements as an alternative to the optical lever technique to measure the mechanical response for microelectro-mechanical systems components in their environment calls for a modeling of chemically-induced mechanical fields (stress, strain...... of the system free energy and its dependence on the surface amount. It is solved in the cantilever case thanks to an asymptotic analysis, and an approached closed-form solution is obtained for the interfacial stress field. Finally, some conclusions regarding the transducer efficiency of cantilevers are drawn...

  18. Improvement of thermal and mechanical properties of composite based on polylactic acid and microfibrillated cellulose through chemical modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanegara, L.; Nugraha, R. A.; Achmadi, S. S.

    2017-07-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is the most representative sustainable and bio-based polymer environmentally friendly that has a great potential to replace petroleum-based plastics. However, brittleness, low heat resistance, and slow crystallization limit the wide application of PLA. One of strategies to improve PLA properties is by reinforcing with microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). Unfortunately, the hydrophilic properties of MFC make it difficult to attain good dispersion in a hydrophobic PLA matrix. Therefore, modification of MFC was needed to increase its compatibility with PLA in the composite formation. In this experiment, MFC was modified with partial acetylation (degree of substitution: 1) and further grafted with lactide monomers through ring-opening polymerization using Sn(Oct)2 catalyst. The result of acetylation and grafting were verified by infrared spectra. Composites were prepared by mixing PLA (molecular weight of 200,000) and the modified MFC at 9:1 ratio through organic solvent method. Followed by 8 min-kneading and hot pressing at 180°C, the resulted composites were evaluated for their mechanical and thermal properties. Thermal characterization carried out using differential scanning calorimetry measurements showed that the presence of modified MFC increased the temperature of glass transition and accelerated the crystallization of PLA. Mechanical properties measurement showed that the presence of modified MFC enhanced the elongation at break (1.1 to 1.8%), tensile strength (14.9 to 25.7 MPa), and modulus of elasticity (1.7 to 2.1 GPa). These results demonstrated that the modified MFC could extend the application of PLA in industry.

  19. Lamb Wave Stiffness Characterization of Composites Undergoing Thermal-Mechanical Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Michael D.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of new, advanced composite materials into aviation systems requires a thorough understanding of the long term effects of combined thermal and mechanical loading upon those materials. Analytical methods investigating the effects of intense thermal heating combined with mechanical loading have been investigated. The damage mechanisms and fatigue lives were dependent on test parameters as well as stress levels. Castelli, et al. identified matrix dominated failure modes for out-of-phase cycling and fiber dominated damage modes for in-phase cycling. In recent years, ultrasonic methods have been developed that can measure the mechanical stiffness of composites. To help evaluate the effect of aging, a suitably designed Lamb wave measurement system is being used to obtain bending and out-of-plane stiffness coefficients of composite laminates undergoing thermal-mechanical loading. The system works by exciting an antisymmetric Lamb wave and calculating the velocity at each frequency from the known transducer separation and the measured time-of-flight. The same peak in the waveforms received at various distances is used to measure the time difference between the signals. The velocity measurements are accurate and repeatable to within 1% resulting in reconstructed stiffness values repeatable to within 4%. Given the material density and plate thickness, the bending and out-of-plane shear stiffnesses are calculated from a reconstruction of the dispersion curve. A mechanical scanner is used to move the sensors over the surface to map the time-of-flight, velocity, or stiffnesses of the entire specimen. Access to only one side of the material is required and no immersion or couplants are required because the sensors are dry coupled to the surface of the plate. In this study, the elastic stiffnesses D(sub 11), D(sub 22), A(sub 44), and A(sub 55) as well as time-of-flight measurements for composite samples that have undergone combined thermal and mechanical aging for

  20. Polyacrylonitrile nanofibers with added zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIF-7) to enhance mechanical and thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Wook [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, 842 W. Taylor St., Chicago, Illinois 60607-7022 (United States); An, Seongpil; Song, Kyo Yong; Joshi, Bhavana N.; Jo, Hong Seok; Yoon, Sam S., E-mail: skyoon@korea.ac.kr, E-mail: ayarin@uic.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Al-Deyab, Salem S. [Department of Chemistry, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Yarin, Alexander L., E-mail: skyoon@korea.ac.kr, E-mail: ayarin@uic.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, 842 W. Taylor St., Chicago, Illinois 60607-7022 (United States); School of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-28

    Zeolitic imidazolate framework 7/polyacrylonitrile (ZIF-7/PAN) nanofiber mat of high porosity and surface area can be used as a flexible fibrous filtration membrane that is subjected to various modes of mechanical loading resulting in stresses and strains. Therefore, the stress-strain relation of ZIF-7/PAN nanofiber mats in the elastic and plastic regimes of deformation is of significant importance for numerous practical applications, including hydrogen storage, carbon dioxide capture, and molecular sensing. Here, we demonstrated the fabrication of ZIF-7/PAN nanofiber mats via electrospinning and report their mechanical properties measured in tensile tests covering the elastic and plastic domains. The effect of the mat fabrication temperature on the mechanical properties is elucidated. We showed the superior mechanical strength and thermal stability of the compound ZIF-7/PAN nanofiber mats in comparison with that of pure PAN nanofiber mats. Material characterization including scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, tensile tests, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the enhanced chemical bonds of the ZIF-7/PAN complex.

  1. Implementation of heaters on thermally actuated spacecraft mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, John D.; Bokaie, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents general insight into the design and implementation of heaters as used in actuating mechanisms for spacecraft. Problems and considerations that were encountered during development of the Deep Space Probe and Science Experiment (DSPSE) solar array release mechanism are discussed. Obstacles included large expected fluctuations in ambient temperature, variations in voltage supply levels outgassing concerns, heater circuit design, materials selection, and power control options. Successful resolution of these issues helped to establish a methodology which can be applied to many of the heater design challenges found in thermally actuated mechanisms.

  2. Thermal and mechanical modelling of a mig-type electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patire Junior, H.; Castro, J.J.B. de

    1995-01-01

    A thermal and mechanical modelling of a magnetron injection electron gun has been made to minimize the temperature distribution in the gun elements while keeping the required operating temperature at 1000 0 C of the emitter. Appropriate materials were selected to reduce thermal losses and to improve the gun design from a constructional point of view aiming at extending the capabilities of the gun. A software has been used to simulate a thermal model considering the three processes of thermal transfer and the influence of the physical properties of the materials used. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Mechanical spectroscopy of thermal stress relaxation in aluminium alloys reinforced with short alumina fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreno-Morelli, E.; Schaller, R. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. de Genie Atomique; Urreta, S.E.

    1998-05-01

    The mechanical behaviour under low temperature thermal cycling of aluminium-based composites reinforced with short Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} SAFFIL fibres has been investigated by mechanical spectroscopy (mechanical loss and elastic shear modulus measurements). A mechanical loss maximum has been observed during cooling which originates in the relaxation of thermal stresses at the interfaces due to the differential thermal expansion between matrix and reinforcement. The maximum height increases with the volumetric fibre content. In addition, if the matrix strength is increased by the appropriated choice of alloy and thermal treatment, the maximum diminishes and shifts to lower temperatures. No damage accumulation at the interfaces has been detected during long period thermal cycling in the range 100 to 500 K. A description of the damping behaviour is made in terms of the development of microplastic zones which surround the fibres. (orig.) 9 refs.

  4. Thermal Conductivity of Moulding Sand with Chemical Binders, Attempts of its Increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zych J.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigation results of the thermal conductivity of the selected group of moulding sands with chemical binders, mainly organic, are presented in the hereby paper. Studies encompassed also moulding sands into which additions improving the thermal conductivity were introduced. Two testing methods were applied, i.e. investigations at a steady and unsteady temperature zone. For investigations at a steady temperature zone the new original experimental stand was designed and built, adapted also for testing moulding sands with binders undergoing destruction at relatively low temperatures.

  5. Mechanical, Thermal Degradation, and Flammability Studies on Surface Modified Sisal Fiber Reinforced Recycled Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of surface treated sisal fiber on the mechanical, thermal, flammability, and morphological properties of sisal fiber (SF reinforced recycled polypropylene (RPP composites was investigated. The surface of sisal fiber was modified with different chemical reagent such as silane, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA, and O-hydroxybenzene diazonium chloride (OBDC to improve the compatibility with the matrix polymer. The experimental results revealed an improvement in the tensile strength to 11%, 20%, and 31.36% and impact strength to 78.72%, 77%, and 81% for silane, GMA, and OBDC treated sisal fiber reinforced recycled Polypropylene (RPP/SF composites, respectively, as compared to RPP. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, and heat deflection temperature (HDT results revealed improved thermal stability as compared with RPP. The flammability behaviour of silane, GMA, and OBDC treated SF/RPP composites was studied by the horizontal burning rate by UL-94. The morphological analysis through scanning electron micrograph (SEM supports improves surface interaction between fiber surface and polymer matrix.

  6. Thermal degradation mechanism of addition-cure liquid silicone rubber with urea-containing silane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Weizhen; Zeng, Xingrong; Lai, Xuejun; Li, Hongqiang; Chen, Wanjuan; Zhang, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The urea-containing silane was incorporated into addition-cure liquid silicone rubber (ALSR) via hydrosilylation reaction. • The thermal stability of the ALSR was improved by DEUPAS both in nitrogen and air • The TG–FTIR of evolved gases during degradation was performed. • The possible degradation mechanism of the ALSR samples was proposed. - Abstract: The reactive urea-containing silane, (γ-diethylureidopropyl) allyloxyethoxysilane (DEUPAS), was synthesized by the trans-etherification reaction. The chemical structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry ( 1 H NMR). Subsequently, DEUPAS was incorporated into addition-cure liquid silicone rubber (ALSR) via hydrosilylation reaction. The thermal stability of the ALSR samples was investigated by thermogravimetry (TG) and thermogravimetry–Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (TG–FTIR). When DEUPAS was incorporated, the temperature of 10% weight loss and 20% weight loss under air atmosphere were respectively increased by 31 °C and 60 °C compared with those of the ALSR without DEUPAS. Meanwhile, the residual weight at 800 °C increased from 33.5% to 58.7%. It was found that the striking enhancement in thermal stability of the ALSR samples was likely attributed to the decomposition of the urea groups to isocyanic acid, which reacted with hydroxyl groups to inhibit the unzipping depolymerization

  7. Thermal degradation mechanism of addition-cure liquid silicone rubber with urea-containing silane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Weizhen; Zeng, Xingrong, E-mail: psxrzeng@gmail.com; Lai, Xuejun; Li, Hongqiang; Chen, Wanjuan; Zhang, Yajun

    2015-04-10

    Highlights: • The urea-containing silane was incorporated into addition-cure liquid silicone rubber (ALSR) via hydrosilylation reaction. • The thermal stability of the ALSR was improved by DEUPAS both in nitrogen and air • The TG–FTIR of evolved gases during degradation was performed. • The possible degradation mechanism of the ALSR samples was proposed. - Abstract: The reactive urea-containing silane, (γ-diethylureidopropyl) allyloxyethoxysilane (DEUPAS), was synthesized by the trans-etherification reaction. The chemical structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry ({sup 1}H NMR). Subsequently, DEUPAS was incorporated into addition-cure liquid silicone rubber (ALSR) via hydrosilylation reaction. The thermal stability of the ALSR samples was investigated by thermogravimetry (TG) and thermogravimetry–Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (TG–FTIR). When DEUPAS was incorporated, the temperature of 10% weight loss and 20% weight loss under air atmosphere were respectively increased by 31 °C and 60 °C compared with those of the ALSR without DEUPAS. Meanwhile, the residual weight at 800 °C increased from 33.5% to 58.7%. It was found that the striking enhancement in thermal stability of the ALSR samples was likely attributed to the decomposition of the urea groups to isocyanic acid, which reacted with hydroxyl groups to inhibit the unzipping depolymerization.

  8. 3D Thermal and Mechanical Analysis of a Single Event Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Gabriela; Demarco, Gustavo; Romero, Eduardo; Tais, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a study related to thermal and mechanical behavior of power DMOS transistors during a Single Event Burnout (SEB) process. We use a cylindrical heat generation region for emulating the thermal and mechanical phenomena related to the SEB. In this way, it is avoided the complexity of the mathematical treatment of the ion-device interaction. This work considers locating the heat generation region in positions that are more realistic than the ones used in previous work. For performing the study, we formulate and validate a new 3D model for the transistor that maintains the computational cost at reasonable level. The resulting mathematical models are solved by means of the Finite Element Method. The simulations results show that the failure dynamics is dominated by the mechanical stress in the metal layer. Additionally, the time to failure depends on the heat source position, for a given power and dimension of the generation region. The results suggest that 3D modeling should be considered for a detailed study of thermal and mechanical effects induced by SEBs.

  9. First wall thermal--mechanical analyses of the reference theta-pinch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.; Cort, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal-mechanical response of the Reference Theta-Pinch Reactor (RTPR) first wall was analyzed. The first wall problems anticipated for a pulsed, high-β fusion power plant can be ameliorated by either alterations in the physics operating point, materials reengineering, or blanket/first wall reconfiguration. Within the latter ''configuration'' scenario, a two-fold approach has been adopted for the thermal-mechanical portion of the RTPR first wall technology assessment. First, a number of new first wall configurations (bonded or unbonded laminated composites, all-ceramic structures, protective and/or sacrificial ''bumpers'') were considered. Second, a more quantitative failure criterion, based on the developing theories of fracture mechanics, was identified. For each first wall configuration, transient heat transfer and thermoelastic stress calculations have been made. Two-dimensional finite element structural analyses have been made for a variety of mechanical boundary conditions. Only the Al 2 O 3 /Nb - 1 Zr system has been considered. The results of this study indicated a wide range of design solutions to the pulsed thermal stress problem anticipated for the RTPR

  10. Thermal runaway reaction hazards and mechanisms of hydroxylamine with acid/base contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Chunyang; Saraf, Sanjeev R.; Rogers, William J.; Sam Mannan, M.

    2004-01-01

    Hydroxylamine (HA) has been involved in two incidents since 1999 because of its thermal instability and incompatibility. In this study, thermal runaway reactions of hydroxylamine with various concentrations of KOH and HCl were studied using the reactive system screening tool (RSST) and automatic pressure tracking adiabatic calorimeter (APTAC). The thermokinetic data, such as onset temperature, heat of reaction, maximum self-heat rate, maximum pressure rate, and non-condensable gas pressure, were compared with those of hydroxylamine solution without added impurity. Our study shows that the thermal decomposition behavior of hydroxylamine is affected by the presence of acid/base, and mixing of hydroxylamine with acid/base may cause thermal decomposition at lower temperatures. Different decomposition pathways can be initiated by hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion. The decomposition mechanisms of hydroxylamine in alkaline and acidic solutions are proposed based on the products, information from the literature, and quantum mechanical calculations. The experimental results are discussed in terms of the proposed reaction mechanisms

  11. New class of thermosetting plastics has improved strength, thermal and chemical stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, E. A.; Dubrow, B.; Lubowitz, H. R.

    1967-01-01

    New class of thermosetting plastics has high hydrocarbon content, high stiffness, thermal stability, humidity resistance, and workability in the precured state. It is designated cyclized polydiene urethane, and is applicable as matrices to prepare chemically stable ablative materials for rocket nose cones of nozzles.

  12. Mechanical properties of clayey soils and thermal solicitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisson, J.Y.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in permeability and mechanical properties of three clayey soils with temperature have been studied by using a special oedometric cell. The action of a thermal solicitation on the fabric and the behavior of the samples is highlighted. 3 figs., 1 tab

  13. Chemical evolution studies: the radiolysis and thermal decomposition of malonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz-Castaneda, J.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Heredia, A.; Ramos-Bernal, S.; Villafane-Barajas, S.; Frias, D.; Colin-Garcia, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of chemical evolution a simulation of a hydrothermal vent was performed. The thermolysis and radiolysis of malonic acid in aqueous solution were studied. The thermolysis was done by heating the samples (95 deg C) and radiolysis using gamma radiation. Products were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The thermal treatment produced acetic acid and CO 2 . The radiolysis experiments yield carbon dioxide, acetic acid, and di- and tricarboxylic acids. A theoretical model of the chemical process occurring under irradiation was developed; this was able to reproduce formation of products and the consumption of malonic acid. (author)

  14. Thermal-hydraulics for space power, propulsion, and thermal management system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krotiuk, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    The present volume discusses thermal-hydraulic aspects of current space projects, Space Station thermal management systems, the thermal design of the Space Station Free-Flying Platforms, the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System, advanced multi-MW space nuclear power concepts, chemical and electric propulsion systems, and such aspects of the Space Station two-phase thermal management system as its mechanical pumped loop and its capillary pumped loop's supporting technology. Also discussed are the startup thaw concept for the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System, calculational methods and experimental data for microgravity conditions, an isothermal gas-liquid flow at reduced gravity, low-gravity flow boiling, computations of Space Shuttle high pressure cryogenic turbopump ball bearing two-phase coolant flow, and reduced-gravity condensation

  15. Study on thermal stability and chemical structure of polyamide blended with small amount of Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Tsuyoshi; Ueno, Tomonaga; Kajiya, Takafumi; Ishikawa, Tomoyuki; Takeda, Kunihiko

    2007-01-01

    The thermal stability and the chemical structure of Polyamide 66 (PA66) blended with a small amount of copper have been studied. The thermal degradation of the blend with 35 ppm or more of copper was restrained and no strong influence of the concentration of copper was observed. The molecular weight of PA66 decreased by the thermal aging process but the amount of decrease of the blend was smaller than that of the non-blend. The water uptake of the blend increased. The chemical structure, which was observed by IR and NMR, changed slightly by blending with copper after aging at higher temperatures. Multiple items influenced the thermal stability of PA66 blended with a small amount of copper instead of just one. Namely, the main chain of PA66 is cut by heat and the degree of the cut is restrained by the copper. The diffusion time of copper atoms that disperse uniformly in the PA66 matrix is short enough to cover the individual amide groups and the effect enlarges the entire configuration of the PA66 chain to enhance the thermal stability. (author)

  16. A novel nano-hydroxyapatite — PMMA hybrid scaffolds adopted by conjugated thermal induced phase separation (TIPS) and wet-chemical approach: Analysis of its mechanical and biological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G, Radha [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); S, Balakumar, E-mail: balasuga@yahoo.com [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Venkatesan, Balaji; Vellaichamy, Elangovan [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we report the preparation of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) incorporated poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) scaffolds by conjugated thermal induced phase separation (TIPS) and wet-chemical approach, which essentially facilitates the enhancement of both mechanical as well as biological properties of the scaffolds. The dissolution of PMMA was accomplished by acetone (Ace scaffold), ethanol-water (E-W scaffold) and isopropanol-water (I-W scaffold) mixtures as solvents. The existence of nHAp in PMMA matrix was investigated systematically. The higher degree of porous architecture was achieved from Ace scaffolds compared to both I-W and E-W scaffolds. On the other hand, the dense porous architecture of the I-W scaffold exhibited superior hardness and compressive strength than that of the Ace and E-W scaffolds. All the fabricated samples demonstrated enhanced in vitro bioactivity with respect to increasing immersion period as a result of flower-like in vitro apatite layer formation. The MTT assay was carried out for 1 day and 3 day culture using Saos-2 osteoblast-like cells, which showed better cell proliferation with increasing culture period owing to the interconnected pore architecture of scaffolds and the rational hemocompatibility as per the ASTM standard F756-00. - Highlights: • Conjugated TIPS – wet chemical derived strategy was adopted for PMMA-nHAp composite scaffolds preparation. • TIPS method was carried out by varying solvents such as acetone, isopropanol-water and ethanol-water mixtures. • The impact of solvents on porosity and mechanical properties has been explored. • The existence of nHAp in PMMA has improved in-vitro bioactivity through apatitic-flowers formation. • Hemocompatibility of the scaffolds are in agreement with ASTM standards.

  17. Correlation between thermal behavior of clays and their chemical and mineralogical composition: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwi Yanti, Evi; Pratiwi, I.

    2018-02-01

    Clay's abundance has been widely used as industrial raw materials, especially ceramic and tile industries. Utilization of these minerals needs a thermal process for producing ceramic products. Two studies conducted by Septawander et al. and Chin C et al., showed the relationship between thermal behavior of clays and their chemical and mineralogical composition. Clays are characterized by XRD analysis and thermal analysis, ranging from 1100°C to 1200°C room temperature. Specimen of raw materials of clay which is used for the thermal treatment is taken from different geological conditions and formation. In raw material, Quartz is almost present in all samples. Halloysite, montmorillonite, and feldspar are present in Tanjung Morawa raw clay. KC and MC similar kaolinite and illite are present in the samples. The research illustrates the interrelationships of clay minerals and chemical composition with their heat behavior. As the temperature of combustion increases, the sample reduces a significant weight. The minerals which have undergone a transformation phase became mullite, cristobalite or illite and quartz. Under SEM analysis, the microstructures of the samples showed irregularity in shape; changes occurred due the increase of heat.

  18. Thermal studies on a mechanical prototype of A BIS MDT chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Petridou, C; Wotschack, J; Zisis, A

    1998-01-01

    The deformations of a BIS MDT chamber owing to temperature gradients between the two multilayers and between the two Faraday cages were studied on a mechanical prototype. The influence of thermal insulation on the thermal behaviour of the chamber is also reported.

  19. A predictive model for the chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon in a cold wall, rapid thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toprac, A.J.; Trachtenberg, I.; Edgar, T.F. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-06-01

    The chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon from thermally activated silane in a cold wall, single-wafer rapid thermal system was studied by experimentation at a variety of low pressure conditions, including very high temperatures. The effect of diluent gas on polysilicon deposition rates was examined using hydrogen, helium, and krypton. A mass-transfer model for the chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon in a cold wall, rapid thermal system was developed. This model was used to produce an empirical rate expression for silicon deposition from silane by regressing kinetic parameters to fit experimental data. The resulting model provided accurate predictions over widely varying conditions in the experimental data.

  20. Mechanical and chemical decontamination of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienhoefer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Decontamination does not mean more than a special technique of cleaning surfaces by methods well known in the industry. The main difference consists in the facts that more than just the visible dirt is to be removed and that radioactive contamination cannot be seen. Especially, intensive mechanical and chemical carry-off methods are applied to attack the surfaces. In order to minimize damages caused to the surfaces, the decontamination method is to adapt to the material and the required degree of decontamination. The various methods, their advantages and disadvantages are described, and the best known chemical solutions are shown. (orig./RW)

  1. Local thermal property analysis by scanning thermal microscopy of an ultrafine-grained copper surface layer produced by surface mechanical attrition treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, F.A. [Suzhou Institute for Nonferrous Metals Processing Technology, No. 200 Shenxu Road, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215021 (China) and Unite de Thermique et d' Analyse Physique, Laboratoire d' Energetique et d' Optique, Universite de Reims, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: guofuan@yahoo.com; JI, Y.L. [Suzhou Institute for Nonferrous Metals Processing Technology, No. 200 Shenxu Road, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215021 (China); Trannoy, N. [Unite de Thermique et d' Analyse Physique, Laboratoire d' Energetique et d' Optique, Universite de Reims, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Lu, J. [LASMIS, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 Rue Marie Curie, Troyes 10010 (France)

    2006-06-15

    Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) was used to map thermal conductivity images in an ultrafine-grained copper surface layer produced by surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). It is found that the deformed surface layer shows different thermal conductivities that strongly depend on the grain size of the microstructure: the thermal conductivity of the nanostructured surface layer decreases obviously when compared with that of the coarse-grained matrix of the sample. The role of the grain boundaries in thermal conduction is analyzed in correlation with the heat conduction mechanism in pure metal. A theoretical approach, based on this investigation, was used to calculate the heat flow from the probe tip to the sample and then estimate the thermal conductivities at different scanning positions. Experimental results and theoretical calculation demonstrate that SThM can be used as a tool for the thermal property and microstructural analysis of ultrafine-grained microstructures.

  2. On The Physico-Mechanics, Thermal and Microstructure Properties of Hybrid Composite Epoxy-Geopolymer for Geothermal Pipe Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firawati Ira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the effect of epoxy resin on the physico-mechanics, thermal and microstructure properties of geopolymers hybrid composites for geothermal pipe application. Hybrid composite epoxy-geopolymers pipes were produced through alkali activation method of class-C fly ash and epoxy resin. The mass of epoxy-resin was varied relative to the mass of fly ash namely 0% (SPG01, 5% (SPG02, 10% (SPG03, 15% (SPG04, and 20% (SPG05. The resulting materials were stored in open air for 28 days before conducting any measurements. The densities of the product composites were measured before and after the samples immersed in boiling water for 3 hours. The mechanical strength of the resulting geothermal pipes was measured by using splitting tensile measurement. The thermal properties of the pipes were measured by means of thermal conductivity measurement, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and fire resistance measurements. The chemical resistance was measured by immersing the samples into 1M H2SO4 solution for 4 days. The microstructure properties of the resulting materials were examined by using x-ray diffraction (XRD and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS. The results of this study showed that hybrid composite epoxy-geopolymers SPG02 and SPG03 are suitable to be applied as geothermal pipes.

  3. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics study of thermal shock cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, K.; Kobayashi, H.; Nakazawa, H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes thermal shock experiments conducted on a nuclear pressure vessel steel (A533 Grade B Class 1), an AISI304 steel and a tool steel (JIS SKD62) using both a new thermal shock test facility and method. Analysis of their quasi-static thermal stress intensity factors is performed on the basis of linear-elastic fracture mechanics; and a thermal shock fracture toughness value, Ksub(tsc) is evaluated. Then elastic-plastic fracture toughness tests are carried out in the same high temperature range of the thermal shock experiment, and a relation between the stretched zone width, SZW, formed as a result of the fatigue precrack tip plastic blunting and the J-integral is clarified. An elastic-plastic thermal shock fracture toughness value, Jsub(tsc), is evaluated from a critical value of the stretched zone width, SZWsub(tsc), at the initiation of the thermal shock cracking by using the relation between SZW and J. The Jsub(tsc) value is compared with an elastic-plastic fracture toughness value, Jsub(Ic), and the difference between these Jsub(tsc) and Jsub(Ic) values is discussed on the basis of fractography. (author)

  4. Application of a reversible chemical reaction system to solar thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanseth, E. J.; Won, Y. S.; Seibowitz, L. P.

    1980-01-01

    Three distributed dish solar thermal power systems using various applications of SO2/SO3 chemical energy storage and transport technology were comparatively assessed. Each system features various roles for the chemical system: (1) energy storage only, (2) energy transport, or (3) energy transport and storage. These three systems were also compared with the dish-Stirling, using electrical transport and battery storage, and the central receiver Rankine system, with thermal storage, to determine the relative merit of plants employing a thermochemical system. As an assessment criterion, the busbar energy costs were compared. Separate but comparable solar energy cost computer codes were used for distributed receiver and central receiver systems. Calculations were performed for capacity factors ranging from 0.4 to 0.8. The results indicate that SO2/SO3 technology has the potential to be more cost effective in transporting the collected energy than in storing the energy for the storage capacity range studied (2-15 hours)

  5. Modelling of thermal and mechanical behaviour of pebble beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccaccini, L.V.; Buehler, L.; Hermsmeyer, S.; Wolf, F.

    2001-01-01

    FZK (Forshungzentrum Karlsruhe) is developing a Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Blanket Concept for fusion power reactors based on the use of ceramic breeder materials and beryllium multiplier in the form of pebble beds. The design of such a blanket requires models and computer codes describing the thermal-mechanical behavior of pebble beds to evaluate the temperatures, stresses, deformations and mechanical interactions between pebble beds and the structure with required accuracy and reliability. The objective to describe the beginning of life condition for the HCPB blanket seems near to be reached. Mechanical models that describe the thermo-mechanical behavior of granular materials used in form of pebble beds are implemented in a commercial structure code. These models have been calibrated using the results of a large series of dedicated experiments. The modeling work is practically concluded for ceramic breeder; it will be carried on in the next year for beryllium to obtain the required correlations for creep and the thermal conductivity. The difficulties for application in large components (such as the HCPB blanket) are the limitations of the present commercial codes to manage such a set of constitutive equations under complex load conditions and large mesh number. The further objective is to model the thermal cycles during operation; the present correlations have to be adapted for the release phase. A complete description of the blanket behavior during irradiation is at the present out of our capability; this objective requires an extensive R and D program that at the present is only at the beginning. (Y.Tanaka)

  6. Numerical Study on the Thermal Stress and its Formation Mechanism of a Thermoelectric Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tao; Gong, Tingrui; Yang, Wei; Wu, Yongjia

    2018-06-01

    The strong thermo-mechanical stress is one of the most critical failure mechanisms that affect the durability of thermoelectric devices. In this study, numerical simulations on the formation mechanism of the maximum thermal stress inside the thermoelectric device have been performed by using finite element method. The influences of the material properties and the thermal radiation on the thermal stress have been examined. The results indicate that the maximum thermal stress was located at the contact position between the two materials and occurred due to differential thermal expansions and displacement constraints of the materials. The difference in the calculated thermal stress value between the constant and the variable material properties was between 3% and 4%. At a heat flux of 1 W·cm-2 and an emissivity of 0.5, the influence of the radiation heat transfer on the thermal stress was only about 5%; however, when the heat flux was 20 W·cm-2 and the emissivity was 0.7, the influence of the radiation heat transfer was more than 30%.

  7. Protein Structure Validation and Refinement Using Chemical Shifts Derived from Quantum Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bratholm, Lars Andersen

    to within 3 A. Furthermore, a fast quantum mechanics based chemical shift predictor was developed together with methodology for using chemical shifts in structure simulations. The developed predictor was used for renement of several protein structures and for reducing the computational cost of quantum...... mechanics / molecular mechanics (QM/MM) computations of chemical shieldings. Several improvements to the predictor is ongoing, where among other things, kernel based machine learning techniques have successfully been used to improve the quantum mechanical level of theory used in the predictions....

  8. Thermal and mechanical modelling of convergent plate margins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Beukel, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis, the thermal and mechanical structure of convergent plate margins will be investigated by means of numerical modelling. In addition, we will discuss the implications of modelling results for geological processes such as metamorphism or the break-up of a plate at a convergent plate

  9. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  10. Characterization of Wood-Plastic Composites Made with Different Lignocellulosic Materials that Vary in Their Morphology, Chemical Composition and Thermal Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Chang Hung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four kinds of lignocellulosic fibers (LFs, namely, those from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata, Taiwan red pine (Pinus taiwanensis, India-charcoal trema (Trema orientalis and makino bamboo (Phyllostachys makinoi, were selected as reinforcements and incorporated into high-density polyethylene (HDPE to manufacture wood-plastic composites (WPCs by a flat platen pressing process. In addition to comparing the differences in the physico-mechanical properties of these composites, their chemical compositions were evaluated and their thermal decomposition kinetics were analyzed to investigate the effects of the lignocellulosic species on the properties of the WPCs. The results showed that the WPC made with Chinese fir displayed a typical M-shaped vertical density profile due to the high aspect ratio of its LFs, while a flat vertical density profile was observed for the WPCs made with other LFs. Thus, the WPC made with Chinese fir exhibited higher flexural properties and lower internal bond strength (IB than other WPCs. In addition, the Taiwan red pine contained the lowest holocellulose content and the highest extractives and α-cellulose contents, which gave the resulting WPC lower water absorption and flexural properties. On the other hand, consistent with the flexural properties, the results of thermal decomposition kinetic analysis showed that the activation energy of the LFs at 10% of the conversion rate increased in the order of Taiwan red pine (146–161 kJ/mol, makino bamboo (158–175 kJ/mol, India-charcoal trema (185–194 kJ/mol and Chinese fir (194–202 kJ/mol. These results indicate that the morphology, chemical composition and thermal stability of the LFs can have a substantial impact on the physico-mechanical properties of the resulting WPCs.

  11. Accurate and approximate thermal rate constants for polyatomic chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    In favourable cases it is possible to calculate thermal rate constants for polyatomic reactions to high accuracy from first principles. Here, we discuss the use of flux correlation functions combined with the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) approach to efficiently calculate cumulative reaction probabilities and thermal rate constants for polyatomic chemical reactions. Three isotopic variants of the H 2 + CH 3 → CH 4 + H reaction are used to illustrate the theory. There is good agreement with experimental results although the experimental rates generally are larger than the calculated ones, which are believed to be at least as accurate as the experimental rates. Approximations allowing evaluation of the thermal rate constant above 400 K are treated. It is also noted that for the treated reactions, transition state theory (TST) gives accurate rate constants above 500 K. TST theory also gives accurate results for kinetic isotope effects in cases where the mass of the transfered atom is unchanged. Due to neglect of tunnelling, TST however fails below 400 K if the mass of the transferred atom changes between the isotopic reactions

  12. Thermal and mechanical properties of fatty acid starch esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H; Vorwerg, W; Rihm, R

    2014-02-15

    The current study examined thermal and mechanical properties of fatty acid starch esters (FASEs). All highly soluble esters were obtained by the sustainable, homogeneous transesterification of fatty acid vinyl esters in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Casted films of products with a degree of substitution (DS) of 1.40-1.73 were compared with highly substituted ones (DS 2.20-2.63). All films were free of any plasticizer additives. Hydrophobic surfaces were characterized by contact angle measurements. Dynamic scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) revealed thermal transitions (T(g), T(m)) which were influenced by the internal plasticizing effect of the ester groups. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements showed the increased thermal stability toward native starch. Tensile tests revealed the decreasing strength and stiffness of the products with increasing ester-group chain length while the elongation increased up to the ester group laurate and after that decreased. Esters of the longest fatty acids, palmitate and stearate turned out to be brittle materials due to super molecular structures of the ester chains such as confirmed by X-ray. Summarized products with a DS 1.40-1.73 featured more "starch-like" properties with tensile strength up to outstanding 43 MPa, while products with a DS >2 behaved more "oil-like". Both classes of esters should be tested as a serious alternative to commercial starch blends and petrol-based plastics. The term Cnumber is attributed to the number of total C-Atoms of the fatty acid (e.g. C6=Hexanoate). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermal and mechanical stresses in a functionally graded thick sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslami, M.R.; Babaei, M.H.; Poultangari, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a general solution for the one-dimensional steady-state thermal and mechanical stresses in a hollow thick sphere made of functionally graded material is presented. The temperature distribution is assumed to be a function of radius, with general thermal and mechanical boundary conditions on the inside and outside surfaces of the sphere. The material properties, except Poisson's ratio, are assumed to vary along the radius r according to a power law function. The analytical solution of the heat conduction equation and the Navier equation lead to the temperature profile, radial displacement, radial stress, and hoop stress as a function of radial direction

  14. Surface qualities after chemical-mechanical polishing on thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Wei-En; Lin, Tzeng-Yow; Chen, Meng-Ke; Chen, Chao-Chang A.

    2009-01-01

    Demands for substrate and film surface planarizations significantly increase as the feature sizes of Integrated Circuit (IC) components continue to shrink. Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP), incorporating chemical and mechanical interactions to planarize chemically modified surface layers, has been one of the major manufacturing processes to provide global and local surface planarizations in IC fabrications. Not only is the material removal rate a concern, the qualities of the CMP produced surface are critical as well, such as surface finish, defects and surface stresses. This paper is to examine the CMP produced surface roughness on tungsten or W thin films based on the CMP process conditions. The W thin films with thickness below 1000 nm on silicon wafer were chemical-mechanical polished at different down pressures and platen speeds to produce different surface roughness. The surface roughness measurements were performed by an atomic force microscope (DI D3100). Results show that the quality of surface finish (R a value) is determined by the combined effects of down pressures and platen speeds. An optimal polishing condition is, then, possible for selecting the down pressures and platen speeds.

  15. Preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol)-grafted graphene oxide/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites via in-situ low-temperature emulsion polymerization and their thermal and mechanical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shengchang; Liu, Pengqing, E-mail: liupq@scu.edu.cn; Zhao, Xiangsen; Xu, Jianjun, E-mail: xujj@scu.edu.cn

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • In-situ emulsion polymerization and alcoholysis reaction is a good method to prepare GO/PVA nanocomposites. • Surface chemical grafting modification of GO with PVA chains was also carried out during the in-situ emulsion polymerization and alcoholysis reaction. • The surface chemical grafting modification of GO by in-situ polymerization and alcoholysis reaction could not only improve the dispersion of fillers in matrix, but also the interfacial interactions between fillers and matrix. • The thermal and mechanical properties of PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocompistes were also studied. - Abstract: An in-situ polymerization combined with chemical grafting modification method for preparing Poly(vinyl alcohol)-grafted graphene oxide/Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA-g-GO/PVA) nanocomposites was reported. Firstly, Poly(vinyl acetate)-grafted graphene oxide/Poly(vinyl acetate) nanocomposites were prepared, and then the PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites could be obtained through alcoholysis reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and fourier-transform infrared spectrometer confirmed that the PVAc or PVA chains were successfully grafted to GO sheets during in-situ polymerization and alcoholysis. And the results from transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that the well compatibility and homogenous dispersion of PVA-g-GO in PVA matrix could be achieved. Differential scanning calorimetric, thermogravimetry analysis and tensile test were employed to study the thermal and mechanical properties of the PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites. The results indicated that a 53% improvement of tensile strength and a 36% improvement of Young’s modulus were achieved by addition of 0.5 wt% of GO sheets. And the glass transition temperature of PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites was increased, and their thermal stability and crystallization degree were both decreased. Due to well dispersion of fillers and strong interfacial interactions at the filler

  16. Preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol)-grafted graphene oxide/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites via in-situ low-temperature emulsion polymerization and their thermal and mechanical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shengchang; Liu, Pengqing; Zhao, Xiangsen; Xu, Jianjun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • In-situ emulsion polymerization and alcoholysis reaction is a good method to prepare GO/PVA nanocomposites. • Surface chemical grafting modification of GO with PVA chains was also carried out during the in-situ emulsion polymerization and alcoholysis reaction. • The surface chemical grafting modification of GO by in-situ polymerization and alcoholysis reaction could not only improve the dispersion of fillers in matrix, but also the interfacial interactions between fillers and matrix. • The thermal and mechanical properties of PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocompistes were also studied. - Abstract: An in-situ polymerization combined with chemical grafting modification method for preparing Poly(vinyl alcohol)-grafted graphene oxide/Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA-g-GO/PVA) nanocomposites was reported. Firstly, Poly(vinyl acetate)-grafted graphene oxide/Poly(vinyl acetate) nanocomposites were prepared, and then the PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites could be obtained through alcoholysis reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and fourier-transform infrared spectrometer confirmed that the PVAc or PVA chains were successfully grafted to GO sheets during in-situ polymerization and alcoholysis. And the results from transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that the well compatibility and homogenous dispersion of PVA-g-GO in PVA matrix could be achieved. Differential scanning calorimetric, thermogravimetry analysis and tensile test were employed to study the thermal and mechanical properties of the PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites. The results indicated that a 53% improvement of tensile strength and a 36% improvement of Young’s modulus were achieved by addition of 0.5 wt% of GO sheets. And the glass transition temperature of PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites was increased, and their thermal stability and crystallization degree were both decreased. Due to well dispersion of fillers and strong interfacial interactions at the filler

  17. Cu-based shape memory alloys with enhanced thermal stability and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C.Y.; Lam, C.W.H.

    1999-01-01

    Cu-based shape memory alloys were developed in the 1960s. They show excellent thermoelastic martensitic transformation. However the problems in mechanical properties and thermal instability have inhibited them from becoming promising engineering alloys. A new Cu-Zn-Al-Mn-Zr Cu-based shape memory alloy has been developed. With the addition of Mn and Zr, the martensitic transformation behaviour and the grain size ca be better controlled. The new alloys demonstrates good mechanical properties with ultimate tensile strenght and ductility, being 460 MPa and 9%, respectively. Experimental results revealed that the alloy has better thermal stability, i.e. martensite stabilisation is less serious. In ordinary Cu-Zn-Al alloys, martensite stabilisation usually occurs at room temperature. The new alloy shows better thermal stability even at elevated temperature (∝150 C, >A f =80 C). A limited small amount of martensite stabilisation was observed upon ageing of the direct quenched samples as well as the step quenched samples. This implies that the thermal stability of the new alloy is less dependent on the quenching procedure. Furthermore, such minor martensite stabilisation can be removed by subsequent suitable parent phase ageing. The new alloy is ideal for engineering applications because of its better thermal stability and better mechanical properties. (orig.)

  18. Structure and Mechanical Properties of Al-Cu-Fe-X Alloys with Excellent Thermal Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Školáková, Andrea; Novák, Pavel; Mejzlíková, Lucie; Průša, Filip; Salvetr, Pavel; Vojtěch, Dalibor

    2017-11-05

    In this work, the structure and mechanical properties of innovative Al-Cu-Fe based alloys were studied. We focused on preparation and characterization of rapidly solidified and hot extruded Al-Cu-Fe, Al-Cu-Fe-Ni and Al-Cu-Fe-Cr alloys. The content of transition metals affects mechanical properties and structure. For this reason, microstructure, phase composition, hardness and thermal stability have been investigated in this study. The results showed exceptional thermal stability of these alloys and very good values of mechanical properties. Alloying by chromium ensured the highest thermal stability, while nickel addition refined the structure of the consolidated alloy. High thermal stability of all tested alloys was described in context with the transformation of the quasicrystalline phases to other types of intermetallics.

  19. Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for hydrocarbon fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, C.J.; Cremer, M.A.; Heap, M.P.; Chen, J-Y.; Westbrook, C.K.; Maurice, L.Q.

    1999-01-01

    Using CARM (Computer Aided Reduction Method), a computer program that automates the mechanism reduction process, a variety of different reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for ethylene and n-heptane have been generated. The reduced mechanisms have been compared to detailed chemistry calculations in simple homogeneous reactors and experiments. Reduced mechanisms for combustion of ethylene having as few as 10 species were found to give reasonable agreement with detailed chemistry over a range of stoichiometries and showed significant improvement over currently used global mechanisms. The performance of reduced mechanisms derived from a large detailed mechanism for n-heptane was compared to results from a reduced mechanism derived from a smaller semi-empirical mechanism. The semi-empirical mechanism was advantageous as a starting point for reduction for ignition delay, but not for PSR calculations. Reduced mechanisms with as few as 12 species gave excellent results for n-heptane/air PSR calculations but 16-25 or more species are needed to simulate n-heptane ignition delay

  20. Observation of non-chemical equilibrium effect on Ar-CO2-H2 thermal plasma model by changing pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mamun, Sharif Abdullah; Tanaka, Yasunori; Uesugi, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    The authors developed a two-dimensional one-temperature chemical non-equilibrium (1T-NCE) model of Ar-CO 2 -H 2 inductively coupled thermal plasmas (ICTP) to investigate the effect of pressure variation. The basic concept of one-temperature model is the assumption and treatment of the same energy conservation equation for electrons and heavy particles. The energy conservation equations consider reaction heat effects and energy transfer among the species produced as well as enthalpy flow resulting from diffusion. Assuming twenty two (22) different particles in this model and by solving mass conservation equations for each particle, considering diffusion, convection and net production terms resulting from hundred and ninety eight (198) chemical reactions, chemical non-equilibrium effects were taken into account. Transport and thermodynamic properties of Ar-CO 2 -H 2 thermal plasmas were self-consistently calculated using the first-order approximation of the Chapman-Enskog method. Finally results obtained at atmospheric pressure (760 Torr) and at reduced pressure (500, 300 Torr) were compared with results from one-temperature chemical equilibrium (1T-CE) model. And of course, this comparison supported discussion of chemical non-equilibrium effects in the inductively coupled thermal plasmas (ICTP).

  1. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. R H DUNCAN LYNGDOH. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 128 Issue 5 May 2016 pp 681-693 Regular Articles. Uncatalyzed thermal gas phase aziridination of alkenes by organic azides. Part I: Mechanisms with discrete nitrene species · S PREMILA ...

  2. Thermal and Mechanical Properties of UO2 and PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, M.; Matsumoto, T.

    2015-01-01

    It is important to evaluate basic properties of UO 2 and PuO 2 as fundamental aspects of MA-bearing MOX fuel development. In this work, mechanical properties of UO 2 and PuO 2 were investigated by an ultrasound pulse-echo method. Longitudinal and transversal wave velocities were measured in UO 2 and PuO 2 pellets, and Young's modulus and shear modulus were evaluated, which were 219 MPa and 89 MPa for PuO 2 , and 249 MPa and 95 MPa for UO 2 , respectively. Poisson's ratio was 0.32 in both materials. The relationship between mechanical and thermal properties was described by using thermal expansion data which had been reported previously, and the heat capacity and thermal conductivity were analysed. (authors)

  3. A novel nano-hydroxyapatite – PMMA hybrid scaffolds adopted by conjugated thermal induced phase separation (TIPS) and wet-chemical approach: Analysis of its mechanical and biological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radha, G. [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Madras, Guindy campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Balakumar, S., E-mail: balasuga@yahoo.com [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Madras, Guindy campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Venkatesan, Balaji; Vellaichamy, Elangovan [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy campus, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we report the preparation of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) incorporated poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) scaffolds by conjugated thermal induced phase separation (TIPS) and wet-chemical approach, which essentially facilitates the enhancement of both mechanical as well as biological properties of the scaffolds. The dissolution of PMMA was accomplished by acetone (Ace scaffold), ethanol-water (E-W scaffold) and isopropanol-water (I-W scaffold) mixtures as solvents. The existence of nHAp in PMMA matrix was investigated systematically. The porosity of ~ 57.89% was achieved from Ace scaffold that was higher degree compared to both I-W and E-W scaffolds. On the other hand, the dense porous architecture of I-W scaffold exhibited superior hardness of ~ 65.6 HR ‘D’ than that of the Ace and E-W scaffolds. All the fabricated samples demonstrated enhanced in vitro bioactivity with respect to increasing immersion period as a result of flower-like in vitro apatite layer formation. The MTT assay was carried out for 1 day and 3 day culture using Saos-2 osteoblast-like cells, which showed better cell proliferation with increasing culture period owing to the interconnected pore architecture of scaffolds and the rational hemocompatibility as per the ASTM standard F756-00. - Highlights: • Conjugated TIPS – wet chemical derived strategy was adopted for PMMA-nHAp composite scaffolds preparation. • TIPS method was carried out by varying solvents such as acetone, isopropanol-water and ethanol-water mixtures. • The impact of solvents on porosity and mechanical properties has been explored. • The existence of nHAp in PMMA has improved in-vitro bioactivity through apatitic-flowers formation. • Hemocompatibility of the scaffolds are in agreement with ASTM standards.

  4. Mechanical-thermal synthesis of chromium carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintho, Osvaldo Mitsuyuki; Favilla, Eliane Aparecida Peixoto; Capocchi, Jose Deodoro Trani

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the synthesis of chromium carbides (Cr 3 C 2 and Cr 7 C 3 ), starting from metallic chromium (obtained from the reduction of Cr 2 O 3 with Al) and carbon (graphite). The synthesis was carried out via high energy milling, followed by heat-treating of pellets made of different milled mixtures at 800 o C, for 2 h, under an atmosphere of argon. A SPEX CertPrep 8000 Mixer/Mill was used for milling under argon atmosphere. A tool steel vat and two 12.7 mm diameter chromium steel balls were used. The raw materials used and the products were characterized by differential thermal analysis, thermo gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, electronic microscopy and X-ray fluorescence chemical analysis. The following variables were investigated: the quantity of carbon in the mixture, the milling time and the milling power. Mechanical activation of the reactant mixture depends upon the milling power ratio used for processing. The energy liberated by the reduction of the chromium oxide with aluminium exhibits a maximum for milling power ratio between 5:1 and 7.5:1. Self-propagating reaction occurred for all heat-treated samples whatever the carbon content of the sample and the milling power ratio used. Bearing carbon samples exhibited hollow shell structures after the reaction. The level of iron contamination of the milled samples was kept below 0.3% Fe. The self-propagated reaction caused high temperatures inside the samples as it may be seen by the occurrence of spherules, dendrites and whiskers. The carbon content determines the type of chromium carbide formed

  5. Development of a general model for determination of thermal conductivity of liquid chemical compounds at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharagheizi, Farhad; Ilani‐Kashkouli, Poorandokht; Sattari, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    In this communication, a general model for representation/presentation of the liquid thermal conductivity of chemical compounds (mostly organic) at 1 atm pressure for temperatures below normal boiling point and at saturation pressure for temperatures above the normal boiling point is developed...... using the Gene Expression Programming algorithm. Approximately 19,000 liquid thermal conductivity data at different temperatures related to 1636 chemical compounds collected from the DIPPR 801 database are used to obtain the model as well as to assess its predictive capability. The parameters...

  6. Microstructure/mechanical property relationships for various thermal treatments of Al-Cu-Mg-X PM aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, L. B.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal response and aging behavior of three 2XXX-series powder metallurgy aluminum alloys have been investigated, using Rockwell B hardness measurements, optical and electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive chemical analysis, in order to correlate microstructure with measured mechanical properties. Results of the thermal response study indicated that an increased solution heat treatment temperature was effective in resolutionizing large primary constituents in the alloy bearing more copper but had no apparent effect on the microconstituents of the other two. Aging studies conducted at room temperature and at 120, 150, and 180 C for times ranging up to 60 days indicated that classic aging response curves, as determined by hardness measurements, occurred at lower aging temperatures than were previously studied for these alloys, as well as at lower aging temperatures than are commonly used for ingot metallurgy alloys of similar compositions. Microstructural examination and fracture surface analysis of peak-aged tension specimens indicated that the highest tensile strengths are associated with extremely fine and homogeneous distributions of theta-prime or S-prime phases combined with low levels of both large constituent particles and dispersoids. Examination of the results suggest that refined solution heat treatments and lower aging temperatures may be necessary to achieve optimum mechanical properties for these 2XXX series alloys.

  7. Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly(butylene succinate Films Reinforced with Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangviroon Nanthaporn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent year, bioplastics have become more popular resulting from the growing concerns on environmental issues and the rising fossil fuel price. However, their applications were limited by its mechanical and thermal properties. The aim of this research is thus to improve mechanical and thermal properties of PBS bioplastic films by reinforcing with silica. Due to the poor interfacial interaction between the PBS matrix and silica, glycidyl methacrylate grafted poly(butylene succinate (PBS-g-GMA was used as a compatibilizer in order to improve the interaction between bioplastic films and filler. PBS-g-GMA was prepared in a twin-screw extruder and analyzed by the FTIR spectrometer. PBS and silica were then mixed in a twin-screw extruder and processed into films by a chill-roll cast extruder. The effects of silica loading on thermal and mechanical properties of the prepared bioplastic films were investigated. It was found that the mechanical properties of PBS/silica composite films were improved when 1%wt of silica was added. However, the mechanical properties decreased with increasing silica loading due to the agglomeration of silica particles. The results also show that the silica/PBS films with PBS-g-GMA possessed improved mechanical properties over the films without the compatibilizer.

  8. On the thermal phase structure of QCD at vanishing chemical potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Kabana, S

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis is investigated, that the thermal structure of QCD phases at and near zero chemical potentials is determined by long range coherence, inducing the gauge boson pair condensate. The latter reflects the dynamical nature of gauge boson Bogoliubov transformations at the origin of localization of all color fields inside hadrons at low temperature in contrast to loss of such localization above a unique critical temperature.

  9. Investigating the Thermal and Phase Stability of Nanocrystalline Ni-W Produced by Electrodeposition, Sputtering, and Mechanical Alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Christopher Jonathan

    The development of nanocrystalline materials has been increasingly pursued over the last few decades. They have been shown to exhibit superior properties compared to their coarse-grain counterparts, and thus present a tremendous opportunity to revolutionize the performance of nanoscale devices or bulk structural materials. However, nanocrystalline materials are highly prone to grain growth, and if the nanocrystalline grains coarsen, the beneficial properties are lost. There is a strong effort to determine the most effective thermal stability mechanisms to avoid grain growth, but the physical nature of nanocrystalline grain growth is still unclear due to a lack of detailed understanding of nanocrystalline microstructures. Furthermore, the influence of contamination has scarcely been explored with advanced transmission electron microscopy techniques, nor has there been a direct comparison of alloys fabricated with different bulk processes. Therefore, this research has applied aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy to characterize nanocrystalline Ni-W on the atomic scale and elucidate the physical grain growth behavior. Three primary objectives were pursued: (1) explore the thermal stability mechanisms of nanocrystalline Ni-W, (2) evaluate the phase stability of Ni-W and link any findings to grain growth behavior, and (3) compare the influences of bulk fabrication processing, including electrodeposition, DC magnetron sputtering, and mechanical alloying, on the thermal stability and phase stability of Ni-W. Several thermal stability mechanisms were identified throughout the course of this research. First and foremost, W-segregation was scarcely observed to grain boundaries, and it is unclear if W-segregation improves thermal stability contrary to most reports in the 2 literature. Long-range Ni4W chemical ordering was observed in alloys with more than 20 at.% W, and it is likely Ni4W domains reduce grain boundary mobility. In addition, lattice

  10. Structure and Mechanical Properties of Al-Cu-Fe-X Alloys with Excellent Thermal Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Školáková

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the structure and mechanical properties of innovative Al-Cu-Fe based alloys were studied. We focused on preparation and characterization of rapidly solidified and hot extruded Al-Cu-Fe, Al-Cu-Fe-Ni and Al-Cu-Fe-Cr alloys. The content of transition metals affects mechanical properties and structure. For this reason, microstructure, phase composition, hardness and thermal stability have been investigated in this study. The results showed exceptional thermal stability of these alloys and very good values of mechanical properties. Alloying by chromium ensured the highest thermal stability, while nickel addition refined the structure of the consolidated alloy. High thermal stability of all tested alloys was described in context with the transformation of the quasicrystalline phases to other types of intermetallics.

  11. Thermal and mechanical properties of polypropylene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esthappan, Saisy Kudilil; Kuttappan, Suma Kumbamala; Joseph, Rani

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Wet synthesis method was used for the synthesis of TiO 2 nano particles. ► Mechanical properties of polypropylene fibers were increased by the addition of TiO 2 nanoparticles. ► Thermal stability of polypropylene fiber was improved significantly by the addition of TiO 2 nano particles. ► TiO 2 nanoparticles dispersed well in polypropylene fibers. -- Abstract: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were prepared by wet synthesis method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The nanotitanium dioxide then used to prepare polypropylene/titanium dioxide composites by melt mixing method. It was then made into fibers by melt spinning and subsequent drawing. Mechanical properties of the fibers were studied using Favimat tensile testing machine with a load cell of 1200 cN capacity. Thermal behavior of the fibers was studied using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. Scanning electron microscope studies were used to investigate the titanium dioxide surface morphology and crosssection of the fiber. Mechanical properties of the polypropylene fiber was improved by the addition of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Incorporation of nanoparticles improves the thermal stability of polypropylene. Differential scanning calorimetric studies revealed an improvement in crystallinity was observed by the addition of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

  12. GoAmazon 2014/15 Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, JN [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) deployment to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil, was motivated by two main scientific objectives of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15 field campaign. 1) Study the interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions by determining important molecular species in ambient nanoparticles. To address this, TDCIMS data will be combined with coincident measurements such as gas-phase sulfuric acid to determine the contribution of sulfuric acid condensation to nucleation and growth. We can then compare that result to TDCIMS-derived nanoparticle composition to determine the fraction of growth that can be attributed to the uptake of organic compounds. The molecular composition of sampled particles will also be used to attribute specific chemical species and mechanisms to growth, such as the condensation of low-volatility species or the oligomerization of α-dicarbonyl compounds. 2) Determine the source of new ambient nanoparticles in the Amazon. The hypothesis prior to measurements was that potassium salts formed from the evaporation of primary particles emitted by fungal spores can provide a unique and important pathway for new particle production in the Amazon basin. To explore this hypothesis, the TDCIMS recorded the mass spectra of sampled ambient particles using a protonated water cluster Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS). Laboratory tests performed using potassium salts show that the TDCIMS can detect potassium with high sensitivity with this technique.

  13. Quantum mechanical facets of chemical bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daudel, R.

    1976-01-01

    To define the concept of bond is both a central problem of quantum chemistry and a difficult one. The concept of bond appeared little by little in the mind of chemists from empirical observations. From the wave-mechanical viewpoint it is not an observable. Therefore there is no precise operator associated with that concept. As a consequence there is not a unique approach to the idea of chemical bond. This is why it is preferred to present various quantum mechanical facets, e.g. the energetic facet, the density facet, the partitioning facet and the functional facet, of that important concept. (Auth.)

  14. Mechanical and Microstructure Study of Nickel-Based ODS Alloys Processed by Mechano-Chemical Bonding and Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Belachew N.

    Due to the need to increase the efficiency of modern power plants, land-based gas turbines are designed to operate at high temperature creating harsh environments for structural materials. The elevated turbine inlet temperature directly affects the materials at the hottest sections, which includes combustion chamber, blades, and vanes. Therefore, the hottest sections should satisfy a number of material requirements such as high creep strength, ductility at low temperature, high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance. Such requirements are nowadays satisfied by implementing superalloys coated by high temperature thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems to protect from high operating temperature required to obtain an increased efficiency. Oxide dispersive strengthened (ODS) alloys are being considered due to their high temperature creep strength, good oxidation and corrosion resistance for high temperature applications in advanced power plants. These alloys operating at high temperature are subjected to different loading systems such as thermal, mechanical, and thermo-mechanical combined loads at operation. Thus, it is critical to study the high temperature mechanical and microstructure properties of such alloys for their structural integrity. The primary objective of this research work is to investigate the mechanical and microstructure properties of nickel-based ODS alloys produced by combined mechano-chemical bonding (MCB) and ball milling subjected to high temperature oxidation, which are expected to be applied for high temperature turbine coating with micro-channel cooling system. Stiffness response and microstructure evaluation of such alloy systems was studied along with their oxidation mechanism and structural integrity through thermal cyclic exposure. Another objective is to analyze the heat transfer of ODS alloy coatings with micro-channel cooling system using finite element analysis (FEA) to determine their feasibility as a stand-alone structural

  15. Fatigue behaviour of the austenitic steel 1.4550 under mechanical and thermal cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegele, D.; Fingerhuth, J.; Varfolomeev, I.; Moroz, S. [Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials (IWM), Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Fatigue behaviour of the austenitic steel 1.4550 (X6CrNiNb18-10) under low-cycle fatigue and high-cycle thermal fatigue was investigated with in two research projects supported by the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy and the Ministry of Education and Research. The objectives of the projects were the gain of deep understanding of the damage mechanisms under mechanical and thermal cyclic loading and the development of material models and simulation procedures for an improved lifetime assessment. In comparison to the advanced mechanism based material models engineering computational procedures were proven with respect to their applicability and conservatisms. For thermal cyclic loading, test equipment and technique were developed which allow for cyclic thermal loading with temperature ranges between 1 00 C and 300 C and frequencies between 0.1 and 1 Hz. As a result, tests with a temperature range of 150 C and lower showed no crack formation up to 300,000 cycles. For temperature ranges of 200 C and higher multiple crack patterns were observed with the deepest crack of about 1.3 mm after 1,000,000 cycles, whereas the difference in crack depth between 300,000 and 1,000,000 cycles was negligibly small. To model the fatigue lifetime, the D{sub TMF} damage parameter was applied to the low-cycle fatigue and the thermal, high frequent fatigue tests. For thermal fatigue, the analyses predicted in agreement with the tests crack initiation followed by crack propagation, subsequent retardation and arrest. This behaviour can be explained qualitatively and quantitatively using the methods of linear-elastic fracture mechanics, whereas the consideration of the interaction of multiple cracks is essential to describe the experimentally observed crack retardation. The results for thermal fatigue are in the scatterband of the mechanical p and thermo-mechanical fatigue results and the cycles to failure are 10 times higher than those estimated according to the KTA fatigue

  16. Assessment of structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of portlandite through molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajilar, Shahin, E-mail: shajilar@iastate.edu [Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1066 (United States); Shafei, Behrouz, E-mail: shafei@iastate.edu [Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1066 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of portlandite, the primary solid phase of ordinary hydrated cement paste, are investigated using the molecular dynamics method. To understand the effects of temperature on the structural properties of portlandite, the coefficients of thermal expansion of portlandite are determined in the current study and validated with what reported from the experimental tests. The atomic structure of portlandite equilibrated at various temperatures is then subjected to uniaxial tensile strains in the three orthogonal directions and the stress-strain curves are developed. Based on the obtained results, the effect of the direction of straining on the mechanical properties of portlandite is investigated in detail. Structural damage analysis is performed to reveal the failure mechanisms in different directions. The energies of the fractured surfaces are calculated in different directions and compared to those of the ideal surfaces available in the literature. The key mechanical properties, including tensile strength, Young's modulus, and fracture strain, are extracted from the stress-strain curves. The sensitivity of the obtained mechanical properties to temperature and strain rate is then explored in a systematic way. This leads to valuable information on how the structural and mechanical properties of portlandite are affected under various exposure conditions and loading rates. - Graphical abstract: Fracture mechanism of portlandite under uniaxial strain in the z-direction. - Highlights: • The structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of portlandite are investigated. • The coefficients of thermal expansion are determined. • The stress-strain relationships are studied in three orthogonal directions. • The effects of temperature and strain rate on mechanical properties are examined. • The plastic energy required for fracture in the crystalline structure is reported.

  17. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Bamboo Pulp Fiber Reinforced Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhan Ren

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanical and thermal properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE composites reinforced by bamboo pulp fibers (BPF. Using a twin-screw extruder, polymer composites were fabricated using BPF and bamboo flour (BF as the reinforcement and HDPE as the matrix. Tensile and flexural tests of the HDPE composites were performed to determine the mechanical properties under different conditions. The thermal properties of HDPE composites were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. The results showed that BPF improved the mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer composites more than did BF. The tensile and flexural strength of composites with 30 wt% BPF were increased by 61.46% and 22.94%, respectively, while the tensile and flexural modulus were increased by 84.52% and 27.30%, respectively. Compared to composites with 50 wt% BF, the T5% of composites with 50 wt% BPF increased by 20.18 °C. As the BPF content increased, the storage modulus (E’ and loss modulus (E” initially increased, followed by a decrease. Compared to the BF/HDPE composites, BPF/HDPE composites reinforced at 30 wt% had a higher storage modulus (E’ and loss modulus (E” and lower damping parameter (tanδ.

  18. Effect of Ionizing Beta Radiation on the Mechanical Properties of Poly(ethylene under Thermal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarik Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It was found in this study, that ionizing beta radiation has a positive effect on the mechanical properties of poly(ethylene. In recent years, there have been increasing requirements for quality and cost effectiveness of manufactured products in all areas of industrial production. These requirements are best met with the polymeric materials, which have many advantages in comparison to traditional materials. The main advantages of polymer materials are especially in their ease of processability, availability, and price of the raw materials. Radiation crosslinking is one of the ways to give the conventional plastics mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties of expensive and highly resistant construction polymers. Several types of ionizing radiation are used for crosslinking of polymers. Each of them has special characteristics. Electron beta and photon gamma radiation are used the most frequently. The great advantage is that the crosslinking occurs after the manufacturing process at normal temperature and pressure. The main purpose of this paper has been to determine the effect of ionizing beta radiation on the tensile modulus, strength and elongation of low and high density polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE. These properties were examined in dependence on the dosage of the ionizing beta radiation (non-irradiated samples and those irradiated by dosage 99 kGy were compared and on the test temperature. Radiation cross-linking of LDPE and HDPE results in increased tensile strength and modulus, and decreased of elongation. The measured results indicate that ionizing beta radiation treatment is effective tool for improvement of mechanical properties of LDPE and HDPE under thermal stress.

  19. Ethylene–propylene–diene terpolymer/hexa fluoropropylene–vinylidinefluoride dipolymer rubber blends: Thermal and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran Nair, Ajalesh; Kurian, Philip; Joseph, Rani

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The EPDM/MA-g-EPDM/FKM blends show good mechanical properties. ► In compatibilized blends, better thermal and swelling resistance was obtained. ► Random nucleation mechanism is the rate controlling process in degradation. ► Good phase morphology is obtained in the case of compatibilized blends. -- Abstract: Hexa fluoropropylene–vinylidinefluoride dipolymer, fluoroelastomer (FKM) and ethylene propylene diene rubber (EPDM) blends with and without compatibilizer (MA-g-EPDM) were prepared by two-roll mill mixing. The effects of blend ratio and amount of compatibilizer on mechanical properties and thermal stability were investigated. The cure characteristics and mechanical properties of EPDM, FKM and their blends of varying compositions were studied for unaged and aged samples. The 50:50 (w/w) FKM/EPDM showed highest mechanical properties. The tensile properties of all the composites, especially those with higher proportion of FKM increased with aging. Swelling of the blends was reduced after aging. The thermal stability of FKM/EPDM rubber blends was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The incorporation of FKM rubber improved the thermal stability of EPDM rubber. The apparent degradation activation energy (E) of EPDM/FKM reactive blends was calculated by the Coats–Redfern method. The results showed that the EPDM/FKM reactive blends had higher thermal stability but lower E than FKM. The thermal degradation process of both EPDM/FKM reactive blends and FKM were determined by nucleation and growth mechanism. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results suggest that glass transition temperature (T g ) peak for EPDM region is shifted to FKM phase, due to improved compatibility on addition of compatibilizer. The morphology of blends was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  20. Mechanical and thermal properties of phthalonitrile resin reinforced with silicon carbide particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derradji, Mehdi; Ramdani, Noureddine; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Jun; Feng, Tian-tian; Wang, Hui; Liu, Wen-bin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • SiC microparticles improve the mechanical properties of phthalonitrile resin. • Excellent thermal stability achieved by adding SiC particles in phthalonitrile resin. • Adding 20 wt.% of SiC microparticles increases the T g by 38 °C. • Silane coupling agent can enhance the adhesion and dispersion of particles/matrix. - Abstract: A new type of composite based on phthalonitrile resin reinforced with silicon carbide (SiC) microparticles was prepared. For various weight ratios ranging between 0% and 20%, the effect of the micro-SiC particles on the mechanical and thermal properties has been studied. Results from thermal analysis revealed that the starting decomposition temperature and the residual weight were significantly improved upon adding the reinforcing phase. At the maximum micro-SiC loading, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed an important enhancement in both the storage modulus and glass transition temperature (T g ), reaching 3.1 GPa and 338 °C, respectively. The flexural strength and modulus as well as the microhardness were significantly enhanced by adding the microfillers. Tensile test revealed enhancements in the composites toughness upon adding the microparticles. Polarization optical microscope (POM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis confirmed that mechanical and thermal properties improvements are essentially attributed to the good dispersion and adhesion between the particles and the resin

  1. Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Analysis of Failure Propagation in Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-07-28

    This is a presentation given at the 12th World Congress for Computational Mechanics on coupled mechanical-electrochemical-thermal analysis of failure propagation in lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.

  2. Mechanical and thermal properties of bulk ZrB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamori, Fumihiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Ohishi, Yuji, E-mail: ohishi@ms.see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Fukumoto, Ken-ichi [Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui (Japan); Yamanaka, Shinsuke [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    ZrB{sub 2} appears to have formed in the fuel debris at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster site, through the reaction between Zircaloy cladding materials and the control rod material B{sub 4}C. Since ZrB{sub 2} has a high melting point of 3518 K, the ceramic has been widely studied as a heat-resistant material. Although various studies on the thermochemical and thermophysical properties have been performed for ZrB{sub 2}, significant differences exist in the data, possibly due to impurities or the porosity within the studied samples. In the present study, we have prepared a ZrB{sub 2} bulk sample with 93.1% theoretical density by sintering ZrB{sub 2} powder. On this sample, we have comprehensively examined the thermal and mechanical properties of ZrB{sub 2} by the measurement of specific heat, ultrasonic sound velocities, thermal diffusivity, and thermal expansion. Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were also measured and found to be 13–23 GPa and 1.8–2.8 MPa m{sup 0.5}, respectively. The relationships between these properties were carefully examined in the present study. - Highlights: • A ZrB{sub 2} bulk sample with 93.1% theoretical density was prepared by sintering ZrB{sub 2} powder. • We have evaluated mechanical and thermal properties such as Vickers hardness, fracture toughness and thermal conductivity. • The relationships between these properties were carefully examined.

  3. Basic thermal-mechanical properties and thermal shock, fatigue resistance of swaged + rolled potassium doped tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxin; Yan, Qingzhi; Lang, Shaoting; Xia, Min; Ge, Changchun

    2014-09-01

    The potassium doped tungsten (W-K) grade was achieved via swaging + rolling process. The swaged + rolled W-K alloy exhibited acceptable thermal conductivity of 159.1 W/m K and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of about 873 K while inferior mechanical properties attributed to the coarse pores and small deformation degree. Then the thermal shock, fatigue resistance of the W-K grade were characterized by an electron beam facility. Thermal shock tests were conducted at absorbed power densities varied from 0.22 to 1.1 GW/m2 in a step of 0.22 GW/m2. The cracking threshold was in the range of 0.44-0.66 GW/m2. Furthermore, recrystallization occurred in the subsurface of the specimens tested at 0.66-1.1 GW/m2 basing on the analysis of microhardness and microstructure. Thermal fatigue tests were performed at 0.44 GW/m2 up to 1000 cycles and no cracks emerged throughout the tests. Moreover, recrystallization occurred after 1000 cycles.

  4. Negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)

  5. Mechanical and thermal design of the Cascade reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    We present an improved Cascade fusion reaction chamber that is optimized with respect to chamber radius, wall thickness, and pebble blanket outlet temperature. We show results of a parameter study where we varied chamber radius from 3 to 6 m, wall thickness from 15 to 80 mm, and blanket outlet temperature from 900 to 1400 K. Based on these studies, we achieved an optimized chamber with 50% the volume of the original design and 60% of its blanket. Chamber radius is only 4.4 m and its half length is only 5.9 m, decreased from the original 5-m radius and 8-m half-length. In our optimization method, we calculate both thermal and mechanical stresses resulting from x-ray, fusion-pellet-debris, and neutron-generated momentum, pressure from ablated material, centrifugal action, vacuum inside the chamber, and gravity. We add the mechanical stresses to thermal stresses and keep the total less than the yield stress. Further, we require that fluctuations in these stresses be less than that which would produce creep-fatigue failure within the chamber 30-year lifetime

  6. Thermal stability of nafion membranes under mechanical stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintilii, M; Struis, R [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The feasibility of adequately modified fluoro-ionomer membranes (NAFION{sup R}) is demonstrated for the selective separation of methanol synthesis products from the raw reactor gas at temperatures around 200{sup o}C. For an economically relevant application of this concept on a technical scale the Nafion membranes should be thin ({approx_equal}10 {mu}m) and thermally stable over a long period of time (1-2 years). In cooperation with industry (Methanol Casale SA, Lugano (CH)), we test the thermal stability of Nafion hollow fibers and supported Nafion thin sheet membranes at temperatures between 160 and 200{sup o}C under mechanical stress by applying a gas pressure difference over the membrane surface ({Delta}P{<=} 40 bar). Tests with the hollow fibers revealed that Nafion has visco-elastic properties. Tests with 50 {mu}m thin Nafion sheets supported by a porous metal carrier at 200{sup o}C and {Delta}P=39 bar showed no mechanical defects over a period of 92 days. (author) 5 figs., 4 refs.

  7. Laser thermal effect on silicon nitride ceramic based on thermo-chemical reaction with temperature-dependent thermo-physical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, A.F.; Wang, W.J.; Mei, X.S.; Wang, K.D.; Zhao, W.Q.; Li, T.Q.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-dimensional thermo-chemical reaction model is creatively built. • Thermal conductivity and heat capacity of β-Si_3N_4 are computed accurately. • The appropriate thermo-chemical reaction rate is fitted and reaction element length is set to assure the constringency. • The deepest ablated position was not the center of the ablated area due to plasma absorption. • The simulation results demonstrate the thermo-chemical process cant be simplified to be physical phase transition. - Abstract: In this study, a two-dimensional thermo-chemical reaction model with temperature-dependent thermo-physical parameters on Si_3N_4 with 10 ns laser was developed to investigate the ablated size, volume and surface morphology after single pulse. For model parameters, thermal conductivity and heat capacity of β-Si_3N_4 were obtained from first-principles calculations. Thermal-chemical reaction rate was fitted by collision theory, and then, reaction element length was deduced using the relationship between reaction rate and temperature distribution. Furthermore, plasma absorption related to energy loss was approximated as a function of electron concentration in Si_3N_4. It turned out that theoretical ablated volume and radius increased and then remained constant with increasing laser energy, and the maximum ablated depth was not in the center of the ablated zone. Moreover, the surface maximum temperature of Si_3N_4 was verified to be above 3000 K within pulse duration, and it was much higher than its thermal decomposition temperature of 1800 K, which indicated that Si_3N_4 was not ablated directly above the thermal decomposition temperature. Meanwhile, the single pulse ablation of Si_3N_4 was performed at different powers using a TEM_0_0 10 ns pulse Nd:YAG laser to validate the model. The model showed a satisfactory consistence between the experimental data and numerical predictions, presenting a new modeling technology that may significantly increase the

  8. Thermal conductivity of ultra-thin chemical vapor deposited hexagonal boron nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M. T.; Haque, M. A.; Bresnehan, M. S.; Robinson, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal conductivity of freestanding 10 nm and 20 nm thick chemical vapor deposited hexagonal boron nitride films was measured using both steady state and transient techniques. The measured value for both thicknesses, about 100 ± 10 W m −1 K −1 , is lower than the bulk basal plane value (390 W m −1 K −1 ) due to the imperfections in the specimen microstructure. Impressively, this value is still 100 times higher than conventional dielectrics. Considering scalability and ease of integration, hexagonal boron nitride grown over large area is an excellent candidate for thermal management in two dimensional materials-based nanoelectronics

  9. Thermal modeling: at the crossroads of several subjects of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The modeling of thermal phenomena is of prime importance for the dimensioning of industrial facilities. However, the understanding of thermal processes requires to refer to other subjects of physics like electromagnetism, matter transformation, fluid mechanics, chemistry etc.. The aim of this workshop organized by the industrial electro-thermal engineering section of the French society of thermal engineers is to take stock of current or forthcoming advances in the coupling of thermal engineering codes with electromagnetic, fluid mechanics, chemical and mechanical engineering codes. The modeling of phenomena remains the essential link between the laboratory research of new processes and their industrial developments. From the 9 talks given during this workshop, 2 of them deal with thermal processes in nuclear reactors and fall into the INIS scope and the others concern the modeling of industrial heating or electrical processes and were selected for ETDE. (J.S.)

  10. Thermal-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical design of plasma facing components for SST-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Paritosh; Santra, P.; Chenna Reddy, D.; Parashar, S.K.S.

    2014-01-01

    The Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) are one of the major sub-systems of ssT-1 tokamak. PFC of ssT-1 consisting of divertors, passive stabilizers, baffles and limiters are designed to be compatible for steady state operation. The main consideration in the design of the PFC cooling is the steady state heat removal of up to 1 MW/m 2 . The PFC has been designed to withstand the peak heat fluxes and also without significant erosion such that frequent replacement of the armor is not necessary. Design considerations included 2-D steady state and transient tile temperature distribution and resulting thermal loads in PFC during baking, and cooling, coolant parameters necessary to maintain optimum thermal-hydraulic design, and tile fitting mechanism. Finite Element (FE) models using ANSYS have been developed to carry out the heat transfer and stress analyses of the PFC to understand its thermal and mechanical behaviors. The results of the calculation led to a good understanding of the coolant flow behavior and the temperature distribution in the tube wall and the different parts of the PFC. Thermal analysis of the PFC is carried out with the purpose of evaluating the thermal mechanical behavior of PFCs. The detailed thermal-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical designs of PFCs of ssT-1 are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  11. Thermal conductivities and conduction mechanisms of Sb-Te Alloys at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Rui; Endo, Rie; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Susa, Masahiro; Kuwahara, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Sb-Te alloys have drawn much attention due to its application in phase change memory as well as the unique properties as chalcogenide. In this work, the thermal conductivities of Sb-x mol%Te alloys (x = 14, 25, 44, 60, 70, and 90) have been measured by the hot strip method from room temperature up to temperature just below the respective melting points. For the intermetallic compound Sb 2 Te 3 (x = 60), the thermal conductivity decreases up to approximately 600 K and then increases. For other Sb-x mol%Te alloys where x > 60, the thermal conductivities of the alloys decrease with increasing temperature. In contrast, for x < 60, the thermal conductivities of the alloys keep roughly constant up to approximately 600 K and then increase with increasing temperature. It is proposed that free electron dominates the heat transport below 600 K, and ambipolar diffusion also contributes to the increase in the thermal conductivity at higher temperatures. The prediction equation from temperature and chemical composition has been proposed for thermal conductivities of Sb-Te alloys.

  12. Thermal and mechanical effect during rapid heating of astroloy for improving structural integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popoolaa, A.P.I.; Oluwasegun, K.M.; Olorunniwo, O.E.; Atanda, P.O.; Aigbodion, V.S.

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of γ′ phase to thermal and mechanical effects during rapid heating of Astroloy(Turbine Disc alloy) a Powder metallurgy (PM) nickel base superalloy has been investigated. The thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) microstructure of an inertia friction welded Astroloy were simulated using a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulation system. Detailed microstructural examination of the simulated TMAZ and HAZ and those present in actual inertial friction welded specimens showed that γ′ particles persisted during rapid heating up to a temperature where the formation of liquid is thermodynamically favoured, and subsequently re-solidified eutectically. The result obtained showed that forging during the thermo-mechanical simulation significantly enhanced resistance to weld liquation cracking of the alloy. This is attributable to strain-induced rapid isothermal dissolution of the constitutional liquation products within 150 μm from the centre of the forged sample. This was not observed in purely thermally simulated samples. The microstructure within the TMAZ of the as-welded alloy is similar to the microstructure in the forged Gleeble specimens. - Highlights: • The behaviour of γ′ phase to thermal and mechanical effects during rapid heating of Astrology • The thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ). • significantly enhanced resistance to weld liquation cracking of the alloy. • This was not observed in purely thermally simulated samples. • The microstructure within the TMAZ of the as-welded alloy is similar to the microstructure in the forged Gleeble specimens.

  13. Thermal and mechanical effect during rapid heating of astroloy for improving structural integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popoolaa, A.P.I., E-mail: popoolaapi@tut.ac.za [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Oluwasegun, K.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University (Nigeria); Olorunniwo, O.E., E-mail: segun_nniwo@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University (Nigeria); Atanda, P.O. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University (Nigeria); Aigbodion, V.S. [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    2016-05-05

    The behaviour of γ′ phase to thermal and mechanical effects during rapid heating of Astroloy(Turbine Disc alloy) a Powder metallurgy (PM) nickel base superalloy has been investigated. The thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) microstructure of an inertia friction welded Astroloy were simulated using a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulation system. Detailed microstructural examination of the simulated TMAZ and HAZ and those present in actual inertial friction welded specimens showed that γ′ particles persisted during rapid heating up to a temperature where the formation of liquid is thermodynamically favoured, and subsequently re-solidified eutectically. The result obtained showed that forging during the thermo-mechanical simulation significantly enhanced resistance to weld liquation cracking of the alloy. This is attributable to strain-induced rapid isothermal dissolution of the constitutional liquation products within 150 μm from the centre of the forged sample. This was not observed in purely thermally simulated samples. The microstructure within the TMAZ of the as-welded alloy is similar to the microstructure in the forged Gleeble specimens. - Highlights: • The behaviour of γ′ phase to thermal and mechanical effects during rapid heating of Astrology • The thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ). • significantly enhanced resistance to weld liquation cracking of the alloy. • This was not observed in purely thermally simulated samples. • The microstructure within the TMAZ of the as-welded alloy is similar to the microstructure in the forged Gleeble specimens.

  14. Transient thermal-mechanical behavior of cracked glass-cloth-reinforced epoxy laminates at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, Y.; Ueda, S.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the transient thermal-mechanical response of cracked G-10CR glass-cloth-reinforced epoxy laminates with temperature-dependent properties. The glass-cloth-reinforced epoxy laminates are suddenly cooled on the surfaces. A generalized plane strain finite element model is used to study the influence of warp angle and crack formation on the thermal shock behavior of two-layer woven laminates at low temperatures. Numerical calculations are carried out, and the transient temperature distribution and the thermal-mechanical stresses are shown graphically

  15. Significance of fundamental processes of radiation chemistry in hot atom chemical processes: electron thermalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, M.

    1984-01-01

    The author briefly reviews the current understanding of the course of electron thermalization. An outline is given of the physical picture without going into mathematical details. The analogy of electron thermalization with hot atom processes is taken as guiding principle in this paper. Content: secondary electrons (generation, track structure, yields); thermalization (mechanism, time, spatial distribution); behaviour of hot electrons. (Auth.)

  16. Effects of thermal annealing on the structural, mechanical, and tribological properties of hard fluorinated carbon films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia da Costa, M. E. H.; Baumvol, I. J. R.; Radke, C.; Jacobsohn, L. G.; Zamora, R. R. M.; Freire, F. L.

    2004-11-01

    Hard amorphous fluorinated carbon films (a-C:F) deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition were annealed in vacuum for 30 min in the temperature range of 200-600 °C. The structural and compositional modifications were followed by several analytical techniques: Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. Nanoidentation measurements and lateral force microscopy experiments were carried out in order to provide the film hardness and the friction coefficient, respectively. The internal stress and contact angle were also measured. RBS, ERDA, and XPS results indicate that both fluorine and hydrogen losses occur for annealing temperatures higher than 300 °C. Raman spectroscopy shows a progressive graphitization upon annealing, while the surface became slightly more hydrophobic as revealed by the increase of the contact angle. Following the surface wettability reduction, a decrease of the friction coefficient was observed. These results highlight the influence of the capillary condensation on the nanoscale friction. The film hardness and the internal stress are constant up to 300 °C and decrease for higher annealing temperatures, showing a direct correlation with the atomic density of the films. Since the thickness variation is negligible, the mass loss upon thermal treatment results in amorphous structures with a lower degree of cross-linking, explaining the deterioration of the mechanical properties of the a-C:F films.

  17. Endocrine-disrupting Chemicals: Review of Toxicological Mechanisms Using Molecular Pathway Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Oneyeol; Kim, Hye Lim; Weon, Jong-Il; Seo, Young Rok

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are known to cause harmful effects to human through various exposure routes. These chemicals mainly appear to interfere with the endocrine or hormone systems. As importantly, numerous studies have demonstrated that the accumulation of endocrine disruptors can induce fatal disorders including obesity and cancer. Using diverse biological tools, the potential molecular mechanisms related with these diseases by exposure of endocrine disruptors. Recently, pathway analysis, a bioinformatics tool, is being widely used to predict the potential mechanism or biological network of certain chemicals. In this review, we initially summarize the major molecular mechanisms involved in the induction of the above mentioned diseases by endocrine disruptors. Additionally, we provide the potential markers and signaling mechanisms discovered via pathway analysis under exposure to representative endocrine disruptors, bisphenol, diethylhexylphthalate, and nonylphenol. The review emphasizes the importance of pathway analysis using bioinformatics to finding the specific mechanisms of toxic chemicals, including endocrine disruptors. PMID:25853100

  18. Nanobioceramic Composites: A Study of Mechanical, Morphological, and Thermal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivabalan Sasthiryar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the incorporation of biomass carbon nanofillers (CNF into advanced ceramic. Biomass from bamboo, bagasse (remains of sugarcane after pressing, and oil palm ash was used as the predecessor for producing carbon black nanofillers. Furnace pyrolysis was carried out at 1000 °C and was followed by ball-mill processing to obtain carbon nanofillers in the range of 50 nm to 100 nm. CNFs were added to alumina in varying weight fractions and the resulting mixture was subjected to vacuum sintering at 1400 °C to produce nanobioceramic composites. The ceramic composites were characterized for mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties. A high-resolution Charge-coupled device (CCD camera was used to study the fracture impact and the failure mechanism. An increase in the loading percentage of CNFs in the alumna decreased the specific gravity, vickers hardness (HV, and fracture toughness values of the composite materials. Furthermore, the thermal conductivity and the thermal stability of the ceramic composite increased as compared to the pristine alumina.

  19. Characterization and modeling of the thermal mechanics of lithium-ion battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Ki-Yong; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal swelling shape is different than Li-ion intercalation swelling shape. • Nonuniform temperature and gap creation leads to a convex shape at free conditions. • Important parameters of thermal mechanics are estimated through experiments. • A coupled thermal-structural analysis accurately predicts thermal swelling shape. • Nonuniform temperature still plays a critical role at pack conditions. - Abstract: The thermal mechanics of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is explored with a focus on thermal swelling. Experiments show for the first time that the swelling shape of prismatic battery cells due to temperature variations is significantly different from that due to Li-ion intercalation in unconstrained conditions. In contrast to uniform and orthotropic Li-ion intercalation swelling in a direction perpendicular to electrodes, the nonuniform temperature distribution in the jellyroll and the gaps/voids between electrodes result in distinguishable different swelling shapes. A unique coupled thermal-structural analysis with a simple, but efficient 3-D finite numerical model is proposed to investigate the impact of temperature variations on the thermal behaviors of battery cells. Anisotropic heat conduction and temperature dependency of the coefficient of thermal expansion are taken into account and found to have an impact on temperature distribution and thermal expansion. Experimental validation of the proposed model clearly demonstrates that the coupled thermal-structural analysis with the proposed model can predict accurately the thermal swelling at unconstrained conditions. The solution at pack (constrained) conditions shows that the nonuniform temperature distribution of the jellyroll still plays a critical role for the thermal swelling shape, although the gaps/voids do not occur because of the constraints from spacers in the pack, suggesting that the estimation of core temperature is important. Such an accurate model, able to estimate cell

  20. Influence of ammonium nitrate on kinetics and mechanism of thermal decomposition of ammonium polyuranates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karelin, A.I.; Lobas, O.P.; Zhiganov, A.N.; Vasil'ev, K.F.; Zhiganova, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of ammonium nitrate on the mechanism and kinetics of dehydration and thermal decomposition of ammonium polyuranates was studied. An appreciable influence of the nitrate ion content in the samples of ammonium polyuranates on the development of thermal stability has been noted. The kinetic parameters of the thermal decomposition of ammonium polyuranates have been evaluated. A mechanism of the dehydration and thermal decomposition of ammonium polyuranates in the presence of ammonium nitrate has been proposed. It was shown that increase in the content of ammonium nitrate in the precipitate of ammonium polyuranates leads to a decrease in the specific surface of uranoso-uranic oxide

  1. HISTORY OF FORMATION AND PROSPECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF BELARUSIAN SCIENTIFIC CHEMICAL ANT THERMAL TREATMENT SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Ivanitsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available History of the «Material Science in Mechanical Engineering»” accounts for more than 40 years and by right it can be called a history of the Belarusian School of Metal Science Specialists. One of the founders of the Scientific School of Belarusian Metal Science Specialists has been Professor Leonid Grigorievich Voroshnine, double N.A. Minkevich prize-winner, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Head of the Department. Under his leadership and as a result of his personal participation more than 100 new diffusion coatings of multi- and special purposes such as heat-resistant, wear-resistant, anti-corrosive, cavitation- resistant have been developed. The papers written by the Department scientists are well known and they are generally recognized as classical books on chemical and thermal treatment. Nowadays the Scientific School created by Professor Voroshnine L.G is successfully working.

  2. The Effect of Mechanical Load on the Thermal Conductivity of Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Toman

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mechanical load on the thermal conductivity of building materials in the design of envelope parts of building structures is studied. A typical building material is chosen in the practical investigation of this effect, namely the cement mortar. It is concluded that in the range of hygroscopic moisture content, lower levels of mechanical load, typically up to 90 % of compressive strength (CS, are not dangerous from the point of view of worsening the designed thermal properties, but in the overhygroscopic region, the load as low as 57 % of CS may be dangerous. The higher levels of loading are found to be always significant because they lead to marked increase of thermal conductivity which is always a negative information for a building designer.

  3. Evaluation of Thermal and Thermo-mechanical Behavior of Full-scale Energy Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kyle D.

    This study focuses on the thermo-mechanical and thermal behavior of full-scale energy foundations installed as part of two buildings recently constructed in Colorado. The soil stratigraphy at each of the sites differed, but both foundations were expected to function as primarily end-bearing elements with a tip socketed into rock. The heat exchanger configurations were also different amongst the foundations at both sites, permitting evaluation of the role of heat exchange. A common thread for both energy foundation case histories was the monitoring of the temperature and axial strain within the foundations during heat exchange operations. The first case study involves an evaluation of the long-term thermo-mechanical response of two full-scale energy foundations installed at the new Denver Housing Authority (DHA) Senior Living Facility at 1099 Osage St. in Denver, Colorado. Due to the construction schedule for this project, the thermal properties of the foundations and surrounding subsurface could not be assessed using thermal response tests. However, instrumentation was incorporated into the foundations to assess their long-term heat exchange response as well as the thermo-mechanical strains, stresses, and displacements that occurred during construction and operation of the ground-source heat pump system. The temperature changes within the foundations during heating and cooling operations over a period of approximately 600 days ranged from 9 to 32 °C, respectively. The thermal axial stresses in the foundations were calculated from the measured strains, and ranged from 3.1 MPa during heating to --1.0 MPa during cooling. These values are within reasonable limits for reinforced concrete structures. The maximum thermal axial stress was observed near the toe of both foundations, which is consistent with trends expected for end-bearing toe boundary conditions. The greatest thermal axial strains were observed near the top of the foundations (upward expansion during

  4. The Effect of Thermal Cycling Treatments on the Thermal Stability and Mechanical Properties of a Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Bu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermal cycling treatments on the thermal stability and mechanical properties of a Ti48Zr20Nb12Cu5Be15 bulk metallic glass composite (BMGC has been investigated. Results show that moderate thermal cycles in a temperature range of −196 °C (cryogenic temperature, CT to 25 °C (room temperature, RT or annealing time at CT has not induced obvious changes of thermal stability and then it decreases slightly over critical thermal parameters. In addition, the dendritic second phases with a bcc structure are homogeneously embedded in the amorphous matrix; no visible changes are detected, which shows structural stability. Excellent mechanical properties as high as 1599 MPa yield strength and 34% plastic strain are obtained, and the yield strength and elastic modulus also increase gradually. The effect on the stability is analyzed quantitatively by crystallization kinetics and plastic-flow models, and indicates that the reduction of structural relaxation enthalpy, which is related to the degradation of spatial heterogeneity, reduces thermal stability but does not imperatively deteriorate the plasticity.

  5. Investigation of ammonium nitrate effect on kinetics and mechanism of thermal decomposition of ammonium polyuranates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karelin, A.I.; Lobas, O.P.; Zhiganov, A.N.; Vasil'ev, K.F.; Zhiganova, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made on ammonium nitrate effect on the mechanism and kinetics of dehydration and thermal decomposition of ammonium polyuranates. Sufficient effect of nitrate ion content in ammonium polyuranate samples on their thermal stability was noted. Kinetic parameters of thermal decomposition of ammonium polyuranates were evaluated. Mechanism of dehydration and thermal decomposition of ammonium polyuranates in the presence of ammonium nitrate was suggested. It was shown that increase of ammonium nitrate content in ammonium polyuranate precipitate resulted to reduction of the specific surface of prepared uranium mixed oxide

  6. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of the AH of FRW Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Huan, Wei

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the work made out by the apparent horizon (AH) of the Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW) universe and the heat flux through the AH from the first law of thermodynamics. We discuss the mechanical properties of the AH and analyze the universe model for which the mechanical properties can change. Finally, the thermal properties of the AH of FRW universe are discussed

  7. Effect of acoustic softening on the thermal-mechanical process of ultrasonic welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunkun; Zhang, Yansong; Wang, Hongze

    2017-03-01

    Application of ultrasonic energy can reduce the static stress necessary for plastic deformation of metallic materials to reduce forming load and energy, namely acoustic softening effect (ASE). Ultrasonic welding (USW) is a rapid joining process utilizing ultrasonic energy to form a solid state joint between two or more pieces of metals. Quantitative characterization of ASE and its influence on specimen deformation and heat generation is essential to clarify the thermal-mechanical process of ultrasonic welding. In the present work, experiments were set up to found out mechanical behavior of copper and aluminum under combined effect of compression force and ultrasonic energy. Constitutive model was proposed and numerical implemented in finite element model of ultrasonic welding. Thermal-mechanical analysis was put forward to explore the effect of ultrasonic energy on the welding process quantitatively. Conclusions can be drawn that ASE increases structural deformation significantly, which is beneficial for joint formation. Meanwhile, heat generation from both frictional work and plastic deformation is slightly influenced by ASE. Based on the proposed model, relationship between ultrasonic energy and thermal-mechanical behavior of structure during ultrasonic welding was constructed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling of two-phase flow with thermal and mechanical non-equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houdayer, G.; Pinet, B.; Le Coq, G.; Reocreux, M.; Rousseau, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    To improve two-phase flow modeling by taking into account thermal and mechanical non-equilibrium a joint effort on analytical experiment and physical modeling has been undertaken. A model describing thermal non-equilibrium effects is first presented. A correlation of mass transfer has been developed using steam water critical flow tests. This model has been used to predict in a satisfactory manner blowdown tests. It has been incorporated in CLYSTERE system code. To take into account mechanical non-equilibrium, a six equations model is written. To get information on the momentum transfers special nitrogen-water tests have been undertaken. The first results of these studies are presented

  9. Synthesis of polycarbonate urethane elastomers and effects of the chemical structures on their thermal, mechanical and biocompatibility properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rong; Wang, Yiyu; Zhang, Zongrui; Ma, Daiwei; Wang, Xinyu

    2016-06-01

    In this study, to obtain biomedical polyurethane elastomers with good mechanical properties and biocompatibility, a series of polycarbonate urethanes were synthesized via a two-step solution of polymerization method using the poly(1,6-hexanediol)carbonate diols (PCDL) as the soft segment, 4,4'-methylenebis(cyclohexyl isocyanate) (H12MDI), 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and 1,4-butanediol (BDO) as the hard segment with dibutyltin dilaurate as the catalyst. In this article, we illustrated the physical behaviors were obviously influenced by synthetic routes. And their chemical and physical structures were investigated by gel permeation chromatograph (GPC), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), fourier transform infrared spectrography (FT-IR) and mechanical properties tests. The surface wettability were studied by contact angle measurement (CA). As a kind of short-term implant biomaterial, the results of the hemolysis and platelet adhesive tests were recorded by spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), indicating the materials have a great potential for developments and applications in biomedical field.

  10. Synthesis of polycarbonate urethane elastomers and effects of the chemical structures on their thermal, mechanical and biocompatibility properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to obtain biomedical polyurethane elastomers with good mechanical properties and biocompatibility, a series of polycarbonate urethanes were synthesized via a two-step solution of polymerization method using the poly(1,6-hexanediolcarbonate diols (PCDL as the soft segment, 4,4′-methylenebis(cyclohexyl isocyanate (H12MDI, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI and 1,4-butanediol (BDO as the hard segment with dibutyltin dilaurate as the catalyst. In this article, we illustrated the physical behaviors were obviously influenced by synthetic routes. And their chemical and physical structures were investigated by gel permeation chromatograph (GPC, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, fourier transform infrared spectrography (FT-IR and mechanical properties tests. The surface wettability were studied by contact angle measurement (CA. As a kind of short-term implant biomaterial, the results of the hemolysis and platelet adhesive tests were recorded by spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, indicating the materials have a great potential for developments and applications in biomedical field.

  11. Probing the heat sources during thermal runaway process by thermal analysis of different battery chemistries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Siqi; Wang, Li; Feng, Xuning; He, Xiangming

    2018-02-01

    Safety issue is very important for the lithium ion battery used in electric vehicle or other applications. This paper probes the heat sources in the thermal runaway processes of lithium ion batteries composed of different chemistries using accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The adiabatic thermal runaway features for the 4 types of commercial lithium ion batteries are tested using ARC, whereas the reaction characteristics of the component materials, including the cathode, the anode and the separator, inside the 4 types of batteries are measured using DSC. The peaks and valleys of the critical component reactions measured by DSC can match the fluctuations in the temperature rise rate measured by ARC, therefore the relevance between the DSC curves and the ARC curves is utilized to probe the heat source in the thermal runaway process and reveal the thermal runaway mechanisms. The results and analysis indicate that internal short circuit is not the only way to thermal runaway, but can lead to extra electrical heat, which is comparable with the heat released by chemical reactions. The analytical approach of the thermal runaway mechanisms in this paper can guide the safety design of commercial lithium ion batteries.

  12. Thermal capacitator design rationale. Part 1: Thermal and mechanical property data for selected materials potentially useful in thermal capacitor design and construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. A.; Liao, C. K.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal properties of paraffin hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon mixtures which may be used as the phase change material (PCM) in thermal capacitors are discussed. The paraffin hydrocarbons selected for consideration are those in the range from C11H24 (n-Undecane) to C20H42 (n-Eicosane). A limited amount of data is included concerning other properties of paraffin hydrocarbons and the thermal and mechanical properties of several aluminum alloys which may find application as constructional materials. Data concerning the melting temperature, transition temperature, latent heat of fusion, heat of transition, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of pure and commercial grades of paraffin hydrocarbons are given. An index of companies capable of producing paraffin hydrocarbons and information concerning the availability of various grades (purity levels) is provided.

  13. Evidence from pharmacology and pathophysiology suggests that chemicals with dissimilar mechanisms of action could be of bigger concern in the toxicological risk assessment of chemical mixtures than chemicals with a similar mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadrup, Niels

    2014-08-01

    Mathematical models have been developed for the toxicological risk assessment of chemical mixtures. However, exposure data as well as single chemical toxicological data are required for these models. When addressing this data need, it could be attractive to focus on chemicals with similar mechanisms of action, similar modes of action or with common target organs. In the European Union, efforts are currently being made to subgroup chemicals according to this need. However, it remains to be determined whether this is the best strategy to obtain data for risk assessment. In conditions such as cancer or HIV, it is generally recognised that pharmacological combination therapy targeting different mechanisms of action is more effective than a strategy where only one mechanism is targeted. Moreover, in diseases such as acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure, several organ systems concomitantly contribute to the pathophysiology, suggesting that a grouping based on common target organs may also be inefficient. A better option may be to prioritise chemicals on the basis of potency and risk of exposure. In conclusion, there are arguments to suggest that we should concomitantly consider all targets that a chemical can affect in the human body and not merely a subset. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermal conduction mechanisms in isotope-disordered boron nitride and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivana; Mingo, Natalio; Stewart, Derek

    2009-03-01

    We present first principles studies which determine dominant effects limiting the heat conduction in isotope-disordered boron nitride and carbon nanotubes [1]. Using an ab initio atomistic Green's function approach, we demonstrate that localization cannot be observed in the thermal conductivity measurements [1], and that diffusive scattering is the dominant mechanism which reduces the thermal conductivity [2]. We also give concrete predictions of the magnitude of the isotope effect on the thermal conductivities of carbon and boron nitride single-walled nanotubes [2]. We furthermore show that intershell scattering is not the main limiting mechanism for the heat flow through multi-walled boron nitride nanotubes [1], and that heat conduction restricted to a few shells leads to the low thermal conductivities experimentally measured [1]. We consequently successfully compare the results of our calculations [3] with the experimental measurements [1]. [1] C. W. Chang, A. M. Fennimore, A. Afanasiev, D. Okawa, T. Ikuno, H. Garcia, D. Li, A. Majumdar, A. Zettl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 2006, 97, 085901. [2] I. Savic, N. Mingo, D. A. Stewart, Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008, 101, 165502. [3] I. Savic, D. A. Stewart, N. Mingo, to be published.

  15. Thermal ageing of steels; from expertise and understanding of the ageing mechanisms to a maintenance strategy for operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdikian, G.; Ould, P.

    2004-01-01

    Some parts of reactor coolant circuit on Nuclear PWR power plants, elbows on primary circuit, are made in cast duplex stainless steel material. It is now identify that the mechanical characteristic of this material should be decrease under thermal ageing mainly after a long time in operation in at reactor coolant circuit temperature conditions. The sensitiveness to the thermal ageing of these components is in relation with chemical composition and the ferrite content, especially the grade of Chromium equivalent (Ceq %Cr + %Si + %Mo). In the context of justification to maintain in operation on the plants these cat duplex components, an important programme of expertises was carried out on cast elbows after removing on the plants during the Steam Generators replacements (SGR). Several expertises, performed in the objective to understand the thermal ageing phenomenon and mechanism on cast components in service on plants, were permit to validate the prediction formulas established from a large database and programme in laboratories. The expertises were based on a lot of metallurgical, mechanical and chemical characteristics of components in operation Small Angle Neutrons Scattering (SANS), Thermal Electric Power (TEP), micro hardness and toughness measurement on small specimens from boat sample (CT10-5) The expertise carried out on one SG inlet elbows from DAMPIERRE, removed a during SGR after 100000 h in operation is shown, the toughness values are very high compared to the prediction formulas. The TEP measurements performed on the specimen cut off on two elbows and the ingots of the same material aged in laboratory in furnace, are very coherent; it is confirmed that this methodology is a good indicator to follow the ageing characteristic of material. The results of expertises on aged material are a mean of validation of the methodology applied on the file of demonstration of maintaining in operation of cast duplex stainless steel sensitive to thermal ageing. So the

  16. Nociceptive responses to thermal and mechanical stimulations in awake pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Herskin, Mette S.

    2013-01-01

    body sizes (30 and 60 kg) were exposed to thermal (CO(2) laser) and mechanical (pressure application measurement device) stimulations to the flank and the hind legs in a balanced order. The median response latency and the type of behavioural response were recorded. RESULTS: Small pigs exhibited...... animal studies in a large species require further examination. This manuscript describes the initial development of a porcine model of cutaneous nociception and focuses on interactions between the sensory modality, body size and the anatomical location of the stimulation site. METHODS: Pigs of different...... significantly lower pain thresholds (shorter latency to response) than large pigs to thermal and mechanical stimulations. Stimulations at the two anatomical locations elicited very distinct sets of behavioural responses, with different levels of sensitivity between the flank and the hind legs. Furthermore...

  17. Toward Improved Fidelity of Thermal Explosion Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, A L; Becker, R; Howard, W M; Wemhoff, A

    2009-07-17

    We will present results of an effort to improve the thermal/chemical/mechanical modeling of HMX based explosive like LX04 and LX10 for thermal cook-off. The original HMX model and analysis scheme were developed by Yoh et.al. for use in the ALE3D modeling framework. The current results were built to remedy the deficiencies of that original model. We concentrated our efforts in four areas. The first area was addition of porosity to the chemical material model framework in ALE3D that is used to model the HMX explosive formulation. This is needed to handle the roughly 2% porosity in solid explosives. The second area was the improvement of the HMX reaction network, which included the inclusion of a reactive phase change model base on work by Henson et.al. The third area required adding early decomposition gas species to the CHEETAH material database to develop more accurate equations of state for gaseous intermediates and products. Finally, it was necessary to improve the implicit mechanics module in ALE3D to more naturally handle the long time scales associated with thermal cook-off. The application of the resulting framework to the analysis of the Scaled Thermal Explosion (STEX) experiments will be discussed.

  18. Mechanism of Thermal Reversal of the (Fulvalene)tetracarbonyldiruthenium Photoisomerization: Toward Molecular Solar-Thermal Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai, Y; Srinivasan, V; Meier, S K; Vollhardt, K P; Grossman, J C

    2010-02-18

    In the currently intensifying quest to harness solar energy for the powering of our planet, most efforts are centered around photoinduced generic charge separation, such as in photovoltaics, water splitting, other small molecule activation, and biologically inspired photosynthetic systems. In contrast, direct collection of heat from sunlight has received much less diversified attention, its bulk devoted to the development of concentrating solar thermal power plants, in which mirrors are used to focus the sun beam on an appropriate heat transfer material. An attractive alternative strategy would be to trap solar energy in the form of chemical bonds, ideally through the photoconversion of a suitable molecule to a higher energy isomer, which, in turn, would release the stored energy by thermal reversal. Such a system would encompass the essential elements of a rechargeable heat battery, with its inherent advantages of storage, transportability, and use on demand. The underlying concept has been explored extensively with organic molecules (such as the norbornadiene-quadricyclane cycle), often in the context of developing photoswitches. On the other hand, organometallic complexes have remained relatively obscure in this capacity, despite a number of advantages, including expanded structural tunability and generally favorable electronic absorption regimes. A highly promising organometallic system is the previously reported, robust photo-thermal fulvalene (Fv) diruthenium couple 1 {l_reversible} 2 (Scheme 1). However, although reversible and moderately efficient, lack of a full, detailed atom-scale understanding of its key conversion and storage mechanisms have limited our ability to improve on its performance or identify optimal variants, such as substituents on the Fv, ligands other than CO, and alternative metals. Here we present a theoretical investigation, in conjunction with corroborating experiments, of the mechanism for the heat releasing step of 2 {yields} 1 and

  19. On the Growth and Microstructure of Carbon Nanotubes Grown by Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handuja Sangeeta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon nanotubes (CNTs were deposited on various substrates namely untreated silicon and quartz, Fe-deposited silicon and quartz, HF-treated silicon, silicon nitride-deposited silicon, copper foil, and stainless steel mesh using thermal chemical vapor deposition technique. The optimum parameters for the growth and the microstructure of the synthesized CNTs on these substrates are described. The results show that the growth of CNTs is strongly influenced by the substrate used. Vertically aligned multi-walled CNTs were found on quartz, Fe-deposited silicon and quartz, untreated silicon, and on silicon nitride-deposited silicon substrates. On the other hand, spaghetti-type growth was observed on stainless steel mesh, and no CNT growth was observed on HF-treated silicon and copper. Silicon nitride-deposited silicon substrate proved to be a promising substrate for long vertically aligned CNTs of length 110–130 μm. We present a possible growth mechanism for vertically aligned and spaghetti-type growth of CNTs based on these results.

  20. Thermal and mechanical analysis of the Faraday shield for the Compact Ignition Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesey, R.A.

    1988-02-01

    The antenna for the ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) system of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is protected from the plasma environment by a Faraday shield, an array of gas-cooled metallic tubes. The plasma side of the tubes is armored with graphite tiles, which can be either brazed or mechanically attached to the tube. The Faraday shield has been analyzed using finite element codes to model thermal and mechanical responses to typical CIT heating and disruption loads. Four representative materials (Inconel 718, tantalum-10 tungsten, copper alloy C17510, and molybdenum alloy TZM) and several combinations of tube and armor thicknesses were used in the thermal analysis, which revealed that maximum allowable temperatures were not exceeded for any of the four materials considered. The two-dimensional thermal stress analysis indicated Von Mises stresses greater than twice the yield stress for a tube constructed of Inconel 718 (the original design material) for the brazed-graphite design. Analysis of stresses caused by plasma disruption (/rvec J/ /times/ /rvec B/) loads eliminated the copper and molybdenum alloys as candidate tube materials. Of the four materials considered, tantalum-10 tungsten performed the best for a brazed graphite design, showing acceptable thermal stresses (69% of yield) and disruption stresses (42% of yield). A preliminary thermal analysis of the mechanically attached graphite scheme predicts minimal thermal stresses in the tube. The survivability of the graphite tubes in this scheme is yet to be analyzed. 8 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Effect of electron beam irradiation on thermal and mechanical properties of aluminum based epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visakh, P. M.; Nazarenko, O. B.; Sarath Chandran, C.; Melnikova, T. V.; Nazarenko, S. Yu.; Kim, J.-C.

    2017-07-01

    The epoxy resins are widely used in nuclear and aerospace industries. The certain properties of epoxy resins as well as the resistance to radiation can be improved by the incorporation of different fillers. This study examines the effect of electron beam irradiation on the thermal and mechanical properties of the epoxy composites filled with aluminum nanoparticles at percentage of 0.35 wt%. The epoxy composites were exposed to the irradiation doses of 30, 100 and 300 kGy using electron beam generated by the linear electron accelerator ELU-4. The effects of the doses on thermal and mechanical properties of the aluminum based epoxy composites were investigated by the methods of thermal gravimetric analysis, tensile test, and dynamic mechanical analysis. The results revealed that the studied epoxy composites showed good radiation resistance. The thermal and mechanical properties of the aluminum based epoxy composites increased with increasing the irradiation dose up to 100 kGy and decreased with further increasing the dose.

  2. Effect of thermal ageing on mechanical properties of a high-strength ODS alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Hoon; Kim, Sung Hwan; Jang, Chang Heui [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Kyu [Nuclear Materials DivisionKorea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A new high-strength ODS alloy, ARROS, was recently developed for the application as the cladding material of a Sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). To assess the long-term integrity under thermal ageing, ARROS was thermally aged in air at 650°C for 1000 h. The degree of thermal ageing was assessed by mechanical tests such as uniaxial tensile, hardness, and small punch tests at from room temperature to 650°C. Tensile strength was slightly decreased but elongation, hardness, and small punch energy were hardly changed at all test temperatures for the specimen aged at 650°C for 1000 h. However, the variation in mechanical properties such as hardness and small punch energy increased after thermal ageing. Using the test results, the correlation between tensile strength and maximum small punch load was established.

  3. New WC-Cu thermal barriers for fusion applications: High temperature mechanical behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejado, E.; Dias, M.; Correia, J. B.; Palacios, T.; Carvalho, P. A.; Alves, E.; Pastor, J. Y.

    2018-01-01

    The combination of tungsten carbide and copper as a thermal barrier could effectively reduce the thermal mismatch between tungsten and copper alloy, which are proposed as base armour and heat sink, respectively, in the divertor of future fusion reactors. Furthermore, since the optimum operating temperature windows for these divertor materials do not overlap, a compatible thermal barrier interlayer between them is required to guarantee a smooth thermal transition, which in addition may mitigate radiation damage. The aim of this work is to study the thermo-mechanical properties of WC-Cu cermets fabricated by hot pressing. Focus is placed on the temperature effect and composition dependence, as the volume fraction of copper varies from 25 to 50 and 75 vol%. To explore this behaviour, fracture experiments are performed within a temperature range from room temperature to 800 °C under vacuum. In addition, elastic modulus and thermal expansion coefficient are estimated from these tests. Results reveal a strong dependence of the performance on temperature and on the volume fraction of copper and, surprisingly, a slight percent of Cu (25 vol%) can effectively reduce the large difference in thermal expansion between tungsten and copper alloy, which is a critical point for in service applications. The thermal performance of these materials, together with their mechanical properties could indeed reduce the heat transfer from the PFM to the underlying element while supporting the high thermal stresses of the joint. Thus, the presence of these cermets could allow the reactor to operate above the ductile to brittle transition temperature of tungsten, without compromising the underlying materials.

  4. Properties, synthesis, and growth mechanisms of carbon nanotubes with special focus on thermal chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessim, Gilbert D

    2010-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been extensively investigated in the last decade because their superior properties could benefit many applications. However, CNTs have not yet made a major leap into industry, especially for electronic devices, because of fabrication challenges. This review provides an overview of state-of-the-art of CNT synthesis techniques and illustrates their major technical difficulties. It also charts possible in situ analyses and new reactor designs that might enable commercialization. After a brief description of the CNT properties and of the various techniques used to synthesize substrate-free CNTs, the bulk of this review analyzes chemical vapor deposition (CVD). This technique receives special attention since it allows CNTs to be grown in predefined locations, provides a certain degree of control of the types of CNTs grown, and may have the highest chance to succeed commercially. Understanding the primary growth mechanisms at play during CVD is critical for controlling the properties of the CNTs grown and remains the major hurdle to overcome. Various factors that influence CNT growth receive a special focus: choice of catalyst and substrate materials, source gases, and process parameters. This review illustrates important considerations for in situ characterization and new reactor designs that may enable researchers to better understand the physical growth mechanisms and to optimize the synthesis of CNTs, thus contributing to make carbon nanotubes a manufacturing reality.

  5. In situ tests for investigating thermal and mechanical rock behaviors at an underground research tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sangki; Cho, Won-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of the thermal and mechanical behaviors expected to be happened around an underground high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository is important for a successful site selection, construction, operation, and closure of the repository. In this study, the thermal and mechanical behaviors of rock and rock mass were investigated from in situ borehole heater test and the studies for characterizing an excavation damaged zone (EDZ), which had been carried out at an underground research tunnel, KURT, constructed in granite for the validation of a HLW disposal concept. Thermal, mechanical, and hydraulic properties in EDZ could be predicted from various in situ and laboratory tests as well as numerical simulations. The complex thermo-mechanical coupling behavior of rock could be modeled using the rock properties. (author)

  6. The thermal ramp by kinetic considerations. Epoxic matrix; Importancia del programa de curado sobre el comportamiento termico. Matrices epoxidicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prades, P.; Pazos, M.; Gonzalez, G.; Lopez, A.; Paz, S. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    1999-11-01

    This study is focussed on the optimization of the thermal ramp by kinetic considerations. Commonly such optimization is carried out by thermal. mechanical and chemical measurements. The crosslinking parameter, R, is obtained at different temperatures by spectroscopic measurements (FTIR). This parameter is related to mechanical and thermal properties with excellent correlations. (Author) 7 refs.

  7. Effect of Surfactants on Mechanical, Thermal, and Photostability of a Monoclonal Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarkhed, Meera; O'Dell, Courtney; Hsieh, Ming-Ching; Zhang, Jingming; Goldstein, Joel; Srivastava, Arvind

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of commonly used surfactants (at 0.01% w/v concentration) on mechanical, thermal, and photostability of a monoclonal antibody (MAb1) of IgG1 sub-class and to evaluate the minimum concentration of surfactant (Polysorbate 80) required in protecting MAb1 from mechanical stress. Surfactants evaluated were non-ionic surfactants, Polysorbate 80, Polysorbate 20, Pluronic F-68 (polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block polymer), Brij 35 (polyoxyethylene lauryl ether), Triton X-100, and an anionic surfactant, Caprylic acid (1-Heptanecarboxylic acid). After evaluating effect of surfactants and determining stabilizing effect of Polysorbate 80 against mechanical stress without compromising thermal and photostability of MAb1, the minimum concentration of Polysorbate 80 required for mechanical stability was further examined. Polysorbate 80 concentration was varied from 0 to 0.02%. Mechanical stability was evaluated by agitation of MAb1 at 300 rotations per minute at room temperature for 72 h. Samples were analyzed for purity by SEC-HPLC, turbidity by absorbance at 350 nm, visible particles by visual inspection, and sub-visible particles by light obscuration technique on a particle analyzer. All non-ionic surfactants tested showed a similar effect in protecting against mechanical stress and did not exhibit any significant negative effect on thermal and photostability. However, Caprylic acid had a slightly negative effect on mechanical and photostability when compared to the non-ionic surfactants or sample without surfactant. This work demonstrated that polysorbate 80 is better than other surfactants tested and that a concentration of at least 0.005% (w/v) Polysorbate 80 is needed to protect MAb1 against mechanical stress.

  8. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Epoxy Composites Containing Zirconia-Impregnated Halloysite Nanotubes with Different Loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhyun; Kim, Moon Il; Shon, Minyoung; Seo, Bongkuk; Lim, Choongsun

    2018-09-01

    Epoxy resins are widely used in various industrial fields due to their low cost, good workability, heat resistance, and good mechanical strength. However, they suffer from brittleness, an issue that must be addressed for further applications. To solve this problem, additional fillers are needed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of the resins; zirconia is one such filler. However, it has been reported that aggregation may occur in the epoxy composites as the amount of zirconia increases, preventing enhancement of the mechanical strength of the epoxy composites. Herein, to reduce the aggregation, zirconia was well dispersed on halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), which have high thermal and mechanical strength, by a conventional wet impregnation method. The HNTs were impregnated with zirconia at different loadings using zirconyl chloride octahydrate as a precursor. The mechanical and thermal strengths of the epoxy composites with these fillers were investigated. The zirconia-impregnated HNTs (Zr/HNT) were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and tunneling electron microscopy (TEM). The hardening conditions of the epoxy composites were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermal strength of the epoxy composites was studied by thermomechanical analysis (TMA) and micro-calorimetry and the mechanical strength of the epoxy composites (flexural strength and tensile strength) was studied by using a universal testing machine (UTM). The mechanical and thermal strengths of the epoxy composites with Zr/HNT were improved compared to those of the epoxy composite with HNT, and also increased as the zirconia loading on HNT increased.

  9. Effects of Modified Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on the Thermal and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Cellulose Poly(vinyl alcohol Blend Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Roohani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of modified iron oxide nanoparticles (MINP and cellulose nanocrystals (NCC on magnetic, thermal and dynamic-mechanical properties of poly(vinyl alcohol based nanocomposites. Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been synthesized using a chemical co-precipitation route. Nanocomposite films were developed by solvent casting method and their properties were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. DSC results found that with incorporation of nanoparticles, the glass transition temperature increase slightly to higher temperatures; however, the degree of crystallinity and the values of the melting temperature are found to decrease. Dynamic mechanical analysis revealed that, at the elevated temperatures, improvement of mechanical properties due to the presence of nanoparticles was even more noticeable. Addition of nanoparticles resulted in increased thermal stability of PVA due to the reduction in mobility of matrix molecules by strong hydrogen bonds between nanocomposite components. Results indicated that, MINP and NCC have synergistic effect on improving of poly(vinyl alcohol properties. The VSM findings showed that the saturation magnetization of iron oxide nanoparticles reduced after modification. This can be attributed to formation of hydroxyapatite on nanoparticles surface. The saturation magnetization (Ms of PVA- MINP films was higher than PVA-MINP- NCC film. This result probably is related to more amount of magnetic nanoparticles in PVA-MINP films.

  10. Radiation-chemical alkylation of olefines with adamantane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podkhalyuzin, A.T.; Vikulin, V.V.; Morozov, V.A.; Nazarova, M.P.; Vereshchinskii, I.V.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation-chemical alkylation of C 2 to C 4 olefines with adamantane was studied in gas phase at temperatures 270 to 430 0 C. The main reaction product is monoalkyladamantane. The reaction proceeds by a free radical chain mechanism. The effective activation energy is of the order of 8 to 10 kcal/mole. Thermal alkylation was carried out for comparison and the contribution of the thermal component to the radiation-thermal process was estimated. Liquid phase alkylation of hexafluoropropylene with adamantane was studied in the presence of solvents. Under various conditions mono- and di-substituted adamantanes are produced containing fluorine in end groups. These compounds were converted to corresponding fluoroalkenyladamantanes by dehydrofluorination. The kinetic parameters were calculated and physical-chemical data concerning some of the resulting products were determined. (author)

  11. Effects of electron irradiation in space environment on thermal and mechanical properties of carbon fiber/bismaleimide composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Qi; Chen, Ping; Gao, Yu; Ma, Keming; Lu, Chun; Xiong, Xuhai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Electron irradiation decreased the storage modulus finally. •T g decreased first and then increased and finally decreased. •The thermal stability was reduced and then improved and finally decreased. •The changing trend of flexural strength and ILSS are consistent. -- Abstract: The effects of electron irradiation in simulated space environment on thermal and mechanical properties of high performance carbon fiber/bismaleimide composites were investigated. The dynamic mechanical properties of the composites exposed to different fluences of electron irradiation were evaluated by Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Thermogravimetric analysis was applied to investigate the changes in thermal stability of the resin matrix after exposure to electron irradiation. The changes in mechanical properties of the composites were evaluated by flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS). The results indicated that electron irradiation in high vacuum had an impact on thermal and mechanical properties of CF/BMI composites, which depends on irradiation fluence. At lower irradiation fluences less than 5 × 10 15 cm −2 , the dynamic storage modulus, cross-linking degree, thermal stability and mechanical properties that were determined by a competing effect between chain scission and cross-linking process, decreased firstly and then increased. While at higher fluences beyond 5 × 10 15 cm −2 , the chain scission process was dominant and thus led to the degradation in thermal and mechanical properties of the composites

  12. Evaluation of ethanol aged PVDF: diffusion, crystallinity and dynamic mechanical thermal properties; Avaliacao do PVDF envelhecido em etanol combustivel: difusao, cristalinidade e propriedades termicas dinamico-mecanicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Agmar J.J.; Costa, Marysilvia F., E-mail: agmar@metalmat.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work discuss firstly the effect of the ethanol fuel absorption by PVDF at 60°C through mass variation tests. A Fickian character was observed for the ethanol absorption kinetics of the aged PVDF at 60°C. In the second step, the dynamic mechanical thermal properties (E’, E’, E” and tan δ) of the PVDF were evaluated through dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The chemical structure of the materials was analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and significant changes in the degree of crystallinity were verified after the aging. However, DMTA results showed a reduction in the storage modulus (E') of the aged PVDF, which was associated to diffusion of ethanol and swelling of the PVDF, which generated a prevailing plasticizing effect and led to reduction of its structural stiffness. (author)

  13. Effect of thermal stresses on the mechanism of tooth pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskui, Iman Z; Ashtiani, Mohammed N; Hashemi, Ata; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2014-11-01

    Daily hot and cold thermal loadings on teeth may result in structural deformation, mechanical stress, and pain signaling. The aim of this study was to compare the adverse effects of hot and cold beverages on an intact tooth and, then, to provide physical evidence to support the hydrodynamic theory of tooth pain sensation mechanism. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was performed on a premolar model subjected to hot and cold thermal loadings. Elapsed times for heat diffusion and stress detection at the pulp-dentin junction were calculated as measures of the pain sensation. Extreme tensile stress within the enamel resulted in damage in cold loadings. Also, extreme values of stress at the pulpal wall occurred 21.6 seconds earlier than extreme temperatures in hot and cold loadings. The intact tooth was remarkably vulnerable to cold loading. Earlier changes in mechanical stress rather than temperature at the pulp-dentin junction indicate that the dental pain caused by hot or cold beverages may be based on the hydrodynamic theory. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITES FROM UNSATURATED POLYESTER FILLED WITH OIL PALM ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm ash (OPA is available in abundance, is renewable, can be obtained at no cost and shows good performance at high thermal conditions. Combinations of the unsaturated polyester with natural fillers have been reported to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of composites. Utilisation of oil palm ash as a filler in the manufacture of polymer composites can significantly reduce the requirement for other binders or matrixes of composite materials. This research uses oil palm ash as a filler to form composites through the investigation of the effect of different contents of filler on the properties of OPA-filled unsaturated polyester (UP/OPA composites. The effect of different volume fractions, i.e., 0, 10, 20 and 30 vol.% of oil palm ash introduced into 100, 90, 80 and 70 vol.% of an unsaturated polyester matrix on the composite mechanical properties, i.e., tensile and flexural, has been studied, together with thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC. Specimens were prepared using compression moulding techniques based on the ASTM D790 and D5083 standards for flexural and tensile tests, respectively. The tensile and flexural mechanical properties of UP/OPA composites were improved in modulus by increasing the filler content. Thermal stability of the composites increased as the OPA filler content was increased, which was a logical consequence because of the high thermal stability of the silica compound of the OPA filler compared with that of the UP matrix. The results from the surface electron microscope (SEM analysis were the extension of mechanical and thermal tests.

  15. Relationship between mechanical characteristics and thermal shock stability of refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov-Husovic, T.; Raic, K.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal stability of the refractory material with the content of 60 % Al 2 O 3 was investigated. Water quench test (JUS.B.D8.319) was applied as experimental method for thermal stability testing. Damage of porous materials is commonly related to a modification of strength that is mostly a reduction. This is linked with characteristics related to pore space. Mechanical characteristics are considered such as compressive strength, dynamic modulus of elasticity and resistance parameters resulting from resonance frequency measurements, as well as ultrasonic velocity. (Original)

  16. Experimental study on the thermal and mechanical properties of MWCNT/polymer and Cu/polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyeon Jeong; Badakhsh, Arash; Im, Ik Tae; Kim, Min-Soo; Park, Chan Woo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MWCNTs and Cu were ball milled with a variation of milling times. • Thermal conductivity and tensile strength of the PMCs were measured. • Cu reinforced HDPE showed thermal conductivity improvement ratios of up to 2.7. • MWCNT/HDPE showed higher thermal conductivity than MWCNT/PP. • MWCNT/HDPE was found to be mechanically stronger than Cu/HDPE. - Abstract: In this study, the influence of the different conditions of powder treatment on the thermal conductivity of nanocomposites was investigated. Carbon and metal-based polymer composite materials were produced and their thermal and mechanical characteristics were studied. For the fabrication of the composites, the study has explored and proposed the use of MWCNT and Cu as fillers in a polymer matrix. The polymer matrices were thermoplastic resins-polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE). Ball milling was used as the mechanical method in order to enhance the dispersion of MWCNT and the transformation of the Cu particles. The ball milled MWCNT and Cu powder were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The thermal conductivity values of the resultant nanocomposites were determined by laser flash method (LFM), indicating the highest thermal conductivity is possessed by the polymer composite reinforced by the highest amount of 60 min-treated powder in every case studied. Comparing the obtained values for thermal conductivity with that of pure polymer the maximum improvements were found to be 105.1%, 79% and 271.5% for MWCNT/PP, MWCNT/HDPE and Cu/HDPE, respectively. Furthermore, experimental results were validated using the Agari-Uno and Nielsen-Lewis thermal conductivity models considering the shape of the filler. The results of deviation were found to be within the maximum 5% of the exact value implying a fine agreement between experimental and modeling data. Also, the tensile strength test was performed to evaluate the tensile strength of thermally

  17. Thermal behavior and mechanical properties of physically crosslinked PVA/Gelatin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yurong; Geever, Luke M; Kennedy, James E; Higginbotham, Clement L; Cahill, Paul A; McGuinness, Garrett B

    2010-02-01

    Poly (vinyl alcohol)/Gelatin hydrogels are under active investigation as potential vascular cell culture biomaterials, tissue models and vascular implants. The PVA/Gelatin hydrogels are physically crosslinked by the freeze-thaw technique, which is followed by a coagulation bath treatment. In this study, the thermal behavior of the gels was examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). Rheological measurement and uniaxial tensile tests revealed key mechanical properties. The role of polymer fraction in relation to these mechanical properties is explored. Gelatin has no significant effect on the thermal behavior of PVA, which indicates that no substantial change occurs in the PVA crystallite due to the presence of gelatin. The glass transition temperature, melting temperature, degree of crystallinity, polymer fraction, storage modulus (G') and ultimate strength of one freeze-thaw cycle (1FT) hydrogels are inferior to those of 3FT hydrogels. With coagulation, both 1FT and 3FT hydrogels shifted to a lower value of T(g), melting temperature and polymer fraction are further increased and the degree of crystallinity is depressed. The mechanical properties of 1FT, but not 3FT, were strengthened with coagulation treatment. This study gives a detailed investigation of the microstructure formation of PVA/Gelatin hydrogel in each stage of physical treatments which helps us to explain the role of physical treatments in tuning their physical properties for biomechanical applications. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Material recognition based on thermal cues: Mechanisms and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsin-Ni

    2018-01-01

    Some materials feel colder to the touch than others, and we can use this difference in perceived coldness for material recognition. This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying material recognition based on thermal cues. It provides an overview of the physical, perceptual, and cognitive processes involved in material recognition. It also describes engineering domains in which material recognition based on thermal cues have been applied. This includes haptic interfaces that seek to reproduce the sensations associated with contact in virtual environments and tactile sensors aim for automatic material recognition. The review concludes by considering the contributions of this line of research in both science and engineering.

  19. Flue Gas Desulfurization by Mechanically and Thermally Activated Sodium Bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Walawska Barbara; Szymanek Arkadiusz; Pajdak Anna; Nowak Marzena

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of study on structural parameters (particle size, surface area, pore volume) and the sorption ability of mechanically and thermally activated sodium bicarbonate. The sorption ability of the modified sorbent was evaluated by: partial and overall SO2 removal efficiency, conversion rate, normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR). Sodium bicarbonate was mechanically activated by various grinding techniques, using three types of mills: fluid bed opposed jet mill, fine i...

  20. Evaluation of the basic mechanical and thermal properties of deep crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Young Kwon; Jeon, Seok Won

    2001-04-01

    This report provides the mechanical and thermal properties of granitic intact rocks obtained from Deep Core Drilling Program which is carried out as part of the assessment of deep geological environmental condition. These data are the basic material properties of the core samples from the boreholes drilled up to 500 m depth at the Yusung and Kosung sites. These sites were selected based on the result of preliminary site evaluation study. In this study, the mechanical properties include density, porosity, P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, tensile strength, and shear strength of fractures, and the thermal properties are heat conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat and so on. Those properties were measured through laboratory tests and these data are compared with the existing test results of several domestic rocks

  1. Evaluation of the basic mechanical and thermal properties of deep crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Young Kwon; Jeon, Seok Won

    2001-04-01

    This report provides the mechanical and thermal properties of granitic intact rocks obtained from Deep Core Drilling Program which is carried out as part of the assessment of deep geological environmental condition. These data are the basic material properties of the core samples from the boreholes drilled up to 500 m depth at the Yusung and Kosung sites. These sites were selected based on the result of preliminary site evaluation study. In this study, the mechanical properties include density, porosity, P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, tensile strength, and shear strength of fractures, and the thermal properties are heat conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat and so on. Those properties were measured through laboratory tests and these data are compared with the existing test results of several domestic rocks.

  2. Improvement and evaluation of thermal, electrical, sealing and mechanical contacts, and their interface materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiangcheng

    Material contacts, including thermal, electrical, seating (fluid sealing and electromagnetic sealing) and mechanical (pressure) contacts, together with their interface materials, were, evaluated, and in some cases, improved beyond the state of the art. The evaluation involved the use of thermal, electrical and mechanical methods. For thermal contacts, this work evaluated and improved the heat transfer efficiency between two contacting components by developing various thermal interface pastes. Sodium silicate based thermal pastes (with boron nitride particles as the thermally conductive filler) as well as polyethylene glycol (PEG) based thermal pastes were developed and evaluated. The optimum volume fractions of BN in sodium silicate based pastes and PEG based pastes were 16% and 18% respectively. The contribution of Li+ ions to the thermal contact conductance in the PEG-based paste was confirmed. For electrical contacts, the relationship between the mechanical reliability and electrical reliability of solder/copper and silver-epoxy/copper joints was addressed. Mechanical pull-out testing was conducted on solder/copper and silver-epoxy/copper joints, while the contact electrical resistivity was measured. Cleansing of the copper surface was more effective for the reliability of silver-epoxy/copper joint than that of solder/copper joint. For sealing contacts, this work evaluated flexible graphite as an electromagnetic shielding gasket material. Flexible graphite was found to be at least comparable to conductive filled silicone (the state of the art) in terms of the shielding effectiveness. The conformability of flexible graphite with its mating metal surface under repeated compression was characterized by monitoring the contact electrical resistance, as the conformability is important to both electromagnetic scaling and fluid waling using flexible graphite. For mechanical contacts, this work focused on the correlation of the interface structure (such as elastic

  3. Mechanical Reinforcement, Shapestabilization and Thermal Improvement of Phase-Change Energy Storage Materials Using Graphene Oxide Aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Yue Xu

    Paraffin is known as a good energy storage phase change material (PCM) because of its high energy storage capacity and low cost. However, the leakage of liquid paraffin beyond its melting point and its low thermal conductivity hinder applications of paraffin in energy storage systems. Recently, nanomaterials have been used to create PCM composites in order to enhance their thermal properties while shape stabilizing the PCMs. However, fundamental studies on the material structures and mechanical behavior of the thermally enhanced PCM composites are limited especially at the nanoscale. In this study, we developed a PCM composite using graphene oxide aerogel (GOxA) as the reinforcing 3D network. The GOxA functions thermally as a heat transfer path and mechanically as a nanofiller to reinforce the PCM matrix. We characterized the morphology, the crystal and molecular structures as well as the multiscale mechanical and thermal behavior of the GOxA-PCM composite to evaluate the role of GOxA in the PCM composite. The molecular and diffraction characterizations imply that the GOxA network may affect the paraffin's crystallization, potentially forming an interfacial phase at the surfaces of GOxA. Furthermore, the mechanical properties were studied using nanoindentation at the nano/microscale and a digital durometer at the macroscale from 25degree C to 80 degree C. The mechanical characterizations show that the GOxA-PCM composite is 3 7x harder than pure paraffin and maintains significant strength even above paraffin's melting point due to the support from the GoxA. Moreover, the composite is much less strain-rate sensitive than paraffin. The reinforcement via GOxA is much beyond the prediction by the rule of mixture, implying a strong GOxA-paraffin interfacial bonding. Finally, a thermal scanning microscopy (SThM) along with AFM was used to study the thermal properties at microscale. AFM and thermal images indicate that GOxA-PCM has a better thermal conductivity. The latent

  4. Research on Non-Similarity about Thermal Deformation Error of Mechanical Parts in High-accuracy Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Z; Fei, Y T

    2006-01-01

    Expanding with heat and contracting with cold are common physical phenomenon in the nature. The conventional theories and calculations of thermal deformation are approximate and linear, can only be applied in normal or low precision field. The thermal deformation error of mechanical parts doesn't follow the conventional linear formula, it relates to all physical dimension of the mechanical part, and the deformation can be indicated by a nonlinear formula of physical dimensions. A theory on non-similarity about thermal deformation error of mechanical parts is presented. Studies on some common mechanical parts in precision technology have went on and the mathematical models have been set up, hollow piece, gear and cube are included. The experimental results also make it clear that these models are more logical than traditional models

  5. Interaction mechanisms of radioactive, chemical and thermal releases from the nuclear industry: Methodology for considering co-operative effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    1975-01-01

    A number of chemicals are known which can modify radiation effects on cell killing, carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. In this paper data are reported for radiosensitizing agents. In order to discuss the interaction mechanisms of these synergistic effects, the action of radiation on DNA, on its biological functions and on its metabolism are explained briefly. Also it is indicated that part of the radiation effects in the DNA can be 'repaired' and that living cells can recover from radiation damage. One group of radiosensitizers interacts with cellular DNA or with the DNP-complex. These reactions change the configurational structure or metabolism of DNA and DNP. In this connection the action of antibiotics such as actinomycin D, and the action of SH-blocking agents such as iodoacetamide and NEM, as well as the action of alkylating agents, are discussed. A second group of radiosensitizers, especially with hypoxic cells, are the electron affinic chemicals like nitro-compounds, ketones and others. Data are also given on the modification of radiation effects by changes in temperature. Further, the problem of whether synergistic effects are to be expected arising from the chemicals and radiation originating in the nuclear industry is considered. Data show that repair and recovery processes especially are modified by radiosensitizers. The implications of this fact on sensitization at low radiation doses and at low dose rates, as well as the effect of high LET radiation, are considered. It is of interest that the dose modifying factor of some sensitizers can reach a magnitude of a factor of two to three. (author)

  6. Effect of high thermal expansion glass infiltration on mechanical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work studies the effect on the mechanical properties of alumina-10 wt% zirconia (3 mol% yttria stabilized) composite by infiltrating glass of a higher thermal expansion (soda lime glass) on the surface at high temperature. The glass improved the strength of composite at room temperature as well as at high temperature.

  7. Durability, mechanical, and thermal properties of experimental glass-ceramic forms for immobilizing ICPP high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinjamuri, K.

    1990-01-01

    The high-level liquid waste generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is routinely solidified into granular calcined high-level waste (HLW) and stored onsite. Research is being conducted at the ICPP on methods of immobilizing the HLW, including developing a durable glass-ceramic form which has the potential to significantly reduce the final waste volume by up to 60% compared to a glass form. Simulated, pilot plant, non-radioactive, calcines similar to the composition of the calcined HLW and glass forming additives are used to produce experimental glass-ceramic forms. The objective of the research reported in this paper is to study the impact of ground calcine particle size on durability and mechanical and thermal properties of experimental glass-ceramic forms

  8. Electrical and Thermal Conductivity and Conduction Mechanism of Ge2Sb2Te5 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Rui; Endo, Rie; Kuwahara, Masashi; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Susa, Masahiro

    2018-06-01

    Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy has drawn much attention due to its application in phase-change random-access memory and potential as a thermoelectric material. Electrical and thermal conductivity are important material properties in both applications. The aim of this work is to investigate the temperature dependence of the electrical and thermal conductivity of Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy and discuss the thermal conduction mechanism. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy were measured from room temperature to 823 K by four-terminal and hot-strip method, respectively. With increasing temperature, the electrical resistivity increased while the thermal conductivity first decreased up to about 600 K then increased. The electronic component of the thermal conductivity was calculated from the Wiedemann-Franz law using the resistivity results. At room temperature, Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy has large electronic thermal conductivity and low lattice thermal conductivity. Bipolar diffusion contributes more to the thermal conductivity with increasing temperature. The special crystallographic structure of Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy accounts for the thermal conduction mechanism.

  9. Electrical and Thermal Conductivity and Conduction Mechanism of Ge2Sb2Te5 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Rui; Endo, Rie; Kuwahara, Masashi; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Susa, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy has drawn much attention due to its application in phase-change random-access memory and potential as a thermoelectric material. Electrical and thermal conductivity are important material properties in both applications. The aim of this work is to investigate the temperature dependence of the electrical and thermal conductivity of Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy and discuss the thermal conduction mechanism. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy were measured from room temperature to 823 K by four-terminal and hot-strip method, respectively. With increasing temperature, the electrical resistivity increased while the thermal conductivity first decreased up to about 600 K then increased. The electronic component of the thermal conductivity was calculated from the Wiedemann-Franz law using the resistivity results. At room temperature, Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy has large electronic thermal conductivity and low lattice thermal conductivity. Bipolar diffusion contributes more to the thermal conductivity with increasing temperature. The special crystallographic structure of Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy accounts for the thermal conduction mechanism.

  10. Characterisation of waste derived biochar added biocomposites: chemical and thermal modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Oisik [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Zujovic, Zoran [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Bhattacharyya, Debes [Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2016-04-15

    A step towards sustainability was taken by incorporating waste based pyrolysed biochar in wood and polypropylene biocomposites. The effect of biochar particles on the chemistry and thermal makeup of the composites was determined by characterising them through an array of characterisation techniques such as 3D optical profiling, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electron spin/nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. It was observed that addition of biochar increased the presence of free radicals in the composite while also improving its thermal conductivity. Biochar particles did not interfere with the melting behaviour of polymer in the thermal regime. However, wood and biochar acted as nucleation agents consequently increasing the crystallisation temperature. The crystal structure of polypropylene was not disrupted by biochar inclusion in composite. Transmission electron microscopy images illustrated the aggregated nature of the biochar particles at higher loading levels. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies revealed the aromatic nature of biochar and the broadening of peak intensities of composites with increasing biochar levels due to its amorphous nature and presence of free radicals. Thus, this insight into the chemical and thermal modification of biochar added composites would allow effective engineering to optimise their properties while simultaneously utilising wastes. - Highlights: • Waste derived biochars were used to make polymer based biocomposites. • Composites were characterised by NMR, ESR, DSC, XRD, TEM etc. • Biochar increased the thermal conductivity of composites. • Biochar did not disrupt the crystal structure of polypropylene. • NMR revealed aromatic nature of biochar in composites.

  11. Characterisation of waste derived biochar added biocomposites: chemical and thermal modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K.; Zujovic, Zoran; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2016-01-01

    A step towards sustainability was taken by incorporating waste based pyrolysed biochar in wood and polypropylene biocomposites. The effect of biochar particles on the chemistry and thermal makeup of the composites was determined by characterising them through an array of characterisation techniques such as 3D optical profiling, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electron spin/nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. It was observed that addition of biochar increased the presence of free radicals in the composite while also improving its thermal conductivity. Biochar particles did not interfere with the melting behaviour of polymer in the thermal regime. However, wood and biochar acted as nucleation agents consequently increasing the crystallisation temperature. The crystal structure of polypropylene was not disrupted by biochar inclusion in composite. Transmission electron microscopy images illustrated the aggregated nature of the biochar particles at higher loading levels. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies revealed the aromatic nature of biochar and the broadening of peak intensities of composites with increasing biochar levels due to its amorphous nature and presence of free radicals. Thus, this insight into the chemical and thermal modification of biochar added composites would allow effective engineering to optimise their properties while simultaneously utilising wastes. - Highlights: • Waste derived biochars were used to make polymer based biocomposites. • Composites were characterised by NMR, ESR, DSC, XRD, TEM etc. • Biochar increased the thermal conductivity of composites. • Biochar did not disrupt the crystal structure of polypropylene. • NMR revealed aromatic nature of biochar in composites.

  12. Chemical characteristics of the major thermal springs of Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1976-07-01

    Twenty-one thermal springs in western Montana were sampled for chemical, isotope, and gas compositions. Most of the springs issue dilute to slightly saline sodium-bicarbonate waters of neutral to slightly alkaline pH. A few of the springs issue sodium-mixed anion waters of near neutral pH. Fluoride concentrations are high in most of the thermal waters, up to 18 miligrams per litre, while F/Cl ratios range from 3/1 in the dilute waters to 1/10 in the slightly saline waters. Most of the springs are theoretically in thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to calcite and fluorite. Nitrogen is the major gas escaping from most of the hot springs; however, Hunters Hot Springs issue principally methane. The deuterium content of the hot spring waters is typical of meteoric water in western Montana. Geothermal calculations based on silica concentrations and Na-K-Ca ratios indicate that most of the springs are associated with low temperature aquifers (less than 100/sup 0/C). Chalcedony may be controlling the silica concentrations in these low temperature aquifers even in ''granitic'' terranes.

  13. Quantum chemical investigation of mechanisms of silane oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mader, Mary M.; Norrby, Per-Ola

    2001-01-01

    Several mechanisms for the peroxide oxidation of organosilanes to alcohols are compared by quantum chemical calculations, including solvation with the PCM method. Without doubt, the reaction proceeds via anionic, pentacoordinate silicate species, but a profound difference is found between in vacuo...

  14. Thermal and mechanical properties of bio-based plasticizers mixtures on poly (vinyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussaha Bouchoul

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of mixtures of nontoxic and biodegradable plasticizers coming from natural resources is a good way to replace conventional phthalates plasticizers. In this study, two secondary plasticizers of epoxidized sunflower oil (ESO and epoxidized sunflower oil methyl ester (ESOME were synthesized and have been used with two commercially available biobased plasticizers; isosorbide diesters (ISB and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC in order to produce flexible PVC. Different mixtures of these plasticizers have been introduced in PVC formulations. Thermal, mechanical and morphological properties have been studied by using discoloration, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA, tensile - strain and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Studies have shown that PVC plasticization and stabilization were improved by addition of plasticizers blends containing ISB, ATBC, ESO and ESOME. An increase in the content of ESO or ESOME improved thermal and mechanical properties, whereas ESOME/ATBC formulations exhibited the best properties.

  15. Interfacial Effects on the Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Graphite/Copper Composites. Final Contractor Report Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devincent, Sandra Marie

    1995-01-01

    easy crack propagation under low tensile loads. The short transverse thermal conductivity is dictated by the fiber/matrix interface. Conduction across this interface has been estimated to be two orders of magnitude lower than that across the composite. This is due to the mechanical, and not chemical, nature of Gr/Cu bond.

  16. Results of measurements of thermal interaction between molten metal and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyszkowski, W.

    1975-10-01

    The report describes results of an experimental investigation into thermal interaction of molten metals with water. The experiments were performed in two stages: the aim of the first stage was to study the general character of thermal interaction between molten metal and water and to measure the Leidenfrost temperature of the inverse Leidenfrost phenomenon. The second stage was directed to the experimental study of the triggering mechanism of thermal explosion. The experimental material gathered in this study includes: 1) transient temperature measurements in the hot material and in water, 2) measurements of pressure and reactive force combined with thermal explosion, 3) high-speed films of thermal interaction, 4) investigation results of thermal explosion debris (microscopic, mechanical, metallographical and chemical). The most significant observation is, that small jets from the main particle mass occuring 1 to 10 msec before, precede thermal explosion. (orig.) [de

  17. Quantum mechanical calculations to chemical accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1991-01-01

    The accuracy of current molecular-structure calculations is illustrated with examples of quantum mechanical solutions for chemical problems. Two approaches are considered: (1) the coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) with a perturbational estimate of the contribution of connected triple excitations, or CCDS(T); and (2) the multireference configuration-interaction (MRCI) approach to the correlation problem. The MRCI approach gains greater applicability by means of size-extensive modifications such as the averaged-coupled pair functional approach. The examples of solutions to chemical problems include those for C-H bond energies, the vibrational frequencies of O3, identifying the ground state of Al2 and Si2, and the Lewis-Rayleigh afterglow and the Hermann IR system of N2. Accurate molecular-wave functions can be derived from a combination of basis-set saturation studies and full configuration-interaction calculations.

  18. Topography and nanostructural evaluation of chemically and thermally modified titanium substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, Hoda; Behnamghader, Aliasghar; Afshar, Abdollah

    2016-10-01

    In this research, the effects of chemical and thermal treatment on the morphological and compositional aspects of titanium substrates and so, potentially, on development of biomimetic bone like layers formation during simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking was investigated. The HF, HF/HNO3 and NaOH solutions were used for chemical treatment and some of alkali-treated samples followed a heat treatment at 600°C. The treated samples before and after soaking were subjected to material characterization tests using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). White light interferometry (WLI) was used to determine the roughness parameters such as Ra, Rq, RKu and Rsk. The significance of the obtained data was assessed using ANOVA variance analysis between all samples. It was observed that the reaction at grain boundaries and sodium titanate intermediate layers play a great role in the nucleation of calcium phosphate layers. Based on the obtained results in this work, the calcium phosphate microstructure deposited on titanium substrates was more affected by chemical modification than surface topography.

  19. Improving the Mechanical Performance and Thermal Stability of a PVA-Clay Nanocomposite by Electron Beam Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokuhi Rad, A.; Ebrahimi, D.

    2017-07-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiation and presence of clay on the mechanical properties and thermal stability of montmorillonite clay-modified polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposites were studied. By using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the microstructure of the nanocomposites was investigated. The results obtained from TEM and XRD tests showed that montmorillonite clay nanoparticles were located in the polyvinyl alcohol phase. The XRD analysis confirmed the formation of an exfoliated structure in nanocomposites samples. Increasing the amount of clay to 20 wt.% increased the tensile strength and modulus of the nanocomposite. Irradiation up to an absorbed dose of 100 kGy increased its mechanical properties and thermal stability, but at higher irradiation levels, the mechanical strength and thermal stability declined. The sample with 20 wt.% of the nanofiller, exposed to 100 kGy, showed the highest mechanical strength and thermal stability.

  20. Chemical modification of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2007-01-01

    After millions of years of evolution, wood was designed to perform in a wet environment, and nature is programmed to recycle it, in a timely way, back to the basic building blocks of carbon dioxide and water through biological, thermal, aqueous, photochemical, chemical, and mechanical degradation. The properties of wood are, for the most part, a result of the chemistry...

  1. Mechanism of the thermal conductivity of type-I clathrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their intrinsically low thermal conductivity, intermetallic type-I clathrates are promising candidates for thermoelectric energy conversion, most notably for waste-heat recovery above room temperature. Combining their low thermal conductivity with the enhanced electrical power factor of strongly correlated materials can be considered as one of the most promising routes to a next generation thermoelectric material. However, although much investigated, the physical origin of the low thermal conductivity of type-I clathrates is still debated. Therefore, the main goal of this thesis was to gain deeper insight into the mechanism of the low thermal conductivity of type-I clathrates. On the basis of recent inelastic neutron and X-ray scattering studies on type-I clathrates and skutterudites, an analytical model for describing the phonon thermal conductivity of such filled cage compounds was developed within this thesis. This model is based on the phononic filter effect and on strongly enhanced Umklapp scattering. Data on several Ge-based single crystalline type-I clathrates are discussed in the context of this model, revealing the influence of host framework vacancies, charge carriers, and large defects such as grain boundaries on the low-temperature thermal conductivity of type-I clathrates. Since for waste heat recovery the thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures is of interest, a sophisticated 3w-experiment for accurate measurements of bulk and thin film materials at elevated temperatures was developed. With the help of this experiment, a universal dependence of the intrinsic phonon thermal conductivity of type-I clathrates on the sound velocity and the lowest-lying guest Einstein mode was demonstrated for the first time. Further investigations on thermoelectric materials including the first Ce-containing type-I clathrate, skutterudites, and thin films complete this doctoral work. (author)

  2. Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for NOx emission prediction in biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshfar, Ehsan; Skreiberg, Øyvind; Glarborg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Because of the complex composition of biomass, the chemical mechanism contains many different species and therefore a large number of reactions. Although biomass gas‐phase combustion is fairly well researched and understood, the proposed mechanisms are still complex and need very long computational...... time and powerful hardware resources. A reduction of the mechanism for biomass volatile oxidation has therefore been performed to avoid these difficulties. The selected detailed mechanism in this study contains 81 species and 703 elementary reactions. Necessity analysis is used to determine which...... reactions and chemical species, that is, 35 species and 198 reactions, corresponding to 72% reduction in the number of reactions and, therefore, improving the computational time considerably. Yet, the model based on the reduced mechanism predicts correctly concentrations of NOx and CO that are essentially...

  3. Thermal and mechanical properties of TPU/PBT reinforced by carbon fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jintao; Liu, Huanyu; Lu, Xiang; Qu, Jinping, E-mail: jpqu@scut.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center of Novel Equipment for Polymer Processing, The Key Laboratory of Polymer Processing Engineering of the Ministry of Education, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640, Guangdong (China)

    2016-03-09

    In this study, thermal, mechanical properties and processability were performed on a series of carbon fiber (CF) filled thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/poly (butylene terephthalate) (PBT) composites to identify the effect of CF weight fraction on the properties of TPU/PBT. Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM) show that CFs are uniformly dispersed in TPU/PBT matrix and there are no agglomerations. Melt flow index (MFI) show that the melt viscosity increased with the CF loading. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the introduction of CF into organic materials tend to improve their thermal stability. The mechanical properties indicated that tensile strength and modulus, flexural strength and modulus, improved with an increase in CF loading, but the impact strength decreased by the loading of CF.

  4. A New Model for Optimal Mechanical and Thermal Performance of Cement-Based Partition Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiping; Hu, Mengyu; Huang, Yonghui; Cui, Nannan; Wang, Weifeng

    2018-04-17

    The prefabricated cement-based partition wall has been widely used in assembled buildings because of its high manufacturing efficiency, high-quality surface, and simple and convenient construction process. In this paper, a general porous partition wall that is made from cement-based materials was proposed to meet the optimal mechanical and thermal performance during transportation, construction and its service life. The porosity of the proposed partition wall is formed by elliptic-cylinder-type cavities. The finite element method was used to investigate the mechanical and thermal behaviour, which shows that the proposed model has distinct advantages over the current partition wall that is used in the building industry. It is found that, by controlling the eccentricity of the elliptic-cylinder cavities, the proposed wall stiffness can be adjusted to respond to the imposed loads and to improve the thermal performance, which can be used for the optimum design. Finally, design guidance is provided to obtain the optimal mechanical and thermal performance. The proposed model could be used as a promising candidate for partition wall in the building industry.

  5. A New Model for Optimal Mechanical and Thermal Performance of Cement-Based Partition Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiping Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The prefabricated cement-based partition wall has been widely used in assembled buildings because of its high manufacturing efficiency, high-quality surface, and simple and convenient construction process. In this paper, a general porous partition wall that is made from cement-based materials was proposed to meet the optimal mechanical and thermal performance during transportation, construction and its service life. The porosity of the proposed partition wall is formed by elliptic-cylinder-type cavities. The finite element method was used to investigate the mechanical and thermal behaviour, which shows that the proposed model has distinct advantages over the current partition wall that is used in the building industry. It is found that, by controlling the eccentricity of the elliptic-cylinder cavities, the proposed wall stiffness can be adjusted to respond to the imposed loads and to improve the thermal performance, which can be used for the optimum design. Finally, design guidance is provided to obtain the optimal mechanical and thermal performance. The proposed model could be used as a promising candidate for partition wall in the building industry.

  6. Thermal and mechanical properties of polyamide 6/compatibilizer/clay nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, P.; Brito, G.F.; Cunha, C.T.C.; Araujo, E.M.; Melo, T.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the thermal and mechanical properties of Polyamide 6 (PA6)/compatibilizer/clay (CL20A) nanocomposites were investigated. The nanocomposites were prepared in a counter-rotating twin screw extruder at 240 deg C and 50 rpm, and characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetry (TG) and mechanical properties. XRD results showed that when the clay is mixed with PA6, the clay peak is shifted to lower 2θ angles, indicating that PA6 was intercalated between the clay platelets. For PA6/compatibilizer/clay system, the results indicated that a nanocomposite with exfoliated structure was formed. TG results showed that the thermal stability of PA6/CL20A and PA6/compatibilizer/CL20A was higher than that of neat PA6. The mechanical properties results showed that the addition of the compatibilizer to PA6/CL20A substantially increased the impact strength and decreased the stiffness. (author)

  7. Expanding thermal plasma chemical vapour deposition of ZnO:Al layers for CIGS solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, K.; Williams, B.L.; Mittal, A.; Knoops, H.C.M.; Kniknie, B.J.; Bakker, N.J.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Creatore, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) grown by expanding thermal plasma chemical vapour deposition (ETP-CVD) has demonstrated excellent electrical and optical properties, which make it an attractive candidate as a transparent conductive oxide for photovoltaic applications. However, when depositing

  8. Final Report: Improving the understanding of the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic behavior of consolidating granular salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stormont, John [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lampe, Brandon [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mills, Melissa [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Paneru, Laxmi [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lynn, Timothy [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Piya, Aayush [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-09

    The goal of this project is to improve the understanding of key aspects of the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic response of granular (or crushed) salt used as a seal material for shafts, drifts, and boreholes in mined repositories in salt. The project is organized into three tasks to accomplish this goal: laboratory measurements of granular salt consolidation (Task 1), microstructural observations on consolidated samples (Task 2), and constitutive model development and evaluation (Task 3). Task 1 involves laboratory measurements of salt consolidation along with thermal properties and permeability measurements conducted under a range of temperatures and stresses expected for potential mined repositories in salt. Testing focused on the role of moisture, temperature and stress state on the hydrologic (permeability) and thermal properties of consolidating granular salt at high fractional densities. Task 2 consists of microstructural observations made on samples after they have been consolidated to interpret deformation mechanisms and evaluate the ability of the constitutive model to predict operative mechanisms under different conditions. Task 3 concerns the development of the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic constitutive model for granular salt consolidation. The measurements and observations in Tasks 1 and 2 were used to develop a thermal-mechanical constitutive model. Accomplishments and status from each of these efforts is reported in subsequent sections of this report

  9. Bio-composites based on polypropylene reinforced with Almond Shells particles: Mechanical and thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essabir, H.; Nekhlaoui, S.; Malha, M.; Bensalah, M.O.; Arrakhiz, F.Z.; Qaiss, A.; Bouhfid, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Almond Shells (ASs) particles have been used as reinforcement in polypropylene matrix. • The SEBS-g-MA has been used to improve the adhesion between matrix and particles. • The mechanical and thermal properties of the composite have been improved by the AS. - Abstract: In this work, Almond Shells (ASs) particles are used as reinforcement in a thermoplastic matrix as polypropylene (PP). Composites containing Almond Shells (ASs) particles with and without compatibilizer (maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene; SEBS-g-MA) for various particle content (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 wt.%) was investigated by means of studying their mechanical, thermal and rheological properties. The composites were prepared in a twin-screw extruder and assessed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile testing and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). Results show a clear improvement in mechanical and rheological properties from the use of Almond Shells particles in the matrix without and with maleic anhydride compatibilizer, corresponding to a gain in Young’s modulus of 56.2% and 35% respectively, at 30 wt.% particle loading. Thermal analysis revealed that incorporation of particle in the composites resulted in increase in the initial thermal decomposition temperatures

  10. A comparative study of the mechanical behaviour of thermally oxidised commercially pure titanium and zirconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alansari, A; Sun, Y

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the mechanical behaviour of thermally oxidised commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) and commercially pure zirconium (CP-Zr). For this purpose, these two bio-metals were thermally oxidised under the same condition (650°C for 6h) and the oxidised specimens were characterised using various analytical and experimental techniques, including oxygen uptake analysis, layer thickness and hardness measurements, scratch tests, dry sliding friction and wear tests and tribocorrosion tests in Ringer's solution. The results show that under the present thermal oxidation condition, 4 times more oxygen is introduced into CP-Zr than into CP-Ti and the oxide layer produced on CP-Zr is nearly 6 times thicker than that on CP-Ti. Thermally oxidised CP-Zr possesses a higher hardness, a deeper hardening depth and better scratch resistance than thermally oxidised CP-Ti. Under dry sliding and tribocorrosion conditions, thermally oxidised CP-Zr also possesses much better resistance to material removal and a higher load bearing capacity than thermally oxidised CP-Ti. Thus, thermally oxidised Zr possesses much better mechanical behaviour than thermally oxidised Ti. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. COMTA - a computer code for fuel mechanical and thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, S.; Sawhney, S.S.; Anand, A.K.; Anantharaman, K.; Mehta, S.K.

    1979-01-01

    COMTA is a generalized computer code for integrity analysis of the free standing fuel cladding, with natural UO 2 or mixed oxide fuel pellets. Thermal and Mechanical analysis is done simultaneously for any power history of the fuel pin. For analysis, the fuel cladding is assumed to be axisymmetric and is subjected to axisymmetric load due to contact pressure, gas pressure, coolant pressure and thermal loads. Axial variation of load is neglected and creep and plasticity are assumed to occur at constant volume. The pellet is assumed to be made of concentric annuli. The fission gas release integral is dependent on the temperature and the power produced in each annulus. To calculate the temperature distribution in the fuel pin, the variation of bulk coolant temperature is given as an input to the code. Gap conductance is calculated at every time step, considering fuel densification, fuel relocation and gap closure, filler gas dilution by released fission gas, gap closure by expansion and irradiation swelling. Overall gap conductance is contributed by heat transfer due to the three modes; conduction convection and radiation as per modified Ross and Stoute model. Equilibrium equations, compatibility equations, stress strain relationships (including thermal strains and permanent strains due to creep and plasticity) are used to obtain triaxial stresses and strains. Thermal strain is assumed to be zero at hot zero power conditions. The boundary conditions are obtained for radial stresses at outside and inside surfaces by making these equal to coolant pressure and internal pressure respectively. A multi-mechanism creep model which accounts for thermal and irradiation creep is used to calculate the overall creep rate. Effective plastic strain is a function of effective stress and material constants. (orig.)

  12. Paraffin/expanded graphite phase change composites with enhanced thermal conductivity prepared by implanted β-SiC nanowires with chemical vapor deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhaoyu; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Huang, Zhaohui; Liu, Silin; Zhang, Weiyi; Liu, Yan'gai; Wu, Xiaowen; Fang, Minghao; Min, Xin

    2018-02-01

    Expanded graphite/β-SiC nanowires composites (ESNC) were prepared through chemical vapor deposition, and paraffin/expanded graphite/β-SiC nanowires composites (PESNC) were made through vacuum impregnation to overcome liquid leakage during phase transition and enhance the thermal conductivity of paraffin. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed no chemical interactions between the paraffin and ESNC. Differential scanning calorimetry estimated the temperature and latent heat of PESNC during melting to 45.73 °C and 124.31 J g-1, respectively. The respective values of these quantities during freezing were recorded as 48.93 °C and 124.14 J g-1. The thermal conductivity of PESNC was estimated to 0.75 W mK-1, which was 3.26-folds that of pure paraffin (0.23 W mK-1). PESNC perfectly maintained its phase transition after 200 melting-freezing cycles. The resulting ideal thermal conductivity, good chemical stability, thermal properties and thermal reliability of PESNC are promising for use in energy efficient buildings and solar energy systems.

  13. Thermal-work strain in law enforcement personnel during chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, M; Karis, A J; Tharion, W J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thermal safety standards for the use of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) ensembles have been established for various US occupations, but not for law enforcement personnel. Objectives: We examined thermal strain levels of 30 male US law enforcement personnel who participated in CBRN field training in Arizona, Florida, and Massachusetts. Methods: Physiological responses were examined using unobtrusive heart rate (HR) monitors and a simple thermoregulatory model to predict core temperature (Tc) using HR and environment. Results: Thermal strain levels varied by environments, activity levels, and type of CBRN ensemble. Arizona and Florida volunteers working in hot-dry and hot-humid environment indicated high heat strain (predicted max Tc>38.5°C). The cool environment of Massachusetts reduced thermal strain although thermal strains were occasionally moderate. Conclusions: The non-invasive method of using physiological monitoring and thermoregulatory modeling could improve law enforcement mission to reduce the risk of heat illness or injury. PMID:24999847

  14. Temperature buffer test. Hydro-mechanical and chemical/ mineralogical characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Olsson, Siv; Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Karnland, Ola; Kiviranta, Leena; Kumpulainen, Sirpa; Linden, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modeling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aspo HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two steel heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by rings of compacted Wyoming bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report presents the hydro-mechanical and chemical/mineralogical characterization program which was launched subsequent to the dismantling operation. The main goal has been to investigate if any significant differences could be observed between material from the field experiment and the reference material. The field samples were mainly taken from Ring 4 (located at the mid-section around the lower heater), in which the temperature in the innermost part reached 155 deg C. The following hydro-mechanical properties have been determined for the material (test technique within brackets): hydraulic conductivity (swelling pressure device), swelling pressure (swelling pressure device), unconfined compression strength (mechanical press), shear strength (triaxial cell) and retention properties (jar method). The following chemical/mineralogical properties (methods within brackets) were determined: anion analysis of water leachates (IC), chemical composition (ICP/AES+MS, EGA), cation exchange capacity (CEC, Cu-trien method) and exchangeable cations (exchange with NH4, ICPAES), mineralogical composition (XRD and FTIR), element distribution and microstructure (SEM and

  15. Local Chemical Ordering and Negative Thermal Expansion in PtNi Alloy Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Zhu, He; Zheng, Lirong; Fan, Longlong; Wang, Na; Rong, Yangchun; Ren, Yang; Chen, Jun; Deng, Jinxia; Xing, Xianran

    2017-12-13

    An atomic insight into the local chemical ordering and lattice strain is particular interesting to recent emerging bimetallic nanocatalysts such as PtNi alloys. Here, we reported the atomic distribution, chemical environment, and lattice thermal evolution in full-scale structural description of PtNi alloy nanoparticles (NPs). The different segregation of elements in the well-faceted PtNi nanoparticles is convinced by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Atomic pair distribution function (PDF) study evidences the coexistence of the face-centered cubic and tetragonal ordering parts in the local environment of PtNi nanoparticles. Further reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulation with PDF data obviously exposed the segregation as Ni and Pt in the centers of {111} and {001} facets, respectively. Layer-by-layer statistical analysis up to 6 nm for the local atomic pairs revealed the distribution of local tetragonal ordering on the surface. This local coordination environment facilitates the distribution of heteroatomic Pt-Ni pairs, which plays an important role in the negative thermal expansion of Pt 41 Ni 59 NPs. The present study on PtNi alloy NPs from local short-range coordination to long-range average lattice provides a new perspective on tailoring physical properties in nanomaterials.

  16. Thermal and chemical interaction of hot liquid sodium with limestone concrete in argon atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakir, Charan Parida; Sanjay, Kumar Das; Anil, Kumar Sharma; Ramesh, S.S.; Somayajulu, P.A.; Malarvizhi, B.; Kasinathan, N.; Rajan, M.

    2007-01-01

    Sodium cooled fast breeder reactors (FBRs) may experience accidental leakage of hot liquid sodium in the inert equipment cells and reactor cavity. The leaked sodium at temperature ranging from 120degC to 550degC can come in contact with the sacrificial layer of limestone concrete. In order to study the thermal and chemical impact of sodium on the limestone concrete, five experimental runs were carried out under different test conditions simulating accident scenarios as realistically as possible. In each experimental run, a given mass of liquid sodium preheated to a specified temperature was dumped on the surface of concrete specimen housed in a test vessel with argon atmosphere. The sodium pool formed on the concrete was heated with an immersion heater to maintain the pool temperature at pre-selected level. The temperatures at various strategic locations were continuously monitored throughout the test run. Online measurement of pressure, hydrogen gas and oxygen gas in argon atmosphere was conducted. The solid samples of sodium debris were retrieved from the posttest concrete specimen by manual core drilling device for chemical analysis of reacted and un-reacted sodium. After cleaning the sodium debris, a power-drilling machine was employed to collect powder samples at regular depth interval from the concrete block floor to determine residual free and bound water. This paper presents some of the dominant thermal and chemical features related to structural safety of the concrete. Among the thermal parameters, on-set time and residence period for Energetic Thermal Transients (ETT) along with peak and average heat generation rates are evaluated. Chemical parameters such as rate and extent of water release from concrete, sodium consumption, sodium hydroxide production and sodium emission into argon atmosphere are also elucidated. Physicochemical characteristics of post-test sodium and concrete debris were investigated. Moreover spatial distribution of sodium, free and

  17. Mechanical behavior of mullite green disks prepared by thermal consolidation with different starches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talou, M.H.; Tomba Martinez, A.G.; Camerucci, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical behavior of porous green disks obtained by thermal consolidation of mullite suspensions with cassava and potato starches was studied by diametral compression testing. Disks (thickness/diameter ≤ 0.25) were prepared by thermal treatment (70-80 °C, 2h) of mullite (75 vol%)/starch (25 vol%) of suspensions (40 vol%) pre-gelled at 55-60 °C, and dried (40 °C, 24 h). Samples were characterized by porosity measurements (50-55%) and microstructural analysis (SEM). Several mechanical parameters were determined: mechanical strength, Young's modulus, strain to fracture and yield stress. Typical crack patterns were analyzed and the fractographic analysis was performed by SEM. Mechanical results were related to the developed microstructures, the behavior of the starches in aqueous suspension, and the properties of the formed gels. For comparative purposes, mullite green disks obtained by burning out the starch (650 °C, 2h) were also mechanically evaluated. (author)

  18. Thermally activated reaction–diffusion-controlled chemical bulk reactions of gases and solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Möller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical kinetics of the reaction of thin films with reactive gases is investigated. The removal of thin films using thermally activated solid–gas to gas reactions is a method to in-situ control deposition inventory in vacuum and plasma vessels. Significant scatter of experimental deposit removal rates at apparently similar conditions was observed in the past, highlighting the need for understanding the underlying processes. A model based on the presence of reactive gas in the films bulk and chemical kinetics is presented. The model describes the diffusion of reactive gas into the film and its chemical interaction with film constituents in the bulk using a stationary reaction–diffusion equation. This yields the reactive gas concentration and reaction rates. Diffusion and reaction rate limitations are depicted in parameter studies. Comparison with literature data on tokamak co-deposit removal results in good agreement of removal rates as a function of pressure, film thickness and temperature.

  19. Mechanical and chemical recycling of solid plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaert, Kim; Delva, Laurens; Van Geem, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    This review presents a comprehensive description of the current pathways for recycling of polymers, via both mechanical and chemical recycling. The principles of these recycling pathways are framed against current-day industrial reality, by discussing predominant industrial technologies, design strategies and recycling examples of specific waste streams. Starting with an overview on types of solid plastic waste (SPW) and their origins, the manuscript continues with a discussion on the different valorisation options for SPW. The section on mechanical recycling contains an overview of current sorting technologies, specific challenges for mechanical recycling such as thermo-mechanical or lifetime degradation and the immiscibility of polymer blends. It also includes some industrial examples such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) recycling, and SPW from post-consumer packaging, end-of-life vehicles or electr(on)ic devices. A separate section is dedicated to the relationship between design and recycling, emphasizing the role of concepts such as Design from Recycling. The section on chemical recycling collects a state-of-the-art on techniques such as chemolysis, pyrolysis, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrogen techniques and gasification. Additionally, this review discusses the main challenges (and some potential remedies) to these recycling strategies and ground them in the relevant polymer science, thus providing an academic angle as well as an applied one. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A study on thermal and mechanical properties of mechanically milled HDPE and PP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, S.; Tan, S.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, mechanical mixing of HDPE and PP was performed via ball milling. Prepared compositions were 75/25 , 50/50 , 25/75 w/w HDPE/PP. Milling time and ball to powder ratio (B/P) were kept constant and system was cooled by adding solid CO 2 to improve the milling efficiency. To compare these systems with traditional methods, mixtures were also melt mixed by Brabender Plasti-Corder. Both milled and melt mixed systems were examined with DSC for thermal properties and tensile testing for mechanical properties Results are discussed by comparing milled , melt mixed and as-received polymers. It is observed that, unlike ball milled systems' in melt mixed systems mechanical properties are composition dependent. In addition , ball milling results in amorphization of both polymers and very high amounts of PP (75wt %) creates very amorphous HDPE structure. (Original)

  1. Studies on thermal degradation and termite resistant properties of chemically modified wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, M.; Saikia, C.N. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Regional Research Laboratory, Jorhat (India); Baruah, K.K. [Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat (India)

    2002-09-01

    A series of experiments were carried out to examine the resistant capacity of a chemically treated hard wood, Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb) Miq. to thermal and termite degradation. The treatment with thermosetting resins viz. urea formaldehyde (UF), melamine formaldehyde (MF) and phenol formaldehyde (PF) at 31-33 levels of weight percent gain (WPG) increased the strength property i.e. modulus of rupture (MOR) by 7.50-21.02% and stiffness i.e. modulus of elasticity (MOE) by 9.50-12.18% over the untreated one with no remarkable effect on specific gravity. The treated samples were found resistant to termite attack, while the untreated one was badly damaged by termites on 12 months' exposure to a termite colony. The thermal degradations of untreated and treated wood samples were studied using thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) techniques at heating rates 20 and 30 {sup o}Cmin{sup -1} in temperature range 30-650{sup o}C. The treated wood was found to be thermally more stable than the untreated one. (author)

  2. ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS - THE THERMAL DESORPTION UNIT - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELI ECO Logic International, Inc.'s Thermal Desorption Unit (TDU) is specifically designed for use with Eco Logic's Gas Phase Chemical Reduction Process. The technology uses an externally heated bath of molten tin in a hydrogen atmosphere to desorb hazardous organic compounds fro...

  3. Thermal and mechanical pain sensitization in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilaqua-Grossi, Debora; Zanin, Marilia; Benedetti, Camila; Florencio, Lidiane; Oliveira, Anamaria

    2018-02-26

    The aim was to assess sensitization using quantitative sensory testing in mechanical and thermal modes in individuals with and without osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Pain thresholds were correlated with functionality, symptoms of depression and intensity of pain. Thirty control volunteers and 30 patients with OA of the knee were assessed. Punctate pain thresholds using Von Frey filaments and thermal pain thresholds using a Thermal Sensory Analyzer were evaluated in the periarticular region of the knee and forearm. Using a digital pressure algometer, pressure pain thresholds were assessed in the periarticular region of the knee and on the root exit zone on the lumbar and sacral spine. Punctate, pressure, and thermal pain thresholds differed significantly between participants with and without OA (p pain sensitization. Pressure pain thresholds also showed moderate and negative correlations with data on functionality, symptoms of depression and intensity of pain (-0.36  -0.56), contributing up to 30% of their variability. Allodynia and hyperalgesia were demonstrated in the OA group, suggesting central sensitization in patients with mild to moderate severity of joint damage. Correlation between mechanical hypersensitivity and psychosocial factors seems to be small, despite of its significance.

  4. Use of labelled atoms in thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.; Beckman, I.N.

    1985-01-01

    The article informs of the preparation of labelled samples for which the most frequently used radionuclides are 14 C, 3 H or 2 H, 32 P, 35 S and others as well as radioactive gases such as 85 Kr, 133 Xe or 220 Rn and 222 Rn. The equipment is described for the application of labelled atoms in thermal analysis consisting of a detector for measuring radioactivity and a system for measuring thermal analysis parameters. Examples are given of the use of labelled atoms in the study of chemical reactions of solids, in autoradiography or in Moessbauer spectroscopy. The greatest attention is devoted to the use of labelled atoms in emanation thermal analysis. By this technique it is possible to study chemical reactions and phase transformations, to continuously monitor changes in the surface and morphology of dispersion substances, to characterize the mobility of defects in the structure of solids and the active state of the structure of solids and to ascertain mechanical, radiation and chemical effects on solids. Attention is also devoted to the technological applications of emanation thermal analysis (the solidification of cement paste, calcination and the firing of the mixture of oxides for the manufacture of ferrites). (E.S.)

  5. Surface-modified polymeric pads for enhanced performance during chemical mechanical planarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S.; Dakshinamurthy, S.; Kuiry, S.C.; Vaidyanathan, R.; Obeng, Y.S.; Seal, S.

    2005-01-01

    The chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process occurs at an atomic level at the slurry/wafer interface and hence slurries and polishing pads play a critical role in their successful implementation. Polyurethane is a commonly used polymer in the manufacturing of CMP pads. These pads are incompatible with some chemicals present in the CMP slurries, such as hydrogen peroxide. To overcome these problems, Psiloquest has developed new Application Specific Pads (ASP). Surface of such pads has been modified by depositing a thin film of tetraethyl orthosilicate using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. In the present study, mechanical properties of such coated pads have been investigated using nanoindentation. The surface morphology and the chemistry of the ASP were studied using scanning electron microcopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. It was observed that mechanical and chemical properties of the pad top surface are a function of the PECVD coating time. Such PECVD-treated pads are found to be hydrophilic and do not require storage in aqueous media during the not-in-use period. The metal removal rate using such surface-modified polishing pads was found to increase linearly with the PECVD coating time

  6. Process Parameters for Successful Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes by Chemical Vapor Deposition: Implications for Chemical Mechanisms and Life-cycle Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ke

    Manufacturing of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) calls for thermal treatment associated with gas-phase rearrangement and catalyst deposition to achieve high cost efficiency and limited influence on environmental impact. Taking advantage of higher degree of structure control and economical efficiency, catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) has currently become the most prevailing synthesis approach for the synthesis of large-scale pure CNTs in past years. Because the synthesis process of CNTs dominates the potential ecotoxic impacts, materials consumption, energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions should be further limited to efficiently reduce life cycle ecotoxicity of carbon naotubes. However, efforts to reduce energy and material requirements in synthesis of CNTs by CCVD are hindered by a lack of mechanistic understanding. In this thesis, the effect of operating parameters, especially the temperature, carbon source concentration, and residence time on the synthesis were studied to improve the production efficiency in a different angle. Thus, implications on the choice of operating parameters could be provided to help the synthesis of carbon nanotubes. Here, we investigated the typical operating parameters in conditions that have yielded successful CNT production in the published academic literature of over seventy articles. The data were filtered by quality of the resultant product and deemed either "successful" or "unsuccessful" according to the authors. Furthermore, growth rate data were tabulated and used as performance metric for the process whenever possible. The data provided us an opportunity to prompt possible and common methods for practioners in the synthesis of CNTs and motivate routes to achieve energy and material minimization. The statistical analysis revealed that methane and ethylene often rely on thermal conversion process to form direct carbon precursor; further, methane and ethylene could not be the direct

  7. Nanoscale thermal-mechanical probe determination of 'softening transitions' in thin polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jing; Berry, Brian; Douglas, Jack F; Karim, Alamgir; Snyder, Chad R; Soles, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    We report a quantitative study of the softening behavior of glassy polystyrene (PS) films at length scales on the order of 100 nm using nano-thermomechanometry (nano-TM), an emerging scanning probe technique in which a highly doped silicon atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip is resistively heated on the surface of a polymer film. The apparent 'softening temperature' T s of the film is found to depend on the logarithm of the square root of the thermal ramping rate R. This relation allows us to estimate a quasi-equilibrium (or zero rate) softening transition temperature T s0 by extrapolation. We observe marked shifts of T s0 with decreasing film thickness, but the nature of these shifts, and even their sign, depend strongly on both the thermal and mechanical properties of the supporting substrate. Finite element simulations suggest that thin PS films on rigid substrates with large thermal conductivities lead to increasing T s0 with decreasing film thickness, whereas softer, less thermally conductive substrates promote reductions in T s0 . Experimental observations on a range of substrates confirm this behavior and indicate a complicated interplay between the thermal and mechanical properties of the thin PS film and the substrate. This study directly points to relevant factors for quantitative measurements of thermophysical properties of materials at the nanoscale using this nano-TM based method.

  8. Modification of Akhieser mechanism in Si nanomembranes and thermal conductivity dependence of the Q-factor of high frequency nanoresonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chávez-Ángel, E; Gomis-Bresco, J; Alzina, F; Sotomayor Torres, C M; Zarate, R A

    2014-01-01

    We present and validate a reformulated Akhieser model that takes into account the reduction of thermal conductivity due to the impact of boundary scattering on the thermal phonons’ lifetime. We consider silicon nanomembranes with mechanical mode frequencies in the GHz range as textbook examples of nanoresonators. The model successfully accounts for the measured shortening of the mechanical mode lifetime. Moreover, the thermal conductivity is extracted from the measured lifetime of the mechanical modes in the high-frequency regime, thereby demonstrating that the Q-factor can be used as an indication of the thermal conductivity and/or diffusivity of a mechanical resonator. (invited article)

  9. Calcium incorporation in graphene oxide particles: A morphological, chemical, electrical, and thermal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Kelly L.S. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Curti, Raphael V.; Araujo, Joyce R.; Landi, Sandra M.; Ferreira, Erlon H.M.; Neves, Rodrigo S.; Kuznetsov, Alexei; Sena, Lidia A. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Archanjo, Braulio S., E-mail: bsarchanjo@inmetro.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Achete, Carlos A. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Surface chemical modification and functionalization are common strategies used to provide new properties or functionalities to a material or to enhance existing ones. In this work, graphene oxide prepared using Hummers' method has been chemically modified with calcium ions by immersion in a calcium carbonate solution. Transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that graphene oxide (GO) and calcium incorporated graphene oxide have a morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. X-ray diffraction and Fourier-infrared spectroscopy show that calcium carbonate residue was completely removed by hydrochloric acid washes. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping showed spatially homogeneous calcium in Ca-incorporated graphene oxide sample after HCl washing. This Ca is mainly ionic according to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and its incorporation promoted a small reduction in the graphene oxide structure, corroborated also by four-point probe measurements. A thermal study shows a remarkable increase in the GO stability with the presence of Ca{sup 2+} ions. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide has been chemically modified with Ca ions by immersion in a CaCO{sub 3} solution. • GO–Ca has morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. • CaCO{sub 3} residue was completely removed by acid washes, leaving only ionic calcium. • EDS maps show that Ca incorporation is spatially homogeneous in GO structure. • Thermal analyses show a remarkable increase in GO stability after Ca incorporation.

  10. Calcium incorporation in graphene oxide particles: A morphological, chemical, electrical, and thermal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Kelly L.S.; Curti, Raphael V.; Araujo, Joyce R.; Landi, Sandra M.; Ferreira, Erlon H.M.; Neves, Rodrigo S.; Kuznetsov, Alexei; Sena, Lidia A.; Archanjo, Braulio S.; Achete, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Surface chemical modification and functionalization are common strategies used to provide new properties or functionalities to a material or to enhance existing ones. In this work, graphene oxide prepared using Hummers' method has been chemically modified with calcium ions by immersion in a calcium carbonate solution. Transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that graphene oxide (GO) and calcium incorporated graphene oxide have a morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. X-ray diffraction and Fourier-infrared spectroscopy show that calcium carbonate residue was completely removed by hydrochloric acid washes. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping showed spatially homogeneous calcium in Ca-incorporated graphene oxide sample after HCl washing. This Ca is mainly ionic according to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and its incorporation promoted a small reduction in the graphene oxide structure, corroborated also by four-point probe measurements. A thermal study shows a remarkable increase in the GO stability with the presence of Ca"2"+ ions. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide has been chemically modified with Ca ions by immersion in a CaCO_3 solution. • GO–Ca has morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. • CaCO_3 residue was completely removed by acid washes, leaving only ionic calcium. • EDS maps show that Ca incorporation is spatially homogeneous in GO structure. • Thermal analyses show a remarkable increase in GO stability after Ca incorporation.

  11. Mechanical and Thermal Characterisation of a TT Half-Module Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Lehner, F; Pangilinan, M; Siegler, M

    2005-01-01

    This note describes the mechanical effects of thermal cycles on a TT half-module, to demonstrate that the detectors can withstand the expected thermal gradients without damage. The stress transferred by the carbon fiber rails and the ceramic to the silicon sensors was investigated, and the deformation that occurred during these tests was measured by strain gauges that were attached to sensors on a test half-module. In addition, heat transfer through the carbon fiber rails was studied. Furthermore, we present a comparison of different materials proposed to build the carbon fiber rails of the modules.

  12. Unraveling the structure and chemical mechanisms of highly oxygenated intermediates in oxidation of organic compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhandong

    2017-11-28

    Decades of research on the autooxidation of organic compounds have provided fundamental and practical insights into these processes; however, the structure of many key autooxidation intermediates and the reactions leading to their formation still remain unclear. This work provides additional experimental evidence that highly oxygenated intermediates with one or more hydroperoxy groups are prevalent in the autooxidation of various oxygenated (e.g., alcohol, aldehyde, keto compounds, ether, and ester) and nonoxygenated (e.g., normal alkane, branched alkane, and cycloalkane) organic compounds. These findings improve our understanding of autooxidation reaction mechanisms that are routinely used to predict fuel ignition and oxidative stability of liquid hydrocarbons, while also providing insights relevant to the formation mechanisms of tropospheric aerosol building blocks. The direct observation of highly oxygenated intermediates for the autooxidation of alkanes at 500–600 K builds upon prior observations made in atmospheric conditions for the autooxidation of terpenes and other unsaturated hydrocarbons; it shows that highly oxygenated intermediates are stable at conditions above room temperature. These results further reveal that highly oxygenated intermediates are not only accessible by chemical activation but also by thermal activation. Theoretical calculations on H-atom migration reactions are presented to rationalize the relationship between the organic compound’s molecular structure (n-alkane, branched alkane, and cycloalkane) and its propensity to produce highly oxygenated intermediates via extensive autooxidation of hydroperoxyalkylperoxy radicals. Finally, detailed chemical kinetic simulations demonstrate the influence of these additional reaction pathways on the ignition of practical fuels.

  13. Unraveling the structure and chemical mechanisms of highly oxygenated intermediates in oxidation of organic compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhandong; Popolan-Vaida, Denisia M.; Chen, Bingjie; Moshammer, Kai; Mohamed, Samah; Wang, Heng; Sioud, Salim; Raji, Misjudeen; Kohse-Hö inghaus, Katharina; Hansen, Nils; Dagaut, Philippe; Leone, Stephen R.; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    Decades of research on the autooxidation of organic compounds have provided fundamental and practical insights into these processes; however, the structure of many key autooxidation intermediates and the reactions leading to their formation still remain unclear. This work provides additional experimental evidence that highly oxygenated intermediates with one or more hydroperoxy groups are prevalent in the autooxidation of various oxygenated (e.g., alcohol, aldehyde, keto compounds, ether, and ester) and nonoxygenated (e.g., normal alkane, branched alkane, and cycloalkane) organic compounds. These findings improve our understanding of autooxidation reaction mechanisms that are routinely used to predict fuel ignition and oxidative stability of liquid hydrocarbons, while also providing insights relevant to the formation mechanisms of tropospheric aerosol building blocks. The direct observation of highly oxygenated intermediates for the autooxidation of alkanes at 500–600 K builds upon prior observations made in atmospheric conditions for the autooxidation of terpenes and other unsaturated hydrocarbons; it shows that highly oxygenated intermediates are stable at conditions above room temperature. These results further reveal that highly oxygenated intermediates are not only accessible by chemical activation but also by thermal activation. Theoretical calculations on H-atom migration reactions are presented to rationalize the relationship between the organic compound’s molecular structure (n-alkane, branched alkane, and cycloalkane) and its propensity to produce highly oxygenated intermediates via extensive autooxidation of hydroperoxyalkylperoxy radicals. Finally, detailed chemical kinetic simulations demonstrate the influence of these additional reaction pathways on the ignition of practical fuels.

  14. Thermal and mechanical behavior of metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M. (Editor); Moeller, Helen H. (Editor); Johnson, W. S. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference discusses local stresses in metal-matrix composites (MMCs) subjected to thermal and mechanical loads, the computational simulation of high-temperature MMCs' cyclic behavior, an analysis of a ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) flexure specimen, and a plasticity analysis of fibrous composite laminates under thermomechanical loads. Also discussed are a comparison of methods for determining the fiber-matrix interface frictional stresses of CMCs, the monotonic and cyclic behavior of an SiC/calcium aluminosilicate CMC, the mechanical and thermal properties of an SiC particle-reinforced Al alloy MMC, the temperature-dependent tensile and shear response of a graphite-reinforced 6061 Al-alloy MMC, the fiber/matrix interface bonding strength of MMCs, and fatigue crack growth in an Al2O3 short fiber-reinforced Al-2Mg matrix MMC.

  15. Coupling effects of chemical stresses and external mechanical stresses on diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuan Fuzhen; Shao Shanshan; Wang Zhengdong; Tu Shantung

    2009-01-01

    Interaction between diffusion and stress fields has been investigated extensively in the past. However, most of the previous investigations were focused on the effect of chemical stress on diffusion due to the unbalanced mass transport. In this work, the coupling effects of external mechanical stress and chemical stress on diffusion are studied. A self-consistent diffusion equation including the chemical stress and external mechanical stress gradient is developed under the framework of the thermodynamic theory and Fick's law. For a thin plate subjected to unidirectional tensile stress fields, the external stress coupled diffusion equation is solved numerically with the help of the finite difference method for one-side and both-side charging processes. Results show that, for such two types of charging processes, the external stress gradient will accelerate the diffusion process and thus increase the value of concentration while reducing the magnitude of chemical stress when the direction of diffusion is identical to that of the stress gradient. In contrast, when the direction of diffusion is opposite to that of the stress gradient, the external stress gradient will obstruct the process of solute penetration by decreasing the value of concentration and increasing the magnitude of chemical stress. For both-side charging process, compared with that without the coupling effect of external stress, an asymmetric distribution of concentration is produced due to the asymmetric mechanical stress field feedback to diffusion.

  16. On formation mechanism of Pd-Ir bimetallic nanoparticles through thermal decomposition of [Pd(NH3)4][IrCl6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanova, Tatyana I.; Asanov, Igor P.; Kim, Min-Gyu; Gerasimov, Evgeny Yu.; Zadesenets, Andrey V.; Plyusnin, Pavel E.; Korenev, Sergey V.

    2013-10-01

    The formation mechanism of Pd-Ir nanoparticles during thermal decomposition of double complex salt [Pd(NH3)4][IrCl6] has been studied by in situ X-ray absorption (XAFS) and photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies. The changes in the structure of the Pd and Ir closest to the surroundings and chemical states of Pd, Ir, Cl, and N atoms were traced in the range from room temperature to 420 °C in inert atmosphere. It was established that the thermal decomposition process is carried out in 5 steps. The Pd-Ir nanoparticles are formed in pyramidal/rounded Pd-rich (10-200 nm) and dendrite Ir-rich (10-50 nm) solid solutions. A d charge depletion at Ir site and a gain at Pd, as well as the intra-atomic charge redistribution between the outer d and s and p electrons of both Ir and Pd in Pd-Ir nanoparticles, were found to occur.

  17. On formation mechanism of Pd–Ir bimetallic nanoparticles through thermal decomposition of [Pd(NH3)4][IrCl6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asanova, Tatyana I.; Asanov, Igor P.; Kim, Min-Gyu; Gerasimov, Evgeny Yu.; Zadesenets, Andrey V.; Plyusnin, Pavel E.; Korenev, Sergey V.

    2013-01-01

    The formation mechanism of Pd–Ir nanoparticles during thermal decomposition of double complex salt [Pd(NH 3 ) 4 ][IrCl 6 ] has been studied by in situ X-ray absorption (XAFS) and photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies. The changes in the structure of the Pd and Ir closest to the surroundings and chemical states of Pd, Ir, Cl, and N atoms were traced in the range from room temperature to 420 °C in inert atmosphere. It was established that the thermal decomposition process is carried out in 5 steps. The Pd–Ir nanoparticles are formed in pyramidal/rounded Pd-rich (10–200 nm) and dendrite Ir-rich (10–50 nm) solid solutions. A d charge depletion at Ir site and a gain at Pd, as well as the intra-atomic charge redistribution between the outer d and s and p electrons of both Ir and Pd in Pd–Ir nanoparticles, were found to occur.Graphical Abstract

  18. Structure and Mechanical Properties of Al-Cu-Fe-X Alloys with Excellent Thermal Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Školáková, Andrea; Novák, Pavel; Mejzlíková, Lucie; Průša, Filip; Salvetr, Pavel; Vojtěch, Dalibor

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the structure and mechanical properties of innovative Al-Cu-Fe based alloys were studied. We focused on preparation and characterization of rapidly solidified and hot extruded Al-Cu-Fe, Al-Cu-Fe-Ni and Al-Cu-Fe-Cr alloys. The content of transition metals affects mechanical properties and structure. For this reason, microstructure, phase composition, hardness and thermal stability have been investigated in this study. The results showed exceptional thermal stability of these allo...

  19. Analysis of thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior near an emplacement drift at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2002-01-01

    A coupled thermal, hydrologic and mechanical (THM) analysis is conducted to evaluate the impact of coupled THM processes on the performance of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The analysis considers changes in rock mass porosity, permeability, and capillary pressure caused by rock deformations during drift excavation, as well as those caused by thermo-mechanically induced rock deformations after emplacement of the heat-generating waste. The analysis consists of a detailed calibration of coupled hydraulic-mechanical rock mass properties against field experiments, followed by a prediction of the coupled thermal, hydrologic, and mechanical behavior around a potential repository drift. For the particular problem studied and parameters used, the analysis indicates that the stress-induced permeability changes will be within one order of magnitude and that these permeability changes do not significantly impact the overall flow pattern around the repository drift

  20. Radiation Improved Mechanical and Thermal Property of PP/HDPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaisupaditsin, M.; Thammit, C.; Techakiatkul, C.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanical properties, thermal properties and gel contents of PP-irradiated HDPE blends were studied. HDPE was gamma irradiated in the dose range of 10-30 kGy. The ratios of polymer blends of 30PP:70HDPE was mixed by a twin screw extruder at speed of 50 rpm. Irradiated HDPE with 30 kGy showed the highest gel contents. The blends ratio of 30PP:70HDPE (30 kGy) shows better heat resistance than the blends with non-irradiated HDPE. With increasing the radiation doses, the mechanical properties of the blends were improved

  1. An electrothermal chemical technology for thermal spray coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, S.; Appelbaum, G.; Alimi, R.; Rabani, L.; Zoler, D.; Zhitomirsky, V.; Factor, M.; Roman, I.

    1998-01-01

    A new spray technology for producing hard-coatings, has been developed at the SOREQ Nuclear Research Center. The concept is based on the extensive experience accumulated at SOREQ in the course of the development of Electrothermal (ET), Electrothermal-Chemical (ETC) and Solid-Propellant Electrothermal-Chemical (SPETC) guns(r). High quality coatings may be obtained by thermal spraying powder particles onto a variety of substrates. Mature state-of-the-art technologies such as plasma spray, high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) and detonation gun (D-Gun) are widely used for many applications. As each method has its own drawbacks there is a need for a combination of several parameters which cannot be achieved by any existing individual commercial technology. The method presented is oriented toward a high-quality, multi-step, high-throughput, easily programmable continuous coating process and relatively inexpensive technology. The combustion products of a solid or liquid propellant accelerate the powder particles of the coating material. A pulsed-plasma jet, provided by a confined capillary discharge, ignites the propellant and controls the combustion process. The powder particles are accelerated to velocities over 1000 m/s. Due to the very high carrier gas density, high velocity, high throughput and high powder consumption efficiency are obtained. The plasma jet enables control of the gas temperature and consequently influences the powder temperature

  2. Flue Gas Desulfurization by Mechanically and Thermally Activated Sodium Bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walawska Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of study on structural parameters (particle size, surface area, pore volume and the sorption ability of mechanically and thermally activated sodium bicarbonate. The sorption ability of the modified sorbent was evaluated by: partial and overall SO2 removal efficiency, conversion rate, normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR. Sodium bicarbonate was mechanically activated by various grinding techniques, using three types of mills: fluid bed opposed jet mill, fine impact mill and electromagnetic mill, differing in grinding technology. Grounded sorbent was thermally activated, what caused a significant development of surface area. During the studies of SO2 sorption, a model gas with a temperature of 300°C, of composition: sulfur dioxide at a concentration of 6292 mg/mn3, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen as a carrier gas, was used. The best development of surface area and the highest SO2 removal efficiency was obtained for the sorbent treated by electromagnetic grinding, with simultaneous high conversion rate.

  3. Metallographic examination of TD-nickel base alloys. [thermal and chemical etching technique evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. D.; Petrovic, J. J.; Ebert, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques are evaluated for chemical, electrochemical, and thermal etching of thoria dispersed (TD) nickel alloys. An electrochemical etch is described which yielded good results only for large grain sizes of TD-nickel. Two types of thermal etches are assessed for TD-nickel: an oxidation etch and vacuum annealing of a polished specimen to produce an etch. It is shown that the first etch was somewhat dependent on sample orientation with respect to the processing direction, the second technique was not sensitive to specimen orientation or grain size, and neither method appear to alter the innate grain structure when the materials were fully annealed prior to etching. An electrochemical etch is described which was used to observe the microstructures in TD-NiCr, and a thermal-oxidation etch is shown to produce better detail of grain boundaries and to have excellent etching behavior over the entire range of grain sizes of the sample.

  4. Thermal, chemical and spectral equilibration in heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almási, Gábor András, E-mail: g.almasi@gsi.de [Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, GSI, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Wolf, György, E-mail: wolf.gyorgy@wigner.mta.hu [Wigner RCP, Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-11-15

    We have considered the equilibration in relativistic heavy ion collisions at energies 1–7 A GeV using our transport model. We applied periodic boundary conditions to close the system in a box. We found that the thermal equilibration takes place in the first 20–40 fm/c whose time is comparable to the duration of a heavy ion collision. The chemical equilibration is a much slower process and the system does not equilibrate in a heavy ion collision. We have shown that in the testparticle simulation of the Boltzmann equation the mass spectra of broad resonances follow instantaneously their in-medium spectral functions as expected from the Markovian approximation to the Kadanoff–Baym equations employed via the (local) gradient expansion.

  5. Thermal stresses in hexagonal materials - heat treatment influence on their mechanical behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloaguen, D.; Freour, S.; Guillen, R.; Royer, J.; Francois, M.

    2004-01-01

    Internal stresses due to anisotropic thermal and plastic properties were investigated in rolled zirconium and titanium. The thermal stresses induced by a cooling process were predicted using a self-consistent model and compared with experimental results obtained by X-ray diffraction. The study of the elastoplastic response during uniaxial loading was performed along the rolling and the transverse direction of the sheet, considering the influence of the texture and the thermal stresses on the mechanical behaviour. An approach in order to determine the thermal behaviour of phases embedded in two-phase materials is also presented. For zirconium, the residual stresses due to thermal anisotropy are rather important (equivalent to 35% of the yield stress) and consequently they play an important role on the elastoplastic transition contrary to titanium. The study of two-phase material shows the influence and the interaction of the second phase on the thermal behaviour in the studied phase

  6. Mechanical and Chemical Signaling in Angiogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume of Studies in Mechanobiology, Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials describes the most recent advances in angiogenesis research at all biological length scales: molecular, cellular and tissue, in both in vivo and in vitro settings.  Angiogenesis experts from diverse fields including engineering, cell and developmental biology, and chemistry have contributed chapters which focus on the mechanical and chemical signals which affect and promote blood vessel growth. Specific emphasis is given to novel methodologies and biomaterials that have been developed and applied to angiogenesis research. 

  7. Infrared laser-induced chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Mikio

    1978-01-01

    The experimental means which clearly distinguishes between infrared ray-induced reactions and thermal reactions has been furnished for the first time when an intense monochromatic light source has been obtained by the development of infrared laser. Consequently, infrared laser-induced chemical reactions have started to develop as one field of chemical reaction researches. Researches of laser-induced chemical reactions have become new means for the researches of chemical reactions since they were highlighted as a new promising technique for isotope separation. Specifically, since the success has been reported in 235 U separation using laser in 1974, comparison of this method with conventional separation techniques from the economic point of view has been conducted, and it was estimated by some people that the laser isotope separation is cheaper. This report briefly describes on the excitation of oscillation and reaction rate, and introduces the chemical reactions induced by CW laser and TEA CO 2 laser. Dependence of reaction yield on laser power, measurement of the absorbed quantity of infrared ray and excitation mechanism are explained. Next, isomerizing reactions are reported, and finally, isotope separation is explained. It was found that infrared laser-induced chemical reactions have the selectivity for isotopes. Since it is evident that there are many examples different from thermal and photo-chemical reactions, future collection of the data is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. Kinetic mechanism for modeling of electrochemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervenka, Petr; Hrdlička, Jiří; Přibyl, Michal; Snita, Dalimil

    2012-04-01

    We propose a kinetic mechanism of electrochemical interactions. We assume fast formation and recombination of electron donors D- and acceptors A+ on electrode surfaces. These mediators are continuously formed in the electrode matter by thermal fluctuations. The mediators D- and A+, chemically equivalent to the electrode metal, enter electrochemical interactions on the electrode surfaces. Electrochemical dynamics and current-voltage characteristics of a selected electrochemical system are studied. Our results are in good qualitative agreement with those given by the classical Butler-Volmer kinetics. The proposed model can be used to study fast electrochemical processes in microsystems and nanosystems that are often out of the thermal equilibrium. Moreover, the kinetic mechanism operates only with the surface concentrations of chemical reactants and local electric potentials, which facilitates the study of electrochemical systems with indefinable bulk.

  9. Conversion of thermall energy to mechanical work in the oscillations with steam condensation in pool water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aya, Izuo; Nariai, Hideki.

    1988-01-01

    Pressure and fluid oscillations with steam injection into pool water were discussed from the view point of the conversion of thermal energy into mechanical work. When the change of fluid state moves clockwise in the p-V diagram, the oscillation sustains since the thermal energy changes into positive work. The equations difining the mechanical work at the condensation oscillations were presented. The oscillation threshold determined by the condition that mechanical work became zero, coincided with the values derived by the linear oscillation theory. The changes of pressure and specific volume during chugging were also shown with one dimensional simulation analysis. The p-V diagrams at various chugging modes were presented with the movement of steam water interface, and the conversion efficiency of thermal energy to mechanical work was also discussed. (author)

  10. A computational environment for creating and testing reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, C.J.; Swensen, D.A.; Harding, T.V.; Cremer, M.A.; Bockelie, M.J. [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (USA)

    2002-02-01

    This paper describes software called computer assisted reduced mechanism problem solving environment (CARM-PSE) that gives the engineer the ability to rapidly set up, run and examine large numbers of problems comparing detailed and reduced (approximate) chemistry. CARM-PSE integrates the automatic chemical mechanism reduction code CARM and the codes that simulate perfectly stirred reactors and plug flow reactors into a user-friendly computational environment. CARM-PSE gives the combustion engineer the ability to easily test chemical approximations over many hundreds of combinations of inputs in a multidimensional parameter space. The demonstration problems compare detailed and reduced chemical kinetic calculations for methane-air combustion, including nitrogen oxide formation, in a stirred reactor and selective non-catalytic reduction of NOx, in coal combustion flue gas.

  11. Mechanical and thermal properties of environmentally friendly composites derived from sugar palm tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahari, J.; Sapuan, S.M.; Zainudin, E.S.; Maleque, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We successfully developed biocomposites derived from sugar palm tree. ► The addition of SPF improve the mechanical properties of biocomposites. ► The thermal stability of biocomposites increase with increasing of SPF. ► The water absorption of biocomposites decrease with increasing of SPF. ► We investigate the morphological fracture through scanning electron microscopy. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to study the effect of fibre content on mechanical properties, water absorption behaviour and thermal properties of sugar palm fibre (SPF) reinforced plasticized sugar palm starch (SPF/SPS) biocomposites. The biocomposites were prepared with different amounts of fibres (i.e. 10%, 20% and 30% by weight percent) by using glycerol as plasticizer for the starch. The mechanical properties of plasticized SPS improved with the incorporation of fibres. Fibre loading also increased the thermal stability of the biocomposite in this investigation. Water uptake and moisture content of SPF/SPS biocomposites decreased with the incorporation of fibres, which is due to better interfacial bonding between the matrix and fibres as well as the hindrance to absorption caused by the fibres. Fractographic studies through scanning electron microscopy showed homogeneous distribution of fibres and matrix with good adhesion which play an important role in improving the mechanical properties of biocomposites

  12. Interdependent effect of chemical composition and thermal history on artificial aging of AA6061

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogatscher, S.; Antrekowitsch, H.; Uggowitzer, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the interdependent effect of chemical composition and thermal history on artificial aging was investigated for the aluminum alloy AA6061. Based on thermodynamic calculations, including Al, Fe, Cr, Zn, Ti, Mg, Si and Cu, model alloys exhibiting a maximum variation of the reachable solute super-saturation of elements relevant for precipitation hardening within the compositional limits of AA6061 were produced. The artificial aging behavior of these alloys at 175 °C was studied by tensile testing for two thermal histories, including very short- and long-term room temperature storage after quenching. Precipitation during artificial aging was investigated by an analysis of yield strength data. As generally expected, precipitation kinetics was found to depend strongly on the solute super-saturation in the case of very short room temperature storage. For artificial aging after long-term room temperature storage the kinetics showed almost no dependence on the chemical composition. This seems to be an exception from simple precipitation kinetics and can be explained based on the complex role of quenched-in vacancies in artificial aging of AA6061.

  13. Mechanical and thermal design of hybrid blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    The thermal and mechanical aspects of hybrid reactor blanket design considerations are discussed. This paper is intended as a companion to that of J. D. Lee of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory on the nuclear aspects of hybrid reactor blanket design. The major design characteristics of hybrid reactor blankets are discussed with emphasis on the areas of difference between hybrid reactors and standard fusion or fission reactors. Specific examples are used to illustrate the design tradeoffs and choices that must be made in hybrid reactor design. These examples are drawn from the work on the Mirror Hybrid Reactor

  14. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties of Crushed Sand Concrete containing Rubber Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Guendouz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, the rubber wastes are an important part of municipal solid waste. This work focuses on the recycling of rubber waste, specifically rubber waste of used shoes discharged into the nature and added in the mass of crushed sand concrete with percentage (10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. The physical (workability, fresh density, mechanical (compressive and flexural strength and thermal (thermal conductivity of different crushed sand concrete made are analyzed and compared to the respective controls. The use of rubber waste in crushed sand concrete contributes to reduce the bulk density and performance of sand concrete. Nevertheless, the use of rubber aggregate leads to a significant reduction in thermal conductivity, which improves the thermal insulation of crushed sand concrete.

  15. Thin circular cylinder under axisymmetrical thermal and mechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaudeau, F.; Zarka, J.; Gerij, J.

    1977-01-01

    To assess structural integrity of components subjected to cyclic thermal loadings one must look at thermal ratchetting as a possible failure mode. Considering a thin circular cylinder subjected to constant internal pressure and cyclically varying thermal gradient through the thickness Bree, J. Strain Analysis 2 (1967) No.3, obtained a diagram that serves as a foundation for many design rules (e.g.: ASME code). The upper part of the french LMFBR main vessel is subjected to an axisymmetrical axial thermal loading and an axial load (own weight). Operation of the reactor leads to cyclic variations of the axial thermal loading. The question that arises is whether or not the Bree diagram is realistic for such loading conditions. A special purpose computer code (Ratch) was developed to analyse a thin circular cylinder subjected to axisymmetrical mechanical and thermal loadings. The Mendelson's approach of this problem is followed. Classical Kirchoff-Love hypothesis of thin shells is used and a state of plane stress is assumed. Space integrations are performed by Gaussian quadrature in the axial direction and by Simpson's one third rule throughout the thickness. Thermoelastic-plastic constitutive equations are solved with an implicit scheme (Nguyen). Thermovisco-plastic constitutive equations are solved with an explicit time integration scheme (Treanor's algorithm especially fitted). A Bree type diagram is obtained for an axial step of temperature which varies cyclically and a sustained constant axial load. The material behavior is assumed perfectly plastic and creep effect is not considered. Results show that the domain where no ratchetting occurs is reduced when compared with the domain predicted by the Bree diagram

  16. Ni(II immobilization by bio-apatite materials: Appraisal of chemical, thermal and combined treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljivić-Ivanović Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal bones are natural and rich source of calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP, which was found to be a good sorbent material for heavy metals and radionuclides. Various treatments can reduce the content of bone organic phase and improve sorption properties. In this study, sorption capacities of raw bovine bones (B and samples obtained by chemical treatment with NaOH (BNaOH, by heating at 400 oC (B400 and by combined chemical and thermal treatment (BNaOH+400, were compared, using Ni(II ions as sorbates. Maximum sorption capacities increased in the order Bmechanism of Ni(II sorption was found to be complex, with participation of both HAP and organic phase (when present. Sequential extraction analysis was applied for testing the stability of Ni(II ions sorbed by BNaOH+400. Majority of Ni(II was found in residual phase (65% at lower level of sorbent loading, while with the increase of sorbent saturation carbonate fraction became dominant (39 %. According to the results, BNaOH+400 can be utilized in water purification systems. As an apatite based material with low organic content and high efficiency for Ni(II sorption, it is also a good candidate for in-situ soil remediation, particularly at lower contamination levels. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009

  17. Thermal mechanism of prepeak formation in Pulsed Glow Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, Maxim; Hoffmann, Volker; Steingrobe, Tobias; Buscher, Wolfgang; Engelhard, Carsten; Storey, Andrew; Ray, Steven; Hieftje, Gary

    2012-10-01

    A microsecond Pulsed Glow Discharge (μs PGD) in a Grimm-type source is characterized by the so-called ``prepeak,'' which is a spike in both electrical current and emission intensity at the leading edge of the discharge pulse. The prepeak is followed by synchronized vibrations of the current and the emission. To understand the nature of these phenomena, a microphone was inserted into the discharge chamber. Acoustical waves were detected and found to be in correlation with the measured vibrations. This points to a thermal mechanism for prepeak formation: the gas is heated in the leading edge of the discharge pulse and then expanded. To prove this suggestion, a Monte-Carlo based model was developed to simulate the evolution of Ar concentration, temperature, and flow in time and space. Potentially, the model could be used for gas simulations in a wide range of different applications. Here, the model is incorporated into an existing but modified model of the μs PGD in a Grimm-type plasma excitation source. Results of the simulations confirm that the thermal mechanism is responsible for the formation of the electrical prepeak and the pressure waves.

  18. Thermal-mechanical properties of a graphitic-nanofibers reinforced epoxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Jana, Soumen; Zhong, Wei-Hong

    2007-03-01

    We previously developed a series of reactive graphitic nanofibers (r-GNFs) reinforced epoxy (nano-epoxy) as composite matrices, which have shown good wetting and adhesion properties with continuous fiber. In this work, the thermal-mechanical properties of the nano-epoxy system containing EponTM Resin 828 and Epi-cure Curing Agent W were characterized. Results from three-point bending tests showed that the flexural strength and flexural modulus of this system with 0.30 wt% of reactive nanofibers were increased by 16%, and 21% respectively, over pure epoxy. Fracture toughness increased by ca. 40% for specimens with 0.50 wt% of r-GNFs. By dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) test, specimens with 0.30 wt% of r-GNFs showed a significant increase in storage modulus E' (by ca. 122%) and loss modulus E" (by ca. 111%) with respect to that of pure epoxy. Also thermo-dilatometry analysis (TDA) was used to measure dimensional change of specimens as a function of temperature, and then, coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) before and after glass transition temperature (Tg) were obtained. Results implied that nano-epoxy materials had good dimensional stability and reduced CTE values when compared to those of pure epoxy.

  19. Carbon nanotubes for thermal interface materials in microelectronic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei

    As the integration scale of transistors/devices in a chip/system keeps increasing, effective cooling has become more and more important in microelectronics. To address the thermal dissipation issue, one important solution is to develop thermal interface materials with higher performance. Carbon nanotubes, given their high intrinsic thermal and mechanical properties, and their high thermal and chemical stabilities, have received extensive attention from both academia and industry as a candidate for high-performance thermal interface materials. The thesis is devoted to addressing some challenges related to the potential application of carbon nanotubes as thermal interface materials in microelectronics. These challenges include: 1) controlled synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on various bulk substrates via chemical vapor deposition and the fundamental understanding involved; 2) development of a scalable annealing process to improve the intrinsic properties of synthesized carbon nanotubes; 3) development of a state-of-art assembling process to effectively implement high-quality vertically aligned carbon nanotubes into a flip-chip assembly; 4) a reliable thermal measurement of intrinsic thermal transport property of vertically aligned carbon nanotube films; 5) improvement of interfacial thermal transport between carbon nanotubes and other materials. The major achievements are summarized. 1. Based on the fundamental understanding of catalytic chemical vapor deposition processes and the growth mechanism of carbon nanotube, fast synthesis of high-quality vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on various bulk substrates (e.g., copper, quartz, silicon, aluminum oxide, etc.) has been successfully achieved. The synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on the bulk copper substrate by the thermal chemical vapor deposition process has set a world record. In order to functionalize the synthesized carbon nanotubes while maintaining their good vertical alignment

  20. Effects of potassium hydroxide post-treatments on the field-emission properties of thermal chemical vapor deposited carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Ying; Lee, Shih-Fong; Chang, Yung-Ping; Hsiao, Wei-Shao

    2011-12-01

    In this study, a simple potassium hydroxide treatment was applied to functionalize the surface and to modify the structure of multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown on silicon substrates by thermal chemical vapor deposition. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry were employed to investigate the mechanism causing the modified field-emission properties of carbon nanotubes. From our experimental data, the emitted currents of carbon nanotubes after potassium hydroxide treatment are enhanced by more than one order of magnitude compared with those of untreated carbon nanotubes. The emitted current density of carbon nanotubes increases from 0.44 mA/cm2 to 7.92 mA/cm2 after 30 minutes KOH treatment. This technique provides a simple, economical, and effective way to enhance the field-emission properties of carbon nanotubes.

  1. Mechanical, thermal and swelling properties of phosphorylated nanocellulose fibrils/PVA nanocomposite membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Muhammad Bilal Khan; Jahan, Zaib; Berg, Sigrun Sofie; Gregersen, Øyvind Weiby

    2017-12-01

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) have strong reinforcing properties when incorporated in a compatible polymer matrix. This work reports the effect of the addition of phosphorylated nanocellulose (PCNF) on the mechanical, thermal and swelling properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposite membranes. The incorporation of nanocellulose in PVA reduced the crystallinity at 0%RH. However, when the films were exposed to higher humidities the crystallinity increased. No apparent trend is observed for mechanical properties for dry membranes (0% RH). However, at 93% RH the elastic modulus increased strongly from 0.12MPa to 0.82MPa when adding 6% PCNF. At higher humidities, the moisture uptake has large influence on storage modulus, tan δ and tensile properties. Membranes containing 1% PCNF absorbed most moisture. Swelling, thermal and mechanical properties indicate a good potential for applying of PVA/phosphorylated nanocellulose composite membranes for CO 2 separation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Protein structure refinement using a quantum mechanics-based chemical shielding predictor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bratholm, Lars Andersen; Jensen, Jan Halborg

    2017-01-01

    The accurate prediction of protein chemical shifts using a quantum mechanics (QM)-based method has been the subject of intense research for more than 20 years but so far empirical methods for chemical shift prediction have proven more accurate. In this paper we show that a QM-based predictor...... of a protein backbone and CB chemical shifts (ProCS15, PeerJ, 2016, 3, e1344) is of comparable accuracy to empirical chemical shift predictors after chemical shift-based structural refinement that removes small structural errors. We present a method by which quantum chemistry based predictions of isotropic...

  3. Thermal energy storage in granular deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratuszny, Paweł

    2017-10-01

    Energy storage technology is crucial for the development of the use of renewable energy sources. This is a substantial constraint, however it can, to some extent, be solved by storing energy in its various forms: electrical, mechanical, chemical and thermal. This article presents the results of research in thermal properties of granular deposits. Correlation between temperature changes in the stores over a period of time and their physical properties has been studied. The results of the research have practical application in designing thermal stores based on bulk materials and ground deposits. Furthermore, the research results are significant for regeneration of the lower ground sources for heat pumps and provide data for designing ground heat exchangers for ventilation systems.

  4. Coarse grain model for coupled thermo-mechano-chemical processes and its application to pressure-induced endothermic chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antillon, Edwin; Banlusan, Kiettipong; Strachan, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    We extend a thermally accurate model for coarse grain dynamics (Strachan and Holian 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 014301) to enable the description of stress-induced chemical reactions in the degrees of freedom internal to the mesoparticles. Similar to the breathing sphere model, we introduce an additional variable that describes the internal state of the particles and whose dynamics is governed both by an internal potential energy function and by interparticle forces. The equations of motion of these new variables are derived from a Hamiltonian and the model exhibits two desired features: total energy conservation and Galilean invariance. We use a simple model material with pairwise interactions between particles and study pressure-induced chemical reactions induced by hydrostatic and uniaxial compression. These examples demonstrate the ability of the model to capture non-trivial processes including the interplay between mechanical, thermal and chemical processes of interest in many applications. (paper)

  5. Diffusion, Thermal Properties and Chemical Compatibilities of Select MAX Phases with Materials For Advanced Nuclear Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsoum, Michel [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bentzel, Grady [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tallman, Darin J. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sindelar, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcia-Diaz, Brenda [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hoffman, Elizabeth [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-04

    The demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron irradiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ ºC) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the chemical compatibility of select MAX with potential materials that are important for nuclear energy, as well as to measure the thermal transport properties as a function of neutron irradiation. The chemical counterparts chosen for this work are: pyrolytic carbon, SiC, U, Pd, FLiBe, Pb-Bi and Na, the latter 3 in the molten state. The thermal conductivities and heat capacities of non-irradiated MAX phases will be measured.

  6. Effects of alkali treatment on the mechanical and thermal properties of Sansevieria trifasciata fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiyati, Steven, Rizkiansyah, Raden Reza; Senoaji, A.; Suratman, R.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, Sansevieria trifasciata fibers were treated by NaOH with concentration 1%,3%, and 5wt% at 100°C for 2 hours. Chesson-Datta methods was used to determine the lignocellulose content of raw sansevieria fibers and to investigate effect of alkali treatment on lignin content of the fiber. Mechanical properties and thermal properties of treated and untreated fibers were measured by means of tensile testing machine and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).The cellulose and lignin contents of raw sansevieria fiber obtained from Chesson-Datta method were 56% and 6% respectively. Mechanical testing of fibers showed the increase of tensile strength from 647 MPa for raw fibers to 902 MPa for 5wt% NaOH treated fibers. TGA result showed the alkali treatment increase the thermal resistance of fibers from 288°C for raw fibers to 307°C for 5% NaOH treated fiber. It was found that alkali treatment affect the mechanical properties and thermal properties of sansevieria fibers.

  7. Chemical mechanical polishing characteristics of ITO thin film prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang-Yeon; Choi, Gwon-Woo; Kim, Yong-Jae; Choi, Youn-Ok; Kim, Nam-Oh

    2012-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films have attracted intensive interest because of their unique properties of good conductivity, high optical transmittance over the visible region and easy patterning ability. ITO thin films have found many applications in anti-static coatings, thermal heaters, solar cells, flat panel displays (FPDs), liquid crystal displays (LCDs), electroluminescent devices, sensors and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). ITO thin films are generally fabricated by using various methods, such as spraying, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), evaporation, electron gun deposition, direct current electroplating, high frequency sputtering, and reactive sputtering. In this research, ITO films were grown on glass substrates by using a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. In order to achieve a high transmittance and a low resistivity, we examined the various film deposition conditions, such as substrate temperature, working pressure, annealing temperature, and deposition time. Next, in order to improve the surface quality of the ITO thin films, we performed a chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) with different process parameters and compared the electrical and the optical properties of the polished ITO thin films. The best CMP conditions with a high removal rate, low nonuniformity, low resistivity and high transmittance were as follows: platen speed, head speed, polishing time, and slurry flow rate of 30 rpm, 30 rpm, 60 sec, and 60 ml/min, respectively.

  8. Thermal-mechanical aspects for radioactive waste storage into underground caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Alvaro.

    1985-12-01

    The thermal and mechanical behaviors of rock mass by analytical models, considering transient effects of the heat generation from radioactive wastes, are analysed. The models were applied to Brazilian gneissic type of rock, considering the usual design of vitrified waste cylinders individually installed into conveniently spaced holes. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. Physico-chemical and mechanical properties of microencapsulated phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giro-Paloma, Jessica; Oncins, Gerard; Barreneche, Camila; Martínez, Mònica; Fernández, A. Inés; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Microencapsulated phase change material MPCM (Micronal∗ DS 5001) was evaluated in this study. ► Due to the reported microcapsules breakage, physical and mechanical properties were analysed. ► Mechanical response was evaluated by AFM with indentation mode under different temperatures. ► The main result is that stiffness of MPCM depends on the temperature assay and particle size. - Abstract: Microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) are well known in advanced technologies for the utilization in active and passive systems, which have the capacity to absorb and slowly release the latent heat involved in a phase change process. Microcapsules consist of little containers, which are made of polymer on the outside, and paraffin wax as PCM in the inside. The use of microencapsulated PCM has many advantages as microcapsules can handle phase change materials as core allowing the preparation of slurries. However there are some concerns about cycling of MPCM slurries because of the breakage of microcapsules during charging/discharging and the subsequent loss of effectiveness. This phenomenon motivates the study of the mechanical response when a force is applied to the microcapsule. The maximum force that Micronal® DS 5001 can afford before breaking was determined by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). To simulate real conditions in service, assays were done at different temperatures: with the PCM in solid state at 25 °C, and with the PCM melted at 45 °C and 80 °C. To better understand the behavior of these materials, Micronal® DS 5001 microcapsules were characterized using different physic-chemical techniques. Microcapsules Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) results showed the main vibrations corresponding to acrylic groups of the outside polymer. Thermal stability was studied by Thermogravimetrical Analysis (TGA), and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) was used to characterize the resulting inorganic residue. The thermal properties were

  10. Mathematical Calculations Of Heat Transfer For The CNC Deposition Platform Based On Chemical Thermal Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Mohammed Sh.; Chiad, Bahaa T.; Hussein, Khalil A.

    2018-05-01

    Chemical thermal deposition techniques are highly depending on deposition platform temperature as well as surface substrate temperatures, so in this research thermal distribution and heat transfer was calculated to optimize the deposition platform temperature distribution, determine the power required for the heating element, to improve thermal homogeneity. Furthermore, calculate the dissipated thermal power from the deposition platform. Moreover, the thermal imager (thermal camera) was used to estimate the thermal destitution in addition to, the temperature allocation over 400cm2 heated plate area. In order to reach a plate temperature at 500 oC, a plate supported with an electrical heater of power (2000 W). Stainless steel plate of 12mm thickness was used as a heated plate and deposition platform and subjected to lab tests using element analyzer X-ray fluorescence system (XRF) to check its elemental composition and found the grade of stainless steel and found to be 316 L. The total heat losses calculated at this temperature was 612 W. Homemade heating element was used to heat the plate and can reach 450 oC with less than 15 min as recorded from the system.as well as the temperatures recorded and monitored using Arduino/UNO microcontroller with cold-junction-compensated K-thermocouple-to-digital converter type MAX6675.

  11. Mechanical and thermal stability of graphene and graphene-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galashev, A. E.; Rakhmanova, O. R.

    2014-10-01

    Graphene has rapidly become one of the most popular materials for technological applications and a test material for new condensed matter ideas. This paper reviews the mechanical properties of graphene and effects related to them that have recently been discovered experimentally or predicted theoretically or by simulation. The topics discussed are of key importance for graphene's use in integrated electronics, thermal materials, and electromechanical devices and include the following: graphene transformation into other sp^2 hybridization forms; stability to stretching and compression; ion-beam-induced structural modifications; how defects and graphene edges affect the electronic properties and thermal stability of graphene and related composites.

  12. MULTIDISCIPLINARY PROJECTS FOR SECOND YEAR CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARWAN M. SHAMEL

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the second semester of the second year of a Mechanical Engineering course, students are supposed to take a Module Outside the Main Discipline (MOMD. This module is chosen to be “Product Design Exercise” a module that is offered to Chemical Engineering students at the same stage. The aim was to expose students from both disciplines to an environment in which they are encouraged to interact with and engage team members with a relatively different background. The students were divided into eight groups all comprised of Chemical and Mechanical Engineering students, and they were offered different open-ended projects that were selected to exploit the knowledge developed by the students thus far and they were slightly skewed towards Chemical Engineering. The students demonstrated a high level of cooperation and motivation throughout the period of the project. Effective communication and closing of knowledge gaps were prevalent. At the end of the project period, students produced a journal paper in lieu of the project report.

  13. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Praseodymium Monopnictides: AN Ultrasonic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Vyoma; Kumar, Raj; Tripathy, Chinmayee; Singh, Devraj

    2013-09-01

    We have computed ultrasonic attenuation, acoustic coupling constants and ultrasonic velocities of praseodymium monopnictides PrX(X: N, P, As, Sb and Bi) along the , , in the temperature range 100-500 K using higher order elastic constants. The higher order elastic constants are evaluated using Coulomb and Born-Mayer potential with two basic parameters viz. nearest-neighbor distance and hardness parameter in the temperature range of 0-500 K. Several other mechanical and thermal parameters like bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson ratio, anisotropic ratio, tetragonal moduli, Breazeale's nonlinearity parameter and Debye temperature are also calculated. In the present study, the fracture/toughness (B/G) ratio is less than 1.75 which implies that PrX compounds are brittle in nature at room temperature. The chosen material fulfilled Born criterion of mechanical stability. We also found the deviation of Cauchy's relation at higher temperatures. PrN is most stable material as it has highest valued higher order elastic constants as well as the ultrasonic velocity. Further, the lattice thermal conductivity using modified approach of Slack and Berman is determined at room temperature. The ultrasonic attenuation due to phonon-phonon interaction and thermoelastic relaxation mechanisms have been computed using modified Mason's approach. The results with other well-known physical properties are useful for industrial applications.

  14. Change Spectroscopic, thermal and mechanical studies of PU/PVC blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hezma, A.M. [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, Giza (Egypt); Elashmawi, I.S. [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, Giza (Egypt); Physic Department, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Al-Ula (Saudi Arabia); Rajeh, A., E-mail: a.rajeh88@yahoo.com [Physic Department, Faculty of Science, Amran University, Sa' dah (Yemen); Physics Department, Faculty of science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Kamal, Mustafa [Physics Department, Faculty of science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    Blends of polyurethane (PU) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with different concentrations were prepared by casting method. The effects of PU on PVC blends was examined by Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR), Ultra-violet visible studies (UV/VIS.), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric (TGA), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and mechanical properties (stress–strain curve). The interaction between PU and PVC was examined by FT-IR through the absorbance of the N–H groups and was correlated to mechanical/thermal properties. Ultra-violet visible said that optical energy gap decrease with increasing concentration of PU. Differential scanning calorimetry results was observed a single glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) for blends this confirming existence miscibility within the blends. The causes for best thermal stability of some blends may be described by measurements of interactions between C=O groups of PU and the α-hydrogen of PVC or a dipole–dipole –C=O..Cl–C– interactions. Significant alterations in FTIR, X-ray and DSC examination shows an interactions between blends had good miscibility. X-ray shows some alterations in the intensity with additional PU. PU change the mechanical behavior of PVC through of the blends. When polyurethane content increase causes polyvinyl chloride tensile strength decreases and elongation at break increase.

  15. Use of Guided Acoustic Waves to Assess the Effects of Thermal-Mechanical Cycling on Composite Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Michael D.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new, advanced composite materials into aviation systems requires it thorough understanding of the long-term effects of combined thermal and mechanical loading. As part of a study to evaluate the effects of thermal-mechanical cycling, it guided acoustic (Lamb) wave measurement system was used to measure the bending and out-of-plane stiffness coefficients of composite laminates undergoing thermal-mechanical loading. The system uses a pulse/receive technique that excites an antisymmetric Lamb mode and measures the time-of-flight over a wide frequency range. Given the material density and plate thickness, the bending and out-of-plane shear stiffnesses are calculated from a reconstruction of the velocity dispersion curve. A series of 16 and 32-ply composite laminates were subjected to it thermal-mechanical loading profile in load frames equipped with special environmental chambers. The composite systems studied were it graphite fiber reinforced amorphous thermoplastic polyimide and it graphite fiber reinforced bismaleimide thermoset. The samples were exposed to both high and low temperature extremes its well as high and low strain profiles. The bending and out-of-plane stiffnesses for composite sample that have undergone over 6,000 cycles of thermal-mechanical loading are reported. The Lamb wave generated elastic stiffness results have shown decreases of up to 20% at 4,936 loading cycles for the graphite/thermoplastic samples and up to 64% at 4,706 loading cycles for the graphite/thermoset samples.

  16. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells to Electrochemical-Thermal (ECT) Models for Battery Crush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Pesaran, Ahmad; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbicki, Tom

    2016-06-14

    Vehicle crashes can lead to crushing of the battery, damaging lithium ion battery cells and causing local shorts, heat generation, and thermal runaway. Simulating all the physics and geometries at the same time is challenging and takes a lot of effort; thus, simplifications are needed. We developed a material model for simultaneously modeling the mechanical-electrochemical-thermal behavior, which predicted the electrical short, voltage drop, and thermal runaway behaviors followed by a mechanical abuse-induced short. The effect of short resistance on the battery cell performance was studied.

  17. Ab Initio Study of Electronic, Structural, Thermal and Mechanical Characterization of Cadmium Chalcogenides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Prasadh P.S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on Density Functional Theory, we have applied Full Potential Augmented Plane Wave plus local orbital method (FAPW+loto study the electronic, structural, optical, thermal and mechanical properties of some semiconducting materials. In this paper we discuss the Zinc blende, CdX (X = S, Se and Te compounds with the full-potential linear-augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW method within the framework of the density functional theory (DFT for electronic, structural, thermal and mechanical properties using the WIEN2k code. For the purpose of exchange-correlation energy (Exc determination in Kohn–Sham calculation, the standard local density approximation (LDA formalism is utilized. Murnaghan’s equation of state (EOS is used for volume optimization by minimizing the total energy with respect to the unit cell volume. The calculated lattice parameters and thermal parameters are in good agreement with other theoretical calculations as well as available experimental data.

  18. Effect of chemical disinfectant on the transverse strength of heat-polymerized acrylic resins subjected to mechanical and chemical polishing: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Smitha; Kavitha, H R; Konde, Harish; Kalahasti, Deepthi

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of chemical disinfectant on the transverse strength of heat-polymerized acrylic resins subjected to mechanical and chemical polishing. A total of 256 rectangular specimens (65 * 10 * 3 mm) 128 per resin (Lucitone-199 and Acralyn-H) were fabricated. One side of each specimen was not polished and the other was either mechanically (n = 96) or chemically (n = 96) polished and immersed for 10, 30 and 60 minutes in 2% alkaline glutaraldehyde. Mechanically polished (n = 32) and chemically polished (n = 32) control specimens were immersed only in distilled water. The transverse strength (N/mm(2)) was tested for failure in a universal testing machine, at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Data were statistically analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and Student t-test. chemical polishing resulted in significantly lower transverse strength values than mechanical polishing. Lucitone- 199 resin demonstrated the highest overall transverse strength for the materials tested. Heat-polymerized acrylic resins either mechanically or chemically polished, did not demonstrate significant changes in transverse strength during immersion in the disinfecting solution tested, regardless of time of immersion. Lucitone-199 resin demonstrated the highest overall transverse strength for the materials tested and significantly stronger than Acralyn-H with either type of polishing following immersion in 2% alkaline glutaraldehyde. There is a concern that immersion in chemical solutions often used for cleansing and disinfection of prostheses may undermine the strength and structure of denture base resins. In this study it was observed that, the transverse strength of samples of Lucitone-199 was higher than that of the samples of Acralyn-H. The chances of fracture of the denture made of Lucitone-199 are less than that of dentures made of Acralyn-H. The chemically polished dentures may be more prone to fracture than mechanically polished dentures.

  19. Thermal properties of cesium molybdate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Kazuo; Fukuda, Kousaku; Takano, Masahide; Sato, Seichi; Ohashi, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    Cesium is one of the most important fission products to aid in the understanding and prediction of the behavior of oxide nuclear fuels because of its high mobility, chemical reactivity, and large yield. In postirradiation examinations of the Phoenix reactor fuel pins, the accumulation of cesium and molybdenum between the fuel pellet and cladding was observed, though the chemical form was not determined. In the thermodynamic analyses of chemical states of fission products, Cs 2 MoO 4 was often predicted to exist as a stable compound in oxide fuels. The Cs 2 MoO 4 compound is thermodynamically stable under the conditions of light water reactors, fast breeder reactors, and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. In the Cs-Mo-O system several phases have been found, and the structural and thermodynamic properties were studied. At room temperature, Cs 2 MoO 4 has an orthorhombic structure and a phase transition occurs at 841 K to a hexagonal structure. Both structures are expected to exist in the fuel, depending on the fuel temperature. However, no data has been available on the thermal properties of CS 2 MoO 4 . In the current work, the thermal expansion and thermal conductivity of Cs 2 MoO 4 were determined, which are the basic data needed to understand and predict the fuel/clad mechanical interaction and fuel temperature

  20. Thermal Transport in Phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guangzhao; Hu, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Phosphorene, a novel elemental 2D semiconductor, possesses fascinating chemical and physical properties which are distinctively different from other 2D materials. The rapidly growing applications of phosphorene in nano/optoelectronics and thermoelectrics call for comprehensive studies of thermal transport properties. In this Review, based on the theoretical and experimental progresses, the thermal transport properties of single-layer phosphorene, multilayer phosphorene (nanofilms), and bulk black phosphorus are summarized to give a general view of the overall thermal conductivity trend from single-layer to bulk form. The mechanism underlying the discrepancy in the reported thermal conductivity of phosphorene is discussed by reviewing the effect of different functionals and cutoff distances on the thermal transport evaluations. This Review then provides fundamental insight into the thermal transport in phosphorene by reviewing the role of resonant bonding in driving giant phonon anharmonicity and long-range interactions. In addition, the extrinsic thermal conductivity of phosphorene is reviewed by discussing the effects of strain and substrate, together with phosphorene based heterostructures and nanoribbons. This Review summarizes the progress of thermal transport in phosphorene from both theoretical calculations and experimental measurements, which would be of significance to the design and development of efficient phosphorene based nanoelectronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Thermal and Mechanical Buckling and Postbuckling Responses of Selected Curved Composite Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Nicole L.; Hyer, Michael W.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an experimental and numerical study of the buckling and postbuckling responses of selected unstiffened curved composite panels subjected to mechanical end shortening and a uniform temperature increase are presented. The uniform temperature increase induces thermal stresses in the panel when the axial displacement is constrained. An apparatus for testing curved panels at elevated temperature is described, numerical results generated by using a geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis code are presented. Several analytical modeling refinements that provide more accurate representation of the actual experimental conditions, and the relative contribution of each refinement, are discussed. Experimental results and numerical predictions are presented and compared for three loading conditions including mechanical end shortening alone, heating the panels to 250 F followed by mechanical end shortening, and heating the panels to 400 F. Changes in the coefficients of thermal expansion were observed as temperature was increased above 330 F. The effects of these changes on the experimental results are discussed for temperatures up to 400 F.

  2. Chemical Mechanical Polishing Optimization for 4H-SiC

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neslen, Craig

    2000-01-01

    .... Preliminary chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) studies of 1 3/8" 4H-SiC wafers were performed in an attempt to identify the polishing parameter values that result in a maximum material removal rate and thus reduce substrate polishing time...

  3. ACCESS: Thermal Mechanical Design, Performance, and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, M. J.; McCandliss, S. R.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Wright, E. L.; Bohlin, R.; Kurucz, R. L.; Riess, A. G.; Pelton, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Benford, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.; Woodgate, B. E.

    2014-01-01

    Systematic errors associated with astrophysical data used to probe fundamental astrophysical questions, such as SNeIa observations used to constrain dark energy theories, are now rivaling and exceeding the statistical errors associated with these measurements. ACCESS: Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 - 1.7μm bandpass. Achieving this level of accuracy requires characterization and stability of the instrument and detector including a thermal background that contributes less than 1% to the flux per resolution element in the NIR. We will present the instrument and calibration status with a focus on the thermal mechanical design and associated performance data. The detector control and performance will be presented in a companion poster (Morris, et al). NASA APRA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.

  4. The effect of thermal conductivity of the tool electrode in spark-assisted chemical engraving gravity-feed micro-drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, M; Allagui, A; Ng, H D; Wüthrich, R

    2009-01-01

    Spark-assisted chemical engraving (SACE) is a non-traditional micro-machining technology based on electrochemical discharge phenomena. In SACE gravity-feed micro-drilling, various parameters including the thermal properties of the tool electrode play a significant role in the process. Based on a series of experiments using tool electrodes with different thermal properties, the effect in SACE gravity-feed micro-drilling is discussed. It is demonstrated that machining with higher thermal conductivity tool electrodes results in faster machining during the discharge regime and slower machining during the hydrodynamic regime of SACE gravity-feed micro-drilling

  5. Radiation-thermal degradation of PE and PVC: Mechanism of synergism and dose rate effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Roger L.; Gillen, Kenneth T.

    Polyethylene insulation and polyvinyl chloride jacketing materials that had been in use in a nuclear application were recently found to be substantially deteriorated. The damage had occurred under conditions where both the total estimated dose (about 2.5 Mrad) and the operating temperatures (about 43°C average) seemed relatively moderate. These results prompted us to initiate a program to study polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene degradation under conditions of combined γ-radiation and elevated temperature environments. A number of interesting aging effects were observed, including 1) a striking synergism between radiation and temperature and 2) strong dose-rate dependent effects which occur over a wide range of dose rates. The aging effects are explained in terms of a chain branching degradation mechanism involving thermally induced breakdown of peroxides which are formed in reactions initiated by the radiation. Evidence for this mechanism is derived from infrared spectra, from sequential radiation-elevated temperature experiments including experiments under inert atmosphere, from activation energy estimates and from a new technique involving treatment of intact samples with PH 3 for chemical reduction of peroxides. The results of our studies raise significant doubts about the utility of earlier compilations which purportedly serve as radiation life expectancy guides by indicating "tolerable radiation doses" for a variety of polymers.

  6. Accelerated thermal and radiative ageing of hydrogenated NBR for DRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mares, G.; Notingher, P.

    1996-01-01

    The accelerated thermal and gamma radiation ageing of HNBR carbon black-T80 has been studied by measuring the residual deformation under constant deflection -- DRC, in air, using a relevant equation for the relaxation phenomena. The residual deformation under constant deflection during the process of accelerated ageing is increasing but the structure of polymer answers in the proper manner to the mechanical stress. The degradation equations were obtained, using Alfrey model for the relaxation polymer subject to compression and an Arrhenius dependence for the chemical reaction rate. The inverted relaxation time for the thermal degradation is depending on the chemical reaction rate and the dose rate of gamma radiation

  7. Crack formation and crack propagation under multiaxial mechanical and thermal stresses. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The 25th meeting of the DV Fracture Group was held on 16/17 February 1993 at Karlsruhe Technical University. The main topic, ''Crack formation and crack propagation under multiaxial mechanical and thermal stresses'', was discussed by five invited papers (by K.J. Miller, D. Loehe, H.A. Richard, W. Brocks, A. Brueckner-Foit) and 23 short papers. The other 21 papers were devoted to various domains of fracture mechanics, with emphasis on elastoplastic fracture mechanics. (orig./MM) [de

  8. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Styrene Butadiene Rubber - Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Laoui, Tahar

    2013-01-01

    The effect of reinforcing styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) with functionalized carbon nanotubes on the mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposite was investigated. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were functionalized with phenol

  9. Mechanism for thermal relic dark matter of strongly interacting massive particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Yonit; Kuflik, Eric; Volansky, Tomer; Wacker, Jay G

    2014-10-24

    We present a new paradigm for achieving thermal relic dark matter. The mechanism arises when a nearly secluded dark sector is thermalized with the standard model after reheating. The freeze-out process is a number-changing 3→2 annihilation of strongly interacting massive particles (SIMPs) in the dark sector, and points to sub-GeV dark matter. The couplings to the visible sector, necessary for maintaining thermal equilibrium with the standard model, imply measurable signals that will allow coverage of a significant part of the parameter space with future indirect- and direct-detection experiments and via direct production of dark matter at colliders. Moreover, 3→2 annihilations typically predict sizable 2→2 self-interactions which naturally address the "core versus cusp" and "too-big-to-fail" small-scale structure formation problems.

  10. Preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol)-grafted graphene oxide/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites via in-situ low-temperature emulsion polymerization and their thermal and mechanical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengchang; Liu, Pengqing; Zhao, Xiangsen; Xu, Jianjun

    2017-02-01

    An in-situ polymerization combined with chemical grafting modification method for preparing Poly(vinyl alcohol)-grafted graphene oxide/Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA-g-GO/PVA) nanocomposites was reported. Firstly, Poly(vinyl acetate)-grafted graphene oxide/Poly(vinyl acetate) nanocomposites were prepared, and then the PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites could be obtained through alcoholysis reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and fourier-transform infrared spectrometer confirmed that the PVAc or PVA chains were successfully grafted to GO sheets during in-situ polymerization and alcoholysis. And the results from transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that the well compatibility and homogenous dispersion of PVA-g-GO in PVA matrix could be achieved. Differential scanning calorimetric, thermogravimetry analysis and tensile test were employed to study the thermal and mechanical properties of the PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites. The results indicated that a 53% improvement of tensile strength and a 36% improvement of Young's modulus were achieved by addition of 0.5 wt% of GO sheets. And the glass transition temperature of PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites was increased, and their thermal stability and crystallization degree were both decreased. Due to well dispersion of fillers and strong interfacial interactions at the filler-matrix interface, in-situ polymerization combined with chemical grafting modification was a good choice to prepare graphene/PVA nanocomposite with excellent mechanical properties.

  11. Thermal barrier coatings on gas turbine blades: Chemical vapor deposition (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igumenov, I. K.; Aksenov, A. N.

    2017-12-01

    Schemes are presented for experimental setups (reactors) developed at leading scientific centers connected with the development of technologies for the deposition of coatings using the CVD method: at the Technical University of Braunschweig (Germany), the French Aerospace Research Center, the Materials Research Institute (Tohoku University, Japan) and the National Laboratory Oak Ridge (USA). Conditions and modes for obtaining the coatings with high operational parameters are considered. It is established that the formed thermal barrier coatings do not fundamentally differ in their properties (columnar microstructure, thermocyclic resistance, thermal conductivity coefficient) from standard electron-beam condensates, but the highest growth rates and the perfection of the crystal structure are achieved in the case of plasma-chemical processes and in reactors with additional laser or induction heating of a workpiece. It is shown that CVD reactors can serve as a basis for the development of rational and more advanced technologies for coating gas turbine blades that are not inferior to standard electron-beam plants in terms of the quality of produced coatings and have a much simpler and cheaper structure. The possibility of developing a new technology based on CVD processes for the formation of thermal barrier coatings with high operational parameters is discussed, including a set of requirements for industrial reactors, high-performance sources of vapor precursors, and promising new materials.

  12. Mantle differentiation and thermal evolution of Mars, Mercury, and Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spohn, T.

    1991-01-01

    In the present models for the thermal evolution of Mercury, Venus, and Mars encompass core and mantle chemical differentiation, lithospheric growth, and volcanic heat-transfer processes. Calculation results indicate that crust and lithosphere thicknesses are primarily dependent on planet size as well as the bulk concentration of planetary radiogenic elements and the lithosphere's thermal conductivity. The evidence for Martian volcanism for at least 3.5 Gyr, and in Mercury for up to 1 Gyr, in conjunction with the presence of a magnetic field on Mercury and its absence on Mars, suggest the dominance of a lithospheric conduction heat-transfer mechanism in these planets for most of their thermal history; by contrast, volcanic heat piping may have been an important heat-transfer mechanism on Venus. 50 refs

  13. Mechanical and chemical properties of polyvinyl alcohol modified cement mortar with silica fume used as matrix including radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakroury, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discussed the mechanical and chemical properties of polyvinyl alcohol - modified cement mortar with silica fume to assess the safety for disposal of radioactive waste. The modified cement mortars containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in the presence of 10 % silica fume (SF) .The chemical reaction between polymer and cement - hydrated product were investigated by the Infrared Spectral Technology, Differential Thermal Analysis and X-ray diffraction. The leaching of 137Cs from a waste composite into a surrounding fluid has been studied .The results shown that PVA increases the strength and decreases the porosity. The increase in strength duo to the interaction of PVA with cement , may be forming some new compound that fill the pores or improve the bond between the cement . The pozzolanic reaction of the SF increases the calcium silicate hydrates in the hardening matrix composites. There is distinct change in the refinement of the pore structure in cement composites giving fewer capillary pores and more of the finer gel pores

  14. Development of a Mechanical Analysis System Considering Chemical Transitions of Barrier Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahara, F.; Murakami, T.; Ito, H.; Kobayashi, I.; Yokozeki, K.

    2006-01-01

    An analysis system for the long-term mechanical behavior of barrier materials (MACBECE: Mechanical Analysis system considering Chemical transitions of Bentonite-based and Cement-based materials) was developed in order to improve the reliability of the evaluation of the hydraulic field that is one of the important environmental conditions in the safety assessment of the TRU waste disposal in Japan. The MACBECE is a system that calculates the deformation of barrier materials using their chemical property changes as inputs, and subsequently their hydraulic conductivity taking both their chemical property changes and deformation into consideration. This paper provides a general description of MACBECE and the results of experimental analysis carried out using MACBECE. (authors)

  15. Thermal mechanical analysis of a solid breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquaro, Donato

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with a theoretical model of thermal mechanical behaviour of pebble beds, used as neutron multiplier or tritium breeder in the breeding blanket of a fusion nuclear reactor. The model tries to sum up the advantages of the two approaches ('discrete' method and macroscopic method), presently used for analysing the pebble bed behaviour, without their intrinsic disadvantages. The developed method has the capability to describe the microscopic behaviour of the single sphere (as the discrete approach does), and the capability to model complex structures under variable loads, typical of the macroscopic approach, without doing the unrealistic assumption of continuum homogeneous and isotropic material. The model describes the thermal mechanical behaviour of a single sphere compressed in elastic plastic conditions. The obtained relations have been extrapolated to regular lattices of spheres and subsequently to pebble beds (characterised by a macroscopic parameter called 'packing factor') of simple geometric shapes using statistical considerations. The results of the model have been assessed by comparison with results obtained by means of numerical simulations and experimental tests. The ongoing activity is the implementation in a FEM code of a new finite element, which represents one or several regular lattices of spheres, the non linear stiffness of which is obtained from the mono dimensional compression model of one sphere. The results of the numerical simulation permits to construct and display the strain and stress distribution of the single spheres by means of an implemented graphical interface

  16. Mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabato, S.F. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508 900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: sfsabato@ipen.br; Nakamurakare, N.; Sobral, P.J.A. [Food Engineering Department, ZEA/FZEA/USP, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte 225, 13635 900 Pirassununga, SP (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    Proteins are considered potential material in natural films as alternative to traditional packaging. When gamma radiation is applied to protein film forming solution it resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties of whey protein films. The objective of this work was the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on muscle proteins from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The films were prepared according to a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol and irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 0.550 MeV at dose range from 0 to 200 kGy. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter and a texture analyzer, respectively. Radiation from electron beam caused a slightly increase on its tensile strength characteristic at 100 kGy, while elongation value at this dose had no reduction.

  17. Mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabato, S.F.; Nakamurakare, N.; Sobral, P.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Proteins are considered potential material in natural films as alternative to traditional packaging. When gamma radiation is applied to protein film forming solution it resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties of whey protein films. The objective of this work was the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on muscle proteins from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The films were prepared according to a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol and irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 0.550 MeV at dose range from 0 to 200 kGy. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter and a texture analyzer, respectively. Radiation from electron beam caused a slightly increase on its tensile strength characteristic at 100 kGy, while elongation value at this dose had no reduction

  18. Thermal loads and their effect on integrity of mechanical systems and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, G.; Schoeckle, F.

    2010-01-01

    The initial step to establish a required quality status of systems and components is performed during the state of design. Main goal of the design is to consider every possible damage mechanism of the future operation (by specification of loads, medium and environment and the selection of the materials). The knowledge during the state of design determines the reliability of the component. Regarding the thermal loads, especially, only global parameters are specified usually (transients of flow and temperature connected to specified operation). These global transients are analyzed according to the standards. In operation, the safety (integrity) resp. remaining life of a component is determined by the real operation history. As experience showed, failures, defects and not specified (new) loads were discovered during operation, e.g. stratification effects in feedwater pipes and in surge lines or thermal effects in the region of valves due to switching or internal leakage. Standard surveillance in operation is performed using plant transducers that can only monitor global loads. However, problems usually are of local nature. Thermal loads like - turbulent temperatures due to mixing of media with different temperatures - temperature differences across shells or in regions of nozzles/thermal sleeves - temperature differences in piping cross sections (local and global stratification effects) - temperature differences along sections of piping systems have to be monitored by use of local instrumentation. During analysis, both the local loads and construction details have to be considered, in detail, using appropriate calculation / analysis tools. The complexity of the loads requires a comprehensive procedure: - determine the types of loads resulting from measured temperature transients - perform sensitivity studies to identify the load type that results in relevant stresses - evaluate the stresses of the significant loads - assess these stresses according to component

  19. Understanding the thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarathi, R.; Sahu, R.K.; Rajeshkumar, P.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, the electrical, mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy nanocomposite materials were studied. The electrical insulation characteristics were analyzed through short time breakdown voltage test, accelerated electrical ageing test, and by tracking test. The breakdown voltage increases with increase in nano-clay content up to 5 wt%, under AC and DC voltages. The volume resistivity, permittivity and tan(δ) of the epoxy nanocomposites were measured. The Weibull studies indicate that addition of nanoclay upto 5 wt% enhances the characteristic life of epoxy nanocomposite insulation material. The tracking test results indicate that the tracking time is high with epoxy nanocomposites as compared to pure epoxy. Ageing studies were carried out to understand the surface characteristic variation through contact angle measurement. The hydrophobicity of the insulating material was analysed through contact angle measurement. The diffusion coefficients of the material with different percentage of clay in epoxy nanocomposites were calculated. The exfoliation characteristics in epoxy nanocomposites were analyzed through wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) studies. The thermal behaviour of the epoxy nanocomposites was analyzed by carrying out thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) studies. Heat deflection temperature of the material was measured to understand the stability of the material for intermittent temperature variation. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results indicated that storage modulus of the material increases with small amount of clay in epoxy resin. The activation energy of the material was calculated from the DMA results

  20. A thermal and chemical degradation approach to decipher pristane and phytane precursors in sedimentary organic matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Koopmans, M.P.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Klapwijk, M.M.; Lewan, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    A thermal and chemical degradation approach was followed to determine the precursors of pristane (Pr) and phytane (Ph) in samples from the Gessoso-solfifera, Ghareb and Green River Formations. Hydrous pyrolysis of these samples yields large amounts of Pr and Ph carbon skeletons, indicating that

  1. Systematic comparison of mechanical and thermal sludge disintegration technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wett, B; Phothilangka, P; Eladawy, A

    2010-06-01

    This study presents a systematic comparison and evaluation of sewage sludge pre-treatment by mechanical and thermal techniques. Waste activated sludge (WAS) was pre-treated by separate full scale Thermo-Pressure-Hydrolysis (TDH) and ball milling facilities. Then the sludge was processed in pilot-scale digestion experiments. The results indicated that a significant increase in soluble organic matter could be achieved. TDH and ball milling pre-treatment could offer a feasible treatment method to efficiently disintegrate sludge and enhance biogas yield of digestion. The TDH increased biogas production by ca. 75% whereas ball milling allowed for an approximately 41% increase. The mechanisms of pre-treatment were investigated by numerical modeling based on Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) in the MatLab/SIMBA environment. TDH process induced advanced COD-solubilisation (COD(soluble)/COD(total)=43%) and specifically complete destruction of cell mass which is hardly degradable in conventional digestion. While the ball mill technique achieved a lower solubilisation rate (COD(soluble)/COD(total)=28%) and only a partial destruction of microbial decay products. From a whole-plant prospective relevant release of ammonia and formation of soluble inerts have been observed especially from thermal hydrolysis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Choking flow modeling with mechanical and thermal non-equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, H.J.; Ishii, M.; Revankar, S.T. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2006-01-15

    The mechanistic model, which considers the mechanical and thermal non-equilibrium, is described for two-phase choking flow. The choking mass flux is obtained from the momentum equation with the definition of choking. The key parameter for the mechanical non-equilibrium is a slip ratio. The dependent parameters for the slip ratio are identified. In this research, the slip ratio which is defined in the drift flux model is used to identify the impact parameters on the slip ratio. Because the slip ratio in the drift flux model is related to the distribution parameter and drift velocity, the adequate correlations depending on the flow regime are introduced in this study. For the thermal non-equilibrium, the model is developed with bubble conduction time and Bernoulli choking model. In case of highly subcooled water compared to the inlet pressure, the Bernoulli choking model using the pressure undershoot is used because there is no bubble generation in the test section. When the phase change happens inside the test section, two-phase choking model with relaxation time calculates the choking mass flux. According to the comparison of model prediction with experimental data shows good agreement. The developed model shows good prediction in both low and high pressure ranges. (author)

  3. Effect of Mo content on thermal and mechanical properties of Mo–Ru–Rh–Pd alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masahira, Yusuke; Ohishi, Yuji; Kurosaki, Ken; Muta, Hiroaki; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Komamine, Satoshi; Fukui, Toshiki; Ochi, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Metallic inclusions are precipitated in irradiated oxide fuels. The composition of the phases varies with the burnup and the conditions such as temperature gradients and oxygen potential of the fuel. In the present work, Mo x/(0.7+x) (Ru 0.5 Rh 0.1 Pd 0.1 ) (0.7)/(0.7+x) (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, and 0.25) alloys were prepared by arc melting, followed by annealing in a high vacuum. The thermal and mechanical properties of the alloys such as elastic moduli, Debye temperature, micro-Vickers hardness, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity have been evaluated to elucidate the effect of Mo content on these physical properties of the alloys. The alloys with lower Mo contents show higher thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of the alloy with x = 0 is almost twice of that of the alloy with x = 0.25. The thermal conductivities of the alloys are dominated by electronic contribution, which has been evaluated using the Wiedemann–Franz–Lorenz relation from the electrical resistivity data. It is confirmed that the variation of the Mo contents of the alloys considerably affects the mechanical and thermal properties of the alloys

  4. Influence of oxygen on the chemical stage of radiobiological mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barilla, Jiří; Lokajíček, Miloš V.; Pisaková, Hana; Simr, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The simulation of the chemical stage of radiobiological mechanism may be very helpful in studying the radiobiological effect of ionizing radiation when the water radical clusters formed by the densely ionizing ends of primary or secondary charged particle may form DSBs damaging DNA molecules in living cells. It is possible to study not only the efficiency of individual radicals but also the influence of other species or radiomodifiers (mainly oxygen) being present in water medium during irradiation. The mathematical model based on Continuous Petri nets (proposed by us recently) will be described. It makes it possible to analyze two main processes running at the same time: chemical radical reactions and the diffusion of radical clusters formed during energy transfer. One may study the time change of radical concentrations due to the chemical reactions running during diffusion process. Some orientation results concerning the efficiency of individual radicals in DSB formation (in the case of Co60 radiation) will be presented; the influence of oxygen present in water medium during irradiation will be shown, too. - Highlights: • Creation of the mathematical model. • Realization of the model with the help of Continuous Petri nets. • Obtain the time dependence of changes in the concentration of radicals. • Influence of oxygen on the chemical stage of radiobiological mechanism.

  5. Study on thermal and mechanical properties of U-tube materials for steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rheu, Woo Suk; Kang, Young Hwan; Park, Jong Man; Joo, Ki Nam; Kim, Sung Soo; Maeng, Wan Young; Park, Se Jin

    1993-01-01

    Most of domestic nuclear plants have used I600 TT material for steam generator U-tube, and piled up the field experience. I600 HTMA and I690 TT, however, are recommended for an alternative of U-tube by ABB-CE since YK-3 and 4. Field experience of I600 HTMA and I690 TT have not compiled in the country, so it is concerned to select the future materials for U-tube. Thus, database on the thermal and mechanical properties of U-tube materials is very necessary for design documentations. In this study, the thermal, mechanical and metallugical properties were tested and evaluated to establish the database for steam generator U-tube. In addition, thermal conductivity of I600 and I690 was measured and compared statistically, providing a basic document for applying I690 to U-tube. The results will be used to improve the manufacturing process in order to increase the integrity of U-tube. (Author)

  6. Mechanisms of thermally induced threshold voltage instability in GaN-based heterojunction transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shu; Liu, Shenghou; Liu, Cheng; Lu, Yunyou; Chen, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we attempt to reveal the underlying mechanisms of divergent V TH -thermal-stabilities in III-nitride metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistor (MIS-HEMT) and MOS-Channel-HEMT (MOSC-HEMT). In marked contrast to MOSC-HEMT featuring temperature-independent V TH , MIS-HEMT with the same high-quality gate-dielectric/III-nitride interface and similar interface trap distribution exhibits manifest thermally induced V TH shift. The temperature-dependent V TH of MIS-HEMT is attributed to the polarized III-nitride barrier layer, which spatially separates the critical gate-dielectric/III-nitride interface from the channel and allows “deeper” interface trap levels emerging above the Fermi level at pinch-off. This model is further experimentally validated by distinct V G -driven Fermi level movements at the critical interfaces in MIS-HEMT and MOSC-HEMT. The mechanisms of polarized III-nitride barrier layer in influencing V TH -thermal-stability provide guidelines for the optimization of insulated-gate III-nitride power switching devices

  7. Mechanical and thermal properties of HSC with fine natural pozzolana as SCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    KoÅ¥átková, Jaroslava; Čáchová, Monika; KoÅáková, Dana; Vejmelková, Eva; Reiterman, Pavel

    2017-07-01

    The paper is dealing with an influence of fine pozzolanic admixture supplementing a part of cement on various properties of high-strength concrete. The measured characteristics were basic physical properties, compressive strength and thermal properties (thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity). Replacing the cement by the natural pozzolana in higher dosages leads to the higher porosity and thus to the lower compressive strength of the developed material. Conversely, in case of lower amounts of pozzolana (up to 10% of weight) such replacement has an opposite consequence, the open porosity decreases which results in the higher compressive strength. Taking into account thermal properties which are enhanced by an increase of amount of pores, it is evident that it is necessary to optimize the amount of pozzolana (pozzolanic) admixture in order to obtain reasonable mechanical and thermal properties.

  8. An infrared measurement of chemical desorption from interstellar ice analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Y.; Tomaru, T.; Lamberts, T.; Kouchi, A.; Watanabe, N.

    2018-03-01

    In molecular clouds at temperatures as low as 10 K, all species except hydrogen and helium should be locked in the heterogeneous ice on dust grain surfaces. Nevertheless, astronomical observations have detected over 150 different species in the gas phase in these clouds. The mechanism by which molecules are released from the dust surface below thermal desorption temperatures to be detectable in the gas phase is crucial for understanding the chemical evolution in such cold clouds. Chemical desorption, caused by the excess energy of an exothermic reaction, was first proposed as a key molecular release mechanism almost 50 years ago1. Chemical desorption can, in principle, take place at any temperature, even below the thermal desorption temperature. Therefore, astrochemical network models commonly include this process2,3. Although there have been a few previous experimental efforts4-6, no infrared measurement of the surface (which has a strong advantage to quantify chemical desorption) has been performed. Here, we report the first infrared in situ measurement of chemical desorption during the reactions H + H2S → HS + H2 (reaction 1) and HS + H → H2S (reaction 2), which are key to interstellar sulphur chemistry2,3. The present study clearly demonstrates that chemical desorption is a more efficient process for releasing H2S into the gas phase than was previously believed. The obtained effective cross-section for chemical desorption indicates that the chemical desorption rate exceeds the photodesorption rate in typical interstellar environments.

  9. Effect of in vitro enzymatic degradation on 3D printed poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds: morphological, chemical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joana; Gloria, Antonio; Cometa, Stefania; Coelho, Jorge F J; Domingos, Marco

    2017-07-27

    In recent years, the tissue engineering (TE) field has significantly benefited from advanced techniques such as additive manufacturing (AM), for the design of customized 3D scaffolds with the aim of guided tissue repair. Among the wide range of materials available to biomanufacture 3D scaffolds, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) clearly arises as the synthetic polymer with the greatest potential, due to its unique properties - namely, biocompatibility, biodegradability, thermal and chemical stability and processability. This study aimed for the first time to investigate the effect of pore geometry on the in vitro enzymatic chain cleavage mechanism of PCL scaffolds manufactured by the AM extrusion process. Methods: Morphological properties of 3D printed PCL scaffolds before and after degradation were evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and micro-computed tomography (μ-CT). Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was employed to determine possible variations in the crystallinity of the scaffolds during the degradation period. The molecular weight was assessed using Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) while the mechanical properties were investigated under static compression conditions. Morphological results suggested a uniform reduction of filament diameter, while increasing the scaffolds' porosity. DSC analysis revealed and increment in the crystallinity degree while the molecular weight, evaluated through SEC, remained almost constant during the incubation period (25 days). Mechanical analysis highlighted a decrease in the compressive modulus and maximum stress over time, probably related to the significant weight loss of the scaffolds. All of these results suggest that PCL scaffolds undergo enzymatic degradation through a surface erosion mechanism, which leads to significant variations in mechanical, physical and chemical properties, but which has little influence on pore geometry.

  10. Flexible hybrid energy cell for simultaneously harvesting thermal, mechanical, and solar energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya; Zhang, Hulin; Zhu, Guang; Lee, Sangmin; Lin, Zong-Hong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-01-22

    We report the first flexible hybrid energy cell that is capable of simultaneously or individually harvesting thermal, mechanical, and solar energies to power some electronic devices. For having both the pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties, a polarized poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film-based nanogenerator (NG) was used to harvest thermal and mechanical energies. Using aligned ZnO nanowire arrays grown on the flexible polyester (PET) substrate, a ZnO-poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) heterojunction solar cell was designed for harvesting solar energy. By integrating the NGs and the solar cells, a hybrid energy cell was fabricated to simultaneously harvest three different types of energies. With the use of a Li-ion battery as the energy storage, the harvested energy can drive four red light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

  11. Effects of vacuum thermal cycling on mechanical and physical properties of high performance carbon/bismaleimide composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qi; Chen Ping; Gao Yu; Mu Jujie; Chen Yongwu; Lu Chun; Liu Dong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The level of cross-links was improved to a certain extent. → The thermal stability was firstly improved and then decreased. → The transverse and longitudinal CTE were both determined by the degree of interfacial debonding. → The mass loss ratio increases firstly and then reaches a plateau value. → The surface morphology was altered and the surface roughness increased firstly and then decreased. → The transverse tensile strength was reduced. → The flexural strength increased firstly and then decreased to a plateau value. → The ILSS increased firstly and then decreased to a plateau value. - Abstract: The aim of this article was to investigate the effects of vacuum thermal cycling on mechanical and physical properties of high performance carbon/bismaleimide (BMI) composites used in aerospace. The changes in dynamic mechanical properties and thermal stability were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The changes in linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) were measured in directions perpendicular and parallel to the fiber direction, respectively. The outgassing behavior of the composites were examined. The evolution of surface morphology and surface roughness were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Changes in mechanical properties including transverse tensile strength, flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) were measured. The results indicated that the vacuum thermal cycling could improve the crosslinking degree and the thermal stability of resin matrix to a certain extent, and induce matrix outgassing and thermal stress, thereby leading to the mass loss and the interfacial debonding of the composite. The degradation in transverse tensile strength was caused by joint effects of the matrix outgassing and the interfacial debonding, while the changes in flexural strength and ILSS were affected by a competing effect between the crosslinking degree

  12. Metal-Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposite Thermal Interface Materials with Ultralow Thermal Resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegin, Cengiz; Nagabandi, Nirup; Feng, Xuhui; King, Charles; Catalano, Massimo; Oh, Jun Kyun; Talib, Ansam J; Scholar, Ethan A; Verkhoturov, Stanislav V; Cagin, Tahir; Sokolov, Alexei V; Kim, Moon J; Matin, Kaiser; Narumanchi, Sreekant; Akbulut, Mustafa

    2017-03-22

    As electronic devices get smaller and more powerful, energy density of energy storage devices increases continuously, and moving components of machinery operate at higher speeds, the need for better thermal management strategies is becoming increasingly important. The removal of heat dissipated during the operation of electronic, electrochemical, and mechanical devices is facilitated by high-performance thermal interface materials (TIMs) which are utilized to couple devices to heat sinks. Herein, we report a new class of TIMs involving the chemical integration of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS), soft organic linkers, and a copper matrix-which are prepared by the chemisorption-coupled electrodeposition approach. These hybrid nanocomposites demonstrate bulk thermal conductivities ranging from 211 to 277 W/(m K), which are very high considering their relatively low elastic modulus values on the order of 21.2-28.5 GPa. The synergistic combination of these properties led to the ultralow total thermal resistivity values in the range of 0.38-0.56 mm 2 K/W for a typical bond-line thickness of 30-50 μm, advancing the current state-of-art transformatively. Moreover, its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is 11 ppm/K, forming a mediation zone with a low thermally induced axial stress due to its close proximity to the CTE of most coupling surfaces needing thermal management.

  13. Three-dimensional FE analysis of the thermal-mechanical behaviors in the nuclear fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yijie; Cui Yi; Huo Yongzhong; Ding Shurong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We establish three-dimensional finite element models for nuclear fuel rods. → The thermal-mechanical behaviors at the initial stage of burnup are obtained. → Several parameters on the in-pile performances are investigated. → The parameters have remarkable effects on the in-pile behaviors. → This study lays a foundation for optimal design and irradiation safety. - Abstract: In order to implement numerical simulation of the thermal-mechanical behaviors in the nuclear fuel rods, a three-dimensional finite element model is established. The thermal-mechanical behaviors at the initial stage of burnup in both the pellet and the cladding are obtained. Comparison of the obtained numerical results with those from experiments validates the developed finite element model. The effects of the constraint conditions, several operation and structural parameters on the thermal-mechanical performances of the fuel rod are investigated. The research results indicate that: (1) with increasing the heat generation rates from 0.15 to 0.6 W/mm 3 , the maximum temperature within the pellet increases by 99.3% and the maximum radial displacement at the outer surface of the pellet increases by 94.3%. And the maximum Mises stresses in the cladding all increase; while the maximum values of the first principal stresses within the pellet decrease as a whole; (2) with increasing the heat transfer coefficients between the cladding and the coolant, the internal temperatures reduce and the temperature gradient remains similar; when the heat transfer coefficient is lower than a critical value, the temperature change is sensitive to the heat transfer coefficient. The maximum temperature increases only 7.13% when h changes from 0.5 W/mm 2 K to 0.01 W/mm 2 K, while increases up to 54.7% when h decreases from 0.01 W/mm 2 K to 0.005 W/mm 2 K; (3) the initial gap sizes between the pellet and the cladding significantly affect the thermal-mechanical behaviors in the fuel rod; when the

  14. Thermal and Chemical Evolution of Collapsing Filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scannapieco, Evan [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration

    2013-01-15

    Intergalactic filaments form the foundation of the cosmic web that connect galaxies together, and provide an important reservoir of gas for galaxy growth and accretion. Here we present very high resolution two-dimensional simulations of the thermal and chemical evolution of such filaments, making use of a 32 species chemistry network that tracks the evolution of key molecules formed from hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon. We study the evolution of filaments over a wide range of parameters including the initial density, initial temperature, strength of the dissociating UV background, and metallicity. In low-redshift, Z ≈ 0.1Z filaments, the evolution is determined completely by the initial cooling time. If this is sufficiently short, the center of the filament always collapses to form dense, cold core containing a substantial fraction of molecules. In high-redshift, Z = 10-3Z filaments, the collapse proceeds much more slowly. This is due mostly to the lower initial temperatures, which leads to a much more modest increase in density before the atomic cooling limit is reached, making subsequent molecular cooling much less efficient. Finally, we study how the gravitational potential from a nearby dwarf galaxy affects the collapse of the filament and compare this to NGC 5253, a nearby starbusting dwarf galaxy thought to be fueled by the accretion of filament gas. In contrast to our fiducial case, a substantial density peak forms at the center of the potential. This peak evolves faster than the rest of the filament due to the increased rate at which chemical species form and cooling occur. We find that we achieve similar accretion rates as NGC 5253, but our two-dimensional simulations do not recover the formation of the giant molecular clouds that are seen in radio observations.

  15. The fuel and channel thermal/mechanical behaviour code FACTAR 2.0 (LOCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbye, C.J.; Mackinnon, J.C.; Gu, B.W.

    1996-01-01

    The computer code FACTAR 2.0 (LOCA) models the thermal and mechanical response of components within a single CANDU fuel channel under loss-of-coolant accident conditions. This code version is the successor to the FACTAR 1.x code series, and features many modelling enhancements over its predecessor. In particular, the thermal hydraulic treatment has been extended to model reverse and bi-directional coolant flow, and the axial variation in coolant flow rate. Thermal radiation is calculated by a detailed surface-to-surface model, and the ability to represent a greater range of geometries (including experimental configurations employed in code validation) has been implemented. Details of these new code treatments are described in this paper. (author)

  16. Advanced materials for thermal protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Sangvavann; Sherman, Andrew J.

    1996-03-01

    Reticulated open-cell ceramic foams (both vitreous carbon and silicon carbide) and ceramic composites (SiC-based, both monolithic and fiber-reinforced) were evaluated as candidate materials for use in a heat shield sandwich panel design as an advanced thermal protection system (TPS) for unmanned single-use hypersonic reentry vehicles. These materials were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition/infiltration (CVD/CVI) and evaluated extensively for their mechanical, thermal, and erosion/ablation performance. In the TPS, the ceramic foams were used as a structural core providing thermal insulation and mechanical load distribution, while the ceramic composites were used as facesheets providing resistance to aerodynamic, shear, and erosive forces. Tensile, compressive, and shear strength, elastic and shear modulus, fracture toughness, Poisson's ratio, and thermal conductivity were measured for the ceramic foams, while arcjet testing was conducted on the ceramic composites at heat flux levels up to 5.90 MW/m2 (520 Btu/ft2ṡsec). Two prototype test articles were fabricated and subjected to arcjet testing at heat flux levels of 1.70-3.40 MW/m2 (150-300 Btu/ft2ṡsec) under simulated reentry trajectories.

  17. High-temperature thermal-chemical analysis of nuclear fuel channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekhamkin, Y; Rosenband, V; Hasan, D; Elias, E; Wacholder, E; Gany, A [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel)

    1996-12-01

    In a severe accident situation, e.g., a postulated loss of coolant accident with a coincident loss of emergency core cooling (LOCA/LOECC), the core may become partially uncovered and steam may become the only coolant available. The thermodynamic conditions in the core, in this case, depend on ability of the steam to effectively remove the fuel decay heat and the heat generated by the exothermic steam/Zircaloy reaction., Therefore, it is important to understand the high-temperature behavior of an oxidizing fuel channel. The main objective of this work is to develop a methodology for calculating the clad temperature and rate of oxidation of a partially covered fuel pin. A criterion is derived to define the importance of the chemical reaction in the overall heat balance. The main parameters affecting the fuel thermal behavior are outlined (authors).

  18. Thermal creep effects on 20% cold worked AISI 316 mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.R.

    1980-09-01

    The effects of thermal creep on subsequent mechanical properties of 20% cold worked AISI 316 pressurized tubes were investigated. Specimens were subjected to temperatures of 811 to 977 0 K and stresses of 86 MPa to 276 MPa. This resulted in strains up to 1.3%. Subsequent mechanical property tests included load change stress rupture tests (original test pressure increased or decreased), uniaxial tensile tests, and temperature ramp burst tests. Load change stress rupture tests were consistent with predictions from isobaric tests, and thus, consistent with the linear life fraction rule. Tests with large stress increases and tests at 866 0 K displayed a tendency for earlier than predicted failure. Tensile and temperature ramp burst tests had only slight effects on material properties (property changes were attributed to thermal recovery). The test results showed that, under the conditions of investigation, dislocation structure recovery was the most significant effect of creep. 9 figures, 5 tables

  19. Differentiation of the molecular structure of nitro compounds as the basis for simulation of their thermal destruction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, V L; Pivina, Tatyana S; Sheremetev, Aleksei B [N.D.Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Porollo, A A [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati (United States); Petukhova, T V; Ivshin, Viktor P [Mari State University, Yoshkar-Ola (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-31

    Data on the experimental and theoretical studies of thermal decomposition of C- and N-nitro compounds of aliphatic, alicyclic, aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds, which formed the grounds for the development of ab initio approach to the prediction of the mechanisms of thermolysis of energetic compounds, are described systematically. The relationships between the structures and thermolysis mechanisms of compounds based on differentiation of the structural fragments depending on the functional surrounding of nitro groups are identified. Using the RRN (Recombination Reaction Network) strategy and original CASB (Computer Assisted Structure Building) software, full reaction mechanisms for the thermal destruction of nitro compounds at different thermal decomposition levels (including extensive ones) are simulated. The full set of possible mechanisms of thermal decomposition of 38 chemically different nitro compounds is presented

  20. Precise control of multiwall carbon nanotube diameters using thermal chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M. P.; Overmyer, D. L.; Provencio, P. P.

    2002-03-01

    We grow multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) films using thermal chemical vapor deposition at atmospheric pressure using a mixture of acetylene and nitrogen from a 4-nm-thick Ni film catalyst. CNTs are characterized using electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. CNTs grown with this method are extremely uniform in diameter, both throughout the sample and within the lengths of individual tubes. Nanotube outer diameters, ranging from 5-350 nm, and the total deposition of carbon material, increase exponentially with growth temperature from 630 °C-790 °C.

  1. Geologic, stratigraphic, thermal, and mechanical factors which influence repository design in the bedded salt environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, J.P.; Nair, O.; Ortman, D.; Rowe, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report describes the geologic, stratigraphic, thermal, and mechanical considerations applicable to repository design. The topics discussed in the report include: tectonic activity; geologic structure; stratigraphy; rock mechanical properties; and hydrologic properties

  2. Chemical denitration of aqueous nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, K.A.

    1987-11-01

    The Plant for Active Waste Liquids (PAWL) at CRNL will immobilize in glass the fission products in waste from Mo-99 production. The nitrate ions in the waste can be destroyed by heating, but also by chemical reaction with formic acid (HCOOH). Since chemical denitration has several advantages over thermal denitration it was studied in the course of vitrification process development. Two free radical mechanisms are examined here to explain kinetic data on chemical denitration of nitric acid solutions with formic acid. One mechanism is applicable at > 1 mol/L HNO 3 and involves the formate radical (HCOO . ). The second mechanism holds at 3 and involves the hyponitrous radical (HNO . ). Mass balances for various species were written based on the law of mass action applied to the equations describing the reaction mechanism. Analytical and numerical solutions were obtained and compared. Literature data on batch denitration were used to determine some of the rate constants while others were set arbitrarily. Observed stoichiometry and trends in reactant concentrations are predicted accurately for batch data. There are no literature data to compare with the prediction of negligible induction time

  3. Clinical effect of vitamin A palmitate eye gel on early ocular surface reconstruction after thermal or chemical injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Dui Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the clinical effect of vitamin A palmitate eye gel on early ocular surface reconstruction after thermal or chemical injuries. METHODS: Seventy-eight cases with thermal or chemical injuries to eyes were selected and divided into two groups by randomized, double-blind, positive drug parallel controlled method: group A(40 cases were treated with vitamin A palmitate eye geland group B \\〖38 cases were treated with basic fibroblast growth factor(bFGF\\〗. The bFGF and vitamin A palmitate eye gel were used 4 times a day. The treatment