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Sample records for thermal maturity sequence

  1. Thermal mud maturation: organic matter and biological activity.

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    Centini, M; Tredici, M R; Biondi, N; Buonocore, A; Maffei Facino, R; Anselmi, C

    2015-06-01

    Many of the therapeutic and cosmetic treatments offered in spas are centred on mud therapy, to moisturize the skin and prevent skin ageing and rheumatic diseases. Thermal mud is a complex matrix composed of organic and inorganic elements which contribute to its functions. It is a natural product derived from the long mixing of clay and thermal water. During its maturation, organic substances are provided by the microalgae, which develop characteristic of the composition of thermal water. The aim of this study was to identify methods for introducing objective parameters as a basis for characterizing thermal mud and assessing its efficacy. Samples of thermal mud were collected at the Saturnia spa, where there are several sulphureous pools. The maturation of the mud was evaluated by organic component determination using extractive methods and chromatographic analysis (HPLC, GC-MS, SPME). We also studied the radical scavenging activity of mud samples at different stages of maturation, in a homogeneous phase, using several tests (DPPH, ORAC, ABTS). We identified several classes of compounds: saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, hydroxyl acids, dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, alcohols and others. SPME analysis showed the presence of various hydrocarbons compounds (C(11) -C(17)) and long-chain alcohols (C(12) -C(16)). Six or seven months seemed appropriate to complete the process of maturation, and the main effect of maturation time was the increase of lipids. Six-month mud showed the highest activity. The hydrophilic extract was more active than the lipophilic extract. The results indicate that maturation of thermal mud can be followed on the basis of the changes in its organic composition and antioxidant properties along the time. They also highlight the need to develop reference standards for thermal muds in relation to assess their use for therapeutic and cosmetic purposes. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. Constraining the thermal history of the North American Midcontinent Rift System using carbonate clumped isotopes and organic thermal maturity indices

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    Gallagher, Timothy M.; Sheldon, Nathan D.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Petersen, Sierra V.; Gueneli, Nur; Brocks, Jochen J.

    2017-01-01

    The Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) is a Late Mesoproterozoic (∼1.1 Ga) sequence of volcanic and sedimentary rocks exposed in the Lake Superior Region of North America. The MRS continues to be the focus of much research due to its economic mineral deposits as well as its archive of Precambrian life and tectonic processes. In order to constrain the post-depositional thermal history of the MRS, samples were analyzed for carbonate clumped isotope composition and organic thermal maturity. Clumped isotope values from sedimentary/early-diagenetic samples were partially reset during burial to temperatures between 68 and 75 °C. Solid-state reordering models indicate that maximum burial temperatures of 125–155 °C would reset the clumped isotope values to the observed temperature range prior to the onset of regional cooling and uplift. Clumped isotope results from late-stage veins in the White Pine Mine encompass a greater temperature range (49–116 °C), indicative of spatially variable hydrothermal activity and vein emplacement after burial temperatures fell below 100 °C during regional cooling and uplift. Clumped isotope and organic thermal maturity data do not indicate significant spatial differences in thermal history along the MRS. Observed variability in bulk organic matter composition and biomarker indices are therefore more likely a result of shifts in primary productivity or early-degradation processes. These results demonstrate that the MRS experienced a spatially consistent, relatively mild thermal history (125–155 °C) and is therefore a valuable archive for understanding the Late Mesoproterozoic environment.

  3. Effect of thermal modification on the physical properties of juvenile and mature woods of Eucalyptus grandis

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    Fred Willians Calonego

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of thermal treatment on the physical properties of juvenile and mature woods of Eucalyptus grandis. Boards were taken from 30-year-old E. grandis trees. The boards were thermally modified at 180 °C in the Laboratory of Wood Drying and Preservation at UNESP, Botucatu, Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The results showed that thermal modification caused: (1 decrease of 6.8% in the density at 0% equilibrium moisture content of mature wood; (2 significant decreases of 14.7% and 35.6% in the maximum volumetric swellings of juvenile and mature woods, respectively; (3 significant decreases of 13.7% and 21.3% in the equilibrium moisture content of juvenile and mature woods, respectively. The influence of thermal modification in juvenile wood was lower than in mature wood and caused greater uniformity in the physical variations between these types of wood in E. grandis.

  4. MRI investigation of normal fetal lung maturation using signal intensities on different imaging sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Csapo, Bence; Mittermayer, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    To purpose of this paper is to study the relation between normal lung maturation signal and changes in intensity ratios (SIR) and to determine which magnetic resonance imaging sequence provides the strongest correlation of normal lung SIs with gestational age. 126 normal singleton pregnancies (20-37 weeks) were examined with a 1.5 Tesla unit. Mean SIs for lungs, liver, and gastric fluid were assessed on six different sequences, and SIRs of lung/liver (LLSIR) and lung/gastric fluid (LGSIR) were correlated with gestational age for each sequence. To evaluate the feasibility of SIRs in the prediction of the state of the lung maturity, accuracy of the predicted SIRs (D*) was measured by calculating relative residuals (D*-D)/D for each sequence. LLSIRs showed significant changes in every sequence (p<0.05), while LGSIRs only on two sequences. Significant differences were shown for the mean of absolute residuals for both LLSIRs (p<0.001) and for LGSIRs (p=0.003). Relative residuals of LLSIRs were significantly smaller on T1-weighted sequence, whereas they were significantly higher for LGSIRs on FLAIR sequence. Fetal liver seems to be adequate reference for the investigation of lung maturation. T1-weighted sequence was the most accurate for the measurement of the lung SIs; thus, we propose to determine LLSIR on T1-weighted sequence when evaluating lung development. (orig.)

  5. MRI investigation of normal fetal lung maturation using signal intensities on different imaging sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria); Csapo, Bence [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Gyneocology, Vienna (Austria); Mittermayer, Christoph [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Pediatrics, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-03-15

    To purpose of this paper is to study the relation between normal lung maturation signal and changes in intensity ratios (SIR) and to determine which magnetic resonance imaging sequence provides the strongest correlation of normal lung SIs with gestational age. 126 normal singleton pregnancies (20-37 weeks) were examined with a 1.5 Tesla unit. Mean SIs for lungs, liver, and gastric fluid were assessed on six different sequences, and SIRs of lung/liver (LLSIR) and lung/gastric fluid (LGSIR) were correlated with gestational age for each sequence. To evaluate the feasibility of SIRs in the prediction of the state of the lung maturity, accuracy of the predicted SIRs (D*) was measured by calculating relative residuals (D*-D)/D for each sequence. LLSIRs showed significant changes in every sequence (p<0.05), while LGSIRs only on two sequences. Significant differences were shown for the mean of absolute residuals for both LLSIRs (p<0.001) and for LGSIRs (p=0.003). Relative residuals of LLSIRs were significantly smaller on T1-weighted sequence, whereas they were significantly higher for LGSIRs on FLAIR sequence. Fetal liver seems to be adequate reference for the investigation of lung maturation. T1-weighted sequence was the most accurate for the measurement of the lung SIs; thus, we propose to determine LLSIR on T1-weighted sequence when evaluating lung development. (orig.)

  6. Structural Evolution of Kerogen and Bitumen during Thermal Maturation examined by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

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    Craddock, P. R.; Le Doan, T. V.; Pomerantz, A.

    2014-12-01

    Kerogen—the organic matter that is solid and insoluble in organic solvents—is a key component of organic-rich mudstones. The composition of kerogen affects the storage and transport of hydrocarbons in these unconventional resources and is known to change with thermal maturity. We report here using FTIR spectroscopy, the compositional characteristics of kerogen as a function of thermal maturity, together with the compositional characteristics of the organic phase, bitumen—the organic matter that is solid, but soluble in organic solvents. Kerogen is consumed during thermal maturation, whereas bitumen is an intermediary formed at low maturity from kerogen and consumed at higher maturities in formation of oil and gas. Bitumen relative to kerogen has higher aliphatic content, lower aromatic content, and lower abundance of oxygenated functions. At low maturity (vitrinite reflectance equivalent VRe ~ 0.5-0.9 %), the average length of aliphatic chains in bitumen increases during bitumen formation. At higher thermal maturities (VRe > 1.0-1.3 %), average aliphatic chain length decreases as bitumen is consumed. This evolution contrasts to that in kerogen, where aliphatic chain lengths shorten during all stages of maturation. Breakdown of kerogen appears to be driven by cleavage of oxygen functions at low maturity and removal of aliphatic carbons at higher maturities. These aliphatic-rich fragments may comprise the bitumen, and may in part explain the solubility of bitumen in organic solvents. Bitumen shows evidence of oxidation at low thermal maturity, a phenonemom not documented for kerogen. Bitumen maturation and degradation at higher thermal maturity is driven by cleavage and loss of aliphatic carbons, and is coincident with the maximum generation of oil and gas. The aromatic content of bitumen and of kerogen both increase during maturation as a consequence of the loss of aliphatic carbon. The oil and gas generation potential of the residual organic matter thus

  7. Thermal maturity of northern Appalachian Basin Devonian shales: Insights from sterane and terpane biomarkers

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    Hackley, Paul C.; Ryder, Robert T.; Trippi, Michael H.; Alimi, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    To better estimate thermal maturity of Devonian shales in the northern Appalachian Basin, eleven samples of Marcellus and Huron Shale were characterized via multiple analytical techniques. Vitrinite reflectance, Rock–Eval pyrolysis, gas chromatography (GC) of whole rock extracts, and GC–mass spectrometry (GCMS) of extract saturate fractions were evaluated on three transects that lie across previously documented regional thermal maturity isolines. Results from vitrinite reflectance suggest that most samples are immature with respect to hydrocarbon generation. However, bulk geochemical data and sterane and terpane biomarker ratios from GCMS suggest that almost all samples are in the oil window. This observation is consistent with the presence of thermogenic gas in the study area and higher vitrinite reflectance values recorded from overlying Pennsylvanian coals. These results suggest that vitrinite reflectance is a poor predictor of thermal maturity in early mature areas of Devonian shale, perhaps because reported measurements often include determinations of solid bitumen reflectance. Vitrinite reflectance interpretations in areas of early mature Devonian shale should be supplanted by evaluation of thermal maturity information from biomarker ratios and bulk geochemical data.

  8. Thermal maturity of Tasmanites microfossils from confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy

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    Hackley, Paul C.; Kus, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    We report here, for the first time, spectral properties of Tasmanites microfossils determined by confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy (CLSM, using Ar 458 nm excitation). The Tasmanites occur in a well-characterized natural maturation sequence (Ro 0.48–0.74%) of Devonian shale (n = 3 samples) from the Appalachian Basin. Spectral property λmax shows excellent agreement (r2 = 0.99) with extant spectra from interlaboratory studies which used conventional fluorescence microscopy techniques. This result suggests spectral measurements from CLSM can be used to infer thermal maturity of fluorescent organic materials in geologic samples. Spectra of regions with high fluorescence intensity at fold apices and flanks in individual Tasmanites are blue-shifted relative to less-deformed areas in the same body that have lower fluorescence intensity. This is interpreted to result from decreased quenching moiety concentration at these locations, and indicates caution is needed in the selection of measurement regions in conventional fluorescence microscopy, where it is common practice to select high intensity regions for improved signal intensity and better signal to noise ratios. This study also documents application of CLSM to microstructural characterization of Tasmanites microfossils. Finally, based on an extant empirical relation between conventional λmax values and bitumen reflectance, λmax values from CLSM of Tasmanites microfossils can be used to calculate a bitumen reflectance equivalent value. The results presented herein can be used as a basis to broaden the future application of CLSM in the geological sciences into hydrocarbon prospecting and basin analysis.

  9. Transcriptome profiling of testis during sexual maturation stages in Eriocheir sinensis using Illumina sequencing.

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    Lin He

    Full Text Available The testis is a highly specialized tissue that plays dual roles in ensuring fertility by producing spermatozoa and hormones. Spermatogenesis is a complex process, resulting in the production of mature sperm from primordial germ cells. Significant structural and biochemical changes take place in the seminiferous epithelium of the adult testis during spermatogenesis. The gene expression pattern of testis in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been performed on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for testis of E. sinensis. In two runs, we produced 25,698,778 sequencing reads corresponding with 2.31 Gb total nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 342,753 contigs or 141,861 scaffold sequences, which identified 96,311 unigenes. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 39,995 unigenes were annotated based on having a Blast hit in the non-redundant database or ESTscan results with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5. This is the first report of a mitten crab transcriptome using high-throughput sequencing technology, and all these testes transcripts can help us understand the molecular mechanisms involved in spermatogenesis and testis maturation.

  10. Identification of Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young Caused by Glucokinase Mutations Detected Using Whole-Exome Sequencing

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    Eun-Hee Cho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Glucokinase maturity-onset diabetes of the young (GCK-MODY represents a distinct subgroup of MODY that does not require hyperglycemia-lowering treatment and has very few diabetes-related complications. Three patients from two families who presented with clinical signs of GCK-MODY were evaluated. Whole-exome sequencing was performed and the effects of the identified mutations were assessed using bioinformatics tools, such as PolyPhen-2, SIFT, and in silico modeling. We identified two mutations: p.Leu30Pro and p.Ser383Leu. In silico analyses predicted that these mutations result in structural conformational changes, protein destabilization, and thermal instability. Our findings may inform future GCK-MODY diagnosis; furthermore, the two mutations detected in two Korean families with GCK-MODY improve our understanding of the genetic basis of the disease.

  11. Thermal maturity history and implications for hydrocarbon exploration in the Catatumbo basin, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, Antonio; Hernandez, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    A thermal model integrated with oil and gas geochemical study has been constructed for the Catatumbo basin, Colombia for provides petroleum system data for hydrocarbon exploration. The calibration of the thermal model with maturity data took into account a changing heat flow scheme which included a thermal increase towards the end of the Jurassic and another one in the early Eocene, associated with rifting events. Locally, active/generating source rocks are within the synclines axes. The hydrocarbon expulsion time for Cretaceous source rocks (Capacho and La Luna formations) started in the upper Paleocene-Eocene, while for the los Cuervos Formation the generation and expulsion started of 1 0 my. The petroleum expelled during the Paleocene-Miocene, were likely accumulated in structures formed since the end of the cretaceous, while the younger structures that resulted from the Andean orogen were charged by remigration from the older structures and additionally with the youngest lately generated hydrocarbons. The accumulations of hydrocarbons are mainly the result of generation and migration locally within the basin. The Catatumbo Basin contains thermogenic wet gases with different degrees of thermal maturity which varies from around 1,0 for 2,5 equivalent Ro. The highest degree of thermal evolution according to maturity indicators and thermal modeling is in the southern area, which is prospective for wet gas. The central and northern area appears more prospective for oil with minor amounts of gas

  12. Cracking and thermal maturity of Ordovician oils from Tahe Oilfield, Tarim Basin, NW China

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    Anlai Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal maturity of the Ordovician oils from the Tahe oilfield of Tarim Basin, NW China was assessed through various maturity parameters, such as biomarkers, aromatic parameters, and diamondoid parameters. Both Ts/(Ts+Tm and C29Ts/(C29H+C29Ts values indicate that the maturity of oils has not reached the condensates stage, which is consistent with the maturity obtained by MPI1. However, the diamondoid maturity suggests that the oil maturity ranges 1.1%–1.6% Ro, which is apparently higher than that of the maturity obtained by the biomarker and MPI1. This discrepancy in maturity may indicate that the Ordovician reservoir has multiple filling history. The 4-MD+3-MD concentration of oils disperses and increases slowly when the Ts/(Ts+Tm value is lower than 0.55. Meanwhile, the value increases rapidly when the Ts/(Ts+Tm value is higher than 0.55. It is proposed that the diamondoid baseline is about 15 μg/goil for marine oils in the Tahe oilfield based on the diamondoid concentration of marine oils from reservoirs of various age. The concentration of 4-MD+3-MD of most Ordovician oils generally ranges from 4.5 to 35 μg/goil, suggesting that the degree of oil-cracking is lower than 50% and the deep Ordovician have potential of oil exploration. The distribution of the concentration of 4-MD+3-MD is characterized by being high in the east and south, low in the west and north, proposing that the two migration pathways exit in the oilfield, which are from east to west and from south to north, respectively. The migration directions are consistent with the results obtained from the oil density and the maturity parameters such as Ts/(Ts+Tm. Thus, suggesting the concentration of 4-MD+3-MD can be used as migration index in oilfield scale.

  13. A Thermal Maturity Analysis of the Effective Cretaceous Petroleum System in the Southern Persian Gulf Basin

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    Majid Alipour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Commercial hydrocarbon discoveries in the Cretaceous of the southern Persian Gulf basin provide direct evidence that there is an effective petroleum system associated with the Cretaceous series. The revised models of thermal maturity in this region are needed to investigate lateral and stratigraphic variations of thermal maturity, which have not so far been addressed in detail for this part of the Persian Gulf. Such thermal maturity models are required to delineate the existing play assessment risks and to predict properties in more deeply buried undrilled sections. This study uses two dimensional basin modeling techniques to reconstruct maturity evolution of the Cenomanian Middle Sarvak source rock, presumably the most likely source for these hydrocarbons. The results indicate that an estimated 900 meter difference in the depth of burial between the southeastern high and the adjacent trough tends to be translated into noticeable variations at both temperature (135 °C versus 162 °C and vitrinite reflectance (0.91% versus 1.35%. Since the organic matter in the mentioned source rock is of reactive type II, these could cause a shift of about 18 million years in the onset of hydrocarbon generation over respective areas.

  14. Effect of thermal maturity on remobilization of molybdenum in black shales

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    Ardakani, Omid H.; Chappaz, Anthony; Sanei, Hamed; Mayer, Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) concentrations in sedimentary records have been widely used as a method to assess paleo-redox conditions prevailing in the ancient oceans. However, the potential effects of post-depositional processes, such as thermal maturity and burial diagenesis, on Mo concentrations in organic-rich shales have not been addressed, compromising its use as a redox proxy. This study investigates the distribution and speciation of Mo at various thermal maturities in the Upper Ordovician Utica Shale from southern Quebec, Canada. Samples display maturities ranging from the peak oil window (VRo ∼ 1%) to the dry gas zone (VRo ∼ 2%). While our data show a significant correlation between total organic carbon (TOC) and Mo (R2 = 0.40, n = 28, P 30 ppm). Our results show the presence of two Mo species: molybdenite Mo(IV)S2 (39 ± 5%) and Mo(VI)-Organic Matter (61 ± 5%). This new evidence suggests that at higher thermal maturities, TSR causes sulfate reduction coupled with oxidation of organic matter (OM). This process is associated with H2S generation and pyrite formation and recrystallization. This in turn leads to the remobilization of Mo and co-precipitation of molybdenite with TSR-derived carbonates in the porous intervals. This could lead to alteration of the initial sedimentary signature of Mo in the affected intervals, hence challenging its use as a paleo-redox proxy in overmature black shales.

  15. Maturity onset diabetes of youth (MODY) in Turkish children: sequence analysis of 11 causative genes by next generation sequencing.

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    Ağladıoğlu, Sebahat Yılmaz; Aycan, Zehra; Çetinkaya, Semra; Baş, Veysel Nijat; Önder, Aşan; Peltek Kendirci, Havva Nur; Doğan, Haldun; Ceylaner, Serdar

    2016-04-01

    Maturity-onset diabetes of the youth (MODY), is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of diseasesand is often misdiagnosed as type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate both novel and proven mutations of 11 MODY genes in Turkish children by using targeted next generation sequencing. A panel of 11 MODY genes were screened in 43 children with MODY diagnosed by clinical criterias. Studies of index cases was done with MISEQ-ILLUMINA, and family screenings and confirmation studies of mutations was done by Sanger sequencing. We identified 28 (65%) point mutations among 43 patients. Eighteen patients have GCK mutations, four have HNF1A, one has HNF4A, one has HNF1B, two have NEUROD1, one has PDX1 gene variations and one patient has both HNF1A and HNF4A heterozygote mutations. This is the first study including molecular studies of 11 MODY genes in Turkish children. GCK is the most frequent type of MODY in our study population. Very high frequency of novel mutations (42%) in our study population, supports that in heterogenous disorders like MODY sequence analysis provides rapid, cost effective and accurate genetic diagnosis.

  16. Significance of Isotopically Labile Organic Hydrogen in Thermal Maturation of Organic Matter

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    Arndt Schimmelmann; Maria Mastalerz

    2010-03-30

    Isotopically labile organic hydrogen in fossil fuels occupies chemical positions that participate in isotopic exchange and in chemical reactions during thermal maturation from kerogen to bitumen, oil and gas. Carbon-bound organic hydrogen is isotopically far less exchangeable than hydrogen bound to nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur. We explore why organic hydrogen isotope ratios express a relationship with organic nitrogen isotope ratios in kerogen at low to moderate maturity. We develop and apply new techniques to utilize organic D/H ratios in organic matter fractions and on a molecular level as tools for exploration for fossil fuels and for paleoenvironmental research. The scope of our samples includes naturally and artificially matured substrates, such as coal, shale, oil and gas.

  17. Estimating thermal maturity in the Eagle Ford Shale petroleum system using gas gravity data

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    Birdwell, Justin E.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Basin-wide datasets that provide information on the geochemical properties of petroleum systems, such as source rock quality, product composition, and thermal maturity, are often difficult to come by or assemble from publically available data. When published studies are available and include these kinds of properties, they generally have few sampling locations and limited numbers and types of analyses. Therefore, production-related data and engineering parameters can provide useful proxies for geochemical properties that are often widely available across a play and in some states are reported in publically available or commercial databases. Gas-oil ratios (GOR) can be calculated from instantaneous or cumulative production data and can be related to the source rock geochemical properties like kerogen type (Lewan and Henry, 1999) and thermal maturity (Tian et al., 2013; U.S. Energy Information Administration [EIA], 2014). Oil density or specific gravity (SG), often reported in American Petroleum Institute units (°API = 141.5 /SG – 131.5), can also provide information on source rock thermal maturity, particularly when combined with GOR values in unconventional petroleum systems (Nesheim, 2017).

  18. Major soybean maturity gene haplotypes revealed by SNPViz analysis of 72 sequenced soybean genomes.

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    Tiffany Langewisch

    Full Text Available In this Genomics Era, vast amounts of next-generation sequencing data have become publicly available for multiple genomes across hundreds of species. Analyses of these large-scale datasets can become cumbersome, especially when comparing nucleotide polymorphisms across many samples within a dataset and among different datasets or organisms. To facilitate the exploration of allelic variation and diversity, we have developed and deployed an in-house computer software to categorize and visualize these haplotypes. The SNPViz software enables users to analyze region-specific haplotypes from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP datasets for different sequenced genomes. The examination of allelic variation and diversity of important soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] flowering time and maturity genes may provide additional insight into flowering time regulation and enhance researchers' ability to target soybean breeding for particular environments. For this study, we utilized two available soybean genomic datasets for a total of 72 soybean genotypes encompassing cultivars, landraces, and the wild species Glycine soja. The major soybean maturity genes E1, E2, E3, and E4 along with the Dt1 gene for plant growth architecture were analyzed in an effort to determine the number of major haplotypes for each gene, to evaluate the consistency of the haplotypes with characterized variant alleles, and to identify evidence of artificial selection. The results indicated classification of a small number of predominant haplogroups for each gene and important insights into possible allelic diversity for each gene within the context of known causative mutations. The software has both a stand-alone and web-based version and can be used to analyze other genes, examine additional soybean datasets, and view similar genome sequence and SNP datasets from other species.

  19. Effect of organic-matter type and thermal maturity on methane adsorption in shale-gas systems

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    Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Ruppel, Stephen C.; Milliken, Kitty; Yang, Rongsheng

    2012-01-01

    A series of methane (CH4) adsorption experiments on bulk organic rich shales and their isolated kerogens were conducted at 35 °C, 50 °C and 65 °C and CH4 pressure of up to 15 MPa under dry conditions. Samples from the Eocene Green River Formation, Devonian–Mississippian Woodford Shale and Upper Cretaceous Cameo coal were studied to examine how differences in organic matter type affect natural gas adsorption. Vitrinite reflectance values of these samples ranged from 0.56–0.58 %Ro. In addition, thermal maturity effects were determined on three Mississippian Barnett Shale samples with measured vitrinite reflectance values of 0.58, 0.81 and 2.01 %Ro. For all bulk and isolated kerogen samples, the total amount of methane adsorbed was directly proportional to the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the sample and the average maximum amount of gas sorption was 1.36 mmol of methane per gram of TOC. These results indicate that sorption on organic matter plays a critical role in shale-gas storage. Under the experimental conditions, differences in thermal maturity showed no significant effect on the total amount of gas sorbed. Experimental sorption isotherms could be fitted with good accuracy by the Langmuir function by adjusting the Langmuir pressure (PL) and maximum sorption capacity (Γmax). The lowest maturity sample (%Ro = 0.56) displayed a Langmuir pressure (PL) of 5.15 MPa, significantly larger than the 2.33 MPa observed for the highest maturity (%Ro > 2.01) sample at 50 °C. The value of the Langmuir pressure (PL) changes with kerogen type in the following sequence: type I > type II > type III. The thermodynamic parameters of CH4 adsorption on organic rich shales were determined based on the experimental CH4 isotherms. For the adsorption of CH4 on organic rich shales and their isolated kerogen, the heat of adsorption (q) and the standard entropy (Δs0) range from 7.3–28.0 kJ/mol and from −36.2 to −92.2 J/mol/K, respectively.

  20. North Slope, Alaska: Source rock distribution, richness, thermal maturity, and petroleum charge

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    Peters, K.E.; Magoon, L.B.; Bird, K.J.; Valin, Z.C.; Keller, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Four key marine petroleum source rock units were identified, characterized, and mapped in the subsurface to better understand the origin and distribution of petroleum on the North Slope of Alaska. These marine source rocks, from oldest to youngest, include four intervals: (1) Middle-Upper Triassic Shublik Formation, (2) basal condensed section in the Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Kingak Shale, (3) Cretaceous pebble shale unit, and (4) Cretaceous Hue Shale. Well logs for more than 60 wells and total organic carbon (TOC) and Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyses for 1183 samples in 125 well penetrations of the source rocks were used to map the present-day thickness of each source rock and the quantity (TOC), quality (hydrogen index), and thermal maturity (Tmax) of the organic matter. Based on assumptions related to carbon mass balance and regional distributions of TOC, the present-day source rock quantity and quality maps were used to determine the extent of fractional conversion of the kerogen to petroleum and to map the original TOC (TOCo) and the original hydrogen index (HIo) prior to thermal maturation. The quantity and quality of oil-prone organic matter in Shublik Formation source rock generally exceeded that of the other units prior to thermal maturation (commonly TOCo > 4 wt.% and HIo > 600 mg hydrocarbon/g TOC), although all are likely sources for at least some petroleum on the North Slope. We used Rock-Eval and hydrous pyrolysis methods to calculate expulsion factors and petroleum charge for each of the four source rocks in the study area. Without attempting to identify the correct methods, we conclude that calculations based on Rock-Eval pyrolysis overestimate expulsion factors and petroleum charge because low pressure and rapid removal of thermally cracked products by the carrier gas retards cross-linking and pyrobitumen formation that is otherwise favored by natural burial maturation. Expulsion factors and petroleum charge based on hydrous pyrolysis may also be high

  1. Constraining the Thermal History of the Midcontinent Rift System with Clumped Isotopes and Organic Thermal Maturity Indices

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    Gallagher, T. M.; Sheldon, N. D.; Mauk, J. L.; Gueneli, N.; Brocks, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Mesoproterozoic (~1.1 Ga) North American Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) has been of widespread interest to researchers studying its economic mineral deposits, continental rifting processes, and the evolution of early terrestrial life and environments. For their age, the MRS rocks are well preserved and have not been deeply buried, yet a thorough understanding of the regional thermal history is necessary to constrain the processes that emplaced the mineral deposits and how post-burial alteration may have affected various paleo-records. To understand the thermal history of the MRS better, this study presents carbonate clumped isotope (Δ47) temperatures from deposits on the north and south sides of the rift. Due to the age of these deposits and known post-depositional processes, uncertainties exist about whether the clumped isotope signature has been reset. To test this, three generations of calcite were analyzed from the Nonesuch Fm. from the White Pine mine in Michigan including: sedimentary limestone beds, early diagenetic carbonate nodules, and hydrothermal calcite veins associated with the emplacement of copper mineralization. Clumped isotope temperatures from the White Pine mine range from 84 to 131°C, with a hydrothermal vein producing the hottest temperature. The clumped isotope temperature range for samples throughout the rift expands to 41-134°C. The hottest temperatures are associated with areas of known copper mineralization, whereas the coolest temperatures are found on the northern arm of the rift in Minnesota, far from known basin-bounding faults. Our hottest temperatures are broadly consistent with preexisting maximum thermal temperature estimates based on clay mineralogy, fluid inclusions, and organic geochemistry data. Clumped isotope results will also be compared to new hydrocarbon maturity data from the Nonesuch Fm., which suggest that bitumen maturities consistently fall within the early oil window across Michigan and Wisconsin.

  2. Origin, diversity and maturation of human antiviral antibodies analyzed by high-throughput sequencing

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    Ponraj ePrabakaran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of how antibodies are generated and function could help develop effective vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics against viruses such as HIV-1, SARS Coronavirus (CoV, and Hendra and Nipah viruses (henipaviruses. Although broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs against the HIV-1 were observed in patients, elicitation of such bnAbs remains a major challenge when compared to other viral targets. We previously hypothesized that HIV-1 could have evolved a strategy to evade the immune system due to absent or very weak binding of germline antibodies to the conserved epitopes that may not be sufficient to initiate and/or maintain an effective immune response. To further explore our hypothesis, we used the 454 sequence analysis of a large naïve library of human IgM antibodies which had been used for selecting antibodies against SARS Coronavirus (CoV receptor-binding domain (RBD, and soluble G proteins (sG of Hendra and Nipah viruses (henipaviruses. We found that the human IgM repertoires from the 454 sequencing have diverse germline usages, recombination patterns, junction diversity and a lower extent of somatic mutation. In this study, we identified germline intermediates of antibodies specific to HIV-1 and other viruses as observed in normal individuals, and compared their genetic diversity and somatic mutation level along with available structural and functional data. Further computational analysis will provide framework for understanding the underlying genetic and molecular determinants related to maturation pathways of antiviral bnAbs that could be useful for applying novel approaches to the design of effective vaccine immunogens and antibody-based therapeutics.

  3. Assessment of Thermal Maturity Trends in Devonian–Mississippian Source Rocks Using Raman Spectroscopy: Limitations of Peak-Fitting Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupoi, Jason S., E-mail: jlupoi@rjlg.com; Fritz, Luke P. [RJ Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States); Parris, Thomas M. [Kentucky Geological Survey, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Hackley, Paul C. [UniversityS. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Solotky, Logan [RJ Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States); Eble, Cortland F. [Kentucky Geological Survey, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Schlaegle, Steve [RJ Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2017-09-27

    The thermal maturity of shale is often measured by vitrinite reflectance (VRo). VRo measurements for the Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks evaluated herein predicted thermal immaturity in areas where associated reservoir rocks are oil-producing. This limitation of the VRo method led to the current evaluation of Raman spectroscopy as a suitable alternative for developing correlations between thermal maturity and Raman spectra. In this study, Raman spectra of Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks were regressed against measured VRo or sample-depth. Attempts were made to develop quantitative correlations of thermal maturity. Using sample-depth as a proxy for thermal maturity is not without limitations as thermal maturity as a function of depth depends on thermal gradient, which can vary through time, subsidence rate, uplift, lack of uplift, and faulting. Correlations between Raman data and vitrinite reflectance or sample-depth were quantified by peak-fitting the spectra. Various peak-fitting procedures were evaluated to determine the effects of the number of peaks and maximum peak widths on correlations between spectral metrics and thermal maturity. Correlations between D-frequency, G-band full width at half maximum (FWHM), and band separation between the G- and D-peaks and thermal maturity provided some degree of linearity throughout most peak-fitting assessments; however, these correlations and those calculated from the G-frequency, D/G FWHM ratio, and D/G peak area ratio also revealed a strong dependence on peak-fitting processes. This dependency on spectral analysis techniques raises questions about the validity of peak-fitting, particularly given the amount of subjective analyst involvement necessary to reconstruct spectra. This research shows how user interpretation and extrapolation affected the comparability of different samples, the accuracy of generated trends, and therefore, the potential of the Raman spectral method to become an

  4. Assessment of Thermal Maturity Trends in Devonian–Mississippian Source Rocks Using Raman Spectroscopy: Limitations of Peak-Fitting Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupoi, Jason S.; Fritz, Luke P.; Parris, Thomas M.; Hackley, Paul C.; Solotky, Logan; Eble, Cortland F.; Schlaegle, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The thermal maturity of shale is often measured by vitrinite reflectance (VRo). VRo measurements for the Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks evaluated herein predicted thermal immaturity in areas where associated reservoir rocks are oil-producing. This limitation of the VRo method led to the current evaluation of Raman spectroscopy as a suitable alternative for developing correlations between thermal maturity and Raman spectra. In this study, Raman spectra of Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks were regressed against measured VRo or sample-depth. Attempts were made to develop quantitative correlations of thermal maturity. Using sample-depth as a proxy for thermal maturity is not without limitations as thermal maturity as a function of depth depends on thermal gradient, which can vary through time, subsidence rate, uplift, lack of uplift, and faulting. Correlations between Raman data and vitrinite reflectance or sample-depth were quantified by peak-fitting the spectra. Various peak-fitting procedures were evaluated to determine the effects of the number of peaks and maximum peak widths on correlations between spectral metrics and thermal maturity. Correlations between D-frequency, G-band full width at half maximum (FWHM), and band separation between the G- and D-peaks and thermal maturity provided some degree of linearity throughout most peak-fitting assessments; however, these correlations and those calculated from the G-frequency, D/G FWHM ratio, and D/G peak area ratio also revealed a strong dependence on peak-fitting processes. This dependency on spectral analysis techniques raises questions about the validity of peak-fitting, particularly given the amount of subjective analyst involvement necessary to reconstruct spectra. This research shows how user interpretation and extrapolation affected the comparability of different samples, the accuracy of generated trends, and therefore, the potential of the Raman spectral method to become an

  5. Assessment of Thermal Maturity Trends in Devonian–Mississippian Source Rocks Using Raman Spectroscopy: Limitations of Peak-Fitting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S. Lupoi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal maturity of shale is often measured by vitrinite reflectance (VRo. VRo measurements for the Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks evaluated herein predicted thermal immaturity in areas where associated reservoir rocks are oil-producing. This limitation of the VRo method led to the current evaluation of Raman spectroscopy as a suitable alternative for developing correlations between thermal maturity and Raman spectra. In this study, Raman spectra of Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks were regressed against measured VRo or sample-depth. Attempts were made to develop quantitative correlations of thermal maturity. Using sample-depth as a proxy for thermal maturity is not without limitations as thermal maturity as a function of depth depends on thermal gradient, which can vary through time, subsidence rate, uplift, lack of uplift, and faulting. Correlations between Raman data and vitrinite reflectance or sample-depth were quantified by peak-fitting the spectra. Various peak-fitting procedures were evaluated to determine the effects of the number of peaks and maximum peak widths on correlations between spectral metrics and thermal maturity. Correlations between D-frequency, G-band full width at half maximum (FWHM, and band separation between the G- and D-peaks and thermal maturity provided some degree of linearity throughout most peak-fitting assessments; however, these correlations and those calculated from the G-frequency, D/G FWHM ratio, and D/G peak area ratio also revealed a strong dependence on peak-fitting processes. This dependency on spectral analysis techniques raises questions about the validity of peak-fitting, particularly given the amount of subjective analyst involvement necessary to reconstruct spectra. This research shows how user interpretation and extrapolation affected the comparability of different samples, the accuracy of generated trends, and therefore, the potential of the Raman spectral

  6. Prediction of temperature and thermal inertia effect in the maturation stage and stockpiling of a large composting mass

    OpenAIRE

    Barrena Gómez, Raquel

    2006-01-01

    A macroscopic non-steady state energy balance was developed and solved for a composting pile of source-selected organic fraction of municipal solid waste during the maturation stage (13,500 kg of compost). Simulated temperature profiles correlated well with temperature experimental data (ranging from 50 to 70 °C) obtained during the maturation process for more than 50 days at full scale. Thermal inertia effect usually found in composting plants and associated to the stockpiling of large compo...

  7. Composition, physicochemical properties and thermal inactivation kinetics of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase from coconut (Cocos nucifera) water obtained from immature, mature and overly-mature coconut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Thuan-Chew; Cheng, Lai-Hoong; Bhat, Rajeev; Rusul, Gulam; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2014-01-01

    Composition, physicochemical properties and enzyme inactivation kinetics of coconut water were compared between immature (IMC), mature (MC) and overly-mature coconuts (OMC). Among the samples studied, pH, turbidity and mineral contents for OMC water was the highest, whereas water volume, titratable acidity, total soluble solids and total phenolics content for OMC water were the lowest. Maturity was found to affect sugar contents. Sucrose content was found to increase with maturity, and the reverse trend was observed for fructose and glucose. Enzyme activity assessment showed that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in all samples was more heat resistant than peroxidase (POD). Compared to IMC and MC, PPO and POD from OMC water showed the lowest thermal resistance, with D83.3°C=243.9s (z=27.9°C), and D83.3°C=129.9s (z=19.5°C), respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Organic maturation levels, thermal history and hydrocarbon source rock potential of the Namurian rocks of the Clare Basin, Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodhue, Robbie; Clayton, Geoffrey [Trinity Coll., Dept. of Geology, Dublin (Ireland)

    1999-11-01

    Vitrinite reflectance data from two inland cored boreholes confirm high maturation levels throughout the onshore part of the Irish Clare Basin and suggest erosion of 2 to 4 km of late Carboniferous cover and elevated palaeogeothermal gradients in the Carboniferous section. The observed maturation gradients are fully consistent with the published hypothesis of a late Carboniferous/Permian 'superplume' beneath Pangaea but local vertical reversals in gradients also suggest a complex thermal regime probably involving advective heating. The uppermost Visean--lower Namurian Clare Shale is laterally extensive and up to 300 m thick. Although this unit is post-mature, TOC values of up to 15% suggest that it could have considerable hydrocarbon source rock potential in any less mature offshore parts of the basin. (Author)

  9. Thermal Acclimation of Photosynthesis and Respiration Differ Across Mature Conifer Species in a Boreal Forest Peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenge, M. E.; Stinziano, J. R.; Warren, J.; Ward, E. J.; Wullschleger, S.; Hanson, P. J.; Way, D.

    2017-12-01

    Boreal forests are often assumed to be temperature-limited, and warming is therefore expected to stimulate their carbon uptake. However, much of our information on the ability of boreal conifers to acclimate photosynthesis and respiration to rising temperatures comes from seedlings. We measured net CO2 assimilation rates (A) and dark respiration (R) at 25 °C (A25 and R25) and at prevailing growth temperatures (Ag and Rg) in mature Picea mariana (spruce) and Larix laricina (tamarack) exposed to ambient, +2.25, +4.5, +6.75 and +9 °C warming treatments in open top chambers in the field at the SPRUCE experiment (MN, USA). In spruce, A25 and Ag were similar across plots in May and June. In August, spruce in warmer treatments had higher A25, an effect that was offset by warmer leaf temperatures in the Ag data. In tamarack, A25 was stimulated by warming in both June and August, an effect that was mainly offset by higher leaf temperatures when Ag was assessed in June, while in August, Ag was still slightly higher in the warmest treatments (+6.75 and +9) compared to the ambient plots. In spruce, R25 was enhanced in warm-grown trees in May, but was similar across treatments in June and August, indicating little acclimation of R. Rg slightly increased with warming treatments across the season in spruce. In contrast, R in tamarack thermally acclimated, as R25 decreased with warming. But while this acclimation generated homeostatic Rg in June, Rg in August was still highest in the warmest treatments. Our work suggests that the capacity for thermal acclimation in both photosynthesis and respiration varies among boreal tree species, which may lead to shifts in the performance of these species as the climate warms.

  10. An analysis of the sequence of the BAD gene among patients with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosik, Karolina; Gnyś, Piotr; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława; Myśliwiec, Małgorzata; Szadkowska, Agnieszka; Małecki, Maciej; Młynarski, Wojciech; Borowiec, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Monogenic diabetes is a rare disease caused by single gene mutations. Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is one of the major forms of monogenic diabetes recognised in the paediatric population. To date, 13 genes have been related to MODY development. The aim of the study was to analyse the sequence of the BCL2-associated agonist of cell death (BAD) gene in patients with clinical suspicion of GCK-MODY, but who were negative for glucokinase (GCK) gene mutations. A group of 122 diabetic patients were recruited from the "Polish Registry for Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes - nationwide genetic screening for monogenic diabetes" project. The molecular testing was performed by Sanger sequencing. A total of 10 sequence variants of the BAD gene were identified in 122 analysed diabetic patients. Among the analysed patients suspected of MODY, one possible pathogenic variant was identified in one patient; however, further confirmation is required for a certain identification.

  11. Distribution and Thermal Maturity of Devonian Carbonate Reservoir Solid Bitumen in Desheng Area of Guizhong Depression, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguang Hou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of solid bitumen in the Devonian carbonate reservoir from well Desheng 1, Guizhong Depression, was investigated by optical microscope and hydrocarbon inclusions analysis. Vb and chemical structure indexes measured by bitumen reflectance, laser Raman microprobe (LRM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were carried out to determine the thermal maturity of solid bitumen. Based on the solid bitumen thermal maturity, the burial and thermal maturity history of Devonian carbonate reservoir were reconstructed by basin modeling. The results indicate that the fractures and fracture-related dissolution pores are the main storage space for the solid bitumen. The equivalent vitrinite reflectance of solid bitumen ranges from 3.42% to 4.43% converted by Vb (% and LRM. The infrared spectroscopy analysis suggests that there are no aliphatic chains detected in the solid bitumen which is rich in aromatics C=C chains (1431–1440 cm−1. The results of Vb (%, LRM, and FTIR analysis demonstrate that the solid bitumen has experienced high temperature and evolved to the residual carbonaceous stage. The thermal evolution of Devonian reservoirs had experienced four stages. The Devonian reservoirs reached the highest reservoir temperature 210–260°C during the second rapid burial-warming stage, which is the main period for the solid bitumen formation.

  12. Experimental investigation of changes in methane adsorption of bitumen-free Woodford Shale with thermal maturation induced by hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyan; Zhang, Tongwei; Wiggins-Camacho, Jaclyn D.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lewan, Michael D.; Zhang, Xiayong

    2014-01-01

    This study quantifies the effects of organic-matter (OM) thermal maturity on methane (CH4) sorption, on the basis of five samples that were artificially matured through hydrous pyrolysis achieved by heating samples of immature Woodford Shale under five different time–temperature conditions. CH4-sorption isotherms at 35 °C, 50 °C, and 65 °C, and pressures up to 14 MPa on dry, solvent-extracted samples of the artificially matured Woodford Shale were measured. The results showed that CH4-sorption capacity, normalized to TOC, varied with thermal maturity, following the trend: maximum oil (367 °C) > oil cracking (400 °C) > maximum bitumen/early oil (333 °C) > early bitumen (300 °C) > immature stage (130 °C). The Langmuir constants for the samples at maximum-oil and oil-cracking stages are larger than the values for the bitumen-forming stages. The total pore volume, determined by N2 physisorption at 77 K, increases with increased maturation: mesopores, 2–50 nm in width, were created during the thermal conversion of organic-matter and a dramatic increase in porosity appeared when maximum-bitumen and maximum-oil generation stages were reached. A linear relationship between thermal maturity and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area suggests that the observed increase in CH4-sorption capacity may be the result of mesopores produced during OM conversion. No obvious difference is observed in pore-size distribution and pore volume for samples with pores 2 physisorption at 273 K. The isosteric heat of adsorption and the standard entropy for artificially matured samples ranged from 17.9 kJ mol−1 to 21.9 kJ mol−1 and from −85.4 J mol−1 K−1 to −101.8 J mol−1 K−1, respectively. These values are similar to the values of immature Woodford kerogen concentrate previously observed, but are larger than naturally matured organic-rich shales. High-temperature hydrous pyrolysis might have induced Lewis acid sites on both organic and mineral surfaces

  13. Thermal maturity and petroleum kitchen areas of Liassic Black Shales (Lower Jurassic) in the central Upper Rhine Graben, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcker, Johannes; Littke, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    In the central Upper Rhine Graben (URG), several major oil fields have been sourced by Liassic Black Shales. In particular, the Posidonia Shale (Lias ɛ, Lower Toarcian) acts as excellent and most prominent source rock in the central URG. This study is the first comprehensive synthesis of Liassic maturity data in the URG area and SW Germany. The thermal maturity of the Liassic Black Shales has been analysed by vitrinite reflectance (VRr) measurements, which have been verified with T max and spore coloration index (SCI) data. In outcrops and shallow wells (oil window (ca. 0.50-0.60 % VRr). This maturity is found in Liassic outcrops and shallow wells in the entire URG area and surrounding Swabian Jura Mountains. Maximum temperatures of the Posidonia Shale before graben formation are in the order of 80-90 °C. These values were likely reached during Late Cretaceous times due to significant Upper Jurassic and minor Cretaceous deposition and influenced by higher heat flows of the beginning rift event at about 70 Ma. In this regard, the consistent regional maturity data (VRr, T max, SCI) of 0.5-0.6 % VRr for the Posidonia Shale close to surface suggest a major burial-controlled maturation before graben formation. These consistent maturity data for Liassic outcrops and shallow wells imply no significant oil generation and expulsion from the Posidonia Shale before formation of the URG. A detailed VRr map has been created using VRr values of 31 wells and outcrops with a structure map of the Posidonia Shale as reference map for a depth-dependent gridding operation. Highest maturity levels occur in the area of the Rastatt Trough (ca. 1.5 % VRr) and along the graben axis with partly very high VRr gradients (e.g. well Scheibenhardt 2). In these deep graben areas, the maximum temperatures which were reached during upper Oligocene to Miocene times greatly exceed those during the Cretaceous.

  14. Testing models of basin inversion in the eastern North Sea using exceptionally accurate thermal and maturity data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.; Gallagher, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    the thermal history information contained in high quality thermal maturity data comprising temperature profiles, vitrinite reflectance and apatite fission track data. Having remained open for experimental purposes, the data of two of the deep wells (Aars-1 and Farsoe-1) are of exceptionally high quality. Here...... about the magnitude of deposition and erosion during this hiatus. We use Markov Chain Monte Carlo with a transient one-dimensional thermal model to explore the parameter space of potential thermal history solutions, using the different available data as constraints. The variable parameters comprise...... inversion of the STZ. This is in agreement with numerical rheological models of inversion zone dynamics, which explain how marginal trough subsidence occurred as a consequence of late Cretaceous compressional inversion and erosion along the inversion axis (Nielsen et al. 2005, 2007). Following this, the in-plane...

  15. Effects of structural heterogeneity on frictional heating from biomarker thermal maturity analysis of the Muddy Mountain thrust, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, G. L.; Savage, H. M.; Polissar, P. J.; Rowe, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    Faults are generally heterogeneous along-strike, with changes in thickness and structural complexity that should influence coseismic slip. However, observational limitations (e.g. limited outcrop or borehole samples) can obscure this complexity. Here we investigate the heterogeneity of frictional heating determined from biomarker thermal maturity and microstructural observations along a well-exposed fault to understand whether coseismic stress and frictional heating are related to structural complexity. We focus on the Muddy Mountain thrust, Nevada, a Sevier-age structure that has continuous exposure of its fault core and considerable structural variability for up to 50 m, to explore the distribution of earthquake slip and temperature rise along strike. We present new biomarker thermal maturity results that capture the heating history of fault rocks. Biomarkers are organic molecules produced by living organisms and preserved in the rock record. During heating, their structure is altered systematically with increasing time and temperature. Preliminary results show significant variability in thermal maturity along-strike at the Muddy Mountain thrust, suggesting differences in coseismic temperature rise on the meter- scale. Temperatures upwards of 500°C were generated in the principal slip zone at some locations, while in others, no significant temperature rise occurred. These results demonstrate that stress or slip heterogeneity occurred along the Muddy Mountain thrust at the meter-scale and considerable along-strike complexity existed, highlighting the importance of careful interpretation of whole-fault behavior from observations at a single point on a fault.

  16. Salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis transcriptomes during post molting maturation and egg production, revealed using EST-sequencing and microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonassen Inge

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepeophtheirus salmonis is an ectoparasitic copepod feeding on skin, mucus and blood from salmonid hosts. Initial analysis of EST sequences from pre adult and adult stages of L. salmonis revealed a large proportion of novel transcripts. In order to link unknown transcripts to biological functions we have combined EST sequencing and microarray analysis to characterize female salmon louse transcriptomes during post molting maturation and egg production. Results EST sequence analysis shows that 43% of the ESTs have no significant hits in GenBank. Sequenced ESTs assembled into 556 contigs and 1614 singletons and whenever homologous genes were identified no clear correlation with homologous genes from any specific animal group was evident. Sequence comparison of 27 L. salmonis proteins with homologous proteins in humans, zebrafish, insects and crustaceans revealed an almost identical sequence identity with all species. Microarray analysis of maturing female adult salmon lice revealed two major transcription patterns; up-regulation during the final molting followed by down regulation and female specific up regulation during post molting growth and egg production. For a third minor group of ESTs transcription decreased during molting from pre-adult II to immature adults. Genes regulated during molting typically gave hits with cuticula proteins whilst transcripts up regulated during post molting growth were female specific, including two vitellogenins. Conclusion The copepod L.salmonis contains high a level of novel genes. Among analyzed L.salmonis proteins, sequence identities with homologous proteins in crustaceans are no higher than to homologous proteins in humans. Three distinct processes, molting, post molting growth and egg production correlate with transcriptional regulation of three groups of transcripts; two including genes related to growth, one including genes related to egg production. The function of the regulated

  17. Evolution of sulfur speciation in bitumen through hydrous pyrolysis induced thermal maturation of Jordanian Ghareb Formation oil shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Lewan, Michael; Bake, Kyle D.; Bolin, Trudy B.; Craddock, Paul R.; Forsythe, Julia C.; Pomerantz, Andrew E.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies on the distribution of bulk sulfur species in bitumen before and after artificial thermal maturation using various pyrolysis methods have indicated that the quantities of reactive (sulfide, sulfoxide) and thermally stable (thiophene) sulfur moieties change following consistent trends under increasing thermal stress. These trends show that sulfur distributions change during maturation in ways that are similar to those of carbon, most clearly illustrated by the increase in aromatic sulfur (thiophenic) as a function of thermal maturity. In this study, we have examined the sulfur moiety distributions of retained bitumen from a set of pre- and post-pyrolysis rock samples in an organic sulfur-rich, calcareous oil shale from the Upper Cretaceous Ghareb Formation. Samples collected from outcrop in Jordan were subjected to hydrous pyrolysis (HP). Sulfur speciation in extracted bitumens was examined using K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The most substantial changes in sulfur distribution occurred at temperatures up to the point of maximum bitumen generation (∼300 °C) as determined from comparison of the total organic carbon content for samples before and after extraction. Organic sulfide in bitumen decreased with increasing temperature at relatively low thermal stress (200–300 °C) and was not detected in extracts from rocks subjected to HP at temperatures above around 300 °C. Sulfoxide content increased between 200 and 280 °C, but decreased at higher temperatures. The concentration of thiophenic sulfur increased up to 300 °C, and remained essentially stable under increasing thermal stress (mg-S/g-bitumen basis). The ratio of stable-to-reactive+stable sulfur moieties ([thiophene/(sulfide+sulfoxide+thiophene)], T/SST) followed a sigmoidal trend with HP temperature, increasing slightly up to 240 °C, followed by a substantial increase between 240 and 320 °C, and approaching a constant value (∼0.95) at

  18. Secretion of mature mouse interleukin-2 by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: use of a general secretion vector containing promoter and leader sequences of the mating pheromone alpha-factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, A; Bond, M W; Otsu, K; Arai, K; Arai, N

    1985-01-01

    We have constructed a general expression vector which allows the synthesis and secretion of processed gene products in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This vector contains yeast DNA, including the promoter of the mating pheromone (alpha-factor), its downstream leader sequence, and the TRP5 terminator. A cDNA [encoding mature mouse interleukin-2 (IL-2); Yokota et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82 (1984) 68-72] was fused immediately downstream to the alpha-factor leader sequence. The resulting recombinant plasmid directed the synthesis of mature mouse IL-2 in S. cerevisiae, with most of the T-cell growth-factor (TCGF) activity secreted into the culture fluid and extracellular space. TCGF activities in the cell extract, as well as in the culture fluid, increased in parallel with cell growth. Production of mature mouse IL-2 was inhibited by tunicamycin (TM), with precursor molecules accumulating in the cell extract. The precursor was processed accurately at the junction between the alpha-factor peptide leader sequence and the coding sequence downstream, yielding mature IL-2. The Mr of the secreted mouse IL-2 determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was 17 kDal, a value expected for the mature mouse IL-2 polypeptide based on the nucleotide (nt) sequence.

  19. Thermal history of the Krishna-Godavari basin, India: Constraints from apatite fission track thermochronology and organic maturity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Himansu S.; Raab, Matthias J.; Kohn, Barry P.; Gleadow, Andrew J. W.; Bal, Kiron D.

    2013-09-01

    The Krishna-Godavari (KG) basin, a passive margin Late Carboniferous to Holocene basin along the rifted east coast of India, includes the deltaic and inter-deltaic regions of the Krishna and Godavari rivers onshore and extends into the offshore. It is one of India's premier hydrocarbon-bearing basins. In an attempt to better understand the thermal history of the basin, apatite fission track (AFT) data has been obtained from six exploration wells (five onshore and one offshore). AFT thermal history models as well as other thermal indicators e.g. vitrinite reflectance (VR), Rock-Eval Tmax data reveal that the host rocks are currently at their maximum post-depositional temperatures and that any possible heating related to small-scale tectonism or rifting episodes in the basin bears little significance on the maturation of the sediments. In the case of one borehole (M-1) however, the organic maturity data reveals a period of Oligocene cooling across an unconformity when ∼1000 m of section was eroded due to falling sea-level. This information offers the potential for improved basin modeling of the KG basin.

  20. Effect of thermal-treatment sequence on sound absorbing and mechanical properties of porous sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chen-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to recent rapid commercial and industrial development, mechanical equipment is supplemented massively in the factory and thus mechanical operation causes noise which distresses living at home. In livelihood, neighborhood, transportation equipment, jobsite construction noises impact on quality of life not only factory noise. This study aims to preparation technique and property evaluation of porous sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites. Hollow three-dimensional crimp PET fibers blended with low-melting PET fibers were fabricated into hollow PET/low-melting PET nonwoven after opening, blending, carding, lapping and needle-bonding process. Then, hollow PET/low-melting PET nonwovens were laminated into sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites by changing sequence of needle-bonding and thermal-treatment. The optimal thermal-treated sequence was found by tensile strength, tearing strength, sound-absorbing coefficient and thermal conductivity coefficient tests of porous composites.

  1. Chitin: 'Forgotten' Source of Nitrogen: From Modern Chitin to Thermally Mature Kerogen: Lessons from Nitrogen Isotope Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, A.; Wintsch, R.P.; Lewan, M.D.; DeNiro, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Chitinous biomass represents a major pool of organic nitrogen in living biota and is likely to have contributed some of the fossil organic nitrogen in kerogen. We review the nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry of chitin and present preliminary results suggesting interaction between kerogen and ammonium during thermal maturation. Modern arthropod chitin may shift its nitrogen isotope ratio by a few per mil depending on the chemical method of chitin preparation, mostly because N-containing non-amino-sugar components in chemically complex chitin cannot be removed quantitatively. Acid hydrolysis of chemically complex chitin and subsequent ion-chromatographic purification of the "deacetylated chitin-monomer" D-glucosamine (in hydrochloride form) provides a chemically well-defined, pure amino-sugar substrate for reproducible, high-precision determination of ??15N values in chitin. ??15N values of chitin exhibited a variability of about one per mil within an individual's exoskeleton. The nitrogen isotope ratio differed between old and new exoskeletons by up to 4 per mil. A strong dietary influence on the ??15N value of chitin is indicated by the observation of increasing ??15N values of chitin from marine crustaceans with increasing trophic level. Partial biodegradation of exoskeletons does not significantly influence ??15N values of remaining, chemically preserved amino sugar in chitin. Diagenesis and increasing thermal maturity of sedimentary organic matter, including chitin-derived nitrogen-rich moieties, result in humic compounds much different from chitin and may significantly change bulk ??15N values. Hydrous pyrolysis of immature source rocks at 330??C in contact with 15N-enriched NH4Cl, under conditions of artificial oil generation, demonstrates the abiogenic incorporation of inorganic nitrogen into carbon-bound nitrogen in kerogen. Not all organic nitrogen in natural, thermally mature kerogen is therefore necessarily derived from original organic matter, but may

  2. Prediction of temperature and thermal inertia effect in the maturation stage and stockpiling of a large composting mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrena, R.; Canovas, C.; Sanchez, A.

    2006-01-01

    A macroscopic non-steady state energy balance was developed and solved for a composting pile of source-selected organic fraction of municipal solid waste during the maturation stage (13,500 kg of compost). Simulated temperature profiles correlated well with temperature experimental data (ranging from 50 to 70 deg. C) obtained during the maturation process for more than 50 days at full scale. Thermal inertia effect usually found in composting plants and associated to the stockpiling of large composting masses could be predicted by means of this simplified energy balance, which takes into account terms of convective, conductive and radiation heat dissipation. Heat losses in a large composting mass are not significant due to the similar temperatures found at the surroundings and at the surface of the pile (ranging from 15 to 40 deg. C). In contrast, thermophilic temperature in the core of the pile was maintained during the whole maturation process. Heat generation was estimated with the static respiration index, a parameter that is typically used to monitor the biological activity and stability of composting processes. In this study, the static respiration index is presented as a parameter to estimate the metabolic heat that can be generated according to the biodegradable organic matter content of a compost sample, which can be useful in predicting the temperature of the composting process

  3. De novo transcriptome sequencing and comparative analysis to discover genes involved in ovarian maturity in Strongylocentrotus nudus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhiying; Wang, Qiai; Wu, Kaikai; Wei, Zhenlin; Zhou, Zunchun; Liu, Xiaolin

    2017-09-01

    Strongylocentrotus nudus is an edible sea urchin, mainly harvested in China. Correlation studies indicated that S. nudus with larger diameter have a prolonged marketing time and better palatability owing to their precocious gonads and extended maturation process. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is still unknown. Here, transcriptome sequencing was applied to study the ovaries of adult S. nudus with different shell diameters to explore the possible mechanism. In this study, four independent cDNA libraries were constructed, including two from the big size urchins and two from the small ones using a HiSeq™2500 platform. A total of 88,581 unigenes were acquired with a mean length of 1354bp, of which 66,331 (74.88%) unigenes could be annotated using six major publicly available databases. Comparative analysis revealed that 353 unigenes were differentially expressed (with log2(ratio)≥1, FDR≤0.001) between the two groups. Of these, 20 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were selected to confirm the accuracy of RNA-seq data by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, gene ontology and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses were performed to find the putative genes and pathways related to ovarian maturity. Eight unigenes were identified as significant DEGs involved in reproduction related pathways; these included Mos, Cdc20, Rec8, YP30, cytochrome P450 2U1, ovoperoxidase, proteoliaisin, and rendezvin. Our research fills the gap in the studies on the S. nudus ovaries using transcriptome analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Organic petrology of the Aptian-age section in the downdip Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Mississippi, USA: Observations and preliminary implications for thermal maturation history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Brett J.; Hackley, Paul C.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Bove, Alana M.; Dulong, Frank T.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Scott, Krystina R.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies a thermal maturity anomaly within the downdip Mississippi Interior Salt Basin (MISB) of southern Mississippi, USA, through examination of bitumen reflectance data from Aptian-age strata (Sligo Formation, Pine Island Shale, James Limestone, and Rodessa Formation). U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reconnaissance investigations conducted in 2011–2012 examined Aptian-age thermal maturity trends across the onshore northern Gulf of Mexico region and indicated that the section in the downdip MISB is approaching the wet gas/condensate window (Ro~1.2%). A focused study in 2012–2013 used 6 whole core, one sidewall core, and 49 high-graded cutting samples (depth range of 13,000–16,500 ft [3962.4–5029.2 m] below surface) collected from 15 downdip MISB wells for mineralogy, fluid inclusion, organic geochemistry, and organic petrographic analysis. Based on native solid bitumen reflectance (Ro generally > 0.8%; interpreted to be post-oil indigenous bitumens matured in situ), Ro values increase regionally across the MISB from the southeast to the northwest. Thermal maturity in the eastern half of the basin (Ro range 1.0 to 1.25%) appears to be related to present-day burial depth and shows a gradual increase with respect to depth. To the west, thermal maturity continues to increase even as the Aptian section shallows structurally on the Adams County High (Ro range 1.4 to > 1.8%). After evaluating the possible thermal agents responsible for increasing maturity at shallower depths (i.e., igneous activity, proximity to salt, variations in regional heat flux, and uplift), we tentatively propose that either greater paleoheat flow or deeper burial coupled with uplift in the western part of the MISB could be responsible for the thermal maturity anomaly. Further research and additional data are needed to determine the cause(s) of the thermal anomaly.

  5. Geochemical characterization of Neogene sediments from onshore West Baram Delta Province, Sarawak: paleoenvironment, source input and thermal maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Togunwa Olayinka S.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Neogene strata of the onshore West Baram Province of NW Borneo contain organic rich rock formations particularly within the Sarawak basin. This basin is a proven prolific oil and gas province, thus has been a subject of great interest to characterise the nature of the organic source input and depositional environment conditions as well as thermal maturation. This study is performed on outcrop samples of Lambir, Miri and Tukau formations, which are of stratigraphic equivalence to the petroleum bearing cycles of the offshore West Baram delta province in Sarawak. The investigated mudstone samples are organic rich with a total organic carbon (TOC content of more than 1.0 wt.%. The integration of elemental and molecular analyses indicates that there is no significant variation in the source input between these formations. The investigated biomarkers parameters achieved from acyclic isoprenoids, terpanes and steranes biomarkers of a saturated hydrocarbon biomarkers revealed that these sediments contain high contribution of land plants with minor marine organic matter input that was deposited and preserved under relatively oxic to suboxic conditions. This is further supported by low total sulphur (TS, high TOC/TN ratios, source and redox sensitive trace elements (V, Ni, Cr, Co and Mo concentrations and their ratios, which suggest terrigenous source input deposited under oxic to suboxic conditions. Based on the analysed biomarker thermal maturity indicators, it may be deduced that the studied sediments are yet to enter the maturity stage for hydrocarbon generation, which is also supported by measured vitrinite reflectance values of 0.39-0.48% Ro.

  6. Geochemical characterization of Neogene sediments from onshore West Baram Delta Province, Sarawak: paleoenvironment, source input and thermal maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togunwa, Olayinka S.; Abdullah, Wan H.

    2017-08-01

    The Neogene strata of the onshore West Baram Province of NW Borneo contain organic rich rock formations particularly within the Sarawak basin. This basin is a proven prolific oil and gas province, thus has been a subject of great interest to characterise the nature of the organic source input and depositional environment conditions as well as thermal maturation. This study is performed on outcrop samples of Lambir, Miri and Tukau formations, which are of stratigraphic equivalence to the petroleum bearing cycles of the offshore West Baram delta province in Sarawak. The investigated mudstone samples are organic rich with a total organic carbon (TOC) content of more than 1.0 wt.%. The integration of elemental and molecular analyses indicates that there is no significant variation in the source input between these formations. The investigated biomarkers parameters achieved from acyclic isoprenoids, terpanes and steranes biomarkers of a saturated hydrocarbon biomarkers revealed that these sediments contain high contribution of land plants with minor marine organic matter input that was deposited and preserved under relatively oxic to suboxic conditions. This is further supported by low total sulphur (TS), high TOC/TN ratios, source and redox sensitive trace elements (V, Ni, Cr, Co and Mo) concentrations and their ratios, which suggest terrigenous source input deposited under oxic to suboxic conditions. Based on the analysed biomarker thermal maturity indicators, it may be deduced that the studied sediments are yet to enter the maturity stage for hydrocarbon generation, which is also supported by measured vitrinite reflectance values of 0.39-0.48% Ro.

  7. Chemical and nanometer-scale structure of kerogen and its change during thermal maturation investigated by advanced solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Fang, X.; Lan, Y.; Schimmelmann, A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Xu, L.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2010-01-01

    We have used advanced and quantitative solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to investigate structural changes in a series of type II kerogen samples from the New Albany Shale across a range of maturity (vitrinite reflectance R0 from 0.29% to 1.27%). Specific functional groups such as CH3, CH2, alkyl CH, aromatic CH, aromatic C-O, and other nonprotonated aromatics, as well as "oil prone" and "gas prone" carbons, have been quantified by 13C NMR; atomic H/C and O/C ratios calculated from the NMR data agree with elemental analysis. Relationships between NMR structural parameters and vitrinite reflectance, a proxy for thermal maturity, were evaluated. The aromatic cluster size is probed in terms of the fraction of aromatic carbons that are protonated (???30%) and the average distance of aromatic C from the nearest protons in long-range H-C dephasing, both of which do not increase much with maturation, in spite of a great increase in aromaticity. The aromatic clusters in the most mature sample consist of ???30 carbons, and of ???20 carbons in the least mature samples. Proof of many links between alkyl chains and aromatic rings is provided by short-range and long-range 1H-13C correlation NMR. The alkyl segments provide most H in the samples; even at a carbon aromaticity of 83%, the fraction of aromatic H is only 38%. While aromaticity increases with thermal maturity, most other NMR structural parameters, including the aromatic C-O fractions, decrease. Aromaticity is confirmed as an excellent NMR structural parameter for assessing thermal maturity. In this series of samples, thermal maturation mostly increases aromaticity by reducing the length of the alkyl chains attached to the aromatic cores, not by pronounced growth of the size of the fused aromatic ring clusters. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of organic matter properties, clay mineral type and thermal maturity on gas adsorption in organic-rich shale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Ruppel, Stephen C.; Milliken, Kitty; Lewan, Mike; Sun, Xun; Baez, Luis; Beeney, Ken; Sonnenberg, Steve

    2013-01-01

    A series of CH4 adsorption experiments on natural organic-rich shales, isolated kerogen, clay-rich rocks, and artificially matured Woodford Shale samples were conducted under dry conditions. Our results indicate that physisorption is a dominant process for CH4 sorption, both on organic-rich shales and clay minerals. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of the investigated samples is linearly correlated with the CH4 sorption capacity in both organic-rich shales and clay-rich rocks. The presence of organic matter is a primary control on gas adsorption in shale-gas systems, and the gas-sorption capacity is determined by total organic carbon (TOC) content, organic-matter type, and thermal maturity. A large number of nanopores, in the 2–50 nm size range, were created during organic-matter thermal decomposition, and they significantly contributed to the surface area. Consequently, methane-sorption capacity increases with increasing thermal maturity due to the presence of nanopores produced during organic-matter decomposition. Furthermore, CH4 sorption on clay minerals is mainly controlled by the type of clay mineral present. In terms of relative CH4 sorption capacity: montmorillonite ≫ illite – smectite mixed layer > kaolinite > chlorite > illite. The effect of rock properties (organic matter content, type, maturity, and clay minerals) on CH4 adsorption can be quantified with the heat of adsorption and the standard entropy, which are determined from adsorption isotherms at different temperatures. For clay-mineral rich rocks, the heat of adsorption (q) ranges from 9.4 to 16.6 kJ/mol. These values are considerably smaller than those for CH4 adsorption on kerogen (21.9–28 kJ/mol) and organic-rich shales (15.1–18.4 kJ/mol). The standard entropy (Δs°) ranges from -64.8 to -79.5 J/mol/K for clay minerals, -68.1 to -111.3 J/mol/K for kerogen, and -76.0 to -84.6 J/mol/K for organic-rich shales. The affinity of CH4 molecules for sorption on organic matter

  9. Treatment of mature landfill leachate by internal micro-electrolysis integrated with coagulation: A comparative study on a novel sequencing batch reactor based on zero valent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Diwen; Peng, Juan; Xu, Xinyan; Li, Kan; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Specifically-designed SIME reactor for treatment of mature landfill leachate. ► Excellent removal efficiencies of COD (86.1%), color (95.3%), and HA (81.8%). ► Combination effect of IME without aeration and IME with aeration. ► Optimal pH of 5, Fe/C of 1:1, gas flow rate of 80 L h −1 , and H 2 O 2 of 100 mg L −1 . - Abstract: A comparative study of treating mature landfill leachate with various treatment processes was conducted to investigate whether the method of combined processes of internal micro-electrolysis (IME) without aeration and IME with full aeration in one reactor was an efficient treatment for mature landfill leachate. A specifically designed novel sequencing batch internal micro-electrolysis reactor (SIME) with the latest automation technology was employed in the experiment. Experimental data showed that combined processes obtained a high COD removal efficiency of 73.7 ± 1.3%, which was 15.2% and 24.8% higher than that of the IME with and without aeration, respectively. The SIME reactor also exhibited a COD removal efficiency of 86.1 ± 3.8% to mature landfill leachate in the continuous operation, which is much higher (p 2 O 2 , were optimized. All results show that the SIME reactor is a promising and efficient technology in treating mature landfill leachate.

  10. Effect of Thermal Maturation on n-alkanes and Kerogen in Preserved Organic Matter: Implications for Paleoenvironment Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, O. D.; Longbottom, T. L.; Hockaday, W. C.; Blackaby, E.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the effects of maturity on biomarkers is vital in assessing biomarker reliability in mature sediments. It is well known for n-alkanes that increased maturity shortens chain lengths and decreases the odd over even preference however, the amount of change in these variables has not been determined for different maturities and types of preserved organic matter. For this reason, it is difficult to judge the trustworthiness of even lightly matured samples for paleoenvironment reconstruction. Another complication is the difficulty of accurately determining maturity as many maturity indicators are error-prone or not appropriate at low maturities. Using hydrous pyrolysis, we artificially matured black shale samples with type I (lacustrine) and type II (marine) kerogen to measure changes in n-alkane length and odd over even preference. Whole rock samples underwent hydrous pyrolysis for 72 hours, at 250 °C, 300 °C, 325 °C, 350 °C, and 375 °C to cover a wide maturity range. From the immature and artificially matured samples, the bitumen was extracted and the saturate fraction was separated using column chromatography. The saturate fraction was analyzed for n-alkanes using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Kerogen structural changes were also measured using solid-state 13C NMR to relate changes in n-alkane biomarkers to changes in kerogen structure. Results show that for type I bitumen the n-alkanes did not change at low maturities considered premature in terms of oil generation (<325 °C). The NMR spectra of the type I kerogen support the lack of change, at low maturities no changes in the aliphatic portion (Fal) were observed, however, after 325 °C Fal decreased with increasing maturity. The loss of Fal indicates kerogen contributing hydrocarbons to bitumen that cause changes in n-alkane measurements. The type II kerogen's Fal also decreased with increasing maturity, but unlike the type I kerogen Fal loss started at low maturities. The differences

  11. Hydrocarbons thermal maturation: Leopatin method applied to the Parana basin; Maturacao termica de hidrocarbonetos: aplicacao do metodo de Lopatin a Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eston, Sergio Medici de; Jardim, Niza S

    1987-12-31

    One of the requirements for the existent of economic deposits of hydrocarbons is that the organic matter has undergone adequate thermal maturation. Several techniques have been proposed in order to quantity the catagenetic state of kerogen, and the Lopatin-Waples methodology permits quantification at any past time and does not require laboratory tests on samples of the material. For this reason it is an useful techniques for predicting mature zones using as basic information the thermal and subsidence histories of each stratum. Lopatin`s technique was applied to the Parana basin, with McKenzie`s crustal stretching model fitted to the data of 18 wells, and the areas predicted as mature for oil and/or gas were in good agreement with the field results. The technique predicted oil phone areas at the east border of the basin for the Ponta Grossa and Irati formation, and also that most of the thermal maturation occurred after the basalt flows of the Cretaceous period. (author) 41 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Hydrocarbons thermal maturation: Leopatin method applied to the Parana basin; Maturacao termica de hidrocarbonetos: aplicacao do metodo de Lopatin a Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eston, Sergio Medici de; Jardim, Niza S.

    1986-12-31

    One of the requirements for the existent of economic deposits of hydrocarbons is that the organic matter has undergone adequate thermal maturation. Several techniques have been proposed in order to quantity the catagenetic state of kerogen, and the Lopatin-Waples methodology permits quantification at any past time and does not require laboratory tests on samples of the material. For this reason it is an useful techniques for predicting mature zones using as basic information the thermal and subsidence histories of each stratum. Lopatin`s technique was applied to the Parana basin, with McKenzie`s crustal stretching model fitted to the data of 18 wells, and the areas predicted as mature for oil and/or gas were in good agreement with the field results. The technique predicted oil phone areas at the east border of the basin for the Ponta Grossa and Irati formation, and also that most of the thermal maturation occurred after the basalt flows of the Cretaceous period. (author) 41 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Treatment of mature landfill leachate by internal micro-electrolysis integrated with coagulation: a comparative study on a novel sequencing batch reactor based on zero valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Diwen; Peng, Juan; Xu, Xinyan; Li, Kan; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2012-08-30

    A comparative study of treating mature landfill leachate with various treatment processes was conducted to investigate whether the method of combined processes of internal micro-electrolysis (IME) without aeration and IME with full aeration in one reactor was an efficient treatment for mature landfill leachate. A specifically designed novel sequencing batch internal micro-electrolysis reactor (SIME) with the latest automation technology was employed in the experiment. Experimental data showed that combined processes obtained a high COD removal efficiency of 73.7 ± 1.3%, which was 15.2% and 24.8% higher than that of the IME with and without aeration, respectively. The SIME reactor also exhibited a COD removal efficiency of 86.1 ± 3.8% to mature landfill leachate in the continuous operation, which is much higher (p<0.05) than that of conventional treatments of electrolysis (22.8-47.0%), coagulation-sedimentation (18.5-22.2%), and the Fenton process (19.9-40.2%), respectively. The innovative concept behind this excellent performance is a combination effect of reductive and oxidative processes of the IME, and the integration electro-coagulation. Optimal operating parameters, including the initial pH, Fe/C mass ratio, air flow rate, and addition of H(2)O(2), were optimized. All results show that the SIME reactor is a promising and efficient technology in treating mature landfill leachate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermal maturity and organic composition of Pennsylvanian coals and carbonaceous shales, north-central Texas: Implications for coalbed gas potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackley, Paul C. [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Guevara, Edgar H.; Hentz, Tucker F. [Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78713 (United States); Hook, Robert W. [1301 Constant Springs Drive, Austin, TX 78746 (United States)

    2009-01-31

    Thermal maturity was determined for about 120 core, cuttings, and outcrop samples to investigate the potential for coalbed gas resources in Pennsylvanian strata of north-central Texas. Shallow (< 600 m; 2000 ft) coal and carbonaceous shale cuttings samples from the Middle-Upper Pennsylvanian Strawn, Canyon, and Cisco Groups in Archer and Young Counties on the Eastern Shelf of the Midland basin (northwest and downdip from the outcrop) yielded mean random vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}) values between about 0.4 and 0.8%. This range of R{sub o} values indicates rank from subbituminous C to high volatile A bituminous in the shallow subsurface, which may be sufficient for early thermogenic gas generation. Near-surface (< 100 m; 300 ft) core and outcrop samples of coal from areas of historical underground coal mining in the region yielded similar R{sub o} values of 0.5 to 0.8%. Carbonaceous shale core samples of Lower Pennsylvanian strata (lower Atoka Group) from two deeper wells (samples from {proportional_to} 1650 m; 5400 ft) in Jack and western Wise Counties in the western part of the Fort Worth basin yielded higher R{sub o} values of about 1.0%. Pyrolysis and petrographic data for the lower Atoka samples indicate mixed Type II/Type III organic matter, suggesting generated hydrocarbons may be both gas- and oil-prone. In all other samples, organic material is dominated by Type III organic matter (vitrinite), indicating that generated hydrocarbons should be gas-prone. Individual coal beds are thin at outcrop (< 1 m; 3.3 ft), laterally discontinuous, and moderately high in ash yield and sulfur content. A possible analog for coalbed gas potential in the Pennsylvanian section of north-central Texas occurs on the northeast Oklahoma shelf and in the Cherokee basin of southeastern Kansas, where contemporaneous gas-producing coal beds are similar in thickness, quality, and rank. (author)

  15. Thermal maturity and burial history modelling of shale is enhanced by use of Arrhenius time-temperature index and memetic optimizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Wood

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal maturity indices and modelling based on Arrhenius-equation reaction kinetics have played an important role in oil and gas exploration and provided petroleum generation insight for many kerogen-rich source rocks. Debate continues concerning how best to integrate the Arrhenius equation and which activation energies (E and frequency factors (A values to apply. A case is made for the strong theoretical basis and practical advantages of the time-temperature index (∑TTIARR method, first published in 1998, using a single, carefully selected E-A set (E = 218 kJ/mol (52.1 kcal/mol; A = 5.45E+26/my from the well-established A-E trend for published kerogen kinetics. An updated correlation between ∑TTIARR and vitrinite reflectance (Ro is provided in which the ∑TTIARR scale spans some 18 orders of magnitude. The method is readily calculated in spreadsheets and can be further enhanced by visual basic for application code to provide optimization. Optimization is useful for identifying possible geothermal gradients and erosion intervals covering multiple burial intervals that can match calculated thermal maturities with measured Ro data. A memetic optimizer with firefly and dynamic local search memes is described that flexibly conducts exploration and exploitation of the feasible, multi-dimensional, thermal history solution space to find high-performing solutions to complex burial and thermal histories. A complex deep burial history example, with several periods of uplift and erosion and fluctuating heat flow is used to demonstrate what can be achieved with the memetic optimizer. By carefully layering in constraints to the models specific insights to episodes in their thermal history can be exposed, leading to better characterization of the timing of petroleum generation. The objective function found to be most effective for this type of optimization is the mean square error (MSE of multiple burial intervals for the difference between

  16. Application of uniaxial confining-core clamp with hydrous pyrolysis in petrophysical and geochemical studies of source rocks at various thermal maturities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, Michael D.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Baez, Luis; Beeney, Ken; Sonnenberg, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Understanding changes in petrophysical and geochemical parameters during source rock thermal maturation is a critical component in evaluating source-rock petroleum accumulations. Natural core data are preferred, but obtaining cores that represent the same facies of a source rock at different thermal maturities is seldom possible. An alternative approach is to induce thermal maturity changes by laboratory pyrolysis on aliquots of a source-rock sample of a given facies of interest. Hydrous pyrolysis is an effective way to induce thermal maturity on source-rock cores and provide expelled oils that are similar in composition to natural crude oils. However, net-volume increases during bitumen and oil generation result in expanded cores due to opening of bedding-plane partings. Although meaningful geochemical measurements on expanded, recovered cores are possible, the utility of the core for measuring petrophysical properties relevant to natural subsurface cores is not suitable. This problem created during hydrous pyrolysis is alleviated by using a stainless steel uniaxial confinement clamp on rock cores cut perpendicular to bedding fabric. The clamp prevents expansion just as overburden does during natural petroleum formation in the subsurface. As a result, intact cores can be recovered at various thermal maturities for the measurement of petrophysical properties as well as for geochemical analyses. This approach has been applied to 1.7-inch diameter cores taken perpendicular to the bedding fabric of a 2.3- to 2.4-inch thick slab of Mahogany oil shale from the Eocene Green River Formation. Cores were subjected to hydrous pyrolysis at 360 °C for 72 h, which represents near maximum oil generation. One core was heated unconfined and the other was heated in the uniaxial confinement clamp. The unconfined core developed open tensile fractures parallel to the bedding fabric that result in a 38 % vertical expansion of the core. These open fractures did not occur in the

  17. Efficient and controllable thermal ablation induced by short-pulsed HIFU sequence assisted with perfluorohexane nanodroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Nan; Lu, Shukuan; Qin, Dui; Xu, Tianqi; Han, Meng; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2018-07-01

    A HIFU sequence with extremely short pulse duration and high pulse repetition frequency can achieve thermal ablation at a low acoustic power using inertial cavitation. Because of its cavitation-dependent property, the therapeutic outcome is unreliable when the treatment zone lacks cavitation nuclei. To overcome this intrinsic limitation, we introduced perfluorocarbon nanodroplets as extra cavitation nuclei into short-pulsed HIFU-mediated thermal ablation. Two types of nanodroplets were used with perfluorohexane (PFH) as the core material coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or an anionic fluorosurfactant (FS) to demonstrate the feasibility of this study. The thermal ablation process was recorded by high-speed photography. The inertial cavitation activity during the ablation was revealed by sonoluminescence (SL). The high-speed photography results show that the thermal ablation volume increased by ∼643% and 596% with BSA-PFH and FS-PFH, respectively, than the short-pulsed HIFU alone at an acoustic power of 19.5 W. Using nanodroplets, much larger ablation volumes were created even at a much lower acoustic power. Meanwhile, the treatment time for ablating a desired volume significantly reduced in the presence of nanodroplets. Moreover, by adjusting the treatment time, lesion migration towards the HIFU transducer could also be avoided. The SL results show that the thermal lesion shape was significantly dependent on the inertial cavitation in this short-pulsed HIFU-mediated thermal ablation. The inertial cavitation activity became more predictable by using nanodroplets. Therefore, the introduction of PFH nanodroplets as extra cavitation nuclei made the short-pulsed HIFU thermal ablation more efficient by increasing the ablation volume and speed, and more controllable by reducing the acoustic power and preventing lesion migration. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Treatment of mature landfill leachate by internal micro-electrolysis integrated with coagulation: A comparative study on a novel sequencing batch reactor based on zero valent iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Diwen [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Peng, Juan [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Xu, Xinyan; Li, Kan; Wang, Yalin [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Jia, Jinping, E-mail: jpjia@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specifically-designed SIME reactor for treatment of mature landfill leachate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excellent removal efficiencies of COD (86.1%), color (95.3%), and HA (81.8%). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination effect of IME without aeration and IME with aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimal pH of 5, Fe/C of 1:1, gas flow rate of 80 L h{sup -1}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} of 100 mg L{sup -1}. - Abstract: A comparative study of treating mature landfill leachate with various treatment processes was conducted to investigate whether the method of combined processes of internal micro-electrolysis (IME) without aeration and IME with full aeration in one reactor was an efficient treatment for mature landfill leachate. A specifically designed novel sequencing batch internal micro-electrolysis reactor (SIME) with the latest automation technology was employed in the experiment. Experimental data showed that combined processes obtained a high COD removal efficiency of 73.7 {+-} 1.3%, which was 15.2% and 24.8% higher than that of the IME with and without aeration, respectively. The SIME reactor also exhibited a COD removal efficiency of 86.1 {+-} 3.8% to mature landfill leachate in the continuous operation, which is much higher (p < 0.05) than that of conventional treatments of electrolysis (22.8-47.0%), coagulation-sedimentation (18.5-22.2%), and the Fenton process (19.9-40.2%), respectively. The innovative concept behind this excellent performance is a combination effect of reductive and oxidative processes of the IME, and the integration electro-coagulation. Optimal operating parameters, including the initial pH, Fe/C mass ratio, air flow rate, and addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, were optimized. All results show that the SIME reactor is a promising and efficient technology in treating mature landfill leachate.

  19. Statistical interpretation of chromatic indicators in correlation to phytochemical profile of a sulfur dioxide-free mulberry (Morus nigra) wine submitted to non-thermal maturation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchabo, William; Ma, Yongkun; Kwaw, Emmanuel; Zhang, Haining; Xiao, Lulu; Apaliya, Maurice T

    2018-01-15

    The four different methods of color measurement of wine proposed by Boulton, Giusti, Glories and Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) were applied to assess the statistical relationship between the phytochemical profile and chromatic characteristics of sulfur dioxide-free mulberry (Morus nigra) wine submitted to non-thermal maturation processes. The alteration in chromatic properties and phenolic composition of non-thermal aged mulberry wine were examined, aided by the used of Pearson correlation, cluster and principal component analysis. The results revealed a positive effect of non-thermal processes on phytochemical families of wines. From Pearson correlation analysis relationships between chromatic indexes and flavonols as well as anthocyanins were established. Cluster analysis highlighted similarities between Boulton and Giusti parameters, as well as Glories and CIE parameters in the assessment of chromatic properties of wines. Finally, principal component analysis was able to discriminate wines subjected to different maturation techniques on the basis of their chromatic and phenolics characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Discovery of precursor and mature microRNAs and their putative gene targets using high-throughput sequencing in pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Noor Hydayaty Md; Ong, Wen Dee; Redwan, Raimi Mohamed; Latip, Mariam Abd; Kumar, S Vijay

    2015-10-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, endogenous non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression, resulting in the silencing of target mRNA transcripts through mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. MiRNAs play significant roles in various biological and physiological processes in plants. However, the miRNA-mediated gene regulatory network in pineapple, the model tropical non-climacteric fruit, remains largely unexplored. Here, we report a complete list of pineapple mature miRNAs obtained from high-throughput small RNA sequencing and precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) obtained from ESTs. Two small RNA libraries were constructed from pineapple fruits and leaves, respectively, using Illumina's Solexa technology. Sequence similarity analysis using miRBase revealed 579,179 reads homologous to 153 miRNAs from 41 miRNA families. In addition, a pineapple fruit transcriptome library consisting of approximately 30,000 EST contigs constructed using Solexa sequencing was used for the discovery of pre-miRNAs. In all, four pre-miRNAs were identified (MIR156, MIR399, MIR444 and MIR2673). Furthermore, the same pineapple transcriptome was used to dissect the function of the miRNAs in pineapple by predicting their putative targets in conjunction with their regulatory networks. In total, 23 metabolic pathways were found to be regulated by miRNAs in pineapple. The use of high-throughput sequencing in pineapples to unveil the presence of miRNAs and their regulatory pathways provides insight into the repertoire of miRNA regulation used exclusively in this non-climacteric model plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of the amino acid sequence on thermal conduction through β-sheet crystals of natural silk protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Bai, Zhitong; Ban, Heng; Liu, Ling

    2015-11-21

    Recent experiments have discovered very different thermal conductivities between the spider silk and the silkworm silk. Decoding the molecular mechanisms underpinning the distinct thermal properties may guide the rational design of synthetic silk materials and other biomaterials for multifunctionality and tunable properties. However, such an understanding is lacking, mainly due to the complex structure and phonon physics associated with the silk materials. Here, using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics, we demonstrate that the amino acid sequence plays a key role in the thermal conduction process through β-sheets, essential building blocks of natural silks and a variety of other biomaterials. Three representative β-sheet types, i.e. poly-A, poly-(GA), and poly-G, are shown to have distinct structural features and phonon dynamics leading to different thermal conductivities. A fundamental understanding of the sequence effects may stimulate the design and engineering of polymers and biopolymers for desired thermal properties.

  2. Effects of thermal regime on ovarian maturation and plasma sex steroids in farmed white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, M.A.H.; Van Eenennaam, J. P.; Feist, G.W.; Linares-Casenave, J.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Schreck, C.B.; Doroshov, S.I.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, commercial aquaculture farms in Northern California have exposed gravid, cultured white sturgeon females to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) throughout the late phase of vitellogenesis and ovarian follicle maturation resulting in improved ovulation rates and egg quality. However, the optimum timing for transfer of broodfish to the cold water and the capacity of transferred broodfish to maintain reproductive competence over an extended time in cold water had not been evaluated. Gravid white sturgeon females that have been raised at water temperatures of 16-20??C were transported to either cold water (12 ?? 1??C; Group 1) in November 1997 or maintained in ambient water temperatures (10-19??C; Group 2) until early spring. In March 1998, half of the fish in Group 2 had regressed ovaries, but the remaining females had intact ovarian follicles and were transported to the cold water. Ovarian follicles and blood were collected from females until they reached the stage of spawning readiness (determined by germinal vesicle position and an oocyte maturation assay) or underwent ovarian regression. Exposure of gravid sturgeon females to ambient water temperatures (14.5 ?? 2.3??C, mean ?? S.D.) from October to March led to a decrease in plasma sex steroids and a high incidence of ovarian regression in fish with a more advanced stage of oocyte development. Transfer of females with intact ovarian follicles to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) in the fall or early spring resulted in normal ovarian development in the majority of females. Holding females in cold water does not seem to override their endogenous reproductive rhythms but extends their capacity to maintain oocyte maturational competence over a longer period of time. A temperature-sensitive phase in ovarian development may occur during the transition from vitellogenic growth to oocyte maturation, and the degree and timing of sensitivity to environmental temperature are dependent on the female's endogenous reproductive rhythm

  3. Evaluation of the quality, thermal maturity and distribution of potential source rocks in the Danish part of the Norwegian–Danish Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen, Lars

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality, thermal maturity and distribution of potential source rocks within the Palaeozoic–Mesozoic succession of the Danish part of the Norwegian–Danish Basin have been evaluated on the basis of screening data from over 4000 samples from the pre-Upper Cretaceous succession in 33 wells. The Lower Palaeozoic in the basin is overmature and the Upper Cretaceous – Cenozoic strata have no petroleum generation potential, but the Toarcian marine shales of the Lower Jurassic Fjerritslev Formation (F-III, F-IV members and the uppermost Jurassic – lowermost Cretaceous shales of the Frederikshavn Formation may qualify as potential source rocks in parts of the basin. Neither of these potential source rocks has a basinwide distribution; the present occurrence of the Lower Jurassic shales was primarily determined by regional early Middle Jurassic uplift and erosion. The generation potential of these source rocks is highly variable. The F-III and F-IV members show significant lateral changes in generation capacity, the best-developed source rocks occurring in the basin centre. The combined F-III andF-IV members in the Haldager-1, Kvols-1 and Rønde-1 wells contain ‘net source-rock’ thicknesses (cumulative thickness of intervals with Hydrogen Index (HI >200 mg HC/g TOC of 40 m, 83 m, and 92 m, respectively, displaying average HI values of 294, 369 and 404 mg HC/g TOC. The Mors-1 well contains 123 m of ‘net source rock’ with an average HI of 221 mg HC/g TOC. Parts of the Frederikshavn Formation possess a petroleum generation potential in the Hyllebjerg-1, Skagen-2, Voldum-1 and Terne-1 wells, the latter well containing a c.160 m thick highly oil-prone interval with an average HI of 478 mg HC/g TOC and maximum HI values >500 mg HC/g TOC. The source-rock evaluation suggests that a Mesozoic petroleum system is the most likely in the study area. Two primary plays are possible: (1 the Upper Triassic – lowermost Jurassic Gassum play, and (2the

  4. Whole-exome sequencing for mutation detection in pediatric disorders of insulin secretion: Maturity onset diabetes of the young and congenital hyperinsulinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S R; Leo, P J; McInerney-Leo, A M; Anderson, L K; Marshall, M; McGown, I; Newell, F; Brown, M A; Conwell, L S; Harris, M; Duncan, E L

    2018-06-01

    To assess the utility of whole-exome sequencing (WES) for mutation detection in maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI). MODY and CHI are the two commonest monogenic disorders of glucose-regulated insulin secretion in childhood, with 13 causative genes known for MODY and 10 causative genes identified for CHI. The large number of potential genes makes comprehensive screening using traditional methods expensive and time-consuming. Ten subjects with MODY and five with CHI with known mutations underwent WES using two different exome capture kits (Nimblegen SeqCap EZ Human v3.0 Exome Enrichment Kit, Nextera Rapid Capture Exome Kit). Analysis was blinded to previously identified mutations, and included assessment for large deletions. The target capture of five exome capture technologies was also analyzed using sequencing data from >2800 unrelated samples. Four of five MODY mutations were identified using Nimblegen (including a large deletion in HNF1B). Although targeted, one mutation (in INS) had insufficient coverage for detection. Eleven of eleven mutations (six MODY, five CHI) were identified using Nextera Rapid (including the previously missed mutation). On reconciliation, all mutations concorded with previous data and no additional variants in MODY genes were detected. There were marked differences in the performance of the capture technologies. WES can be useful for screening for MODY/CHI mutations, detecting both point mutations and large deletions. However, capture technologies require careful selection. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Development of laser Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic parameters as an additional thermal maturity indicator to the conodont alteration index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, C.P.; Wilson, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Laser Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was applied in an attempt to quantify and elucidate the chemical transformations of the conodont alteration index (CAI) in artificially matured conodonts. Coniform elements of the genus Drepanodus from the Ordovician Emanuel Formation and pectiniform elements of the genus Polygnathus from the Devonian Napier Formation, both from the Canning Basin were used in this investigation. Samples where specifically chosen to study the effects of genus, element morphology, geological age, lithology and depositional environment upon the CAI. The first order Raman spectra (900-1800 cm-1) of both sets of conodonts show three bands. These are assigned to apatite at 965 cm-1, D band (defects present in the structural units and disorder) at 1345 cm-1 and the G band (carbon-carbon in plane stretching vibration or structural ordered carbon) at 1600 cm-1. The Raman spectra recorded for both sample sets, CAI range of 1-7 are characteristic of poorly/ highly disordered carbon within the conodont organic matter. Further more, the D band becomes progressively narrower and more intense the higher the thermal treatment. The G band becomes narrower until CAI 4 and after that has no systematic change apart from the intensity decreasing with temperature. The most noteworthy spectral characteristic in relation to thermal maturity is the clearly defined linear trend of decreasing D band line-width with increasing rank. The carbon 1s photoelectron regions acquired from both sample sets contain three peaks. These peaks are assigned to carbon bonded to sp3 and sp2 hybridized carbon (284.7 eV), alcohol (287.2 eV) and carboxyl (288.3 eV) functional groups. With increasing thermal treatment all the carbon constituents show a linear decrease in abundance. The poorly/ highly disordered carbon shows no progressive ordering with increasing thermal treatment. This is also in agreement with the XPS results, in which the aliphatic

  6. Digestion of thermally hydrolyzed sewage sludge by anaerobic sequencing batch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhijun; Wang Wei; Zhang Xihui; Zhang Guangming

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the performance of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) for the digestion of thermally hydrolyzed sewage sludge. Both mesophilic ASBR and continuous-flow stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were evaluated with an equivalent loading rate of 2.71 kg COD/m 3 day at 20-day hydraulic retention time (HRT) and 5.42 kg COD/m 3 day at 10-day HRT. The average total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removals of the ASBR at the 20-day and 10-day HRT were 67.71% and 61.66%, respectively. These were 12.38% and 27.92% higher than those obtained by CSTR. As a result, the average daily gas production of ASBR was 15% higher than that of the CSTR at 20-day HRT, and 31% higher than that of the CSTR at 10-day HRT. Solids in thermally hydrolyzed sludge accumulated within ASBR were able to reach a high steady state with solid content of 65-80 g/L. This resulted in a relatively high solid retention time (SRT) of 34-40 days in the ASBR at 10-day HRT. However, too much solid accumulation resulted in the unsteadiness of the ASBR, making regular discharge of digested sludge from the bottom of the ASBR necessary to keep the reactor stable. The evolution of the gas production, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in an operation cycle of ASBR also showed that the ASBR was steady and feasible for the treatment of thermally hydrolyzed sludge

  7. Research on the Compression Algorithm of the Infrared Thermal Image Sequence Based on Differential Evolution and Double Exponential Decay Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Yu; Meng, Xiang-Bing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    This paper has proposed a new thermal wave image sequence compression algorithm by combining double exponential decay fitting model and differential evolution algorithm. This study benchmarked fitting compression results and precision of the proposed method was benchmarked to that of the traditional methods via experiment; it investigated the fitting compression performance under the long time series and improved model and validated the algorithm by practical thermal image sequence compression and reconstruction. The results show that the proposed algorithm is a fast and highly precise infrared image data processing method. PMID:24696649

  8. Research on the Compression Algorithm of the Infrared Thermal Image Sequence Based on Differential Evolution and Double Exponential Decay Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has proposed a new thermal wave image sequence compression algorithm by combining double exponential decay fitting model and differential evolution algorithm. This study benchmarked fitting compression results and precision of the proposed method was benchmarked to that of the traditional methods via experiment; it investigated the fitting compression performance under the long time series and improved model and validated the algorithm by practical thermal image sequence compression and reconstruction. The results show that the proposed algorithm is a fast and highly precise infrared image data processing method.

  9. Effect of stacking sequence and surface treatment on the thermal conductivity of multilayered hybrid nano-composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolaou, G. C.; Pappa, E. J.; Portan, D. V.; Kotrotsos, A.; Kollia, E.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of both the stacking sequence and surface treatment on the thermal conductivity of multilayered hybrid nano-composites. Four types of multilayered hybrid nanocomposites were manufactured and tested: Nitinol- CNTs (carbon nanotubes)- Acrylic resin; Nitinol- Acrylic resin- CNTs; Surface treated Nitinol- CNTs- Acrylic resin and Surface treated Nitinol- Acrylic resin- CNTs. Surface treatment of Nitinol plies was realized by means of the electrochemical anodization. Surface topography of the anodized nitinol sheets was investigated through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). It was found that the overall thermal response of the manufactured multilayered nano-composites was greatly influenced by both the anodization and the stacking sequence. A theoretical model for the prediction of the overall thermal conductivity has been developed considering the nature of the different layers, their stacking sequence as well as the interfacial thermal resistance. Thermal conductivity and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements were conducted, to verify the predicted by the model overall thermal conductivities. In all cases, a good agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental results was found.

  10. Molecular diagnosis of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) in Turkish children by using targeted next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anık, Ahmet; Çatlı, Gönül; Abacı, Ayhan; Sarı, Erkan; Yeşilkaya, Ediz; Korkmaz, Hüseyin Anıl; Demir, Korcan; Altıncık, Ayça; Tuhan, Hale Ünver; Kızıldağ, Sefa; Özkan, Behzat; Ceylaner, Serdar; Böber, Ece

    2015-11-01

    To perform molecular analysis of pediatric maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) patients by next-generation sequencing, which enables simultaneous analysis of multiple genes in a single test, to determine the genetic etiology of a group of Turkish children clinically diagnosed as MODY, and to assess genotype-phenotype relationship. Forty-two children diagnosed with MODY and their parents were enrolled in the study. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis were obtained from hospital records. Molecular analyses of GCK, HNF1A, HNF4A, HNF1B, PDX1, NEUROD1, KLF11, CEL, PAX4, INS, and BLK genes were performed on genomic DNA by using next-generation sequencing. Pathogenicity for novel mutations was assessed by bioinformatics prediction software programs and segregation analyses. A mutation in MODY genes was identified in 12 (29%) of the cases. GCK mutations were detected in eight cases, and HNF1B, HNF1A, PDX1, and BLK mutations in the others. We identified five novel missense mutations - three in GCK (p.Val338Met, p.Cys252Ser, and p.Val86Ala), one in HNF1A (p.Cys241Ter), and one in PDX1 (p.Gly55Asp), which we believe to be pathogenic. The results of this study showed that mutations in the GCK gene are the leading cause of MODY in our population. Moreover, genetic diagnosis could be made in 29% of Turkish patients, and five novel mutations were identified.

  11. Thermal-maturity limit for primary thermogenic-gas generation from humic coals as determined by hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, Michael; Kotarba, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrous-pyrolysis experiments at 360°C (680°F) for 72 h were conducted on 53 humic coals representing ranks from lignite through anthracite to determine the upper maturity limit for hydrocarbon-gas generation from their kerogen and associated bitumen (i.e., primary gas generation). These experimental conditions are below those needed for oil cracking to ensure that generated gas was not derived from the decomposition of expelled oil generated from some of the coals (i.e., secondary gas generation). Experimental results showed that generation of hydrocarbon gas ends before a vitrinite reflectance of 2.0%. This reflectance is equivalent to Rock-Eval maximum-yield temperature and hydrogen indices (HIs) of 555°C (1031°F) and 35 mg/g total organic carbon (TOC), respectively. At these maturity levels, essentially no soluble bitumen is present in the coals before or after hydrous pyrolysis. The equivalent kerogen atomic H/C ratio is 0.50 at the primary gas-generation limit and indicates that no alkyl moieties are remaining to source hydrocarbon gases. The convergence of atomic H/C ratios of type-II and -I kerogen to this same value at a reflectance of indicates that the primary gas-generation limits for humic coal and type-III kerogen also apply to oil-prone kerogen. Although gas generation from source rocks does not exceed vitrinite reflectance values greater than , trapped hydrocarbon gases can remain stable at higher reflectance values. Distinguishing trapped gas from generated gas in hydrous-pyrolysis experiments is readily determined by of the hydrocarbon gases when a -depleted water is used in the experiments. Water serves as a source of hydrogen in hydrous pyrolysis and, as a result, the use of -depleted water is reflected in the generated gases but not pre-existing trapped gases.

  12. Thermal Maturity Data Used by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Gulf Coast Region Oil and Gas Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennen, Kristin O.; Warwick, Peter D.; McDade, Elizabeth Chinn

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is currently assessing the oil and natural gas resources of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico region using a total petroleum system approach. An essential part of this geologically based method is evaluating the effectiveness of potential source rocks in the petroleum system. The purpose of this report is to make available to the public RockEval and vitrinite reflectance data from more than 1,900 samples of Mesozoic and Tertiary rock core and coal samples in the Gulf of Mexico area in a format that facilitates inclusion into a geographic information system. These data provide parameters by which the thermal maturity, type, and richness of potential sources of oil and gas in this region can be evaluated.

  13. Late Miocene volcanic sequences in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica: products of glaciovolcanic eruptions under different thermal regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smellie, J. L.; Rocchi, S.; Armienti, P.

    2011-01-01

    Late Miocene (c. 13-5 Ma) volcanic sequences of the Hallett Volcanic Province (HVP) crop out along >250 km of western Ross Sea coast in northern Victoria Land. Eight primary volcanic and six sedimentary lithofacies have been identified, and they are organised into at least five different sequence architectures as a consequence of different combinations of eruptive and/or depositional conditions. The volcanoes were erupted in association with a Miocene glacial cover and the sequences are overwhelmingly glaciovolcanic. The commonest and most representative are products of mafic aa lava-fed deltas, a type of glaciovolcanic sequence that has not been described before. It is distinguished by (1) a subaerially emplaced relatively thin caprock of aa lavas lying on and passing down-dip into (2) a thicker association of chaotic to crudely bedded hyaloclastite breccias, water-chilled lava sheets and irregular lava masses, collectively called lobe-hyaloclastite. A second distinctive sequence type present is characterised by water-cooled lavas and associated sedimentary lithofacies (diamictite (probably glacigenic) and fluvial sands and gravels) similar to some mafic glaciovolcanic sheet-like sequences (see Smellie, Earth-Science Reviews, 74, 241-268, 2008), but including (for the first time) examples of likely sheet-like sequences with felsic compositions. Other sequence types in the HVP are minor and include tuff cones, cinder cones and a single ice-marginal lacustrine sequence. The glacial thermal regime varied from polar, characterised by sequences lacking glacial erosion, glacigenic sediments or evidence for free water, to temperate or sub-polar for sequences in which all of these features are conspicuously developed.

  14. The effective reflection of a pulse sequence from a four-wave mirror with thermal nonlinearity under parametric feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, M. S.; Bel'Diugin, I. M.; Zolotarev, M. V.; Kruzhilin, Iu. I.; Krymskii, M. I.

    1989-04-01

    A four-wave mirror with thermal nonlinearity has been experimentally realized with the interaction of corunning waves under parametric feedback with a nonreciprocal element. The effective reflection of a sequence of pulses with duration of about 300 ns from a neodymium-glass laser with maximal reflection coefficients greater than 30 has been demonstrated. The quality of the radiation reflected from the mirror is studied. A significant reduction in the steady-state lasing threshold has been shown with thermal nonlinearity at small angles of the interacting beam convergence, compared to the case of counterrunning convergence.

  15. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions:An Overview of the Technology Maturation Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Robin A S.; Arnold, James O.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Szalai, Christine E.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    The Office of Chief Technologist, NASA identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASAs Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASAs exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program is a primary avenue to achieve the Agencys 2011 strategic goal to Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future. The National Research Council (NRC) Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities report highlights six challenges and they are: Mass to Surface, Surface Access, Precision Landing, Surface Hazard Detection and Avoidance, Safety and Mission Assurance, and Affordability. In order for NASA to meet these challenges, the report recommends immediate focus on Rigid and Flexible Thermal Protection Systems. Rigid TPS systems such as Avcoat or SLA are honeycomb based and PICA is in the form of tiles. The honeycomb systems are manufactured using techniques that require filling of each (38 cell) by hand, and in a limited amount of time all of the cells must be filled and the heatshield must be cured. The tile systems such as PICA pose a different challenge as the low strain-to-failure and manufacturing size limitations require large number of small tiles with gap-fillers between the tiles. Recent investments in flexible ablative systems have given rise to the potential for conformal ablative TPS. A conformal TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials. The high strain-to-failure nature of the conformal ablative materials will allow integration of the TPS with the underlying aeroshell structure much easier and enable monolithic-like configuration and larger segments (or parts) to be used. By reducing the overall part count, the cost of installation (based on cost comparisons between blanket

  16. Application of integrated vitrinite reflectance and FAMM analyses for thermal maturity assessment of the northeastern Malay Basin, offshore Vietnam: Implications for petroleum prospectivity evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H. I.; Sherwood, N.; Mathiesen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Several exploration wells have intersected a Cenozoic coal-bearing, fluvial-deltaic mudstone and sandstone succession in the northeastern Vietnamese part of the Malay Basin, and have successfully tested seismically identified direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs). The oil and gas/condensate discov......Several exploration wells have intersected a Cenozoic coal-bearing, fluvial-deltaic mudstone and sandstone succession in the northeastern Vietnamese part of the Malay Basin, and have successfully tested seismically identified direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs). The oil and gas...... for the uppermost Oligocene source rocks between 2Ma and present-day, which post-dates trap formation. Seismic facies patterns suggest that lacustrine oil-prone units are in he oil window in the same graben complex a few km NW of the investigated well, and these rocks are likely to be the source of the hydrocarbons....../condensate discovery ell 46-CN-1x encountered a _55m thick section of lacustrine mudstones having considerable potential as an oil source. Vitrinite reflectance (VR) measurements from these alginite-bearing rocks introduce several problems in thermal maturity evaluation, including associated VR suppression...

  17. Tectono-thermal Evolution of the Lower Paleozoic Petroleum Source Rocks in the Southern Lublin Trough: Implications for Shale Gas Exploration from Maturity Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botor, Dariusz

    2018-03-01

    The Lower Paleozoic basins of eastern Poland have recently been the focus of intensive exploration for shale gas. In the Lublin Basin potential unconventional play is related to Lower Silurian source rocks. In order to assess petroleum charge history of these shale gas reservoirs, 1-D maturity modeling has been performed. In the Łopiennik IG-1 well, which is the only well that penetrated Lower Paleozoic strata in the study area, the uniform vitrinite reflectance values within the Paleozoic section are interpreted as being mainly the result of higher heat flow in the Late Carboniferous to Early Permian times and 3500 m thick overburden eroded due to the Variscan inversion. Moreover, our model has been supported by zircon helium and apatite fission track dating. The Lower Paleozoic strata in the study area reached maximum temperature in the Late Carboniferous time. Accomplished tectono-thermal model allowed establishing that petroleum generation in the Lower Silurian source rocks developed mainly in the Devonian - Carboniferous period. Whereas, during Mesozoic burial, hydrocarbon generation processes did not develop again. This has negative influence on potential durability of shale gas reservoirs.

  18. Characterising fire hazard from temporal sequences of thermal infrared modis measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maffei, C.; Alfieri, S.M.; Menenti, M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present research was the characterisation of fire hazard using temporal sequences of land surface temperature (LST) derived from Terra-MODIS measurements. The investigation was based on a complete sequence of MODIS LST data from 2000 to 2006 on Campania (Italy) and on a dataset

  19. In Situ Dark Adaptation Enhances the Efficiency of DNA Extraction from Mature Pin Oak (Quercus palustris Leaves, Facilitating the Identification of Partial Sequences of the 18S rRNA and Isoprene Synthase (IspS Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csengele E. Barta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mature oak (Quercus spp. leaves, although abundantly available during the plants’ developmental cycle, are rarely exploited as viable sources of genomic DNA. These leaves are rich in metabolites difficult to remove during standard DNA purification, interfering with downstream molecular genetics applications. The current work assessed whether in situ dark adaptation, to deplete sugar reserves and inhibit secondary metabolite synthesis could compensate for the difficulties encountered when isolating DNA from mature leaves rich in secondary metabolites. We optimized a rapid, commercial kit based method to extract genomic DNA from dark- and light-adapted leaves. We demonstrated that in situ dark adaptation increases the yield and quality of genomic DNA obtained from mature oak leaves, yielding templates of sufficiently high quality for direct downstream applications, such as PCR amplification and gene identification. The quality of templates isolated from dark-adapted pin oak leaves particularly improved the amplification of larger fragments in our experiments. From DNA extracts prepared with our optimized method, we identified for the first time partial segments of the genes encoding 18S rRNA and isoprene synthase (IspS from pin oak (Quercus palustris, whose full genome has not yet been sequenced.

  20. Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in set theory and readily available software have enabled social science researchers to bridge the variable-centered quantitative and case-based qualitative methodological paradigms in order to analyze multi-dimensional associations beyond the linearity assumptions, aggregate...... effects, unicausal reduction, and case specificity. Based on the developments in set theoretical thinking in social sciences and employing methods like Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA), and set visualization techniques, in this position paper, we propose...... and demonstrate a new approach to maturity models in the domain of Information Systems. This position paper describes the set-theoretical approach to maturity models, presents current results and outlines future research work....

  1. Effect of Si additions on thermal stability and the phase transition sequence of sputtered amorphous alumina thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolvardi, H.; Baben, M. to; Nahif, F.; Music, D., E-mail: music@mch.rwth-aachen.de; Schnabel, V.; Shaha, K. P.; Mráz, S.; Schneider, J. M. [Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Kopernikusstr. 10, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Bednarcik, J.; Michalikova, J. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, FS-PE group, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-01-14

    Si-alloyed amorphous alumina coatings having a silicon concentration of 0 to 2.7 at. % were deposited by combinatorial reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of Al and Al-Si (90-10 at. %) split segments in Ar/O{sub 2} atmosphere. The effect of Si alloying on thermal stability of the as-deposited amorphous alumina thin films and the phase formation sequence was evaluated by using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability window of the amorphous phase containing 2.7 at. % of Si was increased by more than 100 °C compared to that of the unalloyed phase. A similar retarding effect of Si alloying was also observed for the α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation temperature, which increased by more than 120 °C. While for the latter retardation, the evidence for the presence of SiO{sub 2} at the grain boundaries was presented previously, this obviously cannot explain the stability enhancement reported here for the amorphous phase. Based on density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments for amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with and without Si incorporation, we suggest that the experimentally identified enhanced thermal stability of amorphous alumina with addition of Si is due to the formation of shorter and stronger Si–O bonds as compared to Al–O bonds.

  2. Effect of Si additions on thermal stability and the phase transition sequence of sputtered amorphous alumina thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolvardi, H.; Baben, M. to; Nahif, F.; Music, D.; Schnabel, V.; Shaha, K. P.; Mráz, S.; Schneider, J. M.; Bednarcik, J.; Michalikova, J.

    2015-01-01

    Si-alloyed amorphous alumina coatings having a silicon concentration of 0 to 2.7 at. % were deposited by combinatorial reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of Al and Al-Si (90-10 at. %) split segments in Ar/O 2 atmosphere. The effect of Si alloying on thermal stability of the as-deposited amorphous alumina thin films and the phase formation sequence was evaluated by using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability window of the amorphous phase containing 2.7 at. % of Si was increased by more than 100 °C compared to that of the unalloyed phase. A similar retarding effect of Si alloying was also observed for the α-Al 2 O 3 formation temperature, which increased by more than 120 °C. While for the latter retardation, the evidence for the presence of SiO 2 at the grain boundaries was presented previously, this obviously cannot explain the stability enhancement reported here for the amorphous phase. Based on density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments for amorphous Al 2 O 3 with and without Si incorporation, we suggest that the experimentally identified enhanced thermal stability of amorphous alumina with addition of Si is due to the formation of shorter and stronger Si–O bonds as compared to Al–O bonds

  3. RELAP5 thermal-hydraulic analyses of overcooling sequences in a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolander, M.A.; Fletcher, C.D.; Davis, C.B.; Kullberg, C.M.; Stitt, B.D.; Waterman, M.E.; Burtt, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    In support of the Pressurized Thermal Shock Integration Study, sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has performed analyses of overcooling transients using the RELAP5/MOD1.6 and MOD2.0 computer codes. These analyses were performed for the H.B. Robinson Unit 2 pressurized water reactor, which is a Westinghouse 3-loop design plant. Results of the RELAP5 analyses are presented. The capabilities of the RELAP5 computer code as a tool for analyzing integral plant transients requiring a detailed plant model, including complex trip logic and major control systems, are examined

  4. Electrode Materials, Thermal Annealing Sequences, and Lateral/Vertical Phase Separation of Polymer Solar Cells from Multiscale Molecular Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Cheng-Kuang

    2014-12-10

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. The nanomorphologies of the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer of polymer solar cells are extremely sensitive to the electrode materials and thermal annealing conditions. In this work, the correlations of electrode materials, thermal annealing sequences, and resultant BHJ nanomorphological details of P3HT:PCBM BHJ polymer solar cell are studied by a series of large-scale, coarse-grained (CG) molecular simulations of system comprised of PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al layers. Simulations are performed for various configurations of electrode materials as well as processing temperature. The complex CG molecular data are characterized using a novel extension of our graph-based framework to quantify morphology and establish a link between morphology and processing conditions. Our analysis indicates that vertical phase segregation of P3HT:PCBM blend strongly depends on the electrode material and thermal annealing schedule. A thin P3HT-rich film is formed on the top, regardless of bottom electrode material, when the BHJ layer is exposed to the free surface during thermal annealing. In addition, preferential segregation of P3HT chains and PCBM molecules toward PEDOT:PSS and Al electrodes, respectively, is observed. Detailed morphology analysis indicated that, surprisingly, vertical phase segregation does not affect the connectivity of donor/acceptor domains with respective electrodes. However, the formation of P3HT/PCBM depletion zones next to the P3HT/PCBM-rich zones can be a potential bottleneck for electron/hole transport due to increase in transport pathway length. Analysis in terms of fraction of intra- and interchain charge transports revealed that processing schedule affects the average vertical orientation of polymer chains, which may be crucial for enhanced charge transport, nongeminate recombination, and charge collection. The present study establishes a more detailed link between processing and morphology by combining multiscale molecular

  5. The complex reaction sequence of the thermal and radiolytic degradation of polyvinyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichert, W.

    1983-03-01

    The degradation of PVC-foils was been tested by thermal and radiolytic stress in N 2 - and O 2 -atmosphere. Additionally was determined the influence of plasticizers, Fe-, Zn- and Cu-stearates and other additives, which partially are known as stabilizators. Complex mechanisms of degradation are proposed, which were deduced from the HCl-elimination, consumption of oxygen and the shift of the molmass by the scission and crosslinking of main chains both for PVC as combination of PVC with additives. The mechanism corresponds to other known experimental results, too. It was shown, that the radiolytical degradation caused by radicals, which initiate a radical chain mechanism, if the temperature is higher than the glass temperature (Tg). The thermical degradation in a N 2 -atmosphere was explained by an ionic complex mechanism. At the presence of oxygen the ionic mechanism was superimposed by a radical chain mechanism following the oxidation of polyene structures. (author)

  6. Camera pose refinement by matching uncertain 3D building models with thermal infrared image sequences for high quality texture extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaszczuk, Dorota; Stilla, Uwe

    2017-10-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) images are often used to picture damaged and weak spots in the insulation of the building hull, which is widely used in thermal inspections of buildings. Such inspection in large-scale areas can be carried out by combining TIR imagery and 3D building models. This combination can be achieved via texture mapping. Automation of texture mapping avoids time consuming imaging and manually analyzing each face independently. It also provides a spatial reference for façade structures extracted in the thermal textures. In order to capture all faces, including the roofs, façades, and façades in the inner courtyard, an oblique looking camera mounted on a flying platform is used. Direct geo-referencing is usually not sufficient for precise texture extraction. In addition, 3D building models have also uncertain geometry. In this paper, therefore, methodology for co-registration of uncertain 3D building models with airborne oblique view images is presented. For this purpose, a line-based model-to-image matching is developed, in which the uncertainties of the 3D building model, as well as of the image features are considered. Matched linear features are used for the refinement of the exterior orientation parameters of the camera in order to ensure optimal co-registration. Moreover, this study investigates whether line tracking through the image sequence supports the matching. The accuracy of the extraction and the quality of the textures are assessed. For this purpose, appropriate quality measures are developed. The tests showed good results on co-registration, particularly in cases where tracking between the neighboring frames had been applied.

  7. Beyond maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessmer, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Industry has undergone to decades of evolution in experience, technology and business practices. Link-Miles Simulation Corporation (LMSC) has been contracted to build 68 Full Scope Nuclear Simulators during the 1970's and 1980's. Traditional approaches to design, development and testing have been used to satisfy specifications for initial customer requirements. However, the Industry has matured. All U.S. Nuclear Utilities own, or have under contract, at least one simulator. Other industrial nations have centralized training facilities to satisfy the simulator training needs. The customer of the future is knowledgeable and experienced in the development and service of nuclear simulators. The role of the simulator vendor is changing in order to alter the traditional approach for development. Covenants between the vendors and their customers solidify new complementary roles. This paper presents examples of current simulator project development with recommendations for future endeavors

  8. Experimental investigation of the role of rock fabric in gas generation and expulsion during thermal maturation: Anhydrous closed-system pyrolysis of a bitumen-rich Eagle Ford Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Deyong; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Li, Yanfang; Zhang, Tongwei

    2018-01-01

    Gold-tube pyrolysis experiments were conducted on miniature core plugs and powdered rock from a bitumen-rich sample of Eagle Ford Shale to investigate the role of rock fabric in gas generation and expulsion during thermal maturation. The samples were isothermally heated at 130, 300, 310, 333, 367, 400, and 425 °C for 72 h under a confining pressure of 68.0 MPa, corresponding to six levels of induced thermal maturity: pre-oil generation (130 °C/72 h), incipient oil/bitumen generation (300 and 310 °C/72 h), early oil generation (333 °C/72 h), peak oil generation (367 °C/72 h), early oil cracking (400 °C/72 h), and late oil cracking (425 °C/72 h). Experimental results show that gas retention coupled with compositional fractionation occurs in the core plug experiments and varies as a function of thermal maturity. During the incipient oil/bitumen generation stage, yields of methane through pentane (C1–C5) from core plugs are significantly lower than those from rock powder, and gases from core plugs are enriched in methane. However, the differences in C1–C5 gas yield and composition decrease throughout the oil generation stage, and by the oil cracking stage no obvious compositional difference in C1–C5 gases exists. The decrease in the effect of rock fabric on gas yield and composition with increasing maturity is the result of an increase in gas expulsion efficiency. Pyrolysis of rock powder yields 4–16 times more CO2 compared to miniature core plugs, with δ13CCO2 values ranging from −2.9‰ to −0.6‰, likely due to carbonate decomposition accelerated by reactions with organic acids. Furthermore, lower yields of gaseous alkenes and H2 from core plug experiments sugge

  9. Sulphur and oxygen sequestration of n-C37 and n-C38 unsaturated ketones in an immature kerogen and the release of their carbon skeletons during early stages of thermal maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, M.P.; Schaeffer-Reiss, C.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Lewan, M.D.; Maxwell, J.R.; Schaeffer, P.; Sinninghe, Damste J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Sedimentary rock from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation (Messinian) in the Vena del Gesso Basin (northern Italy) containing immature (Ro = 0.25%) S-rich organic matter was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis at temperatures from 160 to 330??C for 72 h to study the diagenetic fate of n-C37 and n-C38 di-and tri-unsaturated methyl and ethyl ketones (alkenones) biosynthesised by several prymnesiophyte algae. During early diagenesis, the alkenones are incorporated into the kerogen by both sulphur and oxygen cross-linking as indicated by chemical degradation experiments with the kerogen of the unheated sample. Heating at temperatures between 160 and 260??C, which still represents early stages of thermal maturation, produces large amounts (up to 1 mg/g TOC) of S-bound, O-bound, and both S-and O-bound n-C37 and n-C38 skeletons, saturated n-C37 and n-C38 methyl, ethyl, and mid-chain ketones, C37 and C38 mid-chain 2,5-di-n-alkylthiophenes, C37 and C38 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes, and C37 and C38 n-alkanes. With increasing thermal maturation, three forms of the n-C37 and n-C38 skeletons are relatively stable (saturated hydrocarbons, 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes and saturated ketones), whereas the S-and O-bound skeletons are relatively labile. These results suggest that in natural situations saturated ketones with an n-C37 and n-C38 skeleton can be expected as well as the corresponding hydrocarbons. Copyright ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  10. Sulphur and oxygen sequestration of n-C{sub 37} and n-C{sub 38} unsaturated ketones in an immature kerogen and the release of their carbon skeletons during early stages of thermal maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopmans, M.P.; De Leeuw, J.W.; Damste, J.S.S. [Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Den Burg (Netherlands)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Sedimentary rock from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation (Messinian) in the Vena del Gesso Basin (northern Italy) containing immature (R{sub o} = 0.25%) S-rich organic matter was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis at temperatures from 160 to 330{degrees}C for 72 h to study the diagenetic fate of n-C{sub 37} and n-C{sub 38} di- and tri-unsaturated methyl and ethyl ketones (alkenones) biosynthesised by several prymnesiophyte algae. During early diagenesis, the alkenones are incorporated into the kerogen by both sulphur and oxygen cross-linking as indicated by chemical degradation experiments with the kerogen of the unheated sample. Heating at temperatures between 160 and 260{degrees}C, which still represents early stages of thermal maturation, produces large amounts (up to 1 mg/g TOC) of S-bound, O-bound, and both S- and O-bound n-C{sub 37} and n-C{sub 38} skeletons, saturated n-C{sub 37} and n-C{sub 38} methyl, ethyl, and mid-chain ketones, C{sub 37} and C{sub 38} mid-chain 2,5-di-n-alkylthiophenes, C{sub 37} and C{sub 38} 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes, and C{sub 37} and C{sub 38} n-alkanes. With increasing thermal maturation, three forms of the n-C{sub 37} and n-C{sub 38} skeletons are relatively stable (saturated hydrocarbons, 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes and saturated ketones), whereas the S- and O-bound skeletons are relatively labile. These results suggest that in natural situations saturated ketones with an n-C{sub 37} and n-C{sub 38} skeleton can be expected as well as the corresponding hydrocarbons. 58 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Sulphur and oxygen sequestration of n-C 37 and n-C 38 unsaturated ketones in an immature kerogen and the release of their carbon skeletons during early stages of thermal maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Martin P.; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; de Leeuw, Jan W.; Lewan, Michael D.; Maxwell, James R.; Schaeffer, Philippe; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    1997-06-01

    Sedimentary rock from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation (Messinian) in the Vena del Gesso Basin (northern Italy) containing immature ( Ro = 0.25%) S-rich organic matter was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis at temperatures from 160 to 330°C for 72 h to study the diagenetic fate of n-C 37 and n-C 38 di- and tri-unsaturated methyl and ethyl ketones (alkenones) biosynthesised by several prymnesiophyte algae. During early diagenesis, the alkenones are incorporated into the kerogen by both sulphur and oxygen cross-linking as indicated by chemical degradation experiments with the kerogen of the unheated sample. Heating at temperatures between 160 and 260°C, which still represents early stages of thermal maturation, produces large amounts (up to 1 mg/g TOC) of S-bound, O-bound, and both S- and O-bound n-C 37 and n-C 38 skeletons, saturated n-C 37 and n-C38 methyl, ethyl, and mid-chain ketones, C 37 and C 38 mid-chain 2,5-di- n-alkylthiophenes, C 37 and C 38 1,2-di- n-alkylbenzenes, and C 37 and C 38n-alkanes. With increasing thermal maturation, three forms of the n-C 37 and n-C 38 skeletons are relatively stable (saturated hydrocarbons, 1,2-di- n-alkylbenzenes and saturated ketones), whereas the S- and O-bound skeletons are relatively labile. These results suggest that in natural situations saturated ketones with an n-C 37 and n-C 38 skeleton can be expected as well as the corresponding hydrocarbons.

  12. The pore structure and fractal characteristics of shales with low thermal maturity from the Yuqia Coalfield, northern Qaidam Basin, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Haihai; Shao, Longyi; Li, Yonghong; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Wenlong; Wen, Huaijun

    2018-03-01

    The continental shales from the Middle Jurassic Shimengou Formation of the northern Qaidam Basin, northwestern China, have been investigated in recent years because of their shale gas potential. In this study, a total of twenty-two shale samples were collected from the YQ-1 borehole in the Yuqia Coalfield, northern Qaidam Basin. The total organic carbon (TOC) contents, pore structure parameters, and fractal characteristics of the samples were investigated using TOC analysis, low-temperature nitrogen adsorption experiments, and fractal analysis. The results show that the average pore size of the Shimengou shales varied from 8.149 nm to 20.635 nm with a mean value of 10.74 nm, which is considered mesopore-sized. The pores of the shales are mainly inkbottle- and slit-shaped. The sedimentary environment plays an essential role in controlling the TOC contents of the low maturity shales, with the TOC values of shales from deep to semi-deep lake facies (mean: 5.23%) being notably higher than those of the shore-shallow lake facies (mean: 0.65%). The fractal dimensions range from 2.4639 to 2.6857 with a mean of 2.6122, higher than those of marine shales, which indicates that the pore surface was rougher and the pore structure more complex in these continental shales. The fractal dimensions increase with increasing total pore volume and total specific surface area, and with decreasing average pore size. With increasing TOC contents in shales, the fractal dimensions increase first and then decrease, with the highest value occurring at 2% of TOC content, which is in accordance with the trends between the TOC and both total specific surface area and total pore volume. The pore structure complexity and pore surface roughness of these low-maturity shales would be controlled by the combined effects of both sedimentary environments and the TOC contents.

  13. The effects of stacking sequence and thermal cycling on the flexural properties of laminate composites of aluminium-epoxy/basalt-glass fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi Azghan, Mehdi; Eslami-Farsani, Reza

    2018-02-01

    The current study aimed at investigating the effects of different stacking sequences and thermal cycling on the flexural properties of fibre metal laminates (FMLs). FMLs were composed of two aluminium alloy 2024-T3 sheets and epoxy polymer-matrix composites that have four layers of basalt and/or glass fibres with five different stacking sequences. For FML samples the thermal cycle time was about 6 min for temperature cycles from 25 °C to 115 °C. Flexural properties of samples evaluated after 55 thermal cycles and compared to non-exposed samples. Surface modification of aluminium performed by electrochemical treatment (anodizing) method and aluminium surfaces have been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Also, the flexural failure mechanisms investigated by the optical microscope study of fractured surfaces. SEM images indicated that the porosity of the aluminium surface increased after anodizing process. The findings of the present study showed that flexural modulus were maximum for basalt fibres based FML, minimum for glass fibres based FML while basalt/glass fibres based FML lies between them. Due to change in the failure mechanism of basalt/glass fibres based FMLs that have glass fibres at outer layer of the polymer composite, the flexural strength of this FML is lower than glass and basalt fibres based FML. After thermal cycling, due to the good thermal properties of basalt fibres, flexural properties of basalt fibres based FML structures decreased less than other composites.

  14. Assessment of cortical maturation with prenatal MRI. Part I: normal cortical maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogliarini, Celine; Chaumoitre, Katia; Chapon, Frederique; Levrier, Olivier; Girard, Nadine; Fernandez, Carla; Figarella-Branger, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Cortical maturation, especially gyral formation, follows a temporospatial schedule and is a good marker of fetal maturation. Although ultrasonography is still the imaging method of choice to evaluate fetal anatomy, MRI has an increasingly important role in the detection of brain abnormalities, especially of cortical development. Knowledge of MRI techniques in utero with the advantages and disadvantages of some sequences is necessary, in order to try to optimize the different magnetic resonance sequences to be able to make an early diagnosis. The different steps of cortical maturation known from histology represent the background necessary for the understanding of maturation in order to be then able to evaluate brain maturation through neuroimaging. Illustrations of the normal cortical maturation are given for each step accessible to MRI for both the cerebral hemispheres and the posterior fossa. (orig.)

  15. Assessment of cortical maturation with prenatal MRI. Part I: normal cortical maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogliarini, Celine [Faculte Timone, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, Marseille (France); Chaumoitre, Katia [Hopital Nord, Department of Radiology, Marseille (France); Chapon, Frederique; Levrier, Olivier; Girard, Nadine [Hopital Timone, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Fernandez, Carla; Figarella-Branger, Dominique [Hopital Timone, Department of Pathology, Marseille (France)

    2005-08-01

    Cortical maturation, especially gyral formation, follows a temporospatial schedule and is a good marker of fetal maturation. Although ultrasonography is still the imaging method of choice to evaluate fetal anatomy, MRI has an increasingly important role in the detection of brain abnormalities, especially of cortical development. Knowledge of MRI techniques in utero with the advantages and disadvantages of some sequences is necessary, in order to try to optimize the different magnetic resonance sequences to be able to make an early diagnosis. The different steps of cortical maturation known from histology represent the background necessary for the understanding of maturation in order to be then able to evaluate brain maturation through neuroimaging. Illustrations of the normal cortical maturation are given for each step accessible to MRI for both the cerebral hemispheres and the posterior fossa. (orig.)

  16. The age, palaeoclimate, palaeovegetation, coal seam architecture/mire types, paleodepositional environments and thermal maturity of syn-collision paralic coal from Mukah, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Say-Gee; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Konjing, Zainey; Koraini, Ahmad Munif

    2014-02-01

    The Mukah coal accumulated in the Balingian Formation where the time-stratigraphic position is poorly defined by fauna, though a probable Late Miocene age has always been assigned to this formation. Samples collected in the present study that yielded an abundance of Casuarina pollen associated with occurrences of Dacrydium, Stenochlaena palustris, Florschuetzia levipoli and also Stenochlaena areolaris spores, compare closely to zone PR9 of the palynological zonation of the Malay Basin, and can be tied to depositional sequences of Malay Basin Seismic sequences I2000/I3000, indicating an Early Miocene age for the studied coal. The Early Miocene age shows that the Mukah coal was formed during the collision between Luconia Block-Dangerous Grounds with the Borneo that lasted from Late Eocene to late Early Miocene. The rapid increase of deposition base-level caused by the collision is clearly reflected by the architecture of the Mukah coal seams that were generally thin, and also by the reverse order of the paleo-peat bodies.

  17. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Nesensohn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

  18. Slab replacement maturity guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the use of maturity method to determine early age strength of concrete in slab : replacement application. Specific objectives were (1) to evaluate effects of various factors on the compressive : maturity-strength relationship ...

  19. Thermal maturity patterns in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing rocks in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania: Chapter F.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Hower, James C.; Grady, William C.; Levine, Jeffrey R.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal maturation patterns of Pennsylvanian strata in the Appalachian basin and part of the Black Warrior basin were determined by compiling previously published and unpublished percent-vitrinite-reflectance (%R0) measurements and preparing isograd maps on the basis of the measurements. The isograd values range from 0.6 %R0 in Ohio and the western side of the Eastern Kentucky coal field to 5.5 %R0 in the Southern field in the Pennsylvania Anthracite region, Schuylkill County, Pa. The vitrinite-reflectance values correspond to the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) coal-rank classes of high-volatile C bituminous to meta-anthracite, respectively. In general, the isograds show that thermal maturity patterns of Pennsylvanian coals within the Appalachian basin generally decrease from east to west. In the Black Warrior basin of Alabama, the isograds show a circular pattern with the highest values (greater than 1.6 %R0) centered in Jefferson County, Ala. Most of the observed patterns can be explained by variations in the depth of burial, variations in geothermal gradient, or a combination of both; however, there are at least four areas of higher ranking coal in the Appalachian basin that are difficult to explain by these two processes alone: (1) a set of west- to northwest-trending salients centered in Somerset, Cambria, and Fayette Counties, Pa.; (2) an elliptically shaped, northeast-trending area centered in southern West Virginia and western Virginia; (3) the Pennsylvania Anthracite region in eastern Pennsylvania; and (4) the eastern part of the Black Warrior coal field in Alabama. The areas of high-ranking coal in southwestern Pennsylvania, the Black Warrior coal field, and the Pennsylvania Anthracite region are interpreted here to represent areas of higher paleo-heat flow related to syntectonic movement of hot fluids towards the foreland associated with Alleghanian deformation. In addition to the higher heat flow from these fluids, the Pennsylvania

  20. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions: Overview of the Technology Maturation Efforts Funded by NASA's Game Changing Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Robin A.; Arnold, James O.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Fan, Wendy; Szalai, Christine E.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2012-01-01

    The Office of Chief Technologist (OCT), NASA has identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASA's Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASA's exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) is a primary avenue to achieve the Agency's 2011 strategic goal to "Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future." In addition, recently released "NASA space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities," by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences stresses the need for NASA to invest in the very near term in specific EDL technologies. The report points out the following challenges (Page 2-38 of the pre-publication copy released on February 1, 2012): Mass to Surface: Develop the ability to deliver more payload to the destination. NASA's future missions will require ever-greater mass delivery capability in order to place scientifically significant instrument packages on distant bodies of interest, to facilitate sample returns from bodies of interest, and to enable human exploration of planets such as Mars. As the maximum mass that can be delivered to an entry interface is fixed for a given launch system and trajectory design, the mass delivered to the surface will require reduction in spacecraft structural mass; more efficient, lighter thermal protection systems; more efficient lighter propulsion systems; and lighter, more efficient deceleration systems. Surface Access: Increase the ability to land at a variety of planetary locales and at a variety of times. Access to specific sites can be achieved via landing at a specific location (s) or transit from a single designated landing location, but it is currently infeasible to transit long distances and through extremely rugged terrain, requiring landing close to the

  1. Structural characterization of the thermally-tolerant pectin methylesterase purified from Citrus sinensis fruit and its gene sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the longstanding importance for the thermally-tolerant pectin methylesterase (TT-PME) activity in citrus juice processing and product quality, unequivocal identification of the protein and its corresponding gene has remained elusive. We purified TT-PME from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.)...

  2. Effect of the Modification of the Start-Up Sequence on the Thermal Stresses for a Microgas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Tenango-Pirin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microgas turbines (MGT are an alternative for small-scale energy production; however, their small size becomes a drawback since it enhances the heat transfer among their components. Moreover, heat transfer drives to temperature gradients which become higher during transient cycles like start-up. The influence of different start-up curves on temperature and thermal stresses of a microgas turbine was investigated. Stationary and rotational blades of the turbine were numerically simulated using CFD and FEM commercial codes. Conjugated heat transfer cases were solved for obtaining heat transfer from fluid toward the blades. Changes of temperature gradients within the blades during the start-ups were calculated under transient state with boundary conditions according to each curve to assess accurate thermal stresses calculations. Results showed that the modification of the start-up curves had an impact on the thermal stresses levels and on the time when highest stresses appeared on each component. Furthermore, zones highly stressed were located near the constraints of blades where thermal strains are restricted. It was also found that the curve that had a warming period at the beginning of the start-up allowed reducing the peaks of stresses making it more feasible and safer for the turbine start-up operation.

  3. ORGANIZATIONAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Derenskaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article is aimed at developing a set of recommendations for achieving a higher level of organizational project maturity at a given enterprise. Methodology. For the purposes of the current research, the available information sources on the components of project management system are analysed; the essence of “organizational maturity” and the existing models of organizational maturity are studied. The method of systemic and structural analysis, as well as the method of logical generalization, are employed in order to study the existing models of organizational maturity, to describe levels of organizational maturity, and finally to develop a set of methodological recommendations for achieving a higher level of organizational project maturity at a given enterprise. The results of the research showed that the core elements of project management system are methodological, organizational, programtechnical, and motivational components. Project management encompasses a wide range of issues connected with organizational structure, project team, communication management, project participants, etc. However, the fundamental basis for developing project management concept within a given enterprise starts with defining its level of organizational maturity. The present paper describes various models of organizational maturity (staged, continuous, petal-shaped and their common types (H. Кеrzner Organizational Maturity Model, Berkeley PM Maturity Model, Organizational Project Management Maturity Model, Portfolio, Program & Project Management Maturity Model. The analysis of available theoretic works showed that the notion “organizational project maturity” refers to the capability of an enterprise to select projects and manage them with the intention of achieving its strategic goals in the most effective way. Importantly, the level of maturity can be improved by means of formalizing the acquired knowledge, regulating project-related activities

  4. Enrichment and genome sequence of the group I.1a ammonia-oxidizing Archaeon "Ca. Nitrosotenuis uzonensis" representing a clade globally distributed in thermal habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V Lebedeva

    Full Text Available The discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA of the phylum Thaumarchaeota and the high abundance of archaeal ammonia monooxygenase subunit A encoding gene sequences in many environments have extended our perception of nitrifying microbial communities. Moreover, AOA are the only aerobic ammonia oxidizers known to be active in geothermal environments. Molecular data indicate that in many globally distributed terrestrial high-temperature habits a thaumarchaeotal lineage within the Nitrosopumilus cluster (also called "marine" group I.1a thrives, but these microbes have neither been isolated from these systems nor functionally characterized in situ yet. In this study, we report on the enrichment and genomic characterization of a representative of this lineage from a thermal spring in Kamchatka. This thaumarchaeote, provisionally classified as "Candidatus Nitrosotenuis uzonensis", is a moderately thermophilic, non-halophilic, chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer. The nearly complete genome sequence (assembled into a single scaffold of this AOA confirmed the presence of the typical thaumarchaeotal pathways for ammonia oxidation and carbon fixation, and indicated its ability to produce coenzyme F420 and to chemotactically react to its environment. Interestingly, like members of the genus Nitrosoarchaeum, "Candidatus N. uzonensis" also possesses a putative artubulin-encoding gene. Genome comparisons to related AOA with available genome sequences confirmed that the newly cultured AOA has an average nucleotide identity far below the species threshold and revealed a substantial degree of genomic plasticity with unique genomic regions in "Ca. N. uzonensis", which potentially include genetic determinants of ecological niche differentiation.

  5. Enrichment and genome sequence of the group I.1a ammonia-oxidizing Archaeon "Ca. Nitrosotenuis uzonensis" representing a clade globally distributed in thermal habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Elena V; Hatzenpichler, Roland; Pelletier, Eric; Schuster, Nathalie; Hauzmayer, Sandra; Bulaev, Aleksandr; Grigor'eva, Nadezhda V; Galushko, Alexander; Schmid, Markus; Palatinszky, Marton; Le Paslier, Denis; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) of the phylum Thaumarchaeota and the high abundance of archaeal ammonia monooxygenase subunit A encoding gene sequences in many environments have extended our perception of nitrifying microbial communities. Moreover, AOA are the only aerobic ammonia oxidizers known to be active in geothermal environments. Molecular data indicate that in many globally distributed terrestrial high-temperature habits a thaumarchaeotal lineage within the Nitrosopumilus cluster (also called "marine" group I.1a) thrives, but these microbes have neither been isolated from these systems nor functionally characterized in situ yet. In this study, we report on the enrichment and genomic characterization of a representative of this lineage from a thermal spring in Kamchatka. This thaumarchaeote, provisionally classified as "Candidatus Nitrosotenuis uzonensis", is a moderately thermophilic, non-halophilic, chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer. The nearly complete genome sequence (assembled into a single scaffold) of this AOA confirmed the presence of the typical thaumarchaeotal pathways for ammonia oxidation and carbon fixation, and indicated its ability to produce coenzyme F420 and to chemotactically react to its environment. Interestingly, like members of the genus Nitrosoarchaeum, "Candidatus N. uzonensis" also possesses a putative artubulin-encoding gene. Genome comparisons to related AOA with available genome sequences confirmed that the newly cultured AOA has an average nucleotide identity far below the species threshold and revealed a substantial degree of genomic plasticity with unique genomic regions in "Ca. N. uzonensis", which potentially include genetic determinants of ecological niche differentiation.

  6. Sequence-Based Analysis of Thermal Adaptation and Protein Energy Landscapes in an Invasive Blue Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarman, Norah P; Kober, Kord M; Simison, W Brian; Pogson, Grant H

    2017-10-01

    Adaptive responses to thermal stress in poikilotherms plays an important role in determining competitive ability and species distributions. Amino acid substitutions that affect protein stability and modify the thermal optima of orthologous proteins may be particularly important in this context. Here, we examine a set of 2,770 protein-coding genes to determine if proteins in a highly invasive heat tolerant blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) contain signals of adaptive increases in protein stability relative to orthologs in a more cold tolerant M. trossulus. Such thermal adaptations might help to explain, mechanistically, the success with which the invasive marine mussel M. galloprovincialis has displaced native species in contact zones in the eastern (California) and western (Japan) Pacific. We tested for stabilizing amino acid substitutions in warm tolerant M. galloprovincialis relative to cold tolerant M. trossulus with a generalized linear model that compares in silico estimates of recent changes in protein stability among closely related congeners. Fixed substitutions in M. galloprovincialis were 3,180.0 calories per mol per substitution more stabilizing at genes with both elevated dN/dS ratios and transcriptional responses to heat stress, and 705.8 calories per mol per substitution more stabilizing across all 2,770 loci investigated. Amino acid substitutions concentrated in a small number of genes were more stabilizing in M. galloprovincialis compared with cold tolerant M. trossulus. We also tested for, but did not find, enrichment of a priori GO terms in genes with elevated dN/dS ratios in M. galloprovincialis. This might indicate that selection for thermodynamic stability is generic across all lineages, and suggests that the high change in estimated protein stability that we observed in M. galloprovincialis is driven by selection for extra stabilizing substitutions, rather than by higher incidence of selection in a greater number of genes in this lineage

  7. Biochemical Characterization, Thermal Stability, and Partial Sequence of a Novel Exo-Polygalacturonase from the Thermophilic Fungus Rhizomucor pusillus A13.36 Obtained by Submerged Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Vinícius Trindade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the production of an exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG by Rhizomucor pusillus A13.36 in submerged cultivation (SmC in a shaker at 45°C for 96 h. A single pectinase was found and purified in order to analyze its thermal stability, by salt precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The pectinase has an estimated Mw of approximately 43.5–47 kDa and optimum pH of 4.0 but is stable in pH ranging from 3.5 to 9.5 and has an optimum temperature of 61°C. It presents thermal stability between 30 and 60°C, has 70% activation in the presence of Ca2+, and was tested using citrus pectin with a degree of methyl esterification (DE of 26%. Ea(d for irreversible denaturation was 125.5 kJ/mol with positive variations of entropy and enthalpy for that and ΔG(d values were around 50 kJ/mol. The hydrolysis of polygalacturonate was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis which displayed a pattern of sequential hydrolysis (exo. The partial identification of the primary sequence was done by MS MALDI-TOF and a comparison with data banks showed the highest identity of the sequenced fragments of exo-PG from R. pusillus with an exo-pectinase from Aspergillus fumigatus. Pectin hydrolysis showed a sigmoidal curve for the Michaelis-Menten plot.

  8. Maturity of the PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.; Rapin, M.; Aboudarham, L.; Bitsch, D.

    1983-03-01

    Figures illustrating the predominant position of the PWR system are presented. The question is whether on the basis of these figures the PWR can be considered to have reached maturity. The following analysis, based on the French program experience, is an attempt to pinpoint those areas in which industrial maturity of the PWR has been attained, and in which areas a certain evolution can still be expected to take place

  9. MatureBayes: a probabilistic algorithm for identifying the mature miRNA within novel precursors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Gkirtzou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, single stranded RNAs with a key role in post-transcriptional regulation of thousands of genes across numerous species. While several computational methods are currently available for identifying miRNA genes, accurate prediction of the mature miRNA remains a challenge. Existing approaches fall short in predicting the location of mature miRNAs but also in finding the functional strand(s of miRNA precursors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we present a computational tool that incorporates a Naive Bayes classifier to identify mature miRNA candidates based on sequence and secondary structure information of their miRNA precursors. We take into account both positive (true mature miRNAs and negative (same-size non-mature miRNA sequences examples to optimize sensitivity as well as specificity. Our method can accurately predict the start position of experimentally verified mature miRNAs for both human and mouse, achieving a significantly larger (often double performance accuracy compared with two existing methods. Moreover, the method exhibits a very high generalization performance on miRNAs from two other organisms. More importantly, our method provides direct evidence about the features of miRNA precursors which may determine the location of the mature miRNA. We find that the triplet of positions 7, 8 and 9 from the mature miRNA end towards the closest hairpin have the largest discriminatory power, are relatively conserved in terms of sequence composition (mostly contain a Uracil and are located within or in very close proximity to the hairpin loop, suggesting the existence of a possible recognition site for Dicer and associated proteins. CONCLUSIONS: This work describes a novel algorithm for identifying the start position of mature miRNA(s produced by miRNA precursors. Our tool has significantly better (often double performance than two existing approaches and provides new insights about the potential use

  10. Long Maturity Forward Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found...... to be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support...... for the affine term structure model....

  11. An insight into the mechanism and evolution of shale reservoir characteristics with over-high maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjing Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over-high maturity is one of the most vital characteristics of marine organic-rich shale reservoirs from the Lower Paleozoic in the south part of China. The organic matter (OM in shale gas reservoirs almost went through the entire thermal evolution. During this wide span, a great amount of hydrocarbon was available and numerous pores were observed within the OM including kerogen and solid bitumen/pyrobitumen. These nanopores in solid bitumen/pyrobitumen can be identified using SEM. The imaging can be dissected and understood better based on the sequence of diagenesis and hydrocarbon charge with the shape of OM and pores. In terms of the maturity process showed by the various typical cases, the main effects of the relationship between the reservoir porosity and organic carbon abundance are interpreted as follows: the change and mechanism of reservoirs properties due to thermal evolution are explored, such as gas carbon isotope from partial to complete rollover zone, wettability alteration from water-wet to oil-wet and then water-wet pore surface again, electrical resistivity reversal from the increasing to decreasing stage, and nonlinearity fluctuation of rock elasticity anisotropy. These indicate a possible evolution pathway for shale gas reservoirs from the Lower Paleozoic in the southern China, as well as the general transformation processes between different shale reservoirs in thermal stages.

  12. Grammar Maturity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaytsev, V.; Pierantonio, A.; Schätz, B.; Tamzalit, D.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of a software language (whether modelled by a grammar or a schema or a metamodel) is not limited to development of new versions and dialects. An important dimension of a software language evolution is maturing in the sense of improving the quality of its definition. In this paper, we

  13. Maturing interorganisational information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313946809

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of nine chapters, divided over five parts. PART I is an introduction and the last part contains the conclusions. The remaining, intermediate parts are: PART II: Developing a maturity model for chain digitisation. This part contains two related studies concerning the development

  14. Jealousy and Moral Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

    Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

  15. Determination of thermal diffusivity in papaya pulp as a function of maturation stage Determinação da difusividade térmica da polpa de mamão em função do estádio de maturação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savio Figueira Corrêa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the penetration of the thermal wave in the papaya fruit pulp (Carica papaya L., cv. Golden, thermal diffusivity of the pulp was obtained measuring temperature at four different depths. Measurements were carried out initially with the fruit on the first stage of maturity. The changes of the thermal diffusivity were expressed as a function of ripening. A temporal decrease of the thermal diffusivity was observed. Chemical (pH, soluble solids and total titratable acidity and physical (pulp firmness properties were measured as well and the results were compared to the thermal diffusivity change.Para determinar a penetração da onda térmica na polpa do fruto do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L., cv. Golden, a difusividade térmica foi obtida medindo a temperatura da polpa em quatro diferentes profundidades. As medidas foram realizadas inicialmente no estádio I de maturação do fruto, e as variações da difusividade térmica foram expressas em função do amadurecimento. Foi observada a diminuição da difusividade térmica no tempo. Propriedades químicas (pH, sólidos solúveis e acidez titulável e física (firmeza da polpa também foram determinadas, e os resultados, comparados com as variações da difusividade térmica.

  16. Mature Microsatellites: Mechanisms Underlying Dinucleotide Microsatellite Mutational Biases in Human Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Baptiste, Beverly A.; Ananda, Guruprasad; Strubczewski, Noelle; Lutzkanin, Andrew; Khoo, Su Jen; Srikanth, Abhinaya; Kim, Nari; Makova, Kateryna D.; Krasilnikova, Maria M.; Eckert, Kristin A.

    2013-01-01

    Dinucleotide microsatellites are dynamic DNA sequences that affect genome stability. Here, we focused on mature microsatellites, defined as pure repeats of lengths above the threshold and unlikely to mutate below it in a single mutational event. We investigated the prevalence and mutational behavior of these sequences by using human genome sequence data, human cells in culture, and purified DNA polymerases. Mature dinucleotides (?10 units) are present within exonic sequences of >350 genes, re...

  17. People Capability Maturity Model. SM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    tailored so it consumes less time and resources than a traditional software process assessment or CMU/SEI-95-MM-02 People Capability Maturity Model...improved reputation or customer loyalty. CMU/SEI-95-MM-02 People Capability Maturity Model ■ L5-17 Coaching Level 5: Optimizing Activity 1...Maturity Model CMU/SEI-95-MM-62 Carnegie-Mellon University Software Engineering Institute DTIC ELECTE OCT 2 7 1995 People Capability Maturity

  18. Maturity effects in energy futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos (Calgary Univ., AB (CA). Dept. of Economics)

    1992-04-01

    This paper examines the effects of maturity on future price volatility and trading volume for 129 energy futures contracts recently traded in the NYMEX. The results provide support for the maturity effect hypothesis, that is, energy futures prices to become more volatile and trading volume increases as futures contracts approach maturity. (author).

  19. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    Yeast surface display is an effective tool for antibody affinity maturation because yeast can be used as an all-in-one workhorse to assemble, display and screen diversified antibody libraries. By employing the natural ability of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently recombine multiple DNA...... laboratory conditions. A particular emphasis was put on using molecular techniques in conjunction with microenvironmental measurements (O2, pH, irradiance), a combination that is rarely found but provides a much more detailed understanding of “cause and effect” in complex natural systems...

  20. The organic petrology and thermal maturity of Lower Carboniferous and Upper Devonian source rocks in the Liard Basin, at Jackfish Gap-Yohin Ridge and North Beaver River, northern Canada: Implications for hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J. (Univ. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (United Kingdom)); Richards, B.C.; Goodarzi, G. (Geological Survey, Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    Basinal shales of the Besa River Fm. have TOC values ranging from 1 to 4% and contain abundant type II, dominantly amorphous, kerogen of marine origin. Shales in the Yohin, Clausen, Prophet, and Golata Formations are of mixed maring and terrestrial origins and yield TOC values of 1 to 3%. Kerogen in the Golata and Yohin Formations are dominated by terrestrial components, while the Clausen and Flett kerogen comprises marine liptinites and bitumens. Kerogen from the deltaic Mattson shales at Jackfish Gap are types II and III, having mixed marine and terrestrial origins consistent with shallow, nearshore, subtidal environments. The coals are sapropelic and probably lacustrine in origin. Algal laminites associated with coals in the Upper Mattson have >10% TOC values, while non-laminite shales contain between 2 and 5% TOC. Comparable measured and calculated vitrinite reflectance data indicate that kerogen in the Lower Carboniferous at Jackfish Gap is mature. Kerogen in correlative formations in the subsurface at North Beaver River is more marine. Vitrinites are rate and oxidized, but four populations of bitumens are distinguished on the basis of relative reflectivity and morphological or petrophysical associations. Types A and B bitumens are primary and by-products of hydrocarbon generation from type II (algal and amorphous) kerogens. Correlations between depth and reflectance of bitumens A and B are very good. Vitrinite reflectance data calculated from bitumen reflectance measurements for the Besa River, Prophet, and Golata indicate that they are potential sources of catagenic gas. The Mattson kerogen is mature, oil and gas-prone.

  1. The sequence of the CA-SP1 junction accounts for the differential sensitivity of HIV-1 and SIV to the small molecule maturation inhibitor 3-O-{3',3'-dimethylsuccinyl}-betulinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiken Christopher

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the effectiveness of currently available antiretroviral therapies in the treatment of HIV-1 infection, a continuing need exists for novel compounds that can be used in combination with existing drugs to slow the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. We previously reported that the small molecule 3-O-{3',3'-dimethylsuccinyl}-betulinic acid (DSB specifically inhibits HIV-1 replication by delaying the processing of the CA-SP1 junction in Pr55Gag. By contrast, SIVmac239 replicates efficiently in the presence of high concentrations of DSB. To determine whether sequence differences in the CA-SP1 junction can fully account for the differential sensitivity of HIV-1 and SIV to DSB, we engineered mutations in this region of two viruses and tested their sensitivity to DSB in replication assays using activated human primary CD4+ T cells. Results Substitution of the P2 and P1 residues of HIV-1 by the corresponding amino acids of SIV resulted in strong resistance to DSB, but the mutant virus replicated with reduced efficiency. Conversely, replication of an SIV mutant containing three amino acid substitutions in the CA-SP1 cleavage site was highly sensitive to DSB, and the mutations resulted in delayed cleavage of the CA-SP1 junction in the presence of the drug. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the CA-SP1 junction in Pr55Gag represents the primary viral target of DSB. They further suggest that the therapeutic application of DSB will be accompanied by emergence of mutant viruses that are highly resistant to the drug but which exhibit reduced fitness relative to wild type HIV-1.

  2. Correlation between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwei; Hu, Haikun; Guo, Jing; Liu, Zeping; Liu, Renkai; Li, Fan; Zou, Shujuan

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dental and skeletal maturity. Digital panoramic radiographs and lateral skull cephalograms of 302 patients (134 boys and 168 girls, ranging from 8 to 16 years of age) were examined. Dental maturity was assessed by calcification stages of the mandibular canines, first and second premolars, and second molars, whereas skeletal maturity was estimated by the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient was used to measure the association between CVM stage and dental calcification stage of individual teeth. The mean chronologic age of girls was significantly lower than that of boys in each CVM stage. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity ranged from 0.391 to 0.582 for girls and from 0.464 to 0.496 for boys (P cervical vertebral maturation stage. The development of the mandibular second molar in females and that of the mandibular canine in males had the strongest correlations with cervical vertebral maturity. Therefore, it is practical to consider the relationship between dental and skeletal maturity when planning orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mature Cystic Renal Teratoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, Alpaslan; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Akkaya, Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Teratomas are rare germline tumors that originate from one or more embryonic germ cell layers. Teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and less than 30 cases of primary intrarenal teratomas have been published to date. We report the main radiologic features of an unusual case of mature cystic teratoma arising from the left kidney in a two-year-old boy. A left-sided abdominal mass was detected on physical examination and B-Mod Ultrasound (US) examination revealed a heterogeneous mass with central cystic component. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a lobulated, heterogeneous, hypodense mass extending craniocaudally from the splenic hilum to the level of the left iliac fossa. Nephrectomy was performed and a large, fatty mass arising from the left kidney was excised. The final pathologic diagnosis was confirmed as cystic renal teratoma

  4. Developing maturity grids for assessing organisational capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John

    2009-01-01

    Keyword: Maturity Model,Maturity Grid,Maturity Matrix,Organisational Capabilities,Benchmarking,New Product Development,Perfirmance Assessment......Keyword: Maturity Model,Maturity Grid,Maturity Matrix,Organisational Capabilities,Benchmarking,New Product Development,Perfirmance Assessment...

  5. Modeling non-maturing liabilities

    OpenAIRE

    von Feilitzen, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Non‐maturing liabilities, such as savings accounts, lack both predetermined maturity and reset dates due to the fact that the depositor is free to withdraw funds at any time and that the depository institution is free to change the rate. These attributes complicate the risk management of such products and no standardized solution exists. The problem is important however since non‐maturing liabilities typically make up a considerable part of the funding of a bank. In this report different mode...

  6. Determining the stages of tillering stage, initiation of primordia, flowering and maturity in the rice plant, with the system S, V and R correlated with the thermal sum at the time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Velázquez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is one of the major climatic factors that affect growth, development and yield of the rice crop, and also can reduce the time of change of phenological stages. The beginning stages of tillering, initiation of primordia, flowering and harvest maturity were determined with the S, V and R system recently proposed by Counce et ál. (2000; it consists on counting the number of fully developed leaves; in addition, a correlation was made with accumulated degree days that the plant had at that time, in order to estimate with how many degree days the plant began a phenological stage; this parameter is related to the average daily temperature and a base temperature of 10ºC. For the start of tillering the plant needed 140.9 degree days; for primordium start, 1268.9; for bloom 1746; and completed its cycle with a total of 2333.2 degree days. This allows to conclude that, for a variety of long cycle (130-135 days, when the accumulation of degree days is equal or similar to the previous data, the plant initiates one of the above-mentioned phenological stages; however, each one of the varieties in use by farmers must be calibrated, because there are differences in crop cycle length among them.

  7. Whose Maturity is it Anyway?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results from an ongoing empirical study that seeks to understand the influence of different quantitative methods on the design and assessment of maturity models. Although there have been many academic publications on maturity models, there exists a significant lack of understa...

  8. Cationic oligopeptides with the repeating sequence L-Lysyl-L-alanyl-L-alanine: conformational and thermal stability stuydy using optical spectroscopic methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Setnička, V.; Hlaváček, Jan; Urbanová, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 8 (2009), s. 533-539 ISSN 1075-2617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cationic peptides * conformation * thermal stability * vibrational circular dichroism Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.807, year: 2009

  9. Geochemical imprint of depositional conditions on organic matter in laminated-Bioturbated interbeds from fine-grained marine sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, L.M.; Claypool, G.E.; King, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Laminated organic-rich shales are interbedded at a scale of centimeters to a few meters with bioturbated organic-poor mudstones or limestones in some fine-grained marine sequences. We have analyzed the organic matter in pairs of laminated/bioturbated interbeds from Cretaceous and Devonian rocks deposited in epicontinental and oceanic settings for the purpose of studying the influence of depositional and early diagenetic environment on the organic geochemical properties of marine shales. Results of these analyses indicate that for rocks that are still in a diagenetic stage of thermal alteration, the relative abundance of biomarker compounds and specific biomarker indices can be useful indicators of depositional and early diagenetic conditions. Pristane/phytane ratios are generally highest for laminated rocks from epicontinental basins and appear to reflect the input of isoprenoid precursors more than oxygenated versus anoxic depositional conditions. The thermally immature laminated rocks are characterized by relatively high contents of 17??(H), 21??(H)-hopanes, hopenes, sterenes and diasterenes, and by strong predominance of the 22R over 22S homohopane isomers. Thermally immature bioturbated samples are characterized by absence of the ??,??-hopanes, by low contents of both saturated and unsaturated polycyclic hydrocarbons, and by slight or no predominance of the 22R over 22S homohopane isomers. There are less obvious compositional differences between the saturated hydrocarbons in the laminated and bioturbated units from the thermally mature sequences. For both the thermally mature and immature laminated samples, the degree of isomerization at the 22C position for hopanes and at the 20C position for steranes is generally consistent with the degree of thermal maturity interpreted from other properties of the organic matter. The bioturbated samples, however, exhibit inconsistent and anomalously high degrees of isomerization for the homohopanes, resulting either from

  10. Cervical vertebral and dental maturity in Turkish subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran, Güvenç; Ozer, Törün; Hamamci, Nihal

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between the stages of calcification of teeth and the cervical vertebral maturity stages in Turkish subjects. A retrospective cross-sectional study was designed. The final study population consisted of 590 Turkish subjects. Statistical analysis of the data was performed with computer software. Spearman rank order correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between cervical vertebral and dental maturation. For a better understanding of the relationship between cervical vertebral maturation indexes and dental age, percentage distributions of the studied teeth were also calculated. Strict correlations were found between dental and cervical vertebral maturation of Turkish subjects. For males, the sequence from lowest to the highest was third molar, central incisor, canine, first premolar, second premolar, first molar, and second molar. For females, the sequence from lowest to the highest was third molar, canine, second premolar, first premolar, central incisor, first molar, and second molar. Dental maturation stages can be used as a reliable indicator of facial growth.

  11. Slab replacement maturity guidelines : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Concrete sets in hours at moderate temperatures, : but the bonds that make concrete strong continue : to mature over days to years. However, for : replacement concrete slabs on highways, it is : crucial that concrete develop enough strength : within ...

  12. SOUL System Maturation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to advance the maturity of an innovative Spacecraft on Umbilical Line (SOUL) System suitable for a wide variety of applications of interest...

  13. SOUL System Maturation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to advance the maturity of an innovative Spacecraft on Umbilical Line (SOUL) System suitable for a wide variety of applications of interest...

  14. Naturally Engineered Maturation of Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano J. Scuderi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart disease remains one of the most prominent causes of mortalities worldwide with heart transplantation being the gold-standard treatment option. However, due to the major limitations associated with heart transplants, such as an inadequate supply and heart rejection, there remains a significant clinical need for a viable cardiac regenerative therapy to restore native myocardial function. Over the course of the previous several decades, researchers have made prominent advances in the field of cardiac regeneration with the creation of in vitro human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte tissue engineered constructs. However, these engineered constructs exhibit a functionally immature, disorganized, fetal-like phenotype that is not equivalent physiologically to native adult cardiac tissue. Due to this major limitation, many recent studies have investigated approaches to improve pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte maturation to close this large functionality gap between engineered and native cardiac tissue. This review integrates the natural developmental mechanisms of cardiomyocyte structural and functional maturation. The variety of ways researchers have attempted to improve cardiomyocyte maturation in vitro by mimicking natural development, known as natural engineering, is readily discussed. The main focus of this review involves the synergistic role of electrical and mechanical stimulation, extracellular matrix interactions, and non-cardiomyocyte interactions in facilitating cardiomyocyte maturation. Overall, even with these current natural engineering approaches, pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes within three-dimensional engineered heart tissue still remain mostly within the early to late fetal stages of cardiomyocyte maturity. Therefore, although the end goal is to achieve adult phenotypic maturity, more emphasis must be placed on elucidating how the in vivo fetal microenvironment drives cardiomyocyte

  15. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  16. Application of MELCOR Code to a French PWR 900 MWe Severe Accident Sequence and Evaluation of Models Performance Focusing on In-Vessel Thermal Hydraulic Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rosa, Felice

    2006-01-01

    In the ambit of the Severe Accident Network of Excellence Project (SARNET), funded by the European Union, 6. FISA (Fission Safety) Programme, one of the main tasks is the development and validation of the European Accident Source Term Evaluation Code (ASTEC Code). One of the reference codes used to compare ASTEC results, coming from experimental and Reactor Plant applications, is MELCOR. ENEA is a SARNET member and also an ASTEC and MELCOR user. During the first 18 months of this project, we performed a series of MELCOR and ASTEC calculations referring to a French PWR 900 MWe and to the accident sequence of 'Loss of Steam Generator (SG) Feedwater' (known as H2 sequence in the French classification). H2 is an accident sequence substantially equivalent to a Station Blackout scenario, like a TMLB accident, with the only difference that in H2 sequence the scram is forced to occur with a delay of 28 seconds. The main events during the accident sequence are a loss of normal and auxiliary SG feedwater (0 s), followed by a scram when the water level in SG is equal or less than 0.7 m (after 28 seconds). There is also a main coolant pumps trip when ΔTsat < 10 deg. C, a total opening of the three relief valves when Tric (core maximal outlet temperature) is above 603 K (330 deg. C) and accumulators isolation when primary pressure goes below 1.5 MPa (15 bar). Among many other points, it is worth noting that this was the first time that a MELCOR 1.8.5 input deck was available for a French PWR 900. The main ENEA effort in this period was devoted to prepare the MELCOR input deck using the code version v.1.8.5 (build QZ Oct 2000 with the latest patch 185003 Oct 2001). The input deck, completely new, was prepared taking into account structure, data and same conditions as those found inside ASTEC input decks. The main goal of the work presented in this paper is to put in evidence where and when MELCOR provides good enough results and why, in some cases mainly referring to its

  17. Maturing Technologies for Stirling Space Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Nowlin, Brentley C.; Dobbs, Michael W.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Huth, James

    2016-01-01

    Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being developed as an option to provide power on future space science missions where robotic spacecraft will orbit, flyby, land or rove. A Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) could offer space missions a more efficient power system that uses one fourth of the nuclear fuel and decreases the thermal footprint of the current state of the art. The RPS Program Office, working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), manages projects to develop thermoelectric and dynamic power systems, including Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs). The Stirling Cycle Technology Development (SCTD) Project, located at Glenn Research Center (GRC), is developing Stirling-based subsystems, including convertors and controllers. The SCTD Project also performs research that focuses on a wide variety of objectives, including increasing convertor temperature capability to enable new environments, improving system reliability or fault tolerance, reducing mass or size, and developing advanced concepts that are mission enabling. Research activity includes maturing subsystems, assemblies, and components to prepare them for infusion into future convertor and generator designs. The status of several technology development efforts are described here. As part of the maturation process, technologies are assessed for readiness in higher-level subsystems. To assess the readiness level of the Dual Convertor Controller (DCC), a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) was performed and the process and results are shown. Stirling technology research is being performed by the SCTD Project for NASA's RPS Program Office, where tasks focus on maturation of Stirling-based systems and subsystems for future space science missions.

  18. Transcriptional maturation of the mouse auditory forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Troy A; Guo, Yan; Clause, Amanda; Hackett, Nicholas J; Garbett, Krassimira; Zhang, Pan; Polley, Daniel B; Mirnics, Karoly

    2015-08-14

    The maturation of the brain involves the coordinated expression of thousands of genes, proteins and regulatory elements over time. In sensory pathways, gene expression profiles are modified by age and sensory experience in a manner that differs between brain regions and cell types. In the auditory system of altricial animals, neuronal activity increases markedly after the opening of the ear canals, initiating events that culminate in the maturation of auditory circuitry in the brain. This window provides a unique opportunity to study how gene expression patterns are modified by the onset of sensory experience through maturity. As a tool for capturing these features, next-generation sequencing of total RNA (RNAseq) has tremendous utility, because the entire transcriptome can be screened to index expression of any gene. To date, whole transcriptome profiles have not been generated for any central auditory structure in any species at any age. In the present study, RNAseq was used to profile two regions of the mouse auditory forebrain (A1, primary auditory cortex; MG, medial geniculate) at key stages of postnatal development (P7, P14, P21, adult) before and after the onset of hearing (~P12). Hierarchical clustering, differential expression, and functional geneset enrichment analyses (GSEA) were used to profile the expression patterns of all genes. Selected genesets related to neurotransmission, developmental plasticity, critical periods and brain structure were highlighted. An accessible repository of the entire dataset was also constructed that permits extraction and screening of all data from the global through single-gene levels. To our knowledge, this is the first whole transcriptome sequencing study of the forebrain of any mammalian sensory system. Although the data are most relevant for the auditory system, they are generally applicable to forebrain structures in the visual and somatosensory systems, as well. The main findings were: (1) Global gene expression

  19. Sustaining Exploration in Mature Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayo, A.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration is a business like any other business driven by opportunity, resources and expectation of profit. Therefore, exploration will thrive anywhere the opportunities are significant, the resources are available and the outlook for profit (or value creation) is good. To sustain exploration activities anywhere, irrespective of the environment, there must be good understanding of the drivers of these key investment criteria. This paper will examine these investment criteria as they relate to exploration business and address the peculiarity of exploration in mature basin. Mature basins are unique environment that lends themselves a mix of fears, paradigms and realities, particularly with respect to the perception of value. To sustain exploration activities in a mature basin, we need to understand these perceptions relative to the true drivers of profitability. Exploration in the mature basins can be as profitable as exploration in emerging basins if the dynamics of value definition-strategic and fiscal values are understood by operators, regulators and co ventures alike. Some suggestions are made in this presentation on what needs to be done in addressing these dynamic investment parameters and sustaining exploration activities in mature basins

  20. Public Sector IS Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony

    2011-01-01

    Online applications and processing of tax forms, driver licenses, and construction permits are examples of where policy attention and research have been united in efforts aiming to categorize the maturity level of e-services. Less attention has been attributed to policy areas with continuous online...... citizenpublic interaction, such as in public education. In this paper we use a revised version of the Public Sector Process Rebuilding (PPR) maturity model for mapping 200 websites of public primary schools in Denmark. Findings reveal a much less favorable picture of the digitization of the Danish public sector...... compared to the high ranking it has received in the international benchmark studies. This paper aims at closing the gap between the predominant scope of maturity models and the frequency of citizen-public sector interaction, and calls for increased attention to the activities of government where the scale...

  1. Bicarbonate Transport During Enamel Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kaifeng; Paine, Michael L

    2017-11-01

    Amelogenesis (tooth enamel formation) is a biomineralization process consisting primarily of two stages (secretory stage and maturation stage) with unique features. During the secretory stage, the inner epithelium of the enamel organ (i.e., the ameloblast cells) synthesizes and secretes enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) into the enamel space. The protein-rich enamel matrix forms a highly organized architecture in a pH-neutral microenvironment. As amelogenesis transitions to maturation stage, EMPs are degraded and internalized by ameloblasts through endosomal-lysosomal pathways. Enamel crystallite formation is initiated early in the secretory stage, however, during maturation stage the more rapid deposition of calcium and phosphate into the enamel space results in a rapid expansion of crystallite length and mineral volume. During maturation-stage amelogenesis, the pH value of enamel varies considerably from slightly above neutral to acidic. Extracellular acid-base balance during enamel maturation is tightly controlled by ameloblast-mediated regulatory networks, which include significant synthesis and movement of bicarbonate ions from both the enamel papillary layer cells and ameloblasts. In this review we summarize the carbonic anhydrases and the carbonate transporters/exchangers involved in pH regulation in maturation-stage amelogenesis. Proteins that have been shown to be instrumental in this process include CA2, CA6, CFTR, AE2, NBCe1, SLC26A1/SAT1, SLC26A3/DRA, SLC26A4/PDS, SLC26A6/PAT1, and SLC26A7/SUT2. In addition, we discuss the association of miRNA regulation with bicarbonate transport in tooth enamel formation.

  2. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

    1977-01-01

    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  3. Regulators of growth plate maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Joyce Adriana Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is known to play an important role in longitudinal bone growth and growth plate maturation, but the mechanism by which estrogens exert their effect is not fully understood. In this thesis this role is further explored. Chapter 1 contains a general introduction to longitudinal bone growth

  4. Paleogene dinoflagellate cysts and thermal maturity from Pabdeh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    forest development as a consequence of increase in climate humidity. The species are .... the Middle to Late Early Eocene, the oceans and seas are characterized ..... walled dinoflagellate cyst assemblages in the tropical Atlantic. Ocean and ...

  5. Assessment of skeletal maturation using mandibular second molar maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S; Goyal, S; Gugnani, N

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between cervical vertebrae maturation and mandibular second molar calcification stages. The study was designed as a retrospective, descriptive and crosssectional research project. Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms and panoramic radiographs of 99 males and 110 females in the age range of 7 to 18 years 7 months were evaluated with Demirjian Index (DI) and cervical vertebrae maturation indicators (CVMI) of Hassel and Farman. A null hypothesis was proposed that there is no relation between CVMI and DI. A highly significant association (Pearson's contingency coefficient 0.713 for males and 0.863 for females) was found between DI and CVMI. In males, the DI stage E corresponded to stage 2 of CVMI (pre-peak of pubertal growth spurt) and DI stages F and G corresponded to stages 3 and 4 of CVMI (peak of pubertal growth spurt). DI stage H was associated with stages 5 and 6 of CVMI (end of pubertal growth spurt). In females, the DI stages C, D corresponded to CVMI stages 1, 2; DI stages E, F with CVMI stages 3, 4; DI stages G, H with CVMI stages 5, 6. Mandibular second molar calcification stages can be used as indicators for assessment of skeletal maturity.

  6. Cervical vertebral maturation as a biologic indicator of skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rodrigo César; de Miranda Costa, Luiz Felipe; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Bolognese, Ana Maria; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2012-11-01

    To identify and review the literature regarding the reliability of cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) staging to predict the pubertal spurt. The selection criteria included cross-sectional and longitudinal descriptive studies in humans that evaluated qualitatively or quantitatively the accuracy and reproducibility of the CVM method on lateral cephalometric radiographs, as well as the correlation with a standard method established by hand-wrist radiographs. The searches retrieved 343 unique citations. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Six articles had moderate to high scores, while 17 of 23 had low scores. Analysis also showed a moderate to high statistically significant correlation between CVM and hand-wrist maturation methods. There was a moderate to high reproducibility of the CVM method, and only one specific study investigated the accuracy of the CVM index in detecting peak pubertal growth. This systematic review has shown that the studies on CVM method for radiographic assessment of skeletal maturation stages suffer from serious methodological failures. Better-designed studies with adequate accuracy, reproducibility, and correlation analysis, including studies with appropriate sensitivity-specificity analysis, should be performed.

  7. MicroRNA sequence motifs reveal asymmetry between the stem arms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Havgaard, Jakob Hull; Ensterö, M.

    2006-01-01

    The processing of micro RNAs (miRNAs) from their stemloop precursor have revealed asymmetry in the processing of the mature and its star sequence. Furthermore, the miRNA processing system between organism differ. To assess this at the sequence level we have investigated mature miRNAs in their gen......The processing of micro RNAs (miRNAs) from their stemloop precursor have revealed asymmetry in the processing of the mature and its star sequence. Furthermore, the miRNA processing system between organism differ. To assess this at the sequence level we have investigated mature mi...

  8. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain's region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also

  9. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies and...... in genomic DNA, highly expressed genes and alternative transcripts in EST sequences. We summarize existing comparisons of different assemblers and provide a detailed descriptions and directions for download of assembly programs at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/assembly/methods.html....

  10. Genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, Shusei; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2014-01-01

    The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based on transcr......The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1904 - Maturity classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity classification. 51.1904 Section 51.1904... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1904 Maturity classification. Tomatoes which are characteristically red when ripe, but are not overripe or soft...

  12. Acoustic and Petrophysical Evolution of Organic-Rich Chalk Following Maturation Induced by Unconfined Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitrit, Omri; Hatzor, Yossef H.; Feinstein, Shimon; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal maturation is known to influence the rock physics of organic-rich rocks. While most studies were performed on low-porosity organic-rich shales, here we examine the effect of thermal maturation on a high-porosity organic-rich chalk. We compare the physical properties of native state immature rock with the properties at two pyrolysis-simulated maturity levels: early-mature and over-mature. We further evaluate the applicability of results from unconfined pyrolysis experiments to naturally matured rock properties. Special attention is dedicated to the elastic properties of the organic phase and the influence of bitumen and kerogen contents. Rock physics is studied based on confined petrophysical measurements of porosity, density and permeability, and measurements of bedding-normal acoustic velocities at estimated field stresses. Geochemical parameters like total organic carbon (TOC), bitumen content and thermal maturation indicators are used to monitor variations in density and volume fraction of each phase. We find that porosity increases significantly upon pyrolysis and that P wave velocity decreases in accordance. Solids density versus TOC relationships indicate that the kerogen increases its density from 1.43 to 1.49 g/cc at the immature and early-mature stages to 2.98 g/cc at the over-mature stage. This density value is unusually high, although increase in S wave velocity and backscatter SEM images of the over-mature samples verify that the over-mature kerogen is significantly denser and stiffer. Using the petrophysical and acoustic properties, the elastic moduli of the rock are estimated by two Hashin-Shtrikman (HS)-based models: "HS + BAM" and "HS kerogen." The "HS + BAM" model is calibrated to the post-pyrolysis measurements to describe the mechanical effect of the unconfined pyrolysis on the rock. The absence of compaction in the pyrolysis process causes the post-pyrolysis samples to be extremely porous. The "HS kerogen" model, which simulates a

  13. Academic Achievement of High School Students in Relation to Their Anxiety, Emotional Maturity and Social Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puar, Surjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the non-cognitive variables like anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity and their relationship with academic achievement and also to see the locale-wise differences on the basis of their anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity. The study was conducted over a sample of 400 (200…

  14. Maturity models in supply chain sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Correia, Elisabete; Carvalho, Helena; Azevedo, Susana G.

    2017-01-01

    A systematic literature review of supply chain maturity models with sustainability concerns is presented. The objective is to give insights into methodological issues related to maturity models, namely the research objectives; the research methods used to develop, validate and test them; the scope...... of maturity levels. The comprehensive review, analysis, and synthesis of the maturity model literature represent an important contribution to the organization of this research area, making possible to clarify some confusion that exists about concepts, approaches and components of maturity models...

  15. Maturity Models Development in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2015-01-01

    Maturity models are widespread in IS research and in particular, IT practitioner communities. However, theoretically sound, methodologically rigorous and empirically validated maturity models are quite rare. This literature review paper focuses on the challenges faced during the development...... literature reveals that researchers have primarily focused on developing new maturity models pertaining to domain-specific problems and/or new enterprise technologies. We find rampant re-use of the design structure of widely adopted models such as Nolan’s Stage of Growth Model, Crosby’s Grid, and Capability...... Maturity Model (CMM). Only recently have there been some research efforts to standardize maturity model development. We also identify three dominant views of maturity models and provide guidelines for various approaches of constructing maturity models with a standard vocabulary. We finally propose using...

  16. Maturity in the Styrian Basin. Maturitaet im Steirischen Tertiaerbecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachsenhofer, R.F. (Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften/Geologie)

    1991-01-01

    The Styrian basin, situated at the south-eastern margin of the Alps, contains up to 3 km of Ottnangian to Pliocene sedimentary rocks. Main subsidence occured between Ottnangian and Sarmatian. Miocene and Plio-/Pleistocene volcanic phases can be distinguished. Maturity in the Styrian basin was studied with vitrinite reflectance curves of 25 boreholes. The oil window lies at shallow depths in the vicinty of Miocene volcanos. This is due to high heating rate during Karpatian to Lower Badenian times. Depth and thickness of the oil window increase with increasing distance from these volcanos. At a distance of some kilometers the thermal influence of this Miocene volcanism disappears. According to high recent heat flow the oil window is located below 1 500 to 2 000 m in these parts of the basin. An influence of Plio-/Pleistocene volcanism on maturity cannot be observed. (orig.).

  17. Comparative transcriptome analyses of a late-maturing mandarin mutant and its original cultivar reveals gene expression profiling associated with citrus fruit maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of late maturity in fruit are good agronomic traits for extending the harvest period and marketing time. However, underlying molecular basis of the late-maturing mechanism in fruit is largely unknown. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq technology was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs related to late-maturing characteristics from a late-maturing mutant ‘Huawan Wuzishatangju’ (HWWZSTJ (Citrus reticulata Blanco and its original line ‘Wuzishatangju’ (WZSTJ. A total of approximately 17.0 Gb and 84.2 M paried-end reads were obtained. DEGs were significantly enriched in the pathway of photosynthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, carotenoid biosynthesis, chlorophyll and abscisic acid (ABA metabolism. Thirteen candidate transcripts related to chlorophyll metabolism, carotenoid biosynthesis and ABA metabolism were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR at all fruit maturing stages of HWWZSTJ and WZSTJ. Chlorophyllase (CLH and divinyl reductase (DVR from chlorophyll metabolism, phytoene synthase (PSY and capsanthin/capsorubin synthase (CCS from carotenoid biosynthesis, and abscisic acid 8′-hydroxylase (AB1 and 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 from ABA metabolism were cloned and analyzed. The expression pattern of NCED1 indicated its role in the late-maturing characteristics of HWWZSTJ. There were 270 consecutive bases missing in HWWZSTJ in comparison with full-length sequences of NCED1 cDNA from WZSTJ. Those results suggested that NCED1 might play an important role in the late maturity of HWWZSTJ. This study provides new information on complex process that results in the late maturity of Citrus fruit at the transcriptional level.

  18. Maturity group classification and maturity locus genotyping of early-maturing soybean varieties from high-latitude cold regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongchang; Jiang, Bingjun; Wu, Cunxiang; Lu, Wencheng; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Yan, Hongrui; Han, Tianfu

    2014-01-01

    With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude cold regions (HCRs). Unlike other regions, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern region of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15', E 127°27', H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially.

  19. The maturity of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Favini, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The ever-increasing use of atomic energy since 1950 has generated a set of rules called for practical reasons Nuclear Law. This branch of law covers a wide scope of related activities and, specialized studies have apparently foreseen all conceivable hypotheses. The international character of Nuclear Law explains the basic harmony of international legislation. The methods of comparative Law and International Private Law as well as the joint, indepth work of scientists and jurists will bring about steady progress towards legislative unity and prompt solution to conflicts. The expectable revitalization of nuclear-electric programs early in the 21st. century will give rise to a Nuclear juridical community which can already be perceived through the maturity Nuclear Law has reached. (Author) [es

  20. A maturity model for blockchain adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huaiqing; Chen, Kun; Xu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rapid development of the blockchain technology and its various applications has rendered it important to understand the guidelines for adopting it. Methods: The comparative analysis method is used to analyze different dimensions of the maturity model, which is mainly based on the commonly used capability maturity model. Results: The blockchain maturity model and its adoption process have been discussed and presented. Conclusions: This study serves as a guide to institutions to...

  1. A Set Theoretical Approach to Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2016-01-01

    characterized by equifinality, multiple conjunctural causation, and case diversity. We prescribe methodological guidelines consisting of a six-step procedure to systematically apply set theoretic methods to conceptualize, develop, and empirically derive maturity models and provide a demonstration......Maturity Model research in IS has been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. To address these criticisms, this paper proposes a novel set-theoretical approach to maturity models...

  2. Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) Technology Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Wilson, Scott; Collins, Josh; Wilson, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) development effort was initiated by NASA Glenn Research Center with contractor Sunpower, Inc., to develop high-efficiency thermal-to-electric power conversion technology for NASA Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs). Early successful performance demonstrations led to the expansion of the project as well as adoption of the technology by the Department of Energy (DOE) and system integration contractor Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company as part of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) flight project. The ASRG integrates a pair of ASCs to convert the heat from a pair of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules into electrical power. The expanded NASA ASC effort included development of several generations of ASC prototypes or engineering units to help prepare the ASC technology and Sunpower for flight implementation. Sunpower later had two parallel contracts allowing the last of the NASA engineering units called ASC-E3 to serve as pathfinders for the ASC-F flight convertors being built for DOE. The ASC-E3 convertors utilized the ASC-F flight specifications and were built using the ASC-F design and process documentation. Shortly after the first ASC-F pair achieved initial operation, due to budget constraints, the DOE ASRG flight development contract was terminated. NASA continues to invest in the development of Stirling RPS technology including continued production of the ASC-E3 convertors, seven of which have been delivered with one additional unit in production. Starting in fiscal year 2015, Stirling Convertor Technology Maturation has been reorganized as an element of the RPS Stirling Cycle Technology Development (SCTD) Project and long-term plans for continued Stirling technology advancement are in reformulation. This paper provides a status on the ASC project, an overview of advancements made in the design and production of the ASC at Sunpower, and a summary of acceptance tests, reliability tests, and tactical

  3. Tectonic heat flow modelling for basin maturation - Implications for frontier areas in the mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Bonte, D.; Nelskamp, S.

    2009-01-01

    Basement heat flow is one of the most influential parameters on basin maturity. Although rapid progress has been made in the development of tectonic models capable of modelling the thermal consequences of basin formation, these models are hardly used in basin modelling. To better predict heat flows

  4. The maturing of microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas M

    2006-09-01

    A.J. Kluyver and C.B. van Niel introduced many scientists to the exceptional metabolic capacity of microbes and their remarkable ability to adapt to changing environments in The Microbe's Contribution to Biology. Beyond providing an overview of the physiology and adaptability of microbes, the book outlined many of the basic principles for the emerging discipline of microbial ecology. While the study of pure cultures was highlighted, provided a unifying framework for understanding the vast metabolic potential of microbes and their roles in the global cycling of elements, extrapolation from pure cultures to natural environments has often been overshadowed by microbiologists inability to culture many of the microbes seen in natural environments. A combination of genomic approaches is now providing a culture-independent view of the microbial world, revealing a more diverse and dynamic community of microbes than originally anticipated. As methods for determining the diversity of microbial communities become increasingly accessible, a major challenge to microbial ecologists is to link the structure of natural microbial communities with their functions. This article presents several examples from studies of aquatic and terrestrial microbial communities in which culture and culture-independent methods are providing an enhanced appreciation for the microbe's contribution to the evolution and maintenance of life on Earth, and offers some thoughts about the graduate-level educational programs needed to enhance the maturing field of microbial ecology.

  5. Motivational maturity and helping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, M; Green, L

    1977-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the independent influences of conative development (the Maslow needs hierarchy) upon behavioral aspects of prosocial orientations. It provides a behavioral demonstration of conative effects in a helping paradigm, among college-age men. A comparison of the conative data across the ages of 15-22 provided a cross-sectional view of conative development itself. Conative maturity was found to be predictive of greater helping among college-age men. Situational demands were demonstrated which tended to mask, but not override, these predispositional influences on helping. The cross-sectional data on conative development point to probable movement to early esteem concerns among high school men who have reached the conative level of love and belonging. On the other hand, the stability across the years of 15-22 of proportion of safety concerns suggests fixation of such concerns in those exhibiting them in high school. Results are discussed in terms of conative growth for development of prosocial orientations.

  6. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Levinson, Alex; Mater, J.; Drummond, R.

    2010-04-28

    The integration of automation associated with electricity resources (including transmission and distribution automation and demand-side resources operated by end-users) is key to supporting greater efficiencies and incorporating variable renewable resources and electric vehicles into the power system. The integration problems faced by this community are analogous to those faced in the health industry, emergency services, and other complex communities with many stakeholders. To highlight this issue and encourage communication and the development of a smart grid interoperability community, the GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC) created an Interoperability Context-Setting Framework. This "conceptual model" has been helpful to explain the importance of organizational alignment in addition to technical and informational interface specifications for "smart grid" devices and systems. As a next step to building a community sensitive to interoperability, the GWAC is investigating an interoperability maturity model (IMM) based on work done by others to address similar circumstances. The objective is to create a tool or set of tools that encourages a culture of interoperability in this emerging community. The tools would measure status and progress, analyze gaps, and prioritize efforts to improve the situation.

  7. Antenatal assessment of fetal maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstner, G.; Reinold, E.; Wolf, G.

    1979-01-01

    334 ultrasound-cephalometries and 231 X-ray fetographies were performed for antenatal assessment of fetal maturity as well as for exact estimation of gestational age in women with unknown date of confinement. The accuracy of the predictions was compared. Ultrasound-cephalometry gave best results when performed until the 20th week of gestation. A correct prediction was obtained in 80.4% of cases. After the 20th week of gestation, the accuracy of prediction decreased. Radiology on the contrary gave optimal results at the end of pregnancy. A correct prediction of the date of confinement was obtained in 73.8% of cases, when the X-ray fetography was performed between the 37th and 40th week of gestation. At the end of gestation radiography should be performed, if there is a discrepancy between ultrasound and clinical estimation or if ultrasound-cephalometry was not carried out in early pregnancy - especially if induction of labour is necessary. (author)

  8. The cervical vertebral maturation method: A user's guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2018-03-01

    The cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method is used to determine the craniofacial skeletal maturational stage of an individual at a specific time point during the growth process. This diagnostic approach uses data derived from the second (C2), third (C3), and fourth (C4) cervical vertebrae, as visualized in a two-dimensional lateral cephalogram. Six maturational stages of those three cervical vertebrae can be determined, based on the morphology of their bodies. The first step is to evaluate the inferior border of these vertebral bodies, determining whether they are flat or concave (ie, presence of a visible notch). The second step in the analysis is to evaluate the shape of C3 and C4. These vertebral bodies change in shape in a typical sequence, progressing from trapezoidal to rectangular horizontal, to square, and to rectangular vertical. Typically, cervical stages (CSs) 1 and CS 2 are considered prepubertal, CS 3 and CS 4 circumpubertal, and CS 5 and CS 6 postpubertal. Criticism has been rendered as to the reproducibility of the CVM method. Diminished reliability may be observed at least in part due to the lack of a definitive description of the staging procedure in the literature. Based on the now nearly 20 years of experience in staging cervical vertebrae, this article was prepared as a "user's guide" that describes the CVM stages in detail in attempt to help the reader use this approach in everyday clinical practice.

  9. Digital Maturity of the Firm's Business Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groskovs, Sergejs; Vemula, Sreekanth

    We propose a digital maturity assessment model as an instrument for researchers and a strategic tool for managers. Existing literature lacks a conceptually clear way to measure the construct of digital maturity at the level of the firms business model. Our proposed instrument thus opens avenues f...

  10. A maturity model for industrial supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameri, A.P.; McKay, K.N.; Wiers, V.C.S.

    2013-01-01

    This article takes an evolutionary view of supply chains to suggest a series of distinct, contextual phases for supply chain execution and what maturity might mean at each phase. For example, what is best practice in a mature industry might not be best practice in a pioneering situation.Three

  11. 7 CFR 1421.101 - Maturity dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... filed and disbursed except, for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral. The maturity date for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral will be the maturity date applicable to the original loan... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING...

  12. Cone and Seed Maturation of Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett

    1976-01-01

    If slightly reduced yields and viability are acceptable, loblolly and slash cone collections can begin 2 to 3 weeks before maturity if the cones are stored before processing. Longleaf(P. palestris Mill.) pine cones should be collected only when mature, as storage decreased germination of seeds from immature cones. Biochemical analyses to determine reducing sugar...

  13. POSTTREATMENT NEUROBLASTOMA MATURATION TO GANGLIONIC CELL TUMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Ryzhova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cells can differentiate into more mature forms in undifferentiated or poorly differentiated tumors, such as medulloblastomas with increased nodularity, as well as neuroblastomas. The authors describe 2 cases of neuroblastoma maturation into ganglioneuroblastoma 5 months after chemotherapy in a 2-year-old girl and 3 years after radiotherapy in a 16-year-old girl.

  14. Moving towards maturity in business model definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Lund, Morten; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    The field of business models has, as is the case with all emerging fields of practice, slowly matured through the development of frameworks, models, concepts and ideas over the last 15 years. New concepts, theories and models typically transcend a series of maturity phases. For the concept of Bus...

  15. Assessing the Harvest Maturity of Brazilian Mangoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, T.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Vanoli, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Eccher Zerbini, P.C.; Torricelli, A.; Filgueiras, H.; Spinelli, L.

    2010-01-01

    No clear criterion exists to determine the optimum time to harvest mango. Some empirical relations are used to assess maturity, such as shoulder development. Moreover, as a result of the typical growing conditions in tropical climates, a huge variation in maturity and ripeness exists, seriously

  16. Decision-Making Style and Vocational Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan D.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the relationship between decision-making style, scholastic achievement, and vocational maturity for college students (N=64). Results did not support the hypothesized relationship between rationality and attitudinal and cognitive maturity. Scholastic achievement and lack of dependent decision style were found to be moderately predictive of…

  17. Correlation of Improved Version of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Indicator with Other Growth Maturity Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Tikku

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The correlation between middle phalanx of 3rd finger (MP3 and cervical vertebral maturation method (CVMI and CVMS was higher as compared to the correlation of either of the cervical vertebral maturation method or MP3 with dental maturation indicator.

  18. Assessing healthcare process maturity: challenges of using a business process maturity model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarhan, A.; Turetken, O.; van den Biggelaar, F.J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Doi: 10.4108/icst.pervasivehealth.2015.259105 The quality of healthcare services is influenced by the maturity of healthcare processes used to develop it. A maturity model is an instrument to assess and continually improve organizational processes. In the last decade, a number of maturity models

  19. Set-Theoretic Approach to Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan

    Despite being widely accepted and applied, maturity models in Information Systems (IS) have been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. This PhD thesis focuses on addressing...... these criticisms by incorporating recent developments in configuration theory, in particular application of set-theoretic approaches. The aim is to show the potential of employing a set-theoretic approach for maturity model research and empirically demonstrating equifinal paths to maturity. Specifically...... methodological guidelines consisting of detailed procedures to systematically apply set theoretic approaches for maturity model research and provides demonstrations of it application on three datasets. The thesis is a collection of six research papers that are written in a sequential manner. The first paper...

  20. Comparison of energy expenditure and closed-loop performance of thermal and reactive distillation sequences coupled for biodiesel production; Comparacion de gasto energetico y desempeno a lazo cerrado de secuencias de destilacion reactiva y termicamente acopladas para produccion de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo-Jacob, J.L [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Vazquez-Ojeda, M; Segovia-Hernandez, J.G; Hernandez, S [Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Maya-Yescas, R. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmayay@umich.mx

    2013-03-15

    Biodiesel is the common name for fatty acid methyl esters, obtained by esterification (basic catalysis) or trans-esterification (acid catalysis) of vegetable or animal oils with alcohols, and used as liquid fuel. Production involves the reaction, under mild conditions, between the oil and, typically, excess of methanol. Traditional production of biodiesel exhibits some handicaps, such as the shift of equilibrium to fatty acids by using excess of alcohol that must be separated and recycled. As alternative, it is possible to integrate reaction/separation operations into a single intensified unit, a reactive distillation column, followed by a second separation unit. These configurations exhibit several advantages such as shifting equilibrium in the reactive region and, because of the thermal integration with the second unit, energy savings during products separation. In order to design these production sequences taking advantage of steady state knowledge (energy savings) and considering dynamic performance, this work performs a controllability analysis for six possible configurations; open-loop control properties, evaluated by single value decomposition, are probed by implementing PI controllers to the system. The reactive distillation column coupled to a stripper, without reboilers, shows to be the best option in terms of closed-loop performance and energy savings. [Spanish] Biodiesel es el nombre comun dado a metil esteres de acidos grasos obtenidos por esterificacion (catalisis basica) o trans-esterificacion (catalisis acida) de aceites animales o vegetales con alcoholes, y usados como combustibles liquidos. Su produccion involucra la reaccion entre el aceite y, tipicamente, exceso de metanol a condiciones moderadas. La produccion tradicional de biodiesel exhibe algunas desventajas como el desplazamiento del equilibrio hacia acidos grasos debido al exceso de alcohol, que debe ser separado y reciclado. Alternativamente, es posible integrar las operaciones reaccion

  1. Lessons from whole-exome sequencing in MODYX families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dusatkova, Petra; Fang, Mingyan; Pruhova, Stepanka

    2014-01-01

    We report the first results from whole-exome sequencing performed in families with Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young without a known genetic cause of diabetes (MODYX). This next generation sequencing technique pointed out that routine testing of MODY needs constant awareness and regular re...

  2. Geothermal regime and Jurassic source rock maturity of the Junggar basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansheng, Qiu; Zhihuan, Zhang; Ershe, Xu

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the thermal gradient distribution of the Junggar basin based on oil-test and well-logging temperature data. The basin-wide average thermal gradient in the depth interval of 0-4000 m is 22.6 °C/km, which is lower than other sedimentary basins in China. We report 21 measured terrestrial heat flow values based on detailed thermal conductivity data and systematical steady-state temperature data. These values vary from 27.0 to 54.1 mW/m 2 with a mean of 41.8 ± 7.8 mW/m 2. The Junggar basin appears to be a cool basin in terms of its thermal regime. The heat flow distribution within the basin shows the following characteristics. (1) The heat flow decreases from the Luliang Uplift to the Southern Depression; (2) relatively high heat flow values over 50 mW/m 2 are confined to the northern part of the Eastern Uplift and the adjacent parts of the Eastern Luliang Uplift and Central Depression; (3) The lowest heat flow of smaller than 35 mW/m 2 occurs in the southern parts of the basin. This low thermal regime of the Junggar basin is consistent with the geodynamic setting, the extrusion of plates around the basin, the considerably thick crust, the dense lithospheric mantle, the relatively stable continental basement of the basin, low heat generation and underground water flow of the basin. The heat flow of this basin is of great significance to oil exploration and hydrocarbon resource assessment, because it bears directly on issues of petroleum source-rock maturation. Almost all oil fields are limited to the areas of higher heat flows. The relatively low heat flow values in the Junggar basin will deepen the maturity threshold, making the deep-seated widespread Permian and Jurassic source rocks in the Junggar basin favorable for oil and gas generation. In addition, the maturity evolution of the Lower Jurassic Badaowan Group (J 1b) and Middle Jurassic Xishanyao Group (J 2x) were calculated based on the thermal data and burial depth. The maturity of the Jurassic

  3. RANDNA: a random DNA sequence generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Francesco; Principato, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are useful to verify the significance of data. Genomic regularities, such as the nucleotide correlations or the not uniform distribution of the motifs throughout genomic or mature mRNA sequences, exist and their significance can be checked by means of the Monte Carlo test. The test needs good quality random sequences in order to work, moreover they should have the same nucleotide distribution as the sequences in which the regularities have been found. Random DNA sequences are also useful to estimate the background score of an alignment, that is a threshold below which the resulting score is merely due to chance. We have developed RANDNA, a free software which allows to produce random DNA or RNA sequences setting both their length and the percentage of nucleotide composition. Sequences having the same nucleotide distribution of exonic, intronic or intergenic sequences can be generated. Its graphic interface makes it possible to easily set the parameters that characterize the sequences being produced and saved in a text format file. The pseudo-random number generator function of Borland Delphi 6 is used, since it guarantees a good randomness, a long cycle length and a high speed. We have checked the quality of sequences generated by the software, by means of well-known tests, both by themselves and versus genuine random sequences. We show the good quality of the generated sequences. The software, complete with examples and documentation, is freely available to users from: http://www.introni.it/en/software.

  4. Game Maturity Model for Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan C; Adriani, Paul; van Houwelingen, Jan Willem; Geerts, A

    2016-04-01

    This article introduces the Game Maturity Model for the healthcare industry as an extension to the general Game Maturity Model and describes the usage by two case studies of applied health games. The Game Maturity Model for healthcare provides a practical and value-adding method to assess existing games and to determine strategic considerations for application of applied health games. Our forecast is that within 5 years the use and development of applied games will have a role in our daily lives and the way we organize health care that will be similar to the role social media has today.

  5. Service Quality and Process Maturity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serek Radomir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with service quality and the methods for its measurement and improvements to reach the so called service excellence. Besides older methods such as SERVQUAL and SERPERF, there are also shortly described capability maturity models based on which the own methodology is developed and used for process maturity assessment in organizations providing technical services. This method is equally described and accompanied by examples on pictures. The verification of method functionality is explored on finding a correlation between service employee satisfaction and average process maturity in a service organization. The results seem to be quite promising and open an arena for further studies.

  6. Maturity grids as tools for change management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John

    2011-01-01

    A maturity grid is a change management tool. Levels of maturity are assigned against aspects of an area under study, thus creating a grid. Text descriptions at the resulting intersections describe the typical behaviour exhibited by a firm for each area under study and from the basis...... for the assessment scale. It is a flexible assessment technique that is used by practitioners in industry, consultants and researchers in academia for diagnostic, reflective and improvement purposes. A large number of maturity grids have been proposed to assess a range of capabilities including quality management...

  7. [Molecular cloning of activin betaA subunit mature peptide from peafowl and its application in taxonomy and phylogeny].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Fang-Dong; Tong, Xin-Xin; Yue, Bi-Song

    2005-03-01

    The sequences of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptide have been amplified from white peafowl, blue peafowl (pavo cristatus) and green peafowl (pavo muticus) genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a pair of degenerate primers. The target fragments were cloned into the vector pMD18-T and sequenced. The length of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptide is 345bp, which encoded a peptide of 115 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptide demonstrated that the identity of nucleotide is 98.0% between blue peaflowl and green peafowl, and the identity of that is 98.8% between blue peaflowl and white peafow. Sequences comparison in NCBI revealed that the sequences of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptides of different species are highly conserved during evolution process. In addition, the restriction enzyme map of activins is high similar between white peafowl and blue peafowl. Phylogenetic tree was constructed with Mega 2 and Clustalxldx software. The result showed that white peafowl has a closer relationship to blue peafowl than to green peafowl. Considered the nucleotide differences of peafowls' activin gene betaA subunit mature peptides, a highly conserved region, we supported that white peafowl was derived from blue peafowl, and it is more possible the hybrid but just the product of color mutation, or maybe as a subspecies of Pavo genus.

  8. 7 CFR 1710.115 - Final maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Basic Policies § 1710.115 Final maturity. (a) RUS is authorized to make loans and loan guarantees with a... due, in part, to obsolescence. Operating loans to finance working capital required for the initial...

  9. Geospatial Information System Capability Maturity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    To explore how State departments of transportation (DOTs) evaluate geospatial tool applications and services within their own agencies, particularly their experiences using capability maturity models (CMMs) such as the Urban and Regional Information ...

  10. Pristipomoides filamentosus Size at Maturity Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains information used to help determine median size at 50% maturity for the bottomfish species, Pristipomoides filamentosus in the Main Hawaiian...

  11. 37 CFR 1.822 - Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mature protein, with the number 1. When presented, the amino acids preceding the mature protein, e.g... acids. (1) The amino acids in a protein or peptide sequence shall be listed using the three-letter... data. (a) The symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data shall...

  12. Artificial maturation of an immature sulfur- and organic matter-rich limestone from the Ghareb Formation, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, M.P.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Lewan, M.D.; Damste, J.S.S.

    1998-01-01

    An immature (Ro=0.39%), S-rich (S(org)/C = 0.07), organic matter-rich (19.6 wt. % TOC) limestone from the Ghareb Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Jordan was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis (200, 220 ..., 300??C; 72 h) to study the effect of progressive diagenesis and early catagenesis on the amounts and distributions of hydrocarbons, organic sulfur compounds and S-rich geomacromolecules. The use of internal standards allowed the determination of absolute amounts. With increasing thermal maturation, large amounts of alkanes and alkylthiophenes with predominantly linear carbon skeletons are generated from the kerogen. The alkylthiophene isomer distributions do not change significantly with increasing thermal maturation, indicating the applicability of alkylthiophenes as biomarkers at relatively high levels of thermal maturity. For a given carbon skeleton, the saturated hydrocarbon, alkylthiophenes and alkylbenzo[b]thiophenes are stable forms at relatively high temperatures, whereas the alkylsulfides are not stable. The large amount of alkylthiophenes produced relative to the alkanes may be explained by the large number of monosulfide links per carbon skeleton. These results are in good agreement with those obtained previously for an artificial maturation series of an immature S-rich sample from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation.An immature (Ro = 0.39%), S-rich (Sorg/C = 0.07), organic matter-rich (19.6 wt.% TOC) limestone from the Ghareb Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Jordan was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis (200, 220, ..., 300??C; 72 h) to study the effect of progressive diagenesis and early catagenesis on the amounts and distributions of hydrocarbons, organic sulfur compounds and S-rich geomacromolecules. The use of internal standards allowed the determination of absolute amounts. With increasing thermal maturation, large amounts of alkanes and alkylthiophenes with predominantly linear carbon skeletons are generated from the kerogen. The

  13. Mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosaki, Y.; Tanaka, Y.O.; Itai, Y. [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken 305 (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    The vast majority of germ cell tumors in the thorax arise at or near the thymus. We report a case of a 41-year-old man with mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum. He was asymptomatic and was incidentally found to have a posterior mediastinal mass. Computed tomography was helpful in suggesting a diagnosis of mature teratoma by demonstrating the presence of fat and calcification. The differential diagnosis included neurogenic tumors, liposarcoma, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. (orig.) With 2 figs., 18 refs.

  14. Mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Y.; Tanaka, Y.O.; Itai, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The vast majority of germ cell tumors in the thorax arise at or near the thymus. We report a case of a 41-year-old man with mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum. He was asymptomatic and was incidentally found to have a posterior mediastinal mass. Computed tomography was helpful in suggesting a diagnosis of mature teratoma by demonstrating the presence of fat and calcification. The differential diagnosis included neurogenic tumors, liposarcoma, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. (orig.)

  15. Radiation induced early maturing mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Chauhan, S.V.S.; Sharma, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    In M 2 generation, two early maturing plants were screened from a single spike progeny of a plant obtained from 20 kR of gamma-ray irradiation of a six-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Jyoti). Their true breeding nature was confirmed in M 3 generation. These mutants flower and mature 38 and 22 days earlier than those of control. (auth.)

  16. Intra-follicular interactions affecting mammalian oocyte maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, H.T.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313871817

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear oocyte maturation is defined as reinitiation and progression of the first meiotic division and subsequently formation of the methaphase II (MII) plate. Concomitantly with nuclear maturation, cytoplasmic maturation which is essential for proper fertilization and early embryo development is

  17. Mature students' perspectives of studying radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.; Decker, S.

    2009-01-01

    The study set out to explore the experiences of all final year mature students on a diagnostic radiography course, in one United Kingdom University. The aims were to identify any difficulties they may have had and to make recommendations to improve mature students' learning experiences with the hope of lowering attrition rates in this group. A qualitative study involving one-to-one audio recorded interviews was utilised. Analysis of the transcripts of interviews suggested that the group believed that their maturity and previous experiences helped them in the clinical environment and put them in a good position, when asked, to counsel younger students. However for some of the mature students these experiential skills did not extend fully into seeking appropriate support for themselves. The mature students were found to be highly motivated but there was a conflict between balancing clinical and academic aspects of studying as well as balancing studying with home life. The group was found to be unprepared for the volume of academic work and its detrimental effect on family life as they sacrificed other aspects of their lives in order to complete the course. It is recommended that forewarning and forearming prospective mature students be considered by radiography education providers. Setting up and utilising an on-line forum providing a 24/7 peer support environment would aid in coping with academic, clinical or personal problems

  18. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  19. Breeding of cocksfoot cultivars with different maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important criteria in breeding process of perennial grasses is maturity. Cultivars with different maturity play a very important role in utilization of perennial grasses, by providing the ability to create a mixture of different aspects utilization and time. The first grass species in Serbia whose breeding program involved this criterion was cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.. In general cocksfoot is early to medium-early in maturity in comparison with other grasses and legumes, and that is mayor problem since in the optimum phase for cutting, cocksfoot is often earlier then other species in mixtures. As a result of this work, in the previous period, two cultivars of different maturity were released, Kruševačka 24 (K-24 and Kruševačka 25 (K-25. K-24 is medium and K-25 is late in maturity. New material is adapted to local agro-ecological conditions and productive in the same time. In breeding process of both cultivars initial material originated from autochthonous populations collected in eastern and central Serbia. Material from the wild flora is selected based on medium and late maturity which is already adapted and has good productivity. We applied the standard method of phenotypic recurrent selection with the creation of synthetic varieties by polycross.

  20. Neonatal Transplantation Confers Maturation of PSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes Conducive to Modeling Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gun-Sik Cho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs offer unprecedented opportunities for disease modeling and personalized medicine. However, PSC-derived cells exhibit fetal-like characteristics and remain immature in a dish. This has emerged as a major obstacle for their application for late-onset diseases. We previously showed that there is a neonatal arrest of long-term cultured PSC-derived cardiomyocytes (PSC-CMs. Here, we demonstrate that PSC-CMs mature into adult CMs when transplanted into neonatal hearts. PSC-CMs became similar to adult CMs in morphology, structure, and function within a month of transplantation into rats. The similarity was further supported by single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis. Moreover, this in vivo maturation allowed patient-derived PSC-CMs to reveal the disease phenotype of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, which manifests predominantly in adults. This study lays a foundation for understanding human CM maturation and pathogenesis and can be instrumental in PSC-based modeling of adult heart diseases. : Pluripotent stem cell (PSC-derived cells remain fetal like, and this has become a major impediment to modeling adult diseases. Cho et al. find that PSC-derived cardiomyocytes mature into adult cardiomyocytes when transplanted into neonatal rat hearts. This method can serve as a tool to understand maturation and pathogenesis in human cardiomyocytes. Keywords: cardiomyocyte, maturation, iPS, cardiac progenitor, neonatal, disease modeling, cardiomyopathy, ARVC, T-tubule, calcium transient, sarcomere shortening

  1. Thermal comfort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is influenced by environmental parameters as well as other influences including asymmetric heating and cooling conditions. Additionally, some aspects of thermal comfort may be exploited so as to enable a building to operate within a...

  2. Maturation history modeling of Sufyan Depression, northwest Muglad Basin, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Luofu; An, Fuli; Wang, Hongmei; Pang, Xiongqi

    2016-08-01

    The Sufyan Depression is located in the northwest of Muglad Basin and is considered as a favorable exploration area by both previous studies and present oil shows. In this study, 16 wells are used or referred, the burial history model was built with new seismic, logging and well data, and the thermal maturity (Ro, %) of proved AG source rocks was predicted based on heat flow calculation and EASY %Ro modeling. The results show that the present heat flow range is 36 mW/m2∼50 mW/m2 (average 39 mW/m2) in 13 wells and 15 mW/m2∼55 mW/m2 in the whole depression. Accordingly, the geothermal gradient is 20 °C/km∼26 °C/km and 12 °C/km∼30 °C/km, respectively. The paleo-heat flow has three peaks, namely AG-3 period, lower Bentiu period and Early Paleogene, with the value decreases from the first to the last, which is corresponding to the tectonic evolution history. Corresponding to the heat flow distribution feature, the AG source rocks become mature earlier and have higher present marurity in the south area. For AG-2_down and AG-3_up source rocks that are proved to be good-excellent, most of them are mature with Ro as 0.5%-1.1%. But they can only generate plentiful oil and gas to charge reservoirs in the middle and south areas where their Ro is within 0.7%-1.1%, which is consistent with the present oil shows. Besides, the oil shows from AG-2_down reservoir in the middle area of the Sufyan Depression are believed to be contributed by the underlying AG-3_up source rock or the source rocks in the south area.

  3. Maturity Model for Advancing Smart Grid Interoperability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Mark; Widergren, Steven E.; Mater, J.; Montgomery, Austin

    2013-10-28

    Abstract—Interoperability is about the properties of devices and systems to connect and work properly. Advancing interoperability eases integration and maintenance of the resulting interconnection. This leads to faster integration, lower labor and component costs, predictability of projects and the resulting performance, and evolutionary paths for upgrade. When specifications are shared and standardized, competition and novel solutions can bring new value streams to the community of stakeholders involved. Advancing interoperability involves reaching agreement for how things join at their interfaces. The quality of the agreements and the alignment of parties involved in the agreement present challenges that are best met with process improvement techniques. The GridWise® Architecture Council (GWAC) sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is supporting an effort to use concepts from capability maturity models used in the software industry to advance interoperability of smart grid technology. An interoperability maturity model has been drafted and experience is being gained through trials on various types of projects and community efforts. This paper describes the value and objectives of maturity models, the nature of the interoperability maturity model and how it compares with other maturity models, and experiences gained with its use.

  4. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal lung maturity by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Hitoshi; Kakizaki, Dai; Nagai, Atsushi; Akutagawa, Osamu; Itokazu, Isao; Iso, Kazuo; Abe, Kimihiko; Takayama, Masaomi [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan); Nohira, Tomoyoshi [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan). Hachioji Medical Center

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for prenatal diagnosis of fetal lung maturity. The subjects comprised 28 singleton fetuses, and underwent MRI in the third trimester (32.71{+-}3.00 wks). After obtaining axial and coronal scout images of the whole pelvis, we obtained a transverse image, a coronal image and a sagittal image of fetuses with a half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo-spin-echo (HASTE) sequence, determined the intensity level of the fetal lung (right lung intensity level: RL, left lung intensity level: LL). The intensity level of background outside of the maternal body was obtained as the control intensity level (CL). The contrast value (CV) of each fetal lung was calculated by the numerical formula; CV=(RL or LL-CL)/CL. We evaluated the changes of CV during the third trimester and relationship between CV and gestational weeks. There was no significant correlation between gestational weeks and RL (P=.3887), LL (P=.2367). There was a significant increase in both right and left CV (RCV=(RL-CL)/CL: P=.0108, LCV=(LL-CL)/CL: P=.0165) with gestational age. It was suggested that the fetal lung maturation could be diagnosed with HASTE using the CV formula. (author)

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal lung maturity by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hitoshi; Kakizaki, Dai; Nagai, Atsushi; Akutagawa, Osamu; Itokazu, Isao; Iso, Kazuo; Abe, Kimihiko; Takayama, Masaomi; Nohira, Tomoyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for prenatal diagnosis of fetal lung maturity. The subjects comprised 28 singleton fetuses, and underwent MRI in the third trimester (32.71±3.00 wks). After obtaining axial and coronal scout images of the whole pelvis, we obtained a transverse image, a coronal image and a sagittal image of fetuses with a half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo-spin-echo (HASTE) sequence, determined the intensity level of the fetal lung (right lung intensity level: RL, left lung intensity level: LL). The intensity level of background outside of the maternal body was obtained as the control intensity level (CL). The contrast value (CV) of each fetal lung was calculated by the numerical formula; CV=(RL or LL-CL)/CL. We evaluated the changes of CV during the third trimester and relationship between CV and gestational weeks. There was no significant correlation between gestational weeks and RL (P=.3887), LL (P=.2367). There was a significant increase in both right and left CV (RCV=(RL-CL)/CL: P=.0108, LCV=(LL-CL)/CL: P=.0165) with gestational age. It was suggested that the fetal lung maturation could be diagnosed with HASTE using the CV formula. (author)

  6. Maturity acceleration of Italian dried sausage by Staphylococcus carnosus - Relationship between maturity and flavor compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Louise Heller; Holck, A.; Jensen, Anni

    2002-01-01

    . Sausages with S. carnosus 833 matured more than 2 wk faster than control sausages. Maturity correlated significantly with higher amounts of branched-chain aldehydes and alcohols and both branched- and straight-chain methyl ketones-compounds arising from the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine...

  7. IT Governance Maturity: Developing a Maturity Model Using the Delphi Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Daniël; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2015-01-01

    To advance in maturity, organizations should pay attention to both the hard and soft sides of IT governance (ITG). The hard side is related to processes and structure, the soft side to social aspects like behavior and organizational culture. This paper describes a study to develop an ITG maturity

  8. [Maturation diagnosis in full term hypotrophic fetuses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharnke, H D; Gartzke, J; Fleischer, G; Isbruch, E

    1977-01-01

    Foam-Test by Clements is a valuable method for determining the foetus maturity of lungs. We introduce this test along with other parameters for the maturity-diagnosis since one year. In 15% result, the Foam-Test was not applicable because of blood, or meconic amniotic fluid, other wise wrong negative and in 0% wrong positive results. By unmatured child, there was doubtable results with Foam-Test. Since it is important to determine the early delivery of unmatured children, particularly the case of foetus maturity of lungs must be exact, we therefore decided to use the Lecithin/Sphingomyelinquotients in some cases. The results of Lecithin/Sphingomyelinquotient in unmatured children are almost with the approximated date under two. From this, one must deduce from these children, that the intrauterine unmatured lungs lately took place.

  9. Capability maturity models for offshore organisational management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutt, J E; Sharp, J V; Terry, E; Miles, R

    2006-12-01

    The goal setting regime imposed by the UK safety regulator has important implications for an organisation's ability to manage health and safety related risks. Existing approaches to safety assurance based on risk analysis and formal safety assessments are increasingly considered unlikely to create the step change improvement in safety to which the offshore industry aspires and alternative approaches are being considered. One approach, which addresses the important issue of organisational behaviour and which can be applied at a very early stage of design, is the capability maturity model (CMM). The paper describes the development of a design safety capability maturity model, outlining the key processes considered necessary to safety achievement, definition of maturity levels and scoring methods. The paper discusses how CMM is related to regulatory mechanisms and risk based decision making together with the potential of CMM to environmental risk management.

  10. Mature Oocyte Cryopreservation for Fertility Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tina; Motan, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, advances in cancer treatment have led to a dramatic improvement in long term survival. This has led to an increasing focus on quality of life after surviving cancer treatment, with fertility being an important aspect. Given the known reproductive risks of cancer therapies, there has been a growing interest in the field of fertility preservation (also referred to as oncofertility). Mature oocyte cryopreservation is no longer considered experimental and has become a realistic option for reproductive aged women prior to undergoing cancer treatment. Additionally, as cryopreservation techniques improve, mature oocyte cryopreservation is increasing being marketed to healthy women without cancer wishing to delay child bearing, also termed "social egg freezing". This chapter provides a review of the current technology, use, and outcomes of mature oocyte cryopreservation. It also outlines the ethical debate surrounding social egg freezing and directions for future research in female fertility preservation.

  11. Genetic transformation of mature citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, Magdalena; Juárez, José; Navarro, Luis; Peña, Leandro

    2005-01-01

    Most woody fruit species have long juvenile periods that drastically prolong the time required to analyze mature traits. Evaluation of characteristics related to fruits is a requisite to release any new variety into the market. Because of a decline in regenerative and transformation potential, genetic transformation procedures usually employ juvenile material as the source of plant tissue, therefore resulting in the production of juvenile plants. Direct transformation of mature material could ensure the production of adult transgenic plants, bypassing in this way the juvenile phase. Invigoration of the source adult material, establishment of adequate transformation and regeneration conditions, and acceleration of plant development through grafting allowed us to produce transgenic mature sweet orange trees flowering and bearing fruits in a short time period.

  12. Vegetative propagation of mature and juvenile northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Zaczek; K. C. Steiner; C. W., Jr. Heuser

    1993-01-01

    Rooting trials were established to evaluate rooting success of cuttings from mature and juvenile, grafted and ungrafted northern red oak (NRO). Buds from 4 mature NRO ortets and juvenile seedlings were grafted onto juvenile and mature rootstock. Cuttings were collected from the grafts and from juvenile and mature shoots developed in situ and...

  13. High resolution sequence stratigraphy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shangfeng; Zhang Changmin; Yin Yanshi; Yin Taiju

    2008-01-01

    Since high resolution sequence stratigraphy was introduced into China by DENG Hong-wen in 1995, it has been experienced two development stages in China which are the beginning stage of theory research and development of theory research and application, and the stage of theoretical maturity and widely application that is going into. It is proved by practices that high resolution sequence stratigraphy plays more and more important roles in the exploration and development of oil and gas in Chinese continental oil-bearing basin and the research field spreads to the exploration of coal mine, uranium mine and other strata deposits. However, the theory of high resolution sequence stratigraphy still has some shortages, it should be improved in many aspects. The authors point out that high resolution sequence stratigraphy should be characterized quantitatively and modelized by computer techniques. (authors)

  14. Adult maturational processes and the facilitating environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acklin, M W

    1986-09-01

    The psychoanalytic theory of religion has been seriously limited in its development, largely owing to Freud's emphasis on religion's neurotic elements and an overemphasis on the infantile origins of religious development. This paper offers a conceptual framework and advances the thesis, based on contemporary psychoanalytic, developmental theory, that 1) Erikson's concept of epigenesis has applicability across the life span; 2) that beyond-the-self identity is constituent to human maturation and self-completion; 3) that successful adult maturation requires a mirroring-facilitating environment; and 4) that religious values, meanings, images, and communities play an essential role-as-elements of the facilitating environment of later life.

  15. Digital Maturity of the Firm's Business Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groskovs, Sergejs; Vemula, Sreekanth

    We propose a digital maturity assessment model as an instrument for researchers and a strategic tool for managers. Existing literature lacks a conceptually clear way to measure the construct of digital maturity at the level of the firms business model. Our proposed instrument thus opens avenues...... for research into questions related to antecedents, process, and performance outcomes of the digitalization of business activities. The assessment follows the logic of first decomposing the business model into the underlying value creation activities and then evaluating the levels of automation...

  16. Posttesticular sperm maturation, infertility, and hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Whitfield

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a key molecule in the mammalian physiology of especial particular importance for the reproductive system as it is the common precursor for steroid hormone synthesis. Cholesterol is also a recognized modulator of sperm functions, not only at the level of gametogenesis. Cholesterol homeostasis regulation is crucial for posttesticular sperm maturation, and imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect these posttesticular events. Metabolic lipid disorders (dyslipidemia affect male fertility but are most of the time studied from the angle of endocrine/testicular consequences. This review will focus on the deleterious effects of a particular dyslipidemia, i.e., hypercholesterolemia, on posttesticular maturation of mammalian spermatozoa.

  17. Thermal insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspden, G.J.; Howard, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns high temperature thermal insulation of large vessels, such as the primary vessel of a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor. The thermal insulation consists of multilayered thermal insulation modules, and each module comprises a number of metal sheet layers sandwiched between a back and front plate. The layers are linked together by straps and clips to control the thickness of the module. (U.K.)

  18. Elevated Social Anxiety among Early Maturing Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Gahr, Jessica L.; Trainor, Casey D.; Frala, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period in terms of the development of anxiety psychopathology. An emerging literature suggests that early pubertal maturation is associated with enhanced vulnerability for anxiety symptomatology, although few studies have examined this association with regard to social anxiety. Accordingly, the current study was designed to…

  19. Mature cystic teratomas: Relationship between histopathological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tumor size, symptoms related to MCT and laterality of the tumor did not differ among the patients according to the MCT contents. Conclusions: Our findings suggest no relationship between the clinical features and histopathological contents of MCTs. Key words: Histopathological contents, mature cystic teratoma, ovarian, ...

  20. Intraovarian markers of follicular and oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer, A; Diamond, M P; DeCherney, A H; Naftolin, F

    1987-08-01

    The use of ovulation induction for multiple follicular growth in in vitro fertilization (IVF) has introduced the problem of follicular asynchrony. As a consequence of the asynchrony, the parameters most commonly used by IVF groups to assess follicular and oocyte quality within those follicles are not sufficiently sensitive or specific. Thus, each follicle must be considered separately, and specific markers of follicular and/or oocyte maturation must be sought from within the follicle. In this review we analyze previous reports of potential markers of follicular and oocyte maturation. In regards to the follicular fluid constituents, the level of estradiol in follicular fluid correlates with fertilization and pregnancy in stimulated cycles. Other steroids are only helpful when specific stimulation protocols are used. The level of some follicular proteins such as alpha-1-antitrypsin and fibrinogen also correlates with fertilization and pregnancy outcome. Cyclic AMP levels in follicular fluid are significantly reduced in follicles leading to conception. Regulators of oocyte maturation, such as the Oocyte Maturation Inhibitor (OMI) or the Meiosis Inducing Substance (MIS) have also been correlated with IVF outcome, but their exact structure remains still unknown. In addition, other sophisticated parameters, such as chemotactic activity of human leukocytes, or simple methods, such as the presence of intrafollicular echoes, have also been used as successful markers in predicting IVF outcome.

  1. Teaching Copywriting Students about the Mature Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewniany, Bonnie

    Advertising educators have a responsibility to make students aware of the importance of the mature market (older people) and to teach them methods to reach this group. An assignment in a copywriting class asked students to write and design ads to promote blue jeans to adults over 50. The assignment accomplished three things: (1) helped students…

  2. Plant regeneration in wheat mature embryo culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil Haliloğlu

    2011-11-09

    Nov 9, 2011 ... Success in genetic engineering of cereals depends on the callus formation and efficient plant regeneration system. Callus formation and plant regeneration of wheat mature embryos ... compiled by modification of methods previously mentioned in ..... of more and readily available nutrition than artificial cul-.

  3. GROWTH PATTERNS AND MATURATION OF CHILDREN WITH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GROWTH PATTERNS AND MATURATION OF CHILDREN WITH SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN RELATION TO PLASMA ZINC STATUS. Dr. Salwa R. El Batrawy, Dr. Mervat Tawfik M. Tantawi. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  4. 7 CFR 51.2841 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... considered mature when harvested in accordance with good commercial practice at a stage which will not result...

  5. The influence of biological maturation on anthropometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether biological maturation would significantly influence the anthropometric determinants of talent identification among U-14 provincial girl tennis players. Twenty-six of the top thirty-two provincial female players (mean age = 13.21± 0.72 years) from the Northern Gauteng and the ...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1823 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Industry, Part 1, Chapter 20-13 Market Classification, Maturity Standards and Processing or Packing... Independence Ave., Washington, DC 20250 or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov...

  7. 7 CFR 51.767 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Florida Citrus Industry, Part 1, Chapter 20-13 Market Classification, Maturity Standards and Processing or... 2065-S, 14th and Independence Ave., Washington, DC 20250 or at the National Archives and Records...: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. ...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1158 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Citrus Industry, Part 1, Chapter 20-13 Market Classification, Maturity Standards and Processing or... 2065-S, 14th and Independence Ave., Washington, DC 20250 or at the National Archives and Records...: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. ...

  9. Analyzing Project Management Maturity Level in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot Simangunsong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Project management has been generally known and increasingly used by many organizations to gain competitive advantage. In this context, many studies have proposed maturity models to evaluate how project management knowledge has been deployed effectively and efficiently in or- ganization. As a developing country, Indonesia needs many development projects managed by government and private companies in different industries. Here, a study to assess project manage- ment maturity level in Indonesian businesses may bring insight about current business practices, which is important to speed up country development and business sustainability. Adapting the Project Management Maturity Model (ProMMM, a survey instrument has been developed and ap- plied to professionals from Jakarta and surrounding area. The result of analysis shows that con- struction and primary industry have a higher maturity level compare to manufacturing and servic- es. It is to be noted, however, that the level of project management understanding is low across in- dustries. This indicates that more quality project management training or certification is required to improve overall project management knowledge in Indonesia.

  10. CTCF counter-regulates cardiomyocyte development and maturation programs in the embryonic heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Gomez-Velazquez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac progenitors are specified early in development and progressively differentiate and mature into fully functional cardiomyocytes. This process is controlled by an extensively studied transcriptional program. However, the regulatory events coordinating the progression of such program from development to maturation are largely unknown. Here, we show that the genome organizer CTCF is essential for cardiogenesis and that it mediates genomic interactions to coordinate cardiomyocyte differentiation and maturation in the developing heart. Inactivation of Ctcf in cardiac progenitor cells and their derivatives in vivo during development caused severe cardiac defects and death at embryonic day 12.5. Genome wide expression analysis in Ctcf mutant hearts revealed that genes controlling mitochondrial function and protein production, required for cardiomyocyte maturation, were upregulated. However, mitochondria from mutant cardiomyocytes do not mature properly. In contrast, multiple development regulatory genes near predicted heart enhancers, including genes in the IrxA cluster, were downregulated in Ctcf mutants, suggesting that CTCF promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation by facilitating enhancer-promoter interactions. Accordingly, loss of CTCF disrupts gene expression and chromatin interactions as shown by chromatin conformation capture followed by deep sequencing. Furthermore, CRISPR-mediated deletion of an intergenic CTCF site within the IrxA cluster alters gene expression in the developing heart. Thus, CTCF mediates local regulatory interactions to coordinate transcriptional programs controlling transitions in morphology and function during heart development.

  11. CTCF counter-regulates cardiomyocyte development and maturation programs in the embryonic heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Velazquez, Melisa; Badia-Careaga, Claudio; Lechuga-Vieco, Ana Victoria; Nieto-Arellano, Rocio; Rollan, Isabel; Alvarez, Alba; Torroja, Carlos; Caceres, Eva F.; Roy, Anna R.; Galjart, Niels; Sanchez-Cabo, Fatima; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Gomez-Skarmeta, Jose Luis

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac progenitors are specified early in development and progressively differentiate and mature into fully functional cardiomyocytes. This process is controlled by an extensively studied transcriptional program. However, the regulatory events coordinating the progression of such program from development to maturation are largely unknown. Here, we show that the genome organizer CTCF is essential for cardiogenesis and that it mediates genomic interactions to coordinate cardiomyocyte differentiation and maturation in the developing heart. Inactivation of Ctcf in cardiac progenitor cells and their derivatives in vivo during development caused severe cardiac defects and death at embryonic day 12.5. Genome wide expression analysis in Ctcf mutant hearts revealed that genes controlling mitochondrial function and protein production, required for cardiomyocyte maturation, were upregulated. However, mitochondria from mutant cardiomyocytes do not mature properly. In contrast, multiple development regulatory genes near predicted heart enhancers, including genes in the IrxA cluster, were downregulated in Ctcf mutants, suggesting that CTCF promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation by facilitating enhancer-promoter interactions. Accordingly, loss of CTCF disrupts gene expression and chromatin interactions as shown by chromatin conformation capture followed by deep sequencing. Furthermore, CRISPR-mediated deletion of an intergenic CTCF site within the IrxA cluster alters gene expression in the developing heart. Thus, CTCF mediates local regulatory interactions to coordinate transcriptional programs controlling transitions in morphology and function during heart development. PMID:28846746

  12. A fragment of alpha-actinin promotes monocyte/macrophage maturation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luikart, S; Wahl, D; Hinkel, T; Masri, M; Oegema, T

    1999-02-01

    Conditioned media (CM) from cultures of HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells grown on extracellular bone marrow matrix contains a factor that induces macrophage-like maturation of HL-60 cells. This factor was purified from the CM of HL-60 cells grown on bone marrow stroma by ammonium sulfate precipitation, then sequential chromatography on DEAE, affi-gel blue affinity, gel exclusion, and wheat germ affinity columns, followed by C-4 reverse phase HPLC, and SDS-PAGE. The maturation promoting activity of the CM was identified in a single 31 kD protein. Amino acid sequence analysis of four internal tryptic peptides of this protein confirmed significant homology with amino acid residues 48-60, 138-147, 215-220, and 221-236 of human cytoskeletal alpha-actinin. An immunoaffinity purified rabbit polyclonal anti-chicken alpha-actinin inhibited the activity of HL-60 conditioned media. A 27 kD amino-terminal fragment of alpha-actinin produced by thermolysin digestion of chicken gizzard alpha-actinin, but not intact alpha-actinin, had maturation promoting activity on several cell types, including blood monocytes, as measured by lysozyme secretion and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. We conclude that an extracellular alpha-actinin fragment can promote monocyte/macrophage maturation. This represents the first example of a fragment of a cytoskeletal component, which may be released during tissue remodeling and repair, playing a role in phagocyte maturation.

  13. CTCF counter-regulates cardiomyocyte development and maturation programs in the embryonic heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Velazquez, Melisa; Badia-Careaga, Claudio; Lechuga-Vieco, Ana Victoria; Nieto-Arellano, Rocio; Tena, Juan J; Rollan, Isabel; Alvarez, Alba; Torroja, Carlos; Caceres, Eva F; Roy, Anna R; Galjart, Niels; Delgado-Olguin, Paul; Sanchez-Cabo, Fatima; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Gomez-Skarmeta, Jose Luis; Manzanares, Miguel

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac progenitors are specified early in development and progressively differentiate and mature into fully functional cardiomyocytes. This process is controlled by an extensively studied transcriptional program. However, the regulatory events coordinating the progression of such program from development to maturation are largely unknown. Here, we show that the genome organizer CTCF is essential for cardiogenesis and that it mediates genomic interactions to coordinate cardiomyocyte differentiation and maturation in the developing heart. Inactivation of Ctcf in cardiac progenitor cells and their derivatives in vivo during development caused severe cardiac defects and death at embryonic day 12.5. Genome wide expression analysis in Ctcf mutant hearts revealed that genes controlling mitochondrial function and protein production, required for cardiomyocyte maturation, were upregulated. However, mitochondria from mutant cardiomyocytes do not mature properly. In contrast, multiple development regulatory genes near predicted heart enhancers, including genes in the IrxA cluster, were downregulated in Ctcf mutants, suggesting that CTCF promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation by facilitating enhancer-promoter interactions. Accordingly, loss of CTCF disrupts gene expression and chromatin interactions as shown by chromatin conformation capture followed by deep sequencing. Furthermore, CRISPR-mediated deletion of an intergenic CTCF site within the IrxA cluster alters gene expression in the developing heart. Thus, CTCF mediates local regulatory interactions to coordinate transcriptional programs controlling transitions in morphology and function during heart development.

  14. Maturation of human oocytes in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Čižek-Sajko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immature oocyte retrieval followed by in vitro maturation is a promising infertility treatment option. In patients with morphologically normal ovaries and regular menstrual cycles and in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS we attempted to assess the success of oocyte in vitro maturation in in vitro fertilization (IVF procedures.Methods: Retrospectively we analyzed 87 IVF procedures with in vitro maturation of oocytes carried out in 73 infertile couples treated at the Maribor Teaching Hospital. We compared the success following three different hormone priming protocols: regular cycling patients with normal ovaries and without hormone priming (Group A, n = 27; patients with PCOS and hormone priming with follitropin (follicle stimulating hormone, FSH (Group B, n = 22; patients with PCOS and hormone priming with human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG (Group C, n = 38. Success of the procedure was evaluated on the basis of the ability of oocytes to mature, fertilize and develop into embryos, and on the basis of the quality of embryos and their ability to implant in the uterus.Results: In regular cycling patients with normal ovaries (n = 27 we obtained a significantly lower number of immature oocytes (3.2 ± 2.5 compared with patients with PCOS and FSH priming (11.7 ± 7.2 or those with PCOS and hCG priming (10.4 ± 7.2. The oocyte maturation rate, the fertilization rate and the embryo cleavage rate were as follows: in Group A 57.7 %, 63.2 % and 91.7 %, in Group B 57.6 %, 66.2 % and 90.0 %, and in Group C 58.0 %, 66.2 % and 91.0 % (the differences between groups were not statistically significant. Six pregnancies were recorded only in patients with PCOS. The pregnancy rate per embryo transfer was 1/20 (5.0 % in patients with FSH priming, and 5/33 (15.2 % in patients with hCG priming.Conclusions: Oocyte in vitro maturation is successful in patients with normal ovaries and regular menstrual cycle as well as in those with polycystic

  15. Direct thermal dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlinger, Edward

    1990-07-01

    Direct thermal dyes are members of a class of compounds referred to in the imaging industry as color formers or leuco dyes. The oldest members of that class have simple triarylmethane structures, and have been employed for years in various dyeing applications. More complex triarylmethane compounds, such as phthalides and fluorans, are now used in various imaging systems to produce color. Color is derived from all of these compounds via the same mechanism, on a molecular level. That is, an event of activation produces a highly resonating cationic system whose interaction with incident light produces reflected light of a specific color. The activation event in the case of a direct thermal system is the creation of a melt on the paper involving dye and an acidic developer. The three major performance parameters in a thermal system are background color, image density, and image stability. The three major dye physical parameters affecting thermal performance are chemical constituency, purity, and particle size. Those dyes having the best combination of characteristics which can also be manufactured economically dominate the marketplace. Manufacturing high performance dyes for the thermal market involves multi-step, convergent reaction sequences performed on large scale. Intermediates must be manufactured at the right time, and at the right quality to be useful.

  16. A Drosophila Model to Image Phagosome Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A. Brooks

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Phagocytosis involves the internalization of extracellular material by invagination of the plasma membrane to form intracellular vesicles called phagosomes, which have functions that include pathogen degradation. The degradative properties of phagosomes are thought to be conferred by sequential fusion with endosomes and lysosomes; however, this maturation process has not been studied in vivo. We employed Drosophila hemocytes, which are similar to mammalian professional macrophages, to establish a model of phagosome maturation. Adult Drosophila females, carrying transgenic Rab7-GFP endosome and Lamp1-GFP lysosome markers, were injected with E. coli DH5α and the hemocytes were collected at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after infection. In wild-type females, E. coli were detected within enlarged Rab7-GFP positive phagosomes at 15 to 45 minutes after infection; and were also observed in enlarged Lamp1-GFP positive phagolysosomes at 45 minutes. Two-photon imaging of hemocytes in vivo confirmed this vesicle morphology, including enlargement of Rab7-GFP and Lamp1-GFP structures that often appeared to protrude from hemocytes. The interaction of endosomes and lysosomes with E. coli phagosomes observed in Drosophila hemocytes was consistent with that previously described for phagosome maturation in human ex vivo macrophages. We also tested our model as a tool for genetic analysis using 14-3-3e mutants, and demonstrated altered phagosome maturation with delayed E. coli internalization, trafficking and/or degradation. These findings demonstrate that Drosophila hemocytes provide an appropriate, genetically amenable, model for analyzing phagosome maturation ex vivo and in vivo.

  17. Genome-wide, Single-Cell DNA Methylomics Reveals Increased Non-CpG Methylation during Human Oocyte Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of DNA methylation patterns in oocytes is a highly dynamic process marking gene-regulatory events during fertilization, embryonic development, and adulthood. However, after epigenetic reprogramming in primordial germ cells, how and when DNA methylation is re-established in developing human oocytes remains to be characterized. Here, using single-cell whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, we describe DNA methylation patterns in three different maturation stages of human oocytes. We found that while broad-scale patterns of CpG methylation have been largely established by the immature germinal vesicle stage, localized changes continue into later development. Non-CpG methylation, on the other hand, undergoes a large-scale, generalized remodeling through the final stage of maturation, with the net overall result being the accumulation of methylation as oocytes mature. The role of the genome-wide, non-CpG methylation remodeling in the final stage of oocyte maturation deserves further investigation.

  18. Thermal insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsky, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal insulation for vessels and piping within the reactor containment area of nuclear power plants is disclosed. The thermal insulation of this invention can be readily removed and replaced from the vessels and piping for inservice inspection, can withstand repeated wettings and dryings, and can resist high temperatures for long periods of time. 4 claims, 3 figures

  19. Shotgun protein sequencing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.

    2009-06-01

    A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.

  20. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  1. Transcriptional Programs Controlling Perinatal Lung Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Yanhua; Besnard, Valérie; Ikegami, Machiko; Wert, Susan E.; Heffner, Caleb; Murray, Stephen A.; Donahue, Leah Rae; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    The timing of lung maturation is controlled precisely by complex genetic and cellular programs. Lung immaturity following preterm birth frequently results in Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) and Broncho-Pulmonary Dysplasia (BPD), which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Mechanisms synchronizing gestational length and lung maturation remain to be elucidated. In this study, we designed a genome-wide mRNA expression time-course study from E15.5 to Postnatal Day 0 (PN0) using lung RNAs from C57BL/6J (B6) and A/J mice that differ in gestational length by ∼30 hr (B6controlling lung maturation. We identified both temporal and strain dependent gene expression patterns during lung maturation. For time dependent changes, cell adhesion, vasculature development, and lipid metabolism/transport were major bioprocesses induced during the saccular stage of lung development at E16.5–E17.5. CEBPA, PPARG, VEGFA, CAV1 and CDH1 were found to be key signaling and transcriptional regulators of these processes. Innate defense/immune responses were induced at later gestational ages (E18.5–20.5), STAT1, AP1, and EGFR being important regulators of these responses. Expression of RNAs associated with the cell cycle and chromatin assembly was repressed during prenatal lung maturation and was regulated by FOXM1, PLK1, chromobox, and high mobility group families of transcription factors. Strain dependent lung mRNA expression differences peaked at E18.5. At this time, mRNAs regulating surfactant and innate immunity were more abundantly expressed in lungs of B6 (short gestation) than in A/J (long gestation) mice, while expression of genes involved in chromatin assembly and histone modification were expressed at lower levels in B6 than in A/J mice. The present study systemically mapped key regulators, bioprocesses, and transcriptional networks controlling lung maturation, providing the basis for new therapeutic strategies to enhance lung function in preterm

  2. Diagnostic assessment of skeletal maturity through dental maturation in Hispanic growing individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Cisternas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to explore dental maturation as a diagnostic test for skeletal maturation. Materials and Methods: Six hundred and fifty-seven growing individuals were classified according to their cervical vertebral maturity and dental maturity, both determined in lateral cephalograms and panoramic radiographs, respectively. The correlation between cervical and dental stages was established for each gender. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was made, and sensitivity and specificity values were established. Results: Correlation was found between cervical and dental maturation for females (r = 0.73; P<0.001 and males (r = 0.60; P<0.001. Sensitivity for dental Stage F, as an indicator of a postmaturation peak stage, was 87.21% for females and 97.1% for males, whereas specificity for the same stage was 82.92% and 72.3% for females and males, respectively. Conclusions: Dental maturation evaluation could contribute determining whether a patient is in a pre- or post-growth spurt stage.

  3. Effects of CO2 injection and Kerogen Maturation on Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, M.; Livo, K.

    2017-12-01

    Low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is commonly used in petrophysical analysis of petroleum reservoir rocks. NMR experiments record the relaxation and polarization of in-situ hydrogen protons present in gaseous phases such as free-gas intervals and solution gas fluids, bulk fluid phases such as oil and aquifer intervals, and immovable fractions of kerogen and bitumen. Analysis of NMR relaxation spectra is performed to record how fluid composition, maturity, and viscosity change NMR experimental results. We present T1-T2 maps as thermal maturity of a water-saturated, sub-mature Woodford shale is increased at temperatures from 125 to 400 degrees Celsius. Experiments with applied fluid pressure in paraffinic mineral oil and DI water with varying fluid pH have been performed to mimic reservoir conditions in analysis of the relaxation of bulk fluid phases. We have recorded NMR spectra, T1-T2 maps, and fluid diffusion coefficients using a low-field (2 MHz) MagritekTM NMR. CO2 was injected at a pressure of 900 psi in an in house developed NMR pressure vessel made of torlon plastic. Observable 2D NMR shifts in immature kerogen formations as thermal maturity is increased show generation of lighter oils with increased maturity. CO2 injection leads to a decrease in bulk fluid relaxation time that is attributed to viscosity modification with gas presence. pH variation with increased CO2 presence were shown to not effect NMR spectra. From this, fluid properties have been shown to greatly affect NMR readings and must be taken into account for more accurate NMR reservoir characterization.

  4. Multimodal sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemény, Ferenc; Meier, Beat

    2016-02-01

    While sequence learning research models complex phenomena, previous studies have mostly focused on unimodal sequences. The goal of the current experiment is to put implicit sequence learning into a multimodal context: to test whether it can operate across different modalities. We used the Task Sequence Learning paradigm to test whether sequence learning varies across modalities, and whether participants are able to learn multimodal sequences. Our results show that implicit sequence learning is very similar regardless of the source modality. However, the presence of correlated task and response sequences was required for learning to take place. The experiment provides new evidence for implicit sequence learning of abstract conceptual representations. In general, the results suggest that correlated sequences are necessary for implicit sequence learning to occur. Moreover, they show that elements from different modalities can be automatically integrated into one unitary multimodal sequence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sequence Read Archive (SRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sequence Read Archive (SRA) stores raw sequencing data from the next generation of sequencing platforms including Roche 454 GS System®, Illumina Genome...

  6. Flanking signal and mature peptide residues influence signal peptide cleavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganathan Shoba

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal peptides (SPs mediate the targeting of secretory precursor proteins to the correct subcellular compartments in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Identifying these transient peptides is crucial to the medical, food and beverage and biotechnology industries yet our understanding of these peptides remains limited. This paper examines the most common type of signal peptides cleavable by the endoprotease signal peptidase I (SPase I, and the residues flanking the cleavage sites of three groups of signal peptide sequences, namely (i eukaryotes (Euk (ii Gram-positive (Gram+ bacteria, and (iii Gram-negative (Gram- bacteria. Results In this study, 2352 secretory peptide sequences from a variety of organisms with amino-terminal SPs are extracted from the manually curated SPdb database for analysis based on physicochemical properties such as pI, aliphatic index, GRAVY score, hydrophobicity, net charge and position-specific residue preferences. Our findings show that the three groups share several similarities in general, but they display distinctive features upon examination in terms of their amino acid compositions and frequencies, and various physico-chemical properties. Thus, analysis or prediction of their sequences should be separated and treated as distinct groups. Conclusion We conclude that the peptide segment recognized by SPase I extends to the start of the mature protein to a limited extent, upon our survey of the amino acid residues surrounding the cleavage processing site. These flanking residues possibly influence the cleavage processing and contribute to non-canonical cleavage sites. Our findings are applicable in defining more accurate prediction tools for recognition and identification of cleavage site of SPs.

  7. Growth goals, maturity, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jack J; McAdams, Dan P

    2004-01-01

    In 2 studies (125 college students and 51 adults), 2 forms of growth goals (exploratory and intrinsic) were compared with 2 forms of personality development (social-cognitive maturity and social-emotional well-being). Participants whose narratives of major life goals emphasized conceptual exploration were especially likely to have high levels of maturity (measured as ego development; J. Loevinger, 1976), whereas those whose goals emphasized intrinsic interests (K. M. Sheldon & T. Kasser, 1995) were especially likely to have high levels of well-being. Participants who had coherent hierarchies of growth goals on the levels of major life goals and everyday goals were especially likely to have high levels of personality development. Finally, growth goals accounted for some relationships between age and personality development. Growth goals are discussed in terms of intentional self-development and specific developmental paths. (c) 2003 APA

  8. DNA damage response during mouse oocyte maturation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, Alexandra; Baran, Vladimír; Sakakibara, Y.; Brzáková, Adéla; Ferencová, Ivana; Motlík, Jan; Kitajima, T.; Schultz, R. M.; Šolc, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2016), s. 546-558 ISSN 1538-4101 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12057; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : double strand DNA breaks * DNA damage * MRE11 * meiotic maturation * mouse oocytes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.530, year: 2016

  9. Regulation of oocyte maturation in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Masakane

    2008-06-01

    A period of oocyte growth is followed by a process called oocyte maturation (the resumption of meiosis) which occurs prior to ovulation and is a prerequisite for successful fertilization. Our studies using fish models have revealed that oocyte maturation is a three-step induction process involving gonadotropin (LH), maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), and maturation-promoting factor (MPF). LH acts on the ovarian follicle layer to produce MIH (17alpha, 20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, 17alpha, 20beta-DP, in most fishes). The interaction of ovarian thecal and granulosa cell layers (two-cell type model), is required for the synthesis of 17alpha,20beta-DP. The dramatic increase in the capacity of postvitellogenic follicles to produce 17alpha,20beta-DP in response to LH is correlated with decreases in P450c17 (P450c17-I) and P450 aromatase (oP450arom) mRNA and increases in the novel form of P450c17 (P450c17-II) and 20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20beta-HSD) mRNA. Transcription factors such as Ad4BP/SF-1, Foxl2, and CREB may be involved in the regulation of expression of these steroidogenic enzymes. A distinct family of G-protein-coupled membrane-bound MIH receptors has been shown to mediate non-genomic actions of 17alpha, 20beta-DP. The MIH signal induces the de novo synthesis of cyclin B from the stored mRNA, which activates a preexisting 35 kDa cdc2 kinase via phosphorylation of its threonine 161 by cyclin-dependent kinase activating kinase, thus producing the 34 kDa active cdc2 (active MPF). Upon egg activation, MPF is inactivated by degradation of cyclin B. This process is initiated by the 26S proteasome through the first cut in its NH(2) terminus at lysine 57.

  10. Measuring interoperability maturity in government networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Huijsman, K.L.L.G.; Plomp, M.G.A.; Batenburg, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to create a model that describes the development of interorganisational collaboration in government networks that apply eGovernment. Contrary to several models that describe eGovernment from a government-to-citizen perspective, and primarily emphasise on the front office of eGovernment services, this paper focuses on the collaboration that takes place in the back office to enable successful eGovernment services. A maturity model was developed to describe and asses...

  11. Mature consumers’ relationship with their perfume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey DRYLIE-CAREY

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Glamorous and stylish, perfume is an evocative product that provokes a stimulus of the senses. It is suggested that the basis for consumer choice for this product should be based on olfactory preference, however the process related decision-making has been shown to be more complex. The mature consumer purchase decision making in this product category is often associated with long standing, established, luxury fragrance brands. In addition, at the frontline of the perfume sales process are fragrance consultants, who possess invaluable information on consumer involvement with perfume products and brands. Hence, this paper investigates CBR (consumer brand relationship and the subsequent perfume purchase behaviour of mature female consumers from a dual (industry and consumer perspective. Results indicate that important perceptual differences related to brand relationships with perfume exist between fragrance consultants and experts on one hand and consumers on the other. This research promotes a deeper understanding of current consumer approach and issues surrounding female mature purchasing behaviour for this unique category of product, and complements the growing body of literature related to luxury brands.

  12. The AGU Data Management Maturity Model Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    In September 2014, the AGU Board of Directors approved two initiatives to help the Earth and space sciences community address the growing challenges accompanying the increasing size and complexity of data. These initiatives are: 1) Data Science Credentialing: development of a continuing education and professional certification program to help scientists in their careers and to meet growing responsibilities and requirements around data science; and 2) Data Management Maturity (DMM) Model: development and implementation of a data management maturity model to assess process maturity against best practices, and to identify opportunities in organizational data management processes. Each of these has been organized within AGU as an Editorial Board and both Boards have held kick off meetings. The DMM model Editorial Board will recommend strategies for adapting and deploying a DMM model to the Earth and space sciences create guidance documents to assist in its implementation, and provide input on a pilot appraisal process. This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the DMM model Editorial Board and plans for work to be done over the upcoming year.

  13. Towards an energy management maturity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, Pedro; Carreira, Paulo; Mira da Silva, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Energy management is becoming a priority as organizations strive to reduce energy costs, conform to regulatory requirements, and improve their corporate image. Despite the upsurge of interest in energy management standards, a gap persists between energy management literature and current implementation practices. This gap can be traced to the lack of an incremental improvement roadmap. In this paper we propose an Energy Management Maturity Model that can be used to guide organizations in their energy management implementation efforts to incrementally achieve compliance with energy management standards such as ISO 50001. The proposed maturity model is inspired on the Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle approach for continual improvement, and covers well-understood fundamental energy management activities common across energy management texts. The completeness of our proposal is then evaluated by establishing an ontology mapping against ISO 50001. - Highlights: • Real-world energy management activities are not aligned with the literature. • An Energy Management Maturity Model is proposed to overcome this alignment gap. • The completeness and relevance of proposed model are validated

  14. Changes in the stability and biomechanics of P22 bacteriophage capsid during maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ravi; Llauró, Aida; Rayaprolu, Vamseedhar; Qazi, Shefah; de Pablo, Pedro J; Douglas, Trevor; Bothner, Brian

    2018-03-15

    The capsid of P22 bacteriophage undergoes a series of structural transitions during maturation that guide it from spherical to icosahedral morphology. The transitions include the release of scaffold proteins and capsid expansion. Although P22 maturation has been investigated for decades, a unified model that incorporates thermodynamic and biophysical analyses is not available. A general and specific model of icosahedral capsid maturation is of significant interest to theoreticians searching for fundamental principles as well as virologists and material scientists seeking to alter maturation to their advantage. To address this challenge, we have combined the results from orthogonal biophysical techniques including differential scanning fluorimetry, atomic force microscopy, circular dichroism, and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. By integrating these results from single particle and population measurements, an energy landscape of P22 maturation from procapsid through expanded shell to wiffle ball emerged, highlighting the role of metastable structures and the thermodynamics guiding maturation. The propagation of weak quaternary interactions across symmetric elements of the capsid is a key component for stability in P22. A surprising finding is that the progression to wiffle ball, which lacks pentamers, shows that chemical and thermal stability can be uncoupled from mechanical rigidity, elegantly demonstrating the complexity inherent in capsid protein interactions and the emergent properties that can arise from icosahedral symmetry. On a broader scale, this work demonstrates the power of applying orthogonal biophysical techniques to elucidate assembly mechanisms for supramolecular complexes and provides a framework within which other viral systems can be compared. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Technology Maturation in Preparation for the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Doherty, Michael P.; Moder, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    In support of its goal to find an innovative path for human space exploration, NASA embarked on the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Project, a Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) to test and validate key cryogenic capabilities and technologies required for future exploration elements, opening up the architecture for large in-space cryogenic propulsion stages and propellant depots. Recognizing that key Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) technologies anticipated for on-orbit (flight) demonstration would benefit from additional maturation to a readiness level appropriate for infusion into the design of the flight demonstration, the NASA Headquarters Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) authorized funding for a one-year technology maturation phase of the CPST project. The strategy, proposed by the CPST Project Manager, focused on maturation through modeling, concept studies, and ground tests of the storage and fluid transfer of CFM technology sub-elements and components that were lower than a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. A technology maturation plan (TMP) was subsequently approved which described: the CFM technologies selected for maturation, the ground testing approach to be used, quantified success criteria of the technologies, hardware and data deliverables, and a deliverable to provide an assessment of the technology readiness after completion of the test, study or modeling activity. The specific technologies selected were grouped into five major categories: thick multilayer insulation, tank applied active thermal control, cryogenic fluid transfer, propellant gauging, and analytical tool development. Based on the success of the technology maturation efforts, the CPST project was approved to proceed to flight system development.

  16. Asynchrony of the early maturation of white matter bundles in healthy infants: Quantitative landmarks revealed noninvasively by diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, J.; Perrin, M.; Mangin, J.F.; Cointepas, Y.; Duchesnay, E.; Le Bihan, D.; Hertz-Pannier, L.; Dehaene-Lambertz, G.; Dubois, J.; Dehaene-Lambertz, G.; Perrin, M.; Mangin, J.F.; Cointepas, Y.; Duchesnay, E.; Le Bihan, D.; Hertz-Pannier, L.

    2008-01-01

    Normal cognitive development in infants follows a well-known temporal sequence, which is assumed to be correlated with the structural maturation of underlying functional networks. Postmortem studies and, more recently, structural MR imaging studies have described qualitatively the heterogeneous spatio-temporal progression of white matter myelination. However, in vivo quantification of the maturation phases of fiber bundles is still lacking. We used noninvasive diffusion tensor MR imaging and tractography in twenty-three 1-4-month-old healthy infants to quantify the early maturation of the main cerebral fascicles. A specific maturation model, based on the respective roles of different maturational processes on the diffusion phenomena, was designed to highlight asynchronous maturation across bundles by evaluating the time-course of mean diffusivity and anisotropy changes over the considered developmental period. Using an original approach, a progression of maturation in four relative stages was determined in each tract by estimating the maturation state and speed, from the diffusion indices over the infants group compared with an adults group on one hand, and in each tract compared with the average over bundles on the other hand. Results were coherent with, and extended previous findings in 8 of 11 bundles, showing the anterior limb of the internal capsule and cingulum as the most immature, followed by the optic radiations, arcuate and inferior longitudinal fascicles, then the spino-thalamic tract and fornix, and finally the cortico-spinal tract as the most mature bundle. Thus, this approach provides new quantitative landmarks for further noninvasive research on brain-behavior relationships during normal and abnormal development. (authors)

  17. Thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal expansion of fuel pellet is an important property which limits the lifetime of the fuels in reactors, because it affects both the pellet and cladding mechanical interaction and the gap conductivity. By fitting a number of available measured data, recommended equations have been presented and successfully used to estimate thermal expansion coefficient of the nuclear fuel pellet. However, due to large scatter of the measured data, non-consensus data have been omitted in formulating the equations. Also, the equation is strongly governed by the lack of appropriate experimental data. For those reasons, it is important to develop theoretical methodologies to better describe thermal expansion behaviour of nuclear fuel. In particular, first-principles and molecular dynamics simulations have been certainly contributed to predict reliable thermal expansion without fitting the measured data. Furthermore, the two theoretical techniques have improved on understanding the change of fuel dimension by describing the atomic-scale processes associated with lattice expansion in the fuels. (author)

  18. Correlation between Cervical Vertebral Maturation Stages and Dental Maturation in a Saudi Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayef H Felemban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to compare the cervical vertebra maturation stages method and dental maturity using tooth calcification stages. Methods: The current study comprised of 405 subjects selected from orthodontic patients of Saudi origin coming to clinics of the specialized dental centers in western region of Saudi Arabia. Dental age was assessed according to the developmental stages of upper and lower third molars and skeletal maturation according to the cervical vertebrae maturation stage method. Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal-Wallis H, Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-Square test; t-test and Spearman correlation coefficient for inter group comparison. Results: The females were younger than males in all cervical stages. The CS1-CS2 show the period before the peak of growth, during CS3-CS5 it’s the pubertal growth spurt and CS6 is the period after the peak of the growth. The mean age and standard deviation for cervical stages of CS2, CS3 and CS4 were 12.09 ±1.72 years, 13.19 ±1.62 and 14.88 ±1.52 respectively. The Spearman correlation coefficients between cervical vertebrae and dental maturation were between 0.166 and 0.612, 0.243 and 0.832 for both sexes for upper and lower third molars. The significance levels for all coefficients were equal at 0.01 and 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the skeletal maturity increased with the increase in dental ages for both genders. An early rate of skeletal maturation stage was observed in females. This study needs further analysis using a larger sample covering the entire dentition.

  19. Correlation between chronological age, cervical vertebral maturation and Fishman's skeletal maturity indicators in southern Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhal, Hessa Abdulla; Wong, Ricky W K; Rabie, A Bakr M

    2008-07-01

    To investigate the correlation between chronological age, cervical vertebral maturation (CVM), and Fishman's hand-wrist skeletal maturity indicators in southern Chinese. Four hundred contemporary hand-wrist and lateral cephalometric radiographs of southern Chinese subjects were randomly selected and analyzed. The female subjects were between 10 and 15 years of age, and the male subjects were between 12 and 17 years of age; all subjects were within the circumpubertal period. The CVM was assessed using the method developed by Baccetti and coworkers, but the hand-wrist maturation was assessed using the method developed by Fishman. These two methods and the chronological age were correlated using the Spearman rank correlation analysis. The CVM was significantly correlated with the hand-wrist skeletal age (Spearman r male = 0.9206, female = 0.9363). All patients in the cervical maturation stage (CS3) of CVM were discovered to be in the skeletal maturational indicator (SMI2 or SMI3) stages of hand-wrist maturation (HWM), which was around the peak of the growth spurt. Low correlations were found between the CVM and chronological age (male r = 0.7577; female r = 0.7877) and between the HWM and chronological age (male r = 0.7492; female r = 0.7758). CVM is a valid indicator of skeletal growth during the circumpubertal and has a high correlation with the HWM for the southern Chinese population. However, the low correlations found between the chronological age and both CVM and HWM showed that the chronological age was not suitable to measure skeletal maturity.

  20. Best practices show the way to information security maturity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lessing, MM

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A Security Maturity Model (SMM) provides an organisation with a distinct Information Security framework. Organisations that conform to these models are likely to pursue satisfactory Information Security. Additionally, the use of Security Maturity...

  1. Towards a Sustainable Design for Maturity Measurement Marketplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester; Vatrapu, Ravi; Kærsgaard, Henrik Bjerre

    2016-01-01

    In this research-in-progress paper, we propose a solution in form of an IT artefact to address both theoretical and practical challenges faced by maturity model designers. We identify and list out the existing challenges & criticisms of maturity models research through an extensive literature...... review, followed by semi-structured interviews with four maturity model designers. We also explore different motivations of building a maturity model, and using them further scope the boundaries of our solution....

  2. MD3M: The Master Data Management Maturity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, Marco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/297391879; Pietzka, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to assess the master data maturity of an organization. It is based on thorough literature study to derive the main concepts and best practices in master data maturity assessment. A maturity matrix relating 13 focus areas and 65 capabilities was designed and validated. Furthermore,

  3. Induction and inhibition of oocyte maturation by EDCs in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokumoto Mika

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte maturation in lower vertebrates is triggered by maturation-inducing hormone (MIH, which acts on unidentified receptors on the oocyte surface and induces the activation of maturation-promoting factor (MPF in the oocyte cytoplasm. We previously described the induction of oocyte maturation in fish by an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC, diethylstilbestrol (DES, a nonsteroidal estrogen. Methods In this study, stimulatory and inhibitory effects of EDCs and natural steroids on oocyte maturation were examined in zebrafish. For effective agents, some details about the mechanism in induction or inhibition of maturation were examined. Possible groups of DES interacting with the MIH receptor are discussed based on relative potency of steroids to induce maturation. Results Among agents tested, tamoxifen (TAM and its metabolite 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT showed stimulatory activity similar to DES. The time courses of the change in germinal vesicle breakdown and an intracellular molecular event (the synthesis of cyclin B induced by TAM were indistinguishable from those induced by MIH. In contrast, pentachlorophenol (PCP had a potent inhibitory effect on MIH-induced oocyte maturation. PCP inhibited not only MIH-induced maturation but also DES- and TAM-induced maturation. Methoxychlor also inhibited maturation when oocytes were pre-treated with this agent. Conclusion These results suggest that EDCs act as agonists or antagonists in the induction of oocyte maturation in fish.

  4. Detection of optimum maturity of maize using image processing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A CCD camera for image acquisition of the different green colorations of the maize leaves at maturity was used. Different color features were extracted from the image processing system (MATLAB) and used as inputs to the artificial neural network that classify different levels of maturity. Keywords: Maize, Maturity, CCD ...

  5. Effect of melatonin on maturation capacity and fertilization of Nili ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effect of melatonin supplementation of in vitro maturation media on in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) rate of buffalo oocytes. Cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) were aspirated from follicles of 2-8 mm diameter. In experiment I, COCs were matured in IVM medium supplemented ...

  6. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427.174 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION... Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31 following...

  7. Correlation between cervical vertebral and dental maturity in Iranian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heravi, Farzin; Imanimoghaddam, Mahrokh; Rahimi, Hoda

    2011-12-01

    Determination of the skeletal maturation is extremely important in clinical orthodontics. Cervical vertebral maturation is an effective diagnostic tool for determining the adolescent growth spurt. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the stages of calcification of teeth and the cervical vertebral maturity stages.

  8. A three-step programmed method for the identification of causative gene mutations of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Cao, Xi; Qiu, Hai-Yan; Lu, Jing; Gao, Rui; Liu, Chao; Yuan, Ming-Xia; Yang, Guang-Ran; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2016-08-22

    To establish a three-step programmed method to find gene mutations related to maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Target region capture and next-generation sequencing (NGS) were performed using customized oligonucleotide probes designed to capture suspected genes for MODY in 11 probands with clinically diagnosed MODY. The suspected associations of certain genes with MODY were then confirmed by Sanger sequencing in the probands and their family members. Finally, to validate variants of one of the genes of interest (glucokinase, GCK) as pathogenic mutations, protein function editing by the variant genes was assessed. In the target region capture and NGS phase, a total of nine variants of seven genes (GCK, WFS1, SLC19A2, SH2B1, SERPINB4, RFX6, and GATA6) were identified in eight probands. Two heterozygous GCK mutations located on the same allele (p.Leu77Arg and p.Val101Met) were identified in a MODY family. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the variants identified by NGS to be present in probands and their diabetic family members, but not in non-diabetic family members. Finally, enzyme kinetic and thermal stability analyses revealed that the p.Leu77Arg mutation or the p.Leu77Arg mutation in combination with the p.Val101Met mutation inactivates GCK function and stability, while mutation of p.Val101Met alone does not. The p.Leu77Arg but not p.Val101Met GCK mutation is therefore considered a pathogenic mutation associated with MODY. Genetic screening coupled with gene-editing protein function testing is an effective and reliable method by which causative gene mutations of MODY can be identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Robustness analysis of chiller sequencing control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Yundan; Sun, Yongjun; Huang, Gongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Uncertainties with chiller sequencing control were systematically quantified. • Robustness of chiller sequencing control was systematically analyzed. • Different sequencing control strategies were sensitive to different uncertainties. • A numerical method was developed for easy selection of chiller sequencing control. - Abstract: Multiple-chiller plant is commonly employed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system to increase operational feasibility and energy-efficiency under part load condition. In a multiple-chiller plant, chiller sequencing control plays a key role in achieving overall energy efficiency while not sacrifices the cooling sufficiency for indoor thermal comfort. Various sequencing control strategies have been developed and implemented in practice. Based on the observation that (i) uncertainty, which cannot be avoided in chiller sequencing control, has a significant impact on the control performance and may cause the control fail to achieve the expected control and/or energy performance; and (ii) in current literature few studies have systematically addressed this issue, this paper therefore presents a study on robustness analysis of chiller sequencing control in order to understand the robustness of various chiller sequencing control strategies under different types of uncertainty. Based on the robustness analysis, a simple and applicable method is developed to select the most robust control strategy for a given chiller plant in the presence of uncertainties, which will be verified using case studies

  10. Thermal Properties and Thermal Analysis:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasap, Safa; Tonchev, Dan

    The chapter provides a summary of the fundamental concepts that are needed to understand the heat capacity C P, thermal conductivity κ, and thermal expansion coefficient α L of materials. The C P, κ, and α of various classes of materials, namely, semiconductors, polymers, and glasses, are reviewed, and various typical characteristics are summarized. A key concept in crystalline solids is the Debye theory of the heat capacity, which has been widely used for many decades for calculating the C P of crystals. The thermal properties are interrelated through Grüneisen's theorem. Various useful empirical rules for calculating C P and κ have been used, some of which are summarized. Conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a powerful and convenient thermal analysis technique that allows various important physical and chemical transformations, such as the glass transition, crystallization, oxidation, melting etc. to be studied. DSC can also be used to obtain information on the kinetics of the transformations, and some of these thermal analysis techniques are summarized. Temperature-modulated DSC, TMDSC, is a relatively recent innovation in which the sample temperature is ramped slowly and, at the same time, sinusoidally modulated. TMDSC has a number of distinct advantages compared with the conventional DSC since it measures the complex heat capacity. For example, the glass-transition temperature T g measured by TMDSC has almost no dependence on the thermal history, and corresponds to an almost step life change in C P. The new Tzero DSC has an additional thermocouple to calibrate better for thermal lags inherent in the DSC measurement, and allows more accurate thermal analysis.

  11. Effects of posttreatment skeletal maturity measured with the cervical vertebral maturation method on incisor alignment relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudalej, Piotr; Rothe, Laura E; Bollen, Anne-Marie

    2008-08-01

    Our aim was to test the hypothesis that relapse of incisor alignment is associated with skeletal maturity at the end of treatment, as assessed with the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method. This was a case-control study with information from the postretention database at the University of Washington. Mandibular incisor irregularity (II) at least 10 years out of retention (T3) was used to define the subjects (II >6 mm, relapse group) and the controls (II 0.05). Pretreatment II and postretention time were found to be correlated with long-term incisor stability (P = 0.007 and 0.034, respectively). Sex was not related to relapse (P = 0.33). Maturity of craniofacial structures at the end of treatment evaluated with the CVM method is not associated with long-term stability of incisor alignment.

  12. Graphene Sheet-Induced Global Maturation of Cardiomyocytes Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxian; Cui, Chang; Nan, Haiyan; Yu, Yuanfang; Xiao, Yini; Poon, Ellen; Yang, Gang; Wang, Xijie; Wang, Chenchen; Li, Lingsong; Boheler, Kenneth Richard; Ma, Xu; Cheng, Xin; Ni, Zhenhua; Chen, Minglong

    2017-08-09

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can proliferate infinitely. Their ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes provides abundant sources for disease modeling, drug screening and regenerative medicine. However, hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) display a low degree of maturation and fetal-like properties. Current in vitro differentiation methods do not mimic the structural, mechanical, or physiological properties of the cardiogenesis niche. Recently, we present an efficient cardiac maturation platform that combines hiPSCs monolayer cardiac differentiation with graphene substrate, which is a biocompatible and superconductive material. The hiPSCs lines were successfully maintained on the graphene sheets and were able to differentiate into functional cardiomyocytes. This strategy markedly increased the myofibril ultrastructural organization, elevated the conduction velocity, and enhanced both the Ca 2+ handling and electrophysiological properties in the absence of electrical stimulation. On the graphene substrate, the expression of connexin 43 increased along with the conduction velocity. Interestingly, the bone morphogenetic proteins signaling was also significantly activated during early cardiogenesis, confirmed by RNA sequencing analysis. Here, we reasoned that graphene substrate as a conductive biomimetic surface could facilitate the intrinsic electrical propagation, mimicking the microenvironment of the native heart, to further promote the global maturation of hiPSC-CMs. Our findings highlight the capability of electrically active substrates to influence cardiomyocyte development. We believe that application of graphene sheets will be useful for simple, fast, and scalable maturation of regenerated cardiomyocytes.

  13. Appearance of normal brain maturation on 1.5-T MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkovich, A.J.; Kjos, B.; Jackson, D.E. Jr.; Norman, D.

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the pattern of normal white-matter maturation as demonstrated by high-field-strength MR imaging, 82 normal infants were examined using a 1.5-T unit with spin-echo T1-weighted and T2-weighted pulse sequences. The infants ranged in age from 4 days to 2 years. The scans were assessed for qualitative changes of white matter relative to gray matter and correlated with the patient's age in 14 anatomic areas of the brain. The MR images showed that changes of brain maturation occur in an orderly manner, commencing in the brain stem and progressing to the cerebellum and the cerebrum. Changes from brain myelination were seen earlier on T1-weighted images than on T2-weighted images, possibly because of T1 shortening by the components of the developing myelin sheaths. The later changes on the T2-weighted images correlated best with the development of myelination, as demonstrated by histochemical methods. T1-weighted images were most useful to monitor normal brain development in the first 6 to 8 months of life; T2-weighted images were more useful after 6 months. The milestones in the MR appearance of normal maturation of the brain are presented. The milestones in the MR appearance of normal maturation of the brain are presented. Persistent areas of long T2 relaxation times are seen superior and dorsal to the ventricular trigone in all infants examined and should not be mistaken for ischemic change

  14. The Development of Marital Maturity Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed YILDIZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, validity, reliability and item analysis studies of the Marital Maturity Scale prepared to test whether individuals are ready for marriage have been done. Studies of the development of the scale were made on 623 individuals, consisting of single adults. In the validity studies of the scale, explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses and criterion related validity studies were performed. Factor analysis revealed that the scale had four dimensions. The four factors in the measurement account for 60.91% of the total variance. The factor loadings of the items in the scale range from 0.42 to 0.86. Inonu Marriage Attitude Scale was used in the criterion related validity studies. Correlation value of the two scales r=0.72 (p=0.000 was found significant. It was determined that the subscales of the scale had a significant correlation with the total scale. The cronbach alpha value of the first dimension of the scale was 0.85, the cronbach alpha value of the second dimension of the scale was 0.68, the cronbach alpha value of the third dimension of the scale was 0.80, the cronbach alpha value of the fourth dimension of the scale was 0.91 and the cronbach alpha value of the total scale was 0.90. Test retest results r=0.70, (p=0.000 were found significant. In the item analysis studies, it was revealed that in the lower 27% group, the individuals in the upper 27% group were significantly different in all items (p=0.000. The item total correlation value of the items in the scale was between 0.40 and 0.63. As a result of the assessments, it was concluded that the Marital Maturity Scale was a reliable and valid instrument to measure marital maturity of single adults

  15. [Maturation of cerebral somatosensory evoked potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, J; Zhu, Y; Georgesco, M; Echenne, B; Rodiere, M

    1985-07-01

    Cerebral somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were elicited by stimulation of the median nerve and/or posterior tibial nerve in 117 children of 1 day to 16 years old. A major negative wave (N) was consistently recorded from the parietal region of the scalp when the arm was stimulated. The peak latency, the onset latency, the rising time and the duration of H wave are closely correlated with age and body length. The latencies are shortest in the subjects of 1-3 years old. SEPs to lower extremity stimulation were inconstant in the infants before the age of one. The major positive wave (P) has a variable topographic distribution along the middle line, over the scalp. The latencies are also very variable in the different subjects of the same age as well as in the same subject with different locations of active electrode. Among the parameters studied as for N wave, only the rising time of P wave is significantly correlated with age. The latencies of P wave have the shortest value in the subjects of 1-3 years old. The comparison of SEPs to upper and to lower limb stimulations shows that there is no relationship between them in respect to their morphology and amplitude. The minimum value of the latencies of N and P waves was observed at the same age but the difference between the peak latencies of P and N waves in the same subject increases considerably after 2 years of age and reaches the adult value after 5 years of age. These resultats indicate that the maturation of the peripheral somatosensory pathways proceeds at a higher rate than that of the central somatosensory pathways, that the maturation of the somatosensory pathways of the upper limb precedes that of the lower limb, and that the rising time of N or P waves is a good index of cortical maturation. The clinical utility of these SEPs in pediatrics is discussed.

  16. A PACS maturity model: a systematic meta-analytic review on maturation and evolvability of PACS in the hospital enterprise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetering, R. van de; Batenburg, R.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: With PACS and medical imaging technology maturing, the importance of organizational maturity and effective deployment of PACS in the hospital enterprise are becoming significant. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is twofold. Firstly, PACS literature on maturity and evolvability in

  17. Digital Marketing Maturity Models: Overview and Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Elina Bakhtieva

    2017-01-01

    The variety of available digital tools, strategies and activities might confuse and disorient even an experienced marketer. This applies in particular to B2B companies, which are usually less flexible in uptaking of digital technology than B2C companies. B2B companies are lacking a framework that corresponds to the specifics of the B2B business, and which helps to evaluate a company’s capabilities and to choose an appropriate path. A B2B digital marketing maturity model helps to fill this gap...

  18. The Homo Energeticus: maturity, inheritance, identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, modern society’s intimate bond to the convenience and reliability of delivered energy services results in a form of identification I call the Homo Energeticus. The Homo Energeticus relies upon a mature system of services for achieving an equivalency of status and prestige that is historically similar to the morality of a noble class. I describe the uniqueness of this identity by its imperative for acquiring experience through an invisibility of energy expenditures. In this way, the Homo Energeticus cultivates a highly individualized life whose ambience of perfection, while created personally, is only successful insofar as it conceals energy expenditures in labor and supply. (letter)

  19. Analyzing Project Management Maturity Level in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot Simangunsong

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Project management has been generally known and increasingly used by many organizations to gain competitive advantage. In this context, many studies have proposed maturity models to evaluate how project management knowledge has been deployed effectively and efficiently in organization. As a developing country, Indonesia needs many development projects managed by government and private companies in different industries. Here, a study to assess project management maturity level in Indonesian businesses may bring insight about current business practices, which is important to speed up country development and business sustainability.  Adapting the Project Management Maturity Model (ProMMM, a survey instrument has been developed and applied to professionals from Jakarta and surrounding area.  The result of analysis shows that construction and primary industry have a higher maturity level compare to manufacturing and services.  It is to be noted, however, that the level of project management understanding is low across industries.  This indicates that more quality project management training or certification is required to improve overall project management knowledge in Indonesia. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  20. Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratoma Containing Multiple Mobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyun Sun; Yoon, Seong Eon; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Hye Won; Yoon, Kwon Ha [Wonkwang University Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Hoon [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    A 48-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a palpable mass in her lower abdomen. A left ovarian, cystic mass containing multiple mobile globules was seen on CT and MR images. The outer portion of the globules showed fat components on CT and fat-saturated T1-weighted MR images. Ultrasonography showed multiple echogenic, mobile globules with some sound attenuation and hyper echoic lines and dots within the cystic mass, which corresponded with the presence of lipid globules and hair shafts of ovarian mature cystic teratoma, respectively

  1. Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratoma Containing Multiple Mobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyun Sun; Yoon, Seong Eon; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Hye Won; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Park, Seong Hoon

    2006-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a palpable mass in her lower abdomen. A left ovarian, cystic mass containing multiple mobile globules was seen on CT and MR images. The outer portion of the globules showed fat components on CT and fat-saturated T1-weighted MR images. Ultrasonography showed multiple echogenic, mobile globules with some sound attenuation and hyper echoic lines and dots within the cystic mass, which corresponded with the presence of lipid globules and hair shafts of ovarian mature cystic teratoma, respectively

  2. Asset Stripping in a Mature Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Møller, Ulrik Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to document a Danish fraud scheme, in which a large number of limited companies were stripped of their assets leaving them with nothing but tax debt, eventually causing the Danish Tax and Customs Administration to lose large sums. Furthermore, the purpose...... indicates that asset stripping may take place in mature market economies to the extent that perpetrators are able to circumvent the corporate governance system by giving lawyers, public accountants and banks incentives to act less critically towards dubious business transactions. Research limitations...

  3. Thermal-hydraulic unreliability of passive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzanos, C.P.; Saltos, N.T.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced light water reactor designs like AP600 and the simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR) use passive safety systems for accident prevention and mitigation. Because these systems rely on natural forces for their operation, their unavailability due to hardware failures and human error is significantly smaller than that of active systems. However, the coolant flows predicted to be delivered by these systems can be subject to significant uncertainties, which in turn can lead to a significant uncertainty in the predicted thermal-hydraulic performance of the plant under accident conditions. Because of these uncertainties, there is a probability that an accident sequence for which a best estimate thermal-hydraulic analysis predicts no core damage (success sequence) may actually lead to core damage. For brevity, this probability will be called thermal-hydraulic unreliability. The assessment of this unreliability for all the success sequences requires very expensive computations. Moreover, the computational cost increases drastically as the required thermal-hydraulic reliability increases. The required computational effort can be greatly reduced if a bounding approach can be used that either eliminates the need to compute thermal-hydraulic unreliabilities, or it leads to the analysis of a few bounding sequences for which the required thermal-hydraulic reliability is relatively small. The objective of this paper is to present such an approach and determine the order of magnitude of the thermal-hydraulic unreliabilities that may have to be computed

  4. A Comparison of Skeletal Maturation assessed from MP3 and Its Correlation with Dental Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Vardhan Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare the various ossification stages of middle phalanges of third finger (MP3 and developmental stages of 2nd mandibular molar during the entire process of pubertal growth spurt. Evaluate the feasibility of recording MP3 stages using standard dental X-ray film. The mandibular 2nd molar exhibited highly significant correlation for both the males and females. This study showed a good correlation between the MP3 and dental maturity indicators. Therefore, 2nd molar tooth could be used as maturity indicator for the entire period of pubertal growth spurt. It can be used as an adjunct to the hand and wrist radiograph.

  5. Thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the indoor environmental quality due to its effects on well-being, people's performance and building energy requirements. Its attainment is not an easy task requiring advanced design and operation of building and HVAC systems, taking...... into account all parameters involved. Even though thermal comfort fundamentals are consolidated topics for more than forty years, often designers seem to ignore or apply them in a wrong way. Design input values from standards are often considered as universal values rather than recommended values to be used...... under specific conditions. At operation level, only few variables are taken into account with unpredictable effects on the assessment of comfort indices. In this paper, the main criteria for the design and assessment of thermal comfort are discussed in order to help building and HVAC systems designers...

  6. Maturation arrest of human oocytes at germinal vesicle stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Qin Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Maturation arrest of human oocytes may occur at various stages of the cell cycle. A total failure of human oocytes to complete meiosis is rarely observed during assisted conception cycles. We describe here a case of infertile couples for whom all oocytes repeatedly failed to mature at germinal vesicle (GV stage during in vitro fertilization/Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI. The patient underwent controlled ovarian stimulation followed by oocyte retrieval and IVF/ICSI. The oocytes were stripped off cumulus cells prior to the ICSI procedure and their maturity status was defined. The oocyte maturation was repeatedly arrested at the GV. Oocyte maturation arrest may be the cause of infertility in this couple. The recognition of oocyte maturation arrest as a specific medical condition may contribute to the characterization of the currently known as "oocyte factor." The cellular and genetic mechanisms causing oocyte maturation arrest should be the subject for further investigation.

  7. Burial and thermal history of the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado, and petroleum potential of the Middle Pennsylvanian Paradox Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccio, Vito F.; Condon, Steven M.

    1996-01-01

    The Ismay?Desert Creek interval and Cane Creek cycle of the Alkali Gulch interval of the Middle Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin of Utah and Colorado contain excellent organic-rich source rocks having total organic carbon contents ranging from 0.5 to 11.0 percent. The source rocks in both intervals contain types I, II, and III organic matter and are potential source rocks for both oil and gas. Organic matter in the Ismay?Desert Creek interval and Cane Creek cycle of the Alkali Gulch interval (hereinafter referred to in this report as the ?Cane Creek cycle?) probably is more terrestrial in origin in the eastern part of the basin and is interpreted to have contributed to some of the gas produced there. Thermal maturity increases from southwest to northeast for both the Ismay?Desert Creek interval and Cane Creek cycle, following structural and burial trends throughout the basin. In the northernmost part of the basin, the combination of a relatively thick Tertiary sedimentary sequence and high basinal heat flow has produced very high thermal maturities. Although general thermal maturity trends are similar for both the Ismay?Desert Creek interval and Cane Creek cycle, actual maturity levels are higher for the Cane Creek due to the additional thickness (as much as several thousand feet) of Middle Pennsylvanian section. Throughout most of the basin, the Ismay?Desert Creek interval is mature and in the petroleum-generation window (0.10 to 0.50 production index (PI)), and both oil and gas are produced; in the south-central to southwestern part of the basin, however, the interval is marginally mature (0.10 PI) in the central part of the basin and is overmature (past the petroleum-generation window (>0.50 PI)) throughout most of the eastern part of the basin. The Cane Creek cycle generally produces oil and associated gas throughout the western and central parts of the basin and thermogenic gas in the eastern part of the basin. Burial and thermal

  8. Matrix thermalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Nguyen, Kévin

    2017-01-01

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  9. Matrix thermalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Nguyen, Kévin

    2017-02-01

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  10. Matrix thermalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Evnin, Oleg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Thanon Phayathai, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Nguyen, Kévin [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-02-08

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  11. Nonparametric combinatorial sequence models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauthier, Fabian L; Jordan, Michael I; Jojic, Nebojsa

    2011-11-01

    This work considers biological sequences that exhibit combinatorial structures in their composition: groups of positions of the aligned sequences are "linked" and covary as one unit across sequences. If multiple such groups exist, complex interactions can emerge between them. Sequences of this kind arise frequently in biology but methodologies for analyzing them are still being developed. This article presents a nonparametric prior on sequences which allows combinatorial structures to emerge and which induces a posterior distribution over factorized sequence representations. We carry out experiments on three biological sequence families which indicate that combinatorial structures are indeed present and that combinatorial sequence models can more succinctly describe them than simpler mixture models. We conclude with an application to MHC binding prediction which highlights the utility of the posterior distribution over sequence representations induced by the prior. By integrating out the posterior, our method compares favorably to leading binding predictors.

  12. Mediastinal Mature Teratoma Revealed by Empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Raoufi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas are germ cell tumors, manifested with a great variety of clinical features; the most common extragonadal site is the anterior mediastinum. In this case, we report the patient with a large mature mediastinal teratoma with several components of ectodermal and endothermal epithelium. A 24-year-old female patient presented with history of persistent chest pain and progressively aggravating dyspnea for the previous 3 months. A chest X-ray showed a large opacity of the entire left hemithorax. Transcutaneous needle aspiration revealed a purulent fluid. The tube thoracostomy was introduced and the effusion was evacuated. Some weeks later, patient was seen in emergency for persistent cough and lateral chest pain. CT scan revealed a mass of the left hemithorax. The mass showed heterogeneous density, without compressing mediastinum great vessels and left hilar structures. Lipase value was elevated in needle aspiration. The patient underwent a total resection of the mediastinum mass via a left posterolateral thoracotomy. Microscopy revealed a mature teratoma with cystic structures. The patient subsequently made a full recovery. This case provide benign mediastinal teratoma with total atelectasis of left lung and elevated lipase value in needle transcutaneous aspiration; this event is explained by pancreatic component in the cystic tumor. Total removal of the tumor is adequate treatment for this type of teratoma and the prognosis is excellent.

  13. Pitch perception prior to cortical maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Bonnie K.

    Pitch perception plays an important role in many complex auditory tasks including speech perception, music perception, and sound source segregation. Because of the protracted and extensive development of the human auditory cortex, pitch perception might be expected to mature, at least over the first few months of life. This dissertation investigates complex pitch perception in 3-month-olds, 7-month-olds and adults -- time points when the organization of the auditory pathway is distinctly different. Using an observer-based psychophysical procedure, a series of four studies were conducted to determine whether infants (1) discriminate the pitch of harmonic complex tones, (2) discriminate the pitch of unresolved harmonics, (3) discriminate the pitch of missing fundamental melodies, and (4) have comparable sensitivity to pitch and spectral changes as adult listeners. The stimuli used in these studies were harmonic complex tones, with energy missing at the fundamental frequency. Infants at both three and seven months of age discriminated the pitch of missing fundamental complexes composed of resolved and unresolved harmonics as well as missing fundamental melodies, demonstrating perception of complex pitch by three months of age. More surprisingly, infants in both age groups had lower pitch and spectral discrimination thresholds than adult listeners. Furthermore, no differences in performance on any of the tasks presented were observed between infants at three and seven months of age. These results suggest that subcortical processing is not only sufficient to support pitch perception prior to cortical maturation, but provides adult-like sensitivity to pitch by three months.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A MATURITY MODEL FOR TELEMEDICINE#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Van Dyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: For more than a decade, the South African National Department of Health (DoH has recognised the potential benefit of information and communication technology (ICT in the delivery of health care to rural areas. Despite generous funding and proven technology, not many telemedicine systems have proved sustainable after the pilot phase. The purpose of this paper is to develop a maturity model that can be implemented to measure and manage the capability of a health system, for use in the delivery of sustainable health care after the pilot phase of a telemedicine project. The validity of the telemedicine maturity model (TMMM is tested within the context of the South African public health sector.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die Suid Afrikaanse Nasionale Departement van Gesondheid het reeds meer as ’n dekade gelede die voordeel besef wat inligtings- en kommunikasietegnologie kan bied ten opsigte van die lewering van gesondheidsorg in afgeleë gebiede. Ten spyte van ruim befondsing en bewese tegnologie, is daar egter min volgehoue telegeneeskundedienste in die publieke gesondheidstelsel van Suid Afrika. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om ’n volwassenheids-model te ontwikkel wat gebruik kan word om die vermoë van ’n gesondheidstelsel te bepaal en bestuur, ten einde telegeneeskunde loodsprojekte vol te hou. Die geldigheid van hierdie telegeneeskunde volwassenheidsmodel (TMMM is getoets binne konteks van die publieke gesondheidsektor van Suid Afrika.

  15. Developmental Plasticity in Child Growth and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze'ev eHochberg

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of a given genotype to produce different phenotypes in response to different environments is termed "plasticity", and is part of the organism's "adaptability" to environmental cues. The expressions of suites of genes, particularly during development or life-history transitions, probably underlie the fundamental plasticity of an organism. Plasticity in developmental programming has evolved in order to provide the best chances of survival and reproductive success to organisms under changing environments. Environmental conditions that are experienced in early life can profoundly influence human biology, child growth and maturation, and long-term health and longevity. Developmental origins of health and disease and life history transitions are purported to use placental, nutritional, and endocrine cues for setting long-term biological, mental, and behavioral strategies for child growth and maturation in response to local ecological and/or social conditions. The window of developmental plasticity extends from conception to early childhood, and even beyond to the transition from juvenility to adoelscence, and could be transmitted transgenerationally. It involves epigenetic responses to environmental changes, which exert their effects during life history phase-transitions.

  16. Thermal comfort in urban transitional spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chungyoon Chun [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea). College of Human Ecology, Department of Housing and Interior Design; Tamura, A. [Yokohama National University (Japan). Department of Architecture and Building Science

    2005-05-15

    This paper deals with thermal comfort in urban transitional spaces. This topic investigates thermal comfort during walking activities through transitional spaces-urban corridors, shopping streets, and open-ended passageways. The study involves a field study and a laboratory study with a sequenced walk through an environmental control chamber. Subjects in both studies wore the same clothing ensembles, walked the same speed, and evaluated their thermal comfort at 20 designated point in the field and in specific rooms in the control chamber. Air temperature, relative humidity, and air velocity were measured concurrently as the thermal comfort votes completed. Findings revealed that the previously experienced temperatures determined thermal comfort at the following point in the sequence. Because thermal comfort at a point can be influenced widely by relative placement of temperatures in sequence, thermal comfort in transitional spaces can be adapted very widely compared to comfort inside of buildings. Thermal comfort along the experimental courses was evaluated by averaging the temperature of a course. (author)

  17. A review on technology maturity of small scale energy storage technologies★

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thu-Trang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current status of energy storage technologies which have the higher potential to be applied in small scale energy systems. Small scale energy systems can be categorized as ones that are able to supply energy in various forms for a building, or a small area, or a limited community, or an enterprise; typically, they are end-user systems. Energy storage technologies are classified based on their form of energy stored. A two-step evaluation is proposed for selecting suitable storage technologies for small scale energy systems, including identifying possible technical options, and addressing techno-economic aspects. Firstly, a review on energy storage technologies at small scale level is carried out. Secondly, an assessment of technology readiness level (TRL is conducted. The TRLs are ranked according to information gathered from literature review. Levels of market maturity of the technologies are addressed by taking into account their market development stages through reviewing published materials. The TRLs and the levels of market maturity are then combined into a technology maturity curve. Additionally, market driving factors are identified by using different stages in product life cycle. The results indicate that lead-acid, micro pumped hydro storage, NaS battery, NiCd battery, flywheel, NaNiCl battery, Li-ion battery, and sensible thermal storage are the most mature technologies for small scale energy systems. In the near future, hydrogen fuel cells, thermal storages using phase change materials and thermochemical materials are expected to become more popular in the energy storage market.

  18. Maturation of the limbic system revealed by MR FLAIR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Jacques F.; Vergesslich, Klara [University Children' s Hospital UKBB, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2007-04-15

    Cortical signal intensity (SI) of the limbic system in adults is known to be higher than in neocortical structures, but time-related changes in SI during childhood have not been described. To detect maturation-related SI changes within the limbic system using a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR sequence. Twenty children (10 boys, 10 girls; age 3.5-18 years, mean 11.2 years) with no neurological abnormality and normal MR imaging examination were retrospectively selected. On two coronal FLAIR slices, ten regions of interest (ROI) with a constant area of 10 mm{sup 2} were manually placed in the archeocortex (hippocampus), periarcheocortex (parahippocampal gyrus, subcallosal area, cingulate gyrus) and in the neocortex at the level of the superior frontal gyrus on both sides. Significant SI gradients were observed with a higher intensity in the archeocortex, intermediate intensity in the periarcheocortex and low intensity in the neocortex. Significant higher SI values in hippocampal and parahippocampal structures were detected in children up to 10 years of age. These differences mainly reflected differences in cortical structure and myelination state. Archeocortical structures especially showed significant age-related intensity progression suggesting ongoing organization and/or myelination until early adolescence. (orig.)

  19. X-ray Structure of the Mature Ectodomain of Phogrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguera, M. E. [National Univ. of Quilmes, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Primo, M. [Univ. of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Jakoncic, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Poskus, E. [Univ. of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Solimena, M. [Dresden Univ. of Technology and Max Planck Inst. of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics (Germany); Ermacora, M. R. [National Univ. of Quilmes and Multidisciplinary Inst. of Cellular Biology, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-11-26

    Phogrin/IA-2β and ICA512/IA-2 are two paralogs receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatases (RPTP) that localize in secretory granules of various neuroendocrine cells. In pancreatic islet β-cells, they participate in the regulation of insulin secretion, ensuring proper granulogenesis, and β-cell proliferation. The role of their cytoplasmic tail has been partially unveiled, while that of their luminal region remains unclear. To advance the understanding of its structure–function relationship, the X-ray structure of the mature ectodomain of phogrin (ME phogrin) at pH 7.4 and 4.6 has been solved at 1.95- and 2.01-Å resolution, respectively. Likewise to the ME of ICA512, ME phogrin adopts a ferredoxin-like fold: a sheet of four antiparallel β-strands packed against two α-helices. Furthermore, sequence conservation among vertebrates, plants and insects suggests that the structural similarity extends to all the receptor family. Crystallized ME phogrin is monomeric, in agreement with solution studies but in striking contrast with the behavior of homodimeric ME ICA512. The structural details that may cause the quaternary structure differences are analyzed. The results provide a basis for building models of the overall orientation and oligomerization state of the receptor in biological membranes.

  20. Maturation of the limbic system revealed by MR FLAIR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Jacques F.; Vergesslich, Klara

    2007-01-01

    Cortical signal intensity (SI) of the limbic system in adults is known to be higher than in neocortical structures, but time-related changes in SI during childhood have not been described. To detect maturation-related SI changes within the limbic system using a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR sequence. Twenty children (10 boys, 10 girls; age 3.5-18 years, mean 11.2 years) with no neurological abnormality and normal MR imaging examination were retrospectively selected. On two coronal FLAIR slices, ten regions of interest (ROI) with a constant area of 10 mm 2 were manually placed in the archeocortex (hippocampus), periarcheocortex (parahippocampal gyrus, subcallosal area, cingulate gyrus) and in the neocortex at the level of the superior frontal gyrus on both sides. Significant SI gradients were observed with a higher intensity in the archeocortex, intermediate intensity in the periarcheocortex and low intensity in the neocortex. Significant higher SI values in hippocampal and parahippocampal structures were detected in children up to 10 years of age. These differences mainly reflected differences in cortical structure and myelination state. Archeocortical structures especially showed significant age-related intensity progression suggesting ongoing organization and/or myelination until early adolescence. (orig.)

  1. Genome Sequence Databases (Overview): Sequencing and Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, Alla L.

    2009-01-01

    From the date its role in heredity was discovered, DNA has been generating interest among scientists from different fields of knowledge: physicists have studied the three dimensional structure of the DNA molecule, biologists tried to decode the secrets of life hidden within these long molecules, and technologists invent and improve methods of DNA analysis. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of DNA occupies a special place among the methods developed. Thanks to the variety of sequencing technologies available, the process of decoding the sequence of genomic DNA (or whole genome sequencing) has become robust and inexpensive. Meanwhile the assembly of whole genome sequences remains a challenging task. In addition to the need to assemble millions of DNA fragments of different length (from 35 bp (Solexa) to 800 bp (Sanger)), great interest in analysis of microbial communities (metagenomes) of different complexities raises new problems and pushes some new requirements for sequence assembly tools to the forefront. The genome assembly process can be divided into two steps: draft assembly and assembly improvement (finishing). Despite the fact that automatically performed assembly (or draft assembly) is capable of covering up to 98% of the genome, in most cases, it still contains incorrectly assembled reads. The error rate of the consensus sequence produced at this stage is about 1/2000 bp. A finished genome represents the genome assembly of much higher accuracy (with no gaps or incorrectly assembled areas) and quality ({approx}1 error/10,000 bp), validated through a number of computer and laboratory experiments.

  2. Zcchc11 Uridylates Mature miRNAs to Enhance Neonatal IGF-1 Expression, Growth, and Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Elyse; Matsuura, Kori Y.; Ferrari, Joseph D.; Morris, Samantha A.; Powers, John T.; Daley, George Q.; Quinton, Lee J.; Mizgerd, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    The Zcchc11 enzyme is implicated in microRNA (miRNA) regulation. It can uridylate let-7 precursors to decrease quantities of the mature miRNA in embryonic stem cell lines, suggested to mediate stem cell maintenance. It can uridylate mature miR-26 to relieve silencing activity without impacting miRNA content in cancer cell lines, suggested to mediate cytokine and growth factor expression. Broader roles of Zcchc11 in shaping or remodeling the miRNome or in directing biological or physiological processes remain entirely speculative. We generated Zcchc11-deficient mice to address these knowledge gaps. Zcchc11 deficiency had no impact on embryogenesis or fetal development, but it significantly decreased survival and growth immediately following birth, indicating a role for this enzyme in early postnatal fitness. Deep sequencing of small RNAs from neonatal livers revealed roles of this enzyme in miRNA sequence diversity. Zcchc11 deficiency diminished the lengths and terminal uridine frequencies for diverse mature miRNAs, but it had no influence on the quantities of any miRNAs. The expression of IGF-1, a liver-derived protein essential to early growth and survival, was enhanced by Zcchc11 expression in vitro, and miRNA silencing of IGF-1 was alleviated by uridylation events observed to be Zcchc11-dependent in the neonatal liver. In neonatal mice, Zcchc11 deficiency significantly decreased IGF-1 mRNA in the liver and IGF-1 protein in the blood. We conclude that the Zcchc11-mediated terminal uridylation of mature miRNAs is pervasive and physiologically significant, especially important in the neonatal period for fostering IGF-1 expression and enhancing postnatal growth and survival. We propose that the miRNA 3′ terminus is a regulatory node upon which multiple enzymes converge to direct silencing activity and tune gene expression. PMID:23209448

  3. Zcchc11 uridylates mature miRNAs to enhance neonatal IGF-1 expression, growth, and survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Jones

    Full Text Available The Zcchc11 enzyme is implicated in microRNA (miRNA regulation. It can uridylate let-7 precursors to decrease quantities of the mature miRNA in embryonic stem cell lines, suggested to mediate stem cell maintenance. It can uridylate mature miR-26 to relieve silencing activity without impacting miRNA content in cancer cell lines, suggested to mediate cytokine and growth factor expression. Broader roles of Zcchc11 in shaping or remodeling the miRNome or in directing biological or physiological processes remain entirely speculative. We generated Zcchc11-deficient mice to address these knowledge gaps. Zcchc11 deficiency had no impact on embryogenesis or fetal development, but it significantly decreased survival and growth immediately following birth, indicating a role for this enzyme in early postnatal fitness. Deep sequencing of small RNAs from neonatal livers revealed roles of this enzyme in miRNA sequence diversity. Zcchc11 deficiency diminished the lengths and terminal uridine frequencies for diverse mature miRNAs, but it had no influence on the quantities of any miRNAs. The expression of IGF-1, a liver-derived protein essential to early growth and survival, was enhanced by Zcchc11 expression in vitro, and miRNA silencing of IGF-1 was alleviated by uridylation events observed to be Zcchc11-dependent in the neonatal liver. In neonatal mice, Zcchc11 deficiency significantly decreased IGF-1 mRNA in the liver and IGF-1 protein in the blood. We conclude that the Zcchc11-mediated terminal uridylation of mature miRNAs is pervasive and physiologically significant, especially important in the neonatal period for fostering IGF-1 expression and enhancing postnatal growth and survival. We propose that the miRNA 3' terminus is a regulatory node upon which multiple enzymes converge to direct silencing activity and tune gene expression.

  4. A correlative study of dental age and skeletal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachan, Kiran; Sharma, Vijay Prakash; Tandon, Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal age had been assessed by comparison between maturation of hand-wrist with stages of cervical vertebrae or canine calcification stages in past and this had been closely related to craniofacial growth. The importance of pubertal growth spurt in various types of orthodontic therapies is already established. Hence, this study was aimed to evaluate the relationship of skeletal maturity by hand-wrist with cervical vertebral maturation indicators and canine calcification stages. The study consisted of randomly selected 90 children from Lucknow population with 45 males (age range 10-13 years) and 45 females (age range 9-12 years). Lateral Cephalogram, hand-wrist x-ray, and periapical x-rays of maxillary and mandibular right canines were taken. Mean, standard deviation was calculated of different groups. Correlation was made among cervical vertebral maturation, hand wrist maturation, and canine calcification stages at various age groups. There was strong correlation between skeletal maturation indicator and cervical vertebral maturation indicator for both male (0.849) and female (0.932), whereas correlation between skeletal maturation indicator and canine calcification was good for both male and female (0.635, 0.891). It was concluded that cervical vertebral maturation indicator and canine calcification stages can also be used for assessing skeletal maturity.

  5. Long sequence correlation coprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.

    1994-09-01

    A long sequence correlation coprocessor (LSCC) accelerates the bitwise correlation of arbitrarily long digital sequences by calculating in parallel the correlation score for 16, for example, adjacent bit alignments between two binary sequences. The LSCC integrated circuit is incorporated into a computer system with memory storage buffers and a separate general purpose computer processor which serves as its controller. Each of the LSCC's set of sequential counters simultaneously tallies a separate correlation coefficient. During each LSCC clock cycle, computer enable logic associated with each counter compares one bit of a first sequence with one bit of a second sequence to increment the counter if the bits are the same. A shift register assures that the same bit of the first sequence is simultaneously compared to different bits of the second sequence to simultaneously calculate the correlation coefficient by the different counters to represent different alignments of the two sequences.

  6. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  7. Anomaly Detection in Sequences

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a set of novel algorithms which we call sequenceMiner, that detect and characterize anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences that...

  8. DNA sequencing conference, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook-Deegan, R.M. [Georgetown Univ., Kennedy Inst. of Ethics, Washington, DC (United States); Venter, J.C. [National Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Strokes, Bethesda, MD (United States); Gilbert, W. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Mulligan, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Mansfield, B.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1991-06-19

    This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.

  9. sequenceMiner algorithm

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....

  10. The influence of motion control shoes on the running gait of mature and young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Kim; Stiles, Vicky; Dixon, Sharon

    2013-03-01

    This study compared the running gait of mature and young females, and investigated the effect of a motion control shoe. First, it was hypothesised that in a neutral shoe, mature females would display significantly greater rearfoot eversion, knee internal rotation and external adductor moments when compared to a younger group. Secondly, the motion control shoe would reduce rearfoot eversion and knee internal rotation in both groups. Thirdly it was hypothesised that the motion control shoe would increase knee external adductor moment, through an increase in knee varus and moment arm. 15 mature (40-60 years) and 15 young (18-25 years) females performed 10 running trials at 3.5ms(-1)±5% over a force platform. Two shoes were tested, the Adidas Supernova Glide (neutral), and the Adidas Supernova Sequence (motion control). Ankle and knee joint dynamics were analysed for the right leg, and the mean of ten trials was calculated. Joint moments were calculated using inverse dynamics. In the neutral condition, mature females presented greater peak rearfoot eversion, knee internal rotation, and external adductor moments than young females (p<0.05). A motion control shoe significantly reduced peak rearfoot eversion and knee internal rotation among both groups (p<0.05). No between shoe differences in knee external adductor moment were observed. A motion control shoe is recommended to reduce risk of injury associated with rearfoot eversion and knee internal rotation in mature females. However since the knee external adductor moment is a variable commonly associated with medial knee loading it is suggested that alternative design features are required to influence this moment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Product Maturation Guide - A Digital Simulation Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    . Tolerance analysis tools, those optimizing the individual part tolerances at the time of design can generate a product maturation guide that eliminates many problem solving procedures and saves time on root cause analysis. Assume a first product built on a new assembly line was found to need improvements....... To conclude the actions we need information about all the dimensions of child parts and processes involved and their influence. At the time of product design, the tolerance analysis system works with the same variables with a given range of variations virtually. For a practical build, instead of variation...... range, it has to consider one fixed value measured from initial parts. By adding information about process characteristics, like speed, cost, etc. to all the dimensions, the system can directly guide the manufacturing team, on which parameter to modify, which direction and how much. At the same time...

  12. Chromatin Regulation of Neuronal Maturation and Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, David A; Chan, Urann; Chen, Liang-Fu; West, Anne E

    2018-05-01

    Neurons are dynamic cells that respond and adapt to stimuli throughout their long postmitotic lives. The structural and functional plasticity of neurons requires the regulated transcription of new gene products, and dysregulation of transcription in either the developing or adult brain impairs cognition. We discuss how mechanisms of chromatin regulation help to orchestrate the transcriptional programs that underlie the maturation of developing neurons and the plasticity of adult neurons. We review how chromatin regulation acts locally to modulate the expression of specific genes and more broadly to coordinate gene expression programs during transitions between cellular states. These data highlight the importance of epigenetic transcriptional mechanisms in postmitotic neurons. We suggest areas where emerging methods may advance understanding in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Developmental "roots" in mature biological knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert F; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2009-04-01

    Young children tend to claim that moving artifacts and nonliving natural kinds are alive, but neglect to ascribe life to plants. This research tested whether adults exhibit similar confusions when verifying life status in a speeded classification task. Experiment 1 showed that undergraduates encounter greater difficulty (reduced accuracy and increased response times) in determining life status for plants, relative to animals, and for natural and moving nonliving things, relative to artifacts and non-moving things. Experiment 2 replicated these effects in university biology professors. The professors showed a significantly reduced effect size for living things, as compared with the students, but still showed greater difficulty for plants than animals, even as no differences from the students were apparent in their responses to nonliving things. These results suggest that mature biological knowledge relies on a developmental foundation that is not radically overwritten or erased with the profound conceptual changes that accompany mastery of the domain.

  14. Maturation curves of sweet sorghum genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Silva e Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] stands out as a complementary crop to sugarcane Saccharum spp. for the production of ethanol, since it has juicy stems with directly fermentable sugars. Due to this fact, there is a need for the analysis of sweet sorghum properties in order to meet the agro-industry demand. This work aimed to develop and study the maturation curves of seven sweet sorghum cultivars in ten harvest dates. The results showed a significant difference between cultivars and harvest dates for all parameters analysed (p≤0.01. Regarding the sugar content, the cultivars BRS508, XBWS80147 and CMSX629 showed the highest means for the total reducing sugars (TRS and recoverable sugar (RS. In the production of ethanol per tonne of biomass (EP, the cultivars BRS508 and CMSX629 presented the best results.

  15. A Maturity Analysis of Big Data Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu BONCEA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Big Data technologies have been developed at faster pace due to increase in demand from applications that generate and process vast amount of data. The Cloud Computing and the Internet of Things are the main drivers for developing enterprise solutions that support Business Intelligence which in turn, creates new opportunities and new business models. An enterprise can now collect data about its internal processes, process this data to gain new insights and business value and make better decisions. And this is the reason why Big Data is now seen as a vital component in any enterprise architecture. In this article the maturity of several Big Data technologies is put under analysis. For each technology there are several aspects considered, such as development status, market usage, licensing policies, availability for certifications, adoption, support for cloud computing and enterprise.

  16. Intracranial hemorrhage of the mature newborn infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemine, Hisao

    1983-01-01

    Concerning four mature newborn infants with intracranial hemorrhage diagnosed by CT, the labour course, treatment, and prognoses were discussed. Of intracranial hemorrhage, 70.7% was small hemorrhage along the cerebellar tentorium and the falx cerebri, 12.2% subdural hemorrhage in the posterior cranial fossa, and 9.8% subdural hemorrhage in the fornex. Intraventricular or extradural hemorrhage was rarely found. The prognosis is determined by severeness of neurotic symptoms due to cerebral hypoxia. Subdural hemorrhage of the posterior cranial fossa resulted in cerebral palsy in one fifth of the cases, and in slight enlargement of the ventricle in three fifths. Subdural hematoma left porencephaly in one fourth of the patients, but the remaining recovered to normal. (Ueda, J.)

  17. Formation and maturation of the murine meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamer, Laura W; Xiang, Lin; Rosen, Vicki

    2017-08-01

    Meniscal injuries are commonplace, but current surgical repair procedures do not prevent degenerative joint changes that occur after meniscal injury and often lead to osteoarthritis. Successful tissue regeneration in adults often recapitulates events that occur during embryogenesis, suggesting that understanding the regulatory pathways controlling these early processes may provide clues for developing strategies for tissue repair. While the mouse is now widely used to study joint diseases, detailed knowledge of the basic biology of murine meniscus is not readily available. Here, we examine meniscal morphogenesis in mice from embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5) to 6 months of age using histology, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. We find that the meniscus is a morphologically distinct structure at E16 when it begins to regionalize. At birth, the meniscus has a distinguishable inner, avascular, round chondrocyte cell region, an outer, vascularized, fibroblast cell region, and a surface superficial zone. Maturation begins at 2 weeks of age when the meniscus expresses type I collagen, type II collagen, type X collagen, and MMP-13 in specific patterns. By 4 weeks of age, small areas of ossification are detected in the anterior meniscal horn, a common feature seen in rodents. Maturation appears complete at 8 weeks of age, when the meniscus resembles the adult structure complete with ossifying tissue that contains bone marrow like areas. Our results provide, the first systematic study of mouse meniscal development and will be a valuable tool for analyzing murine models of knee joint formation and disease. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1683-1689, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Thermal insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durston, J.G.; Birch, W.; Facer, R.I.; Stuart, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors. In the arrangement described the reactor vessel is clad with thermal insulation comprising a layer of insulating blocks spaced from the wall and from each other; each block is rigidly secured to the wall, and the interspaces are substantially closed against convectional flow of liquid by resilient closure members. A membrane covering is provided for the layer of blocks, with venting means to allow liquid from the reactor vessel to penetrate between the covering and the layer of blocks. The membrane covering may comprise a stainless steel sheet ribbed in orthogonal pattern to give flexibility for the accommodation of thermal strain. The insulating blocks may be comprised of stainless steel or cellular or porous material and may be hollow shells containing ceramic material or gas fillings. (U.K.)

  19. On the occurrence of nuclei in mature sieve elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Event, R F; Davis, J D; Tucker, C M; Alfieri, F J

    1970-12-01

    The secondary phloem of 3 species of the Taxodiaceae and 13 species of woody dicotyledons was examined for the occurrence of nuclei in mature sieve elements. Nuclei were found in all mature sieve cells of Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Sequoia sempervirens and Taxodium distichum, and in some mature sieve-tube members in 12 of the 13 species of woody dicotyledons. Except for nuclei of sieve cells undergoing cessation of function, the nuclei in mature sieve cells of M. glyptostroboides, S. sempervirens and T. distichum were normal in appearance. The occurrence and morphology of nuclei in mature sieve-tube members of the woody dicotyledons were quite variable. Only 3 species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus americana and Vitis riparia, contained some mature sieve elements with apparently normal nuclei.

  20. Maturity of hospital information systems: Most important influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Carvalho, João; Rocha, Álvaro; Abreu, António

    2017-07-01

    Maturity models facilitate organizational management, including information systems management, with hospital organizations no exception. This article puts forth a study carried out with a group of experts in the field of hospital information systems management with a view to identifying the main influencing factors to be included in an encompassing maturity model for hospital information systems management. This study is based on the results of a literature review, which identified maturity models in the health field and relevant influencing factors. The development of this model is justified to the extent that the available maturity models for the hospital information systems management field reveal multiple limitations, including lack of detail, absence of tools to determine their maturity and lack of characterization for stages of maturity structured by different influencing factors.

  1. PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY: AN ASSESSMENT OF MATURITY FOR DEVELOPING PILOT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Mittermaier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Despite the current economic climate, the South African mining and engineering industry is experiencing a very promising future, with a large number of capital projects in the offing. It is inevitable that pilot plant development will form part of this future as a risk mitigation technique. This study found that, even though the terms ‘pilot plant’ and ‘project management maturity’ are familiar within the industry, no link between these two could be found in the literature. A number of maturity models exist; and one developed by PMSolutions was selected to perform an assessment of the current level of project management maturity within the South African mining and engineering industry pertaining to the development of pilot plants. The Delphi technique was used to determine the views of experts in the South African mining, mineral processing, petrochemical, nuclear, and mechanical sectors regarding this maturity. A significant difference was observed between the current level of maturity and the required level of maturity in all but one of the nine knowledge areas defined by the Project Management Institute. The two knowledge areas of project time and risk management showed significant differences between current and required maturity levels, and were identified as key areas for improvement.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Ten spyte van die huidige ekonomiese klimaat ondervind die Suid-Afrikaanse mynbou- en ingenieursbedryf ’n baie bemoedigende toekoms, met ’n groot aantal kapitaalprojekte in die vooruitsig. Ten einde risiko’s te verlaag, sal die ontwikkeling van loodsaanlegte noodwendig deel van hierdie toekoms uitmaak. Daar is gevind dat, alhoewel die terme ‘loodsaanleg’ en ‘projekbestuur volwassenheid’ in die nywerheid bekend is, geen skakeling van hierdie twee terme in die literatuur opgespoor kon word nie. ’n Aantal volwassenheid modelle bestaan; en een wat deur PMSolutions ontwikkel is, is gekies om

  2. Solar thermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.

    2006-01-01

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m 3 - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become increasingly important as

  3. Solar thermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2006-07-15

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m{sup 3} - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become

  4. A Systematic Literature Review of Agile Maturity Model Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Henriques

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim/Purpose: A commonly implemented software process improvement framework is the capability maturity model integrated (CMMI. Existing literature indicates higher levels of CMMI maturity could result in a loss of agility due to its organizational focus. To maintain agility, research has focussed attention on agile maturity models. The objective of this paper is to find the common research themes and conclusions in agile maturity model research. Methodology: This research adopts a systematic approach to agile maturity model research, using Google Scholar, Science Direct, and IEEE Xplore as sources. In total 531 articles were initially found matching the search criteria, which was filtered to 39 articles by applying specific exclusion criteria. Contribution:: The article highlights the trends in agile maturity model research, specifically bringing to light the lack of research providing validation of such models. Findings: Two major themes emerge, being the coexistence of agile and CMMI and the development of agile principle based maturity models. The research trend indicates an increase in agile maturity model articles, particularly in the latter half of the last decade, with concentrations of research coinciding with version updates of CMMI. While there is general consensus around higher CMMI maturity levels being incompatible with true agility, there is evidence of the two coexisting when agile is introduced into already highly matured environments. Future Research:\tFuture research direction for this topic should include how to attain higher levels of CMMI maturity using only agile methods, how governance is addressed in agile environments, and whether existing agile maturity models relate to improved project success.

  5. Determinants of relative skeletal maturity in South African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Rousham, Emily K; Johnson, William; Norris, Shane A; Pettifor, John M; Cameron, Noël

    2012-01-01

    The variation of skeletal maturity about chronological age is a sensitive indicator of population health. Age appropriate or advanced skeletal maturity is a reflection of adequate environmental and social conditions, whereas delayed maturation suggests inadequate conditions for optimal development. There remains a paucity of data, however, to indicate which specific biological and environmental factors are associated with advancement or delay in skeletal maturity. The present study utilises longitudinal data from the South African Birth to Twenty (Bt20) study to indentify predictors of relative skeletal maturity (RSM) in early adolescence. A total of 244 black South African children (n=131 male) were included in this analysis. Skeletal maturity at age 9/10 years was assessed using the Tanner and Whitehouse III RUS technique. Longitudinal data on growth, socio-economic position and pubertal development were entered into sex-specific multivariable general linear regression models with relative skeletal maturity (skeletal age-chronological age) as the outcome. At 9/10 years of age males showed an average of 0.66 years delay in skeletal maturation relative to chronological age. Females showed an average of 1.00 year delay relative to chronological age. In males, being taller at 2 years (pdetermining the rate of skeletal maturation during childhood independently of current stature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ovarian follicle maturation and ovulation: An integrated perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, R.; Thomas, P.; Yoshizaki, G.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies with teleosts have addressed the regulation and mechanisms of oocyte maturation, but largely at the exclusion of ovulation. A smaller but still considerable number of studies have focused on ovulation, and ignored maturation. Consequently, little is known about the mechanistic linkages between these two events. New information is presented here indicating that luteinizing hormone regulates the acquisition not only of oocyte maturational competence, but also ovulatory competence. The thesis is presented that maturation and ovulation are closely integrated and overlapping events that are best viewed conceptually and experimentally as parts of a functional whole. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  7. Relationship between cervical vertebral maturation and mandibular growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Gina; Woodside, Donald; Tompson, Bryan; Hunter, W Stuart; Posluns, James

    2011-05-01

    The cervical vertebrae have been proposed as a method of determining biologic maturity. The purposes of this study were to establish a pattern of mandibular growth and to relate this pattern to the stages of cervical vertebral maturation. Cephalometric radiographs, taken annually from ages 9 to 18 years, were evaluated for 90 boys from the Burlington Growth Center, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Mandibular lengths were measured from articulare to gnathion, and incremental growth was determined. Cervical vertebral maturation stages were assessed by using a 6-stage method. Advanced, average, and delayed maturation groups were established. The prepubertal mandibular growth minimum velocity occurred during cervical stages 1 through 4 (P = 0.7327). Peak mandibular growth velocity occurred most frequently during stage 4 in all 3 maturation groups, with a statistical difference in the average and delayed groups (P cervical stages 1 through 6 does not occur annually; time spent in each stage varies depending on the stage and the maturation group. Cervical vertebral maturation stages cannot accurately identify the mandibular prepubertal growth minimum and therefore cannot predict the onset of the peak in mandibular growth. The cervical vertebral maturation stages should be used with other methods of biologic maturity assessment when considering both dentofacial orthopedic treatment and orthognathic surgery. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Maturity In The Petrochemical Industry Features, Motives And Combating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.; El Messirie, A.

    2004-01-01

    Petrochemicals give the highest value from crude oil and natural gas but suffers from maturity like any other business. Petrochemicals companies are promoting their business in the direction from oil and gas commodities. Specialities and life science. Reasons of maturity are expired patents, low demand, over capacity, intense competition. Actions to combat maturity are to restructure capacity achieving mega sizes, do downstream, and restructuring business practices. Strategies followed by some companies to combat maturity include exit, focus on core business and exploit a competitive advantage

  9. Correlation between Dental Maturity by Demirjian Method and Skeletal Maturity by Cervical Vertebral Maturity Method using Panoramic Radiograph and Lateral Cephalogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhanan Mallika Mini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radiographs are effective tools in assessing the stages of bone maturation in dentistry. The cervical vertebral maturation method is a proven effective tool in assessing the adolescent growth spurt than hand-wrist radiographs in an individual. Assessment of dental calcification stages are a reliable method for determining dental maturity. Panoramic imaging can be used as the primary imaging modality for assessing maturity if a correlation can be found out between tooth calcification stages and cervical vertebral maturation stages. This study was conducted to determine the correlation between dental maturity stage and cervical vertebral maturity stage and to estimate predictor variables for cervical vertebral maturation stages (CVMS stratified by gender in a tertiary hospital setting. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted among patients accessing orthodontic care in radiology outpatient clinic, Oral Medicine and Radiology department, Government Dental College Thiruvananthapuram for a period of 15 months. Participants were selected between the ages of 8 and 16 years. Panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms were used to determine dental maturity stages using Demirjian method and CVMS using Bacetti and Franchi method, respectively. Results: One hundred patients (males = 46, females = 54 were included in the study; the spearman rank order correlation revealed significant relationship. The correlation ranged from 0.61 to 0.74 for females and 0.48 to 0.51 for males. Second premolar showed highest correlation and canine the lowest for both females and males. Stage G of mandibular second premolar signifies the pubertal growth period in this study population. By ordinal regression model, G stage of second premolar was found to be a significant predictor in males and stage H followed by G and F in females for the age group of 12–14 years. Conclusion: Dental maturation stages were significantly correlated with CVMS

  10. MRI quantitative assessment of brain maturation and prognosis in premature infants using total maturation score

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Ying; Wang Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To quantitatively assess brain maturation and prognosis in premature infants on conventional MRI using total maturation score (TMS). Methods: Nineteen cases of sequelae of white matter damage (WMD group )and 21 cases of matched controls (control group) in premature infants confirmed by MRI examinations were included in the study. All cases underwent conventional MR imaging approximately during the perinatal period after birth. Brain development was quantitatively assessed using Childs AM's validated scoring system of TMS by two sophisticated radiology physicians. Interobserver agreement and reliability was evaluated by using intraclass correlation (ICC). Linear regression analysis between TMS and postmenstrual age (PMA) was made(Y: TMS, X: PMA). Independent-sample t test of the two groups' TMS was made. Results: Sixteen of 19 cases revealed MRI abnormalities. Lesions showing T 1 and T 2 shortening tended to occur in clusters or a linear pattern in the deep white matter of the centrum semiovale, periventricular white matter. Diffusion-weighted MR image (DWI) showed 3 cases with greater lesions and 4 cases with new lesions in corpus callosum. There was no abnormality in control group on MRI and DWI. The average numbers of TMS between the two observers were 7.13±2.27, 7.13±2.21. Interobservcer agreement was found to be high (ICC=0.990, P 2 =0.6401,0.5156 respectively, P 0.05). Conclusion: Conventional MRI is able to quantify the brain maturation and prognosis of premature infants using TMS. (authors)

  11. QTLs for resistance to Phomopsis seed decay are associated with days to maturity in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Suli; Kim, Moon Young; Van, Kyujung; Lee, Yin-Won; Li, Baodu; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2013-08-01

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD), primarily caused by Phomopsis longicolla, is a major contributor to poor soybean seed quality and significant yield loss, particularly in early maturing soybean genotypes. However, it is not yet known whether PSD resistance is associated with early maturity. This study was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to PSD and days to maturity using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between the PSD-resistant Taekwangkong and the PSD-susceptible SS2-2. Based on a genetic linkage map incorporating 117 simple sequence repeat markers, QTL analysis revealed two and three QTLs conferring PSD resistance and days to maturity, respectively, in the RIL population. Two QTLs (PSD-6-1 and PSD-10-2) for PSD resistance were identified in the intervals of Satt100-Satt460 and Sat_038-Satt243 on chromosomes 6 and 10, respectively. Two QTLs explained phenotypic variances in PSD resistance of 46.3 and 14.1 %, respectively. At the PSD-6-1 QTL, the PSD-resistant cultivar Taekwangkong contributed the allele with negative effect decreasing the infection rate of PSD and this QTL does not overlap with any previously reported loci for PSD resistance in other soybean genotypes. Among the three QTLs for days to maturity, two (Mat-6-2 and Mat-10-3) were located at positions similar to the PSD-resistance QTLs. The identification of the QTLs linked to both PSD resistance and days to maturity indicates a biological correlation between these two traits. The newly identified QTL for resistance to PSD associated with days to maturity in Taekwangkong will help improve soybean resistance to P. longicolla.

  12. The roles of family B and D DNA polymerases in Thermococcus species 9°N Okazaki fragment maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenough, Lucia; Kelman, Zvi; Gardner, Andrew F

    2015-05-15

    During replication, Okazaki fragment maturation is a fundamental process that joins discontinuously synthesized DNA fragments into a contiguous lagging strand. Efficient maturation prevents repeat sequence expansions, small duplications, and generation of double-stranded DNA breaks. To address the components required for the process in Thermococcus, Okazaki fragment maturation was reconstituted in vitro using purified proteins from Thermococcus species 9°N or cell extracts. A dual color fluorescence assay was developed to monitor reaction substrates, intermediates, and products. DNA polymerase D (polD) was proposed to function as the replicative polymerase in Thermococcus replicating both the leading and the lagging strands. It is shown here, however, that it stops before the previous Okazaki fragments, failing to rapidly process them. Instead, Family B DNA polymerase (polB) was observed to rapidly fill the gaps left by polD and displaces the downstream Okazaki fragment to create a flap structure. This flap structure was cleaved by flap endonuclease 1 (Fen1) and the resultant nick was ligated by DNA ligase to form a mature lagging strand. The similarities to both bacterial and eukaryotic systems and evolutionary implications of archaeal Okazaki fragment maturation are discussed. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. The Roles of Family B and D DNA Polymerases in Thermococcus Species 9°N Okazaki Fragment Maturation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenough, Lucia; Kelman, Zvi; Gardner, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    During replication, Okazaki fragment maturation is a fundamental process that joins discontinuously synthesized DNA fragments into a contiguous lagging strand. Efficient maturation prevents repeat sequence expansions, small duplications, and generation of double-stranded DNA breaks. To address the components required for the process in Thermococcus, Okazaki fragment maturation was reconstituted in vitro using purified proteins from Thermococcus species 9°N or cell extracts. A dual color fluorescence assay was developed to monitor reaction substrates, intermediates, and products. DNA polymerase D (polD) was proposed to function as the replicative polymerase in Thermococcus replicating both the leading and the lagging strands. It is shown here, however, that it stops before the previous Okazaki fragments, failing to rapidly process them. Instead, Family B DNA polymerase (polB) was observed to rapidly fill the gaps left by polD and displaces the downstream Okazaki fragment to create a flap structure. This flap structure was cleaved by flap endonuclease 1 (Fen1) and the resultant nick was ligated by DNA ligase to form a mature lagging strand. The similarities to both bacterial and eukaryotic systems and evolutionary implications of archaeal Okazaki fragment maturation are discussed. PMID:25814667

  14. Maturity Models in Supply Chain Sustainability: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Correia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic literature review of supply chain maturity models with sustainability concerns is presented. The objective is to give insights into methodological issues related to maturity models, namely the research objectives; the research methods used to develop, validate and test them; the scope; and the main characteristics associated with their design. The literature review was performed based on journal articles and conference papers from 2000 to 2015 using the SCOPUS, Emerald Insight, EBSCO and Web of Science databases. Most of the analysed papers have as main objective the development of maturity models and their validation. The case study is the methodology that is most widely used by researchers to develop and validate maturity models. From the sustainability perspective, the scope of the analysed maturity models is the Triple Bottom Line (TBL and environmental dimension, focusing on a specific process (eco-design and new product development and without a broad SC perspective. The dominant characteristics associated with the design of the maturity models are the maturity grids and a continuous representation. In addition, results do not allow identifying a trend for a specific number of maturity levels. The comprehensive review, analysis, and synthesis of the maturity model literature represent an important contribution to the organization of this research area, making possible to clarify some confusion that exists about concepts, approaches and components of maturity models in sustainability. Various aspects associated with the maturity models (i.e., research objectives, research methods, scope and characteristics of the design of models are explored to contribute to the evolution and significance of this multidimensional area.

  15. Association between frontal sinus morphology and cervical vertebral maturation for the assessment of skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Hafiz Taha; Shaikh, Attiya; Fida, Mubassar

    2016-10-01

    Various methods have been proposed to evaluate a patient's developmental status. However, most of them lacked precision and failed to give a reliable estimate of skeletal maturity. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between frontal sinus morphology and cervical vertebral maturation for the assessment of skeletal maturity and to determine its validity in assessing the different stages of the adolescent growth spurt. A cross-sectional study was performed on the pretreatment lateral cephalograms of 252 subjects aged 8 to 21 years. The sample was divided into 6 groups based on the cervical vertebral maturation stages. The frontal sinus index was calculated by dividing the frontal sinus height and width, and the cervical stages were evaluated on the same radiograph. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare frontal sinus index values at different cervical stages, and the post hoc Dunnett T3 test was applied to compare frontal sinus index values between adjacent cervical stages for each sex. The Kendall tau-b values were computed to assess the correlation between the cervical stages and the sinus index. A P value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. The height and width of the frontal sinus were significantly larger in the male subjects than in the females. A significant association was found between the frontal sinus height and width and cervical stages (P ≤0.001) in both sexes. However, the changes in the frontal sinus index across the different cervical stages were found to be significant (P ≤0.001) in male subjects only. Similarly, a weak negative correlation was found between the sinus index and the cervical stages in male subjects (tau-b = -0.271; P cervical stages. The frontal sinus index cannot be used to identify the prepubertal, pubertal, and postpubertal stages of the adolescent growth spurt. Therefore, it cannot be used as a reliable maturity indicator. Copyright © 2016 American Association of

  16. Inverted temperature sequences: role of deformation partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujic, D.; Ashley, K. T.; Coble, M. A.; Coutand, I.; Kellett, D.; Whynot, N.

    2015-12-01

    The inverted metamorphism associated with the Main Central thrust zone in the Himalaya has been historically attributed to a number of tectonic processes. Here we show that there is actually a composite peak and deformation temperature sequence that formed in succession via different tectonic processes. The deformation partitioning seems to the have played a key role, and the magnitude of each process has varied along strike of the orogen. To explain the formation of the inverted metamorphic sequence across the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) in eastern Bhutan, we used Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material (RSCM) to determine the peak metamorphic temperatures and Ti-in-quartz thermobarometry to determine the deformation temperatures combined with thermochronology including published apatite and zircon U-Th/He and fission-track data and new 40Ar/39Ar dating of muscovite. The dataset was inverted using 3D-thermal-kinematic modeling to constrain the ranges of geological parameters such as fault geometry and slip rates, location and rates of localized basal accretion, and thermal properties of the crust. RSCM results indicate that there are two peak temperature sequences separated by a major thrust within the LHS. The internal temperature sequence shows an inverted peak temperature gradient of 12 °C/km; in the external (southern) sequence, the peak temperatures are constant across the structural sequence. Thermo-kinematic modeling suggest that the thermochronologic and thermobarometric data are compatible with a two-stage scenario: an Early-Middle Miocene phase of fast overthrusting of a hot hanging wall over a downgoing footwall and inversion of the synkinematic isotherms, followed by the formation of the external duplex developed by dominant underthrusting and basal accretion. To reconcile our observations with the experimental data, we suggest that pervasive ductile deformation within the upper LHS and along the Main Central thrust zone at its top stopped at

  17. Novel maturity parameters for mature to over-mature source rocks and oils based on the distribution of phenanthrene series compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixiang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Two additional novel and an optimized maturation parameters based on the distribution of phenanthrene series compounds are proposed and their relationships to EasyRo% (x are established: log(MPs/P = 0.19x + 0.08 (0.9% < EasyRo% < 2.1%; log(MPs/P = 0.64x − 0.86 (2.1% < EasyRo% < 3.4%; log(DMPs/TMPs = 0.71x − 0.55 (0.9% < EasyRo% < 3.4%; log(MTR = 0.84x − 0.75 (0.9% < EasyRo% < 3.4%. These significant positive correlations are strong argument for using log(MPs/P, log(DMPs/TMPs and log(MTR as maturity parameters, especially for mature to over-mature source rocks.

  18. Maintaining ancient organelles: mitochondrial biogenesis and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Rick B; Horton, Julie L; Kelly, Daniel P

    2015-05-22

    The ultrastructure of the cardiac myocyte is remarkable for the high density of mitochondria tightly packed between sarcomeres. This structural organization is designed to provide energy in the form of ATP to fuel normal pump function of the heart. A complex system comprised of regulatory factors and energy metabolic machinery, encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, is required for the coordinate control of cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis, maturation, and high-capacity function. This process involves the action of a transcriptional regulatory network that builds and maintains the mitochondrial genome and drives the expression of the energy transduction machinery. This finely tuned system is responsive to developmental and physiological cues, as well as changes in fuel substrate availability. Deficiency of components critical for mitochondrial energy production frequently manifests as a cardiomyopathic phenotype, underscoring the requirement to maintain high respiration rates in the heart. Although a precise causative role is not clear, there is increasing evidence that perturbations in this regulatory system occur in the hypertrophied and failing heart. This review summarizes current knowledge and highlights recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional regulatory factors and signaling networks that serve to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the mammalian heart. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Human development: from conception to maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemiro Carlos Sgarbieri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main objective of this review was to describe and emphasize the care that a woman must have in the period prior to pregnancy, as well as throughout pregnancy and after the birth of the baby, cares and duties that should continue to be followed by mother and child throughout the first years of the child’s life. Such cares are of nutritional, behavioral and lifestyle natures, and also involve the father and the whole family. Human development, from conception to maturity, consists of a critical and important period due to the multitude of intrinsic genetic and environmental factors that influence, positively or negatively, the person's entire life. The human being, who originated and passed his/her first phase of development in the womb, receives influence from different factors: a of parental origin (father and mother, including health and lifestyle of the father and mother, genetic inheritance, nutrition of the mother prior to and during pregnancy; b events that affected the mother and hence the child under development in intrauterine life, at birth (delivery, during perinatal period, and throughout the early years of life. The fragility of development continues throughout the preschool, school and adolescent periods during which proper nutrition with a balanced lifestyle is essential and depends on guidance from the parents, caregivers and teachers.

  20. Arnold Gesell and the maturation controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Thomas C

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the work of Arnold Lucius Gesell and argues that he not only paved the way for contemporary research in motor development, but that he and colleagues anticipated fundamental issues about growth that must be addressed by psychologists and neuroscientists who are committed to the advancement of developmental science. Arnold Lucius Gesell was a pioneer in developmental psychology when the field was in its infancy. He worked diligently for the rights of physically and mentally handicapped children to receive special education that would enable them to find gainful employment. Gesell's writings in books and popular magazines increased public awareness of and support for preschool education and better foster care for orphans. Despite these achievements, many of his successors have questioned his views about infant development. Developmental psychologists have criticized Gesell for proposing a stage theory of infant growth that has fallen into disfavor among contemporary researchers. His conception of development as a maturational process has been challenged for allegedly reducing complex behavioral, perceptual, and learning processes to genetic factors. The author rejects this overly simplistic interpretation and contends that Gesell's work continues to stand the test of time.

  1. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT and accelerated ageing test (AAT. Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest.

  2. Optimizing development projects in mature basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swan, P.J. [BP Exploration, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1995-08-01

    BP Exploration wishes to grow its gas business substantially and the Southern North Sea area expects to be a significant contributor to this growth. The Southern North Sea gas basin is characterised by a relatively large number of small prospects and discoveries lying within the catchment areas of existing pipeline systems serving larger fields currently in production. This growth will be achieved through expansion of production from existing large mature fields and new satellite developments, connected to existing pipeline systems. Significant modification to existing infrastructure will be required to bring the new production on stream. The low materiality of many of these new developments means that, based on current cost paradigms, they are sub-economic or do not offer returns commensurate with the risk. Also, implementation based on classical approaches tends to be resource-intensive in terms of key skills. Critical areas of concern in delivering growth objectives therefore relate to management of cost, implementation time and productivity of key human resources. The general approach adopted in pursuit of high performance includes a number of features: Innovative approaches to the service industries; simplification of equipment; streamlining of methodologies; application of novel technology; alignment of motivation of all contributors to overall objectives; and shifting the paradigm of risk. BP believes that this approach is a major breakthrough in extending and expanding the life of its assets in the Southern North Sea and is representative of the trend of optimization in the extended life of the Basin in general.

  3. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model Beta Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Drummond, R.; Giroti, Tony; Houseman, Doug; Knight, Mark; Levinson, Alex; longcore, Wayne; Lowe, Randy; Mater, J.; Oliver, Terry V.; Slack, Phil; Tolk, Andreas; Montgomery, Austin

    2011-12-02

    The GridWise Architecture Council was formed by the U.S. Department of Energy to promote and enable interoperability among the many entities that interact with the electric power system. This balanced team of industry representatives proposes principles for the development of interoperability concepts and standards. The Council provides industry guidance and tools that make it an available resource for smart grid implementations. In the spirit of advancing interoperability of an ecosystem of smart grid devices and systems, this document presents a model for evaluating the maturity of the artifacts and processes that specify the agreement of parties to collaborate across an information exchange interface. You are expected to have a solid understanding of large, complex system integration concepts and experience in dealing with software component interoperation. Those without this technical background should read the Executive Summary for a description of the purpose and contents of the document. Other documents, such as checklists, guides, and whitepapers, exist for targeted purposes and audiences. Please see the www.gridwiseac.org website for more products of the Council that may be of interest to you.

  4. Reliability of cervical vertebral maturation staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Billie-Jean; Burnside, Girvan; Harrison, Jayne E

    2016-07-01

    Growth and its prediction are important for the success of many orthodontic treatments. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method for the assessment of mandibular growth. A group of 20 orthodontic clinicians, inexperienced in CVM staging, was trained to use the improved version of the CVM method for the assessment of mandibular growth with a teaching program. They independently assessed 72 consecutive lateral cephalograms, taken at Liverpool University Dental Hospital, on 2 occasions. The cephalograms were presented in 2 different random orders and interspersed with 11 additional images for standardization. The intraobserver and interobserver agreement values were evaluated using the weighted kappa statistic. The intraobserver and interobserver agreement values were substantial (weighted kappa, 0.6-0.8). The overall intraobserver agreement was 0.70 (SE, 0.01), with average agreement of 89%. The interobserver agreement values were 0.68 (SE, 0.03) for phase 1 and 0.66 (SE, 0.03) for phase 2, with average interobserver agreement of 88%. The intraobserver and interobserver agreement values of classifying the vertebral stages with the CVM method were substantial. These findings demonstrate that this method of CVM classification is reproducible and reliable. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reticulocyte maturity indices in iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Wollmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the reticulocyte maturity indices (low, medium, and high fluorescence ratios in iron deficient 1- to 6-year-old children, and identify the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in this population. Methods: The present study included 39 subjects, divided into two groups: control subjects (n = 33, and subjects with iron deficiency anemia (n = 6. The results were analyzed by Student's t-test for comparison of means. Differences were considered significant when two-tailed p-value < 0.05. Results: Subjects with iron deficiency anemia presented increases in the proportion of mean (10.3 ± 4.7% vs. 6.0 ± 3.4%; p-value = 0.003, and high fluorescence reticulocytes (2.3 ± 0.87% vs. 0.9 ± 0.9%; p-value = 0.03 compared to the control group. The prevalence of anemia in this population was 15% (n = 6. Conclusion: The indices related to immaturity of reticulocytes are higher in the presence of iron deficiency, thus demonstrating a deficiency in the raw material to form hemoglobin and are, therefore, possible early markers of iron deficiency and anemia. We emphasize the need to standardize these indices for use in clinical practice and lab test results.

  6. Detection of Variation in Long-Term Micropropagated Mature Pistachio via DNA-Based Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Hülya; Suzerer, Veysel; Tilkat, Engin; Onay, Ahmet; Çiftçi, Yelda Ozden

    2016-12-01

    Determination of genetic stability of in vitro-grown plantlets is needed for safe and large-scale production of mature trees. In this study, genetic variation of long-term micropropagated mature pistachio developed through direct shoot bud regeneration using apical buds (protocol A) and in vitro-derived leaves (protocol B) was assessed via DNA-based molecular markers. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were employed, and the obtained PIC values from RAPD (0.226), ISSR (0.220), and AFLP (0.241) showed that micropropagation of pistachio for different periods of time resulted in "reasonable polymorphism" among donor plant and its 18 clones. Mantel's test showed a consistence polymorphism level between marker systems based on similarity matrices. In conclusion, this is the first study on occurrence of genetic variability in long-term micropropagated mature pistachio plantlets. The obtained results clearly indicated that different marker approaches used in this study are reliable for assessing tissue culture-induced variations in long-term cultured pistachio plantlets.

  7. Brain development in rodents and humans: Identifying benchmarks of maturation and vulnerability to injury across species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Bridgette D.; Blomgren, Klas; Gimlin, Kayleen; Ferriero, Donna M.; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic and traumatic brain injuries are leading causes of long-term mortality and disability in infants and children. Although several preclinical models using rodents of different ages have been developed, species differences in the timing of key brain maturation events can render comparisons of vulnerability and regenerative capacities difficult to interpret. Traditional models of developmental brain injury have utilized rodents at postnatal day 7–10 as being roughly equivalent to a term human infant, based historically on the measurement of post-mortem brain weights during the 1970s. Here we will examine fundamental brain development processes that occur in both rodents and humans, to delineate a comparable time course of postnatal brain development across species. We consider the timing of neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, gliogenesis, oligodendrocyte maturation and age-dependent behaviors that coincide with developmentally regulated molecular and biochemical changes. In general, while the time scale is considerably different, the sequence of key events in brain maturation is largely consistent between humans and rodents. Further, there are distinct parallels in regional vulnerability as well as functional consequences in response to brain injuries. With a focus on developmental hypoxicischemic encephalopathy and traumatic brain injury, this review offers guidelines for researchers when considering the most appropriate rodent age for the developmental stage or process of interest to approximate human brain development. PMID:23583307

  8. Neonatal Transplantation Confers Maturation of PSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes Conducive to Modeling Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Gun-Sik; Lee, Dong I; Tampakakis, Emmanouil; Murphy, Sean; Andersen, Peter; Uosaki, Hideki; Chelko, Stephen; Chakir, Khalid; Hong, Ingie; Seo, Kinya; Chen, Huei-Sheng Vincent; Chen, Xiongwen; Basso, Cristina; Houser, Steven R; Tomaselli, Gordon F; O'Rourke, Brian; Judge, Daniel P; Kass, David A; Kwon, Chulan

    2017-01-10

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) offer unprecedented opportunities for disease modeling and personalized medicine. However, PSC-derived cells exhibit fetal-like characteristics and remain immature in a dish. This has emerged as a major obstacle for their application for late-onset diseases. We previously showed that there is a neonatal arrest of long-term cultured PSC-derived cardiomyocytes (PSC-CMs). Here, we demonstrate that PSC-CMs mature into adult CMs when transplanted into neonatal hearts. PSC-CMs became similar to adult CMs in morphology, structure, and function within a month of transplantation into rats. The similarity was further supported by single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis. Moreover, this in vivo maturation allowed patient-derived PSC-CMs to reveal the disease phenotype of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, which manifests predominantly in adults. This study lays a foundation for understanding human CM maturation and pathogenesis and can be instrumental in PSC-based modeling of adult heart diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A quantitative assay measuring the function of lipase maturation factor 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fen; Doolittle, Mark H.; Péterfy, Miklós

    2009-01-01

    Newly synthesized lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and related members of the lipase gene family require an endoplasmic reticulum maturation factor for attainment of enzyme activity. This factor has been identified as lipase maturation factor 1 (Lmf1), and mutations affecting its function and/or expression result in combined lipase deficiency (cld) and hypertriglyceridemia. To assess the functional impact of Lmf1 sequence variations, both naturally occurring and induced, we report the development of a cell-based assay using LPL activity as a quantitative reporter of Lmf1 function. The assay uses a cell line homozygous for the cld mutation, which renders endogenous Lmf1 nonfunctional. LPL transfected into the mutant cld cell line fails to attain activity; however, cotransfection of LPL with wild-type Lmf1 restores its ability to support normal lipase maturation. In this report, we describe optimized conditions that ensure the detection of a complete range of Lmf1 function (full, partial, or complete loss of function) using LPL activity as the quantitative reporter. To illustrate the dynamic range of the assay, we tested several novel mutations in mouse Lmf1. Our results demonstrate the ability of the assay to detect and analyze Lmf1 mutations having a wide range of effects on Lmf1 function and protein expression. PMID:19471043

  10. Changes in gene expression associated with reproductive maturation in wild female baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Courtney C; Tung, Jenny; Wray, Gregory A; Alberts, Susan C

    2012-01-01

    Changes in gene expression during development play an important role in shaping morphological and behavioral differences, including between humans and nonhuman primates. Although many of the most striking developmental changes occur during early development, reproductive maturation represents another critical window in primate life history. However, this process is difficult to study at the molecular level in natural primate populations. Here, we took advantage of ovarian samples made available through an unusual episode of human-wildlife conflict to identify genes that are important in this process. Specifically, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to compare genome-wide gene expression patterns in the ovarian tissue of juvenile and adult female baboons from Amboseli National Park, Kenya. We combined this information with prior evidence of selection occurring on two primate lineages (human and chimpanzee). We found that in cases in which genes were both differentially expressed over the course of ovarian maturation and also linked to lineage-specific selection this selective signature was much more likely to occur in regulatory regions than in coding regions. These results suggest that adaptive change in the development of the primate ovary may be largely driven at the mechanistic level by selection on gene regulation, potentially in relationship to the physiology or timing of female reproductive maturation.

  11. Anatomy and Cytogenetic Identification of a Wheat-Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng Line with Early Maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangming Wang

    Full Text Available In previous studies, our research team successfully transferred the Ns genome from Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng into Triticum aestivum (common wheat cv. 7182 using embryo culture. In the present study, one of these lines, i.e., hybrid progeny 25-10-3, which matured about 10-14 days earlier than its wheat parent, was assessed using sequenced characterized amplified region (SCAR analysis, EST-SSR and EST-STS molecular markers, and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH. We found that this was a stable wheat-P. huashanica disomic addition line (2n = 44 = 22 II and the results demonstrated that it was a 6Ns disomic chromosome addition line, but it exhibited many different features compared with previously characterized lines, i.e., a longer awn, early maturation, and no twin spikelets. It was considered to be an early-maturing variety based on the early stage of inflorescence initiation in field experiments and binocular microscope observations over three consecutive years. This characteristic was distinct, especially from the single ridge stage and double ridge stage until the glume stage. In addition, it had a higher photosynthesis rate and economic values than common wheat cv. 7182, i.e., more spikelets per spike, more florets per spikelet, more kernels per spike, and a higher thousand-grain weight. These results suggest that this material may comprise a genetic pool of beneficial genes or chromosome segments, which are suitable for introgression to improve the quality of common wheat.

  12. Effect of maturity stages, variety and storage environment on sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study clearly demonstrated the importance of integrated agro-technology of combining cultivar, maturity stage and storage environment in shelf life improvement of tomato by reducing the rate of ripening and utilization of sugar, reducing water loss and maintaining marketability. Key words: Tomato, maturity stage, ...

  13. Regeneration of tropical maize lines ( Zea mays l .) from mature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of immature zygotic embryos as an explant for maize regeneration has been hampered by the strictly limited suitable duration of immature embryos for culture. In contrast, mature zygotic embryos harvested from dry seeds are ubiquitous. However, generally mature embryos and especially tropical maize genotypes ...

  14. Age of biological maturity of Malaysian girls by ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Laily Abu Bakar; Prasanta K Majumdar; Tan Boon Ann

    1983-01-01

    This study estimates the age of biological maturity, defined as the end of adolescent sterility, of Malaysian girls by employing an indiredt methodology. Biological maturity usually occurs about 3 years after puberty. Adolescent subfecundity is due to anovulatory cycles or to short luteal phases among menarchial girls. In this study, age at biological maturity is estimated by considering retrospective fertility and family survey data on marriage, 1st birt, and contraceptive use. The waiting time for the biologically mature females to conceive is 3.0 months; 3.2 months among the Malays, 2.7 months among the Chinese, and 2.8 months among the Indians. The maximum age of attaining biological maturity is 20 for all ethnic groups except Indians (19 years). The maximum age is estimated by considering females whose 1st pregnancy ended in a live birth and who have been living most of the time with their husbands since marriage, with no contraceptive usage. The expected age of biological maturity at birth is 15.6 years; 15.3 years for the Malays, 15.4 years for the Chinese, and 14.8 years for the Indians. The means age of attaining biological maturity coincides with the expected age of attaining biological maturity at birth.

  15. Methodology for Diagnostics of the Company Management and Technological Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Martynyuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to the measurement and assessment of the company technological maturity level and management maturity apart, formulated in scientific researches and practical recommendations, significantly differ according to their purpose, content and depth of the factors analysis. Studies of the company technological maturity and possibility for implementing business processes and certain IT technologies have become more advanced in some degree. The general idea of forming a model of diagnostics of the management and technological maturity is based on the determination of prevailing company system influence components. Management techniques are a nucleus of the model, and the innovation level of management techniques is an energy impulse inciting to development. Basing on the analysis performed, the author created a concept of levels of the company management and technological maturity considering the main parameters of the company management and technological maturity. A composite algorithm was proposed for determining the level of managerial technological maturity (LMTM, end exposition of a complex of management techniques to ensure the company dynamic progress based on determining a level of the management and technological maturity. The advantages and disadvantages are determined by the methodology. The performed approbation has confirmed the approach validity and its usefulness. The approbation shows the reliability and unambiguity of interpreting results. To use it for bigger enterprises and corporations, it is not even necessary to change identification parameters.

  16. Pricing constant maturity credit default swaps under jumo dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jönsson, H.; Schoutens, W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the pricing of Constant Maturity Credit Default Swaps (CMCDS) under single sided jump models. The CMCDS offers default protection in exchange for a floating premium which is periodically reset and indexed to the market spread on a CDS with constant maturity tenor written on

  17. Revaluation of maturity and stability indices for compost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BOD/COD ratio of compost was studied in conjunction with C/N ratio as commonly maturity index. Carbonaceous materials as well as nitrogenous materials declined in open-air conditions during 20 weeks. C/N ratio was correlated with BOD/COD, a couple parameters to qualify the compost was mature and stable.

  18. Pharmaceutical Options for Triggering of Final Oocyte Maturation in ART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Juan Carlos; Humaidan, Peter; Bernabéu, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Since the pioneering days of in vitro fertilization, hCG has been the gold standard to induce final follicular maturation. We herein reviewed different pharmaceutical options for triggering of final oocyte maturation in ART. The new upcoming agent seems to be GnRHa with its potential advantages o...

  19. Effect of melatonin on in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Vs 17.67, 15.68, 16.53). In conclusion in this experiment, melatonin cannot improve cumulus cell expansion and nuclear maturation of bovine oocytes. When concentrations is high, melatonin may affect bovine oocytes meiotic maturation at metaphase-1 stage, but it is improbable melatonin be toxic for bovine oocytes.

  20. The Self--The Global Factor of Emotional Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Erika

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between emotional maturity and the developing self in the gifted individual is examined. Emotional maturity is seen to involve the integration of intrapersonal and interpersonal aspects of the personality. The developing self is thought to be more than the sum of its components and becomes a global factor in the development of a…

  1. Self-Esteem and Emotional Maturity in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jupian J.; Sand, Margaret C.

    1981-01-01

    Determined if self-esteem is related to emotional maturity. Scores from 200 male and female college students on Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory and on the Washburne Social-Adjustment Inventory were correlated. Students high in self-esteem were found to be more emotionally mature than students low in self-esteem. (Author)

  2. Tomato seeds maturity detection system based on chlorophyll fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Meng, Zhijun

    2016-10-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity can be used as seed maturity and quality evaluation indicator. Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity of seed coats is tested to judge the level of chlorophyll content in seeds, and further to judge the maturity and quality of seeds. This research developed a detection system of tomato seeds maturity based on chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology, the system included an excitation light source unit, a fluorescent signal acquisition unit and a data processing unit. The excitation light source unit consisted of two high power LEDs, two radiators and two constant current power supplies, and it was designed to excite chlorophyll fluorescence of tomato seeds. The fluorescent signal acquisition unit was made up of a fluorescence spectrometer, an optical fiber, an optical fiber scaffolds and a narrowband filter. The data processing unit mainly included a computer. Tomato fruits of green ripe stage, discoloration stage, firm ripe stage and full ripe stage were harvested, and their seeds were collected directly. In this research, the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system was used to collect fluorescence spectrums of tomato seeds of different maturities. Principal component analysis (PCA) method was utilized to reduce the dimension of spectral data and extract principal components, and PCA was combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to establish discriminant model of tomato seeds maturity, the discriminant accuracy was greater than 90%. Research results show that using chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology is feasible for seeds maturity detection, and the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system has high detection accuracy.

  3. Mature Students Speak Up: Career Exploration and the Working Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Terilyn

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study was undertaken to learn more about how mature students perceive the career counselling process in a post-secondary institution. Through the use of critical incident technique this study examined how three mature students interpret their relationship between themselves and their counsellors. Significant factors identified as…

  4. Evaluation of sexual maturity among adolescent male sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanner staging and testicular volume assessment were both used as models for evaluating stages of sexual maturation among SCA patients and their normal counterparts matched for age and socioeconomic status. Results. SCA patients showed delayed onset and completion of sexual maturation. TV of subjects was ...

  5. Comparative study of the nutritional composition of matured green ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    peppery fruit”. The fruit serve as a stimulant and eaten raw. It is still green when matured and turn from yellow to red if left for sometime after reaching maturity. Dennettia tripetala is one of the most cherished stimulants. However, there is lack of ...

  6. Relationship between Problem-Solving Ability and Career Maturity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between problem-solving ability and career maturity of secondary school students in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. 230 final year secondary school students completed self-report measures of problem solving and career maturity. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyse the data ...

  7. Five-Factor Personality Traits as Predictor of Career Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atli, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to determine the predictive strength of personality traits based on the five-factor theory on the level of career maturity Research Methods: The sample of the study included a total of 429 high school students, 248 females (57.8%) and 181 males (42.2%). The study utilized the "Career Maturity Scale" to determine…

  8. Mature age job seekers : The role of proactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Bock, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - In the context of demographic and economic changes, helping mature age job seekers find employment is imperative. The purpose of this paper is to examine mature age job seekers' proactive personality as a moderator of the relationship between age and job search intensity; and to examine

  9. Asset management maturity in public infrastructure: the case of Rijkswaterstaat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, L.; Ligtvoet, A.; van den Boomen, M.; Wessels, Peter; van der Lei, T.E.; Herder, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    In times of restructuring governmental policies and resources, the
    need for strategic asset management is growing. Maturity models offer
    organisations a structure to assist them in improving their asset management
    performance. We present the results of a repeated maturity measurement

  10. Assessing organisational governance maturity: A retail industry case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Marius Wessels

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For any business to operate effectively, a governance framework that operates at the relevant maturity level is required. An organisational governance maturity framework is a tool that leadership can use to determine governance maturity. This study aims to determine whether the organisational governance maturity framework (developed by Wilkinson can be applied to the selected retail industry organisation to assess the maturity of the organisation’s governance, limited to the ‘leadership’ attribute. Firstly, a high-level literature review on ethical leadership, ethical decision-making, ethical foundation and culture (‘tone at the top’, and organisational governance and maturity was conducted. Secondly, a Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE listed South African-based company was selected for the empirical part of the study using a single case study research design. The empirical results confirmed that the organisational governance maturity framework can be used to determine the maturity level of organisational governance for the selected attribute of ‘leadership’

  11. Vision-based judgment of tomato maturity under growth conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the picking time of tomato and design the control strategy for the harvesting robot, the judgment of tomato maturity under natural conditions is ... Hue-mean and red-green color-difference image mean can be used as a criterion for the judgment of tomato maturity, and the tests indicated that the redgreen mean ...

  12. Measuring chain digitisation maturity: an assessment of Dutch retail branches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.; Batenburg, R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop a validated measurement model and typology for chain digitisation maturity, defined as the degree of interorganisational collaboration through ICT. Design/methodology/approach: Through a literature (meta) study, 22 existing maturity models are found and

  13. Experiences with the Capability Maturity Model in a research environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, van der M.J.; Vreke, J.; Wal, van der B.; Symons, A.

    1996-01-01

    The project described here was aimed at evaluating the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) in the context of a research organization. Part of the evaluation was a standard CMM assessment. It was found that CMM could be applied to a research organization, although its five maturity levels were considered

  14. 7 CFR 915.332 - Florida avocado maturity regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Florida avocado maturity regulation. 915.332 Section... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Container and Pack Regulations § 915.332 Florida avocado maturity regulation. (a...

  15. 7 CFR 944.31 - Avocado import maturity regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avocado import maturity regulation. 944.31 Section 944...; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944.31 Avocado import maturity regulation. (a) Pursuant to section 8e [7 U.S.C. 608e...—Fruits; Import Regulations, the importation into the United States of any avocados, except the Hass...

  16. The maturation and germination of Phytophthora ramorum Chlamydospores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron L. Smith; Everett M. Hansen

    2008-01-01

    Chlamydospores are a distinctive feature of Phytophthora ramorum. They are formed quickly in agar, and within colonized leaves. We followed their development and maturation in vitro and in vivo, and studied conditions affecting their germination. Cell walls of mature P. ramorum chlamydospores...

  17. Variations in fatty acid composition during maturation of cumin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in fatty acids were studied during maturation of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds cultivated in the North-Eastern region of Tunisia (Menzel Temim). The fruits matured in 49 Days after flowering (DAF). The first results show a rapid oil accumulation started in newly formed fruits (8.2%) and continued until their full ...

  18. Mature neurons dynamically restrict apoptosis via redundant premitochondrial brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, Ryan P; Swahari, Vijay; Nakamura, Ayumi; Xie, Alison X; Hammond, Scott M; Deshmukh, Mohanish

    2016-12-01

    Apoptotic cell death is critical for the early development of the nervous system, but once the nervous system is established, the apoptotic pathway becomes highly restricted in mature neurons. However, the mechanisms underlying this increased resistance to apoptosis in these mature neurons are not completely understood. We have previously found that members of the miR-29 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are induced with neuronal maturation and that overexpression of miR-29 was sufficient to restrict apoptosis in neurons. To determine whether endogenous miR-29 alone was responsible for the inhibition of cytochrome c release in mature neurons, we examined the status of the apoptotic pathway in sympathetic neurons deficient for all three miR-29 family members. Unexpectedly, we found that the apoptotic pathway remained largely restricted in miR-29-deficient mature neurons. We therefore probed for additional mechanisms by which mature neurons resist apoptosis. We identify miR-24 as another miRNA that is upregulated in the maturing cerebellum and sympathetic neurons that can act redundantly with miR-29 by targeting a similar repertoire of prodeath BH3-only genes. Overall, our results reveal that mature neurons engage multiple redundant brakes to restrict the apoptotic pathway and ensure their long-term survival. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  19. Mature clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats RNA (crRNA) length is measured by a ruler mechanism anchored at the precursor processing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatoum-Aslan, Asma; Maniv, Inbal; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2011-12-27

    Precise RNA processing is fundamental to all small RNA-mediated interference pathways. In prokaryotes, clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci encode small CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that protect against invasive genetic elements by antisense targeting. CRISPR loci are transcribed as a long precursor that is cleaved within repeat sequences by CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins. In many organisms, this primary processing generates crRNA intermediates that are subject to additional nucleolytic trimming to render mature crRNAs of specific lengths. The molecular mechanisms underlying this maturation event remain poorly understood. Here, we defined the genetic requirements for crRNA primary processing and maturation in Staphylococcus epidermidis. We show that changes in the position of the primary processing site result in extended or diminished maturation to generate mature crRNAs of constant length. These results indicate that crRNA maturation occurs by a ruler mechanism anchored at the primary processing site. We also show that maturation is mediated by specific cas genes distinct from those genes involved in primary processing, showing that this event is directed by CRISPR/Cas loci.

  20. A model-independent view of the mature organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, M.; Langston, D.

    1996-12-31

    Over the last 10 years, industry has been dealing with the issues of process and organizational maturity. This focus on process is driven by the success that manufacturing organizations have had implementing the management principles of W. Edwards Deming and Joseph M. Juran. The organizational-maturity focus is driven by organizations striving to be ISO 9000 compliant or to achieve a specific level on one of the maturity models. Unfortunately, each of the models takes a specific view into what is a very broad arena. That is to say, each model addresses only a specific subset of the characteristics of maturity. This paper attempts to extend beyond these specific views to answer the general question, What is a mature organization and its relationship to Quantitative management and statistical process control?

  1. Patterns of pulmonary maturation in normal and abnormal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldkrand, J W; Slattery, D S

    1979-03-01

    Fetal pulmonary maturation may be a variable event depending on various feto-maternal environmental and biochemical influences. The patterns of maturation were studied in 211 amniotic fluid samples from 123 patients (normal 55; diabetes 23; Rh sensitization 19; preeclampsia 26). The phenomenon of globule formation from the amniotic fluid lipid extract and is relation to pulmonary maturity was utilized for this analysis. Validation of this technique is presented. A normal curve was constructed from 22 to 42 weeks; gestation and compared to the abnormal pregnancies. Patients with class A, B, and C diabetes and Rh-sensitized pregnancies had delayed pulmonary maturation. Patients with class D diabetes and preclampsia paralleled the normal course of maturation. A discussion of these results and their possible cause is presented.

  2. Customer-Provider Strategic Alignment: A Maturity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luftman, Jerry; Brown, Carol V.; Balaji, S.

    This chapter presents a new model for assessing the maturity of a ­customer-provider relationship from a collaborative service delivery perspective: the Customer-Provider Strategic Alignment Maturity (CPSAM) Model. This model builds on recent research for effectively managing the customer-provider relationship in IT service outsourcing contexts and a validated model for assessing alignment across internal IT service units and their business customers within the same organization. After reviewing relevant literature by service science and information systems researchers, the six overarching components of the maturity model are presented: value measurements, governance, partnership, communications, human resources and skills, and scope and architecture. A key assumption of the model is that all of the components need be addressed to assess and improve customer-provider alignment. Examples of specific metrics for measuring the maturity level of each component over the five levels of maturity are also presented.

  3. early maturing mutants in Indica rice and their traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Liu Xueyu; Yang Hefeng; Xu Chenwu; Gu Shiliang

    1998-01-01

    The correlation and genetic parameters of eleven agronomic characters of 50 early mature lines induced from late mature cultivar, IR 1529-68-3-2 were studied by morphological classification and correlation and regression analysis. The results showed that: 1. The early mutants could be divided into two ecotype: early mature type and medium mature type of mid-maturity rice. 2. The 1000-grain weight of early mutants negatively correlated with the length of growing period. 3. According to direct path coefficients, the relation with heading period of early mutants was in order of 1000-grain-weight>plant height>seed sterility. 4.The higher heritability in broad sense were found in plant height, 1000 grain weight and heading period of the early mutants

  4. Next-Generation Sequencing of Antibody Display Repertoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Rouet

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In vitro selection technology has transformed the development of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Using methods such as phage, ribosome, and yeast display, high affinity binders can be selected from diverse repertoires. Here, we review strategies for the next-generation sequencing (NGS of phage- and other antibody-display libraries, as well as NGS platforms and analysis tools. Moreover, we discuss recent examples relating to the use of NGS to assess library diversity, clonal enrichment, and affinity maturation.

  5. Geoseq: a tool for dissecting deep-sequencing datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homann Robert

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Datasets generated on deep-sequencing platforms have been deposited in various public repositories such as the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO, Sequence Read Archive (SRA hosted by the NCBI, or the DNA Data Bank of Japan (ddbj. Despite being rich data sources, they have not been used much due to the difficulty in locating and analyzing datasets of interest. Results Geoseq http://geoseq.mssm.edu provides a new method of analyzing short reads from deep sequencing experiments. Instead of mapping the reads to reference genomes or sequences, Geoseq maps a reference sequence against the sequencing data. It is web-based, and holds pre-computed data from public libraries. The analysis reduces the input sequence to tiles and measures the coverage of each tile in a sequence library through the use of suffix arrays. The user can upload custom target sequences or use gene/miRNA names for the search and get back results as plots and spreadsheet files. Geoseq organizes the public sequencing data using a controlled vocabulary, allowing identification of relevant libraries by organism, tissue and type of experiment. Conclusions Analysis of small sets of sequences against deep-sequencing datasets, as well as identification of public datasets of interest, is simplified by Geoseq. We applied Geoseq to, a identify differential isoform expression in mRNA-seq datasets, b identify miRNAs (microRNAs in libraries, and identify mature and star sequences in miRNAS and c to identify potentially mis-annotated miRNAs. The ease of using Geoseq for these analyses suggests its utility and uniqueness as an analysis tool.

  6. Thermal fatigue of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deksnis, E.; Ciric, D.; Falter, H.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal fatigue life of S65c beryllium castellated to a geometry 6 x 6 x (8-10)mm deep has been tested for steady heat fluxes of 3 MW/m 2 to 5 MW/m 2 and under pulsed heat fluxes (10-20 MW/m 2 ) for which the time averaged heat flux is 5 MW/m 2 . These tests were carried out in the JET neutral beam test facility A test sequence with peak surface temperatures ≤ 600 degrees C produced no visible fatigue cracks. In the second series of tests, with T max ≤ 750 degrees C evidence for fatigue appeared after a minimum of 1350 stress cycles. These fatigue data are discussed in view of the observed lack of thermal fatigue in JET plasma operations with beryllium PFC. JET experience with S65b and S65c is reviewed; recent operations with Φ = 25 MW/m 2 and sustained melting/resolidification are also presented. The need for a failure criterion for finite element analyses of Be PFC lifetimes is discussed

  7. Periostin in Mature Stage Localized Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Woo; Park, Jung Tae; Kim, Jung Ho; Koh, Seong-Joon; Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Soyun; Park, Hyun-Sun

    2017-06-01

    Periostin is a novel matricellular protein expressed in many tissues, including bone, periodontal ligament, and skin. Although its expression is prominent in various fibrotic conditions, studies of periostin in localized scleroderma are rare. To investigate the expression of periostin and other molecules in localized scleroderma. A retrospective study of 14 patients with confirmed mature stage localized scleroderma was undertaken. Fourteen age-matched and biopsy site-matched subjects with normal skin were included as controls. Collagen fiber deposition, periostin, procollagen, transforming growth factor-β, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression were assessed and compared between the two groups. Co-localization of α-smooth muscle actin and periostin was evaluated using confocal microscopy. Periostin was predominantly expressed along the dermo-epidermal junction in the controls. Conversely, patients with localized scleroderma demonstrated increased collagen fiber deposition and periostin expression that was more widely distributed along the entire dermis. MMP-1 staining showed increased expression in the epidermis and dermis of patients compared to scanty expression in the controls. A semi-quantitative evaluation showed a higher proportion of excessive collagen bundle deposition (57.1% vs. 7.1%, p =0.013), diffuse periostin positivity (42.9% vs. 0%, p =0.016), and moderate MMP-1 positivity (71.4% vs. 7.1%, p =0.001) in patients than in the controls. Compared to the controls, patients with localized scleroderma had enhanced periostin expression corresponding to increased collagen fiber deposition and unexpected overexpression of MMP-1. The results of this human in vivo study may implicate the pathogenesis of localized scleroderma.

  8. Langerhans cell sarcoma following marginal zone lymphoma: expanding the knowledge on mature B cell plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Maria Raffaella; De Falco, Giulia; Rocca, Bruno Jim; Barone, Aurora; Amato, Teresa; Bellan, Cristiana; Lazzi, Stefano; Leoncini, Lorenzo

    2015-10-01

    The concept of unidirectional differentiation of the haematopoietic stem cell has been challenged after recent findings that human B cell progenitors and even mature B cells can be reprogrammed into histiocytic/dendritic cells by altering expression of lineage-associated transcription factors. The conversion of mature B cell lymphomas to Langerhans cell neoplasms is not well documented. Three previous reports have described clonally related follicular lymphoma and Langerhans cell tumours, whereas no case has been published of clonally related marginal zone lymphoma and Langerhans cell sarcoma. We describe the case of a 77-year-old patient who developed a Langerhans cell sarcoma and 6 years later a nodal marginal zone lymphoma. Mutation status examination showed 100 % gene identity to the germline sequence, suggesting direct trans-differentiation or dedifferentiation of the nodal marginal zone lymphoma to the Langerhans cell sarcoma rather than a common progenitor. We found inactivation of paired box 5 (PAX-5) in the lymphoma cells by methylation, along with duplication of part of the long arm of chromosomes 16 and 17 in the sarcoma cells. The absence of PAX-5 could have triggered B cells to differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cells. On the other hand, chromosomal imbalances might have activated genes involved in myeloid lineage maturation, transcription activation and oncogenesis. We hypothesize that this occurred because of previous therapies for nodal marginal zone lymphoma. Better understanding of this phenomenon may help in unravelling the molecular interplay between transcription factors during haematopoietic lineage commitment and may expand the spectrum of clonally related mature B cell neoplasms and Langerhans cell tumours.

  9. Melatonin accelerates maturation inducing hormone (MIH): induced oocyte maturation in carps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattoraj, Asamanja; Bhattacharyya, Sharmistha; Basu, Dipanjan; Bhattacharya, Shelley; Bhattacharya, Samir; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2005-02-01

    The present communication is an attempt to demonstrate the influence of melatonin on the action of maturation inducing hormone (MIH) on the maturation of oocytes in carps. The oocytes from gravid female major carp Labeo rohita were isolated and incubated separately in Medium 199 containing (a) only MIH (1 microg/ml), (b) only melatonin (at concentrations of 50, 100 or 500 pg/ml), and (c) both melatonin and MIH, but at different time intervals. In the latter group, melatonin was added to the incubating medium either (i) 4 h before addition of MIH, (ii) 2 h before addition of MIH, (iii) co-administered with MIH (0 h interval) or (iv) 2 h after addition of MIH. In each case, oocytes were further incubated for 4, 8, 12 or 16 h post- administration of MIH, and the effects of treatment on oocyte maturation were evaluated by considering the rate (%) of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Incubation of oocytes in a medium containing only melatonin did not result in GVBD of any oocyte. Nearly all the oocytes underwent GVBD when incubated with MIH for 16 h. Administration of melatonin along with MIH (at 0 h interval) or 2 h after addition of MIH did not result in any significant change in the rate of GVBD compared to that in a medium containing only MIH. However, it was quite interesting to observe that incubation of oocytes with melatonin especially 4 h prior to addition of MIH in the medium, led to an accelerated rate of GVBD in the oocytes. Experiments with the oocytes of another major carp Cyprinus carpio following an identical schedule depicted similar results except a difference in the optimum melatonin dose. In L. rohita, 50 pg/ml melatonin had maximum acceleratory effect on MIH-induced GVBD of oocytes, while it was 100 pg/ml in C. carpio. Further study revealed that pre-incubation with melatonin accelerates the action of MIH on the formation of a complex of two proteins (MPF), a regulatory component called cyclin B and the catalytic component protein kinase known as

  10. Partial sequence determination of metabolically labeled radioactive proteins and peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The author has used the sequence analysis of radioactive proteins and peptides to approach several problems during the past few years. They, in collaboration with others, have mapped precisely several adenovirus proteins with respect to the nucleotide sequence of the adenovirus genome; identified hitherto missed proteins encoded by bacteriophage MS2 and by simian virus 40; analyzed the aminoterminal maturation of several virus proteins; determined the cleavage sites for processing of the poliovirus polyprotein; and analyzed the mechanism of frameshifting by excess normal tRNAs during cell-free protein synthesis. This chapter is designed to aid those without prior experience at protein sequence determinations. It is based primarily on the experience gained in the studies cited above, which made use of the Beckman 890 series automated protein sequencers

  11. Sequences for Student Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jeffrey; Feil, David; Lartigue, David; Mullins, Bernadette

    2004-01-01

    We describe two classes of sequences that give rise to accessible problems for undergraduate research. These problems may be understood with virtually no prerequisites and are well suited for computer-aided investigation. The first sequence is a variation of one introduced by Stephen Wolfram in connection with his study of cellular automata. The…

  12. MicroRNA and tasiRNA diversity in mature pollen of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafidh Said

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New generation sequencing technology has allowed investigation of the small RNA populations of flowering plants at great depth. However, little is known about small RNAs in their reproductive cells, especially in post-meiotic cells of the gametophyte generation. Pollen - the male gametophyte - is the specialised haploid structure that generates and delivers the sperm cells to the female gametes at fertilisation. Whether development and differentiation of the male gametophyte depends on the action of microRNAs and trans-acting siRNAs guiding changes in gene expression is largely unknown. Here we have used 454 sequencing to survey the various small RNA populations present in mature pollen of Arabidopsis thaliana. Results In this study we detected the presence of 33 different microRNA families in mature pollen and validated the expression levels of 17 selected miRNAs by Q-RT-PCR. The majority of the selected miRNAs showed pollen-enriched expression compared with leaves. Furthermore, we report for the first time the presence of trans-acting siRNAs in pollen. In addition to describing new patterns of expression for known small RNAs in each of these classes, we identified 7 putative novel microRNAs. One of these, ath-MIR2939, targets a pollen-specific F-box transcript and we demonstrate cleavage of its target mRNA in mature pollen. Conclusions Despite the apparent simplicity of the male gametophyte, comprising just two different cell types, pollen not only utilises many miRNAs and trans-acting siRNAs expressed in the somatic tissues but also expresses novel miRNAs.

  13. Pressure supression pool thermal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.H.

    1984-10-01

    A model is developed and verified to describe the thermal mixing that occurs in the pressure suppression pool (PSP) of a commercial BWR. The model is designed specifically for a Mark-I containment and is intended for use in severe accident sequence analyses. The model developed in this work produces space and time dependent temperature results throughout the PSP and is useful for evaluating the bulk PSP thermal mixing, the condensation effectiveness of the PSP, and the long-term containment integrity. The model is designed to accommodate single or multiple discharging T-quenchers, a PSP circumferential circulation induced by the residual heat removal system discharge, and the thermal stratification of the pool that occurs immediately after the relief valves close. The PSP thermal mixing is verified by comparing the model-predicted temperatures to experimental temperatures that were measured in an operating BWR suppression pool. The model is then used to investigate several PSP thermal mixing problems that include the time to saturate at full relief valve flow, the temperature response to a typical stuck open relief valve scenario, and the effect of operator rotation of the relief valve discharge point

  14. Pressure suppression pool thermal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    A model is developed and verified to describe the thermal mixing that occurs in the pressure suppression pool (PSP) of a commercial BWR. The model is designed specifically for a Mark-I containment and is intended for use in severe accident sequence analyses. The model produces space and time dependent temperature results throughout the PSP and is useful for evaluating the bulk PSP thermal mixing, the condensation effectiveness of the PSP, and the long-term containment integrity. The model is designed to accommodate single or multiple discharging T-quenchers, a PSP circumferential circulation induced by the residual heat removal system discharge, and the thermal stratification of the pool that occurs immediately after the relief valves close. The PSP thermal mixing model is verified by comparing the model predicted temperatures to experimental temperatures that were measured in an operating BWR suppression pool. The model is then used to investigate several PSP thermal mixing problems that include the time to saturate at full relief valve flow, the temperature response to a typical stuck open relief valve scenario, and the effect of operator rotation of the relief valve discharge point

  15. Growth indicators in orthodontic patients. Part 1: comparison of cervical vertebral maturation and hand-wrist skeletal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsas, G; Ari-Demirkaya, A

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict the skeletal maturation status based on the assessment of cervical vertebrae from lateral cephalometric radiographs and to compare these findings with the skeletal maturity of the same individuals judged from the hand-wrist radiographs. Lateral cephalometric and left hand-wrist radiographs of 393 Caucasian children from 8 to 18 years old were evaluated. On the hand-wrist radiographs the classification of Bjork [1972] and Grave and Brown [1976] was used to assess skeletal maturity (HWSS). Cervical vertebral maturation was also evaluated on lateral cephalometric radiographs using the improved CVMS method described by Baccetti, Franchi, and McNamara [2002]. These methods were correlated using the chi-square test. The chi-square test showed that skeletal maturational values obtained by the CVMS method were significantly correlated with the skeletal values obtained from the hand-wrist analysis for both genders (pmaturity.

  16. Sequence History Update Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanampompan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy; Fisher, Forest; DelGuercio, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Sequence History Update Tool performs Web-based sequence statistics archiving for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Using a single UNIX command, the software takes advantage of sequencing conventions to automatically extract the needed statistics from multiple files. This information is then used to populate a PHP database, which is then seamlessly formatted into a dynamic Web page. This tool replaces a previous tedious and error-prone process of manually editing HTML code to construct a Web-based table. Because the tool manages all of the statistics gathering and file delivery to and from multiple data sources spread across multiple servers, there is also a considerable time and effort savings. With the use of The Sequence History Update Tool what previously took minutes is now done in less than 30 seconds, and now provides a more accurate archival record of the sequence commanding for MRO.

  17. Unique nuclear thermal rocket engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culver, D.W.; Rochow, R.

    1993-06-01

    In January, 1992, a new, advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine (NTRE) concept intended for manned missions to the moon and to Mars was introduced (Culver, 1992). This NTRE promises to be both shorter and lighter in weight than conventionally designed engines, because its forward flowing reactor is located within an expansion-deflection rocket nozzle. The concept has matured during the year, and this paper discusses a nearer term version that resolves four open issues identified in the initial concept: (1) the reactor design and cooling scheme simplification while retaining a high pressure power balance option; (2) elimination need for a new, uncooled nozzle throat material suitable for long life application; (3) a practical provision for reactor power control; and (4) use of near-term, long-life turbopumps

  18. Maturing ECRF technology for plasma control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callis, R.W.; .; Cary, W.P.; Chu, S.

    2003-01-01

    The availability of high power, (∼1 MW) long pulse length (effectively cw), high frequency, (>100 GHz) gyrotrons has opened the opportunity for enhanced scientific results on magnetic confinement devices for fusion research worldwide. This has led to successful experiments on electron cyclotron heating, electron cyclotron current drive, non-inductive tokamak operation, tokamak energy transport, suppression of instabilities and advanced profile control leading to enhanced performance. The key development in the gyrotron community that has led to the realization of high power long pulse gyrotrons is the availability of edge cooled synthetic diamond gyrotron output windows, which have low loss and excellent thermal and mechanical properties. In addition to the emergence of reliable high power gyrotrons, ancillary equipment for efficient microwave transmission over distances of hundreds of meters, polarization control, diagnostics, and flexible launch geometry have all been developed and proven in regular service. (author)

  19. Effect of high heating rate on thermal decomposition behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the thermal decomposition behaviour of the aforementioned powder at high heating rates was taken into considera- ... does not change the process of releasing hydrogen from titanium hydride ... from titanium hydride in a sequence of steps.

  20. Analysis of business process maturity and organisational performance relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinowski T. Bartosz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present results of the study on business process maturity in relation to organisational performance. A two-phase methodology, based on literature review and survey was used. The literature is a source of knowledge about business process maturity and organisational performance, whereas the research on process maturity vs organisational performance in Polish Enterprises provides findings based on 84 surveyed companies. The main areas of the research covered: identification and analysis of maturity related variables and identification of organisational performance perspectives and its relation to process maturity. The study shows that there is a significant positive relation between process maturity and organisational performance. Although there are research on such relation available, they are scarce and have some significant limitations in terms of research sample or the scope of maturity or organisational performance covered. This publication is part of a project funded by the National Science Centre awarded by decision number DEC-2011/01/D/HS4/04070.

  1. Physical activity and biological maturation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Denise Araújo Bacil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between physical activity (PA and biological maturation in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCE: We performed a systematic review in April 2013 in the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, SportDiscus, Web of Science and LILACS without time restrictions. A total of 628 potentially relevant articles were identified and 10 met the inclusion criteria for this review: cross-sectional or longitudinal studies, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, with schoolchildren aged 9-15 years old of both genders. DATA SYNTHESIS: Despite the heterogeneity of the studies, there was an inverse association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increased biological and chronological age in both genders. Boys tend to be more physically active than girls; however, when controlling for biological age, the gender differences disappear. The association between PA and timing of maturation varies between the genders. Variation in the timing of biological maturation affects the tracking of PA in early adolescent girls. This review suggests that mediators (BMI, depression, low self-esteem, and concerns about body weight can explain the association between PA and biological maturation. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increasing biological age with no differences between genders. As for the timing of biological maturation, this association varies between genders.

  2. Skeletal maturity assessment using mandibular canine calcification stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vildana Džemidžić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aims of this study were: to investigate the relationship between mandibular canine calcification stages and skeletal maturity; and to evaluate whether the mandibular canine calcification stages may be used as a reliable diagnostic tool for skeletal maturity assessment. Materials and methods. This study included 151 subjects: 81 females and 70 males, with ages ranging from 9 to 16 years (mean age: 12.29±1.86 years. The inclusion criteria for subjects were as follows: age between 9 and 16 years; good general health without any hormonal, nutritional, growth or dental development problems. Subjects who were undergoing or had previously received orthodontic treatment were not included in this study. The calcification stages of the left permanent mandibular canine were assessed according to the method of Demirjian, on panoramic radiographs. Assessment of skeletal maturity was carried out using the cervical vertebral maturation index (CVMI, as proposed by the Hassel-Farman method, on lateral cephalograms. The correlation between the calcification stages of mandibular canine and skeletal maturity was estimated separately for male and female subjects. Results. Correlation coefficients between calcification stages of mandibular canine and skeletal maturity were 0.895 for male and 0.701 for female subjects. Conclusions. A significant correlation was found between the calcification stages of the mandibular canine and skeletal maturity. The calcification stages of the mandibular canine show a satisfactory diagnostic performance only for assessment of pre-pubertal growth phase.

  3. Mall shopping preferences and patronage of mature shoppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel G. Rousseau

    2014-04-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the buying behaviour of mature consumers (older than 55 in Port Elizabeth shopping malls. Motivation for the study: The perception of mature shoppers as old people with limited financial resources is untrue. This study investigates the behaviours of mature shoppers. Research design, approach and method: A model guided the investigation. The authors facilitated four focus groups to gain insight into mature consumers’ buying behaviours. A field survey followed with a sample of mall shoppers (n = 680. The authors performed content analysis of the focus group material and used SPSS and AMOS programs to analyse the data quantitatively. Main findings: Focus group interviews revealed specific buying behaviours of mature shoppers. The survey showed significant relationships between various determinants that influence respondents’ buying behaviours with adequate model fit indices. These results confirmed the convergent and discriminant validity of the model that comprises mall shopping anticipation, experience and patronage. Practical/managerial implications: Mature shoppers’ expectations exceeded their experiences, suggesting dissatisfaction with some aspects of their experiences. Retailers and shopping mall managers need to redesign malls if they wish to cater for the segment of ageing shoppers and their spending power. Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to the research available in South Africa on service at shopping malls that cater for mature consumers.

  4. Relationship between viticultural climatic indices and grape maturity in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, C.; Barlow, E.; Darbyshire, R.; Eckard, R.; Goodwin, I.

    2017-10-01

    Historical temperature data and maturity records were analyzed for 45 vineyard blocks in 15 winegrowing regions across Australia in order to evaluate the suitability of common viticultural indices to estimate date of grape maturity. Five temperature-based viticultural indices (mean January temperature, mean growing season temperature, growing degree days, biologically effective degree days, Huglin Index) along with four springtime temperature indices (mean and maximum temperature summations for September, October, and November; growing degree days and biologically effective degree days modified to include September) were compared to maturity data in order to investigate index relationship to observed maturity timing. Daily heat summations for the months of September, October, and November showed the best correlation to day of year of maturity, suggesting that springtime temperatures are important relative to the timing of grape maturity. Mean January temperature, a commonly used index, had the poorest correlation with day of year of maturity of all the indices included in this study. Indices that included the month of April had poorer correlation than indices that shifted the months included in the growing season to be from September to March inclusive. Calculated index values for the past 30 years for every region included in this study showed increasing temporal trends to various degrees, indicating that all regions studied are experiencing warming temperatures during the growing season. These results emphasize the need to reevaluate viticultural indices in the context of a changing climate.

  5. Insulin-like growth factor I: a biologic maturation indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Ramy Abdul Rahman; Soliman, Sanaa Abou Zeid; Foda, Manal Yehya; Fayed, Mona Mohamed Salah

    2012-11-01

    Determination of the maturation level and the subsequent evaluation of growth potential during preadolescence and adolescence are important for optimal orthodontic treatment planning and timing. This study was undertaken to evaluate the applicability of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) blood level as a maturation indicator by correlating it to the cervical vertebral maturation index. The study was conducted with 120 subjects, equally divided into 60 males (ages, 10-18 years) and 60 females (ages, 8-16 years). A lateral cephalometric radiograph and a blood sample were taken from each subject. For each subject, cervical vertebral maturation and IGF-I serum level were assessed. Mean values of IGF-I in each stage of cervical vertebral maturation were calculated, and the means in each stage were statistically compared with those of the other stages. The IGF-I mean value at each cervical vertebral maturation stage was statistically different from the mean values at the other stages. The highest mean values were observed in stage 4, followed by stage 5 in males and stage 3 in females. IGF-I serum level is a reliable maturation indicator that could be applied in orthodontic diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DENTAL AND SKELETAL MATURATION STAGES IN CROATIAN SUBJECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srkoc, Tamara; Mestrović, Senka; Anić-Milosević, Sandra; Slaj, Mladen

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the stages of calcification of teeth and cervical vertebral maturation. The sample consisted of 295 subjects (129 male and 166 female), mean age 13.36 ± 2.65 (range 7-18) years. Dental age was evaluated from panoramic radiographs according to the method of Demirjian. Cervical vertebral maturation was determined on lateral cephalometric radiographs using cervical vertebrae maturation stages (CVS). For assessing the relationship between cervical vertebral and dental maturation, percentage distributions of the stages of calcification for each studied tooth were calculated. Only in the first CVS stage, boys and girls were of the same age. In all other stages (CVS 2-CVS 6) girls were by 0.98 (range 0.23-1.86) younger than boys. Gender differences in the mineralization pattern were also observed. It was found that dental maturation was finished earlier in female subjects. The highest correlation coefficient between dental and skeletal maturity was found for second premolars. Mineralization pattern of second premolars could be considered as a guideline for prediction of the pubertal growth spurt. Dental maturation stages might be clinically useful as a reliable indicator of facial growth.

  7. Quality Management Systems Implementation Compared With Organizational Maturity in Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Tayebeh; Jafari, Mehdi; Maleki, Mohammad Reza; Naghdi, Seyran; Ghiasvand, Hesam

    2015-07-27

    A quality management system can provide a framework for continuous improvement in order to increase the probability of customers and other stakeholders' satisfaction. The test maturity model helps organizations to assess the degree of maturity in implementing effective and sustained quality management systems; plan based on the current realities of the organization and prioritize their improvement programs. We aim to investigate and compare the level of organizational maturity in hospitals with the status of quality management systems implementation. This analytical cross sectional study was conducted among hospital administrators and quality experts working in hospitals with over 200 beds located in Tehran. In the first step, 32 hospitals were selected and then 96 employees working in the selected hospitals were studied. The data were gathered using the implementation checklist of quality management systems and the organization maturity questionnaire derived from ISO 10014. The content validity was calculated using Lawshe method and the reliability was estimated using test - retest method and calculation of Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data using SPSS 18 software. According to the table, the mean score of organizational maturity among hospitals in the first stage of quality management systems implementation was equal to those in the third stage and hypothesis was rejected (p-value = 0.093). In general, there is no significant difference in the organizational maturity between the first and third level hospitals (in terms of implementation of quality management systems). Overall, the findings of the study show that there is no significant difference in the organizational maturity between the hospitals in different levels of the quality management systems implementation and in fact, the maturity of the organizations cannot be attributed to the implementation of such systems. As a result, hospitals

  8. Shale oil potential and thermal maturity of the Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale in NW Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, J.; Littke, R.; Weniger, P.; Ostertag-Henning, C.; Nelskamp, S.

    2015-01-01

    A suite of drilling cores and outcrop samples of the Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale (PS) were collected from multiple locations including the Swabian Alb and Franconian Alb of Southwest-Germany, Runswick Bay of UK and Loon op Zand well (LOZ-1) of the West Netherlands Basin. In order to assess the

  9. Age at maturity of Mediterranean marine fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. TSIKLIRAS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review we collected data on the age at maturity (tm and maximum reported age (tmax for 235 stocks of Mediterranean marine fishes, belonging to 82 species, 37 families, 12 orders and 2 classes (Actinopterygii and Elasmobranchii. Among Actinopterygii (mean tm ± SD = 2.20 ± 1.43 y, n = 215, tm ranged from 0.3 y, for the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, to 12 y, for dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus, while among Elasmobranchii (mean tm ± SD = 5.94 ± 2.47 y, n = 20, tm ranged between 2.7 y, for brown ray Raja miraletus, and 12 y for picked dogfish Squalus acanthias. Overall, the tmax ranged between 1 y, for transparent goby Aphia minuta, and 70 y, for wreckfish Polyprion americanus. The mean tmax of Actinopterygii (tmax ± SD = 10.14 ± 9.42 y was lower than that of Elasmobranchii (tmax ± SD = 14.05 ± 8.47 y. The tm exhibited a strong positive linear relation with tmax for both Actinopterygii (logtm = 0.58 ´ logtmax – 0.25, r2 = 0.51, P < 0.001 and Elasmobranchii (logtm = 0.67 ´ logtmax – 0.006, r2 = 0.51, P = 0.007. The mean tm/tmax did not differ significantly with sex within Actinopterygii (ANOVA: F = 0.27, P = 0.60, n = 90; females: mean ± SD = 0.276 ± 0.143; males: mean ± SD = 0.265 ± 0.138 and Elasmobranchii (ANOVA: F = 1.44, P = 0.25, n = 10; females: mean ± SD = 0.499 ± 0.166; males: mean ± SD = 0.418 ± 0.133. Finally, the dimensionless ratio tm/tmax was significantly lower (ANOVA: F = 31.04, P < 0.001 for Actinopterygii (mean ± SD = 0.270 ± 0.135, n = 180 than for Elasmobranchii, (mean ± SD = 0.458 ± 0.152, n = 20, when stocks with combined sexes were excluded from the analysis.

  10. EMOTIONAL MATURITY OF PERSONALITY: THE PRACTICAL PROBLEM OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    O. I. Afonina

    2013-01-01

    In the dif?cult conditions of the contemporary society which are far from being favorable to maintain one’s emotional and physical health the problem of development and achievement of emotional maturity as a factor of the well-being is getting more signi?cant. Based on the theoretical concepts of different scientists who de?ned the construct of emotional maturity three groups of psychological methods for assessing emotional maturity are analyzed. The ?rst group includes the methods that are u...

  11. Predicting technology operational availability using technical maturity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenley, C.R.; Creque, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    A technical maturity assessment method was performed by systems engineers in collaboration with an advisory panel composed of team members from different Department of Energy sites and from different engineering and science disciplines. Various stabilization technologies were assessed annually as to their relative maturity and availability for use in stabilizing nuclear materials. After three years of assessments, several of the technologies are now components of operational systems. A regression analysis of the historical assessments was performed, and it was concluded that the numerical technical maturity score produced by a team of experts can provide a powerful predictor of the time remaining until the operational application of technologies

  12. Amniocentesis for fetal lung maturity: will it become obsolete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Stephen; Sherman, Craig; Lewis, David; Owens, Sheri; Bodie, Frankie; McCathran, C Eric; Holliday, Nicolette

    2013-01-01

    AMNIOCENTESIS FOR FETAL LUNG MATURITY HAS HISTORICALLY BEEN PERFORMED FOR MANY REASONS: uterine and placental complications, maternal comorbidities, fetal issues, and even obstetric problems. Even though the risks associated with third trimester amniocentesis are extremely low, complications have been documented, including preterm labor, placental abruptions, intrauterine rupture, maternal sepsis, fetal heart rate abnormalities, and fetal-maternal hemorrhage. This review presents the types of tests for fetal lung maturity, presents the indications and tests utilized, and discusses recommendations for when amniocentesis for fetal lung maturity may be appropriate.

  13. The Influence of Debt Maturity Structure on Accounting Conservatism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Huiqing; Chen Xinguo

    2015-01-01

    According to the related data of A-share listed companies in 2009-2013,through extension model based on Basu's surplus - the stock return rate model ,this paper studies that the debt maturity structure influences on accounting conservatism. The empirical study finds that the amount of debt affects significantly the prudence,that is,the greater the amount of the debt contract con- cluded, the stronger role of accounting conservatism is ; Debt maturity have significant relationship with accounting conservatism. For the shorter debt maturity, the enterprise is easier to choose more prudent accounting policy, and when the period is longer, accounting conservatism is relatively weaker.

  14. HIV Sequence Compendium 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Brian Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leitner, Thomas Kenneth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Apetrei, Cristian [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hahn, Beatrice [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mizrachi, Ilene [National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mullins, James [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rambaut, Andrew [Univ. of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Wolinsky, Steven [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Korber, Bette Tina Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-05

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. We try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Each of the alignments attempts to display the genetic variability within the different species, groups and subtypes of the virus. This compendium contains sequences published before January 1, 2015. Hence, though it is published in 2015 and called the 2015 Compendium, its contents correspond to the 2014 curated alignments on our website. The number of sequences in the HIV database is still increasing. In total, at the end of 2014, there were 624,121 sequences in the HIV Sequence Database, an increase of 7% since the previous year. This is the first year that the number of new sequences added to the database has decreased compared to the previous year. The number of near complete genomes (>7000 nucleotides) increased to 5834 by end of 2014. However, as in previous years, the compendium alignments contain only a fraction of these. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/ content/sequence/NEWALIGN/align.html As always, we are open to complaints and suggestions for improvement. Inquiries and comments regarding the compendium should be addressed to seq-info@lanl.gov.

  15. Mapping sequences by parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guziolowski Carito

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: We present the N-map method, a pairwise and asymmetrical approach which allows us to compare sequences by taking into account evolutionary events that produce shuffled, reversed or repeated elements. Basically, the optimal N-map of a sequence s over a sequence t is the best way of partitioning the first sequence into N parts and placing them, possibly complementary reversed, over the second sequence in order to maximize the sum of their gapless alignment scores. Results: We introduce an algorithm computing an optimal N-map with time complexity O (|s| × |t| × N using O (|s| × |t| × N memory space. Among all the numbers of parts taken in a reasonable range, we select the value N for which the optimal N-map has the most significant score. To evaluate this significance, we study the empirical distributions of the scores of optimal N-maps and show that they can be approximated by normal distributions with a reasonable accuracy. We test the functionality of the approach over random sequences on which we apply artificial evolutionary events. Practical Application: The method is illustrated with four case studies of pairs of sequences involving non-standard evolutionary events.

  16. Swimming physiology of European silver eels (Anguilla anguilla L.): energetic costs and effects on sexual maturation and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstra, Arjan P; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M

    2010-09-01

    The European eel migrates 5,000-6,000 km to the Sargasso Sea to reproduce. Because they venture into the ocean in a pre-pubertal state and reproduce after swimming for months, a strong interaction between swimming and sexual maturation is expected. Many swimming trials have been performed in 22 swim tunnels to elucidate their performance and the impact on maturation. European eels are able to swim long distances at a cost of 10-12 mg fat/km which is 4-6 times more efficient than salmonids. The total energy costs of reproduction correspond to 67% of the fat stores. During long distance swimming, the body composition stays the same showing that energy consumption calculations cannot be based on fat alone but need to be compensated for protein oxidation. The optimal swimming speed is 0.61-0.67 m s(-1), which is approximately 60% higher than the generally assumed cruise speed of 0.4 m s(-1) and implies that female eels may reach the Sargasso Sea within 3.5 months instead of the assumed 6 months. Swimming trials showed lipid deposition and oocyte growth, which are the first steps of sexual maturation. To investigate effects of oceanic migration on maturation, we simulated group-wise migration in a large swim-gutter with seawater. These trials showed suppressed gonadotropin expression and vitellogenesis in females, while in contrast continued sexual maturation was observed in silver males. The induction of lipid deposition in the oocytes and the inhibition of vitellogenesis by swimming in females suggest a natural sequence of events quite different from artificial maturation protocols.

  17. Quantifying deforestation and forest degradation with thermal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hua; Chen, Yajun; Song, Qinghai; Fu, Peili; Cleverly, James; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Law, Beverly E; Gough, Christopher M; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Di Gennaro, Filippo; Matteucci, Giorgio; Montagnani, Leonardo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Shao, Changliang; Kato, Tomomichi; Bonal, Damien; Paul-Limoges, Eugénie; Beringer, Jason; Grace, John; Fan, Zexin

    2017-12-31

    Deforestation and forest degradation cause the deterioration of resources and ecosystem services. However, there are still no operational indicators to measure forest status, especially for forest degradation. In the present study, we analysed the thermal response number (TRN, calculated by daily total net radiation divided by daily temperature range) of 163 sites including mature forest, disturbed forest, planted forest, shrubland, grassland, savanna vegetation and cropland. TRN generally increased with latitude, however the regression of TRN against latitude differed among vegetation types. Mature forests are superior as thermal buffers, and had significantly higher TRN than disturbed and planted forests. There was a clear boundary between TRN of forest and non-forest vegetation (i.e. grassland and savanna) with the exception of shrubland, whose TRN overlapped with that of forest vegetation. We propose to use the TRN of local mature forest as the optimal TRN (TRN opt ). A forest with lower than 75% of TRN opt was identified as subjected to significant disturbance, and forests with 66% of TRN opt was the threshold for deforestation within the absolute latitude from 30° to 55°. Our results emphasized the irreplaceable thermal buffer capacity of mature forest. TRN can be used for early warning of deforestation and degradation risk. It is therefore a valuable tool in the effort to protect forests and prevent deforestation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Colliding Beams Sequencer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.E.; Johnson, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    The Colliding Beam Sequencer (CBS) is a computer program used to operate the pbar-p Collider by synchronizing the applications programs and simulating the activities of the accelerator operators during filling and storage. The Sequencer acts as a meta-program, running otherwise stand alone applications programs, to do the set-up, beam transfers, acceleration, low beta turn on, and diagnostics for the transfers and storage. The Sequencer and its operational performance will be described along with its special features which include a periodic scheduler and command logger. 14 refs., 3 figs

  19. Phylogenetic Trees From Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryvkin, Paul; Wang, Li-San

    In this chapter, we review important concepts and approaches for phylogeny reconstruction from sequence data.We first cover some basic definitions and properties of phylogenetics, and briefly explain how scientists model sequence evolution and measure sequence divergence. We then discuss three major approaches for phylogenetic reconstruction: distance-based phylogenetic reconstruction, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood. In the third part of the chapter, we review how multiple phylogenies are compared by consensus methods and how to assess confidence using bootstrapping. At the end of the chapter are two sections that list popular software packages and additional reading.

  20. Gomphid DNA sequence data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — DNA sequence data for several genetic loci. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: It's already publicly available on GenBank. It can be accessed through...

  1. Yeast genome sequencing:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piskur, Jure; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold

    2004-01-01

    For decades, unicellular yeasts have been general models to help understand the eukaryotic cell and also our own biology. Recently, over a dozen yeast genomes have been sequenced, providing the basis to resolve several complex biological questions. Analysis of the novel sequence data has shown...... of closely related species helps in gene annotation and to answer how many genes there really are within the genomes. Analysis of non-coding regions among closely related species has provided an example of how to determine novel gene regulatory sequences, which were previously difficult to analyse because...... they are short and degenerate and occupy different positions. Comparative genomics helps to understand the origin of yeasts and points out crucial molecular events in yeast evolutionary history, such as whole-genome duplication and horizontal gene transfer(s). In addition, the accumulating sequence data provide...

  2. Survival and maturation rates of the African rodent Mastomys natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sluydts, Vincent; Crespin, Laurent; Davis, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    the model fit. On the other hand we showed that maturation rates were correlated negatively with density the previous month and positively to cumulative rainfall over the past three months. Survival estimates of both adults and subadults varied seasonally, with higher estimates during the increase phase......Survival and maturation rates of female Mastomys natalensis were analysed based on a ten-year onthly capture-recapture data set. We investigated whether direct and delayed density dependent and independent (rainfall) variables accounted for the considerable variation in demographic traits....... It was estimated that seasonal and annual covariates accounted for respectively 29 and 26% of the total variation in maturation rates and respectively 17 and 11% of the variation in survival rates. Explaining the between-year differences in maturation rates with annual past rainfall or density did not improve...

  3. Fruit maturation and in vitro germination of macaw palm embryos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -industrial potential. Seed dormancy in palm species may be due to embryo immaturity, which could result from delayed embryogenesis. We evaluated the correspondence between the visual characteristics of maturing fruits and their ...

  4. THE GOAL OF MATURITY IN EPHESIANS 4:13-16

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I interpret Ephesians 4:13 to obtain the meaning of maturity. I critique the ...... divine powers and attributes as eternal, infinite, unchangeable in existence, in knowledge .... sea and its storms, false teachings are described as having the potential.

  5. Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... on. Photo: Getty image (StockDisc) Youths with superior IQ are distinguished by how fast the thinking part ...

  6. Coping with cultural and maturity inequality in offshore outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Pries-Heje, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Many companies consider and undertake outsourcing of their software-development activities. Often information systems development is outsourced to vendors in different cultures or with a different level of software-process maturity. Recommendations for managing such outsourcing arrangements...

  7. A Case of Post Obstructive Pneumonia Complicating Mature Teratoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mediastinal teratomas are rare germ cell tumors in children accounting for only 4.3% of all germ cell tumours.[1] Mature ... from two or more embryonic layers. Patients ... dehydrogenase and beta human chorionic gonadotropins were normal.

  8. Antibody Affinity Maturation in Fishes—Our Current Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad G. Magor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It has long been believed that fish lack antibody affinity maturation, in part because they were thought to lack germinal centers. Recent research done on sharks and bony fishes indicates that these early vertebrates are able to affinity mature their antibodies. This article reviews the functionality of the fish homologue of the immunoglobulin (Ig mutator enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID. We also consider the protein and molecular evidence for Ig somatic hypermutation and antibody affinity maturation. In the context of recent evidence for a putative proto-germinal center in fishes we propose some possible reasons that observed affinity maturation in fishes often seems lacking and propose future work that might shed further light on this process in fishes.

  9. IMMUNE SYSTEM MATURITY AND SENSITIVITY TO CHEMICAL EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well established that human diseases associated with abnormal immune function, including some common infectious diseases and asthma, are considerably more prevalent at younger ages. The immune system continues to mature after birth, and functional immaturity accounts for m...

  10. Regeneration of tropical maize lines (Zea mays l.) from mature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... 1Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopian Agricultural Research Institute, P. O. Box 192, Jimma, ... MATERIALS AND METHOD .... Sterilization of mature seeds: a) Soaking sterilized seeds in sterile dH2O overnight without.

  11. Indeks Penilaian Kematangan (Maturity Manajemen Keamanan Layanan TI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farroh Sakinah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi (TI dalam mendukung terselenggaranya pelayanan yang optimal menjadi kebutuhan utama organisasi saat ini. Jaminan pengelolaan layanan dan keamanan yang baik menjadi salah satu tolok ukurnya. Pengimplementasian sebuah standar menjadi salah satu solusinya meskipun penggunaan satu buah standar dirasa belum maksimal melihat cakupan yang disediakan kurang luas sehingga diadakannya upaya penggabungan beberapa standar dengan harapan standar-standar tersebut dapat saling melengkapi. Pengimplementasian beberapa standar ini dapat dimonitoring tingkat kematangannya (maturity dengan menggunakan alat ukur penilaian kematangan (maturity. Alat ukur kematangan (maturity manajemen keamanan layanan ini merupakan gabungan pemetaan dari control objective IT Governance COBIT 4.1 yang dipenuhi kebutuhan manajemen layanannya sesuai dengan Service Management di dalam ITIL v3 (Information Technology Infrastructure Library. Selanjutnya kebutuhan manajemen layanan ini diukur dengan maturity level COBIT 4.1 dan disesuaikan dengan framework ISO 27000 untuk memaksimalkan manajemen keamanan informasi.

  12. CMMI High Maturity Measurement and Analysis Workshop Report: March 2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stoddard, II, Robert W; Goldenson, Dennis R; Zubrow, Dave; Harper, Erin

    2008-01-01

    .... In response to the need for clarification and guidance on implementing measurement and analysis in the context of high maturity processes, members of the SEI s Software Engineering Measurement and Analysis (SEMA...

  13. Enabling Front End of Innovation in a Mature Development Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum, Louise; Clausen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Many mature development organizations find it difficult to handle radical and incremental innovations within the same organizational structures. We examine how organizational structures, management, development mindsets and cultures represent a constitution of development for the thinking...

  14. AFSC/REFM: Flatfish maturity near Kodiak, 2012-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset is comprised of individual fish records from collections made during port sampling at Kodiak Alaska for the purpose of updating maturity estimates for...

  15. Evaluation of sexual maturity among adolescent male sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional case-control study evaluating sexual maturation of male patients with sickle cell anaemia and those .... statistical location were calculated for continuous data and ..... Butterworth's Medical Dictionary.

  16. Thermal stress mitigation by Active Thermal Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soldati, Alessandro; Dossena, Fabrizio; Pietrini, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes an Active Thermal Control (ATC) of power switches. Leveraging on the fact that thermal stress has wide impact on the system reliability, controlling thermal transients is supposed to lengthen the lifetime of electronic conversion systems. Indeed in some environments...... results of control schemes are presented, together with evaluation of the proposed loss models. Experimental proof of the ability of the proposed control to reduce thermal swing and related stress on the device is presented, too....

  17. Dynamic Sequence Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    D-136 548 DYNAMIIC SEQUENCE ASSIGNMENT(U) ADVANCED INFORMATION AND 1/2 DECISION SYSTEMS MOUNTAIN YIELW CA C A 0 REILLY ET AL. UNCLSSIIED DEC 83 AI/DS...I ADVANCED INFORMATION & DECISION SYSTEMS Mountain View. CA 94040 84 u ,53 V,..’. Unclassified _____ SCURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE REPORT...reviews some important heuristic algorithms developed for fas- ter solution of the sequence assignment problem. 3.1. DINAMIC MOGRAMUNIG FORMULATION FOR

  18. HIV Sequence Compendium 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiken, Carla [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Foley, Brian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leitner, Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Apetrei, Christian [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hahn, Beatrice [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Mizrachi, Ilene [National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mullins, James [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rambaut, Andrew [Univ. of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Wolinsky, Steven [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2010-12-31

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. In these compendia we try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Each of the alignments attempts to display the genetic variability within the different species, groups and subtypes of the virus. This compendium contains sequences published before January 1, 2010. Hence, though it is called the 2010 Compendium, its contents correspond to the 2009 curated alignments on our website. The number of sequences in the HIV database is still increasing exponentially. In total, at the time of printing, there were 339,306 sequences in the HIV Sequence Database, an increase of 45% since last year. The number of near complete genomes (>7000 nucleotides) increased to 2576 by end of 2009, reflecting a smaller increase than in previous years. However, as in previous years, the compendium alignments contain only a small fraction of these. Included in the alignments are a small number of sequences representing each of the subtypes and the more prevalent circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) such as 01 and 02, as well as a few outgroup sequences (group O and N and SIV-CPZ). Of the rarer CRFs we included one representative each. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/sequence/NEWALIGN/align.html. Reprints are available from our website in the form of both HTML and PDF files. As always, we are open to complaints and suggestions for improvement. Inquiries and comments regarding the compendium should be addressed to seq-info@lanl.gov.

  19. General LTE Sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Billal, Masum

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,we have characterized sequences which maintain the same property described in Lifting the Exponent Lemma. Lifting the Exponent Lemma is a very powerful tool in olympiad number theory and recently it has become very popular. We generalize it to all sequences that maintain a property like it i.e. if p^{\\alpha}||a_k and p^\\b{eta}||n, then p^{{\\alpha}+\\b{eta}}||a_{nk}.

  20. Roentgenographic indicators of skeletal maturity in marine mammals (Cetacea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, J.A.; Conlogue, G.J.; Rhodin, A.G.J.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT

    1981-01-01

    A new roentgenographic classification (grading) scheme is presented for utilization in studies of skeletal development and maturation in marine mammals, particularly cetaceans. This is based on adequate description of the extent of development and maturation of the various secondary ossification centers, their eventual patterns of fusion, and subsequent remodeling with the metaphysis. The six stages are illustrated schematically and roentgenographically. This scheme may be applied to any cetacean longitudinal bone developing proximal and distal epiphyseal ossification centers. (orig.)

  1. Results of measurement procedure of innovation maturity of business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kozlova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the basic approaches of innovation maturity of business has been applied. The realization procedure of innovation maturity as an example of organizations of Perm’s region has been call attention. The preliminary potential assessments of perception of plans innovations will give optimize selection innovative strategy for organization and increase the effectiveness of business for microeconomics and region’s level.

  2. EMOTIONAL MATURITY OF PERSONALITY: THE PRACTICAL PROBLEM OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Afonina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the dif?cult conditions of the contemporary society which are far from being favorable to maintain one’s emotional and physical health the problem of development and achievement of emotional maturity as a factor of the well-being is getting more signi?cant. Based on the theoretical concepts of different scientists who de?ned the construct of emotional maturity three groups of psychological methods for assessing emotional maturity are analyzed. The ?rst group includes the methods that are used to assess emotional maturity explicitly and have a theoretical or empirical veri?cation. The second group includes the methods that are intended to assess emotional maturity as a separate scale complimented by other scales, related to evaluating other aspects of emotionality in  the  structure  of  the  personality.  The  third  group  includes  the  methods  in  which  emotional maturity is mentioned in the description of other psychic phenomena, or in the interpretation of certain factors (scales. Psychodiagnostic methods studying different parameters depending on the theoretical concepts of the authors about the structure and content of the emotional maturity of the personality make references to concepts of emotional development, consciousness, cognitive and volitional capacities of the personality and the coping strategies the individual prefer to use. The problem of developing valid and reliable psychodiagnostic methods of studying emotional maturity of the adult personality as a holistic phenomenon still awaits attention and retains its signi?cance.

  3. Guidelines for assessing the knowledge management maturity of organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Kruger

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In a recent article Kruger and Snyman hypothesized that progressions in knowledge management maturity (from a strategic perspective are directly related to an increased ability to speed up the strategic cycle of imitation, consolidation and innovation. The arguments proposed, however, neglected to supply the reader with a practical toolkit or even a roadmap (a time-related matrix, or questionnaire to successfully measure succession in knowledge management maturity. This article builds on the previous one and proposes a questionnaire consisting of six sections, containing 101 descriptive questions, to enable organizations to test and assess their knowledge management maturity empirically. The development of an instrument to measure knowledge management maturity required adhering to a research design that combined theoretical propositions with practical experimentation. As a point of departure, a knowledge management maturity matrix consisting of seven maturity levels was formulated. All questions contained within the matrix were benchmarked against a survey questionnaire developed by the public management service of the OECD (PUMA and were also pre-tested and validated. This process of refinement led to the formulation of the Knowledge Management Maturity Questionnaire. To avoid any taint of this research being based only on theoretical propositions, the questionnaire was tested by 178 master students of the University of Pretoria, South Africa, in nine different industries. The proposed questionnaire provides a bridge between theoretical propositions and practical usability, not only enabling knowledge management practitioners to assess the level of knowledge management maturity reached successfully but, more importantly, also serving as a guideline to institutionalize further and future knowledge management endeavours.

  4. A maturity model to assess organisational readiness for change

    OpenAIRE

    Zephir, Olivier; Minel, Stéphanie; Chapotot, Emilie

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The presented model which is developed in a European project allows project management teams to assess the organisational maturity to integrate new practices under structural or technological change. Maturity for change is defined here as workforce capability to operate effectively in transformed processes. This methodology is addressed to tackle organisational readiness to fulfil business objectives through technological and structural improvements. The tool integrate...

  5. Toward the Decision Tree for Inferring Requirements Maturation Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Takako; Kondo, Narihito; Shirogane, Junko; Kaiya, Haruhiko; Hori, Shozo; Katamine, Keiichi

    Requirements are elicited step by step during the requirements engineering (RE) process. However, some types of requirements are elicited completely after the scheduled requirements elicitation process is finished. Such a situation is regarded as problematic situation. In our study, the difficulties of eliciting various kinds of requirements is observed by components. We refer to the components as observation targets (OTs) and introduce the word “Requirements maturation.” It means when and how requirements are elicited completely in the project. The requirements maturation is discussed on physical and logical OTs. OTs Viewed from a logical viewpoint are called logical OTs, e.g. quality requirements. The requirements of physical OTs, e.g., modules, components, subsystems, etc., includes functional and non-functional requirements. They are influenced by their requesters' environmental changes, as well as developers' technical changes. In order to infer the requirements maturation period of each OT, we need to know how much these factors influence the OTs' requirements maturation. According to the observation of actual past projects, we defined the PRINCE (Pre Requirements Intelligence Net Consideration and Evaluation) model. It aims to guide developers in their observation of the requirements maturation of OTs. We quantitatively analyzed the actual cases with their requirements elicitation process and extracted essential factors that influence the requirements maturation. The results of interviews of project managers are analyzed by WEKA, a data mining system, from which the decision tree was derived. This paper introduces the PRINCE model and the category of logical OTs to be observed. The decision tree that helps developers infer the maturation type of an OT is also described. We evaluate the tree through real projects and discuss its ability to infer the requirements maturation types.

  6. Non-Destructive Technique for Determining Mango Maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Salengke; Mursalim

    2013-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an important tropical fruit that has great potential in international markets. Currently, major markets for mango include North America, Europe, and Japan. The acceptance of exported mango in destination countries depends largely on eating quality, which is affected by maturity at harvest. Mango maturity can be judged visually, based on skin color, or determined chemically based on soluble solids content, acid content, and solids:acid ratio....

  7. Correlation Between Dental and Cervical Vertebral Maturation in Iranian Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Eil, Nakissa; Ehsani, Sara; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2012-01-01

    Background Considerable variations in the development stage among patients of the same chronological age have led to introduce the concept of the developmental age based on the maturation of different organs such as cervical vertebrae or teeth. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the stages of tooth calcification and the cervical vertebral maturation in Iranian females. Patients and Methods Four hundred females (age range, 8 to 14 years) participated in the study. To determine the dental maturational stage, calcification of the mandibular teeth except for third molars were rated according to the method suggested by Demirjian et al. To evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation, cervical vertebral morphologic changes were assessed on lateral cephalometric radiographs according to the method explained by Baccetti et al. Correlations between bone maturation and teeth calcification were showed by Spearman's correlation and Kendall’s tau-b coefficients. The relevant associations were investigated by ordinal logistic regression models. Results Correlations between the two stages were observed in the first and second premolars, canine and central incisors. All these correlations were significant. The association between cervical vertebral maturation and tooth calcification was greatest in the lateral incisor (odds ratio (OR) = 11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.6-18.3). However, considering the 95% CI for OR, no significant difference was detected among the second molar, first molar and lateral incisor. Conclusion The relationship between calcification of teeth and maturation of cervical bones was significant. Bone maturation can be predicted by using teeth calcification stages, especially in the second molar, first molar and lateral incisor. PMID:23599706

  8. Debt Maturity: Is Long-Term Debt Optimal?

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Alfaro; Fabio Kanczuk

    2007-01-01

    We model and calibrate the arguments in favor and against short-term and long-term debt. These arguments broadly include: maturity premium, sustainability, and service smoothing. We use a dynamic equilibrium model with tax distortions and government outlays uncertainty, and model maturity as the fraction of debt that needs to be rolled over every period. In the model, the benefits of defaulting are tempered by higher future interest rates. We then calibrate our artificial economy and solve fo...

  9. Analysis of Big Data Maturity Stage in Hospitality Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Shabani, Neda; Munir, Arslan; Bose, Avishek

    2017-01-01

    Big data analytics has an extremely significant impact on many areas in all businesses and industries including hospitality. This study aims to guide information technology (IT) professionals in hospitality on their big data expedition. In particular, the purpose of this study is to identify the maturity stage of the big data in hospitality industry in an objective way so that hotels be able to understand their progress, and realize what it will take to get to the next stage of big data matur...

  10. Correlation Between Dental and Cervical Vertebral Maturation in Iranian Females

    OpenAIRE

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Eil, Nakissa; Ehsani, Sara; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2012-01-01

    Background Considerable variations in the development stage among patients of the same chronological age have led to introduce the concept of the developmental age based on the maturation of different organs such as cervical vertebrae or teeth. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the stages of tooth calcification and the cervical vertebral maturation in Iranian females. Patients and Methods Four hundred females (age range, 8 to 14 years) participate...

  11. Correlation between dental and cervical vertebral maturation in Iranian females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Eil, Nakissa; Ehsani, Sara; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2012-12-01

    Considerable variations in the development stage among patients of the same chronological age have led to introduce the concept of the developmental age based on the maturation of different organs such as cervical vertebrae or teeth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the stages of tooth calcification and the cervical vertebral maturation in Iranian females. Four hundred females (age range, 8 to 14 years) participated in the study. To determine the dental maturational stage, calcification of the mandibular teeth except for third molars were rated according to the method suggested by Demirjian et al. To evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation, cervical vertebral morphologic changes were assessed on lateral cephalometric radiographs according to the method explained by Baccetti et al. Correlations between bone maturation and teeth calcification were showed by Spearman's correlation and Kendall's tau-b coefficients. The relevant associations were investigated by ordinal logistic regression models. Correlations between the two stages were observed in the first and second premolars, canine and central incisors. All these correlations were significant. The association between cervical vertebral maturation and tooth calcification was greatest in the lateral incisor (odds ratio (OR) = 11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.6-18.3). However, considering the 95% CI for OR, no significant difference was detected among the second molar, first molar and lateral incisor. The relationship between calcification of teeth and maturation of cervical bones was significant. Bone maturation can be predicted by using teeth calcification stages, especially in the second molar, first molar and lateral incisor.

  12. Mature cystic teratoma of the pancreas in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.W.; Liu, K.L.; Li, Y.W.; Lin, W.C.

    2003-01-01

    A cystic pancreatic tumour is rare in a child and a mature cystic teratoma of the pancreas is even rarer. This is the first demonstration of the CT appearance of such a tumour in a child. We present a 2-year-old boy who presented with a palpable abdominal mass. Abdominal CT revealed a huge cystic mass in the upper abdomen. Pathology disclosed a mature cystic teratoma originating from the pancreas. (orig.)

  13. Effect of cysteine supplementation on in vitro maturation of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B Rahim, S Jalal, N Yosef ... Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from abattoir ovaries were matured in vitro in Hepes-TCM 199 supplemented with 0.2 mM sodium pyruvate, 1 μg/ml 17-β-estradiol, 10% fetal calf serum (FCS), 0.5 μg/ml bFSH and 0 (control) and 100 or 500 μM/ml of cysteine for 24 h. When COCs matured in ...

  14. How Enterprise Architecture Maturity Enables Post-merger IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törmer, Robert Lorenz; Henningsson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    advances the argument that a company’s pre-existing Enterprise Architecture decisively shapes the capability to implement post-merger IT integration and subsequently realize benefits from M&A. Our multiple-case study investigates three acquisition cases and develops an explanatory theory of how Enterprise...... Architecture maturity enables the implementation of distinct integration strategies. The results do not only enrich the academic literature on M&A, but also show the strategic value of Enterprise Architecture maturity....

  15. What makes a thermal plasma suitable for hazardous waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benocci, R.; Florio, R.; Galassi, A.; Paolicchio, M.; Sindoni, E.

    1997-01-01

    The basic transport and thermodynamic characteristic of a thermal plasma are analysed in order to emphasize those properties that make a high-temperature source profitable and suitable over the conventional devices for hazardous waste treatment. In addition a survey of the basic reaction sequence and apparatus units is made together with the different approaches to thermal plasma waste treatments

  16. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprint that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.

  17. HEURISTIC METHODS FOR TEST SEQUENCING IN TELECOMMUNICATION SATELLITES

    OpenAIRE

    Boche-Sauvan , Ludivine; Cabon , Bertrand; Huguet , Marie-José; Hébrard , Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Colloque avec actes et comité de lecture. internationale.; International audience; The increasing complexity in telecommunication satellite payload design demands new test sequencing approaches to face the induced increase of validation complexity. In such a sequencing problem, each test requires specific payload equipment states at a dedicated temperature range. The industrial objectives are both to reduce the total time of tests and to keep the thermal stability of the payload. For solving ...

  18. Information system maturity and the hospitality enterprise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Garbin Pranicevic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to empirically evaluate the relationship between the maturity of hotels’ information systems and their performance. This study uses customized models of information system (IS maturity and hotel performance measurement. Since we wanted to include the intangible aspects of performance, we opted for an adapted application of the Balanced Scorecard model. In the empirical part of the paper, fundamental constructs of the model are verified, while the individual items are further evaluated by employing discriminant analysis to distinguish hotels with relatively low and high performance levels. The findings demonstrate the existence of a significant and positive relationship between IS maturity and two dimensions of performance in the hospitality industry – process quality and guest relationships. The level of employee development and financial performance do not seem to be related to IS maturity. Although representative, the sample is relatively small, and the primary data were collected in a single country. The paper provides a framework of IS maturity items in the hospitality industry which seem to contribute to hotels’ business performances. As such, it can serve as a practical framework relevant for IT management in tourism and hospitality. The paper addresses a topic already discussed in a range of industries, although it does not seem to have been empirically evaluated by many studies of the tourism and hospitality industry. In addition, a new theoretical model of IT maturity in tourism and hospitality is proposed.

  19. Developing the Value Management Maturity Model (VM3©

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saipol Bari Abd Karim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Value management (VM practices have been expanded and became a well-received technique globally. Organisations are now progressing towards a better implementation of VM and should be assessing their strengths and weaknesses in order to move forward competitively. There is a need to benchmark the existing VM practices to reflect their maturing levels which is currently not available. This paper outlines the concept of Value Management Maturity Model (VM3' as a structured plan of maturity and performance growth for businesses. It proposes five levels of maturity and each level has its own criteria or attributes to be achieved before progressing to a higher level. The framework for VM3' has been developed based on the review of literatures related to VM and maturity models (MM. Data is collected through questionnaire surveys to organisations that have implemented VM methodology. Additionally, semi-structured interviews were conducted to select individuals involved in implementing VM. The questions were developed to achieve the research objectives; investigating the current implementation of VM and, exploring the organisation's MM knowledge and practices. However, this research was limited to VM implementation in the Malaysian government's projects and programmes. VM3' introduces a new paradigm in VM as it provides a rating method for capabilities or performance. It is advocated that this VM3' framework is still being refined in the advance stage in order to provide a comprehensive and well accepted method to provide ratings for organisations' maturity.

  20. Maturity Gonad Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra Under The Month Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penina Tua Rahantoknam, Santi

    2017-10-01

    Gonad maturity level of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra is important to note for selection of parent ready spawn. Sea cucumbers are giving a reaction to the treatment of excitatory spawn mature individuals only. For the determination of the level of maturity of gonads of sea cucumbers, the necessary observation of the gonads are microscopic, macroscopic and gonad maturity gonado somatic indeks (GSI). GSI value is important to know the changes that occur in the gonads quantitatively, so that time can be presumed spawning (Effendie, 1997). Reproductive cycle can be determined by observing the evolution of GSI. The study of sea cucumbers Holothuria scabra gonad maturity conducted in Langgur, Southeast Maluku. Observations were made at every cycle of the moon is the full moon phase (BP) and new moon (BB) in the period January 29, 2017 until July 23, 2017. Observations H. scabra gonad maturity level is done with surgery, observation and calculation GSI gonad histology. GSI highest value obtained in May that full moon cycle at 90% of individuals that are in the spawning stage (phase 5), then 70% of the individuals that are in the spawning stage (phase 5) in March that the full moon cycle. The results obtained show that the peak spawning H. scabra period January 2017 to July 2017 occurred on the full moon cycle in May.

  1. Predictive Capability Maturity Model for computational modeling and simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Pilch, Martin M.

    2007-10-01

    The Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) is a new model that can be used to assess the level of maturity of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) efforts. The development of the model is based on both the authors experience and their analysis of similar investigations in the past. The perspective taken in this report is one of judging the usefulness of a predictive capability that relies on the numerical solution to partial differential equations to better inform and improve decision making. The review of past investigations, such as the Software Engineering Institute's Capability Maturity Model Integration and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Department of Defense Technology Readiness Levels, indicates that a more restricted, more interpretable method is needed to assess the maturity of an M&S effort. The PCMM addresses six contributing elements to M&S: (1) representation and geometric fidelity, (2) physics and material model fidelity, (3) code verification, (4) solution verification, (5) model validation, and (6) uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis. For each of these elements, attributes are identified that characterize four increasing levels of maturity. Importantly, the PCMM is a structured method for assessing the maturity of an M&S effort that is directed toward an engineering application of interest. The PCMM does not assess whether the M&S effort, the accuracy of the predictions, or the performance of the engineering system satisfies or does not satisfy specified application requirements.

  2. Determinants of loan maturity in small business lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiqur Rahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of loan maturity of small and medium enterprises (SMEs in the context of Visegrad countries: Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Poland, and Hungary. The data of instead of for this paper was obtained from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS, which is a joint project of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the World Bank. By using a binary logistic model, we have found that loan maturity is shorter for older and mature firms, firms owned by female and firms experiencing a shortage of liquidity. At the same time, we have also found that firms having concentrated ownership structure and more tangible assets can borrow for a longer period. In addition to that, we have found evidence that loan maturity is longer for the firms located closer to a bank branch. We also provide empirical support for the assumption that bank low competition is associated with longer maturity. From the obtained results, we may recommend SMEs to borrow from banks that are within their vicinity since this may increase the maturity of loans. Policy makers are recommended to implement policies so that to alleviate gender-related discrimination and take initiatives to moderate the level of competition at this market.

  3. Evaluating the Organizational Interoperability Maturity Level in ICT Research Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Haghighinasab

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Interoperability refers to the ability to provide services and to accept services from other systems or devices. Collaborative enterprises face additional challenges to interoperate seamlessly within a networked organization. The major task here is to assess the maturity level of interoperating organizations. For this purpose the maturity models for enterprise were reviewed based on vendors’ reliability and advantages versus disadvantages. Interoperability maturity model was deduced from ATHENA project as European Integrated Project in 2005, this model named as EIMM was examined in Iran information and Communication Institute as a leading Telecommunication organization. 115 questionnaires were distributed between staff of 4 departments: Information Technology, Communication Technology, Security and Strategic studies regarding six areas of concern: Enterprise Modeling, Business Strategy Process, Organization and Competences, Products and Services, Systems and Technology, Legal Environment, Security and Trust at five maturity levels: Performed, Modeled , Integrated, Interoperable and Optimizing maturity. The findings showed different levels of maturity in this Institute. To achieve Interoperability level, appropriate practices are proposed for promotion to the higher levels.

  4. Quercetin Efficacy on in vitro Maturation of Porcine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Orlovschi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposed to examine the effects of a polyphenol (quercetin on in vitro maturated parameters. Quercetin it has been extensively studied by researchers on animals over the 35 years. It is a plant derived flavonoid from fruits and vegetables that has antioxidant action as a free radical scavenger. Immature porcine oocytes were untreated and treated with 5, 15, 25, 35 µg/ml quercetin during in vitro maturation. After then the mature oocytes were fertilized. It was observed that cumulus cell expansion of COCs cultured in maturation media supplemented with 5 µg/ml quercetin in grad 3 could be very significantly increased (p<0.001. In grad 4 could be significantly between different levels of quercetin (5 vs. 25, 5 vs. 35, p<0.001. The rates of embryos cultured in medium supplemented with different levels of quercetin did not presented significantly statistically different. The presence of 25 µg/ml quercetin in the maturation medium increased the percentage of embryos in the morula stage compared with the control. In the morula stage all the concentrations of quercetin resulted percentages increased to control. This results shows that quercetin added during in vitro maturation has a positive effect on future embryos development.

  5. Nonspecific activation of murine lymphocytes. IV. Proliferation of a distinct, late maturing lymphocyte subpopulation induced by 2-mercaptoethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.G.; Fidler, J.M.; Weigle, W.O.

    1978-01-01

    The lymphocyte subpopulations that are activated by 2-ME, LPS, poly IC, and PPD were studied in terms of their maturational characteristics. Attempts to stimulate hepatic and splenic lymphoid cells from mice of different ages with these mitogens demonstrated a well ordered sequence for the emergency of mitogen responsiveness in C3H mice: reactivity to LPS and Poly IC was observed early in maturation and was followed by that to PPD, and finally by the development of responsiveness to 2-ME. The same sequence appeared when the mitogen responsiveness of lethally irradiated, fetal liver-reconstituted syngeneic adult recipients was examined. The mitogenic action of 2-ME was dissociated from its ability to enhance lymphocyte reactivity to other mitogens in mice too young to respond to 2-ME as a mitogen. Experiments in which additivity of responses was assayed by adding mitogens to culture singly or conjointly indicated that LPS and Poly IC activate nearly identical B lymphocyte subpopulations, whereas PPD stimulates a subset of cells distinct from that which is responsive to the former two mitogens. The mitogen responsiveness of CBA/N mice, relative to normal CBA/WEHI mice, was shown to decrease as a function of the maturity of the subpopulation of lymphocytes activated. The CBA/N mouse was shown to be unresponsive to stimulation by 2-ME

  6. Comparison of the genetic determinism of two key phenological traits, flowering and maturity dates, in three Prunus species: peach, apricot and sweet cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlewanger, E; Quero-García, J; Le Dantec, L; Lambert, P; Ruiz, D; Dondini, L; Illa, E; Quilot-Turion, B; Audergon, J-M; Tartarini, S; Letourmy, P; Arús, P

    2012-11-01

    The present study investigates the genetic determinism of flowering and maturity dates, two traits highly affected by global climate change. Flowering and maturity dates were evaluated on five progenies from three Prunus species, peach, apricot and sweet cherry, during 3-8 years. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection was performed separately for each year and also by integrating data from all years together. High heritability estimates were obtained for flowering and maturity dates. Several QTLs for flowering and maturity dates were highly stable, detected each year of evaluation, suggesting that they were not affected by climatic variations. For flowering date, major QTLs were detected on linkage groups (LG) 4 for apricot and sweet cherry and on LG6 for peach. QTLs were identified on LG2, LG3, LG4 and LG7 for the three species. For maturity date, a major QTL was detected on LG4 in the three species. Using the peach genome sequence data, candidate genes underlying the major QTLs on LG4 and LG6 were investigated and key genes were identified. Our results provide a basis for the identification of genes involved in flowering and maturity dates that could be used to develop cultivar ideotypes adapted to future climatic conditions.

  7. Maturation of the human fetal startle response: Evidence for sex-specific maturation of the human fetus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Class, Quetzal A.; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Glynn, Laura M.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the evidence for early fetal experience exerting programming influences on later neurological development and health risk, very few prospective studies of human fetal behavior have been reported. In a prospective longitudinal study, fetal nervous system maturation was serially assessed by monitoring fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in 191 maternal/fetal dyads. Responses were not detected at 26 weeks gestational age (GA). Sex-specific, age-characteristic changes in the FHR response to VAS were observed by 31 weeks’ GA. Males showed larger responses and continued to exhibit maturational changes until 37 weeks’ GA, females however, presented with a mature FHR startle response by 31 weeks’ GA. The results indicate that there are different rates of maturation in the male and female fetus that may have implications for sex-specific programming influences. PMID:19726143

  8. Maturation of the human fetal startle response: evidence for sex-specific maturation of the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Class, Quetzal A; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A

    2009-10-01

    Despite the evidence for early fetal experience exerting programming influences on later neurological development and health risk, very few prospective studies of human fetal behavior have been reported. In a prospective longitudinal study, fetal nervous system maturation was serially assessed by monitoring fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in 191 maternal/fetal dyads. Responses were not detected at 26 weeks gestational age (GA). Sex-specific, age-characteristic changes in the FHR response to VAS were observed by 31 weeks' GA. Males showed larger responses and continued to exhibit maturational changes until 37 weeks' GA, females however, presented with a mature FHR startle response by 31 weeks' GA. The results indicate that there are different rates of maturation in the male and female fetuses that may have implications for sex-specific programming influences.

  9. Thermal Tracking of Sports Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Gade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather challenging sequence with a tracking accuracy above 70% and is superior compared with the offline tracking approach. Furthermore, the combined detection and tracking algorithm runs in real time at 33 fps, even with large image sizes of 1920 × 480 pixels.

  10. Thermal tracking of sports players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B

    2014-07-29

    We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather challenging sequence with a tracking accuracy above 70% and is superior compared with the offline tracking approach. Furthermore, the combined detection and tracking algorithm runs in real time at 33 fps, even with large image sizes of 1920 × 480 pixels.

  11. Adaptive Processing for Sequence Alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.; Bonny, Talal; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments for adaptive processing for sequence alignment. In one embodiment, among others, a method includes obtaining a query sequence and a plurality of database sequences. A first portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a central processing unit (CPU) and a second portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a graphical processing unit (GPU) based upon a predetermined splitting ratio associated with the plurality of database sequences, where the database sequences of the first portion are shorter than the database sequences of the second portion. A first alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the CPU based upon the first portion of the plurality of database sequences and a second alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the GPU based upon the second portion of the plurality of database sequences.

  12. Adaptive Processing for Sequence Alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-01-26

    Disclosed are various embodiments for adaptive processing for sequence alignment. In one embodiment, among others, a method includes obtaining a query sequence and a plurality of database sequences. A first portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a central processing unit (CPU) and a second portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a graphical processing unit (GPU) based upon a predetermined splitting ratio associated with the plurality of database sequences, where the database sequences of the first portion are shorter than the database sequences of the second portion. A first alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the CPU based upon the first portion of the plurality of database sequences and a second alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the GPU based upon the second portion of the plurality of database sequences.

  13. How to manage sustainable supply chain? The issue of maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Rudnicka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of managing sustainability in supply chain seems to be more and more complex. There are many aspects that need to be taken into consideration when planning, implementing and monitoring environmental and social conditions of supply chains. Despite many works, already published, on the concept of sustainable development (SD is seems that the issue of assessment and especially the issue of maturity in the light of the SD concept is still not developed enough. Methods: The general aim of the paper is the analysis of the maturity issue in the context of sustainability. The main objective is to conceptualize the idea of maturity in sustainable supply chain. Beside the literature research the own proposition of theoretical model was described. Results: The article describes the issue of maturity as an element of managing sustainable development in the supply chain. The author presented a theoretical model of the maturity. Moreover the author gave some recommendations how to manage the sustainability issues in supply chain in more mature approach and introduced some useful tools among which are: certification, code of conduct and code of ethics, audits, projects etc. Conclusions: The issue of maturity seems to be very useful for proper understanding the idea of sustainable development in supply chain. The developed model can be used as self-assessment method to check at which level of implementation the idea of SD is analyzed in supply chain. Furthermore, the next phase of the planned research in form of practical verification of the model was advised as well as a research of identification of new factors and tools in analyzed area.

  14. Main sequence mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.

    1987-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the δ Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub θ/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub θ/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs

  15. Nucleotide sequence of cloned cDNA for human sphingolipid activator protein 1 precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewji, N.N.; Wenger, D.A.; O'Brien, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Two cDNA clones encoding prepro-sphingolipid activator protein 1 (SAP-1) were isolated from a λ gt11 human hepatoma expression library using polyclonal antibodies. These had inserts of ≅ 2 kilobases (λ-S-1.2 and λ-S-1.3) and both were both homologous with a previously isolated clone (λ-S-1.1) for mature SAP-1. The authors report here the nucleotide sequence of the longer two EcoRI fragments of S-1.2 and S-1.3 that were not the same and the derived amino acid sequences of mature SAP-1 and its prepro form. The open reading frame encodes 19 amino acids, which are colinear with the amino-terminal sequence of mature SAP-1, and extends far beyond the predicted carboxyl terminus of mature SAP-1, indicating extensive carboxyl-terminal processing. The nucleotide sequence of cDNA encoding prepro-SAP-1 includes 1449 bases from the assigned initiation codon ATG at base-pair 472 to the stop codon TGA at base-pair 1921. The first 23 amino acids coded after the initiation ATG are characteristic of a signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass for a polypeptide encoded by 1449 bases is ≅ 53 kDa, in keeping with the reported value for pro-SAP-1. The data indicate that after removal of the signal peptide mature SAP-1 is generated by removing an additional 7 amino acids from the amino terminus and ≅ 373 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus. One potential glycosylation site was previously found in mature SAP-1. Three additional potential glycosylation sites are present in the processed carboxyl-terminal polypeptide, which they designate as P-2

  16. Thermalization of squeezed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Allan I

    2005-01-01

    Starting with a thermal squeezed state defined as a conventional thermal state based on an appropriate Hamiltonian, we show how an important physical property, the signal-to-noise ratio, is degraded, and propose a simple model of thermalization (Kraus thermalization)

  17. Springtime Leaf Development of Mature Sessile Oak Trees as Based on Multi-Seasonal Monitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NYITRAI, Balázs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a four year leaf growth data-set we modelled the thermal time-dependent leafontogeny in upper and lower canopy layers of mature sessile oak trees, in a Quercetum petraeae-cerrisforest stand (NE Hungary. Our regression models revealed no considerable differences between thetiming of leaf unfolding and leaf expansion of different canopy layers. On the other hand seasonalcourse in leaf mass-to-area ratio (LMA indicated that sun leaves needed considerably longer thermaltime to fully develop their anatomical structures compared to shade leaves. LMA of sun leaves washigher during the whole leaf maturation process suggesting that ‘sun’ and ‘shade’ characteristicsdevelop in very early stage of leaf ontogeny. Functioning of photosynthetic apparatus (Fv/Fo in shadeleaves have built up faster and performed better in all developmental stages which could be attributedto two main factors: 1 very early determination of leaf traits as a function of light environment and 2evolving shading effect of upper canopy layer eliminates photoinhibition in lower leaves.

  18. Electricity sequence control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Heung Ryeol

    2010-03-01

    The contents of the book are introduction of control system, like classification and control signal, introduction of electricity power switch, such as push-button and detection switch sensor for induction type and capacitance type machinery for control, solenoid valve, expression of sequence and type of electricity circuit about using diagram, time chart, marking and term, logic circuit like Yes, No, and, or and equivalence logic, basic electricity circuit, electricity sequence control, added condition, special program control about choice and jump of program, motor control, extra circuit on repeat circuit, pause circuit in a conveyer, safety regulations and rule about classification of electricity disaster and protective device for insulation.

  19. Next-generation sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieneck, Klaus; Bak, Mads; Jønson, Lars

    2013-01-01

    , Illumina); several millions of PCR sequences were analyzed. RESULTS: The results demonstrated the feasibility of diagnosing the fetal KEL1 or KEL2 blood group from cell-free DNA purified from maternal plasma. CONCLUSION: This method requires only one primer pair, and the large amount of sequence...... information obtained allows well for statistical analysis of the data. This general approach can be integrated into current laboratory practice and has numerous applications. Besides DNA-based predictions of blood group phenotypes, platelet phenotypes, or sickle cell anemia, and the determination of zygosity...

  20. Sequence Classification: 892145 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|6323774|ref|NP_013845.1| Protein of unknown function, deleti...on causes sensitivity to thermal stress; Dlt1p || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/6323774 ...

  1. The Tec kinase ITK regulates thymic expansion, emigration, and maturation of γδ NKT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Catherine C; Cho, Ok Hyun; Sylvia, Katelyn E; Narayan, Kavitha; Prince, Amanda L; Evans, John W; Kang, Joonsoo; Berg, Leslie J

    2013-03-15

    The Tec family tyrosine kinase, Itk, regulates signaling downstream of the TCR. The absence of Itk in CD4(+) T cells results in impaired Th2 responses along with defects in maturation, cytokine production, and survival of iNKT cells. Paradoxically, Itk(-/-) mice have spontaneously elevated serum IgE levels, resulting from an expansion of the Vγ1.1(+)Vδ6.3(+) subset of γδ T cells, known as γδ NKT cells. Comparisons between γδ NKT cells and αβ iNKT cells showed convergence in the pattern of cell surface marker expression, cytokine profiles, and gene expression, suggesting that these two subsets of NKT cells undergo similar differentiation programs. Hepatic γδ NKT cells have an invariant TCR and are derived predominantly from fetal progenitors that expand in the thymus during the first weeks of life. The adult thymus contains these invariant γδ NKT cells plus a heterogeneous population of Vγ1.1(+)Vδ6.3(+) T cells with diverse CDR3 sequences. This latter population, normally excluded from the liver, escapes the thymus and homes to the liver when Itk is absent. In addition, Itk(-/-) γδ NKT cells persistently express high levels of Zbtb16 (PLZF) and Il4, genes that are normally downregulated in the most mature subsets of NKT cells. These data indicate that Itk signaling is required to prevent the expansion of γδ NKT cells in the adult thymus, to block their emigration, and to promote terminal NKT cell maturation.

  2. In vitro evolution and affinity-maturation with Coliphage qβ display.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Skamel

    Full Text Available The Escherichia coli bacteriophage, Qβ (Coliphage Qβ, offers a favorable alternative to M13 for in vitro evolution of displayed peptides and proteins due to high mutagenesis rates in Qβ RNA replication that better simulate the affinity maturation processes of the immune response. We describe a benchtop in vitro evolution system using Qβ display of the VP1 G-H loop peptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. DNA encoding the G-H loop was fused to the A1 minor coat protein of Qβ resulting in a replication-competent hybrid phage that efficiently displayed the FMDV peptide. The surface-localized FMDV VP1 G-H loop cross-reacted with the anti-FMDV monoclonal antibody (mAb SD6 and was found to decorate the corners of the Qβ icosahedral shell by electron microscopy. Evolution of Qβ-displayed peptides, starting from fully degenerate coding sequences corresponding to the immunodominant region of VP1, allowed rapid in vitro affinity maturation to SD6 mAb. Qβ selected under evolutionary pressure revealed a non-canonical, but essential epitope for mAb SD6 recognition consisting of an Arg-Gly tandem pair. Finally, the selected hybrid phages induced polyclonal antibodies in guinea pigs with good affinity to both FMDV and hybrid Qβ-G-H loop, validating the requirement of the tandem pair epitope. Qβ-display emerges as a novel framework for rapid in vitro evolution with affinity-maturation to molecular targets.

  3. Developmental programming of long non-coding RNAs during postnatal liver maturation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Peng

    Full Text Available The liver is a vital organ with critical functions in metabolism, protein synthesis, and immune defense. Most of the liver functions are not mature at birth and many changes happen during postnatal liver development. However, it is unclear what changes occur in liver after birth, at what developmental stages they occur, and how the developmental processes are regulated. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are involved in organ development and cell differentiation. Here, we analyzed the transcriptome of lncRNAs in mouse liver from perinatal (day -2 to adult (day 60 by RNA-Sequencing, with an attempt to understand the role of lncRNAs in liver maturation. We found around 15,000 genes expressed, including about 2,000 lncRNAs. Most lncRNAs were expressed at a lower level than coding RNAs. Both coding RNAs and lncRNAs displayed three major ontogenic patterns: enriched at neonatal, adolescent, or adult stages. Neighboring coding and non-coding RNAs showed the trend to exhibit highly correlated ontogenic expression patterns. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed that some lncRNAs enriched at neonatal ages have their neighbor protein coding genes also enriched at neonatal ages and associated with cell proliferation, immune activation related processes, tissue organization pathways, and hematopoiesis; other lncRNAs enriched at adolescent ages have their neighbor protein coding genes associated with different metabolic processes. These data reveal significant functional transition during postnatal liver development and imply the potential importance of lncRNAs in liver maturation.

  4. Thermal Texture Selection and Correction for Building Facade Inspection Based on Thermal Radiant Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D.; Jarzabek-Rychard, M.; Schneider, D.; Maas, H.-G.

    2018-05-01

    An automatic building façade thermal texture mapping approach, using uncooled thermal camera data, is proposed in this paper. First, a shutter-less radiometric thermal camera calibration method is implemented to remove the large offset deviations caused by changing ambient environment. Then, a 3D façade model is generated from a RGB image sequence using structure-from-motion (SfM) techniques. Subsequently, for each triangle in the 3D model, the optimal texture is selected by taking into consideration local image scale, object incident angle, image viewing angle as well as occlusions. Afterwards, the selected textures can be further corrected using thermal radiant characteristics. Finally, the Gauss filter outperforms the voted texture strategy at the seams smoothing and thus for instance helping to reduce the false alarm rate in façade thermal leakages detection. Our approach is evaluated on a building row façade located at Dresden, Germany.

  5. Blood pressure and sexual maturity in adolescents: the Heartfelt Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S D; Mueller, W H; Meininger, J C; Liehr, P; Chan, W

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates sexual maturity as a predictor of resting blood pressures independent of other known predictors, in 179 boys and 204 girls 11-16 years of age from the Heartfelt Study. The sample included youth of African (n = 140), Mexican (n = 117), and European and "other" (n = 126) backgrounds. Sexual maturity was assessed during clinical examination of three standard indicators for each sex. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in children of maturity stages IV and V, compared to stages I-III, in each gender/ethnic group (P maturity for their age group, had significantly higher systolic blood pressures (but not diastolic) than the less advanced in linear models that included height, body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, and age as co-predictors. Diastolic blood pressures were predicted by height in boys and by age and the BMI in girls. This analysis, using a very conservative approach, suggests that sexual maturity provides important and independent information on systolic blood pressure in adolescents. Further investigation of its role in 24-hr blood pressures and in blood pressures taken during physical and emotional stress, is recommended.

  6. As Technologies for Nucleotide Therapeutics Mature, Products Emerge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beierlein, Jennifer M; McNamee, Laura M; Ledley, Fred D

    2017-12-15

    The long path from initial research on oligonucleotide therapies to approval of antisense products is not unfamiliar. This lag resembles those encountered with monoclonal antibodies, gene therapies, and many biological targets and is consistent with studies of innovation showing that technology maturation is a critical determinant of product success. We previously described an analytical model for the maturation of biomedical research, demonstrating that the efficiency of targeted and biological development is connected to metrics of technology growth. The present work applies this model to characterize the advance of oligonucleotide therapeutics. We show that recent oligonucleotide product approvals incorporate technologies and targets that are past the established point of technology growth, as do most of the oligonucleotide products currently in phase 3. Less mature oligonucleotide technologies, such as miRNAs and some novel gene targets, have not passed the established point and have not yielded products. This analysis shows that oligonucleotide product development has followed largely predictable patterns of innovation. While technology maturation alone does not ensure success, these data show that many oligonucleotide technologies are sufficiently mature to be considered part of the arsenal for therapeutic development. These results demonstrate the importance of technology assessment in strategic management of biomedical technologies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of WNT signaling in epididymal sperm maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin-Mei; Tang, Ji-Xin; Li, Jian; Wang, Yu-Qian; Wang, Xiu-Xia; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Su-Ren; Liu, Yi-Xun

    2018-02-01

    Spermatozoa maturation, a process required for spermatozoa to acquire progressive motility and the ability to fertilize ova, primarily occurs in the caput and corpus of the epididymis. Despite considerable efforts, the factor(s) promoting epididymal sperm maturation remains unclear. Recently, WNT signaling has been implicated in epididymal sperm maturation. To further investigate WNT signaling function in epididymal sperm maturation, we generated Wntless conditional knockout mice (Wls cKO), Wls flox/flox ; Lcn5-Cre. In these mice, WNTLESS (WLS), a conserved membrane protein required for all WNT protein secretion, was specifically disrupted in the principal cells of the caput epididymidis. Immunoblot analysis showed that WLS was significantly reduced in the caput epididymidis of Wls cKO mice. In the caput epididymidis of Wls cKO mice, WNT 10A and WNT 2b, which are typically secreted by the principal cells of the caput epididymis, were not secreted. Interestingly, sperm motility analysis showed that the WLS deficiency in the caput epididymidis had no effect on sperm motility. Moreover, fertility tests showed that Wls cKO male mice had normal fertility. These results indicate that the disruption of WLS in principal cells of the caput epididymidis inhibits WNT protein secretion but has no effect on sperm motility and male fertility, suggesting that WNT signaling in the caput epididymidis may be dispensable for epididymal sperm maturation in mice.

  8. Effect of Kaempferol on in vitro Maturation of Porcine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Orlovschi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of kaempferol on porcine oocytes in vitro maturation. Kaempferol is one the most studied flavonoids and is in research attention on animal cells until 1979. Flavonoids are known as polyphenolic compounds synthesized by the plants. Cumulus-oocyte complexes aspirated from the ovaries were maturated in vitro, fertilized and embryos were cultured in a defined conditioned medium with 5, 15, 25, 35 µg/ml or without kaempferol supplementation. During in vitro maturation with highest kaempferol concentration (35 µg/ml distinct significantly increase the rate of cumulus cell expansion in grad 4 (42.74 vs. 50.96%, p<0.01. The same, addition of 5 µg/ml kaempferol to the in vitro maturation medium increase significantly the rate of expansion compared to 25 µg/ml (42.20 vs. 48.67%, p<0.05 and increase distinct significantly the rate of expansion compared to 35 µg/ml (42.20 vs. 50.96%, p<0.01. Kaempferol supplementation (15 µg/ml vs. 35 µg/ml of the in vitro fertilization medium led to a significant increase in the rate of 4-8 cells formation (0.69 vs. 4.96%, p<0.05. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that supplementation with kaempferol during in vitro maturation improved the developmental competence of porcine oocytes.

  9. CT findings of overian teratomas : mature versus immature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Chul; Kim, Young Wol

    1996-01-01

    To differentiate mature and immature ovarian teratomas, using CT findings. The CT findings of ten mature ovarian teratomas (in one patient, bilateral) and ten which were immature were compared, using statistical analysis. Images were evaluated for size, margins, architecture, contents (mural nodules, fat, calcification), septa, local invasion and distant metastasis. These findings were compared with pathologic findings. Of the ten mature tumors, nine were well defined and predominantly cystic in internal architecture, and one was mixed. Mural nodules were found in six tumor, fat in all, distinct calcification in seven, and regular septa in three lesions. Of the ten immature humors, eight had irregular margins. Seven were predominantly solid in internal architecture and irregularly enhanced, two were mixed, and one was mainly cystic. Fat was detected in five lesions, indistinct scattered calcification in six, irregular septa in three, and local invasion of distant metastasis in four patients. Compared with mature ovarian teratomas, those that are immature tend to show CT findings of marginal irregularity, solid mass with irregular enhacement, scattered indistinct calcifications, septal irregularity, local invasion or distant metastasis. Our experience suggests that these findings may be helpful in differentiation of mature and immature ovarian teratomas

  10. Structural and Maturational Covariance in Early Childhood Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiujuan; Li, Gang; Lu, Zhaohua; Gao, Wei; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Gilmore, John H

    2017-03-01

    Brain structural covariance networks (SCNs) composed of regions with correlated variation are altered in neuropsychiatric disease and change with age. Little is known about the development of SCNs in early childhood, a period of rapid cortical growth. We investigated the development of structural and maturational covariance networks, including default, dorsal attention, primary visual and sensorimotor networks in a longitudinal population of 118 children after birth to 2 years old and compared them with intrinsic functional connectivity networks. We found that structural covariance of all networks exhibit strong correlations mostly limited to their seed regions. By Age 2, default and dorsal attention structural networks are much less distributed compared with their functional maps. The maturational covariance maps, however, revealed significant couplings in rates of change between distributed regions, which partially recapitulate their functional networks. The structural and maturational covariance of the primary visual and sensorimotor networks shows similar patterns to the corresponding functional networks. Results indicate that functional networks are in place prior to structural networks, that correlated structural patterns in adult may arise in part from coordinated cortical maturation, and that regional co-activation in functional networks may guide and refine the maturation of SCNs over childhood development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effect of fertilization on the physiological maturation of sesame seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erivan Isídio Ferreira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization and harvest time may influence the formation and maturation processes, as well as the physiological quality of seeds. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of fertilization on the physiological maturation of sesame seeds. The following variables were evaluated: fruit color, dry mass and water content of fruits and seeds, germination, first germination count, germination speed, emergence and emergence speed. No significant fertilization effect was observed on fruit maturation for water content or dry mass. However, there was significance for these variables in the seeds. The harvest time had a significant effect on water content and dry mass of fruits and seeds. For the variables that evaluated the seed viability and vigor, both the fertilization and harvest time influenced the physiological maturation. The physiological maturity of the sesame seeds, whose plants were grown with and without fertilization, was reached between 52 and 54 days after anthesis, when the fruits were classified as yellow-greenish 7.5 Y 8/6 and yellow to yellow-red 10.R 4/6.

  12. Maturation evolution of chardonnay grape for juice preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender Angelica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the evolution of the maturation of the “Chardonnay” grape variety for the preparation of juices and its adequacy to the current legislation. Grapes from the 2015 harvest from São Lourenço do Sul-RS were used. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial design, with the treatment factor being the maturation stages. The physicochemical analysis of titratable acidity, soluble solids, relative density, total sugar, alcohol content, volatile acidity and SS/TA ratio were carried out in EPAGRI – Agricultural Research and Rural Extension Company of Santa Catarina, in the Videira Experimental Station (Videira SC/Brazil. Statistical analysis of the maturation stages was given by linear regression models. When comparing the maturation points of 17∘Brix and 19∘Brix to 15∘Brix, volatile acidity and alcohol content did not fit to the model, while the other tested variables fit properly. Elaborated juices had a decrease in titratable acidity and percentage increments for soluble solids, SS/TA ratio and total sugars for the harvest points at 17 and 19∘Brix. For 15∘Brix and 17∘Brix, nonconformity was observed with the identity and quality standards in relation to soluble solids and SS/TA ratio and relative density. At maturation point 19∘Brix all variables were found to be consistent.

  13. In vitro maturation of human oocytes for assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurema, Marcus W; Nogueira, Daniela

    2006-11-01

    To describe and evaluate the current practice of in vitro maturation of oocytes for assisted reproduction. Review of the available and relevant literature regarding in vitro maturation of oocytes. In vitro maturation of human oocytes retrieved from antral ovarian follicles is an emerging procedure quickly being incorporated into the realm of assisted reproductive technologies. This new technology has several potential advantages over traditional controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for IVF, such as reduction of costs by minimizing gonadotropin and GnRH analogue use, elimination of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and simplicity of protocol. In vitro maturation of oocytes for assisted reproduction in human beings still is undergoing refinement but currently is providing efficacy and safety outcome comparable to that of traditional IVF in recent selected studies. Implementing in vitro maturation into an established IVF practice is feasible and requires only a few simple adjustments. Crucial to the advancement and optimization of the technology is a better understanding of how to maximize immature oocyte developmental competence and endometrial receptivity.

  14. Pharmaceutical Options for Triggering of Final Oocyte Maturation in ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Castillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the pioneering days of in vitro fertilization, hCG has been the gold standard to induce final follicular maturation. We herein reviewed different pharmaceutical options for triggering of final oocyte maturation in ART. The new upcoming agent seems to be GnRHa with its potential advantages over hCG trigger. GnRHa triggering elicits a surge of gonadotropins resembling the natural midcycle surge of gonadotropins, without the prolonged action of hCG, resulting in the retrieval of more mature oocytes and a significant reduction in or elimination of OHSS as compared to hCG triggering. The induction of final follicular maturation using GnRHa represents a paradigm shift in the ovulation triggering concept in ART and, thus, a way to develop a safer IVF procedure. Kisspeptins are key central regulators of the neuroendocrine mechanisms of human reproduction, who have been shown to effectively elicit an LH surge and to induce final oocyte maturation in IVF cycles. This new trigger concept may, therefore, offer a completely new, “natural” pharmacological option for ovulation induction. Whether kisspeptins will be the future agent to trigger ovulation remains to be further explored.

  15. A lack of cerebral lateralization in schizophrenia is within the normal variation in brain maturation but indicates late, slow maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, L F

    1999-10-19

    The planum temporale (PT) bias, PT leftward, PT symmetry, and PT rightward reversal and sidedness preference, consistent right-handedness, ambilaterality, and consistent left-handedness are placed on a continuum mirroring the normal variation in rate of brain maturation. Maturational rate declines as we pass from PT leftward bias and consistent right-handedness to PT reversal and consistent left-handedness. Concomitantly, we expect an increased prevalence of males due to their pubertal age being about 2 years later than that of females, and a shift in cognitive profile from higher verbal scores than performance scores on the WAIS to higher performance than verbal scores. Three disorders fulfilling the criteria of late CNS maturation apart from the corresponding cognitive profile were studied: infantile autism (IA), schizophrenia (S), and developmental dyslexia (DD). These disorders have in common deficits in cognition, perception, and somatomotor function. The deficits range from an arrest in brain development (which is evident in infancy superimposed on late maturation in IA) to overall delayed brain and somatic development in S (culminating in postpubertal psychotic episodes and persistent and generalized residual deficits). Finally, reading inability, problems in perception (vision and hearing) and in motor coordination, particularly between the two hemispheres, characterize DD. Enhancing brain maturation and the prevalence of 'normal' cerebral asymmetry--laterality is preferable if we want to reduce the risk of developing the above-mentioned disorders. It is suggested that in the past environmental challenges have favored early maturation, with its abundant neuronal population, arborization and excessive density of synapses and cerebral excitability which has powered evolution through the mechanism of natural selection. Early maturation is obtainable through optimal nutrition, including a satisfactory amount of marine fat (PUFA), before and during pregnancy and

  16. Cryogenic cooler thermal coupler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, K.E.; Talbourdet, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A thermal coupler assembly mounted to the coldfinger of a cryogenic cooler which provides improved thermal transfer between the coldfinger and the detector assembly mounted on the dewar endwell. The thermal coupler design comprises a stud and spring-loaded cap mounted on the coldfinger assembly. Thermal transfer is made primarily through the air space between the cap and coldwell walls along the radial surfaces. The cap is spring loaded to provide thermal contact between the cap and endwell end surfaces

  17. Proteome analysis during pod, zygotic and somatic embryo maturation of Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemenak, Nicolas; Kaiser, Edward; Maximova, Siela N; Laremore, Tatiana; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-05-15

    Two dimensional electrophoresis and nano-LC-MS were performed in order to identify alterations in protein abundance that correlate with maturation of cacao zygotic and somatic embryos. The cacao pod proteome was also characterized during development. The recently published cacao genome sequence was used to create a predicted proteolytic fragment database. Several hundred protein spots were resolved on each tissue analysis, of which 72 variable spots were subjected to MS analysis, resulting in 49 identifications. The identified proteins represent an array of functional categories, including seed storage, stress response, photosynthesis and translation factors. The seed storage protein was strongly accumulated in cacao zygotic embryos compared to their somatic counterpart. However, sucrose treatment (60 g L(-1)) allows up-regulation of storage protein in SE. A high similarity in the profiles of acidic proteins was observed in mature zygotic and somatic embryos. Differential expression in both tissues was observed in proteins having high pI. Several proteins were detected exclusively in fruit tissues, including a chitinase and a 14-3-3 protein. We also identified a novel cacao protein related to known mabinlin type sweet storage proteins. Moreover, the specific presence of thaumatin-like protein, another sweet protein, was also detected in fruit tissue. We discuss our observed correlations between protein expression profiles, developmental stage and stress responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. The maturation of cortical sleep rhythms and networks over early development.

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    Chu, C J; Leahy, J; Pathmanathan, J; Kramer, M A; Cash, S S

    2014-07-01

    Although neuronal activity drives all aspects of cortical development, how human brain rhythms spontaneously mature remains an active area of research. We sought to systematically evaluate the emergence of human brain rhythms and functional cortical networks over early development. We examined cortical rhythms and coupling patterns from birth through adolescence in a large cohort of healthy children (n=384) using scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) in the sleep state. We found that the emergence of brain rhythms follows a stereotyped sequence over early development. In general, higher frequencies increase in prominence with striking regional specificity throughout development. The coordination of these rhythmic activities across brain regions follows a general pattern of maturation in which broadly distributed networks of low-frequency oscillations increase in density while networks of high frequency oscillations become sparser and more highly clustered. Our results indicate that a predictable program directs the development of key rhythmic components and physiological brain networks over early development. This work expands our knowledge of normal cortical development. The stereotyped neurophysiological processes observed at the level of rhythms and networks may provide a scaffolding to support critical periods of cognitive growth. Furthermore, these conserved patterns could provide a sensitive biomarker for cortical health across development. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Feed-additive probiotics accelerate yet antibiotics delay intestinal microbiota maturation in broiler chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pengfei; Ma, Chen; Sun, Zheng; Wang, Lifeng; Huang, Shi; Su, Xiaoquan; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Heping

    2017-08-03

    Reducing antibiotics overuse in animal agriculture is one key in combat against the spread of antibiotic resistance. Probiotics are a potential replacement of antibiotics in animal feed; however, it is not clear whether and how probiotics and antibiotics differ in impact on physiology and microbial ecology of host animals. Host phenotype and fecal microbiota of broilers with either antibiotics or probiotics as feed additive were simultaneously sampled at four time points from birth to slaughter and then compared. Probiotic feeding resulted in a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and induced the highest level of immunity response, suggesting greater economic benefits in broiler farming. Probiotic use but not antibiotic use recapitulated the characteristics of age-dependent development of gut microbiota in the control group. The maturation of intestinal microbiota was greatly accelerated by probiotic feeding, yet significantly retarded and eventually delayed by antibiotic feeding. LP-8 stimulated the growth of many intestinal Lactobacillus spp. and led to an altered bacterial correlation network where Lactobacillus spp. are negatively correlated with 14 genera and positively linked with none, yet from the start antibiotic feeding featured a less-organized network where such inter-genera interactions were fewer and weaker. Consistently, microbiota-encoded functions as revealed by metagenome sequencing were highly distinct between the two groups. Thus, "intestinal microbiota maturation index" was proposed to quantitatively compare impact of feed additives on animal microecology. Our results reveal a tremendous potential of probiotics as antibiotics' substitute in poultry farming.

  20. A molecular roadmap of the AGM region reveals BMPER as a novel regulator of HSC maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Alison C.; Souilhol, Céline; Rice, Ritva; Hills, David; Rice, David; Tomlinson, Simon R.

    2017-01-01

    In the developing embryo, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge from the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region, but the molecular regulation of this process is poorly understood. Recently, the progression from E9.5 to E10.5 and polarity along the dorso-ventral axis have been identified as clear demarcations of the supportive HSC niche. To identify novel secreted regulators of HSC maturation, we performed RNA sequencing over these spatiotemporal transitions in the AGM region and supportive OP9 cell line. Screening several proteins through an ex vivo reaggregate culture system, we identify BMPER as a novel positive regulator of HSC development. We demonstrate that BMPER is associated with BMP signaling inhibition, but is transcriptionally induced by BMP4, suggesting that BMPER contributes to the precise control of BMP activity within the AGM region, enabling the maturation of HSCs within a BMP-negative environment. These findings and the availability of our transcriptional data through an accessible interface should provide insight into the maintenance and potential derivation of HSCs in culture. PMID:29093060