Sample records for thermal mass

  1. Thermal Mass & Dynamic Effects Danish Building Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Selman, Ayser Dawod; Heiselberg, Per

    will focus on three main aspects: ♦ Assess the robustness of the monthly calculation method by varying the input parameters (Part 3) ♦ Better take into consideration the thermal mass in the actual tool by updating the utilisation factors used for the calculation of cooling and heating (Part 3) ♦ Find...... a method to evaluate night-time ventilation in the monthly calculation (Part 4)...

  2. Thermal conductivity of mass-graded graphene flakes


    Cheh, Jigger; Zhao, Hong


    In this letter we study thermal conduction in mass-graded graphene flakes by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that mass-graded graphene flakes reveal no thermal rectification effect in thermal conduction process. The dependence of thermal conductivity upon the heat flux and the mass gradient are studied to confirm the generality of the result.The mechanism leading to the absence of thermal rectification effect is also discussed.

  3. The Effect of Thermal Mass on Annual Heat Load and Thermal Comfort in Cold Climate Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Vanessa; Kotol, Martin; Grunau, Bruno


    Thermal mass in building construction refers to a building material's ability to absorb and release heat based on changing environmental conditions. In building design, materials with high thermal mass used in climates with a diurnal temperature swing around the interior set-point temperature have...... been shown to reduce the annual heating demand. However, few studies exist regarding the effects of thermal mass in cold climates. The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of high thermal mass on the annual heat demand and thermal comfort in a typical Alaskan residence using energy...... that while increased thermal mass does have advantages in all climates, such as a decrease in summer overheating, it is not an effective strategy for decreasing annual heat demand in typical residential buildings in Alaska. (C) 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers....

  4. Thermal /Soret/ diffusion effects on interfacial mass transport rates (United States)

    Rosner, D. E.


    It is shown that thermal (Soret) diffusion significantly alters convective mass transport rates and important transition temperatures in highly nonisothermal flow systems involving the transport of 'heavy' species (vapors or particles). Introduction of the Soret transport term is shown to result in mass transfer effects similar to those of 'suction' and a homogeneous chemical 'sink'. It is pointed out that this analogy provides a simple method of correlating and predicting thermal diffusion effects in the abovementioned systems.

  5. Convective Concrete : Additive Manufacturing to facilitate activation of thermal mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, D.; de Klijn-Chevalerias, M.L.; Loonen, R.C.G.M.; Hensen, JLM; Knaack, U.; Zimmermann, G


    This paper reports on the research-driven design process of an innovative thermal mass concept: Convective Concrete. The goal is to improve building energy efficiency and comfort levels by addressing some of the shortcomings of conventional building slabs with high thermal storage capacity. Such

  6. Thermal mass impact on energy performance of a low, medium and heavy mass building in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Bojan V.


    Full Text Available Heavy mass materials used in building structures and architecture can significantly affect building energy performance and occupant comfort. The purpose of this study was to investigate if thermal mass can improve the internal environment of a building, resulting in lower energy requirements from the mechanical systems. The study was focused on passive building energy performance and compared annual space heating and cooling energy requirements for an office building in Belgrade with several different applications of thermal mass. A three-dimensional building model was generated to represent a typical office building. Building shape, orientation, glazing to wall ratio, envelope insulation thickness, and indoor design conditions were held constant while location and thickness of building mass (concrete was varied between cases in a series of energy simulations. The results were compared and discussed in terms of the building space heating and cooling energy and demand affected by thermal mass. The simulation results indicated that with addition of thermal mass to the building envelope and structure: 100% of all simulated cases experienced reduced annual space heating energy requirements, 67% of all simulated cases experienced reduced annual space cooling energy requirements, 83% of all simulated cases experienced reduced peak space heating demand and 50% of all simulated cases experienced reduced peak space cooling demand. The study demonstrated that there exists a potential for reducing space heating and cooling energy requirements with heavy mass construction in the analyzed climate region (Belgrade, Serbia.

  7. Coorbital thermal torques on low-mass protoplanets (United States)

    Masset, Frédéric S.


    Using linear perturbation theory, we investigate the torque exerted on a low-mass planet embedded in a gaseous protoplanetary disc with finite thermal diffusivity. When the planet does not release energy into the ambient disc, the main effect of thermal diffusion is the softening of the enthalpy peak near the planet, which results in the appearance of two cold and dense lobes on either side of the orbit, of size smaller than the thickness of the disc. The lobes exert torques of opposite sign on the planet, each comparable in magnitude to the one-sided Lindblad torque. When the planet is offset from corotation, the lobes are asymmetric and the planet experiences a net torque, the `cold' thermal torque, which has a magnitude that depends on the relative value of the distance to corotation to the size of the lobes {˜ }√{χ /Ω _p}, χ being the thermal diffusivity and Ωp the orbital frequency. We believe that this effect corresponds to the phenomenon named `cold finger' recently reported in numerical simulations, and we argue that it constitutes the dominant mode of migration of sub-Earth-mass objects. When the planet is luminous, the heat released into the ambient disc results in an additional disturbance that takes the form of hot, low-density lobes. They give a torque, named heating torque in previous work, that has an expression similar, but of opposite sign, to the cold thermal torque.

  8. Modeling energy flexibility of low energy buildings utilizing thermal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Heller, Alfred; Rode, Carsten


    In the future energy system a considerable increase in the penetration of renewable energy is expected, challenging the stability of the system, as both production and consumption will have fluctuating patterns. Hence, the concept of energy flexibility will be necessary in order for the consumption...... to match the production patterns, shifting demand from on-peak hours to off-peak hours. Buildings could act as flexibility suppliers to the energy system, through load shifting potential, provided that the large thermal mass of the building stock could be utilized for energy storage. In the present study...... the load shifting potential of an apartment of a low energy building in Copenhagen is assessed, utilizing the heat storage capacity of the thermal mass when the heating system is switched off for relieving the energy system. It is shown that when using a 4-hour preheating period before switching off...

  9. Variational approach to thermal masses in compactified models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominici, Daniele [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Università di Firenze and INFN - Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Roditi, Itzhak [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas - CBPF/MCT,Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    We investigate by means of a variational approach the effective potential of a 5DU(1) scalar model at finite temperature and compactified on S{sup 1} and S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2} as well as the corresponding 4D model obtained through a trivial dimensional reduction. We are particularly interested in the behavior of the thermal masses of the scalar field with respect to the Wilson line phase and the results obtained are compared with those coming from a one-loop effective potential calculation. We also explore the nature of the phase transition.

  10. U-series dating using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, M.T. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Earth Science


    U-series dating is based on the decay of the two long-lived isotopes{sup 238}U({tau}{sub 1/2}=4.47 x 10{sup 9} years) and {sup 235}U ({tau}{sub 1/2} 0.7 x 10{sup 9} years). {sup 238}U and its intermediate daughter isotopes {sup 234}U ({tau}{sub 1/2} = 245.4 ka) and {sup 230}Th ({tau}{sub 1/2} = 75.4 ka) have been the main focus of recently developed mass spectrometric techniques (Edwards et al., 1987) while the other less frequently used decay chain is based on the decay {sup 235}U to {sup 231}Pa ({tau}{sub 1/2} = 32.8 ka). Both the {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U decay chains terminate at the stable isotopes {sup 206}Pb and {sup 207}Pb respectively. Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) has a number of inherent advantages, mainly the ability to measure isotopic ratios at high precision on relatively small samples. In spite of these now obvious advantages, it is only since the mid-1980`s when Chen et al., (1986) made the first precise measurements of {sup 234}U and {sup 232}Th in seawater followed by Edwards et al., (1987) who made combined {sup 234}U-{sup 230}Th measurements, was the full potential of mass spectrometric methods first realised. Several examples are given to illustrate various aspects of TIMS U-series 9 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Modelling the thermal behaviour of the low-thermal mass liquid chromatography system. (United States)

    Verstraeten, Matthias; Pursch, Matthias; Eckerle, Patric; Luong, Jim; Desmet, Gert


    We report upon the experimental investigation of the heat transfer in low thermal mass LC (LTMLC) systems, used under temperature gradient conditions. The influence of the temperature ramp, the capillary dimensions, the material selection and the chromatographic conditions on the radial temperature gradients formed when applying a temperature ramp were investigated by a numerical model and verified with experimental temperature measurements. It was found that the radial temperature gradients scale linearly with the heating rate, quadratically with the radius of the capillary and inversely to the thermal diffusivity. Because of the thermal radial gradients in the liquid zone inside the capillary lead to radial viscosity and velocity gradients, they form an additional source of dispersion for the solutes. For a temperature ramp of 1 K/s and a strong temperature dependence of the retention of small molecules, the model predicts that narrow-bore columns (i.d. 2.1 mm) can be used. For a temperature ramp of 10 K/s, the maximal inner diameter is of the order of 1 mm before a substantial increase in dispersion occurs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Demand Shifting with Thermal Mass in Light and Heavy Mass Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peng; Zagreus, Leah


    The potential for utilizing building thermal mass for load shifting and peak demand reduction has been demonstrated in a number of simulation, laboratory, and field studies. This project studied the potential of pre-cooling and demand limiting in a heavy mass and a light mass building in the Bay Area of California. The conclusion of the work to date is that pre-cooling has the potential to improve the demand responsiveness of commercial buildings while maintaining acceptable comfort conditions. Results indicate that pre-cooling increases the depth (kW) and duration (kWh) of the shed capacity of a given building, all other factors being equal. Due to the time necessary for pre-cooling, it is only applicable to day-ahead demand response programs. Pre-cooling can be very effective if the building mass is relatively heavy. The effectiveness of night pre-cooling under hot weather conditions has not been tested. Further work is required to quantify and demonstrate the effectiveness of pre-cooling in different climates. Research is also needed to develop screening tools that can be used to select suitable buildings and customers, identify the most appropriate pre-cooling strategies, and estimate the benefits to the customer and the utility.

  13. Effect of microstructure of graphite on the nonreductive thermal ion emission in thermal ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Wei, H Z; Jiang, S Y; Xiao, Y K


    The emission behavior of polyatomic ions in the ionization source of thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) was investigated. The results suggest that the presence of a graphite promoter plays a key role for the formation and stable emission of polyatomic ions, such as M(2)X(+), M(2)BO(2)(+), Cs(2)NO(2)(+), and Cs(2)CNO(+). Our data further implied that the intensity of M(2)X(+) and M(2)BO(2)(+) increases and the emission temperature decreases with increasing cationic and anionic radius. During the boron isotopic measurement using the Cs(2)BO(2)(+)-graphite-PTIMS method, the isobaric interference ion Cs(2)CNO(+) cannot be transformed from nitrate or organic compounds containing an amide group but can be induced by the existence of trace amounts of boron because of its special electron-deficiency property (B(3+)). Characterization on the planar crystalline structure of various graphite samples with SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the relationship of the emission capacity of polyatomic ions and the crystal microstructure of graphite and provides direct evidence that graphite with a perfect parallel and equidistant layer orientation shows a beneficial effect on the emission of polyatomic ions in TIMS. The mechanism study on the formation of polyatomic ions opens the possibility to establish high precision methods for isotopic composition analysis of more nonmetal elements with the TIMS technique.

  14. Impact of Thermal Mass Oriented Measures Over CO2 Emissions Of a Thermally Insulated Lowrise Apartment Building in Izmir, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mümine Gerçek


    Full Text Available Climate change has drawn the attention of many researchers and practitioners to focus on the methods to address the challenges in achieving low-carbon buildings and cities and in future developments. Nevertheless, few studies have explored the impacts of thermal mass applications for the lowest carbon emissions of building operational energy consumption. A comparative study of CO2 emissions due to different wall and floor compositions is presented in accordance with their lifespans for a hot-humid climate site. Aim of this study is to examine the relation between the energy oriented operations and carbon emissions of the building. Firstly, an existing low-rise building in İzmir is selected, then modelled in the dynamic simulation model software DesignBuilder v4 by synchronizing drawings with basic operational principles of the program. Furthermore, various influence factors of building envelope thermal characteristics are selected as follows: type, location, thickness and thermal specifications of materials used by keeping thermal conductivity value constant. At the end, the research presents remarkable influence of thermal mass oriented measures on reducing energy demands and carbon footprints.

  15. Effects of functional group mass variance on vibrational properties and thermal transport in graphene (United States)

    Lindsay, L.; Kuang, Y.


    Intrinsic thermal resistivity critically depends on features of phonon dispersions dictated by harmonic interatomic forces and masses. Here we present the effects of functional group mass variance on vibrational properties and thermal conductivity (κ ) of functionalized graphene from first-principles calculations. We use graphane, a buckled graphene backbone with covalently bonded hydrogen atoms on both sides, as the base material and vary the mass of the hydrogen atoms to simulate the effect of mass variance from other functional groups. We find nonmonotonic behavior of κ with increasing mass of the functional group and an unusual crossover from acoustic-dominated to optic-dominated thermal transport behavior. We connect this crossover to changes in the phonon dispersion with varying mass which suppress acoustic phonon velocities, but also give unusually high velocity optic modes. Further, we show that out-of-plane acoustic vibrations contribute significantly more to thermal transport than in-plane acoustic modes despite breaking of a reflection-symmetry-based scattering selection rule responsible for their large contributions in graphene. This work demonstrates the potential for manipulation and engineering of thermal transport properties in two-dimensional materials toward targeted applications.

  16. Understanding thermal energy and mass transport in major volcanic centers (United States)

    Hermance, John F.


    An understanding of the thermal regions of the earth's interior and their associated dynamic processes is of central importance, not only to basic science but to a number of national priorities including resource and the mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards. Major thermal anomalies over large regions of the continent are associated with intraplate rifts and transform faults (e.g., the Salton Trough and the Rio Grande Rift), distributed extensional tectonics (e.g., the Basin and Range Province), and plate margins (e.g., the Cascade Range). However, it is clear that of all classes of volcanic phenomena within the conterminous United States, the major intraplate silicic caldera complexes (e.g., Yellowstone, the Valles Caldera, the Long Valley/Mono Craters volcanic complex) appear to have, according to present estimates, the highest accessible geothermal resource base and the greatest destructive power during major eruptive phases. In addition, the exhumed fossil analogs of these systems are associated with extensive mineralization and economic ore deposits. What is lacking, however, is a predictive scientific theory describing the fundamental physio-chemical processes responsible for the development and longterm sustenance of these major volcanic centers in space and time.

  17. Thermal Cracking Analysis during Pipe Cooling of Mass Concrete Using Particle Flow Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Li


    Full Text Available Pipe cooling systems are among the potentially effective measures to control the temperature of mass concrete. However, if not properly controlled, thermal cracking in concrete, especially near water pipes, might occur, as experienced in many mass concrete structures. In this paper, a new numerical approach to simulate thermal cracking based on particle flow code is used to shed more light onto the process of thermal crack propagation and the effect of thermal cracks on thermal fields. Key details of the simulation, including the procedure of obtaining thermal and mechanical properties of particles, are presented. Importantly, a heat flow boundary based on an analytical solution is proposed and used in particle flow code in two dimensions to simulate the effect of pipe cooling. The simulation results are in good agreement with the monitored temperature data and observations on cored specimens from a real concrete gravity dam, giving confidence to the appropriateness of the adopted simulation. The simulated results also clearly demonstrate why thermal cracks occur and how they propagate, as well as the influence of such cracks on thermal fields.

  18. Thermally modulated nano-trampoline material as smart skin for gas molecular mass detection (United States)

    Xia, Hua


    Conventional multi-component gas analysis is based either on laser spectroscopy, laser and photoacoustic absorption at specific wavelengths, or on gas chromatography by separating the components of a gas mixture primarily due to boiling point (or vapor pressure) differences. This paper will present a new gas molecular mass detection method based on thermally modulated nano-trampoline material as smart skin for gas molecular mass detection by fiber Bragg grating-based gas sensors. Such a nanomaterial and fiber Bragg grating integrated sensing device has been designed to be operated either at high-energy level (highly thermal strained status) or at low-energy level (low thermal strained status). Thermal energy absorption of gas molecular trigs the sensing device transition from high-thermal-energy status to low-thermal- energy status. Experiment has shown that thermal energy variation due to gas molecular thermal energy absorption is dependent upon the gas molecular mass, and can be detected by fiber Bragg resonant wavelength shift with a linear function from 17 kg/kmol to 32 kg/kmol and a sensitivity of 0.025 kg/kmol for a 5 micron-thick nano-trampoline structure and fiber Bragg grating integrated gas sensing device. The laboratory and field validation data have further demonstrated its fast response characteristics and reliability to be online gas analysis instrument for measuring effective gas molecular mass from single-component gas, binary-component gas mixture, and multi-gas mixture. The potential industrial applications include fouling and surge control for gas charge centrifugal compressor ethylene production, gas purity for hydrogen-cooled generator, gasification for syngas production, gasoline/diesel and natural gas fuel quality monitoring for consumer market.

  19. An Update on the Non-Mass-Dependent Isotope Fractionation under Thermal Gradient (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Niles, Paul; Bao, Huiming; Socki, Richard; Liu, Yun


    Mass flow and compositional gradient (elemental and isotope separation) occurs when flu-id(s) or gas(es) in an enclosure is subjected to a thermal gradient, and the phenomenon is named thermal diffusion. Gas phase thermal diffusion has been theoretically and experimentally studied for more than a century, although there has not been a satisfactory theory to date. Nevertheless, for isotopic system, the Chapman-Enskog theory predicts that the mass difference is the only term in the thermal diffusion separation factors that differs one isotope pair to another,with the assumptions that the molecules are spherical and systematic (monoatomic-like structure) and the particle collision is elastic. Our previous report indicates factors may be playing a role because the Non-Mass Dependent (NMD) effect is found for both symmetric and asymmetric, linear and spherical polyatomic molecules over a wide range of temperature (-196C to +237C). The observed NMD phenomenon in the simple thermal-diffusion experiments demands quantitative validation and theoretical explanation. Besides the pressure and temperature dependency illustrated in our previous reports, efforts are made in this study to address issues such as the role of convection or molecular structure and whether it is a transient, non-equilibrium effect only.

  20. On computations for thermal radiation in MHD channel flow with heat and mass transfer. (United States)

    Hayat, T; Awais, M; Alsaedi, A; Safdar, Ambreen


    This study examines the simultaneous effects of heat and mass transfer on the three-dimensional boundary layer flow of viscous fluid between two infinite parallel plates. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and thermal radiation effects are present. The governing problems are first modeled and then solved by homotopy analysis method (HAM). Influence of several embedded parameters on the velocity, concentration and temperature fields are described.

  1. Thermal Inertia Variations from Recent Gully and Mass Wasting Activity in Gasa Crater, Mars (United States)

    Harrison, T. N.; Tornabene, L. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Conway, S. J.


    Gasa Crater is the most active gully site observed on Mars to date, making it of particular interest for studying the process(es) behind gully formation and activity. In this study, we investigate whether differences in thermal inertia across different segments of gully systems, combined with morphological and colour observations with HiRISE, can provide some constraints of the physical characteristics associated with recent activity within gullies in Gasa Crater. We also investigate thermophysical differences between slopes in Gasa dominated by gully activity compared to those predominantly modified by dry mass wasting processes. As thermal inertia (TI) can be used as a proxy for grain size and/or induration, utilizing this dataset can help us to better understand the mass movement processes occurring on the slopes within Gasa. We find that Gasa exhibits clear variations in thermal inertia across its walls, controlled by the material properties and the types of dominant mass movement processes occurring on each wall. Analysis of 64 individual gully fan segments show that the average TI values of the youngest apron deposits are systematically 20-40 thermal inertia units (TIU, J m-2 K-1 s-1/2) higher than the older underlying/surrounding deposits. Talus aprons from mass wasting on the southern walls have thermal inertia values 60-80 TIU higher than gully aprons. The highest TI values in the crater correspond with bedrock exposures in the crater walls, particularly along the southwestern (non-gullied) wall and within the gully alcoves of the pole-facing walls. Analysis of thermal inertia differences could aid in selecting or refining sites for gully activity monitoring by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) CTX and HiRISE cameras and the CaSSIS camera aboard ESA's ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. The results of this study also suggest that repeated THEMIS day/night IR imaging coordinated with MRO and ExoMars observations could be used for surface change detection.

  2. On the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Frost Considering Mass Diffusion and Eddy Convection (United States)

    Kandula, Max


    A physical model for the effective thermal conductivity of water frost is proposed for application to the full range of frost density. The proposed model builds on the Zehner-Schlunder one-dimensional formulation for porous media appropriate for solid-to-fluid thermal conductivity ratios less than about 1000. By superposing the effects of mass diffusion and eddy convection on stagnant conduction in the fluid, the total effective thermal conductivity of frost is shown to be satisfactorily described. It is shown that the effects of vapor diffusion and eddy convection on the frost conductivity are of the same order. The results also point out that idealization of the frost structure by cylindrical inclusions offers a better representation of the effective conductivity of frost as compared to spherical inclusions. Satisfactory agreement between the theory and the measurements for the effective thermal conductivity of frost is demonstrated for a wide range of frost density and frost temperature.

  3. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Controlling Thermal Cracks in Mass Concrete Foundation by Circulating Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Liu


    Full Text Available This paper summarizes an engineering experience of solving the problem of thermal cracking in mass concrete by using a large project, Zhongguancun No.1 (Beijing, China, as an example. A new method is presented for controlling temperature cracks in the mass concrete of a foundation. The method involves controlled cycles of water circulating between the surface of mass concrete foundation and the atmospheric environment. The temperature gradient between the surface and the core of the mass concrete is controlled at a relatively stable state. Water collected from the well-points used for dewatering and from rainfall is used as the source for circulating water. Mass concrete of a foundation slab is experimentally investigated through field temperature monitoring. Numerical analyses are performed by developing a finite element model of the foundation with and without water circulation. The calculation parameters are proposed based on the experiment, and finite element analysis software MIDAS/CIVIL is used to calculate the 3D temperature field of the mass concrete during the entire process of heat of hydration. The numerical results are in good agreement with the measured results. The proposed method provides an alternative practical basis for preventing thermal cracks in mass concrete.

  4. Thermal transport in a 2D stressed nanostructure with mass gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Barreto


    Full Text Available Inspired by some recent molecular dynamics (MD simulations and experiments on suspended graphene nanoribbons, we study a simplified model where the atoms are disposed in a rectangular lattice coupled by nearest neighbor interactions which are quadratic in the interatomic distance. The system has a mechanical strain, and the border atoms are coupled to Langevin thermal baths. Atom masses vary linearly in the longitudinal direction, modeling an isotope or doping distribution. This asymmetry and tension modify thermal properties. Although the atomic interaction is quadratic, the potential is anharmonic in the coordinates. By direct MD simulations and solving Fokker-Planck equations at low temperatures, we can better understand the role of anharmonicities in thermal rectification. We observe an increasing thermal current with an increasing applied mechanical tension. The temperatures and thermal currents vary along the transverse direction. This effect can be useful to establish which parts of the system are more sensitive to thermal damage. We also study thermal rectification as a function of strain and system size. Received: 20 Novembre 2014, Accepted: 17 April 2015; Edited by: C. A. Condat, G. J. Sibona; DOI: Cite as: R Barreto, M F Carusela, A Mancardo Viotti, A G Monastra, Papers in Physics 7, 070008 (2015

  5. Turbulent heat and mass transfers across a thermally stratified air-water interface (United States)

    Papadimitrakis, Y. A.; Hsu, Y.-H. L.; Wu, J.


    Rates of heat and mass transfer across an air-water interface were measured in a wind-wave research facility, under various wind and thermal stability conditions (unless otherwise noted, mass refers to water vapor). Heat fluxes were obtained from both the eddy correlation and the profile method, under unstable, neutral, and stable conditions. Mass fluxes were obtained only under unstable stratification from the profile and global method. Under unstable conditions the turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers remain fairly constant and equal to 0.74, whereas the rate of mass transfer varies linearly with bulk Richardson number. Under stable conditions the turbulent Prandtl number rises steadily to a value of 1.4 for a bulk Richardson number of about 0.016. Results of heat and mass transfer, expressed in the form of bulk aerodynamic coefficients with friction velocity as a parameter, are also compared with field data.

  6. Impact of thermal energy storage properties on solar dynamic space power conversion system mass (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Coles-Hamilton, Carolyn E.; Lacy, Dovie E.


    A 16 parameter solar concentrator/heat receiver mass model is used in conjunction with Stirling and Brayton Power Conversion System (PCS) performance and mass computer codes to determine the effect of thermal energy storage (TES) material property changes on overall PCS mass as a function of steady state electrical power output. Included in the PCS mass model are component masses as a function of thermal power for: concentrator, heat receiver, heat exchangers (source unless integral with heat receiver, heat sink, regenerator), heat engine units with optional parallel redundancy, power conditioning and control (PC and C), PC and C radiator, main radiator, and structure. Critical TES properties are: melting temperature, heat of fusion, density of the liquid phase, and the ratio of solid-to-liquid density. Preliminary results indicate that even though overall system efficiency increases with TES melting temperature up to 1400 K for concentrator surface accuracies of 1 mrad or better, reductions in the overall system mass beyond that achievable with lithium fluoride (LiF) can be accomplished only if the heat of fusion is at least 800 kJ/kg and the liquid density is comparable to that of LiF (1800 kg/cu m).

  7. Behavioural responses to thermal conditions affect seasonal mass change in a heat-sensitive northern ungulate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris M van Beest

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer. We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in

  8. An analysis of a charring ablator with thermal nonequilibrium, chemical kinetics, and mass transfer (United States)

    Clark, R. K.


    The differential equations governing the transient response of a one-dimensional ablative thermal protection system are presented for thermal nonequilibrium between the pyrolysis gases and the char layer and with finite rate chemical reactions occurring. The system consists of three layers (the char layer, the uncharred layer, and an optical insulation layer) with concentrated heat sinks at the back surface and between the second and third layers. The equations are solved numerically by using a modified implicit finite difference scheme to obtain solutions for the thickness of the charred and uncharred layers, surface recession and pyrolysis rates, solid temperatures, porosity profiles, and profiles of pyrolysis-gas temperature, pressure, composition, and flow rate. Good agreement is obtained between numerical results and exact solutions for a number of simplified cases. The complete numerical analysis is used to obtain solutions for an ablative system subjected to a constant heating environment. Effects of thermal, chemical, and mass transfer processes are shown.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of human heat and mass transfer and their impact on thermal comfort


    Prek, Matjaž


    In this paper a thermodynamic analysis of human heat and mass transfer based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics in presented. For modelling purposes the two-node human thermal model was used. This model was improved in order to establish the exergy consumption within the human body as a consequence of heat and mass transfer and/or conversion. It is shown that the human body's exergy consumption in relation to selected human parameters exhibit a minimal value at certain combinations of environme...

  10. Relativistic mass and charge of photons in thermal plasmas through electromagnetic field quantization. (United States)

    Asenjo, Felipe A; Muñoz, Víctor; Valdivia, J Alejandro


    An effective photon mass and equivalent photon charge are calculated for plasmas with finite temperature, by using a second covariant quantization of the electromagnetic field, which is based on a nonlinear magnetofluid unification field formalism. Relativistic effects are considered both in the fluid bulk motion and in the thermal motion. The effective relativistic photon mass is found for transverse and longitudinal photons, while the equivalent relativistic photon charge is obtained for purely transverse photons. Both quantum quantities are the relativistic generalization, at finite temperature, of previous results [Mendonça, et al., Phys. Rev. E 62, 2989 (2000)]. The dependence with temperature is studied in both cases.

  11. Thermal diffusion effects on free convection and mass transfer flow for an infinite vertical plate

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Khalek, M M


    A theoretical study is performed to examine the effects of thermal diffusion on free convection and mass transfer flow for an infinite vertical plate. The governing equations for the fluid flow and the heat transfer are solved subject to the relevant boundary conditions. A perturbation technique is used to obtain expressions for the velocity field and skin friction. An analysis of the effects of the parameters on the concentration, velocity and temperature profiles as well as skin friction and the rate of mass and heat transfer is done with the aid of graphs.

  12. Thermal Dilepton Radiation at Intermediate Masses at the CERN-SpS

    CERN Document Server

    Rapp, R


    We investigate the significance of thermal dilepton radiation in the intermediate-mass region in heavy-ion reactions at CERN-SpS energies. Within a thermal fireball model for the space-time evolution, the radiation from hot matter is found to dominate over hard 'background' processes (Drell-Yan and open charm) up to invariant masses of about 2 GeV, with a rather moderate fraction emerging from early stages with temperatures $T\\simeq 175-200$ MeV associated with deconfined matter. Further including a schematic acceptance for the NA50 experiment we find good agreement with the observed enhancement in the region 1.5 GeV~$

  13. Reducing Residential Peak Electricity Demand with Mechanical Pre-Cooling of Building Thermal Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Will [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Roux, Jordan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This study uses an advanced airflow, energy and humidity modelling tool to evaluate the potential for residential mechanical pre-cooling of building thermal mass to shift electricity loads away from the peak electricity demand period. The focus of this study is residential buildings with low thermal mass, such as timber-frame houses typical to the US. Simulations were performed for homes in 12 US DOE climate zones. The results show that the effectiveness of mechanical pre-cooling is highly dependent on climate zone and the selected pre-cooling strategy. The expected energy trade-off between cooling peak energy savings and increased off-peak energy use is also shown.

  14. Lighter touch keeps in the heat. [Advantages of low-thermal-mass insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipes, A.


    Low-thermal-mass insulation of ceramic fibers and light refractory materials is more suitable to applications with intermittent processes and lower-temperature melting and retreating, where the heat-retention requirements do not require traditional furnace design. Old furnaces can be retrofitted by replacing bricks with insulation or by veneering. Insulating materials include ceramic, alumina, and quartz fibers, and microtherm in the form of blocks, blankets and other shapes. 4 figures. (DCK)

  15. Investigation of naproxen drug using mass spectrometry, thermal analyses and semi-empirical molecular orbital calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Zayed


    Full Text Available Naproxen (C14H14O3 is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID. It is important to investigate its structure to know the active groups and weak bonds responsible for medical activity. In the present study, naproxen was investigated by mass spectrometry (MS, thermal analysis (TA measurements (TG/DTG and DTA and confirmed by semi empirical molecular orbital (MO calculation, using PM3 procedure. These calculations included, bond length, bond order, bond strain, partial charge distribution, ionization energy and heat of formation (ΔHf. The mass spectra and thermal analysis fragmentation pathways were proposed and compared to select the most suitable scheme representing the correct fragmentation pathway of the drug in both techniques. The PM3 procedure reveals that the primary cleavage site of the charged molecule is the rupture of the COOH group (lowest bond order and high strain which followed by CH3 loss of the methoxy group. Thermal analysis of the neutral drug reveals a high response to the temperature variation with very fast rate. It decomposed in several sequential steps in the temperature range 80–400 °C. These mass losses appear as two endothermic and one exothermic peaks which required energy values of 255.42, 10.67 and 371.49 J g−1 respectively. The initial thermal ruptures are similar to that obtained by mass spectral fragmentation (COOH rupture. It was followed by the loss of the methyl group and finally by ethylene loss. Therefore, comparison between MS and TA helps in selection of the proper pathway representing its fragmentation. This comparison is successfully confirmed by MO-calculation.

  16. Demand Shifting With Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings:Field Tests, Simulation and Audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Piette, Mary Ann; Zagreus, Leah


    The principle of pre-cooling and demand limiting is to pre-cool buildings at night or in the morning during off-peak hours, storing cooling in the building thermal mass and thereby reducing cooling loads and reducing or shedding related electrical demand during the peak periods. Cost savings are achieved by reducing on-peak energy and demand charges. The potential for utilizing building thermal mass for load shifting and peak demand reduction has been demonstrated in a number of simulation, laboratory, and field studies (Braun 1990, Ruud et al. 1990, Conniff 1991, Andresen and Brandemuehl 1992, Mahajan et al. 1993, Morris et al. 1994, Keeney and Braun 1997, Becker and Paciuk 2002, Xu et al. 2003). This technology appears to have significant potential for demand reduction if applied within an overall demand response program. The primary goal associated with this research is to develop information and tools necessary to assess the viability of and, where appropriate, implement demand response programs involving building thermal mass in buildings throughout California. The project involves evaluating the technology readiness, overall demand reduction potential, and customer acceptance for different classes of buildings. This information can be used along with estimates of the impact of the strategies on energy use to design appropriate incentives for customers.

  17. Effectiveness of indirect evaporative cooling and thermal mass in a hot arid climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Eduardo [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Tecnologia/Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Civil, Departamento de Construcao Civil, Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana - UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165. Curitiba PR, CEP. 80230-901 (Brazil); Gonzalez Cruz, Eduardo [Instituto de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Arquitectura y Diseno (IFAD), Universidad del Zulia, Nucleo Tecnico de LUZ, Av. Goajira (16) con Calle 67, Maracaibo, CP 4011-A-526 (Venezuela); Givoni, Baruch [Department of Architecture, School of Arts and Architecture, UCLA, Los Angeles CA, USA, and Ben Gurion University (Israel)


    In this paper, we compare results of a long-term temperature monitoring in a building with high thermal mass to indoor temperature predictions of a second building that uses an indirect evaporative cooling system as a means of passive cooling (Vivienda Bioclimatica Prototipo -VBP-1), for the climatic conditions of Sde Boqer, Negev region of Israel (local latitude 30 52'N, longitude 34 46'E, approximately 480 m above sea level). The high-mass building was monitored from January through September 2006 and belongs to a student dormitory complex located at the Sde Boqer Campus of Ben-Gurion University. VBP-1 was designed and built in Maracaibo, Venezuela (latitude 10 34'N, longitude 71 44'W, elevation 66 m above sea level) and had its indoor air temperatures, below and above a shaded roof pond, as well as the pond temperature monitored from February to September 2006. Formulas were developed for the VBP-1, based on part of the whole monitoring period, which represent the measured daily indoor maximum, average and minimum temperatures. The formulas were then validated against measurements taken independently in different time periods. The developed formulas were here used for estimating the building's thermal and energy performance at the climate of Sde Boqer, allowing a comparison of two different strategies: indirect evaporative cooling and the use of thermal mass. (author)

  18. Chemistry of Aliphatic Unconjugated Nitramines. Part 7. Interrelations between the Thermal, Photochemical and Mass Spectral Fragmentation of RDX, (United States)

    The mass spectral fragmentation of RDX and HMX has been described in terms of their metastable transitions, mass measurements and ionization...efficiency curves. The ring migration of an NO2 group is noted. The known interrelation between the thermal, photochemical and mass spectral fragmentation of

  19. Modeling of thermal mass energy storage in buildings with phase change materials (United States)

    Delcroix, Benoit

    Building thermal mass is a key parameter defining the ability of a building to mitigate inside temperature variations and to maintain a better thermal comfort. Increasing the thermal mass of a lightweight building can be achieved by using Phase Change Materials (PCMs). These materials offer a high energy storage capacity (using latent energy) and a nearly constant temperature phase change. They can be integrated conveniently in net-zero energy buildings. The current interest for these buildings and for better power demand management strategies requires accurate transient simulation of heavy and highly insulated slabs or walls with short time-steps (lower than or equal to 5 minutes). This represents a challenge for codes that were mainly developed for yearly energy load calculations with a time-step of 1 hour. It is the case of the TRNSYS building model (called Type 56) which presents limitations when modeling heavy and highly insulated slabs with short time-steps. These limitations come from the method used by TRNSYS for modeling conduction heat transfer through walls which is known as the Conduction Transfer Function (CTF) method. In particular, problems have been identified in the generation of CTF coefficients used to model the walls thermal response. This method is also unable to define layers with variable thermophysical properties, as displayed by PCMs. PCM modeling is further hindered by the limited information provided by manufacturers: physical properties are often incomplete or incorrect. Finally, current models are unable to represent the whole complexity of PCM thermal behavior: they rarely include different properties for melting and solidification (hysteresis); they sometimes take into account variable thermal conductivity; but they never model subcooling effects. All these challenges are tackled in this thesis and solutions are proposed. The first part (chapter 4) focuses on improving the CTF method in TRNSYS through state-space modeling

  20. Energy efficiency and comfort conditions in passive solar buildings: Effect of thermal mass at equatorial high altitudes (United States)

    Ogoli, David Mwale

    This dissertation is based on the philosophy that architectural design should not just be a function of aesthetics, but also of energy-efficiency, advanced technologies and passive solar strategies. A lot of published literature is silent regarding buildings in equatorial highland regions. This dissertation is part of the body of knowledge that attempts to provide a study of energy in buildings using thermal mass. The objectives were to establish (1) effect of equatorial high-altitude climate on thermal mass, (2) effect of thermal mass on moderating indoor temperatures, (3) effect of thermal mass in reducing heating and cooling energy, and (4) the amount of time lag and decrement factor of thermal mass. Evidence to analyze the effect of thermal mass issues came from three sources. First, experimental physical models involving four houses were parametrically conducted in Nairobi, Kenya. Second, energy computations were made using variations in thermal mass for determining annual energy usage and costs. Third, the data gathered were observed, evaluated, and compared with currently published research. The findings showed that: (1) Equatorial high-altitude climates that have diurnal temperature ranging about 10--15°C allow thermal mass to moderate indoor temperatures; (2) Several equations were established that indicate that indoor mean radiant temperatures can be predicted from outdoor temperatures; (3) Thermal mass can reduce annual energy for heating and cooling by about 71%; (4) Time lag and decrement of 200mm thick stone and concrete thermal mass can be predicted by a new formula; (5) All windows on a building should be shaded. East and west windows when shaded save 51% of the cooling energy. North and south windows when fully shaded account for a further 26% of the cooling energy; (6) Insulation on the outside of a wall reduces energy use by about 19.6% below the levels with insulation on the inside. The basic premise of this dissertation is that decisions that

  1. Determination of Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) of 20MPa Mass Concrete Using Granite Aggregate (United States)

    Chee Siang, GO


    Experimental test was carried out to determine the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) value of 20MPa mass concrete using granite aggregate. The CTE value was established using procedure proposed by Kada et al. 2002 in determining the magnitude of early-ages CTE through laboratory test which is a rather accurate way by eliminating any possible superimposed effect of others early-age thermal deformation shrinkages such as autogenous, carbonation, plastic and drying shrinkage. This was done by submitting granite concrete block samples instrumented with ST4 vibrating wire extensometers to thermal shocks. The response of the concrete samples to this shock results in a nearly instantaneous deformation, which are measured by the sensor. These deformations, as well as the temperature signal, are used to calculate the CTE. By repeating heat cycles, the variation in the early-ages of concrete CTE over time was monitored and assessed for a period of upto 7 days. The developed CTE value facilitating the verification and validation of actual maximum permissible critical temperature differential limit (rather than arbitrarily follow published value) of cracking potential. For thick sections, internal restraint is dominant and this is governed by differentials mainly. Of the required physical properties for thermal modelling, CTE is of paramount importance that with given appropriate internal restraint factor the condition of cracking due to internal restraint is governs by equation, ΔTmax= 3.663ɛctu / αc. Thus, it can be appreciated that an increase in CTE will lower the maximum allowable differential for cracking avoidance in mass concrete while an increase of tensile strain capacity will increase the maximum allowable temperature differential.

  2. The core mass growth and stellar lifetime of thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalirai, Jason S.; Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Marigo, Paola, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy)


    We establish new constraints on the intermediate-mass range of the initial-final mass relation, and apply the results to study the evolution of stars on the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB). These constraints derive from newly discovered (bright) white dwarfs in the nearby Hyades and Praesepe star clusters, including a total of 18 high signal-to-noise ratio measurements with progenitor masses of M {sub initial} = 2.8-3.8 M {sub ☉}. We also include a new analysis of existing white dwarfs in the older NGC 6819 and NGC 7789 star clusters, M {sub initial} = 1.6 and 2.0 M {sub ☉}. Over this range of initial masses, stellar evolutionary models for metallicity Z {sub initial} = 0.02 predict the maximum growth of the core of TP-AGB stars. By comparing the newly measured remnant masses to the robust prediction of the core mass at the first thermal pulse on the AGB (i.e., from stellar interior models), we establish several findings. First, we show that the stellar core mass on the AGB grows rapidly from 10% to 30% for stars with M {sub initial} = 1.6 to 2.0 M {sub ☉}. At larger masses, the core-mass growth decreases steadily to ∼10% at M {sub initial} = 3.4 M {sub ☉}, after which there is a small hint of a upturn out to M {sub initial} = 3.8 M {sub ☉}. These observations are in excellent agreement with predictions from the latest TP-AGB evolutionary models in Marigo et al. We also compare to models with varying efficiencies of the third dredge-up and mass loss, and demonstrate that the process governing the growth of the core is largely the stellar wind, while the third dredge-up plays a secondary, but non-negligible role. Based on the new white dwarf measurements, we perform an exploratory calibration of the most popular mass-loss prescriptions in the literature, as well as of the third dredge-up efficiency as a function of the stellar mass. Finally, we estimate the lifetime and the integrated luminosity of stars on the TP-AGB to peak at t

  3. Unconventional thermal transport enhancement with large atom mass: a comparative study of 2D transition dichalcogenides (United States)

    Wang, Huimin; Qin, Guangzhao; Li, Guojian; Wang, Qiang; Hu, Ming


    2D layered transition dichalcogenides have attracted tremendous attention for their excellent properties and multifarious applications. In particular, NbSe2 and TaSe2 are the canonical systems to study superconductivity and charge density waves. Here, we perform a comparative study of the thermal transport properties of 2D NbSe2 and TaSe2 for both 1T and 2H phases based on first-principles calculations. Usually, the lattice thermal conductivity ({{κ }L} ) is smaller with larger average atom mass. However, it is contrary for the comparison between TaSe2 and NbSe2, despite the heavier Ta than Nb. The abnormally larger {{κ }L} of TaSe2 originates from the weakened phonon–phonon scattering due to the combination of large phonon bandgap and bunching of the acoustic phonon branches, which is caused by the larger mass difference. On one hand, the large bandgap hinders the acoustic–optical phonon scattering. On the other hand, the bunching of the acoustic phonon branches hampers Umklapp process by weakening the high frequency acoustic–acoustic phonon scattering. The special characteristics of phonon transport are further conformed by mode level analysis and scattering channels of phonon–phonon scattering. Moreover, lower κ L of 1T phase for both Nb and Ta selenides compared to 2H phase are also reported, which stems from the stronger anharmonicity.

  4. Investigation of diazepam drug using thermal analyses, mass spectrometry and semi-empirical MO calculation (United States)

    Zayed, M. A.; Fahmey, M. A.; Hawash, M. F.


    In the present work diazepam (Dz) drug was investigated using thermal analyses (TA) measurements (TG/DTG) in comparison with EI mass spectral (MS) fragmentation at 70 and 20 eV. Semi-empirical MO calculations, MNDO procedure, have been carried out on diazepam both as neutral molecule and the corresponding positively charged molecular ion. These include molecular geometry, bond order, charge distribution, heats of formation and ionization energy. Thermogravimetric and kinetic analysis, reveal a high response of the drug to the temperature variation with very fast rate. It is completely decomposed in the temperature range between 204 and 340 °C with average kinetic energy (KE) at 164.69 kJ mol -1. On the other hand, diazepam can easily fragmented at low energy after ionization by electron energy at 9.56 eV. The losses of CO gas molecules followed by chlorine gas from the entity of diazepam (both neutral and charged molecular ion) as the best selected pathway were observed in both mass spectra (MS) and thermal analyses (TA). MNDO calculation was applied to declare both TA and MS observations.

  5. Multivariate analysis of progressive thermal desorption coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III


    Thermal decomposition of poly dimethyl siloxane compounds, Sylgard{reg_sign} 184 and 186, were examined using thermal desorption coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD/GC-MS) and multivariate analysis. This work describes a method of producing multiway data using a stepped thermal desorption. The technique involves sequentially heating a sample of the material of interest with subsequent analysis in a commercial GC/MS system. The decomposition chromatograms were analyzed using multivariate analysis tools including principal component analysis (PCA), factor rotation employing the varimax criterion, and multivariate curve resolution. The results of the analysis show seven components related to offgassing of various fractions of siloxanes that vary as a function of temperature. Thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD/GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique for analyzing chemical mixtures. It has great potential in numerous analytic areas including materials analysis, sports medicine, in the detection of designer drugs; and biological research for metabolomics. Data analysis is complicated, far from automated and can result in high false positive or false negative rates. We have demonstrated a step-wise TD/GC-MS technique that removes more volatile compounds from a sample before extracting the less volatile compounds. This creates an additional dimension of separation before the GC column, while simultaneously generating three-way data. Sandia's proven multivariate analysis methods, when applied to these data, have several advantages over current commercial options. It also has demonstrated potential for success in finding and enabling identification of trace compounds. Several challenges remain, however, including understanding the sources of noise in the data, outlier detection, improving the data pretreatment and analysis methods, developing a software tool for ease of use by the chemist, and demonstrating our belief

  6. Marine heatwave causes unprecedented regional mass bleaching of thermally resistant corals in northwestern Australia. (United States)

    Le Nohaïc, Morane; Ross, Claire L; Cornwall, Christopher E; Comeau, Steeve; Lowe, Ryan; McCulloch, Malcolm T; Schoepf, Verena


    In 2015/16, a marine heatwave associated with a record El Niño led to the third global mass bleaching event documented to date. This event impacted coral reefs around the world, including in Western Australia (WA), although WA reefs had largely escaped bleaching during previous strong El Niño years. Coral health surveys were conducted during the austral summer of 2016 in four bioregions along the WA coast (~17 degrees of latitude), ranging from tropical to temperate locations. Here we report the first El Niño-related regional-scale mass bleaching event in WA. The heatwave primarily affected the macrotidal Kimberley region in northwest WA (~16°S), where 4.5-9.3 degree heating weeks (DHW) resulted in 56.6-80.6% bleaching, demonstrating that even heat-tolerant corals from naturally extreme, thermally variable reef environments are threatened by heatwaves. Some heat stress (2.4 DHW) and bleaching (coral communities at Ningaloo Reef (23°9'S) and Bremer Bay (34°25'S) were not impacted. The only other major mass bleaching in WA occurred during a strong La Niña event in 2010/11 and primarily affected reefs along the central-to-southern coast. This suggests that WA reefs are now at risk of severe bleaching during both El Niño and La Niña years.

  7. GoAmazon 2014/15 Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, JN [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)


    The Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) deployment to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil, was motivated by two main scientific objectives of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15 field campaign. 1) Study the interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions by determining important molecular species in ambient nanoparticles. To address this, TDCIMS data will be combined with coincident measurements such as gas-phase sulfuric acid to determine the contribution of sulfuric acid condensation to nucleation and growth. We can then compare that result to TDCIMS-derived nanoparticle composition to determine the fraction of growth that can be attributed to the uptake of organic compounds. The molecular composition of sampled particles will also be used to attribute specific chemical species and mechanisms to growth, such as the condensation of low-volatility species or the oligomerization of α-dicarbonyl compounds. 2) Determine the source of new ambient nanoparticles in the Amazon. The hypothesis prior to measurements was that potassium salts formed from the evaporation of primary particles emitted by fungal spores can provide a unique and important pathway for new particle production in the Amazon basin. To explore this hypothesis, the TDCIMS recorded the mass spectra of sampled ambient particles using a protonated water cluster Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS). Laboratory tests performed using potassium salts show that the TDCIMS can detect potassium with high sensitivity with this technique.

  8. Mass spectrometry characterization of the thermal decomposition/digestion (TDD) at cysteine in peptides and proteins in the condensed phase. (United States)

    Basile, Franco; Zhang, Shaofeng; Kandar, Sujit Kumar; Lu, Liang


    We report on the characterization by mass spectrometry (MS) of a rapid, reagentless and site-specific cleavage at the N-terminus of the amino acid cysteine (C) in peptides and proteins induced by the thermal decomposition at 220-250 °C for 10 s in solid samples. This thermally induced cleavage at C occurs under the same conditions and simultaneously to our previously reported thermally induced site-specific cleavage at the C-terminus of aspartic acid (D) (Zhang, S.; Basile, F. J. Proteome Res. 2007, 6, (5), 1700-1704). The C cleavage proceeds through cleavage of the nitrogen and α-carbon bond (N-terminus) of cysteine and produces modifications at the cleavage site with an amidation (-1 Da) of the N-terminal thermal decomposition product and a -32 Da mass change of the C-terminal thermal decomposition product, the latter yielding either an alanine or β-alanine residue at the N-terminus site. These modifications were confirmed by off-line thermal decomposition electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS, tandem MS (MS/MS) analyses and accurate mass measurements of standard peptides. Molecular oxygen was found to be required for the thermal decomposition and cleavage at C as it induced an initial cysteine thiol side chain oxidation to sulfinic acid. Similar to the thermally induced D cleavage, missed cleavages at C were also observed. The combined thermally induced digestion process at D and C, termed thermal decomposition/digestion (TDD), was observed on several model proteins tested under ambient conditions and the site-specificity of the method confirmed by MS/MS.

  9. Thermal erosion of cratonic lithosphere as a potential trigger for mass-extinction (United States)

    Pilet, Sebastien; Guex, Jean; Muntener, Othmar; Bartolini, Annachiara; Spangenberg, Jorge; Schoene, Blair; Schaltegger, Urs


    The temporal coincidence between large igneous provinces (LIPs) and mass extinctions has led many to pose a causal relationship between the two. However, there is still no consensus on a mechanistic model that explains how magmatism leads to the turnover of terrestrial and marine plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. Here, we present a synthesis of stratigraphic constraints on the Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) and Pliensbachian-Toarcian (Pl-To) boundaries combined with geochronological data in order to establish the sequence of events that initiate two of the major mass extinctions recorded in Earth's history. This synthesis demonstrates that these biotic crises are both associated with rapid change from an initial cool period to greenhouse conditions. The initial regressive events recorded at T-J and Pl-To boundaries seem difficult to reconcile either with large initial CO2 degassing associated with plume activity or by volatile-release (CO2, CH4, Cl2) from deep sedimentary reservoirs during contact metamorphism associated to dykes and sills intrusion because massive CO2 degassing is expected to produce super greenhouse conditions. We evaluate, here, an alternative suggesting that the initial cooling could be due to gas release during the initial thermal erosion of the cratonic lithosphere due to emplacement of the CAMP and Karoo-Ferrar volcanic provinces. Petrological constraints on primary magmas indicate that the mantle is hotter and melts more extensively to produce LIP lavas than for current oceanic islands basalts. However, available data suggest that the Karoo and CAMP areas were underlain by thick lithosphere (>200 km) prior to continental break up. The presence of thick lithosphere excludes significant melting of the asthenospheric mantle without initial stage of thermal erosion of the cratonic lithosphere. This initial step of thermal erosion / thermal heating of the cratonic lithosphere is critical to understand the volatile budget associated with LIPs while

  10. Separation Techniques for Uranium and Plutonium at Trace Levels for the Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometric Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, M. Y.; Han, S. H.; Kim, J. G.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H


    This report describes the state of the art and the progress of the chemical separation and purification techniques required for the thermal ionization mass spectrometric determination of uranium and plutonium in environmental samples at trace or ultratrace levels. Various techniques, such as precipitation, solvent extraction, extraction chromatography, and ion exchange chromatography, for separation of uranium and plutonium were evaluated. Sample preparation methods and dissolution techniques for environmental samples were also discussed. Especially, both extraction chromatographic and anion exchange chromatographic procedures for uranium and plutonium in environmental samples, such as soil, sediment, plant, seawater, urine, and bone ash were reviewed in detail in order to propose some suitable methods for the separation and purification of uranium and plutonium from the safeguards environmental or swipe samples. A survey of the IAEA strengthened safeguards system, the clean room facility of IAEA's NWAL(Network of Analytical Laboratories), and the analytical techniques for safeguards environmental samples was also discussed here.

  11. Utilizing Thermal Mass in Refrigerated Display Cases to Reduce Peak Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL; Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL


    The potential to store energy within refrigerated food products presents convenience store and supermarket operators with an opportunity to participate in utility sponsored demand response programs, whereby electricity usage can be shifted or reduced during peak periods. To determine the feasibility of reducing peak demand by shifting the refrigeration load to off-peak times, experimental and analytical analyses were performed. Simulated product, consisting of one-pint containers filled with a 50% ethylene glycol and 50% water solution, were stored in a medium-temperature vertical open refrigerated display case. Product temperature rise as a function of time was determined by turning off the refrigeration to the display case, while product temperature pull-down time was subsequently determined by turning on the refrigeration to the display case. It was found that the thermal mass of the product in a medium-temperature display case was such that during a 2.5 hour period with no refrigeration, the average product temperature increased by 5.5 C. In addition, it took approximately 3.5 hours for the product to recover to its initial temperature after the refrigeration was turned on. Transient heat conduction analyses for one-dimensional objects is in good agreement with the experimental results obtained in this study. From the analysis, it appears that the thermal mass of the stored product in refrigerated display cases is sufficient to allow product temperatures to safely drift for a significant time under reduced refrigeration system operation. Thus, strategies for shifting refrigeration system electrical demand can be developed. The use of an advanced refrigeration system controller that can respond to utility signals can enable demand shifting with minimal impact.

  12. Thermal desorption gas chromatography with mass spectrometry study of outgassing from polymethacrylimide foam (Rohacell®). (United States)

    Carrasco-Correa, Enrique J; Herrero-Martínez, José M; Consuegra, Lina; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo; Sanz, Rafael Mata; Martínez, Benito Gimeno; Esbert, Vicente E Boria; García-Baquero, David Raboso


    Polymethacrylimide foams are used as light structural materials in outer-space devices; however, the foam closed cells contain volatile compounds that are outgassed even at low temperatures. These compounds ignite as plasmas under outer-space radiation and the intense radio-frequency fields used in communications. Since plasmas may cause spacecraft fatal events, the conditions in which they are ignited should be investigated. Therefore, qualitative and quantitative knowledge about polymethacrylimide foam outgassing should be established. Using thermogravimetric analysis, weight losses reached 3% at ca. 200°C. Thermal desorption gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection was used to study the offgassed compounds. Using successive 4 min heating cycles at 125°C, each one corresponding to an injection, significant amounts of nitrogen (25.3%), water (2.6%), isobutylene (11.3%), tert-butanol (2.9%), 1-propanol (11.9%), hexane (25.3%), propyl methacrylate (1.4%), higher hydrocarbons (11.3%), fatty acids (2.2%) and their esters (1.3%), and other compounds were outgassed. Other compounds were observed during the main stage of thermal destruction (220-280°C). A similar study at 175°C revealed the extreme difficulty in fully outgassing polar compounds from polymethacrylimide foams by baking and showed the different compositions of the offgassed atmosphere that can be expected in the long term. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Mass spectrometric comparison of swift heavy ion-induced and anaerobic thermal degradation of polymers (United States)

    Lima, V.; Hossain, U. H.; Walbert, T.; Seidl, T.; Ensinger, W.


    The study of polymers irradiated by highly energetic ions and the resulting radiation-induced degradation is of major importance for space and particle accelerator applications. The mechanism of ion-induced molecular fragmentation of polyethylene, polyethyleneimine and polyamide was investigated by means of mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the introduction of nitrogen and oxygen into the polymer influences the stability rendering aliphatic polymers with heteroatoms less stable. A comparison to thermal decomposition data from literature reveals that ion-induced degradation is different in its bond fracture mechanism. While thermal degradation starts at the weakest bond, which is usually the carbon-heteroatom bond, energetic ion irradiation leads in the first step to scission of all types of bonds creating smaller molecular fragments. This is due to the localized extreme energy input under non-equilibrium conditions when the ions transfer kinetic energy onto electrons. These findings are of relevance for the choice of polymers for long-term application in both space and accelerator facilities.

  14. Performance of thermal deposition and mass flux condition on bioconvection nanoparticles containing gyrotactic microorganisms (United States)

    Iqbal, Z.; Ahmad, Bilal


    This is an attempt to investigate the influence of thermal radiation on the movement of motile gyrotactic microorganisms submerged in a water-based nanofluid flow over a nonlinear stretching sheet. The mathematical modeling of this physical problem leads to a system of nonlinear coupled partial differential equations. The problem is tackled by converting nonlinear partial differential equations into the system of highly nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The resulting nonlinear equations of momentum, energy, concentration of nanoparticles and motile gyrotactic microorganisms along with the mass flux condition are solved numerically by means of a shooting algorithm. The effects of the involved physical parameters of interest are discussed graphically. The values of the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, Sherwood number and local density number of motile microorganisms are tabulated for detailed analysis on the flow pattern at the stretching surface. It is concluded that the nanofluid temperature is an increasing function of the thermal radiation and the Biot number parameter. An opposite trend is observed for the local Nusselt number. The association with the preceding results in limiting sense is shown as well. A tremendous agreement of the current study in a restrictive manner is achieved as well. In addition, flow configurations through stream functions are presented and deliberated significantly.

  15. Asymmetric resonance response analysis of a thermally excited silicon microcantilever for mass-sensitive nanoparticle detection (United States)

    Bertke, Maik; Hamdana, Gerry; Wu, Wenze; Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Peiner, Erwin


    The asymmetric resonance responses of a thermally actuated silicon microcantilever of a portable, cantilever-based nanoparticle detector (Cantor) is analysed. For airborne nanoparticle concentration measurements, the cantilever is excited in its first in-plane bending mode by an integrated p-type heating actuator. The mass-sensitive nanoparticle (NP) detection is based on the resonance frequency (f0) shifting due to the deposition of NPs. A homemade phase-locked loop (PLL) circuit is developed for tracking of f0. For deflection sensing the cantilever contains an integrated piezo-resistive Wheatstone bridge (WB). A new fitting function based on the Fano resonance is proposed for analysing the asymmetric resonance curves including a method for calculating the quality factor Q from the fitting parameters. To obtain a better understanding, we introduce an electrical equivalent circuit diagram (ECD) comprising a series resonant circuit (SRC) for the cantilever resonator and voltage sources for the parasitics, which enables us to simulate the asymmetric resonance response and discuss the possible causes. Furthermore, we compare the frequency response of the on-chip thermal excitation with an external excitation using an in-plane piezo actuator revealing parasitic heating of the WB as the origin of the asymmetry. Moreover, we are able to model the phase component of the sensor output using the ECD. Knowing and understanding the phase response is crucial to the design of the PLL and thus the next generation of Cantor.

  16. Investigation of the impact of using thermal mass with the net zero energy town house in Toronto using TRNSYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, O.; Fung, A.; Tse, H.; Zhang, D. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering


    Since buildings in Canada account for 30 per cent of the country's total energy consumption, it has become necessary to find ways to reduce the overall energy use in buildings. Heating and cooling loads in buildings can be effectively reduced by using the thermal mass incorporated into the building envelope, particularly in climates where a large daily temperature fluctuations exist. Thermal mass is defined as any building material that has a high heat storage capacity that can be integrated into the structural fabric of the building to use the passive solar energy for heating or cooling purposes. Concrete slabs, bricks and ceramic blocks are some of the commonly used materials. This study analyzed the impact of using thermal mass with a highly insulated building envelope such as that used in Low Energy or Net Zero housing. In particular, TRNSYS was used to simulate a Net Zero Energy Town House located in Toronto, in which a ground source heat pump was integrated with an infloor radiant heating system. The simulation revealed that for colder climates such as in Canada, thermal mass can replace some of the insulation while still providing excellent results in terms of the reductions in daily indoor temperature fluctuations. The impact of thermal mass during the winter was more significant when compared with summer, possibly because of the unique construction and orientation of the Net Zero Energy House. The optimum thickness of the concrete slab was determined to be 6 inches for the winter season and 4 inches for summer. The optimum location for the thermal mass was found to be right next to the gypsum wallboard that forms the interior part of the wall. 12 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  17. High throughput volatile fatty acid skin metabolite profiling by thermal desorption secondary electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Martin, Helen J; Reynolds, James C; Riazanskaia, Svetlana; Thomas, C L Paul


    The non-invasive nature of volatile organic compound (VOC) sampling from skin makes this a priority in the development of new screening and diagnostic assays. Evaluation of recent literature highlights the tension between the analytical utility of ambient ionisation approaches for skin profiling and the practicality of undertaking larger campaigns (higher statistical power), or undertaking research in remote locations. This study describes how VOC may be sampled from skin and recovered from a polydimethylsilicone sampling coupon and analysed by thermal desorption (TD) interfaced to secondary electrospray ionisation (SESI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) for the high throughput screening of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from human skin. Analysis times were reduced by 79% compared to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods (GC-MS) and limits of detection in the range 300 to 900 pg cm(-2) for VFA skin concentrations were obtained. Using body odour as a surrogate model for clinical testing 10 Filipino participants, 5 high and 5 low odour, were sampled in Manilla and the samples returned to the UK and screened by TD-SESI-MS and TD-GC-MS for malodour precursors with greater than >95% agreement between the two analytical techniques. Eight additional VFAs were also identified by both techniques with chains 4 to 15 carbons long being observed. TD-SESI-MS appears to have significant potential for the high throughput targeted screening of volatile biomarkers in human skin.

  18. Thermal Emission of Alkali Metal Ions from Al30-Pillared Montmorillonite Studied by Mass Spectrometric Method. (United States)

    Motalov, V B; Karasev, N S; Ovchinnikov, N L; Butman, M F


    The thermal emission of alkali metal ions from Al 30 -pillared montmorillonite in comparison with its natural form was studied by mass spectrometry in the temperature range 770-930 K. The measurements were carried out on a magnetic mass spectrometer MI-1201. For natural montmorillonite, the densities of the emission currents ( j ) decrease in the mass spectrum in the following sequence (T = 805 K, A/cm 2 ): K + (4.55 · 10 -14 ), Cs + (9.72 · 10 -15 ), Rb + (1.13 · 10 -15 ), Na + (1.75 · 10 -16 ), Li + (3.37 · 10 -17 ). For Al 30 -pillared montmorillonite, thermionic emission undergoes temperature-time changes. In the low-temperature section of the investigated range (770-805 K), the value of j increases substantially for all ions in comparison with natural montmorillonite (T = 805 K, A/cm 2 ): Cs + (6.47 · 10 -13 ), K + (9.44 · 10 -14 ), Na + (3.34 · 10 -15 ), Rb + (1.77 · 10 -15 ), and Li + (4.59 · 10 -16 ). A reversible anomaly is observed in the temperature range 805-832 K: with increasing temperature, the value of j of alkaline ions falls abruptly. This effect increases with increasing ionic radius of M + . After a long heating-up period, this anomaly disappears and the ln j - 1/ T dependence acquires a classical linear form. The results are interpreted from the point of view of the dependence of the efficiency of thermionic emission on the phase transformations of pillars.

  19. Thermal erosion of cratonic lithosphere as a potential trigger for mass-extinction (United States)

    Pilet, S.; Müntener, O.; Jean, G.; Schoene, B.; Schaltegger, U.


    The temporal coincidence between LIPs and mass extinctions has led many to pose a causal relationship between the two. However, there is still no consensus on a mechanistic model that explains how magmatism leads to the turnover of terrestrial and marine plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. Here, we present a synthesis of stratigraphic constraints on the Triassic-Jurassic and Pliensbachian-Toarcian boundaries combined with geochronological data demonstrating that these biotic crises are both associated with rapid change from an initial cool period to greenhouse conditions. As current hypothesis for LIPs seems unable to produce these successive climatic changes, we evaluate an alternative suggesting that the initial cooling could be due to gas release during the initial thermal erosion of the cratonic lithosphere due to emplacement of the CAMP and Karoo-Ferrar volcanic provinces. Karoo and CAMP areas were underlain by thick lithosphere (>200 km) prior to continental break up. Even in presence of abnormal potential mantle temperature, the presence of thick lithosphere excludes significant melting of the asthenospheric mantle without initial stage of thermal erosion of the cratonic lithosphere. Various studies on Kaapvaal craton have shown that sulfide minerals are enclosed in the basal part of the cratonic lithosphere. We argue that initial gas emission was dominated by sulfur liberated from sulfide-bearing cratonic lithosphere causing global cooling and eustatic regression, which was followed by warming/transgression associated with the progressive increase of CO2 in the atmosphere associated to LIPs emission. We suggest that the nature of the underlying lithosphere during large LIP eruption exerts an important control on the consequences at the Earth's surface. This model offers an explanation for why LIPs erupted through oceanic lithosphere are not associated with climatic and biotic crises comparable to LIPs emitted through cratonic lithosphere.

  20. Essentials of iron, chromium, and calcium isotope analysis of natural materials by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (United States)

    Fantle, M.S.; Bullen, T.D.


    The use of isotopes to understand the behavior of metals in geological, hydrological, and biological systems has rapidly expanded in recent years. One of the mass spectrometric techniques used to analyze metal isotopes is thermal ionization mass spectrometry, or TIMS. While TIMS has been a useful analytical technique for the measurement of isotopic composition for decades and TIMS instruments are widely distributed, there are significant difficulties associated with using TIMS to analyze isotopes of the lighter alkaline earth elements and transition metals. Overcoming these difficulties to produce relatively long-lived and stable ion beams from microgram-sized samples is a non-trivial task. We focus here on TIMS analysis of three geologically and environmentally important elements (Fe, Cr, and Ca) and present an in-depth look at several key aspects that we feel have the greatest potential to trouble new users. Our discussion includes accessible descriptions of different analytical approaches and issues, including filament loading procedures, collector cup configurations, peak shapes and interferences, and the use of isotopic double spikes and related error estimation. Building on previous work, we present quantitative simulations, applied specifically in this study to Fe and Ca, that explore the effects of (1) time-variable evaporation of isotopically homogeneous spots from a filament and (2) interferences on the isotope ratios derived from a double spike subtraction routine. We discuss how and to what extent interferences at spike masses, as well as at other measured masses, affect the double spike-subtracted isotope ratio of interest (44Ca/40Ca in the case presented, though a similar analysis can be used to evaluate 56Fe/54Fe and 53Cr/52Cr). The conclusions of these simulations are neither intuitive nor immediately obvious, making this examination useful for those who are developing new methodologies. While all simulations are carried out in the context of a

  1. Structure investigation of codeine drug using mass spectrometry, thermal analyses and semi-emperical molecular orbital (MO) calculations (United States)

    Zayed, M. A.; Hawash, M. F.; Fahmey, M. A.


    Codeine is an analgesic with uses similar to morphine, but it has a mild sedative effect. It is preferable used as phosphate form and it is often administrated by mouth with aspirin or paracetamol. Therefore, it is important to investigate its structure to know the active groups and weak bonds responsible for its medical activity. Consequently in the present work, codeine was investigated by mass spectrometry and thermal analyses (TG, DTG and DTA) and confirming by semi-empirical MO-calculation (PM3 method) in the neutral and positively charged forms of the drug. Some results of studying the d-block element complexes of codeine were used to declare the relationship between drug structure and its chemical reactivity in vitro system. The mass spectra and thermal analyses fragmentation pathways were proposed and compared to each other to select the most suitable scheme representing the correct fragmentation of this drug. From EI mass spectra, the main primary cleavage site of the charged drug molecule is that due to β-cleavage to nitrogen atom in its skeleton. It occurs in two parallel mechanisms with the same possibility, i.e. no difference in appearance activation energy between them. In the neutral drug form the primary site cleavage is that occurs in the ether ring. Thermal analyses of the neutral form of the drug revealed the high response of the drug to the temperature variation with very fast rate. It decomposed in several sequential steps in the temperature range 200-600 °C. The initial thermal fragments are very similar to that obtained by mass spectrometric fragmentation. Therefore, comparison between mass and thermal helps in selection of the proper pathway representing the fragmentation of this drug. This comparison successfully confirmed by MOC. These calculations give the bond order, charge distribution, heat of formation and possible hybridization of some atoms in different position of the drug skeleton. This helps the successful choice of the weakest

  2. A longitudinal thermal actuation principle for mass detection using a resonant micro -cantilever in a fluid medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigorov, Alexander; Davis, Zachary James; Rasmussen, Peter


    from existing thermal actuation configurations as the actuation acts on the base of the cantilever device, as opposed to the whole length of the device, separating cantilever and actuator. This allows much bigger freedom in optimizing separately the dimensions of cantilever and actuator. Optimizing...... the mass sensitivity of the device depends on the relative and absolute dimensions of the cantilever, by limiting fluid damping, displaced mass and cantilever mass. The ability to detect resonance shifts depends on the resonant amplitude, which can be optimized by varying the actuator dimensions and shape...

  3. Laser diode thermal desorption mass spectrometry for the analysis of quinolone antibiotic residues in aquacultured seafood. (United States)

    Lohne, Jack J; Andersen, Wendy C; Clark, Susan B; Turnipseed, Sherri B; Madson, Mark R


    Veterinary drug residue analysis of meat and seafood products is an important part of national regulatory agency food safety programs to ensure that consumers are not exposed to potentially dangerous substances. Complex tissue matrices often require lengthy extraction and analysis procedures to identify improper animal drug treatment. Direct and rapid analysis mass spectrometry techniques have the potential to increase regulatory sample analysis speed by eliminating liquid chromatographic separation. Flumequine, oxolinic acid, and nalidixic acid were extracted from catfish, shrimp, and salmon using acidified acetonitrile. Extracts were concentrated, dried onto metal sample wells, then rapidly desorbed (6 s) with an infrared diode laser for analysis by laser diode thermal desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization with tandem mass spectrometry (LDTD-MS/MS). Analysis was conducted in selected reaction monitoring mode using piromidic acid as internal standard. Six-point calibration curves for each compound in extracted matrix were linear with r(2) correlation greater than 0.99. The method was validated by analyzing 23 negative samples and 116 fortified samples at concentrations of 10, 20, 50, 100, and 600 ng/g. Average recoveries of fortified samples were greater than 77% with method detection levels ranging from 2 to 7 /g. Three product ion transitions were acquired per analyte to identify each residue. A rapid method for quinolone analysis in fish muscle was developed using LDTD-MS/MS. The total analysis time was less than 30 s per sample; quinolone residues were detected below 10 ng/g and in most cases residue identity was confirmed. This represents the first application of LDTD to tissue extract analysis. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Evaluation of injection methods for fast, high peak capacity separations with low thermal mass gas chromatography. (United States)

    Fitz, Brian D; Mannion, Brandyn C; To, Khang; Hoac, Trinh; Synovec, Robert E


    Low thermal mass gas chromatography (LTM-GC) was evaluated for rapid, high peak capacity separations with three injection methods: liquid, headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME), and direct vapor. An Agilent LTM equipped with a short microbore capillary column was operated at a column heating rate of 250 °C/min to produce a 60s separation. Two sets of experiments were conducted in parallel to characterize the instrumental platform. First, the three injection methods were performed in conjunction with in-house built high-speed cryo-focusing injection (HSCFI) to cryogenically trap and re-inject the analytes onto the LTM-GC column in a narrower band. Next, the three injection methods were performed natively with LTM-GC. Using HSCFI, the peak capacity of a separation of 50 nl of a 73 component liquid test mixture was 270, which was 23% higher than without HSCFI. Similar peak capacity gains were obtained when using the HSCFI with HS-SPME (25%), and even greater with vapor injection (56%). For the 100 μl vapor sample injected without HSCFI, the preconcentration factor, defined as the ratio of the maximum concentration of the detected analyte peak relative to the analyte concentration injected with the syringe, was determined to be 11 for the earliest eluting peak (most volatile analyte). In contrast, the preconcentration factor for the earliest eluting peak using HSCFI was 103. Therefore, LTM-GC is demonstrated to natively provide in situ analyte trapping, although not to as great an extent as with HSCFI. We also report the use of LTM-GC applied with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) detection for rapid, high peak capacity separations from SPME sampled banana peel headspace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Separation and Analysis of Boron Isotope in High Plant by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingcai Xu


    Full Text Available Knowledge of boron and its isotope in plants is useful to better understand the transposition and translocation of boron within plant, the geochemical behavior in the interface between soil and plant, and the biogeochemical cycle of boron. It is critical to develop a useful method to separate boron from the plant for the geochemical application of boron and its isotope. A method was developed for the extraction of boron in plant sample, whose isotope was determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The results indicated that this method of dry ashing coupled with two-step ion-exchange chromatography is powerful for the separation of boron in plant sample with large amounts of organic matters completely. The ratios of boron isotope composition in those plant tissue samples ranged from -19.45‰ to +28.13‰ (total range: 47.58‰ with a mean value of 2.61±11.76‰ SD. The stem and root isotopic compositions were lower than those in flower and leaf. The molecular mechanism of boron isotope may be responsible for the observed variation of boron isotopic composition and are considered as a useful tool for the better understanding of boron cycling process in the environment and for the signature of living systems.

  6. Demand Shifting with Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings in a California Hot Climate Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peng; Yin, Rongxin; Brown, Carrie; Kim, DongEun


    The potential for using building thermal mass for load shifting and peak energy demand reduction has been demonstrated in a number of simulation, laboratory, and field studies. Previous Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory research has demonstrated that the approach is very effective in cool and moderately warm climate conditions (California Climate Zones 2-4). However, this method had not been tested in hotter climate zones. This project studied the potential of pre-cooling the building early in the morning and increasing temperature setpoints during peak hours to reduce cooling-related demand in two typical office buildings in hotter California climates ? one in Visalia (CEC Climate Zone 13) and the other in San Bernardino (CEC Climate Zone 10). The conclusion of the work to date is that pre-cooling in hotter climates has similar potential to that seen previously in cool and moderate climates. All other factors being equal, results to date indicate that pre-cooling increases the depth (kW) and duration (kWh) of the possible demand shed of a given building. The effectiveness of night pre-cooling in typical office building under hot weather conditions is very limited. However, night pre-cooling is helpful for office buildings with an undersized HVAC system. Further work is required to duplicate the tests in other typical buildings and in other hot climate zones and prove that pre-cooling is truly effective.

  7. A new approach to the correlation of boundary layer mass transfer rates with thermal diffusion and/or variable properties (United States)

    Srivastava, R.; Rosner, D. E.


    A rational approach to the correlation of boundary layer mass transport rates, applicable to many commonly encountered laminar flow conditions with thermal diffusion and/or variable properties, is outlined. The correlation scheme builds upon already available constant property blowing/suction solutions by introducing appropriate correction factors to account for the additional ('pseudo' blowing and source) effects identified with variable properties and thermal diffusion. Applications of the scheme to the particular laminar boundary layer mass transfer problems considered herein (alkali and transition metal compound vapor transport) indicates satisfactory accuracy up to effective blowing factors equivalent to about one third of the 'blow off' value. As a useful by-product of the variable property correlation, we extend the heat-mass transfer analogy, for a wide range of Lewis numbers, to include variable property effects.

  8. Characterisation of Dissolved Organic Carbon by Thermal Desorption - Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Materić, Dušan; Peacock, Mike; Kent, Matthew; Cook, Sarah; Gauci, Vincent; Röckmann, Thomas; Holzinger, Rupert


    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an integral component of the global carbon cycle. DOC represents an important terrestrial carbon loss as it is broken down both biologically and photochemically, resulting in the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. The magnitude of this carbon loss can be affected by land management (e.g. drainage). Furthermore, DOC affects autotrophic and heterotrophic processes in aquatic ecosystems, and, when chlorinated during water treatment, can lead to the release of harmful trihalomethanes. Numerous methods have been used to characterise DOC. The most accessible of these use absorbance and fluorescence properties to make inferences about chemical composition, whilst high-performance size exclusion chromatography can be used to determine apparent molecular weight. XAD fractionation has been extensively used to separate out hydrophilic and hydrophobic components. Thermochemolysis or pyrolysis Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) give information on molecular properties of DOC, and 13C NMR spectroscopy can provide an insight into the degree of aromaticity. Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a sensitive, soft ionisation method suitable for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organic vapours. So far, PTR-MS has been used in various environmental applications such as real-time monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from natural and anthropogenic sources, chemical composition measurements of aerosols etc. However, as the method is not compatible with water, it has not been used for analysis of organic traces present in natural water samples. The aim of this work was to develop a method based on thermal desorption PTR-MS to analyse water samples in order to characterise chemical composition of dissolved organic carbon. We developed a clean low-pressure evaporation/sublimation system to remove water from samples and thermal desorption system to introduce

  9. High-precision measurements of seawater Pb isotope compositions by double spike thermal ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Paul, Maxence; Bridgestock, Luke; Rehkämper, Mark; van DeFlierdt, Tina; Weiss, Dominik


    A new method for the determination of seawater Pb isotope compositions and concentrations was developed, which combines and optimizes previously published protocols for the separation and isotopic analysis of this element. For isotopic analysis, the procedure involves initial separation of Pb from 1 to 2L of seawater by co-precipitation with Mg hydroxide and further purification by a two stage anion exchange procedure. The Pb isotope measurements are subsequently carried out by thermal ionization mass spectrometry using a (207)Pb-(204)Pb double spike for correction of instrumental mass fractionation. These methods are associated with a total procedural Pb blank of 28±21 pg (1sd) and typical Pb recoveries of 40-60%. The Pb concentrations are determined by isotope dilution (ID) on 50 mL of seawater, using a simplified version of above methods. Analyses of multiple aliquots of six seawater samples yield a reproducibility of about ±1 to ±10% (1sd) for Pb concentrations of between 7 and 50 pmol/kg, where precision was primarily limited by the uncertainty of the blank correction (12±4 pg; 1sd). For the Pb isotope analyses, typical reproducibilities (±2sd) of 700-1500 ppm and 1000-2000 ppm were achieved for (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (207)Pb/(204)Pb, (208)Pb/(204)Pb, respectively. These results are superior to literature data that were obtained using plasma source mass spectrometry and they are at least a factor of five more precise for ratios involving the minor (204)Pb isotope. Both Pb concentration and isotope data, furthermore, show good agreement with published results for two seawater intercomparison samples of the GEOTRACES program. Finally, the new methods were applied to a seawater depth profile from the eastern South Atlantic. Both Pb contents and isotope compositions display a smooth evolution with depth, and no obvious outliers. Compared to previous Pb isotope data for seawater, the (206)Pb/(204)Pb ratios are well correlated

  10. Evolution of thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch stars. IV. Constraining mass loss and lifetimes of low mass, low metallicity AGB stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfield, Philip; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Marigo, Paola [Department of Physics and Astronomy G. Galilei, University of Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Girardi, Léo; Gullieuszik, Marco [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova—INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bressan, Alessandro [Astrophysics Sector, SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Aringer, Bernhard [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Turkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria)


    The evolution and lifetimes of thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) stars suffer from significant uncertainties. In this work, we analyze the numbers and luminosity functions of TP-AGB stars in six quiescent, low metallicity ([Fe/H] ≲ –0.86) galaxies taken from the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury sample, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry in both optical and near-infrared filters. The galaxies contain over 1000 TP-AGB stars (at least 60 per field). We compare the observed TP-AGB luminosity functions and relative numbers of TP-AGB and red giant branch (RGB) stars, N{sub TP-AGB}/N{sub RGB}, to models generated from different suites of TP-AGB evolutionary tracks after adopting star formation histories derived from the HST deep optical observations. We test various mass-loss prescriptions that differ in their treatments of mass loss before the onset of dust-driven winds (pre-dust). These comparisons confirm that pre-dust mass loss is important, since models that neglect pre-dust mass loss fail to explain the observed N{sub TP-AGB}/N{sub RGB} ratio or the luminosity functions. In contrast, models with more efficient pre-dust mass loss produce results consistent with observations. We find that for [Fe/H] ≲ –0.86, lower mass TP-AGB stars (M ≲ 1 M{sub ☉}) must have lifetimes of ∼0.5 Myr and higher masses (M ≲ 3 M{sub ☉}) must have lifetimes ≲ 1.2 Myr. In addition, assuming our best-fitting mass-loss prescription, we show that the third dredge-up has no significant effect on TP-AGB lifetimes in this mass and metallicity range.

  11. Kinematic and Thermal Structure at the onset of high-mass star formation (United States)

    Bihr, Simon; Beuther, Henrik


    Even though high-mass stars are crucial for understanding a diversity of processes within our galaxy and beyond, their formation and initial conditions are still poorly constrained. We want to understand the kinematic and thermal properties of young massive gas clumps prior to and at the earliest evolutionary stages. Do we find signatures of gravitational collapse? Do we find temperature gradients in the vicinity or absence of infrared emission sources? Do we find coherent velocity structures toward the centre of the dense and cold gas clumps?To determine kinematics and gas temperatures, we used ammonia, because it is known to be a good tracer and thermometer of dense gas. We observed the NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) lines within seven very young high-mass star-forming regions comprised of infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), along with ISO-selected far-infrared emission sources (ISOSS) with the VLA and the Effelsberg 100m telescope. The molecular line data allows us to study velocity structures, linewidths, and gas temperatures at high spatial resolution of 3-5'', corresponding to ~0.05pc at a typical source distance of 2.5kpc. We find on average cold gas clumps with temperatures in the range between 10K and 30K. The observations do not reveal a clear correlation between infrared emission peaks and ammonia temperature peaks. Several infrared emission sources show ammonia temperature peaks up to 30K, whereas other infrared emission sources show no enhanced kinetic gas temperature in their surrounding. We report an upper limit for the linewidth of ~1.3km/s, at the spectral resolution limit of our VLA observation. This indicates a relatively low level of turbulence on the scale of the observations. Velocity gradients are present in almost all regions with typical velocity differences of 1 to 2km/s and gradients of 5 to 10km/s/pc. These velocity gradients are smooth in most cases, but there is one exceptional source (ISOSS23053), for which we find several velocity components with a

  12. Effect of molar ratio on thermal mass loss kinetics of poly({epsilon}-caprolactone-b-propylene adipate) copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanaki, Stavroula G. [Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24, Thessaloniki, Macedonia (Greece); Chrissafis, K. [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24, Thessaloniki, Macedonia (Greece); Bikiaris, Dimitrios N., E-mail: [Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24, Thessaloniki, Macedonia (Greece)


    Research highlights: {yields} Thermal decomposition behaviour of PCL-b-PPAd block copolymers was estimated. {yields} The prepared copolymers have higher thermal stability than neat polymers. {yields} In copolymers the evaporation of PPAd short blocks and formed {epsilon}-CL is delayed. {yields} This is because copolymers degrade with a different mechanism than neat polymers. - Abstract: Poly({epsilon}-caprolactone-b-propylene adipate) copolymers were synthesized using a combination of polycondensation and ring opening polymerisation. GPC was used for molecular weight determination. {sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR spectroscopy was also used for copolymer characterization and composition, which was found similar to the feeding ratio. DSC study was used in order to define T{sub g}, T{sub m} and {Delta}H{sub m} values of neat polymers and copolymers. Mass loss upon heating kinetics of neat polymers and their copolymers were studied by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that copolymers have almost the same thermal stability as PCL, which is the most stable part. The influence of PPAd in copolymers can mainly be seen at the beginning of mass loss where a small overlapped peak can be observed. The kinetic parameters of mass loss upon heating of all polyesters were calculated while the activation energies were estimated using the Ozawa, Flynn and Wall (OFW) and Friedman methods. Mass loss upon heating was found to be described by two mechanisms that follow each other. The first mechanism is attributed to a small mass loss, while the second mechanism is attributed to the main mass loss as in autocatalysis n{sup th}-order (reaction model Cn) or n{sup th} order (reaction model Fn).

  13. Direct analysis of anabolic steroids in urine using Leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption-dielectric barrier discharge ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Nonami, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo


    Rapid detection of trace level anabolic steroids in urine is highly desirable to monitor the consumption of performance enhancing anabolic steroids by athletes. The present article describes a novel strategy for identifying the trace anabolic steroids in urine using Leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption (LPTD) coupled to dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ionization mass spectrometry. Using this method the steroid molecules are enriched within a liquid droplet during the thermal desorption process and desorbed all-together at the last moment of droplet evaporation in a short time domain. The desorbed molecules were ionized using a dielectric barrier discharge ion-source in front of the mass spectrometer inlet at open atmosphere. This process facilitates the sensitivity enhancement with several orders of magnitude compared to the thermal desorption at a lower temperature. The limits of detection (LODs) of various steroid molecules were found to be in the range of 0.05-0.1 ng mL(-1) for standard solutions and around two orders of magnitude higher for synthetic urine samples. The detection limits of urinary anabolic steroids could be lowered by using a simple and rapid dichloromethane extraction technique. The analytical figures of merit of this technique were evaluated at open atmosphere using suitable internal standards. The technique is simple and rapid for high sensitivity and high throughput screening of anabolic steroids in urine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasmonic Thermal Decomposition/Digestion of Proteins: A Rapid On-Surface Protein Digestion Technique for Mass Spectrometry Imaging. (United States)

    Zhou, Rong; Basile, Franco


    A method based on plasmon surface resonance absorption and heating was developed to perform a rapid on-surface protein thermal decomposition and digestion suitable for imaging mass spectrometry (MS) and/or profiling. This photothermal process or plasmonic thermal decomposition/digestion (plasmonic-TDD) method incorporates a continuous wave (CW) laser excitation and gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) to induce known thermal decomposition reactions that cleave peptides and proteins specifically at the C-terminus of aspartic acid and at the N-terminus of cysteine. These thermal decomposition reactions are induced by heating a solid protein sample to temperatures between 200 and 270 °C for a short period of time (10-50 s per 200 μm segment) and are reagentless and solventless, and thus are devoid of sample product delocalization. In the plasmonic-TDD setup the sample is coated with Au-NPs and irradiated with 532 nm laser radiation to induce thermoplasmonic heating and bring about site-specific thermal decomposition on solid peptide/protein samples. In this manner the Au-NPs act as nanoheaters that result in a highly localized thermal decomposition and digestion of the protein sample that is independent of the absorption properties of the protein, making the method universally applicable to all types of proteinaceous samples (e.g., tissues or protein arrays). Several experimental variables were optimized to maximize product yield, and they include heating time, laser intensity, size of Au-NPs, and surface coverage of Au-NPs. Using optimized parameters, proof-of-principle experiments confirmed the ability of the plasmonic-TDD method to induce both C-cleavage and D-cleavage on several peptide standards and the protein lysozyme by detecting their thermal decomposition products with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The high spatial specificity of the plasmonic-TDD method was demonstrated by using a mask to digest designated sections of

  15. Effects of thermal mass, window size, and night-time ventilation on peak indoor air temperature in the warm-humid climate of Ghana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amos-Abanyie, S; Akuffo, F O; Kutin-Sanwu, V


    Most office buildings in the warm-humid sub-Saharan countries experience high cooling load because of the predominant use of sandcrete blocks which are of low thermal mass in construction and extensive use of glazing...

  16. Effects of Thermal Mass, Window Size, and Night-Time Ventilation on Peak Indoor Air Temperature in the Warm-Humid Climate of Ghana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amos-Abanyie, S; Akuffo, F. O; Kutin-Sanwu, V


    Most office buildings in the warm-humid sub-Saharan countries experience high cooling load because of the predominant use of sandcrete blocks which are of low thermal mass in construction and extensive use of glazing...

  17. Significant Enhancement of Thermal Conductivity in Nanofibrillated Cellulose Films with Low Mass Fraction of Nanodiamond. (United States)

    Song, Na; Cui, Siqi; Hou, Xingshuang; Ding, Peng; Shi, Liyi


    High thermal conductive nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) hybrid films based on nanodiamond (ND) were fabricated by a facile vacuum filtration technique. In this issue, the thermal conductivity (TC) on the in-plane direction of the NFC/ND hybrid film had a significant enhancement of 775.2% at a comparatively low ND content (0.5 wt %). The NFC not only helps ND to disperse in the aqueous medium stably but also plays a positive role in the formation of the hierarchical structure. ND could form a thermal conductive pathway in the hierarchical structures under the intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Moreover, the hybrid films composed of zero-dimensional ND and one-dimensional NFC exhibit remarkable mechanical properties and optical transparency. The NFC/ND hybrid films possessing superior TC, mechanical properties, and optical transparency can open applications for portable electronic equipment as a lateral heat spreader.

  18. Thermal analysis of the cold mass of the 2T solenoid for the PANDA detector at FAIR

    CERN Document Server

    Rolando, G; Dudarev, A; Pais Da Silva, H; Vodopyanov, A; Schmitt, L


    The superconducting solenoid of the PANDA experiment at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt (Germany) is designed to provide a magnetic field of 2 T over a length of about 4 m in a bore of 1.9 m. To allow a warm target feed pipe oriented transversely to the solenoid axis and penetrating through the cryostat and solenoid cold mass, the magnet is split into 3 inter-connected coils fitted in a common support cylinder. During normal operation, cooling of the cold mass to the working temperature of 4.5 K will be achieved through the circulation by natural convection of two-phase helium in cooling pipes attached to the Al-alloy support cylinder. Pure aluminium strips acting as heat drains and glued to the inner surface of the three coils and thermally bonded to the cooling pipes allow minimizing the temperature gradient across the 6-layers coils. In this paper the thermal design of the cold mass during normal operation and current ramps up and down is validated using an analytical appro...

  19. Thermal winds in stellar mass black hole and neutron star binary systems (United States)

    Done, Chris; Tomaru, Ryota; Takahashi, Tadayuki


    Black hole binaries show equatorial disc winds at high luminosities, which apparently disappear during the spectral transition to the low/hard state. This is also where the radio jet appears, motivating speculation that both wind and jet are driven by different configurations of the same magnetic field. However, these systems must also have thermal winds, as the outer disc is clearly irradiated. We develop a predictive model of the absorption features from thermal winds, based on pioneering work of Begelman, McKee & Shields. We couple this to a realistic model of the irradiating spectrum as a function of luminosity to predict the entire wind evolution during outbursts. We show that the column density of the thermal wind scales roughly with luminosity, and does not shut off at the spectral transition, though its visibility will be affected by the abrupt change in ionizing spectrum. We re-analyse the data from H1743-322, which most constrains the difference in wind across the spectral transition, and show that these are consistent with the thermal wind models. We include simple corrections for radiation pressure, which allows stronger winds to be launched from smaller radii. These winds become optically thick around Eddington, which may even explain the exceptional wind seen in one observation of GRO J1655-40. These data can instead be fit by magnetic wind models, but similar winds are not seen in this or other systems at similar luminosities. Hence, we conclude that the majority (perhaps all) of current data can be explained by thermal or thermal-radiative winds.

  20. Transformation of chlorinated paraffins to olefins during metal work and thermal exposure - Deconvolution of mass spectra and kinetics. (United States)

    Schinkel, Lena; Lehner, Sandro; Knobloch, Marco; Lienemann, Peter; Bogdal, Christian; McNeill, Kristopher; Heeb, Norbert V


    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are high production volume chemicals widely used as additives in metal working fluids. Thereby, CPs are exposed to hot metal surfaces which may induce degradation processes. We hypothesized that the elimination of hydrochloric acid would transform CPs into chlorinated olefins (COs). Mass spectrometry is widely used to detect CPs, mostly in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM) evaluating 2-3 ions at mass resolutions R drilling indeed induced HCl-losses. CO proportions in exposed mixtures of chlorotridecanes increased. Thermal exposure of chlorotridecanes at 160, 180, 200 and 220 °C also induced dehydrohalogenation reactions and CO proportions also increased. Deconvolution of respective mass spectra is needed to study the CP transformation kinetics without bias from CO interferences. Apparent first-order rate constants (k app ) increased up to 0.17, 0.29 and 0.46 h -1 for penta-, hexa- and heptachloro-tridecanes exposed at 220 °C. Respective half-life times (τ 1/2 ) decreased from 4.0 to 2.4 and 1.5 h. Thus, higher chlorinated paraffins degrade faster than lower chlorinated ones. In conclusion, exposure of CPs during metal drilling and thermal treatment induced HCl losses and CO formation. It is expected that CPs and COs are co-released from such processes. Full-scan mass spectra and subsequent deconvolution of interfered signals is a promising approach to tackle the CP/CO problem, in case of insufficient mass resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of thermal acclimation on organ mass, tissue respiration, and allometry in Leichhardtian river prawns Macrobrachium tolmerum (Riek, 1951). (United States)

    Crispin, Taryn S; White, Craig R


    Changes to an animal's abiotic environment-and consequent changes in the allometry of metabolic rate in the whole animal and its constituent parts-has considerable potential to reveal important patterns in both intraspecific and interindividual variation of metabolic rates. This study demonstrates that, after 6 wk of thermal acclimation at replicate treatments of 16°, 21°, and 25°C, standard metabolic rate (SMR) scales allometrically in Leichhardtian river prawns Macrobrachium tolmerum ([Formula: see text]) and that the scaling exponent and normalization constant of the relationship between SMR and body mass is not significantly different among acclimation treatments when measured at 21°C. There is, however, significant variation among individuals in whole-animal metabolic rate. We hypothesized that these observations may arise because of changes in the metabolic rate and allometry of metabolic rate or mass of organ tissues within the animal. To investigate this hypothesis, rates of oxygen consumption in a range of tissues (gills, gonads, hepatopancreas, chelae muscle, tail muscle) were measured at 21°C and related to the body mass (M) and whole-animal SMR of individual prawns. We demonstrate that thermal acclimation had no effect on organ and tissue mass, that most organ and tissue (gills, gonads, hepatopancreas) respiration rates do not change with acclimation temperature, and that residual variation in the allometry of M. tolmerum SMR is not explained by differences in organ and tissue mass and respiration rates. These results suggest that body size and ambient temperature may independently affect metabolic rate in this species. Both chelae and tail muscle, however, exhibited a reduction in respiration rate in animals acclimated to 25° relative to those acclimated to 16° and 21°C. This reduction in respiration rates of muscle at higher temperatures is evidence of a tissue-specific acclimation response that was not detectable at the whole-animal level.

  2. Investigating the thermal decomposition of starch and cellulose in model systems and toasted bread using domino tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Golon, Agnieszka; González, Francisco Javier; Dávalos, Juan Z; Kuhnert, Nikolai


    Many dietary products containing polysaccharides, mostly starch and cellulose, are processed by thermal treatment. Similarly to the formation of caramel from mono- and disaccharides, the chemical structure of the carbohydrates is dramatically altered by heat treatment. This contribution investigates the products of thermal decomposition of pure starch and cellulose as model systems followed by an investigation of bread obtained at comparable conditions using a combination of modern mass spectrometry techniques. From both starch and cellulose, dehydrated oligomers of glucose and dehydrated glucose have been predominately observed, with oligomers of more than four glucose moieties dominating. Moreover, disproportionation and oligomers with up to six carbohydrates units are formed through unselective glycosidic bond breakage. MALDI-MS data confirm the presence of the majority of products in toasted bread.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the thermal radiation effect on heat and mass transfer in steady laminar boundary layer flow of an incompressible viscous micropolar fluid over a vertical flat plate, with the presence of a magnetic field. Rosseland approximation is applied to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. The resulting similarity equations are solved numerically. Many results are obtained and representative set is displayed graphically to illustrate the influence of the various parameters on different profiles. The conclusion is drawn that the flow field, temperature, concentration and microrotation  as well as the skin friction coefficient and the both  local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers  are significantly influenced by Magnetic parameter, material parameter  and thermal radiation parameter.

  4. Rapid characterization of chemical compounds in liquid and solid states using thermal desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Zhou, Chi-Chang; Liu, De-Lin; Jhang, Siou-Sian; Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Shiea, Jentaie


    Rapid characterization of thermally stable chemical compounds in solid or liquid states is achieved through thermal desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (TD-ESI/MS). A feature of this technique is that sampling, desorption, ionization, and mass spectrometric detection are four separate events with respect to time and location. A metal probe was used to sample analytes in their solid or liquid states. The probe was then inserted in a preheated oven to thermally desorb the analytes on the probe. The desorbed analytes were carried by a nitrogen gas stream into an ESI plume, where analyte ions were formed via interactions with charged solvent species generated in the ESI plume. The analyte ions were subsequently detected by a mass analyzer attached to the TD-ESI source. Quantification of acetaminophen in aqueous solutions using TD-ESI/MS was also performed in which a linear response for acetaminophen was obtained between 25 and 500 ppb (R(2) = 0.9978). The standard deviation for a reproducibility test for ten liquid samples was 9.6%. Since sample preparation for TD-ESI/MS is unnecessary, a typical analysis can be completed in less than 10 s. Analytes such as the active ingredients in over-the-counter drugs were rapidly characterized regardless of the different physical properties of said drugs, which included liquid eye drops, viscous cold syrup solution, ointment cream, and a drug tablet. This approach was also used to detect trace chemical compounds in illicit drugs and explosives, in which samples were obtained from the surfaces of a cell phone, piece of luggage made from hard plastic, business card, and wooden desk.

  5. The effect of mass ratio of electrolyte and electrodes on the thermal stabilities of electrodes used in lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qingsong, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Ping, Ping [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Sun, Jinhua, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Chen, Chunhua [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)


    Research highlights: {yields} Mass ratio effect of electrolyte and electrodes is investigated. {yields} The electrode reacts with electrolyte more than one exothermic peaks. {yields} The heat generation increases with the electrolyte content increasing. {yields} The reaction thermodynamics and kinetics are obtained. - Abstract: The mass ratio between electrode and electrolyte in lithium-ion battery plays a key role for the battery thermal stability. Its effect on the thermal stability of their coexisting system was studied using C80 micro-calorimeter. For the Li{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 2}-LiPF{sub 6}/ethylene carbonate (EC) + diethyl carbonate (DEC) coexisting system, when the mass ratios of Li{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 2}-LiPF{sub 6}/EC + DEC are 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3, one, two, three and four main exothermic peaks are detected with total heat generation of -1043.8 J g{sup -1}, -1052.6 J g{sup -1}, -1178.5 J g{sup -1} and -1684.5 J g{sup -1}, respectively. For the Li{sub x}C{sub 6}-LiPF{sub 6}/EC + DEC coexisting system, the thermal behavior trend is similar, and the heat generation increases with the electrolyte content increasing, however, and the onset temperature are very close to each others. The heating rate also influence the heat generation rate for the two coexisting system, too far or too low heating rate could results in varies heat generation.

  6. Comparison of Three Infrared Thermal Detection Systems and Self Report for Mass Fever Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Nicole Cohen describes research that examined the usefulness of thermal scanners for detecting fever in large groups of people in public settings, such as hospitals and airports.  Created: 10/20/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/20/2010.

  7. Measuremental analysis of thermal performance of direct gain houses in Kanto district. Effects of thermal mass and caves; Kanto chiho ni tatsu direct gain jutaku no netsuseino jissoku. Netsuyoryo to hisashi no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, K.; Sunaga, N.; Muro, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)


    The thermal performance of direct gain passive solar houses was measured. Mr. M`s two-storied RC residence with double glazing windows and thermal storage floors, walls and ceilings of brick or concrete was provided for measurement. Its double eaves of the south window and both SE and SW overhanging exterior walls play a role in sunshade. Mr. I`s two-storied wooden residence with thermal storage RC floors and brick walls, and no eaves of the south window and no overhanging exterior walls was also provided. The summer and winter measurement results were in complete contrast between the residences. In summer, large thermal mass and eaves of Mr. M`s residence were effective, while in winter, small thermal mass and no eaves of Mr. I`s residence were effective. The following ideas are important in design from the viewpoint of indoor thermal environment: a movable sunshade for taking in solar radiation as much as possible in winter, well-balanced arrangement of thermal storage parts with suitable thermal mass corresponding to movement of the sun, a large screen door for cross ventilation in summer, and a night insulation shutter for reducing heat loss in winter. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Polymeric spatial resolution test patterns for mass spectrometry imaging using nano-thermal analysis with atomic force microscopy. (United States)

    Tai, Tamin; Kertesz, Vilmos; Lin, Ming-Wei; Srijanto, Bernadeta R; Hensley, Dale K; Xiao, Kai; Van Berkel, Gary J


    As the spatial resolution of mass spectrometry imaging technologies has begun to reach into the nanometer regime, finding readily available or easily made resolution reference materials has become particularly challenging for molecular imaging purposes. This paper describes the fabrication, characterization and use of vertical line array polymeric spatial resolution test patterns for nano-thermal analysis/atomic force microscopy/mass spectrometry chemical imaging. Test patterns of varied line width (0.7 or 1.0 μm) and spacing (0.7 or 1.0 μm) were created in an ~1-μm-thick poly(methyl methacrylate) thin film using electron beam lithography. The patterns were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy topography and nano-thermal analysis/mass spectrometry imaging. The efficacy of these polymeric test patterns for the advancement of chemical imaging techniques was illustrated by their use to judge the spatial resolution improvement achieved by heating the ionization interface of the current instrument platform. The spatial resolution of the mass spectral chemical images was estimated to be 1.4 μm, based on the ability to statistically distinguish 0.7-μm-wide lines separated by 0.7-μm-wide spacings in those images when the interface cross was heated to 200°C. This work illustrates that e-beam lithography is a viable method to create spatial resolution test patterns in a thin film of high molecular weight polymer to allow unbiased judgment of intra-laboratory advancement and/or inter-laboratory comparison of instrument advances in nano-thermal analysis/atomic force microscopy/mass spectrometry chemical imaging. Published in 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published in 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Thermal requirements for surviving a mass rescue incident in the Arctic: project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boileau, Renee [National Research Council Canada: Institute for Ocean Technology, St. John' s, Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada)], email:; DuCharme, Michel B. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Quebec, Quebec (Canada)], email:; Cheung, Stephen [Brock University Department of Physical Education and Kinesiology, St. Catherines, Ontario (Canada)], email:; Mak, Lawrence [National Research Council Canada: Institute for Ocean Technology St. John' s, Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada)], email:


    Recently the number of tourists travelling though the Arctic has risen to over 1.5 million per year, increasing the risk of accidents in these extreme conditions. With such harsh conditions, it could take several days for the rescue to arrive on site; however there are no standards specifying the thermal insulation properties that equipment should have. The aim of this paper is to assess the thermal protection afforded by the equipment available and to assess human endurance. A 3 year study was carried out with experiments being performed in simulated Arctic conditions. This study is intended to assess the likelihood of survival for victims in the Arctic with the use of equipment currently available and to identify the principal risks. Subsequent to this assessment, survival prediction tools are expected to be improved based upon the knowledge gained in this study and recommendations made for better equipment to improve the likelihood of survival in accidents in the Arctic Seas.

  10. Concurrent topology optimization for minimization of total mass considering load-carrying capabilities and thermal insulation simultaneously (United States)

    Long, Kai; Wang, Xuan; Gu, Xianguang


    The present work introduces a novel concurrent optimization formulation to meet the requirements of lightweight design and various constraints simultaneously. Nodal displacement of macrostructure and effective thermal conductivity of microstructure are regarded as the constraint functions, which means taking into account both the load-carrying capabilities and the thermal insulation properties. The effective properties of porous material derived from numerical homogenization are used for macrostructural analysis. Meanwhile, displacement vectors of macrostructures from original and adjoint load cases are used for sensitivity analysis of the microstructure. Design variables in the form of reciprocal functions of relative densities are introduced and used for linearization of the constraint function. The objective function of total mass is approximately expressed by the second order Taylor series expansion. Then, the proposed concurrent optimization problem is solved using a sequential quadratic programming algorithm, by splitting into a series of sub-problems in the form of the quadratic program. Finally, several numerical examples are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization method. The various effects including initial designs, prescribed limits of nodal displacement, and effective thermal conductivity on optimized designs are also investigated. An amount of optimized macrostructures and their corresponding microstructures are achieved.

  11. Filtration efficiency validation of glass wool during thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis of fine atmospheric particles. (United States)

    Hao, Liang; Wu, Dapeng; Ding, Kun; Meng, Hu; Yan, Xiaohui; Guan, Yafeng


    Thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TD-GC-MS) technique has been widely used for analysis of semi-violate organic compounds on atmospheric aerosol. To prevent GC column from being damaged by fine solid particles during thermal desorption process, glass wool as filter mat is indispensible. However, the filtration efficiency has never been validated. In this paper, the most penetrating particle size and the minimum packing thickness of glass wool were calculated based on classical filtration theory. According to the calculation results, packing parameters of glass wool were optimized experimentally using silica particles. It is demonstrated that glass wool with a packing thickness of 30 mm, solidity of 0.039 can effectively block these fine solid particles from penetrating at normal thermal desorption conditions (T=300°C, u=0.4-4 cm/s). Finally, the filtration efficiency of glass wool was further confirmed with real PM2.5 samples. Under the validated filtration condition, TD-GC-MS was applied for the analysis of non-polar organic compounds on real PM2.5 samples, and very good results were obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry coupled using proximal probe thermal desorption with electrospray or atmospheric pressure chemica lionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL


    An atmospheric pressure proximal probe thermal desorption sampling method coupled with secondary ionization by electrospray or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was demonstrated for the mass spectrometric analysis of a diverse set of compounds (dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals, explosives and pesticides) separated on various high-performance thin-layer chromatography plates. Line scans along or through development lanes on the plates were carried out by moving the plate relative to a stationary heated probe positioned close to or just touching the stationary phase surface. Vapors of the compounds thermally desorbed from the surface were drawn into the ionization region of a combined electrospray ionization/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source where they merged with reagent ions and/or charged droplets from a corona discharge or an electrospray emitter and were ionized. The ionized components were then drawn through the atmospheric pressure sampling orifice into the vacuum region of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and detected using full scan, single ion monitoring, or selected reaction monitoring mode. Studies of variable parameters and performance metrics including the proximal probe temperature, gas flow rate into the ionization region, surface scan speed, read-out resolution, detection limits, and surface type are discussed.

  13. Precise measurement of the thermal and stellar 54Fe(n ,γ )55Fe cross sections via accelerator mass spectrometry (United States)

    Wallner, A.; Buczak, K.; Belgya, T.; Bichler, M.; Coquard, L.; Dillmann, I.; Golser, R.; Käppeler, F.; Karakas, A.; Kutschera, W.; Lederer, C.; Mengoni, A.; Pignatari, M.; Priller, A.; Reifarth, R.; Steier, P.; Szentmiklosi, L.


    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) represents a complementary approach for precise measurements of neutron capture cross sections, e.g., for nuclear astrophysics. This technique, completely independent of previous experimental methods, was applied for the measurement of the 54Fe(n ,γ )55Fe reaction. Following a series of irradiations with neutrons from cold and thermal to keV energies, the produced long-lived 55Fe nuclei (t1 /2=2.744 +-0.009 ) yr) were analyzed at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator. A reproducibility of about 1% could be achieved for the detection of 55Fe, yielding cross-section uncertainties of less than 3%. Thus, this method produces new and precise data that can serve as anchor points for time-of-flight experiments. We report significantly improved neutron capture cross sections at thermal energy (σth=2.30 ±0.07 b) as well as for a quasi-Maxwellian spectrum of k T =25 keV (σ =30.3 ±1.2 mb) and for En=481 ±53 keV (σ =6.01 ±0.23 mb). The new experimental cross sections have been used to deduce improved Maxwellian-averaged cross sections in the temperature regime of the common s -process scenarios. The astrophysical impact is discussed by using stellar models for low-mass asymptotic giant branch stars.

  14. Mass Dependency of Isotope Fractionation of Gases Under Thermal Gradient and Its Possible Implications for Planetary Atmosphere Escaping Process (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Niles, Paul; Bao, Huiming; Socki, Richard


    Physical processes that unmix elements/isotopes of gas molecules involve phase changes, diffusion (chemical or thermal), effusion and gravitational settling. Some of those play significant roles for the evolution of chemical and isotopic compositions of gases in planetary bodies which lead to better understanding of surface paleoclimatic conditions, e.g. gas bubbles in Antarctic ice, and planetary evolution, e.g. the solar-wind erosion induced gas escaping from exosphere on terrestrial planets.. A mass dependent relationship is always expected for the kinetic isotope fractionations during these simple physical processes, according to the kinetic theory of gases by Chapman, Enskog and others [3-5]. For O-bearing (O16, -O17, -O18) molecules the alpha O-17/ alpha O-18 is expected at 0.5 to 0.515, and for S-bearing (S32,-S33. -S34, -S36) molecules, the alpha S-33/ alpha S-34 is expected at 0.5 to 0.508, where alpha is the isotope fractionation factor associated with unmixing processes. Thus, one isotope pair is generally proxied to yield all the information for the physical history of the gases. However, we recently] reported the violation of mass law for isotope fractionation among isotope pairs of multiple isotope system during gas diffusion or convection under thermal gradient (Thermal Gradient Induced Non-Mass Dependent effect, TGI-NMD). The mechanism(s) that is responsible to such striking observation remains unanswered. In our past studies, we investigated polyatomic molecules, O2 and SF6, and we suggested that nuclear spin effect could be responsible to the observed NMD effect in a way of changing diffusion coefficients of certain molecules, owing to the fact of negligible delta S-36 anomaly for SF6.. On the other hand, our results also showed that for both diffusion and convection under thermal gradient, this NMD effect is increased by lower gas pressure, bigger temperature gradient and lower average temperature, which indicate that the nuclear spin effect may

  15. Mass transfer in a 1370 C (2500 F) lithium thermal convection loop (United States)

    Scheuermann, C. M.


    Experimental results from a test to evaluate interstitial element mass transfer effects on T-111, ASTAR 811C, and ASTAR 1211C after 5000 hours in flowing lithium at 1370 C (2500 F) are presented. No gross corrosion effects were observed. However, hafnium and nitrogen transfer to cooler regions within the loop were noted. Oxygen was in general removed from test specimens, but there was no evidence to indicate that it was a major factor in the mass transfer process. Carbon and hydrogen transfer were not detected.

  16. Mass transfer across combustion gas thermal boundary layers - Power production and materials processing implications (United States)

    Rosner, D. E.


    The effects of Soret diffusion (for vapors) and thermophoresis (for particles) are illustrated using recent optical experiments and boundary layer computations. Mass transfer rate augmentations of up to a factor of 1000 were observed and predicted for submicron-particle capture by cooled solid surfaces, while mass transfer suppressions of more than 10 to the -10th-fold were predicted for 'overheated' surfaces. It is noted that the results obtained are of interest in connection with such technological applications as fly-ash capture in power generation equipment and glass droplet deposition in optical-waveguide manufacture.

  17. Chemical separation and mass spectrometry of Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, and Cu in terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials using thermal ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Yamakawa, Akane; Yamashita, Katsuyuki; Makishima, Akio; Nakamura, Eizo


    A sequential chemical separation technique for Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, and Cu in terrestrial and extraterrestrial silicate rocks was developed for precise and accurate determination of elemental concentration by the isotope dilution method (ID). The technique uses a combination of cation-anion exchange chromatography and Eichrom nickel specific resin. The method was tested using a variety of matrixes including bulk meteorite (Allende), terrestrial peridotite (JP-1), and basalt (JB-1b). Concentrations of each element was determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) using W filaments and a Si-B-Al type activator for Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zn and a Re filament and silicic acid-H3PO4 activator for Cu. The method can be used to precisely determine the concentrations of these elements in very small silicate samples, including meteorites, geochemical reference samples, and mineral standards for microprobe analysis. Furthermore, the Cr mass spectrometry procedure developed in this study can be extended to determine the isotopic ratios of 53Cr/52Cr and 54Cr/52Cr with precision of approximately 0.05epsilon and approximately 0.10epsilon (1epsilon = 0.01%), respectively, enabling cosmochemical applications such as high precision Mn-Cr chronology and investigation of nucleosynthetic isotopic anomalies in meteorites.

  18. Effect of Additive of Expanded Polystyrene and Perlite on Some Mechanical Properties and Thermal Conductivity for Mass Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid H. Hussein


    Full Text Available In  this  research,  the  major  problem  of  mass  concrete  (Differences  in  Temperature  was  studied. Expanded polystyrene and perlite were added in different percentages to investigate the effects on some mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of concrete. Two stages of work were performed.In first stage, reference mix was designed at proportion (1cement: 1.41sand: 2.72gravel with (0.4 water cement  ratio.  Four  tests  were  conducted,  these  tests  including  density,  compressive  strength,  flexural strength and thermal conductivity through exponential equation depending on dry density. In the second stage,  polystyrene  beads  and  perlite  were  added  as  volumetric  ratio  with  (10,  15,  20,  25,  and 30 percentages  to  the  original  size  of  reference mix  and  conducted  the  tests  and  study  their  effects. The results showed a significant improvement in thermal insulation and reduced thermal conductivity (40 , 22 % by using (30 % of polystyrene and perlite respectively. The decreasing in some mechanical properties can be seen and this decreasing did  not have serious effects on the design efficiency of the structure which conformed with the specifications.

  19. Broad spectrum infrared thermal desorption of wipe-based explosive and narcotic samples for trace mass spectrometric detection. (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas P; Staymates, Matthew; Sisco, Edward


    Wipe collected analytes were thermally desorbed using broad spectrum near infrared heating for mass spectrometric detection. Employing a twin tube filament-based infrared emitter, rapid and efficiently powered thermal desorption and detection of nanogram levels of explosives and narcotics was demonstrated. The infrared thermal desorption (IRTD) platform developed here used multi-mode heating (direct radiation and secondary conduction from substrate and subsequent convection from air) and a temperature ramp to efficiently desorb analytes with vapor pressures across eight orders of magnitude. The wipe substrate experienced heating rates up to (85 ± 2) °C s(-1) with a time constant of (3.9 ± 0.2) s for 100% power emission. The detection of trace analytes was also demonstrated from complex mixtures, including plastic-bonded explosives and exogenous narcotics, explosives, and metabolites from collected artificial latent fingerprints. Manipulation of the emission power and duration directly controlled the heating rate and maximum temperature, enabling differential thermal desorption and a level of upstream separation for enhanced specificity. Transitioning from 100% power and 5 s emission duration to 25% power and 30 s emission enabled an order of magnitude increase in the temporal separation (single seconds to tens of seconds) of the desorption of volatile and semi-volatile species within a collected fingerprint. This mode of operation reduced local gas-phase concentrations, reducing matrix effects experienced with high concentration mixtures. IRTD provides a unique platform for the desorption of trace analytes from wipe collections, an area of importance to the security sector, transportation agencies, and customs and border protection.

  20. A simplified kinetic and mass transfer modelling of the thermal hydrolysis of vegetable oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forero-Hernandez, Hector Alexander; Jones, Mark Nicholas; Sarup, Bent


    This work presents a combined modelling approach to investigate the kinetics and masstransfer effects on the hydrolysis of vegetable oils under subcritical conditions. The primary purpose of this simplified model is to interpret experimental data collected from typical batch tests and to estimate...... parameters for the proposed model. Due to its heterogeneous nature, the hydrolysis reaction is affected not only by the chemical kinetics but also by the rate of mass transfer between the oil and water as well as their specific contact area in this two phase emulsion. Considering these properties, a model...... was developed and evaluated by comparing the results with experimental data from literature. The model included among others the mass transfer coefficient as a function of operation and process variables, e.g. agitation speed, temperature, pressure, density and viscosity. Thereafter, uncertainty analysis...

  1. The Role of Thermal Convection in Heat and Mass Transport in the Subarctic Snow Cover (United States)


    vapor diffusion have been developed (Bader et al. 1939, Yosida et al. 1955, Giddings and LaChapelle 1962, Yen 1963, de Quervain 1972, Palm and...not agree, other authors (Yosida et al. 1955, Yen 1963, de Quervain 1972, Palm and Tveitereid 1979, Fedoseeva and Fedoseev 1988) concluded that the...for the diffusion model to produce the measured mass transport. Yen (1963), de Quervain (1972), Palm and Tveitereid (1979), and Fedoseeva and Fedoseev

  2. Finnigan ion trap mass spectrometer detection limits and thermal energy analyzer interface status report and present capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, A.; Andresen, B.; Martin, W.


    A new Finnigan ion trap mass spectrometer was purchased and installed at LLNL. Over a period of several months the instrument was tested under a variety of conditions utilizing a capillary gas chromatography interface which allowed separated organic compounds to be carried directly into the ion source of the mass spectrometer. This direct interface allowed maximum analytical sensitivity. A variety of critical tests were performed in order to optimize the sensitivity of the system under a variety of analysis conditions. These tests altered the critical time cycles of the ionization, ion trapping, and detection. Various carrier gas pressures were also employed in order to ascertain the overall sensitivity of the instrument. In addition we have also interfaced a thermal energy analyzer (TEA) to the gas chromatograph in order to simultaneously detect volatile nitrogen containing compounds while mass spectral data is being acquired. This is the first application at this laboratory of simultaneous ultra-trace detections while utilizing two orthogonal analytical techniques. In particular, explosive-related compound and/or residues are of interest to the general community in water, soil and gas sampler. In this paper are highlighted a few examples of the analytical power of this new GC-TEA-ITMS technology.

  3. Hydrodynamics and mass transfer deaeration of water on thermal power plants when used natural gas as a desorbing agent (United States)

    Sharapov, V. I.; Kudryavtseva, E. V.


    The technology of low-temperature deaeration of water in thermal power plants was developed. It is proposed to use natural gas supplied to the furnace as desorbing agent in the deaerator instead steam or superheated water. Natural gas has low, often - negative temperature after reducing installs. At the same time, it contains virtually no corrosive gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide, thereby successfully may be used as a stripping agent in water deaeration. The calculation of the energy efficiency of the technology for a typical unit of CHP has shown that achieved a significant annual saving of fuel equivalent in the transition from the traditional method of deaeration of water in the low temperature deaeration. Hydrodynamic and mass transfer indicators were determined for the deaerator thermal power plants using as stripping medium natural gas supplied to the boiler burners. Theoretically required amount and the real specific consumption of natural gas were estimated for deaeration of water standard quality. The calculation of the hydrodynamic characteristics was presented for jet-bubbling atmospheric deaerator with undescended perforated plate when operating on natural gas. The calculation shows the possibility of using commercially available atmospheric deaerators for the application of the new low-temperature water deaeration technology.

  4. Thermal ionization mass spectrometry U-series dating of a hominid site near Nanjing, China (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-Xin; Hu, Kai; Collerson, Kenneth D.; Xu, Han-Kui


    Mass spectrometric U-series dating of speleothems from Tangshan Cave, combined with ecological and paleoclimatic evidence, indicates that Nanjing Man, a typical Homo erectus morphologically correlated with Peking Man at Zhoukoudian, should be at least 580 k.y. old, or more likely lived during the glacial oxygen isotope stage 16 (˜620 ka). Such an age estimate, which is ˜270 ka older than previous electron spin resonance and alpha-counting U-series dates, has significant implications for the evolution of Asian H. erectus. Dentine and enamel samples from the coexisting fossil layer yield significantly younger apparent ages, that of the enamel sample being only less than one-fourth of the minimum age of Nanjing Man. This suggests that U uptake history is far more complex than existing models can handle. As a result, great care must be taken in the interpretation of electron spin resonance and U-series dates of fossil teeth.

  5. Development of FIAT-Based Parametric Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships for NASA's Multi-Mission Earth Entry Concept (United States)

    Sepka, Steven A.; Zarchi, Kerry; Maddock, Robert W.; Samareh, Jamshid A.


    Part of NASAs In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program is the development of the tradespace to support the design of a family of multi-mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEV) to meet a wide range of mission requirements. An integrated tool called the Multi Mission System Analysis for Planetary Entry Descent and Landing or M-SAPE tool is being developed as part of Entry Vehicle Technology project under In-Space Technology program. The analysis and design of an Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) is multidisciplinary in nature, requiring the application many disciplines. Part of M-SAPE's application required the development of parametric mass estimating relationships (MERs) to determine the vehicle's required Thermal Protection System (TPS) for safe Earth entry. For this analysis, the heat shield was assumed to be made of a constant thickness TPS. This resulting MERs will then e used to determine the pre-flight mass of the TPS. Two Mers have been developed for the vehicle forebaody. One MER was developed for PICA and the other consisting of Carbon Phenolic atop an Advanced Carbon-Carbon composition. For the the backshell, MERs have been developed for SIRCA, Acusil II, and LI-900. How these MERs were developed, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy are discussed in this poster.

  6. Studies on thermal decomposition mechanism of CL-20 by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, N.H.; Gore, G.M. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Sutarwadi, Pune 411021 (India); Gandhe, B.R. [Directorate of Armament, DRDO Bhavan, New Delhi 110011 (India); Sikder, A.K. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Sutarwadi, Pune 411021 (India)], E-mail:


    The thermal decomposition study of CL-20 (hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane) using pyrolysis GC/MS was carried out mainly by electron impact (EI) mode. Chemical ionization (CI) mode was used for further confirmation of identified species. Mass spectrum of CL-20 decomposition products predominantly revealed fragments with m/z 81 and 96 corresponding to C{sub 4}H{sub 5}N{sub 2}{sup +} and C{sub 4}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}O{sup +} ions, respectively. The total ion chromatogram (TIC) of CL-20 pyrolysis shows peak within first 2 min due to the presence of low molecular weight gases. Peaks corresponding to several other products were also observed including the atmospheric gases. Cyanogen formation (C{sub 2}N{sub 2}, m/z 52) observed to be enriched at the scan number 300-500. The low molecular mass range decomposition products formed by cleavage of C-N ring structure were found in majority. Additional structural information was sought by employing chemical ionization mode. The data generated during this study was instrumented in determining decomposition pathways of CL-20.

  7. Models of low-mass helium white dwarfs including gravitational settling, thermal and chemical diffusion, and rotational mixing (United States)

    Istrate, A. G.; Marchant, P.; Tauris, T. M.; Langer, N.; Stancliffe, R. J.; Grassitelli, L.


    A large number of extremely low-mass helium white dwarfs (ELM WDs) have been discovered in recent years. The majority of them are found in close binary systems suggesting they are formed either through a common-envelope phase or via stable mass transfer in a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) or a cataclysmic variable (CV) system. Here, we investigate the formation of these objects through the LMXB channel with emphasis on the proto-WD evolution in environments with different metallicities. We study for the first time the combined effects of rotational mixing and element diffusion (e.g. gravitational settling, thermal and chemical diffusion) on the evolution of proto-WDs and on the cooling properties of the resulting WDs. We present state-of-the-art binary stellar evolution models computed with MESA for metallicities of Z = 0.02, 0.01, 0.001 and 0.0002, producing WDs with masses between 0.16-0.45 M⊙. Our results confirm that element diffusion plays a significant role in the evolution of proto-WDs that experience hydrogen shell flashes. The occurrence of these flashes produces a clear dichotomy in the cooling timescales of ELM WDs, which has important consequences e.g. for the age determination of binary millisecond pulsars. In addition, we confirm that the threshold mass at which this dichotomy occurs depends on metallicity. Rotational mixing is found to counteract the effect of gravitational settling in the surface layers of young, bloated ELM proto-WDs and therefore plays a key role in determining their surface chemical abundances, I.e. the observed presence of metals in their atmospheres. We predict that these proto-WDs have helium-rich envelopes through a significant part of their lifetime. This is of great importance as helium is a crucial ingredient in the driving of the κ-mechanism suggested for the newly observed ELM proto-WD pulsators. However, we find that the number of hydrogen shell flashes and, as a result, the hydrogen envelope mass at the beginning of

  8. Magnetic headspace adsorptive extraction of chlorobenzenes prior to thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Vidal, Lorena; Ahmadi, Mazaher; Fernández, Elena; Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Canals, Antonio


    This study presents a new, user-friendly, cost-effective and portable headspace solid-phase extraction technique based on graphene oxide decorated with iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles as sorbent, located on one end of a small neodymium magnet. Hence, the new headspace solid-phase extraction technique has been called Magnetic Headspace Adsorptive Extraction (Mag-HSAE). In order to assess Mag-HSAE technique applicability to model analytes, some chlorobenzenes were extracted from water samples prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination. A multivariate approach was employed to optimize the experimental parameters affecting Mag-HSAE. The method was evaluated under optimized extraction conditions (i.e., sample volume, 20 mL; extraction time, 30 min; sorbent amount, 10 mg; stirring speed, 1500 rpm, and ionic strength, non-significant), obtaining a linear response from 0.5 to 100 ng L-1 for 1,3-DCB, 1,4-DCB, 1,2-DCB, 1,3,5-TCB, 1,2,4-TCB and 1,2,3-TCB; from 0.5 to 75 ng L-1 for 1,2,4,5-TeCB, and PeCB; and from 1 to 75 ng L-1 for 1,2,3,4-TeCB. The repeatability of the proposed method was evaluated at 10 ng L-1 and 50 ng L-1 spiking levels, and coefficients of variation ranged between 1.5 and 9.5% (n = 5). Limits of detection values were found between 93 and 301 pg L-1. Finally, tap, mineral and effluent water were selected as real water samples to assess method applicability. Relative recoveries varied between 86 and 110% showing negligible matrix effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermal desorption mass spectrometric and x-ray photoelectron studies of etched surfaces of polytetrafluoroethylene (United States)

    Rye, R. R.; Kelber, J. A.


    The etching of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with Na solutions is known to lead to a loss of F, a loss which is correlated with enhanced adhesion. Subsequent heating partially restores surface F with a concurrent loss of adhesion strength. We have combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and gas phase mass spectroscopy for in situ measurements of the processes that occur as the fluorocarbon is heated. An array of volatile products, which vary with the specific treatment, desorb from etched PTFE. Among these are: N 2 and low molecular weight fluorocarbons, the amounts of which monotonically decrease with increasing exposure to the etching solution (and probably result from the bulk); species such as CO and CO 2, which in part result from surface impurities; and water and acetone which result from the rinse steps following the etching process. XPS measurements show that etching produces a major loss of surface F and a gain of surface O. The latter probably results from the subsequent rinse steps. Heating produces a substantial recovery in surface F with only a small decrease in the surface O, and the gain in surface F is shown to occur at a higher temperature than the desorption of any species from the surface. Thus, desorption of products from the surface is decoupled, in terms of both the distribution of products and their relative temperatures, from the surface changes as monitored by XPS. This decoupling suggests that the increase in surface F results from diffusion of low molecular weight fluorocarbons from the bulk or a transition region, or from a rearrangement of the sponge-like surface region produced in the etching process.

  10. Magnetic headspace adsorptive extraction of chlorobenzenes prior to thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, Lorena, E-mail: [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences and University Institute of Materials, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080, Alicante (Spain); Ahmadi, Mazaher [Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fernández, Elena [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences and University Institute of Materials, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080, Alicante (Spain); Madrakian, Tayyebeh [Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Canals, Antonio, E-mail: [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences and University Institute of Materials, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080, Alicante (Spain)


    This study presents a new, user-friendly, cost-effective and portable headspace solid-phase extraction technique based on graphene oxide decorated with iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles as sorbent, located on one end of a small neodymium magnet. Hence, the new headspace solid-phase extraction technique has been called Magnetic Headspace Adsorptive Extraction (Mag-HSAE). In order to assess Mag-HSAE technique applicability to model analytes, some chlorobenzenes were extracted from water samples prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination. A multivariate approach was employed to optimize the experimental parameters affecting Mag-HSAE. The method was evaluated under optimized extraction conditions (i.e., sample volume, 20 mL; extraction time, 30 min; sorbent amount, 10 mg; stirring speed, 1500 rpm, and ionic strength, non-significant), obtaining a linear response from 0.5 to 100 ng L{sup −1} for 1,3-DCB, 1,4-DCB, 1,2-DCB, 1,3,5-TCB, 1,2,4-TCB and 1,2,3-TCB; from 0.5 to 75 ng L{sup −1} for 1,2,4,5-TeCB, and PeCB; and from 1 to 75 ng L{sup −1} for 1,2,3,4-TeCB. The repeatability of the proposed method was evaluated at 10 ng L{sup −1} and 50 ng L{sup −1} spiking levels, and coefficients of variation ranged between 1.5 and 9.5% (n = 5). Limits of detection values were found between 93 and 301 pg L{sup −1}. Finally, tap, mineral and effluent water were selected as real water samples to assess method applicability. Relative recoveries varied between 86 and 110% showing negligible matrix effects. - Highlights: • A new extraction technique named Magnetic Headspace Adsorptive Extraction is presented. • Graphene oxide/iron oxide composite deposited on a neodymiun magnet as sorbent. • Sorbent of low cost, rapid and simple synthesis, easy manipulation and portability options. • Fast and efficient extraction and sensitive determination of chlorobenzenes in water samples.

  11. Trace determination of airborne polyfluorinated iodine alkanes using multisorbent thermal desorption/gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Ruan, Ting; Wang, Yawei; Zhang, Qinghua; Ding, Lei; Wang, Pu; Qu, Guangbo; Wang, Chang; Wang, Thanh; Jiang, Guibin


    A novel gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry method coupled with multisorbent thermal desorption cartridges has been developed for the determination of volatile neutral polyfluorinated iodine alkanes (PFIs) in airborne samples. It allows, for the first time, simultaneous analysis of four mono-iodized perfluorinated alkanes, three diiodized perfluorinated alkanes and four mono-iodized polyfluorinated telomers in ambient air samples. 3.75 L air sample was passed through a sorbent tube packed with 150 mg of Tenax TA and 200mg of Carbograph 1 TD for analyte adsorption. Important factors during the analysis procedures, such as safe sampling volume, air sampling rate, analyte desorption and transfer strategies, were optimized and good thermal desorption efficiencies were obtained. The method detection limit (MDL) concentration ranged from 0.04 pg/L for 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorododecyl iodide to 1.2 pg/L for perfluorohexyl iodide, and instrument response of a seven-point calibration was linear in the range of 10-1000 pg. Travel spike recoveries ranged from 83% to 116%. Small variabilities of less than 36% were obtained near the MDLs and the differences between triplicates were even smaller (2.1-7.3%) at 200 pg spiked level. The method was successfully applied to analyze ambient air samples collected near a point source, and five PFIs were identified (10.8-85.0 pg/L), with none of the analytes detectable at the background site. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. The Evolutionary Properties and Peculiar Thermal Pulses of Metal-deficient Low-Mass Stars (United States)

    Cassisi, Santi; Castellani, Vittorio; Tornambe, Amedeo


    We investigate the evolutionary behavior of low-mass star models with very low original metal content (log Z = -10, -6, -5) and Y = 0.23. The computations have been extended from the main sequence up to the double shell burning phase. Theoretical isochrones on the H-R diagram are presented for a range of ages spanning 7-15 x 10 yr. Attention has been paid to understand whether, and to what extent, stellar populations in the quoted metallicity range can produce currently observable RR Lyrae variables, the result being that, apart from an intrinsic scarcity of existing stars with such a composition, evolutionary properties are such that a vanishingly small number of RR Lyrae variables is expected to exist. However, if existing, metal-deficient RR Lyrae stars would present pulsational properties not easily distinguishable from those of standard Population II variables. Double shell burning structures are presented with discussion of the dependence of selected evolutionary features on the original metal content and, in particular, the occurrence of unusually strong He shell flashes following the first reignition of He shell burning. The H shell burning along the He intershell accretion phase and the following He shell burning reignition of the M = 0.8 M0, log Z = -10 model are discussed in detail. It is found that, even at the first episode of He shell reignition, the burning grows in so strong a flash that a convective shell develops at once, becoming large enough to interact with the H shell, so that a large amount of fresh protons is suddenly injected into the high-temperature He-burning region. After the third episode of hydrogen ingestion, it has not been possible to follow in detail the development of the instability since a time-dependent treatment of the convection would be required. It is however estimated that during the flash a maximum luminosity of LHe = 2.5' x 108 Lo would have been attained by He burning alone, in contrast with a maximum of LHe = 7.5 x 10

  13. Effects of thermal mass, window size, and night-time ventilation on peak indoor air temperature in the warm-humid climate of Ghana. (United States)

    Amos-Abanyie, S; Akuffo, F O; Kutin-Sanwu, V


    Most office buildings in the warm-humid sub-Saharan countries experience high cooling load because of the predominant use of sandcrete blocks which are of low thermal mass in construction and extensive use of glazing. Relatively, low night-time temperatures are not harnessed in cooling buildings because office openings remain closed after work hours. An optimization was performed through a sensitivity analysis-based simulation, using the Energy Plus (E+) simulation software to assess the effects of thermal mass, window size, and night ventilation on peak indoor air temperature (PIAT). An experimental system was designed based on the features of the most promising simulation model, constructed and monitored, and the experimental data used to validate the simulation model. The results show that an optimization of thermal mass and window size coupled with activation of night-time ventilation provides a synergistic effect to obtain reduced peak indoor air temperature. An expression that predicts, indoor maximum temperature has been derived for models of various thermal masses.

  14. Effects of Thermal Mass, Window Size, and Night-Time Ventilation on Peak Indoor Air Temperature in the Warm-Humid Climate of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Amos-Abanyie


    Full Text Available Most office buildings in the warm-humid sub-Saharan countries experience high cooling load because of the predominant use of sandcrete blocks which are of low thermal mass in construction and extensive use of glazing. Relatively, low night-time temperatures are not harnessed in cooling buildings because office openings remain closed after work hours. An optimization was performed through a sensitivity analysis-based simulation, using the Energy Plus (E+ simulation software to assess the effects of thermal mass, window size, and night ventilation on peak indoor air temperature (PIAT. An experimental system was designed based on the features of the most promising simulation model, constructed and monitored, and the experimental data used to validate the simulation model. The results show that an optimization of thermal mass and window size coupled with activation of night-time ventilation provides a synergistic effect to obtain reduced peak indoor air temperature. An expression that predicts, indoor maximum temperature has been derived for models of various thermal masses.

  15. Thermo-diffusion effect on free convection heat and mass transfer in a thermally linearly stratified non-darcy porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Murthy, P.V.S.N.


    Thermo-diffusion effect on free convection heat and mass transfer from a vertical surface embedded in a liquid saturated thermally stratified non - Darcy porous medium has been analyzed using a local non-similar procedure. The wall temperature and concentration are constant and the medium is linearly stratified in the vertical direction with respect to the thermal conditions. The fluid flow, temperature and concentration fields are affected by the complex interactions among the diffusion ratio Le, buoyancy ratio N, thermo-diffusion parameter Sr and stratification parameter ?. Non-linear interactions of all these parameters on the convective transport has been analyzed and variation of heat and mass transfer coefficients with thermo-diffusion parameter in the thermally stratified non-Darcy porous media is presented through computer generated plots.

  16. Thermal transformation of bioactive caffeic acid on fumed silica seen by UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature programmed desorption mass spectrometry and quantum chemical methods. (United States)

    Kulik, Tetiana V; Lipkovska, Natalia O; Barvinchenko, Valentyna M; Palyanytsya, Borys B; Kazakova, Olga A; Dudik, Olesia O; Menyhárd, Alfréd; László, Krisztina


    Thermochemical studies of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and their surface complexes are important for the pharmaceutical industry, medicine and for the development of technologies of heterogeneous biomass pyrolysis. In this study, structural and thermal transformations of caffeic acid complexes on silica surfaces were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature programmed desorption mass spectrometry (TPD MS) and quantum chemical methods. Two types of caffeic acid surface complexes are found to form through phenolic or carboxyl groups. The kinetic parameters of the chemical reactions of caffeic acid on silica surface are calculated. The mechanisms of thermal transformations of the caffeic chemisorbed surface complexes are proposed. Thermal decomposition of caffeic acid complex chemisorbed through grafted ester group proceeds via three parallel reactions, producing ketene, vinyl and acetylene derivatives of 1,2-dihydroxybenzene. Immobilization of phenolic acids on the silica surface improves greatly their thermal stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Distinguishing chinese star anise from Japanese star anise using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Kite, Geoffrey C; Simmonds, Monique S J


    The volatile compounds from the pericarps of Illicium anisatum L., Illicium brevistylum A.C.Sm., Illicium griffithii Hook.f. & Thomson, Illicium henryi Diels, Illicium lanceolatum A.C.Sm., Illicium majus Hook.f. & Thomson, Illicium micranthum Dunn, and Illicium verum Hook.f. were examined by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). The volatiles desorbed from the pericarps of I. verum (Chinese star anise), the species traded for culinary purposes, were generally characterized by a high proportion of (E)-anethole (57.6-77.1%) and the presence of foeniculin; the latter was otherwise only detected in the pericarps of I. lanceolatum. In the pericarps of all other species analyzed, the percentage composition of (E)-anethole was comparatively lower (toxic I. anisatum (Japanese star anise) were characterized by the presence of asaricin, methoxyeugenol, and two other eugenol derivatives, none of which were detected in any of the other species examined. TD-GC-MS enables the direct analysis of the volatile components from the pericarps of Illicium and can assist with differentiating the fruits of I. verum from other species of Illicium, particularly the more toxic I. anisatum.

  18. Quantification of real thermal, catalytic, and hydrodeoxygenated bio-oils via comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Silva, Raquel V S; Tessarolo, Nathalia S; Pereira, Vinícius B; Ximenes, Vitor L; Mendes, Fábio L; de Almeida, Marlon B B; Azevedo, Débora A


    The elucidation of bio-oil composition is important to evaluate the processes of biomass conversion and its upgrading, and to suggest the proper use for each sample. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) is a widely applied analytical approach for bio-oil investigation due to the higher separation and resolution capacity from this technique. This work addresses the issue of analytical performance to assess the comprehensive characterization of real bio-oil samples via GC×GC-TOFMS. The approach was applied to the individual quantification of compounds of real thermal (PWT), catalytic process (CPO), and hydrodeoxygenation process (HDO) bio-oils. Quantification was performed with reliability using the analytical curves of oxygenated and hydrocarbon standards as well as the deuterated internal standards. The limit of quantification was set at 1ngµL-1 for major standards, except for hexanoic acid, which was set at 5ngµL-1. The GC×GC-TOFMS method provided good precision (bio-oil samples. Sugars, furans, and alcohols appear as the major constituents of the PWT, CPO, and HDO samples, respectively. In order to obtain bio-oils with better quality, the catalytic pyrolysis process may be a better option than hydrogenation due to the effective reduction of oxygenated compound concentrations and the lower cost of the process, when hydrogen is not required to promote deoxygenation in the catalytic pyrolysis process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Real-time mass spectroscopy analysis of Li-ion battery electrolyte degradation under abusive thermal conditions (United States)

    Gaulupeau, B.; Delobel, B.; Cahen, S.; Fontana, S.; Hérold, C.


    The lithium-ion batteries are widely used in rechargeable electronic devices. The current challenges are to improve the capacity and safety of these systems in view of their development to a larger scale, such as for their application in electric and hybrid vehicles. Lithium-ion batteries use organic solvents because of the wide operating voltage. The corresponding electrolytes are usually based on combinations of linear, cyclic alkyl carbonates and a lithium salt such as LiPF6. It has been reported that in abusive thermal conditions, a catalytic effect of the cathode materials lead to the formation fluoro-organics compounds. In order to understand the degradation phenomenon, the study at 240 °C of the interaction between positive electrode materials (LiCoO2, LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2, LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4) and electrolyte in dry and wet conditions has been realized by an original method which consists in analyzing by mass spectrometry in real time the volatile molecules produced. The evolution of specific gases channels coupled to the NMR reveal the formation of rarely discussed species such as 2-fluoroethanol and 1,4-dioxane. Furthermore, it appears that the presence of water or other protic impurities greatly influence their formation.

  20. Measurement of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Cai, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Xiu-Xiu; Bian, Lei; Luo, Zong-Xiu; Chen, Zong-Mao


    Determination of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air is important to understand chemical communication between plants and insects and will aid the development of semiochemicals from plants for pest control. In this study, a thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) method was developed to measure ultra-trace levels of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. The desorption parameters of TD, including sorbent tube material, tube desorption temperature, desorption time, and cold trap temperature, were selected and optimized. In GC-MS analysis, the selected ion monitoring mode was used for enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. This method was sufficiently sensitive to detect part-per-trillion levels of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. Laboratory and field evaluation revealed that the method presented high precision and accuracy. Field studies indicated that the background odor of tea plantations contained some common volatile plant compounds, such as (Z)-3-hexenol, methyl salicylate, and (E)-ocimene, at concentrations ranging from 1 to 3400 ng m(-3). In addition, the background odor in summer was more abundant in quality and quantity than in autumn. Relative to previous methods, the TD-GC-MS method is more sensitive, permitting accurate qualitative and quantitative measurements of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Thermal conductance of carcasses of 14 aquatic bird species was determined by the warming constant technique. The effect on thermal conductance of body mass, age sex, fat deposits, and the degree of contact with water were studied. Only body mass and the degree of submergence in water had an effect.

  2. Thermophoresis and thermal radiation with heat and mass transfer in a magnetohydrodynamic thin-film second-grade fluid of variable properties past a stretching sheet (United States)

    Khan, Noor Saeed; Gul, Taza; Islam, Saeed; Khan, Waris


    The influences of thermophoresis and thermal radiation of a magnetohydrodynamic two-dimensional thin-film second-grade fluid with heat and mass transfer flow in the presence of viscous dissipation past a stretching sheet are analyzed. The main focus of the study is to discuss the significant roll of the fluid variable properties like thermal conductivity and viscosity under the variation of the thin film. The thermal conductivity varies directly as a linear function of temperature showing the property that expresses the ability of a material to transfer heat, and the viscosity is assumed to vary inversely as a linear function of temperature showing that viscous forces become weak at increasing temperature. Thermophoresis occurs to discuss the mass deposition at the surface of the stretching sheet while thermal radiation occurs, especially, at high temperature. The basic governing equations for the velocity, temperature and concentration of the fluid flow have been transformed to high nonlinear coupled differential equations with physical conditions by invoking suitable similarity transformations. The solution of the problem has been obtained by using HAM (Homotopy Analysis Method). The heat and mass transfer flow behaviors are affected significantly by the thin film. The physical influences of thin film parameter and all other parameters have been studied graphically and illustrated. The residual graphs and residual error table elucidate the authentication of the present work.

  3. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of some potential toxicants amongst volatile compounds emitted during large-scale thermal degradation of poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) plastic. (United States)

    Shapi, M M; Hesso, A


    A number of compounds emitted during the thermal degradation of plastics are potentially toxic. This study was aimed at identifying the volatile compounds emitted during large-scale thermal degradation of poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene). About 5 g of the sample were degraded at between 25 and 470 degrees C in air and nitrogen in a device that can simulate temperature-programmed thermogravimetry. The volatiles were collected in dichloromethane using the solvent trap technique. Some of the 92 compounds identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were found to have no hitherto documented toxicological profiles, even though they are potentially dangerous.

  4. Studies of organic residues from ancient Egyptian mummies using high temperature-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and sequential thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Buckley, S A; Stott, A W; Evershed, R P


    The techniques of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and sequential thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) have been utilised to characterise the constituents of tissue-derived or applied organic material from two Pharaonic Egyptian mummies with a view to identifying embalming practices/substances. The results obtained using TD-GC-MS revealed a series of monocarboxylic acids with the C16:0, C18:1 and C18:0 components dominating in both mummies. The thermal desorption products related to cholesterol, i.e., cholesta-3,5,7-triene and cholesta-3,5-diene (only in Khnum Nakht), were detected in both mummies. Khnum Nakht also contained a number of straight chain alkyl amides (C16-C18) and an alkyl nitrile (C18). Other products included the 2,5-diketopiperazine derivative (DKP) of proline-glycine (pro-gly) which was a major component (7.9%) in Khnum Nakht but only a very minor component in Horemkenesi. Py-GC-MS of samples of both specimens yielded a series of alkene/alkane doublets (Horemkenesi C6-C18, Khnum Nakht C6-C24) which dominated their chromatograms. Series of methyl ketones in the C9-C19 chain length range were also present, with C5-C7 cyclic ketones occurring in Horemkenesi only. These ketones are indicative of covalent bond cleavage, probably of polymerised acyl lipids. Nitrogenous products included nitriles (C9-C18) which were significant in both samples, and amides which were only detected in Khnum Nakht. Also present amongst the pyrolysis products were three steroidal hydrocarbons, cholest-(?)-ene, cholesta-3,5,7-triene and cholesta-3,5-diene. High temperature-GC-MS of trimethylsilylated lipid extracts yielded similar monocarboxylic acids to that obtained using TD-GC-MS, while a series of alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids and a number of mono- and di-hydroxy carboxylic acids not seen in the thermal desorption or pyrolysis GC-MS analyses were significant

  5. Analysis of the energetic/environmental performances of gas turbine plant: Effect of thermal barrier coatings and mass of cooling air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Ion V.


    Full Text Available Zirconia stabilized with 8 wt.% Y2O3 is the most common material to be applied in thermal barrier coatings owing to its excellent properties: low thermal conductivity, high toughness and thermal expansion coefficient as ceramic material. Calculation has been made to evaluate the gains of thermal barrier coatings applied on gas turbine blades. The study considers a top ceramic coating Zirconia stabilized with 8 wt.% Y2O3 on a NiCoCrAlY bond coat and Inconel 738LC as substrate. For different thickness and different cooling air flow rates, a thermodynamic analysis has been performed and pollutants emissions (CO, NOx have been estimated to analyze the effect of rising the gas inlet temperature. The effect of thickness and thermal conductivity of top coating and the mass flow rate of cooling air have been analyzed. The model for heat transfer analysis gives the temperature reduction through the wall blade for the considered conditions and the results presented in this contribution are restricted to a two considered limits: (1 maximum allowable temperature for top layer (1200ºC and (2 for blade material (1000ºC. The model can be used to analyze other materials that support higher temperatures helping in the development of new materials for thermal barrier coatings.

  6. Multidimensional gas chromatography using microfluidic switching and low thermal mass gas chromatography for the characterization of targeted volatile organic compounds. (United States)

    Luong, J; Gras, R; Hawryluk, M; Shellie, R A; Cortes, H J


    Volatile organic compounds such as light hydrocarbons, dienes, and aromatic compounds are often encountered in the manufacturing and processing environments of chemical and petrochemical segments. These compounds need to be closely monitored for process optimization, plant maintenance and industrial hygiene purposes. A high throughput analytical approach has been successfully developed and implemented for the accurate measurement of fourteen commonly encountered analytes. The approach incorporates a recently introduced 5-port planar microfluidic device configured for use as a Deans switch for multidimensional gas chromatography. The use of multidimensional gas chromatography allows the elimination of potential chromatographic contaminants with a substantial enhancement of stationary phase selectivity via the use of columns with different separation mechanisms, and the back-flushing of heavier undesired hydrocarbons. A low thermal mass gas chromatographic module was employed in the second dimension of the two-dimensional gas chromatography system and was used to provide independent temperature control, and rapid heating and cooling to meet the high throughput requirements. By successfully combining these concepts, complete analysis of fourteen targeted components can be conducted in less than 120s. Repeatability of retention times for all compounds was found to be less than 0.05% (n=20). Repeatability of area counts at two levels, namely 10ppmv and 1000ppmv over a period of two days was found to be less than 3% (n=20). Apart from methane, which has a detection limit of 0.4ppmv, the rest of the compounds were found to have detection limits of less than 0.2ppmv. Compounds of interest were found to be linear over a range of 500ppbv-3000ppmv with correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of generalized Fourier's and Fick's laws on MHD 3D second grade nanofluid flow with variable thermal conductivity and convective heat and mass conditions (United States)

    Ramzan, M.; Bilal, M.; Chung, Jae Dong; Lu, Dian Chen; Farooq, Umer


    A mathematical model has been established to study the magnetohydrodynamic second grade nanofluid flow past a bidirectional stretched surface. The flow is induced by Cattaneo-Christov thermal and concentration diffusion fluxes. Novel characteristics of Brownian motion and thermophoresis are accompanied by temperature dependent thermal conductivity and convective heat and mass boundary conditions. Apposite transformations are betrothed to transform a system of nonlinear partial differential equations to nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Analytic solutions of the obtained nonlinear system are obtained via a convergent method. Graphs are plotted to examine how velocity, temperature, and concentration distributions are affected by varied physical involved parameters. Effects of skin friction coefficients along the x- and y-direction versus various parameters are also shown through graphs and are well debated. Our findings show that velocities along both the x and y axes exhibit a decreasing trend for the Hartmann number. Moreover, temperature and concentration distributions are decreasing functions of thermal and concentration relaxation parameters.

  8. Perdeuterated n-alkanes for improved data processing in thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry I. Retention indices for identification. (United States)

    Massold, Emilie


    The identification of organic compounds by GC/MS is useful in various areas such as fuel, indoor and outdoor air and flavour and fragrance applications. Multi-compound mixtures often contain isomeric compounds which have similar mass spectra and sometimes cannot be unambiguously identified by library search alone. Retention indices can help with confirmation of identification if they are reproducible. Using perdeuterated n-alkanes as a reference series for calculation of retention indices in GC/MS has a clear benefit because of the distinctive ion trace of m/z 34. Thermal desorption is useful for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air after sampling on appropriate sorbent cartridges. Comparison of indices between three systems, consisting of a thermal desorption unit, a gas chromatograph and a mass spectrometer, showed good agreement for compounds with well-defined peaks, whereas retention times varied.

  9. Non-Darcy free convection flow over a horizontal cylinder in a saturated porous medium with variable viscosity, thermal conductivity and mass diffusivity (United States)

    Hassanien, I. A.; Rashed, Z. Z.


    In this paper, the effects of variable viscosity and thermal conductivity on coupled heat and mass transfer by free convection about a permeable horizontal cylinder embedded in porous media using Ergun mode are studied. The fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity and are assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature while the mass diffusion is assumed to vary as linear function of concentration. The surface of the horizontal cylinder is maintained at a uniform wall temperature and a uniform wall concentration. The transformed governing equations are obtained and solved by using the implicit finite difference method. Numerical results for dimensionless temperature and concentration profiles as well as Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are presented for various values of parameters namely, Ergun number, transpiration parameter, Rayleigh and Lewis numbers and buoyancy ratio parameter.

  10. Group Theoretical Analysis of non-Newtonian Fluid Flow, Heat and Mass Transfer over a Stretching Surface in the Presence of Thermal Radiation


    Muhammad Tufail; Adnan Saeed Butt; Asif Ali


    The present article examines the flow, heat and mass transfer of a non-Newtonian fluid known as Casson fluid over a stretching surface in the presence of thermal radiations effects. Lie Group analysis is used to reduce the governing partial differential equations into non-linear ordinary differential equations. These equations are then solved by an analytical technique known as Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM). A comprehensive study of the problem is being made for various parameters i...

  11. Comparison of two common adsorption materials for thermal desorption gas chromatography - mass spectrometry of biogenic volatile organic compounds. (United States)

    Marcillo, Andrea; Jakimovska, Viktorija; Widdig, Anja; Birkemeyer, Claudia


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are commonly collected from gaseous samples by adsorption to materials such as the porous polymer Tenax TA. Adsorbed compounds are subsequently released from these materials by thermal desorption (TD) and separated then by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization (FID) or mass spectrometry (MS) detection. Tenax TA is known to be particularly suitable for non-polar to semipolar volatiles, however, many volatiles from environmental and biological samples possess a rather polar character. Therefore, we tested if the polymer XAD-2, which so far is widely used to adsorb organic compounds from aqueous and organic solvents, could provide a broader coverage for (semi)polar VOCs during gas-phase sampling. Mixtures of volatile compounds covering a wide range of volatility (bp. 20-256°C) and different chemical classes were introduced by liquid spiking into sorbent tubes with one of the two porous polymers, Tenax TA or XAD-2, and analyzed by TD/GC-MS. At first, an internal standard mixture composed of 17 authentic standards was used to optimize desorption temperature with respect to sorbent degradation and loading time for calibration. Secondly, we tested the detectability of a complex standard mixture composed of 57 volatiles, most of them common constituents of the body odor of mammals. Moreover, the performance of XAD-2 compared with Tenax TA was assessed as limit of quantitation and linearity for the internal standard mixture and 33 compounds from the complex standard mixture. Volatiles were analyzed in a range between 0.01-∼250ng/tube depending on the compound and material. Lower limits of quantitation were between 0.01 and 3 ng±0.9). Interestingly, we found different kinetics for compound adsorption with XAD-2, and a partially better sensitivity in comparison with Tenax TA. For these analytes, XAD-2 might be recommended as an alternative of Tenax TA for TD/GC-MS analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Hall current and thermal radiation on heat and mass transfer of a chemically reacting MHD flow of a micropolar fluid through a porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.I. Oahimire


    Full Text Available Heat and mass transfer effects on an unsteady flow of a chemically reacting micropolar fluid over an infinite vertical porous plate through a porous medium in the presence of a transverse magnetic field with Hall effect and thermal radiation are studied. The governing system of partial differential equations is transformed to dimensionless equations using dimensionless variables. The dimensionless equations are then solved analytically using the perturbation technique to obtain the expressions for velocity, microrotation, temperature and concentration. With the help of graphs, the effects of the various important parameters entering into the problem on the velocity, microrotation, temperature and concentration fields within the boundary layer are discussed. Also the effects of the pertinent parameters on the skin friction coefficient and rates of heat and mass transfer in terms of the Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented numerically in a tabular form. The results show that the observed parameters have a significant influence on the flow, heat and mass transfer.

  13. Determination of clothing evaporative resistance on a sweating thermal manikin in an isothermal condition: heat loss method or mass loss method? (United States)

    Wang, Faming; Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar


    This paper addresses selection between two calculation options, i.e heat loss option and mass loss option, for thermal manikin measurements on clothing evaporative resistance conducted in an isothermal condition (T(manikin) = T(a) = T(r)). Five vocational clothing ensembles with a thermal insulation range of 1.05-2.58 clo were selected and measured on a sweating thermal manikin 'Tore'. The reasons why the isothermal heat loss method generates a higher evaporative resistance than that of the mass loss method were thoroughly investigated. In addition, an indirect approach was applied to determine the amount of evaporative heat energy taken from the environment. It was found that clothing evaporative resistance values by the heat loss option were 11.2-37.1% greater than those based on the mass loss option. The percentage of evaporative heat loss taken from the environment (H(e,env)) for all test scenarios ranged from 10.9 to 23.8%. The real evaporative cooling efficiency ranged from 0.762 to 0.891, respectively. Furthermore, it is evident that the evaporative heat loss difference introduced by those two options was equal to the heat energy taken from the environment. In order to eliminate the combined effects of dry heat transfer, condensation, and heat pipe on clothing evaporative resistance, it is suggested that manikin measurements on the determination of clothing evaporative resistance should be performed in an isothermal condition. Moreover, the mass loss method should be applied to calculate clothing evaporative resistance. The isothermal heat loss method would appear to overestimate heat stress and thus should be corrected before use.

  14. Measurement of small ion beams by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry using new 10(13) Ohm resistors. (United States)

    Koornneef, J M; Bouman, C; Schwieters, J B; Davies, G R


    We tested 5 newly manufactured - prototype - 10(13)Ohm resistors in the feedback loop of Faraday cup amplifiers to measure small ion beams by Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (TIMS). The high Ohmic resistors installed in the TRITON Plus at the VU University Amsterdam theoretically have 10 times lower noise levels relative to the default 10(11)Ohm resistors. To investigate the precision and accuracy of analyses using these new amplifiers we measured Sr and Nd isotopes of reference standards at a range of ion currents (3.2×10(-16) to 1×10(-12) A, corresponding to intensities of 32 μV to 100 mV on a default 10(11)Ohm amplifier) and on small amounts of material (100 and 10 pg). Internal precision and external reproducibility for Sr and Nd isotope ratios are both better when collected on 10(13) compared 10(12)Ohm resistors and to the default 10(11)Ohm resistors. At an (87)Sr ion current of 3×10(-14) A (3 mV on a 10(11)Ohm amplifier) the internal precision (2 SE) of (87)Sr/(86)Sr is 5 times better for 10(13)Ohm resistors compared to 10(11)Ohm resistors. The external reproducibility (2 SD) at this beam intensity is 9 times better. Multiple 100 and 10 pg Sr standards, ran to exhaustion, yielded low (87)Sr/(86)Sr compared to the long term average (e.g. 10 pg average=0.710083±164 (n=11) instead of 0.710244±12, n=73). The average off-set for 10 pg standards can be explained by a loading blank contribution of 1.3 pg. In contrast, Nd data on 100 pg and 10 pg samples are accurate suggesting that Nd loading blanks do not compromise the data. The external reproducibility of (143)Nd/(144)Nd on 100 pg samples is 125 ppm and 3.3‰ on 10 pg samples (2 RSD=relative standard deviation, n=10). Thus, variability in Nd and Sr isotope ratios in the 4th decimal place, e.g. (143)Nd/(144)Nd 0.5110-0.5119 or (87)Sr/(86)Sr 0.7100-0.7109, can be resolved in 10 to 100 pg samples provided that the procedural blanks and chemical separation are optimal. For measurements in the beam

  15. Influence of thermophoresis and Soret-Dufour on magnetohydrodynamic heat and mass transfer over a non-isothermal wedge with thermal radiation and Ohmic dissipation (United States)

    Pal, Dulal; Mondal, Hiranmoy


    The present paper deals with the thermophoresis particle deposition and Soret-Dufour effects on the convective flow, heat and mass transfer characteristics of an incompressible Newtonian electrically conducting fluid having temperature-dependent viscosity over a non-isothermal wedge in the presence of thermal radiation. The governing boundary layer equations are written into a dimensionless form by similarity transformations. The transformed coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically. The effects of various important physical parameters are analyzed in detail. It is found that the skin friction coefficient and the local Sherwood number increase with increase in the values of thermal radiation parameter in the presence of heat generation/absorption whereas reverse effect is seen on the local Nusselt number.

  16. A semi-analytical model for heat and mass transfer in geothermal reservoirs to estimate fracture surface-are-to-volume ratios and thermal breakthrough using thermally-decaying and diffusing tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul W [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    A semi-analytical model was developed to conduct rapid scoping calculations of responses of thermally degrading and diffusing tracers in multi-well tracer tests in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). The model is based on an existing Laplace transform inversion model for solute transport in dual-porosity media. The heat- and mass-transfer calculations are decoupled and conducted sequentially, taking advantage of the fact that heat transfer between fractures and the rock matrix is much more rapid than mass transfer and therefore mass transfer will effectively occur in a locally isothermal system (although the system will be nonisothermal along fracture flow pathways, which is accounted for by discretizing the flow pathways into multiple segments that have different temperature histories). The model takes advantage of the analogies between heat and mass transfer, solving the same governing equations with k{sub m}/({rho}C{sub p}){sub w} being substituted for {phi}D{sub m} in the equation for fracture transport and k{sub m}/({rho}C{sub p}){sub m} being subsituted for D{sub m} in the equation for matrix transport; where k = thermal conductivity (cal/cm-s-K), {rho} = density (g/cm{sup 3}), C{sub p} = heat capacity (at constant pressure) (cal/g-K), {phi} = matrix porosity, and D = tracer diffusion coefficient (cm{sup 2}/s), with the subscripts w and m referring to water and matrix, respectively. A significant advantage of the model is that it executes in a fraction of second on a single-CPU personal computer, making it very amenable for parameter estimation algorithms that involve repeated runs to find global minima. The combined thermal-mass transport model was used to evaluate the ability to estimate when thermal breakthrough would occur in a multi-well EGS configuration using thermally degrading tracers. Calculations were conducted to evaluate the range of values of Arrhenius parameters, A and E{sub {alpha}} (pre-exponential factor, 1/s, and activation energy, cal

  17. Les méthodesthermiques de production des hydrocarbures. Chapitre 1 : transfert de chaleur et de masse Thermal Methods of Hydrocarbon Production. Chapter 1 : Heat and Mass Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bia P.


    Full Text Available Après un rappel général sur le transfert de chaleur et de masse ainsi que sur les lois de conservation dans les milieux continus, on traite de l'adaptation de ces lois au cas des milieux poreux. On donne ensuite des informations quantitatives sur les grandeurs physiques mises en jeu par les phénomènes de transfert en milieu poreux. After making a general review of heat and mass transfer a well as of laws of conservation in continua, this chapter describes how these laws con be adopted to the case of porous media. Quantitative data are then given on the physical magnitudes brought into play by transfer phenomena in porous media.

  18. The effect of thermal processing on the behaviour of peanut allergen peptide targets used in multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry experiments. (United States)

    Sayers, R L; Johnson, P E; Marsh, J T; Barran, P; Brown, H; Mills, E N C


    Mass spectrometry-based methods offer an alternative means of determining allergens in foods. Whilst targeted methods are likely to offer the most robust approach for detection and quantification, little is known about how food processing may affect the behaviour of peptide targets. A systematic study has been undertaken to investigate the effects of thermal processing (boiling, roasting, frying) on the behaviour of a suite of peanut peptide targets representing the major clinically-relevant allergens. Initially the effect of thermal processing on protein extractability was investigated and a mass spectrometry-compatible buffer identified comprising 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.8 containing 50 mM dithiothreitol and 0.04% (w/v) acid labile detergent which was able to extract 45-100% of protein from raw, boiled, roasted and fried peanuts using sonication at 60 °C. Eight peptide targets were identified including two peptides from each cupin allergen, Ara h1 and Ara h3 and four peptides from the prolamin superfamily allergens Ara h2, 6 and 7. AQUA peptide standards were synthesised and used to undertake multiple-reaction monitoring experiments, giving assay sensitivities of 0.1-30 amoles of peptide on-column (3 : 1 signal : noise), calculated limits of quantification between 96-1343 amoles of peptide on-column and a linear dynamic range of 4-5 orders of magnitude. Absolute quantification of individual peanut allergens in thermally processed samples showed that peptide targets in the cupin allergens were more prone to processing-induced effects than those from Ara h2, 6 and 7. Targets flanked by arginine residues showed greater thermostability. Identification of processing-stable targets, coupled with more efficient extraction procedures and a wide dynamic range, shows that targeted mass spectrometry methods have great potential as an additional method for quantifying peanut allergens in complex food matrices.

  19. Improved accuracy and precision in δ15 NAIR measurements of explosives, urea, and inorganic nitrates by elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry using thermal decomposition. (United States)

    Lott, Michael J; Howa, John D; Chesson, Lesley A; Ehleringer, James R


    Elemental analyzer systems generate N(2) and CO(2) for elemental composition and isotope ratio measurements. As quantitative conversion of nitrogen in some materials (i.e., nitrate salts and nitro-organic compounds) is difficult, this study tests a recently published method - thermal decomposition without the addition of O(2) - for the analysis of these materials. Elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS) was used to compare the traditional combustion method (CM) and the thermal decomposition method (TDM), where additional O(2) is eliminated from the reaction. The comparisons used organic and inorganic materials with oxidized and/or reduced nitrogen and included ureas, nitrate salts, ammonium sulfate, nitro esters, and nitramines. Previous TDM applications were limited to nitrate salts and ammonium sulfate. The measurement precision and accuracy were compared to determine the effectiveness of converting materials containing different fractions of oxidized nitrogen into N(2). The δ(13) C(VPDB) values were not meaningfully different when measured via CM or TDM, allowing for the analysis of multiple elements in one sample. For materials containing oxidized nitrogen, (15) N measurements made using thermal decomposition were more precise than those made using combustion. The precision was similar between the methods for materials containing reduced nitrogen. The %N values were closer to theoretical when measured by TDM than by CM. The δ(15) N(AIR) values of purchased nitrate salts and ureas were nearer to the known values when analyzed using thermal decomposition than using combustion. The thermal decomposition method addresses insufficient recovery of nitrogen during elemental analysis in a variety of organic and inorganic materials. Its implementation requires relatively few changes to the elemental analyzer. Using TDM, it is possible to directly calibrate certain organic materials to international nitrate isotope reference materials without off

  20. Analyses of the wood preservative component N-cyclohexyl-diazeniumdioxide in impregnated pine sapwood by direct thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Jüngel, Peter; de Koning, Sjaak; Brinkman, Udo A Th; Melcher, Eckhard


    Investigations concerning the qualitative and quantitative determination of the organic wood preservative component N-cyclohexyl-diazeniumdioxide (HDO) in treated timber were carried out by means of direct thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (DTD-GC-MS). It could be shown that the identification of HDO in treated pine sapwood (Pinus sylyestris L.) is relatively simple using this analytical technique. Quantification of this active ingredient can be carried out using the peak area of the specific mass fragment m/z 114. A calibration curve with a high correlation coefficient was obtained in the range from 40 to 550 mg HDO per kg timber. Furthermore it can be deduced that the results obtained are characterised by an excellent reproducibility with standard deviations ranging from 5 to 10% in general. For the chosen experimental set up a detection limit of 4 mg HDO per kg treated pine sapwood was calculated, although merely 20% of the active ingredient was desorbed.

  1. Thermal desorption/tunable vacuum-ultraviolet time-of-flight photoionization aerosol mass spectrometry for investigating secondary organic aerosols in chamber experiments. (United States)

    Fang, Wenzheng; Gong, Lei; Shan, Xiaobin; Liu, Fuyi; Wang, Zhenya; Sheng, Liusi


    This paper describes thermal desorption/tunable vacuum-ultraviolet photoionization time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (TD-VUV-TOF-PIAMS) for the real-time analysis of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in smog chamber experiments. SOAs are sampled directly from atmospheric pressure and are focused through an aerodynamic lens assembly into the mass spectrometer. Once the particles have entered the source region, they impact on a heater and are vaporized. The nascent vapor is then softly ionized by tunable VUV synchrotron radiation. TD-VUV-TOF-PIAMS was used in conjunction with the smog chamber to study SOA formation from the photooxidation of toluene with hydroxyl radicals. The ionization energies (IEs) of these SOA products are sometimes very different with each other. As the ideal photon source is tunable, its energy can be adjusted for each molecular to be ionized. The mass spectra obtained at different photon energies are then to be useful for molecular identification. Real-time analysis of the mass spectra of SOAs is compared with previous off-line measurements. These results illustrate the potential of TD-VUV-TOF-PIAMS for direct molecular characterization of SOAs in smog chamber experiments.

  2. Improvement in Thermal-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) using Total Flash Evaporation (TFE) method for lanthanides isotope ratio measurements in transmutation targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mialle, S.; Gourgiotis, A.; Aubert, M.; Stadelmann, G.; Gautier, C.; Isnard, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA Saclay, DEN/DPC/SECR/LANIE, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Chartier, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA Saclay, DEN/DPC, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)


    The experiments involved in the PHENIX french nuclear reactor to obtain precise and accurate data on the total capture cross sections of the heavy isotopes and fission products require isotopic ratios measurements with uncertainty of a few per mil. These accurate isotopic ratio measurements are performed with mass spectrometer equipped with multi-collector system. The major difficulty for the analyses of these actinides and fission products is the low quantity of the initial powder enclosed in steel container (3 to 5 mg) and the very low quantities of products formed (several {mu}g) after irradiation. Specific analytical developments are performed by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) to be able to analyse several nanograms of elements with this technique. A specific method of acquisition named Total Flash Evaporation was adapted in this study in the case of lanthanide measurements for quantity deposited on the filament in the order of 2 ng and applied on irradiated fuel. To validate the analytical approach and discuss about the accuracy of the data, the isotopic ratios obtained by TIMS are compared with other mass spectrometric techniques such as Multiple-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MC-ICPMS). (authors)

  3. Ratios of colony mass to thermal conductance of tree and man-made nest enclosures of Apis mellifera: implications for survival, clustering, humidity regulation and Varroa destructor (United States)

    Mitchell, Derek


    In the absence of human intervention, the honeybee ( Apis mellifera L.) usually constructs its nest in a tree within a tall, narrow, thick-walled cavity high above the ground (the enclosure); however, most research and apiculture is conducted in the thin-walled, squat wooden enclosures we know as hives. This experimental research, using various hives and thermal models of trees, has found that the heat transfer rate is approximately four to seven times greater in the hives in common use, compared to a typical tree enclosure in winter configuration. This gives a ratio of colony mass to lumped enclosure thermal conductance (MCR) of less than 0.8 kgW-1 K for wooden hives and greater than 5 kgW-1 K for tree enclosures. This result for tree enclosures implies higher levels of humidity in the nest, increased survival of smaller colonies and lower Varroa destructor breeding success. Many honeybee behaviours previously thought to be intrinsic may only be a coping mechanism for human intervention; for example, at an MCR of above 2 kgW-1 K, clustering in a tree enclosure may be an optional, rare, heat conservation behaviour for established colonies, rather than the compulsory, frequent, life-saving behaviour that is in the hives in common use. The implied improved survival in hives with thermal properties of tree nests may help to solve some of the problems honeybees are currently facing in apiculture.

  4. Analysis of the volatile organic matter of engine piston deposits by direct sample introduction thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Diaby, M; Kinani, S; Genty, C; Bouchonnet, S; Sablier, M; Le Negrate, A; El Fassi, M


    This article establishes an alternative method for the characterization of volatiles organic matter (VOM) contained in deposits of the piston first ring grooves of diesel engines using a ChromatoProbe direct sample introduction (DSI) device coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The addition of an organic solvent during thermal desorption leads to an efficient extraction and a good chromatographic separation of extracted products. The method was optimized investigating the effects of several solvents, the volume added to the solid sample, and temperature programming of the ChromatoProbe DSI device. The best results for thermal desorption were found using toluene as an extraction solvent and heating the programmable temperature injector from room temperature to 300 degrees C with a temperature step of 105 degrees C. With the use of the optimized thermal desorption conditions, several components have been positively identified in the volatile fraction of the deposits: aromatics, antioxidants, and antioxidant degradation products. Moreover, this work highlighted the presence of diesel fuel in the VOM of the piston deposits and gave new facts on the absence of the role of diesel fuel in the deposit formation process. Most importantly, it opens the possibility of quickly performing the analysis of deposits with small amounts of samples while having a good separation of the volatiles.

  5. Ratios of colony mass to thermal conductance of tree and man-made nest enclosures of Apis mellifera: implications for survival, clustering, humidity regulation and Varroa destructor. (United States)

    Mitchell, Derek


    In the absence of human intervention, the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) usually constructs its nest in a tree within a tall, narrow, thick-walled cavity high above the ground (the enclosure); however, most research and apiculture is conducted in the thin-walled, squat wooden enclosures we know as hives. This experimental research, using various hives and thermal models of trees, has found that the heat transfer rate is approximately four to seven times greater in the hives in common use, compared to a typical tree enclosure in winter configuration. This gives a ratio of colony mass to lumped enclosure thermal conductance (MCR) of less than 0.8 kgW(-1) K for wooden hives and greater than 5 kgW(-1) K for tree enclosures. This result for tree enclosures implies higher levels of humidity in the nest, increased survival of smaller colonies and lower Varroa destructor breeding success. Many honeybee behaviours previously thought to be intrinsic may only be a coping mechanism for human intervention; for example, at an MCR of above 2 kgW(-1) K, clustering in a tree enclosure may be an optional, rare, heat conservation behaviour for established colonies, rather than the compulsory, frequent, life-saving behaviour that is in the hives in common use. The implied improved survival in hives with thermal properties of tree nests may help to solve some of the problems honeybees are currently facing in apiculture.

  6. Identification of volatile butyl rubber thermal-oxidative degradation products by cryofocusing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jonell Nicole; White, Michael Irvin; Bernstein, Robert; Hochrein, James Michael


    Chemical structure and physical properties of materials, such as polymers, can be altered as aging progresses, which may result in a material that is ineffective for its envisioned intent. Butyl rubber formulations, starting material, and additives were aged under thermal-oxidative conditions for up to 413 total days at up to 124 ÀC. Samples included: two formulations developed at Kansas City Plant (KCP) (#6 and #10), one commercially available formulation (#21), Laxness bromobutyl 2030 starting material, and two additives (polyethylene AC-617 and Vanax MBM). The low-molecular weight volatile thermal-oxidative degradation products that collected in the headspace over the samples were preconcentrated, separated, and detected using cryofocusing gas chromatography mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS). The majority of identified degradation species were alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes. Observations for Butyl #10 aged in an oxygen-18 enriched atmosphere (18O2) were used to verify when the source of oxygen in the applicable degradation products was from the gaseous environment rather than the polymeric mixture. For comparison purposes, Butyl #10 was also aged under non-oxidative thermal conditions using an argon atmosphere.

  7. Ultra high vacuum high precision low background setup with temperature control for thermal desorption mass spectroscopy (TDA-MS) of hydrogen in metals. (United States)

    Merzlikin, Sergiy V; Borodin, S; Vogel, D; Rohwerder, M


    In this work, a newly developed UHV-based high precision low background setup for hydrogen thermal desorption analysis (TDA) of metallic samples is presented. Using an infrared heating with a low thermal capacity enables a precise control of the temperature and rapid cool down of the measurement chamber. This novel TDA-set up is superior in sensitivity to almost every standard hydrogen analyzer available commercially due to the special design of the measurement chamber, resulting in a very low hydrogen background. No effects of background drift characteristic as for carrier gas based TDA instruments were observed, ensuring linearity and reproducibility of the analysis. This setup will prove to be valuable for detailed investigations of hydrogen trapping sites in steels and other alloys. With a determined limit of detection of 5.9×10(-3)µg g(-1) hydrogen the developed instrument is able to determine extremely low hydrogen amounts even at very low hydrogen desorption rates. This work clearly demonstrates the great potential of ultra-high vacuum thermal desorption mass spectroscopy instrumentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Real-time analysis of polyvinyl chloride thermal decomposition/combustion products with single photon ionization/photoelectron ionization online mass spectrometer]. (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Dong; Hou, Ke-Yong; Chen, Ping; Li, Fang-Long; Zhao, Wu-Duo; Cui, Hua-Peng; Hua, Lei; Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Hai-Yang


    With the features of a broad range of ionizable compounds, reduced fragments and simple mass spectrum, a homemade magnetic field enhanced photoelectron ionization (MEPEI) source combined with single photon ionization (SPI) for time-of-flight mass spectrometer was built and applied to analyze thermal decomposition/combustion products of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The combined ion source can be switched very fast between SPI mode and SPI-MEPEI mode for detecting different targeted compounds, and only adjusting the voltage of the electrode in the ionization region to trigger the switch. Among the PVC thermal decomposition/combustion products, HCl and CO2, which ionization energies (12.74 eV, 13.77 eV respectively) were higher than the energy of photon (10.60 eV), were ionized by MEPEI, while alkenes, dichloroethylene, benzene and its homologs, monochlorobenzene, styrene, indane, naphthalene and its homologs were ionized by SPI and MEPEI simultaneously. Spectra of interested products as a function of temperatures indicated that products are formed via two main mechanisms: (1) dechlorination and intramolecular cyclization can lead to the formation of HCl, benzene and naphthalene at 250-370 degrees C; (2) intermolecular crosslinking leads to the formation of alkyl aromatics such as toluene and xylene/ethylbenzene at 380-510 degrees C. The experimental results show that the combined ion source of SPI/ SPI-MEPEI for TOF-MS has broad application prospects in the online analysis field.

  9. Development of a short path thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air. (United States)

    Li, Yingjie; Xian, Qiming; Li, Li


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in petroleum based products and are combustion by-products of organic matters. Determination of levels of PAHs in the indoor environment is important for assessing human exposure to these chemicals. A new short path thermal desorption (SPTD) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method for determining levels of PAHs in indoor air was developed. Thermal desorption (TD) tubes packed with glass beads, Carbopack C, and Carbopack B in sequence, were used for sample collection. Indoor air was sampled using a small portable pump over 7 days at 100ml/min. Target PAHs were thermally released and introduced into the GC/MS for analysis through the SPTD unit. During tube desorption, PAHs were cold trapped (-20°C) at the front end of the GC column. Thermal desorption efficiencies were 100% for PAHs with 2 and 3 rings, and 99-97% for PAHs with 4-6 rings. Relative standard deviation (RSD) values among replicate samples spiked at three different levels were around 10-20%. The detection limit of this method was at or below 0.1μg/m3 except for naphthalene (0.61μg/m3), fluorene (0.28μg/m3) and phenanthrene (0.35μg/m3). This method was applied to measure PAHs in indoor air in nine residential homes. The levels of PAHs in indoor air found in these nine homes are similar to indoor air values reported by others. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Heat and Mass Transfer in a High-Porous Low-Temperature Thermal Insulation in Real Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovnikov Vyacheslav Yu.


    Full Text Available The results of numerical simulation of heat and mass transfer in a high-porous low-temperature insulation in conditions of insulation freezing, a moisture migration to the front of phase transition and a condensation forming on an outer contour of interaction were obtained. Values of heat leakage were established.

  11. Simultaneous determination of picogram per gram concentrations of Ba, Pb and Pb isotopes in Greenland ice by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimi, Salah I.; Rosman, Kevin J.R.; Candelone, Jean-Pierre; Burn, Laurie J. [Curtin University of Technology, Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Perth (Australia); Hong, Sungmin [Polar Research Centre, Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute, Ansan, P.O. Box 29, Seoul (Korea); Boutron, Claude F. [Domaine Universitaire, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique du l' Environnement, 54 rue Moliere, Saint Martin d' Heres (France); UFR de Mecanique, Universite Joseph Fourier de Grenoble (Institut Universitaire de France), Domaine Universitaire, Grenoble (France)


    A technique has been developed to simultaneously measure picogram per gram concentrations of Ba and Pb by isotope dilution mass spectrometry, as well as Pb isotopic ratios in polar ice by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. BaPO{sup +}{sub 2} and Pb{sup +} ions were employed for these determinations. A calibrated mixture of enriched {sup 205}Pb and {sup 137}Ba was added to the samples providing an accuracy of better than approximately 2% for Pb/Ba element ratio determinations. Interference by molecular ions in the Pb mass spectrum occurred only at {sup 204}Pb and {sup 205}Pb, but these contributions were negligible in terms of precisions expected on picogram-sized Pb samples. The technique is illustrated with measurements on Greenland firn, using a drill-core section that includes the Laki volcanic eruption of 1783-1784. The data show deviations from the element concentrations indicating volatile metal enrichments, but the Pb isotopic signature of the Laki lava could not be identified. (orig.)

  12. Standard test method for determination of uranium or plutonium isotopic composition or concentration by the total evaporation method using a thermal ionization mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This method describes the determination of the isotopic composition and/or the concentration of uranium and plutonium as nitrate solutions by the thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) total evaporation method. Purified uranium or plutonium nitrate solutions are loaded onto a degassed metal filament and placed in the mass spectrometer. Under computer control, ion currents are generated by heating of the filament(s). The ion beams are continually measured until the sample is exhausted. The measured ion currents are integrated over the course of the run, and normalized to a reference isotope ion current to yield isotopic ratios. 1.2 In principle, the total evaporation method should yield isotopic ratios that do not require mass bias correction. In practice, some samples may require this bias correction. When compared to the conventional TIMS method, the total evaporation method is approximately two times faster, improves precision from two to four fold, and utilizes smaller sample sizes. 1.3 The tot...

  13. Stable Chlorine Isotopes and Elemental Chlorine by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Ion Chromatography; Martian Meteorites, Carbonaceous Chondrites and Standard Rocks (United States)

    Nakamura, N.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Shih, C.-Y.; Fujitani, T.; Okano, O.


    Recently significantly large mass fractionation of stable chlorine isotopes has been reported for terrestrial and lunar samples [1,2]. In addition, in view of possible early solar system processes [3] and also potential perchlorate-related fluid/microbial activities on the Martian surface [4,5], a large chlorine isotopic fractionation might be expected for some types of planetary materials. Due to analytical difficulties of isotopic and elemental analyses, however, current chlorine analyses for planetary materials are controversial among different laboratories, particularly between IRMS (gas source mass spectrometry) and TIMS (Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry) groups [i.e. 1,6,7] for isotopic analyses, as well as between those doing pyrohydrolysis and other groups [i.e. 6,8]. Additional careful investigations of Cl isotope and elemental abundances are required to confirm real chlorine isotope and elemental variations for planetary materials. We have developed a TIMS technique combined with HF-leaching/ion chromatography at NASA JSC that is applicable to analysis of small amounts of meteoritic and planetary materials. We present here results for several standard rocks and meteorites, including Martian meteorites.

  14. Standard test method for isotopic analysis of hydrolyzed uranium hexafluoride and uranyl nitrate solutions by thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This method applies to the determination of isotopic composition in hydrolyzed nuclear grade uranium hexafluoride. It covers isotopic abundance of 235U between 0.1 and 5.0 % mass fraction, abundance of 234U between 0.0055 and 0.05 % mass fraction, and abundance of 236U between 0.0003 and 0.5 % mass fraction. This test method may be applicable to other isotopic abundance providing that corresponding standards are available. 1.2 This test method can apply to uranyl nitrate solutions. This can be achieved either by transforming the uranyl nitrate solution to a uranyl fluoride solution prior to the deposition on the filaments or directly by depositing the uranyl nitrate solution on the filaments. In the latter case, a calibration with uranyl nitrate standards must be performed. 1.3 This test method can also apply to other nuclear grade matrices (for example, uranium oxides) by providing a chemical transformation to uranyl fluoride or uranyl nitrate solution. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address al...

  15. Thermal radiation and mass transfer effects on unsteady MHD free convection flow past a vertical oscillating plate (United States)

    Rana, B. M. Jewel; Ahmed, Rubel; Ahmmed, S. F.


    Unsteady MHD free convection flow past a vertical porous plate in porous medium with radiation, diffusion thermo, thermal diffusion and heat source are analyzed. The governing non-linear, partial differential equations are transformed into dimensionless by using non-dimensional quantities. Then the resultant dimensionless equations are solved numerically by applying an efficient, accurate and conditionally stable finite difference scheme of explicit type with the help of a computer programming language Compaq Visual Fortran. The stability and convergence analysis has been carried out to establish the effect of velocity, temperature, concentration, skin friction, Nusselt number, Sherwood number, stream lines and isotherms line. Finally, the effects of various parameters are presented graphically and discussed qualitatively.

  16. Analysis of asymmetric resonance response of thermally excited silicon micro-cantilevers for mass-sensitive nanoparticle detection (United States)

    Bertke, Maik; Hamdana, Gerry; Wu, Wenze; Suryo Wasisto, Hutomo; Uhde, Erik; Peiner, Erwin


    In this paper, the asymmetric resonance frequency (f 0) responses of thermally in-plane excited silicon cantilevers for a pocket-sized, cantilever-based airborne nanoparticle detector (Cantor) are analysed. By measuring the shift of f 0 caused by the deposition of nanoparticles (NPs), the cantilevers are used as a microbalance. The cantilever sensors are low cost manufactured from silicon by bulk-micromachining techniques and contain an integrated p-type heating actuator and a sensing piezoresistive Wheatstone bridge. f 0 is tracked by a homemade phase-locked loop (PPL) for real-time measurements. To optimize the sensor performance, a new cantilever geometry was designed, fabricated and characterized by its frequency responses. The most significant characterisation parameters of our application are f 0 and the quality factor (Q), which have high influences on sensitivity and efficiency of the NP detector. Regarding the asymmetric resonance signal, a novel fitting function based on the Fano resonance replacing the conventionally used function of the simple harmonic oscillator and a method to calculate Q by its fitting parameters were developed for a quantitative evaluation. To obtain a better understanding of the resonance behaviours, we analysed the origin of the asymmetric line shapes. Therefore, we compared the frequency response of the on-chip thermal excitation with an external excitation using an in-plane piezo actuator. In correspondence to the Fano effect, we could reconstruct the measured resonance curves by coupling two signals with constant amplitude and the expected signal of the cantilever, respectively. Moreover, the phase of the measurement signal can be analysed by this method, which is important to understand the locking process of the PLL circuit. Besides the frequency analysis, experimental results and calibration measurements with different particle types are presented. Using the described analysis method, decent results to optimize a next

  17. Influence of Hall Current and Thermal Radiation on MHD Convective Heat and Mass Transfer in a Rotating Porous Channel with Chemical Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal Pal


    Full Text Available A theoretical study is carried out to obtain an analytic solution of heat and mass transfer in a vertical porous channel with rotation and Hall current. A constant suction and injection is applied to the two insulating porous plates. A strong magnetic field is applied in the transverse direction. The entire system rotates with uniform angular velocity Ω about the axis normal to the plates. The governing equations are solved by perturbation technique to obtain the analytical results for velocity, temperature, and concentration fields and shear stresses. The steady and unsteady resultant velocities along with the phase differences for various values of physical parameters are discussed in detail. The effects of rotation, buoyancy force, magnetic field, thermal radiation, and heat generation parameters on resultant velocity, temperature, and concentration fields are analyzed.

  18. Influence of fluctuating thermal and mass diffusion on unsteady MHD buoyancy-driven convection past a vertical surface with chemical reaction and Soret effects (United States)

    Pal, Dulal; Talukdar, Babulal


    The influence of thermal radiation and first-order chemical reaction on unsteady MHD convective flow, heat and mass transfer of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid past a semi-infinite vertical flat plate in the presence of transverse magnetic field under oscillatory suction and heat source in slip-flow regime is studied. The dimensionless governing equations for this investigation are formulated and solved analytically using two-term harmonic and non-harmonic functions. Comparisons with previously published work on special cases of the problem are performed and results are found to be in excellent agreement. A parametric study illustrating the effects of various physical parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature and concentration fields as well as skin-friction coefficient, the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers in terms of amplitude and phase is conducted. The numerical results of this parametric study are presented graphically and in tabular form to highlight the physical aspects of the problem.

  19. Perturbation technique for unsteady MHD mixed convection periodic flow, heat and mass transfer in micropolar fluid with chemical reaction in the presence of thermal radiation (United States)

    Pal, Dulal; Talukdar, Babulal


    An analytical study is presented for the problem of unsteady hydromagnetic heat and mass transfer for a micropolar fluid bounded by semi-infinite vertical permeable plate in the presence of first-order chemical reaction, thermal radiation and heat absorption. A uniform magnetic field acts perpendicularly to the porous surface which absorbs the micropolar fluid with a time-dependent suction velocity. The basic partial differential equations are reduced to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which are solved analytically using perturbation technique. Numerical calculations for the analytical expressions are carried out and the results are shown graphically. The effects of the various dimensionless parameters related to the problem on the velocity, angular velocity, temperature and concentration fields are discussed in detail.

  20. Determination of short-chain branching content in polyethylene by pyrolysis comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography using low thermal mass column technology. (United States)

    Eckerle, Patric; Pursch, Matthias; Cortes, Hernan J; Sun, Kefu; Winniford, Bill; Luong, Jim


    A research effort was undertaken to utilize the pyrolysis process to create fragments of polyethylene that could be indicative of branching, and allow quantitiation of said short-chain branches by pyrolysis comprehensive 2-D GC (Py-GC x GC). Several strategies for sample introduction and pyrolysis such as the in-column pyrolysis device and the programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV) were studied. The chromatographic separations were executed using low-thermal mass (LTM) comprehensive 2-D GC (GC x GC). A series of polyethylene-co-hexene samples were analyzed and a linear correlation of 1-hexene content with branching peak ratio was found. Correlation coefficients were determined as 0.97 for the measurements performed.

  1. An Investigation of the Complexity of Maillard Reaction Product Profiles from the Thermal Reaction of Amino Acids with Sucrose Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Golon


    Full Text Available Thermal treatment of food changes its chemical composition drastically with the formation of “so-called” Maillard reaction products, being responsible for the sensory properties of food, along with detrimental and beneficial health effects. In this contribution, we will describe the reactivity of several amino acids, including arginine, lysine, aspartic acid, tyrosine, serine and cysteine, with carbohydrates. The analytical strategy employed involves high and ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry followed by chemometric-type data analysis. The different reactivity of amino acids towards carbohydrates has been observed with cysteine and serine, resulting in complex MS spectra with thousands of detectable reaction products. Several compounds have been tentatively identified, including caramelization reaction products, adducts of amino acids with carbohydrates, their dehydration and hydration products, disproportionation products and aromatic compounds based on molecular formula considerations.

  2. Double diffusive magnetohydrodynamic heat and mass transfer of nanofluids over a nonlinear stretching/shrinking sheet with viscous-Ohmic dissipation and thermal radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal Pal


    Full Text Available The study of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD convective heat and mass transfer near a stagnation-point flow over stretching/shrinking sheet of nanofluids is presented in this paper by considering thermal radiation, Ohmic heating, viscous dissipation and heat source/sink parameter effects. Non-similarity method is adopted for the governing basic equations before they are solved numerically using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method using shooting technique. The numerical results are validated by comparing the present results with previously published results. The focus of this paper is to study the effects of some selected governing parameters such as Richardson number, radiation parameter, Schimdt number, Eckert number and magnetic parameter on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as on skin-friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and Sherwood number.

  3. Velocity slip effects on heat and mass fluxes of MHD viscous–Ohmic dissipative flow over a stretching sheet with thermal radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kayalvizhi


    Full Text Available In the present article, we discussed the velocity slip effects on the heat and mass fluxes of a viscous electrically conducting fluid flow over a stretching sheet in the presence of viscous dissipation, Ohmic dissipation and thermal radiation. A system of governing nonlinear PDEs is converted into a set of nonlinear ODEs by suitable similarity transformations. The numerical and analytical solutions are presented for the governing non-dimensional ODEs using shooting method and hypergeometric function respectively. The results are discussed for skin friction coefficient, concentration field, non-dimensional wall temperature and non-dimensional wall concentration. The non-dimensional wall concentration increases with slip and magnetic parameters and decreases with Schmidt number. Furthermore, comparisons are found to be good with bench mark solutions.

  4. Effects of Exothermic/Endothermic Chemical Reactions with Arrhenius Activation Energy on MHD Free Convection and Mass Transfer Flow in Presence of Thermal Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Abdul Maleque


    Full Text Available A local similarity solution of unsteady MHD natural convection heat and mass transfer boundary layer flow past a flat porous plate within the presence of thermal radiation is investigated. The effects of exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions with Arrhenius activation energy on the velocity, temperature, and concentration are also studied in this paper. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations by introducing locally similarity transformation (Maleque (2010. Numerical solutions to the reduced nonlinear similarity equations are then obtained by adopting Runge-Kutta and shooting methods using the Nachtsheim-Swigert iteration technique. The results of the numerical solution are obtained for both steady and unsteady cases then presented graphically in the form of velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles. Comparison has been made for steady flow ( and shows excellent agreement with Bestman (1990, hence encouragement for the use of the present computations.

  5. An Investigation of the Complexity of Maillard Reaction Product Profiles from the Thermal Reaction of Amino Acids with Sucrose Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    Golon, Agnieszka; Kropf, Christian; Vockenroth, Inga; Kuhnert, Nikolai


    Thermal treatment of food changes its chemical composition drastically with the formation of "so-called" Maillard reaction products, being responsible for the sensory properties of food, along with detrimental and beneficial health effects. In this contribution, we will describe the reactivity of several amino acids, including arginine, lysine, aspartic acid, tyrosine, serine and cysteine, with carbohydrates. The analytical strategy employed involves high and ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry followed by chemometric-type data analysis. The different reactivity of amino acids towards carbohydrates has been observed with cysteine and serine, resulting in complex MS spectra with thousands of detectable reaction products. Several compounds have been tentatively identified, including caramelization reaction products, adducts of amino acids with carbohydrates, their dehydration and hydration products, disproportionation products and aromatic compounds based on molecular formula considerations.

  6. Ion chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method development and investigation of lithium hexafluorophosphate-based organic electrolytes and their thermal decomposition products. (United States)

    Kraft, Vadim; Grützke, Martin; Weber, Waldemar; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha


    A method based on the coupling of ion chromatography (IC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for the separation and determination of thermal decomposition products of LiPF6-based organic electrolytes is presented. The utilized electrolytes, LP30 and LP50, are commercially available and consist of 1mol/l LiPF6 dissolved in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate and ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate, respectively. For the separation method development three ion chromatographic columns with different capacity and stationary phase were used and compared. Besides the known hydrolysis products of lithium hexafluorophosphate, several new organophosphates were separated and identified with the developed IC-ESI-MS method during aging investigations of the electrolytes. The chemical structures were elucidated with IC-ESI-MS/MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of thermal desorption gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry for the comparison of identified and unidentified odor active compounds emitted from building products containing linseed oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P. A.; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Larsen, K.


    The emission of odor active volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a floor oil based on linseed oil, the linseed oil itself and a low-odor linseed oil was investigated by thermal desorption gas chromatography combined with olfactometry and mass spectrometry (TD-GC-O/MS). The oils were applied...... identified by GC-MS. While 92 VOCs were detected from the oil used in the floor oil, only 13 were detected in the low-odor linseed oil. The major odor active VOCs were aldehydes and carboxylic acids. Spearmen rank correlation of the GC-O profiles showed that the odor profile of the linseed oil likely...... influenced the odor profile of the floor oil based on this linseed oil....

  8. An initial study on modeling the global thermal and fast reactor fuel cycle mass flow using Vensim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinton, Samuel [Kansas State University, Mechanical Engineering, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)


    This study concentrated on modeling the construction and decommissioning rates of five major facilities comprising the nuclear fuel cycle: (1) current LWRs with a 60-year service life, (2) new LWRs burning MOX fuel, (3) new LWRs to replace units in the current fleet, (4) new FRs to be added to the fleet, and (5) new spent fuel reprocessing facilities. This is a mass flow mode starting from uranium ore and following it to spent forms. The visual dynamic modeling program Vensim was used to create a system of equations and variables to track the mass flows from enrichment, fabrication, burn-up, and the back-end of the fuel cycle. The scenarios considered provide estimates of the uranium ore requirements, quantities of LLW and HLW production, and the number of reprocessing facilities necessary to reduce recently reported levels of spent fuel inventory. Preliminary results indicate that the entire national spent fuel inventory produced in the next 100 years can be reprocessed with a reprocessing plant built every 11 years (small capacity) or even as low as every 23 years (large capacity). (authors)

  9. Modelling the water mass circulation in the Aegean Sea. Part I: wind stresses, thermal and haline fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Valioulis

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a computer model capable of simulating the water mass circulation in the Aegean Sea. There is historical, phenomenological and recent experimental evidence of important hydrographical features whose causes have been variably identified as the highly complex bathymetry, the extreme seasonal variations in temperature, the considerable fresh water fluxes, and the large gradients in salinity or temperature across neighbouring water masses (Black Sea and Eastern Mediterranean. In the approach taken here, physical processes are introduced into the model one by one. This method reveals the parameters responsible for permanent and seasonal features of the Aegean Sea circulation. In the first part of the work reported herein, wind-induced circulation appears to be seasonally invariant. This yearly pattern is overcome by the inclusion of baroclinicity in the model in the form of surface thermohaline fluxes. The model shows an intricate pattern of sub-basin gyres and locally strong currents, permanent or seasonal, in accord with the experimental evidence.

  10. Modelling the water mass circulation in the Aegean Sea. Part I: wind stresses, thermal and haline fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Valioulis


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a computer model capable of simulating the water mass circulation in the Aegean Sea. There is historical, phenomenological and recent experimental evidence of important hydrographical features whose causes have been variably identified as the highly complex bathymetry, the extreme seasonal variations in temperature, the considerable fresh water fluxes, and the large gradients in salinity or temperature across neighbouring water masses (Black Sea and Eastern Mediterranean. In the approach taken here, physical processes are introduced into the model one by one. This method reveals the parameters responsible for permanent and seasonal features of the Aegean Sea circulation. In the first part of the work reported herein, wind-induced circulation appears to be seasonally invariant. This yearly pattern is overcome by the inclusion of baroclinicity in the model in the form of surface thermohaline fluxes. The model shows an intricate pattern of sub-basin gyres and locally strong currents, permanent or seasonal, in accord with the experimental evidence.

  11. High resolution mass spectrometry in the identification of transformation products and metabolites from β-lactam antibiotics in thermally treated milk. (United States)

    Junza, A; Montané, A; Barbosa, J; Minguillón, C; Barrón, D


    Antibiotics such as β-lactam derivatives (penicillins and cephalosporins) are frequently used in veterinary medicine. The presence of these antibiotics together with their metabolites and/or products produced in subsequent treatments at which milk is submitted (sterilization, pasteurization), may be responsible for bacterial resistance, allergy and/or toxicity on sensitive individuals. In this study, liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) is used to identify transformation products (TPs) from four β-lactam antibiotics (amoxicillin (AMOX), cephapirin (PIR), ceftiofur (TIO) and penicillin G (PENG)) in thermally treated cow milk. In addition, milk from cows medicated with PENG has also been analogously treated and studied. The detected TPs come mainly from hydrolysis and decarboxylation reactions. Products more strongly degraded respect to parent compounds (of lower molecular weight) were obtained after treating milk at higher temperatures. Products identified in milk from cows medicated with PENG have been classified as TPs when coming from chemical/thermal degradation, and metabolites when resulting from the biological drug metabolism. While TPs are the result of hydrolysis and decarboxylation processes, as already indicated, an enzymatic conjugation with amino acids is suggested to be involved in the formation of metabolites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal discomfort with cold extremities in relation to age, gender, and body mass index in a random sample of a Swiss urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orgül Selim


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this epidemiological study was to investigate the relationship of thermal discomfort with cold extremities (TDCE to age, gender, and body mass index (BMI in a Swiss urban population. Methods In a random population sample of Basel city, 2,800 subjects aged 20-40 years were asked to complete a questionnaire evaluating the extent of cold extremities. Values of cold extremities were based on questionnaire-derived scores. The correlation of age, gender, and BMI to TDCE was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Results A total of 1,001 women (72.3% response rate and 809 men (60% response rate returned a completed questionnaire. Statistical analyses revealed the following findings: Younger subjects suffered more intensely from cold extremities than the elderly, and women suffered more than men (particularly younger women. Slimmer subjects suffered significantly more often from cold extremities than subjects with higher BMIs. Conclusions Thermal discomfort with cold extremities (a relevant symptom of primary vascular dysregulation occurs at highest intensity in younger, slimmer women and at lowest intensity in elderly, stouter men.

  13. Determination of short chain chlorinated paraffins in water by stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Tölgyessy, P; Nagyová, S; Sládkovičová, M


    A simple, robust, sensitive and environment friendly method for the determination of short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in water using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) coupled to thermal desorption-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (TD-GC-QqQ-MS/MS) was developed. SBSE was performed using 100mL of water sample, 20mL of methanol as a modifier, and a commercial sorptive stir bar (with 10mm×0.5mm PDMS layer) during extraction period of 16h. After extraction, the sorptive stir bar was thermally desorbed and online analysed by GC-MS/MS. Method performance was evaluated for MilliQ and surface water spiked samples. For both types of matrices, a linear dynamic range of 0.5-3.0μgL -1 with correlation coefficients >0.999 and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the relative response factors (RRFs) <12% was established. The limits of quantification (LOQs) of 0.06 and 0.08μgL -1 , and the precision (repeatability) of 6.4 and 7.7% (RSDs) were achieved for MilliQ and surface water, respectively. The method also showed good robustness, recovery and accuracy. The obtained performance characteristics indicate that the method is suitable for screening and monitoring and compliance checking with environmental quality standards (EQS, set by the EU) for SCCPs in surface waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermal radiation effects on magnetohydrodynamic free convection heat and mass transfer from a sphere in a variable porosity regime

    KAUST Repository

    Prasad, Vallampati Ramachandra Ramachandra


    A mathematical model is presented for multiphysical transport of an optically-dense, electrically-conducting fluid along a permeable isothermal sphere embedded in a variable-porosity medium. A constant, static, magnetic field is applied transverse to the cylinder surface. The non-Darcy effects are simulated via second order Forchheimer drag force term in the momentum boundary layer equation. The surface of the sphere is maintained at a constant temperature and concentration and is permeable, i.e. transpiration into and from the boundary layer regime is possible. The boundary layer conservation equations, which are parabolic in nature, are normalized into non-similar form and then solved numerically with the well-tested, efficient, implicit, stable Keller-box finite difference scheme. Increasing porosity (ε) is found to elevate velocities, i.e. accelerate the flow but decrease temperatures, i.e. cool the boundary layer regime. Increasing Forchheimer inertial drag parameter (Λ) retards the flow considerably but enhances temperatures. Increasing Darcy number accelerates the flow due to a corresponding rise in permeability of the regime and concomitant decrease in Darcian impedance. Thermal radiation is seen to reduce both velocity and temperature in the boundary layer. Local Nusselt number is also found to be enhanced with increasing both porosity and radiation parameters. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  15. A comparative STM study of Ru nanoparticles deposited on HOPG by mass-selected gas aggregation versus thermal evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Munksgård; Murphy, Shane; Strebel, Christian Ejersbo


    Scanning tunneling microscopy was used to compare the morphologies of Ru nanoparticles deposited onto highly-oriented graphite surfaces using two different physical vapour deposition methods; (1) pre-formed mass-selected Ru nanoparticles with diameters between 2 nm and 15 nm were soft-landed onto...... HOPG surfaces using a gas-aggregation source and (2) nanoparticles were formed by e-beam evaporation of Ru films onto HOPG. The particles generated by the gas-aggregation source are round in shape with evidence of facets resolved on the larger particles. Annealing these nanoparticles when...... they are supported on unsputtered HOPG resulted in the sintering of smaller nanoparticles, while larger particles remained immobile. Nanoparticles deposited onto sputtered HOPG surfaces were found to be stable against sintering when annealed. The size and shape of nanoparticles deposited by e-beam evaporation depend...

  16. A novel aerosol mass spectrometric approach - Analysis of the organic molecular signature of PM by coupling of thermal EC/OC-carbon analysis to photo-ionization mass spectrometry (United States)

    Zimmermann, R.; Grabowski, J.; Streibel, T.; Sklorz, M.; Chow, J.


    Carbonaceous material in airborne particulate matter (PM) is of increasing interest e.g. due to its adverse health effects and its potential influence on the climate. Its analytical assessment on a molecular level is still very challenging. Hence, analysis of carbonaceous fractions for many studies is often solely carried out by determining sum parameters such as the overall content of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) as well as the total carbon content, TC (sum of OC and EC). The used thermal procedure, however, allows getting additional interesting information: By defining different thermal OC fractions (i.e. temperature steps) also information on the refractory properties of the carbonaceous material is obtained. In this context it is particularly interesting to investigate the release and formation behaviors of the molecular species responsible for the different OC and EC fractions. Thus after initial promising results of pre-studies [1,2] in the current work an EC/OC carbon analyzer (Model DRI 2000) and a homebuilt photo-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PI-TOFMS) were hyphenated and applied to investigate individual organic compounds especially from the different OC fractions. The carbon analyzer enables the stepwise heating of PM loaded filter samples and provides the sum values of the "carbon" release ("Improve protocol" [2]: OC1 - 120 °C, OC2 - 250°C, OC3 - 450°C OC4 - 550°C). With the on-line coupled PI-TOFMS evolved organic compounds, as released during the thermal program, are detectable in real time. This is possible by MS with soft photo ionization methods (SPI - single photon ionization and REMPI - resonance-enhanced multi photon ionization). Soft ionization suppresses fragmentation upon the ionization step and generates molecular signatures in the MS. The EC/OC-analyzer-PI-TOFMS instrument was applied to several types of PM samples, such as ambient aerosol, emission samples (gasoline/diesel car, wood combustion) or

  17. Characterization of volatile organic compounds from human analogue decomposition using thermal desorption coupled to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Stadler, Sonja; Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues; Brokl, Michał; Forbes, Shari L; Focant, Jean-François


    Complex processes of decomposition produce a variety of chemicals as soft tissues, and their component parts are broken down. Among others, these decomposition byproducts include volatile organic compounds (VOCs) responsible for the odor of decomposition. Human remains detection (HRD) canines utilize this odor signature to locate human remains during police investigations and recovery missions in the event of a mass disaster. Currently, it is unknown what compounds or combinations of compounds are recognized by the HRD canines. Furthermore, a comprehensive decomposition VOC profile remains elusive. This is likely due to difficulties associated with the nontarget analysis of complex samples. In this study, cadaveric VOCs were collected from the decomposition headspace of pig carcasses and were further analyzed using thermal desorption coupled to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TD-GC × GC-TOFMS). Along with an advanced data handling methodology, this approach allowed for enhanced characterization of these complex samples. The additional peak capacity of GC × GC, the spectral deconvolution algorithms applied to unskewed mass spectral data, and the use of a robust data mining strategy generated a characteristic profile of decomposition VOCs across the various stages of soft-tissue decomposition. The profile was comprised of numerous chemical families, particularly alcohols, carboxylic acids, aromatics, and sulfides. Characteristic compounds identified in this study, e.g., 1-butanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-and 3-methyl butanoic acid, hexanoic acid, octanal, indole, phenol, benzaldehyde, dimethyl disulfide, and trisulfide, are potential target compounds of decomposition odor. This approach will facilitate the comparison of complex odor profiles and produce a comprehensive VOC profile for decomposition.

  18. The use of IR, magnetism, reflectance, and mass spectra together with thermal analyses in structure investigation of codeine phosphate complexes of d-block elements (United States)

    Zayed, M. A.; El-shahat, M. F.; Abdullah, S. M.


    Codeine is an analgesic with uses similar to morphines, but it is of much less effect, i.e., it had a mild sedative effect; codeine is usually used as the phosphate form (Cod.P) and is often administrated by mouth with aspirin of paracetamol. Due to its serious use, if it is in large dose, attention is paid in this research to the synthesis and stereochemistry of new iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc complexes of this drug in both solution and the solid states. The spectra of these complexes in solution and the study of their stoichiometry refer to the formation of 1:1 ratio of metal (M) to ligand (L). The steriochemical structures of the solid complexes were studied on the basis of their analytical, spectroscopic, magnetic, and thermal data. Infrared spectra proved the presence of M sbnd O bonds. Magnetic susceptibility and solid reflectance spectral measurements were used to infer the structures. The prepared complexes were found to have the general formulae [ML(OH) x(H 2O) y](H 2O) zH 3PO 4, M: Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II), x = 1, y = 0, z = 0; M: Fe(II), x = 1, y = 2, z = 1; Fe(III), x = 2, y = 1, z = 0; Co(III), x = 0, y = 2, z = 1; Zn(II), x = 1, y = 0, z = 3; and L: (Cod.P) of the general formula C 18H 24NO 7P (anhydrate). Octahedral, tetrahedral, and square planer structures were proposed for these complexes depending upon the magnetic and reflectance data and were confirmed by detailed mass and thermal analyses comparative studies.

  19. Determination of Teucrium chamaedrys volatiles by using direct thermal desorption-comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Ozel, Mustafa Z; Göğüş, Fahrettin; Lewis, Alastair C


    The direct qualification and quantification of the volatile components of Teucrium chamaedrys was studied using a direct thermal desorption (DTD) technique with comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC-TOF/MS). The GC x GC separation chromatographically resolved hundreds of components within this sample, and with the separation coupled with TOF/MS for detection, high probability identifications were made for 68 compounds. The quantitative results were determined through the use of internal standards and the desorption of differing amounts of raw material in the injector. The highest yield of volatile compounds (0.39%, w/w) was obtained at 150 degrees C thermal desorption temperature using 1.0mg of dried sample placed in a glass injector liner when studied over the range 1.0-7.0mg. Lowest yield of 0.33% (w/w) was found for the largest sample size of 7.0mg. Relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 replicates at each size sample were in the range 3.9-21.6%. The major compounds identified were beta-pinene, germacrene D, alpha-pinene, alpha-farnesene, alpha-gurjunene, gamma-elemene and gamma-cadinene. All identified compounds were quantified using total ion chromatogram (TIC) peak areas. DTD is a promising method for quantitative analysis of complex mixtures, and in particular for quantitative analysis of plant samples, which can yield data without the traditional obligation for costly and time-consuming extraction techniques.

  20. Hydrophilic magnetic ionic liquid for magnetic headspace single-drop microextraction of chlorobenzenes prior to thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Fernández, Elena; Vidal, Lorena; Canals, Antonio


    A new, fast, easy to handle, and environmentally friendly magnetic headspace single-drop microextraction (Mag-HS-SDME) based on a magnetic ionic liquid (MIL) as an extractant solvent is presented. A small drop of the MIL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetraisothiocyanatocobaltate(II) ([Emim]2[Co(NCS)4]) is located on one end of a small neodymium magnet to extract nine chlorobenzenes (1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene, 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene, and pentachlorobenzene) as model analytes from water samples prior to thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination. A multivariate optimization strategy was employed to optimize experimental parameters affecting Mag-HS-SDME. The method was evaluated under optimized extraction conditions (i.e., sample volume, 20 mL; MIL volume, 1 μL; extraction time, 10 min; stirring speed, 1500 rpm; and ionic strength, 15% NaCl (w/v)), obtaining a linear response from 0.05 to 5 μg L-1 for all analytes. The repeatability of the proposed method was evaluated at 0.7 and 3 μg L-1 spiking levels and coefficients of variation ranged between 3 and 18% (n = 3). Limits of detection were in the order of nanograms per liter ranging from 4 ng L-1 for 1,4-dichlorobenzene and 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene to 8 ng L-1 for 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene. Finally, tap water, pond water, and wastewater were selected as real water samples to assess the applicability of the method. Relative recoveries varied between 82 and 114% showing negligible matrix effects. Graphical abstract Magnetic headspace single-drop microextraction followed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  1. Improved sample utilization in thermal ionization mass spectrometry isotope ratio measurements: refined development of porous ion emitters for nuclear forensic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruzzini, Matthew Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The precise and accurate determination of isotopic composition in nuclear forensic samples is vital for assessing origin, intended use and process history. Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) is widely accepted as the gold standard for high performance isotopic measurements and has long served as the workhorse in the isotopic ratio determination of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensic and safeguard specialists have relied heavily on such methods for both routine and atypical e orts. Despite widespread use, TIMS methods for the assay of actinide systems continue to be hindered by poor ionization e ciency, often less than tenths of a percent; the majority of a sample is not measured. This represents a growing challenge in addressing nextgeneration nuclear detection needs by limiting the ability to analyze ultratrace quantities of high priority elements that could potentially provide critical nuclear forensic signatures. Porous ion emitter (PIE) thermal ion sources were developed in response to the growing need for new TIMS ion source strategies for improved ionization e ciency, PIEs have proven to be simple to implement, straightforward approach to boosting ion yield. This work serves to expand the use of PIE techniques for the analysis of trace quantities of plutonium and americium. PIEs exhibited superior plutonium and americium ion yields when compared to direct lament loading and the resin bead technique, one of the most e cient methods for actinide analysis, at similar mass loading levels. Initial attempts at altering PIE composition for the analysis of plutonium proved to enhance sample utilization even further. Preliminary investigations of the instrumental fractionation behavior of plutonium and uranium analyzed via PIE methods were conducted. Data collected during these initial trial indicate that PIEs fractionate in a consistent, reproducible manner; a necessity for high precision isotope ratio measurements. Ultimately, PIEs methods were applied for

  2. A comparison using Faraday cups with 10(13) Ω amplifiers and a secondary electron multiplier to measure Os isotopes by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Wang, Guiqin; Sun, Tiantian; Xu, Jifeng


    According to the Johnson-Nyquist noise equation, the value of electron noise is proportional to the square root of the resistor value. This relationship gives a theoretical improvement of 100 in the signal/noise ratio by going from 10(11) Ω to 10(13) Ω amplifiers for Faraday detection in thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). We measured Os isotopes using static Faraday cups with 10(13) Ω amplifiers in negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (NTIMS) and compared the results with those obtained with 10(11) Ω amplifiers and by peak-hopping on a single secondary electron multiplier (SEM). We analysed large loads of Os (1 μg) at a range of intensities of (187) OsO3 (0.02-10 mV) in addition to small loads of Os (5-500 pg) to compare the results of the three methods. Using 10(13) Ω amplifiers, the long-term reproducibility determined from Merck Os was (187) Os/(188) Os = 0.1211 ± 0.0086 and 0.120229 ± 0.000034 at 0.02 mV and 10 mV of (187) OsO3 intensities. Meanwhile, the analysed JMC Os loadings of 5 and 500 pg showed (187) Os/(188) Os = 0.10669 ± 0.00036 and 0.106807 ± 0.000023. In comparison, the values measured by the SEM were (187) Os/(188) Os = 0.10704 ± 0.00056 and 0.10690 ± 0.00013. All errors are in 2 standard deviation (SD). Both the accuracy and the precision determined using the 10(13) Ω amplifiers and the SEM are identical when the Os amounts are within 10-50 pg. However, the former analysis time can be shortened by approximately two-thirds. The SEM measurement is still the most precise method for Os amounts 50 pg. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. X-231A demonstration of in-situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media by soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or reactive barrier destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Environmental Science and Engineering Div.; Lowe, K.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Murdoch, L.D. [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Slack, W.W. [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Houk, T.C. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Piketon, OH (United States)


    The overall goal of the program of activities is to demonstrate robust and cost-effective technologies for in situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media (LPM), including adaptations and enhancements of conventional technologies to achieve improved performance for DNAPLs in LPM. The technologies sought should be potential for application at simple, small sites (e.g., gasoline underground storage tanks) as well as at complex, larger sites (e.g., DOE land treatment units). The technologies involved in the X-231A demonstration at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) utilized subsurface manipulation of the LPM through soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or horizontal barrier in place destruction. To enable field evaluation of these approaches, a set of four test cells was established at the X-231A land treatment unit at the DOE PORTS plant in August 1996 and a series of demonstration field activities occurred through December 1997. The principal objectives of the PORTS X-231A demonstration were to: determine and compare the operational features of hydraulic fractures as an enabling technology for steam and hot air enhanced soil vapor extraction and mass recovery, in situ interception and reductive destruction by zero valent iron, and in situ interception and oxidative destruction by potassium permanganate; determine the interaction of the delivered agents with the LPM matrix adjacent to the fracture and within the fractured zone and assess the beneficial modifications to the transport and/or reaction properties of the LPM deposit; and determine the remediation efficiency achieved by each of the technology strategies.

  4. Trace analysis of phenolic xenoestrogens in water samples by stir bar sorptive extraction with in situ derivatization and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Migaku; Inoue, Koichi; Yoshimura, Mariko; Sakui, Norihiro; Okanouchi, Noriya; Ito, Rie; Yoshimura, Yoshihiro; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki


    A method for the simultaneous measurement of trace amounts of phenolic xenoestrogens, such as 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 4-tert-butyl-phenol (BP), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-nonylphenol (NP), pentachlorophenol (PCP) and bisphenol A (BPA), in water samples was developed using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) with in situ derivatization followed by thermal desorption (TD)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The conditions for derivatization with acetic acid anhydride were investigated. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated stir bar and derivatization reagents were added to 10 ml of water sample and stirring was commenced for 10-180 min at room temperature (25 degrees C) in a headspace vial. Then, the extract was analyzed by TD-GC-MS. The optimum time for SBSE with in situ derivatization was 90 min. The detection limits of 2,4-DCP, BP, OP, NP, PCP and BPA were 2, 1, 0.5, 5, 2 and 2 pg ml(-1), respectively. The method showed good linearity over the concentration ranges of 10, 5, 2, 20, 10 and 10-1000 pg ml(-1) for 2,4-DCP, BP, OP, NP, PCP and BPA, respectively, and the correlation coefficients were higher than 0.99. The average recoveries of those compounds in river water samples were equal to or higher than 93.9% (R.S.D. river water samples.

  5. Emission mechanism of polyatomic ions Cs2Cl+ and Cs2BO2(+) in thermal ionization mass spectrometry with various carbon materials. (United States)

    Wei, Hai-Zhen; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Hemming, Gary N; Yang, Jing-Hong; Xiao, Ying-Kai; Yang, Tao; Yan, Xiong; Yan, Yan


    The emission behavior of polyatomic ions Cs(2)Cl(+) and Cs(2)BO(2)(+) in the presence of various carbon materials (Graphite, Carbon, SWNTs, and Fullerenes) in the ionization source of thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) has been investigated. The emission capacity of various carbon materials are remarkably different as evidenced by the obvious discrepancy in signal intensity of polyatomic ions and accuracy/precision of boron and chlorine isotopic composition determined using Cs(2)Cl(+)-graphite-PTIMS/Cs(2)BO(2)(+)-graphite-PTIMS methods. Combined with morphology and microstructure properties of four selected carbon materials, it could be concluded that the emission behavior of the polyatomic ions strongly depends on the microstructure of the carbon materials used. A surface-induced collision mechanism for formation of such kinds of polyatomic ions in the ionization source of TIMS has been proposed based on the optimized configuration of Cs(2)BO(2)(+) and Cs(2)Cl(+) ions in the gas phase using a molecular dynamics method. The combination of the geometry of the selected carbon materials with the configuration of two polyatomic ions explains the structure effect of carbon materials on the emission behavior of polyatomic ions, where graphite samples with perfect parallels and equidistant layers ensure the capacity of emission to the maximum extent, and fullerenes worsen the emission of polyatomic ions by blocking their pathway. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. Separation and analysis of trace volatile formaldehyde in aquatic products by a MoO₃/polypyrrole intercalative sampling adsorbent with thermal desorption gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Ma, Yunjian; Zhao, Cheng; Zhan, Yisen; Li, Jianbin; Zhang, Zhuomin; Li, Gongke


    An in situ embedded synthesis strategy was developed for the preparation of a MoO3 /polypyrrole intercalative sampling adsorbent for the separation and analysis of trace volatile formaldehyde in aquatic products. Structural and morphological characteristics of the MoO3 /polypyrrole intercalative adsorbent were investigated by a series of characterization methods. The MoO3 /polypyrrole sampling adsorbent possessed a higher sampling capacity and selectivity for polar formaldehyde than commonly used commercial adsorbent Tenax TA. Finally, the MoO3 /polypyrrole adsorbent was packed in the thermal desorption tube that was directly coupled to gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the analysis of trace volatile formaldehyde in aquatic products. Trace volatile formaldehyde from real aquatic products could be selectively sampled and quantified to be 0.43-6.6 mg/kg. The detection limit was achieved as 0.004 μg/L by this method. Good recoveries for spiked aquatic products were achieved in range of 75.0-108% with relative standard deviations of 1.2-9.0%. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Ambient aging of rhenium filaments used in thermal ionization mass spectrometry: Growth of oxo-rhenium crystallites and anti-aging strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Mannion


    Full Text Available Degassing is a common preparation technique for rhenium filaments used for thermal ionization mass spectrometric analysis of actinides, including plutonium. Although optimization studies regarding degassing conditions have been reported, little work has been done to characterize filament aging after degassing. In this study, the effects of filament aging after degassing were explored to determine a “shelf-life” for degassed rhenium filaments, and methods to limit filament aging were investigated. Zone-refined rhenium filaments were degassed by resistance heating under high vacuum before exposure to ambient atmosphere for up to 2 months. After degassing the nucleation and preferential growth of oxo-rhenium crystallites on the surface of polycrystalline rhenium filaments was observed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Compositional analysis of the crystallites was conducted using SEM-Raman spectroscopy and SEM energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and grain orientation at the metal surface was investigated by electron back-scatter diffraction mapping. Spectra collected by SEM-Raman suggest crystallites are composed primarily of perrhenic acid. The relative extent of growth and crystallite morphology were found to be grain dependent and affected by the dissolution of carbon into filaments during annealing (often referred to as carbonization or carburization. Crystallites were observed to nucleate in region specific modes and grow over time through transfer of material from the surface. Factors most likely to affect the rates of crystallite growth include rhenium substrate properties such as grain size, orientation, levels of dissolved carbon, and relative abundance of defect sites; as well as environmental factors such as length of exposure to oxygen and relative humidity. Thin (∼180 nm hydrophobic films of poly(vinylbenzyl chloride were found to slow the growth of oxo-rhenium crystallites on the filament

  8. At-line gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of fatty acid profiles of green microalgae using a direct thermal desorption interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokker, P.; Pel, R.; Akoto, L.; Udo, A.; Brinkman, U.A.Th.; Vreuls, R.J.J.


    Thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation¯gas chromatography (THM¯GC) is an important tool to analyse fatty acid in complex matrices. Since THM¯GC has major drawbacks such as isomerisation when applied to fatty acids in natural matrices, a direct thermal desorption (DTD) interface and an

  9. At-line gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of fatty acid profiles of green microalgae using a direct thermal desorption interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokker, P.; Pel, R.; Akoto, L.; Brinkman, U.A.T.; Vreuls, R.J.J.


    Thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation-gas chromatography (THM-GC) is an important tool to analyse fatty acid in complex matrices. Since THM-GC has major drawbacks such as isomerisation when applied to fatty acids in natural matrices, a direct thermal desorption (DTD) interface and an

  10. {sup 226}Ra measurement by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry: Use of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 14}C for groundwater dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dever, L. [Universite Paris-SUD, Orsay, (France). Lab d`Hydrologie et Geochemie Isotopique; Hillaire-Marcel, C. [Geotop, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal (Canada)


    Recent developments in thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) and in chemical separation Ra and Ba allow to analyse {sup 226}Ra on smaller water samples (<200 ml) than with conventional counting techniques (10{sup 3} litres). The sampling has been realised on the Chalk aquifer of the Paris basin. The water samples have been collected in the unsaturated zone using in situ filtering devices and in the unconfined and confined parts of the aquifer in the boreholes used for public water supply. {sup 226}Ra contents vary from 0.064{+-}0.02 dpm/kg (n=6) in the unsaturated zone to 0.119{+-}0.069 dpm/kg (n=7) in the unconfined aquifer and 0.319{+-}0.057 dpm/kg (n=9) in the confined aquifer. For all the samples the {sup 226}Ra/{sup 238}U activity ratios are much lower than the secular equilibrium. This points out that the two isotopes have different input function in the water during the mineralisation of the solution. The good correlation (r{sup 2}=0.9) between the {sup 226}Ra and Sr indicates that dissolution of Chalk is the dominant mechanism of mineralisation in {sup 226}Ra of the solution. In the Chalk the mineralisation of the water occurs in the first metres of the unsaturated zone, during the water percolation the water rock interaction takes place through dissolution and precipitation of calcite in a non steady state. According to his distribution coefficient Sr is then a better tracer of dissolution/precipitation process than Ba. Using a geochemical model based on {sup 226}Ra/Sr and Sr/Ca ratios an `age` of the water could be determined. With {sup 226}Ra half life of 1620 years we obtain `ages` varying from 150 years to 1950 years in the unconfined aquifer. For the confined part of the aquifer where the redox condition is different it is necessary to use a geochemical model based on the U concentration in the water, the {sup 226}Ra gives in such case ages varying from 1.8ka to 12.8ka. The radiocarbon ages obtained through usual chemical and/or isotopic models

  11. Thermal and mass implications of magmatic evolution in the Lassen volcanic region, California, and minimum constraints on basalt influx to the lower crust (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Clynne, M.A.; Muffler, L.J.P.


    We have analyzed the heat and mass demands of a petrologic model of basaltdriven magmatic evolution in which variously fractionated mafic magmas mix with silicic partial melts of the lower crust. We have formulated steady state heat budgets for two volcanically distinct areas in the Lassen region: the large, late Quaternary, intermediate to silicic Lassen volcanic center and the nearby, coeval, less evolved Caribou volcanic field. At Caribou volcanic field, heat provided by cooling and fractional crystallization of 52 km3 of basalt is more than sufficient to produce 10 km3 of rhyolitic melt by partial melting of lower crust. Net heat added by basalt intrusion at Caribou volcanic field is equivalent to an increase in lower crustal heat flow of ???7 mW m-2, indicating that the field is not a major crustal thermal anomaly. Addition of cumulates from fractionation is offset by removal of erupted partial melts. A minimum basalt influx of 0.3 km3 (km2 Ma)-1 is needed to supply Caribou volcanic field. Our methodology does not fully account for an influx of basalt that remains in the crust as derivative intrusives. On the basis of comparison to deep heat flow, the input of basalt could be ???3 to 7 times the amount we calculate. At Lassen volcanic center, at least 203 km3 of mantle-derived basalt is needed to produce 141 km3 of partial melt and drive the volcanic system. Partial melting mobilizes lower crustal material, augmenting the magmatic volume available for eruption at Lassen volcanic center; thus the erupted volume of 215 km3 exceeds the calculated basalt input of 203 km3. The minimum basalt input of 1.6 km3 (km2 Ma)-1 is >5 times the minimum influx to the Caribou volcanic field. Basalt influx high enough to sustain considerable partial melting, coupled with locally high extension rate, is a crucial factor in development of Lassen volcanic center; in contrast. Caribou volcanic field has failed to develop into a large silicic center primarily because basalt supply

  12. Mass transfer in fuel cells. [electron microscopy of components, thermal decomposition of Teflon, water transport, and surface tension of KOH solutions (United States)

    Walker, R. D., Jr.


    Results of experiments on electron microscopy of fuel cell components, thermal decomposition of Teflon by thermogravimetry, surface area and pore size distribution measurements, water transport in fuel cells, and surface tension of KOH solutions are described.

  13. The stability and generation pattern of thermally formed isocyanic acid (ICA) in air - potential and limitations of proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) for real-time workroom atmosphere measurements. (United States)

    Jankowski, Mikolaj Jan; Olsen, Raymond; Thomassen, Yngvar; Molander, Paal


    Isocyanic acid (ICA) in vapour phase has been reported to be of unstable nature, making the occupational hygienic relevance of ICA questionable. The stability of pure ICA in clean air at different humidity conditions was investigated by Fourier transform-infrared spectrometric (FT-IR) measurements. Furthermore, the stability of ICA in a complex atmosphere representative thermal degradation hot-work procedures were examined by performing parallel measurements by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometric (PTR-MS) instrumentation and off-line denuder air sampling using di-n-butylamine (as a derivatization agent prior to liquid chromatography mass spectrometric (LC-MS) determination). The apparent half-life of ICA in pure ICA atmospheres was 16 to 4 hours at absolute humidity (AH) in the range 4.2 to 14.6 g m(-3), respectively. In a complex atmosphere at an initial AH of 9.6 g m(-3) the apparent half-life of ICA was 8 hours, as measured with the denuder method. Thus, thermally formed ICA is to be considered as a potential occupational hazard with regard to inhalation. The generation pattern of ICA formed during controlled gradient (100-540 °C) thermal decomposition of different polymers in the presence of air was examined by parallel PTR-MS and denuder air sampling. According to measurement by denuder sampling ICA was the dominant aliphatic isocyanate formed during the thermal decomposition of all polymers. The real-time measurements of the decomposed polymers revealed different ICA generation patterns, with initial appearance of thermally released ICA in the temperature range 200-260 °C. The PTR-MS ICA measurements was however affected by mass overlap from other decomposition products at m/z 44, illustrated by a [ICA]Denuder/[ICA]PTR-MS ratio ranging from 0.04 to 0.90. These findings limits the potential use of PTR-MS for real time measurements of thermally released ICA in field, suggesting parallel sampling with short-term sequential off-line methodology.

  14. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, L.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Irth, H.; Pel, R.; Stellaard, F.


    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  15. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, Lawrence; Vreuls, Rene J. J.; Irth, Hubertus; Pel, Roel; Stellaard, Frans


    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal


    In this study, the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) in size resolved fine aerosol emissions from residential wood combustion (RWC) is examined. The aerosols are sorted by size in an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) and subsequently analyzed by thermal desorbtion/gas chroma...

  17. Acclimation to different thermal conditions in a northerly wintering shorebird is driven by body mass-related changes in organ size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vezina, Francois; Jalvingh, Kirsten M.; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis


    Seasonal acclimatization and experimental acclimation to cold in birds typically results from increased shivering endurance and elevated thermogenic capacity leading to improved resistance to cold. A wide array of physiological adjustments, ranging from biochemical transformations to organ mass

  18. Pore scale Assessment of Heat and Mass transfer in Porous Medium Using Phase Field Method with Application to Soil Borehole Thermal Storage (SBTES) Systems (United States)

    Moradi, A.


    To properly model soil thermal performance in unsaturated porous media, for applications such as SBTES systems, knowledge of both soil hydraulic and thermal properties and how they change in space and time is needed. Knowledge obtained from pore scale to macroscopic scale studies can help us to better understand these systems and contribute to the state of knowledge which can then be translated to engineering applications in the field (i.e. implementation of SBTES systems at the field scale). One important thermal property that varies with soil water content, effective thermal conductivity, is oftentimes included in numerical models through the use of empirical relationships and simplified mathematical formulations developed based on experimental data obtained at either small laboratory or field scales. These models assume that there is local thermodynamic equilibrium between the air and water phases for a representative elementary volume. However, this assumption may not always be valid at the pore scale, thus questioning the validity of current modeling approaches. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the validity of the local thermodynamic equilibrium assumption as related to the effective thermal conductivity at pore scale. A numerical model based on the coupled Cahn-Hilliard and heat transfer equation was developed to solve for liquid flow and heat transfer through variably saturated porous media. In this model, the evolution of phases and the interfaces between phases are related to a functional form of the total free energy of the system. A unique solution for the system is obtained by solving the Navier-Stokes equation through free energy minimization. Preliminary results demonstrate that there is a correlation between soil temperature / degree of saturation and equivalent thermal conductivity / heat flux. Results also confirm the correlation between pressure differential magnitude and equilibrium time for multiphase flow to reach steady state conditions

  19. Identification of alkylated phosphates by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric investigations with different ionization principles of a thermally aged commercial lithium ion battery electrolyte. (United States)

    Weber, Waldemar; Kraft, Vadim; Grützke, Martin; Wagner, Ralf; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha


    The thermal aging process of a commercial LiPF6 based lithium ion battery electrolyte has been investigated in view of the formation of volatile phosphorus-containing degradation products. Aging products were analyzed by GC-MS. Structure determination of the products was performed by support of chemical ionization MS in positive and negative modes. A fraction of the discovered compounds belongs to the group of fluorophosphates (phosphorofluoridates) which are in suspect of potential toxicity. This is well known for relative derivatives, e.g. diisopropyl fluorophosphate. Another fraction of the identified compounds belongs to the group of trialkyl phosphates. These compounds may provide a positive impact on the thermal and electrochemical performance of Li-based batteries as repeatedly described in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In-injection port thermal desorption and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and n-alkanes in atmospheric aerosol samples. (United States)

    Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Yu, Jian Zhen


    The traditional approach for analysis of aerosol organics is to extract aerosol materials collected on filter substrates with organic solvents followed by solvent evaporation and analytical separation and detection. This approach has the weaknesses of being labor intensive and being prone to contamination from the extracting solvents. We describe here an alternative approach for the analysis of aerosol alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that obviates the use of solvents. In our approach, small strips of aerosol-laden filter materials are packed into a GC split/splitless injector liner. Alkanes and PAHs on the filter are thermally desorbed in the injection port and focused onto the head of a GC column for subsequent separation and detection. No instrument modification is necessary to accommodate the introduction of the aerosol organics into the GC-MS system. Comparison studies were carried out on a set of 16 ambient aerosol samples using our in-injection port thermal desorption (TD) method and the traditional solvent extraction method. Reasonably good agreement of individual alkanes and PAHs by the two methods was demonstrated for the ambient samples. The in-injection port thermal desorption method requires much less filter material for detecting the same air concentrations of alkanes and PAHs.

  1. Isotope Dilution - Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometric Analysis for Tin in a Fly Ash Material; Analisis de Estano en una Ceniza de Combustion mediante Espectrometria de Masas de Ionizacion Termica con Dilucion Isotopica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, C.; Fernandez, M.; Quejido, A. L.


    Isotope dilution-thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) analysis has been applied to the determination of tin in a fly ash sample supplied by the EC Joint Research Centre (Ispra, Italy). The proposed procedure includes the silica gel/phosphoric acid technique for tin thermal ionisation activation and a strict heating protocol for isotope ratio measurements. Instrumental mass discrimination factor has been previously determined measuring a natural tin standard solution. Spike solutions has been prepared from 112Sn-enriched metal and quantified by reverse isotope dilution analysis. Two sample aliquots were spiked and tin was extracted with 4,5 M HCI during 25 min ultrasound exposure time. Due to the complex matrix of this fly ash material, a two-step purification stage using ion-exchange chromatography was required prior TIMS analysis. Obtained results for the two sample-spike blends (10,10 + - 0,55 y 10,50 + - 0,64 imolg-1) are comprarable, both value and uncertainty. Also a good reproducibility is observed between measurements. The proposed ID-TIMS procedure, as a primary method and due to the lack of fly ash reference material certified for tin content, can be used to validate more routine methodologies applied to tin determination in this kind of materials. (Author) 75 refs.

  2. Mass loss controlled thermal pretreatment system to assess the effects of pretreatment temperature on organic matter solubilization and methane yield from food waste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Minale Yeshanew


    Full Text Available The effects of thermal pretreatment (TP on the main characteristics of food waste (FW and its biochemical methane potential (BMP and distribution of volatile fatty acids (VFAs under mesophilic condition (35 ⁰C were investigated. The TP experiments were carried out at 80 °C, 100 °C, 120 °C for 2 hour and 140 °C for 1 hour. The designed TP set-up was able to minimize the organic matter loss during the course of the pretreatments. Soluble organic fractions evaluated in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD and soluble protein increased linearly with pretreatment temperature. In contrast, the carbohydrate solubilization was more enhanced (30 % higher solubilization by the TP at lower temperature (80 °C. A slight increment of soluble phenols was found, particularly for temperatures exceeding 100 °C. Thermally pretreated FW under all conditions exhibited an improved methane yield than the untreated FW, due to the increased organic matter solubilization. The highest cumulative methane yield of 442 (± 8.6 mL/gVSadded, corresponding to a 28.1 % enhancement compared to the untreated FW, was obtained with a TP at 80 °C. No significant variation in the VFAs trends were observed during the BMP tests under all investigated conditions.

  3. A comparative study of 129I content in environmental standard materials IAEA-375, NIST SRM 4354 and NIST SRM 4357 by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, John; Adamic, Mary; Snyder, Darin; Brookhart, Jacob; Hahn, Paula; Watrous, Matthew


    Iodine environmental measurements have consistently been backed up in the literature by standard materials like IAEA-375, Chernobyl Soil. There are not many other sources of a certified reference material for 129I content for mass spectrometry measurements. Some that have been found in the literature include NIST-4354 and NIST-4357. They are still available at the time of this writing. They don’t have certified content or isotopic values. There has been some work in the literature to show that iodine is present, but there hasn’t been enough to establish a consensus value. These materials have been analyzed at INL through two separate mass spectrometry techniques. They involve a combustion method of the starting material in oxygen, followed by TIMS analysis and a leaching preparation analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry. Combustion/TIMS preparation of NIST SRM-4354 resulted in a 129I/127I ratio of 1.92 x 10-6 which agrees with AMS measurements which measured the 129I/127I ratio to be 1.93 x 10-6.

  4. A Thermote, a Novel Thermal Element Simplifying the Finding of a Medium's Entropy Emerges as a Sensible Dark Matter Candidate from Primordial Black Holes with a Mass in Range of Axion's, a Leading Candidate (United States)

    Feria, Erlan H.


    Black holes acting as dark matter have been predicted, e.g., via a duality theory in (Feria 2011, Proc. IEEE Int’l Conf. on SMC, Alaska, USA) and via observations in (Kashlinsky 2016, AJL). Here a thermote, a novel thermal element simplifying the finding of a medium’s entropy, emerges as a dark matter candidate from primordial black holes with a mass in range of axion's, a leading candidate. The thermote energy, eT, is defined as the average thermal energy contributed to a particle’s motion by the medium’s degrees of freedom (DoF) and is thus given by eT=NDoFkBT/2 where NDoF is the DoF number (e.g., NDoF=2 for a black-hole since only in its event-horizon particle motions can occur) and kBT/2 is the thermal energy contributed by each degree of freedom (kB is the Boltzmann constant and T is temperature). The entropy S of a spherical homogeneous medium is then simply stated as S=(kB/2)E/eT where E=Mc2 is the medium's rest-energy, with M its point-mass and c the speed of light, and eT=NDoFkBT/2 is the thermote's kinetic-energy. This simple equation naturally surfaced from a rest/kinetic or retention/motion mass-energy duality theory where, e.g., black-holes and vacuums form together such a duality with black holes offering the least resistance to mass-energy rest, or retention, and vacuums offering the least resistance to mass-energy kinetics, or motions. In turn, this duality theory has roots in the universal cybernetics duality principle (UCDP) stating “synergistic physical and mathematical dualities arise in efficient system designs” (Feria 2014,, SPIE Newsroom). Our thermote based entropy finding method is applicable to spherical homogeneous mediums such as black-holes, photon-gases, and flexible-phase (Feria 2016, Proc. IEEE Int’l Conf. on Smart Cloud, Columbia University, NY, USA), where the thermote of a primordial black hole, with NDoF=2 and a CMB radiation temperature of T=2.725 kelvin, emerges as a

  5. Effects of chemical reaction in thermal and mass diffusion of micropolar fluid saturated in porous regime with radiation and ohmic heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Hitesh


    Full Text Available The present paper analyzes the chemically reacting free convection MHD micropolar flow, heat and mass transfer in porous medium past an infinite vertical plate with radiation and viscous dissipation. The non-linear coupled partial differential equations are solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme known as Keller-box method. The results for concentration, transverse velocity, angular velocity and temperature are obtained and effects of various parameters on these functions are presented graphically. The numerical discussion with physical interpretations for the influence of various parameters also presented.

  6. Recent advances in thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometery method to eliminate the matrix effect between air and water samples: application to the accurate determination of Henry's law constant. (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun


    Accurate values for the Henry's law constants are essential to describe the environmental dynamics of a solute, but substantial errors are recognized in many reported data due to practical difficulties in measuring solubility and/or vapor pressure. Despite such awareness, validation of experimental approaches has scarcely been made. An experimental approach based on thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometery (TD-GC-MS) method was developed to concurrently allow the accurate determination of target compounds from the headspace and aqueous samples in closed equilibrated system. The analysis of six aromatics and eight non-aromatic oxygenates was then carried out in a static headspace mode. An estimation of the potential bias and mass balance (i.e., sum of mass measured individually from gas and liquid phases vs. the mass initially added to the system) demonstrates compound-specific phase dependency so that the best results are obtained by aqueous (less soluble aromatics) and headspace analysis (more soluble non-aromatics). Accordingly, we were able to point to the possible sources of biases in previous studies and provide the best estimates for the Henry's constants (Matm(-1)): benzene (0.17), toluene (0.15), p-xylene (0.13), m-xylene (0.13), o-xylene (0.19), styrene (0.27); propionaldehyde (9.26), butyraldehyde (6.19), isovaleraldehyde (2.14), n-valeraldehyde (3.98), methyl ethyl ketone (10.5), methyl isobutyl ketone (3.93), n-butyl acetate (2.41), and isobutyl alcohol (22.2). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of variable suction and thermophoresis on steady MHD combined free-forced convective heat and mass transfer flow over a semi-infinite permeable inclined plate in the presence of thermal radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M.S.; Rahman, M.M. [Department of Mathematics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Sattar, M.A. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, North South University, 12 Kemal Ataturk Avenue, Banani, Dhaka-1213 (Bangladesh)


    A two-dimensional steady MHD mixed convection and mass transfer flow over a semi-infinite porous inclined plate in the presence of thermal radiation with variable suction and thermophoresis has been analyzed numerically. The governing fundamental equations are approximated by a system of non-linear locally similar ordinary differential equations which are solved numerically by applying Nachtsheim-Swigert shooting iteration technique along with sixth-order Runge-Kutta integration scheme. Favorable comparison with previously published work is performed. Numerical results for the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as for the skin-friction coefficient, wall heat transfer and particle deposition rate are obtained and displayed graphically for pertinent parameters to show interesting aspects of the solutions. (author)

  8. A minimal-invasive method for systemic bio-monitoring of the environmental pollutant phenanthrene in humans: Thermal extraction and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry from 1 mL capillary blood. (United States)

    Gruber, Beate; Schneider, Julian; Föhlinger, Michael; Buters, Jeroen; Zimmermann, Ralf; Matuschek, Georg


    Phenanthrene is present in numerous environmental media and serves as a model substrate for the biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). PAH exposure studies are commonly focused on urinary metabolites, concentrations of which are dependent on absorption, biotransformation and excretion. Monitoring of unmetabolized PAHs in blood would allow more reliable exposure assessment, but requires invasive sampling and extensive sample preparation. We describe the analysis of phenanthrene in 1μL capillary blood using thermal extraction (TE) combined with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Less invasive sampling of 1μL capillary blood does not require the assistance of medical staff. Compared to previous studies, analysis time was improved significantly by TE due to minimization of sample preparation steps. The evaluate method was applied successfully to the monitoring of phenanthrene blood levels. This is the first report presenting the pharmacokinetics of unmetabolized PAHs in human. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of a Hypersonic Vehicle with Significant Aero-Thermo-Elastic-Propulsion Interactions: Elastic, Thermal and Mass Uncertainty (United States)

    Khatri, Jaidev

    This thesis examines themodeling, analysis, and control system design issues for scramjet powered hypersonic vehicles. A nonlinear three degrees of freedom longitudinal model which includes aero-propulsion-elasticity effects was used for all analyses. This model is based upon classical compressible flow and Euler-Bernouli structural concepts. Higher fidelity computational fluid dynamics and finite element methods are needed for more precise intermediate and final evaluations. The methods presented within this thesis were shown to be useful for guiding initial control relevant design. The model was used to examine the vehicle's static and dynamic characteristics over the vehicle's trimmable region. The vehicle has significant longitudinal coupling between the fuel equivalency ratio (FER) and the flight path angle (FPA). For control system design, a two-input two-output plant (FER - elevator to speed-FPA) with 11 states (including 3 flexible modes) was used. Velocity, FPA, and pitch were assumed to be available for feedback. Aerodynamic heat modeling and design for the assumed TPS was incorporated to original Bolender's model to study the change in static and dynamic properties. De-centralized control stability, feasibility and limitations issues were dealt with the change in TPS elasticity, mass and physical dimension. The impact of elasticity due to TPS mass, TPS physical dimension as well as prolonged heating was also analyzed to understand performance limitations of de-centralized control designed for nominal model.

  10. Thermal stability analysis of particles incorporated in cirrus crystals and of non-activated particles in between the cirrus crystals: comparing clean and polluted air masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Seifert


    Full Text Available A thermal volatility technique is used to provide indirect information about the chemical composition of the aerosol involved in cirrus cloud formation. The fraction of particles that disappears after being heated to 125°C is termed volatile and the fraction that disappears between 125 and 250°C is termed semi-volatile. Particles that still remain after being heated to 250°C make up the non-volatile fraction. The thermal composition of residual particles remaining from evaporated cirrus crystals is presented and compared to interstitial aerosol particles (non-activated particles in between the cirrus crystals for two temperature regimes (cold: T< -38°C, warm: -38≤T< -23°C, based on in-situ observations. The observations were conducted in cirrus clouds in the Southern Hemisphere (SH and Northern Hemisphere (NH midlatitudes during the INCA project. In the cold temperature regime, the non-volatile fraction of the residual particles was typically in the range 10 to 30% in the NH and 30 to 40% in the SH. In the warm temperature regime, the non-volatile residual fraction was typically 10 to 30% (NH and 20 to 40% (SH. At high crystal number densities the non-volatile fraction in both temperature regimes was even higher: in the range of 30 to 40% (NH and 40 to 50% (SH. The semi-volatile fraction was typically less than 10% in both hemispheres, causing the volatile fraction to essentially be a complement to the non-volatile fraction. In terms of the fractioning into the three types of particles, the SH cold case is clearly different compared to the other three cases (the two warm cases and the cold NH case, which share many features. In the NH data the distribution of different particle types does not seem to be temperature dependent. In all the cases, the non-volatile fraction is enriched in the residual particles compared to the fractions observed for the interstitial particles. This enrichment corresponds to about 15 (NH and 30 (SH percent

  11. Determination of 1-chloro-4-[2,2,2-trichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]benzene and related compounds in marine pore water by automated thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using disposable optical fiber (United States)

    Eganhouse, Robert P.; DiFilippo, Erica L


    A method is described for determination of ten DDT-related compounds in marine pore water based on equilibrium solid-phase microextraction (SPME) using commercial polydimethylsiloxane-coated optical fiber with analysis by automated thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS). Thermally cleaned fiber was directly exposed to sediments and allowed to reach equilibrium under static conditions at the in situ field temperature. Following removal, fibers were rinsed, dried and cut into appropriate lengths for storage in leak-tight containers at -20°C. Analysis by TD-GC/MS under full scan (FS) and selected ion monitoring (SIM) modes was then performed. Pore-water method detection limits in FS and SIM modes were estimated at 0.05-2.4ng/L and 0.7-16pg/L, respectively. Precision of the method, including contributions from fiber handling, was less than 10%. Analysis of independently prepared solutions containing eight DDT compounds yielded concentrations that were within 6.9±5.5% and 0.1±14% of the actual concentrations in FS and SIM modes, respectively. The use of optical fiber with automated analysis allows for studies at high temporal and/or spatial resolution as well as for monitoring programs over large spatial and/or long temporal scales with adequate sample replication. This greatly enhances the flexibility of the technique and improves the ability to meet quality control objectives at significantly lower cost.

  12. Hydrogen retention studies on lithiated tungsten exposed to glow discharge plasmas under varying lithiation environments using Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, A. de, E-mail: [Fusion National Laboratory-CIEMAT, Av Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Valson, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Wendelsteinstraße 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Tabarés, F.L. [Fusion National Laboratory-CIEMAT, Av Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    For the design of a Fusion Reactor based on a liquid lithium divertor target and a tungsten first wall at high temperature, the interaction of the wall material with plasmas of significant lithium content must be assessed, as issues like fuel retention, tungsten embrittlement and enhanced sputtering may represent a showstopper for the selection of the first wall material compatible with the presence of liquid metal divertor. In this work we address this topic for the first time at the laboratory level, hot W samples (100 °C) have been exposed to Glow Discharges of H{sub 2} or Li-seeded H{sub 2} followed by in situ thermal desorption studies (TDS) of the uptake of H{sub 2} on the samples. Pure and pre-lithiated tungsten was investigated in order to evaluate the differential effect of Li ion implantation on H retention. Global particle balance was also used for the determination of trapped H into the full W wall of the plasma chamber. A factor of 3-4 lower retention was deduced for samples and main W wall exposed to H/Li plasma than that measured on pre-lithiated W.

  13. Thermal, Mechanical and Thermo-Mechanical Assessment of the Rock Mass Surrounding SKB's Prototype Repository at Äspö HRL (United States)

    Lönnqvist, Margareta; Hökmark, Harald


    The Prototype Repository (PR) was a field test of six, electrically heated, full-scale waste containers resembling the key component of a KBS-3 nuclear waste repository. The design and heat load was similar to the proposed repository at Forsmark, Sweden. In this paper, the thermal, mechanical and thermo-mechanical response of the PR host rock to excavation and to the subsequent heating is assessed. The assessment is carried out using three-dimensional models (numerical and analytical) in combination with monitoring data and visual observations from the excavations. Certain measurements and observations agree well with results from the models. These include temperature measurements during the heating phase. Additional measurements include patterns of low-magnitude acoustic emission events around the deposition holes tracked during the excavation. The spatial distribution of these events coincide with regions of modelled high compressive stresses. Models with a simple fracture network, consisting of planar disks with laboratory-scale properties, appear to give upper bound estimates of the stress disturbances caused by a real fracture network. The magnitude of the modelled stresses around the deposition hole is typically below the spalling strength. The lack of any significant or systematic occurrence of spalling in the deposition hole walls supports the modelling results. Several instruments installed at different positions to monitor stress change, strain and deformation malfunctioned during the nearly 8-year-long monitoring period. Despite this, there is ample evidence to support the overall conclusion that the modelling results and observations are in sufficient agreement to strengthen the confidence in the modelling approach.

  14. A modified commercial gas chromatograph for the continuous monitoring of the thermal degradation of sunflower oil and off-line solid phase extraction gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry characterization of released volatiles. (United States)

    Ontañon, I; Sanz, J; Escudero, A; de Marcos, S; Ferreira, V; Galbán, J


    A homemade flow cell attached to a commercial Gas Chromatograph equipped with a Flame Ionization Detector (FID) has been designed for the continuous monitoring of volatile compounds released during heating edible oils. Analytical parameters such as mass of sample, temperature and flow rates have been optimized and the obtained results have been compared with the corresponding thermographs from standard TG systems. Results show that under optimum conditions, the profiles of volatiles released upon heating are comparable to the profiles of TG curves, suggesting that the FID based system could be an alternative to TGA. Additionally, volatiles have been retained in a Lichrolut EN(®) resin, eluted and analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. In this case, forty five compounds have been identified (acids, alcohols, alkanes, aldehydes, ketones and furans) and compared with the FID signals, working both in air or nitrogen atmosphere. It has been concluded that the oxidative thermal degradation is prevented in the presence of a nitrogen atmosphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evidence for the production of thermal-like muon pairs with masses above 1 GeV/c^2 in 158A GeV Indium-Indium Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaldi, R; Borer, K; Castor, J; Chaurand, B; Chen, W; Cical, C; Colla, A; Cortese, P; Damjanovic, S; David, A; De Falco, A; Devaux, A; Ducroux, L; Enyo, H; Fargeix, J; Ferretti, A; Floris, M; Frster, A; Force, P; Guettet, N; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Heuser, J M; Keil, M; Kluberg, L; Li, Z; Loureno, C; Lozano, J; Manso, F; Martins, P; Masoni, A; Neves, A; Ohnishi, H; Oppedisano, C; Parracho, P; Pillot, P; Poghosyan, T; Puddu, G; Radermacher, E; Ramalhete, P; Rosinsky, P; Scomparin, E; Seixas, J; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sonderegger, P; Specht, H J; Tieulent, R; Usai, G; Veenhof, R; Whri, H K


    The yield of muon pairs in the invariant mass region 1thermal dimuons specific to high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. The yield of this excess increases significantly from peripheral to central collisions, both with respect to the Drell-Yan yield and to the number of nucleons participating in the collisions. Furthermore, the transverse mass distributions of the excess dimuons are well described by an exponential function, with inverse slope values around 190 MeV. The...

  16. Improved fatty acid detection in micro-algae and aquatic meiofauna species using a direct thermal desorption interface combined with comprehensive gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Akoto, Lawrence; Stellaard, Frans; Irth, Hubertus; Vreuls, René J J; Pel, Roel


    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection is used to profile the fatty acid composition of whole/intact aquatic microorganisms such as the common fresh water green algae Scenedesmus acutus and the filamentous cyanobacterium Limnothrix sp. strain MRI without any sample preparation steps. It is shown that the technique can be useful in the identification of lipid markers in food-web as well as environmental studies. For instance, new mono- and diunsaturated fatty acids were found in the C(16) and C(18) regions of the green algae S. acutus and the filamentous cyanobacterium Limnothrix sp. strain MRI samples. These fatty acids have not, to our knowledge, been detected in the conventional one-dimensional (1D) GC analysis of these species due to either co-elution and/or their presence in low amounts in the sample matrix. In GC x GC, all congeners of the fatty acids in these microorganisms could be detected and identified due to the increased analyte detectability and ordered structures in the two-dimensional separation space. The combination of direct thermal desorption (DTD)-GC x GC-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToF-MS) promises to be an excellent tool for a more accurate profiling of biological samples and can therefore be very useful in lipid biomarker research as well as food-web and ecological studies.

  17. Thermalized axion inflation (United States)

    Ferreira, Ricardo Z.; Notari, Alessio


    We analyze the dynamics of inflationary models with a coupling of the inflaton phi to gauge fields of the form phi F tilde F/f, as in the case of axions. It is known that this leads to an instability, with exponential amplification of gauge fields, controlled by the parameter ξ= dot phi/(2fH), which can strongly affect the generation of cosmological perturbations and even the background. We show that scattering rates involving gauge fields can become larger than the expansion rate H, due to the very large occupation numbers, and create a thermal bath of particles of temperature T during inflation. In the thermal regime, energy is transferred to smaller scales, radically modifying the predictions of this scenario. We thus argue that previous constraints on ξ are alleviated. If the gauge fields have Standard Model interactions, which naturally provides reheating, they thermalize already at ξgtrsim2.9, before perturbativity constraints and also before backreaction takes place. In absence of SM interactions (i.e. for a dark photon), we find that gauge fields and inflaton perturbations thermalize if ξgtrsim3.4 however, observations require ξgtrsim6, which is above the perturbativity and backreaction bounds and so a dedicated study is required. After thermalization, though, the system should evolve non-trivially due to the competition between the instability and the gauge field thermal mass. If the thermal mass and the instabilities equilibrate, we expect an equilibrium temperature of Teq simeq ξ H/bar g where bar g is the effective gauge coupling. Finally, we estimate the spectrum of perturbations if phi is thermal and find that the tensor to scalar ratio is suppressed by H/(2T), if tensors do not thermalize.

  18. First field application of a thermal desorption resonance-enhanced multiphoton-ionisation single particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer for the on-line detection of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Oster, Markus; Elsasser, Michael; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf


    The on-line analysis of single aerosol particles with mass spectrometrical methods is an important tool for the investigation of aerosols. Often, a single laser pulse is used for one-step laser desorption/ionisation of aerosol particles. Resulting ions are detected with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. With this method, the detection of inorganic compounds is possible. The detection of more fragile organic compounds and carbon clusters can be accomplished by separating the desorption and the ionisation in two steps, e.g. by using two laser pulses. A further method is, using a heated metal surface for thermal desorption of aerosol particles. If an ultraviolet laser is used for ionisation, a selective ionisation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkylated PAH is possible via a resonance-enhanced multiphoton-ionisation process. Laser velocimetry allows individual laser triggering for single particles and additionally delivers information on aerodynamic particle diameters. It was shown that particles deriving from different combustion sources can be differentiated according to their PAH patterns. For example, retene, a C(4)-alkylated phenanthrene derivative, is a marker for the combustion of coniferous wood. In this paper, the first field application of a thermal desorption resonance-enhanced multiphoton-ionisation single particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer during a measurement campaign in Augsburg, Germany in winter 2010 is presented. Larger PAH-containing particles (i.e. with aerodynamic diameters larger than 1 μm), which are suspected to be originated by re-suspension processes of agglomerated material, were in the focus of the investigation. Due to the low concentration of these particles, an on-line virtual impactor enrichment system was used. The detection of particle-bound PAH in ambient particles in this larger size region was possible and in addition, retene could be detected on several particles, which allows to identify wood combustion as

  19. Thermal comfort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L


    Full Text Available wider range of temperature limits, saving energy while still satisfying the majority of building occupants. It is also noted that thermal comfort varies significantly between individuals and it is generally not possible to provide a thermal environment...

  20. A sensitivity study on the effects of particle chemistry, asphericity and size on the mass extinction efficiency of mineral dust in the earth's atmosphere: from the near to thermal IR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Hansell Jr.


    Full Text Available To determine a plausible range of mass extinction efficiencies (MEE of terrestrial atmospheric dust from the near to thermal IR, sensitivity analyses are performed over an extended range of dust microphysical and chemistry perturbations. The IR values are subsequently compared to those in the near-IR, to evaluate spectral relationships in their optical properties. Synthesized size distributions consistent with measurements, model particle size, while composition is defined by the refractive indices of minerals routinely observed in dust, including the widely used OPAC/Hess parameterization. Single-scattering properties of representative dust particle shapes are calculated using the T-matrix, Discrete Dipole Approximation and Lorenz-Mie light-scattering codes. For the parameterizations examined, MEE ranges from nearly zero to 1.2 m2 g−1, with the higher values associated with non-spheres composed of quartz and gypsum. At near-IR wavelengths, MEE for non-spheres generally exceeds those for spheres, while in the thermal IR, shape-induced changes in MEE strongly depend on volume median diameter (VMD and wavelength, particularly for MEE evaluated at the mineral resonant frequencies. MEE spectral distributions appear to follow particle geometry and are evidence for shape dependency in the optical properties. It is also shown that non-spheres best reproduce the positions of prominent absorption peaks found in silicates. Generally, angular particles exhibit wider and more symmetric MEE spectral distribution patterns from 8–10 μm than those with smooth surfaces, likely due to their edge-effects. Lastly, MEE ratios allow for inferring dust optical properties across the visible-IR spectrum. We conclude the MEE of dust aerosol are significant for the parameter space investigated, and are a key component for remote sensing applications and the study of direct aerosol radiative effects.

  1. A Sensitivity Study on the Effects of Particle Chemistry, Asphericity and Size on the Mass Extinction Efficiency of Mineral Dust in the Earth's Atmosphere: From the Near to Thermal IR (United States)

    Hansell, R. A., Jr.; Reid, J. S.; Tsay, S. C.; Roush, T. L.; Kalashnikova, O. V.


    To determine a plausible range of mass extinction efficiencies (MEE) of terrestrial atmospheric dust from the near to thermal IR, sensitivity analyses are performed over an extended range of dust microphysical and chemistry perturbations. The IR values are subsequently compared to those in the near-IR, to evaluate spectral relationships in their optical properties. Synthesized size distributions consistent with measurements, model particle size, while composition is defined by the refractive indices of minerals routinely observed in dust, including the widely used OPAC/Hess parameterization. Single-scattering properties of representative dust particle shapes are calculated using the T-matrix, Discrete Dipole Approximation and Lorenz-Mie light-scattering codes. For the parameterizations examined, MEE ranges from nearly zero to 1.2 square meters per gram, with the higher values associated with non-spheres composed of quartz and gypsum. At near-IR wavelengths, MEE for non-spheres generally exceeds those for spheres, while in the thermal IR, shape-induced changes in MEE strongly depend on volume median diameter (VMD) and wavelength, particularly for MEE evaluated at the mineral resonant frequencies. MEE spectral distributions appear to follow particle geometry and are evidence for shape dependency in the optical properties. It is also shown that non-spheres best reproduce the positions of prominent absorption peaks found in silicates. Generally, angular particles exhibit wider and more symmetric MEE spectral distribution patterns from 8-10 micrometers than those with smooth surfaces, likely due to their edge-effects. Lastly, MEE ratios allow for inferring dust optical properties across the visible-IR spectrum. We conclude the MEE of dust aerosol are significant for the parameter space investigated, and are a key component for remote sensing applications and the study of direct aerosol radiative effects.

  2. High Performance Flexible Thermal Link (United States)

    Sauer, Arne; Preller, Fabian


    The paper deals with the design and performance verification of a high performance and flexible carbon fibre thermal link.Project goal was to design a space qualified thermal link combining low mass, flexibility and high thermal conductivity with new approaches regarding selected materials and processes. The idea was to combine the advantages of existing metallic links regarding flexibility and the thermal performance of high conductive carbon pitch fibres. Special focus is laid on the thermal performance improvement of matrix systems by means of nano-scaled carbon materials in order to improve the thermal performance also perpendicular to the direction of the unidirectional fibres.One of the main challenges was to establish a manufacturing process which allows handling the stiff and brittle fibres, applying the matrix and performing the implementation into an interface component using unconventional process steps like thermal bonding of fibres after metallisation.This research was funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi).

  3. Thermal Management and Thermal Protection Systems (United States)

    Hasnain, Aqib


    During my internship in the Thermal Design Branch (ES3), I contributed to two main projects: i) novel passive thermal management system for future human exploration, ii) AVCOAT undercut thermal analysis. i) As NASA prepares to further expand human and robotic presence in space, it is well known that spacecraft architectures will be challenged with unprecedented thermal environments. Future exploration activities will have the need of thermal management systems that can provide higher reliability, mass and power reduction and increased performance. In an effort to start addressing the current technical gaps the NASA Johnson Space Center Passive Thermal Discipline has engaged in technology development activities. One of these activities was done through an in-house Passive Thermal Management System (PTMS) design for a lunar lander. The proposed PTMS, functional in both microgravity and gravity environments, consists of three main components: a heat spreader, a novel hybrid wick Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP), and a radiator. The aim of this PTMS is to keep electronics on a vehicle within their temperature limits (0 and 50 C for the current design) during all mission phases including multiple lunar day/night cycles. The VCHP was tested to verify its thermal performance. I created a thermal math model using Thermal Desktop (TD) and analyzed it to predict the PTMS performance. After testing, the test data provided a means to correlate the thermal math model. This correlation took into account conduction and convection heat transfer, representing the actual benchtop test. Since this PTMS is proposed for space missions, a vacuum test will be taking place to provide confidence that the system is functional in space environments. Therefore, the model was modified to include a vacuum chamber with a liquid nitrogen shroud while taking into account conduction and radiation heat transfer. Infrared Lamps were modelled and introduced into the model to simulate the sun

  4. Precise determination of the absolute isotopic abundance ratio and the atomic weight of chlorine in three international reference materials by the positive thermal ionization mass spectrometer-Cs2Cl+-graphite method. (United States)

    Wei, Hai-Zhen; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Xiao, Ying-Kai; Wang, Jun; Lu, Hai; Wu, Bin; Wu, He-Pin; Li, Qing; Luo, Chong-Guang


    Because the variation in chlorine isotopic abundances of naturally occurring chlorine bearing substances is significant, the IUPAC Inorganic Chemistry Division, Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (CIAAW-IUPAC) decided that the uncertainty of atomic weight of chlorine (A(r)(Cl)) should be increased so that the implied range was related to terrestrial variability in 1999 (Coplen, T. B. Atomic weights of the elements 1999 (IUPAC Technical Report), Pure Appl. Chem.2001, 73(4), 667-683; and then, it emphasized that the standard atomic weights of ten elements including chlorine were not constants of nature but depend upon the physical, chemical, and nuclear history of the materials in 2009 (Wieser, M. E.; Coplen, T. B. Pure Appl. Chem.2011, 83(2), 359-396). According to the agreement by CIAAW that an atomic weight could be defined for one specified sample of terrestrial origin (Wieser, M. E.; Coplen, T. B. Pure Appl. Chem.2011, 83(2), 359-396), the absolute isotope ratios and atomic weight of chlorine in standard reference materials (NIST 975, NIST 975a, ISL 354) were accurately determined using the high-precision positive thermal ionization mass spectrometer (PTIMS)-Cs(2)Cl(+)-graphite method. After eliminating the weighing error caused from evaporation by designing a special weighing container and accurately determining the chlorine contents in two highly enriched Na(37)Cl and Na(35)Cl salts by the current constant coulometric titration, one series of gravimetric synthetic mixtures prepared from two highly enriched Na(37)Cl and Na(35)Cl salts was used to calibrate two thermal ionization mass spectrometers in two individual laboratories. The correction factors (i.e., K(37/35) = R(37/35meas)/R(37/35calc)) were obtained from five cycles of iterative calculations on the basis of calculated and determined R((37)Cl/(35)Cl) values in gravimetric synthetic mixtures. The absolute R((37)Cl/(35)Cl) ratios for NIST SRM 975, NIST 975a, and ISL 354 by the precise

  5. Development of a Method for the Quantitation of Three Thiols in Beer, Hop, and Wort Samples by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction with in Situ Derivatization and Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Kishimoto, Toru


    A method for analysis of hop-derived polyfunctional thiols, such as 4-sulfanyl-4-methylpentan-2-one (4S4M2Pone), 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (3SHol), and 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (3SHA), in beer, hop water extract, and wort at nanogram per liter levels was developed. The method employed stir bar sorptive extraction with in situ derivatization (der-SBSE) using ethyl propiolate (ETP), followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS/MS) with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. A prior step involved structural identification of the ETP derivatives of the thiols by TD-GC-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry with parallel sulfur chemiluminescence detection (Q-TOF-MS/SCD) after similar der-SBSE. The der-SBSE conditions of the ETP concentration, buffer concentration, salt addition, and extraction time profiles were investigated, and the performance of the method was demonstrated with spiked beer samples. The limits of detection (LODs) (0.19-27 ng/L) are below the odor threshold levels of all analytes. The apparent recoveries at 10-100 ng/L (99-101%) and the repeatabilities [relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.3-7.2%; n = 6] are also good. The method was successfully applied to the determination of target thiols at nanogram per liter levels in three kinds of beer samples (hopped with Cascade, Citra, and Nelson Sauvin) and the corresponding hop water extracts and wort samples. There was a clear correlation between the determined values and the characteristics of citrus hop aroma for each sample.

  6. Mass Spectrometry of Halopyrazolium Salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elfinn; Egsgaard, Helge; Pande, U. C.


    Eleven halogen substituted 1-methyl-2-phenylpyrazolium bromides or chlorides were investigated by field desorption, field ionization, and electron impact mass spectrometry. Dealkylation was found to be the predominant thermal decomposition. An exchange between covalent and ionic halogen prior...

  7. Ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using the Taguchi design method for bisphenol migration studies from thermal printer paper, toys and baby utensils. (United States)

    Viñas, Pilar; López-García, Ignacio; Campillo, Natalia; Rivas, Ricardo E; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel


    The optimization of a clean procedure based on ultrasound-assisted emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction for the sensitive determination of four bisphenols is presented. The miniaturized technique was coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after derivatization by in situ acetylation. The Taguchi experimental method, an orthogonal array design, was applied to find the optimal combination of seven factors (each factor at three levels) influencing the emulsification, extraction and collection efficiency, namely acetic anhydride volume, sodium phosphate concentration, carbon tetrachloride volume, aqueous sample volume, sodium chloride concentration and ultrasound power and application time. A second factorial design was applied with four factors and five levels for each factor, 25 experiments being performed in this instance. The matrix effect was evaluated, and it was concluded that sample quantification can be done by calibration with aqueous standards. The detection limits ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 ng mL(-1) depending on the compound. The environmentally friendly sample pretreatment procedure was applied to study the migration of the bisphenols from different types of samples: thermal printer paper, compact discs, digital versatile discs, small tight-fitting waistcoats, baby's bottles, baby bottle nipples of different materials and children's toys.

  8. Evaluation of the solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge method in combination with thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) for the analysis of different VOCs in liquid matrices in varying pH conditions. (United States)

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun


    In this study, the solid-phase extraction (SPE) method combined with thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) method is evaluated for the analysis of liquid-phase volatile organic compounds (LVOCs). Calibration experiments were performed on a number of polar and nonpolar LVOCs (including aromatic compounds, ester, ketones, and alcohol) as a function of solution pH. If the relative sensitivity of the SPE-TD-GC-MS method is compared between different VOCs across a wide range of pH (1, 4, 7, 10, and 13), optimum sensitivities for most VOCs are derived at the neutral pH. However, there were some exceptions to the general trend with the maximum sensitivity occurring either at a moderately basic pH (methyl isobutyl ketone and butyl acetate) or extremely acidic conditions (isobutyl alcohol). It was also noticed that the relative ordering of sensitivity was changed, as the pH conditions of the solution vary. The use of internal standard (IS: chlorobenzene) resulted in a notable improvement in both relative sensitivity and reproducibility for most compounds. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Constraining Non-thermal and Thermal properties of Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupal eDev


    Full Text Available We describe the evolution of Dark Matter (DM abundance from the very onset of its creation from inflaton decay under the assumption of an instantaneous reheating. Based on the initial conditions such as the inflaton mass and its decay branching ratio to the DM species, the reheating temperature, and the mass and interaction rate of the DM with the thermal bath, the DM particles can either thermalize (fully/partially with the primordial bath or remain non-thermal throughout their evolution history. In the thermal case, the final abundance is set by the standard freeze-out mechanism for large annihilation rates, irrespective of the initial conditions. For smaller annihilation rates, it can be set by the freeze-in mechanism which also does not depend on the initial abundance, provided it is small to begin with. For even smaller interaction rates, the DM decouples while being non-thermal, and the relic abundance will be essentially set by the initial conditions. We put model-independent constraints on the DM mass and annihilation rate from over-abundance by exactly solving the relevant Boltzmann equations, and identify the thermal freeze-out, freeze-in and non-thermal regions of the allowed parameter space. We highlight a generic fact that inflaton decay to DM inevitably leads to an overclosure of the Universe for a large range of DM parameter space, and thus poses a stringent constraint that must be taken into account while constructing models of DM. For the thermal DM region, we also show the complementary constraints from indirect DM search experiments, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Cosmic Microwave Background, Planck measurements, and theoretical limits due to the unitarity of S-matrix. For the non-thermal DM scenario, we show the allowed parameter space in terms of the inflaton and DM masses for a given reheating temperature, and compute the comoving free-streaming length to identify the hot, warm and cold DM regimes.

  10. Thermal Properties of G-348 Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEligot, Donald M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swank, W. David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cottle, David L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Valentin, Francisco I. [City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States)


    Fundamental measurements have been obtained in the INL Graphite Characterization Laboratory to deduce the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity for G-348 isotropic graphite, which has been used by City College of New York in thermal experiments related to gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Measurements of thermal diffusivity, mass, volume and thermal expansion were converted to thermal conductivity in accordance with ASTM Standard Practice C781-08 (R-2014). Data are tabulated and a preliminary correlation for the thermal conductivity is presented as a function of temperature from laboratory temperature to 1000C.

  11. Evaluation of the stability of a mixture of volatile organic compounds on sorbents for the determination of emissions from indoor materials and products using thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Brown, Veronica M; Crump, Derrick R; Plant, Neil T; Pengelly, Ian


    The standard method for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor and test chamber air (ISO 16000-6:2011) specifies sampling onto the sorbent Tenax TA followed by analysis using thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS). The informative Annex D to the standard suggests the use of multi-sorbent samplers to extend the volatility range of compounds which can be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the storage performance of Tenax TA and two multi-sorbent tubes loaded with a mixture of nine VOCs of relevance for material emissions testing. The sorbent combinations tested were quartz wool/Tenax TA/Carbograph™ 5TD and quartz wool/Tenax TA/Carbopack™ X. A range of loading levels, loading conditions (humidities and air volume), storage times (1-4 weeks) and storage conditions (refrigerated and ambient) were investigated. Longer term storage trials (up to 1 year) were conducted with Tenax TA tubes to evaluate the stability of tubes used for proficiency testing (PT) of material emissions analyses. The storage performance of the multi-sorbent tubes tested was found to be equal to that for Tenax TA, with recoveries after 4 weeks storage of within about 10% of the amounts loaded. No consistent differences in recoveries were found for the different loading or storage conditions. The longer term storage trials also showed good recovery for these compounds, although two other compounds, hexanal and BHT, were found to be unstable when stored on Tenax TA. The results of this study provide confidence in the stability of nine analytes for up to 4 weeks on two multi-sorbent tubes for material emissions testing and the same compounds loaded on Tenax TA sorbent for a recently introduced PT scheme for material emissions testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for detection and quantification of urea thermal decomposition by-products in emission from diesel engine employing selective catalytic reduction technology. (United States)

    Yassine, Mahmoud M; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Celo, Valbona


    The use of urea based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the reduction of NOx from the exhaust of diesel-powered vehicles has the potential to emit at least six thermal decomposition by-products, ammonia, and unreacted urea from the tailpipe. These compounds may include: biuret, dicyandiamine, cyanuric acid, ammelide, ammeline and melamine. In the present study, a simple, sensitive and reliable hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-electrospray ionization (ESI)/mass spectrometry (MS) method without complex sample pre-treatment was developed for identification and determination of urea decomposition by-products in diesel exhaust. Gradient separation was performed on a SeQuant ZIC-HILIC column with a highly polar zwitterionic stationary phase, and using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (eluent A) and 15 mM ammonium formate (pH 6; eluent B). Detection and quantification were performed using a quadrupole ESI/MS operated simultaneously in negative and positive mode. With 10 μL injection volume, LODs for all target analytes were in the range of 0.2-3 μg/L. The method showed a good inter-day precision of retention time (RSD<0.5%) and peak area (RSD<3%). Satisfactory extraction recoveries from spiked blanks ranged between 96 and 98%. Analyses of samples collected during transient chassis dynamometer tests of a bus engine equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and urea based SCR technology showed the presence of five target analytes with cyanuric acid and ammelide the most abundant compounds in the exhaust. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. DECOVALEX III III/BENCHPAR PROJECTS. Approaches to Upscaling Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Processes in a Fractured Rock. Mass and its Significance for Large-Scale Repository Performance Assessment. Summary of Findings. Report of BMT2/WP3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan (comp.) [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Staub, Isabelle (comp.) [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Knight, Les (comp.) [Nirex UK Ltd, Oxon (United Kingdom)


    The Benchmark Test 2 of DECOVALEX III and Work Package 3 of BENCHPAR concerns the upscaling Thermal (T), Hydrological (H) and Mechanical (M) processes in a fractured rock mass and its significance for large-scale repository performance assessment. The work is primarily concerned with the extent to which various thermo-hydro-mechanical couplings in a fractured rock mass adjacent to a repository are significant in terms of solute transport typically calculated in large-scale repository performance assessments. Since the presence of even quite small fractures may control the hydraulic, mechanical and coupled hydromechanical behaviour of the rock mass, a key of the work has been to explore the extent to which these can be upscaled and represented by 'equivalent' continuum properties appropriate PA calculations. From these general aims the BMT was set-up as a numerical study of a large scale reference problem. Analysing this reference problem should: help explore how different means of simplifying the geometrical detail of a site, with its implications on model parameters, ('upscaling') impacts model predictions of relevance to repository performance, explore to what extent the THM-coupling needs to be considered in relation to PA-measures, compare the uncertainties in upscaling (both to uncertainty on how to upscale or uncertainty that arises due to the upscaling processes) and consideration of THM couplings with the inherent uncertainty and spatial variability of the site specific data. Furthermore, it has been an essential component of the work that individual teams not only produce numerical results but are forced to make their own judgements and to provide the proper justification for their conclusions based on their analysis. It should also be understood that conclusions drawn will partly be specific to the problem analysed, in particular as it mainly concerns a 2D application. This means that specific conclusions may have limited applicability

  14. Thermal Resonance in Signal Transmission


    Reigada Sanz, Ramon; Sarmiento, Antonio; Lindenberg, Katja


    We use temperature tuning to control signal propagation in simple one-dimensional arrays of masses connected by hard anharmonic springs and with no local potentials. In our numerical model a sustained signal is applied at one site of a chain immersed in a thermal environment and the signal-to-noise ratio is measured at each oscillator. We show that raising the temperature can lead to enhanced signal propagation along the chain, resulting in thermal resonance effects akin to the resonance obse...

  15. Thermal Runaway Severity Reduction Assessment and Implementation: On Li-Ion Batteries (United States)

    Darcy, Eric


    Preventing cell-cell thermal runaway propagation and flames/sparks from exiting battery enclosure is possible with proper thermal & electrical design and cell thermal runaway ejecta/effluent management and can be had with minimal mass/volume penalty.

  16. Measurement of breakthrough volumes of volatile chemical warfare agents on a poly(2,6-diphenylphenylene oxide)-based adsorbent and application to thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis. (United States)

    Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Seto, Yasuo


    To establish adequate on-site solvent trapping of volatile chemical warfare agents (CWAs) from air samples, we measured the breakthrough volumes of CWAs on three adsorbent resins by an elution technique using direct electron ionization mass spectrometry. The trapping characteristics of Tenax(®) TA were better than those of Tenax(®) GR and Carboxen(®) 1016. The latter two adsorbents showed non-reproducible breakthrough behavior and low VX recovery. The specific breakthrough values were more than 44 (sarin) L/g Tenax(®) TA resin at 20°C. Logarithmic values of specific breakthrough volume for four nerve agents (sarin, soman, tabun, and VX) showed a nearly linear correlation with the reciprocals of their boiling points, but the data point of sulfur mustard deviated from this linear curve. Next, we developed a method to determine volatile CWAs in ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography (TD-GC/MS). CWA solutions that were spiked into the Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes were analyzed by a two-stage TD-GC/MS using a Tenax(®) TA-packed cold trap tube. Linear calibration curves for CWAs retained in the resin tubes were obtained in the range between 0.2pL and 100pL for sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard; and between 2pL and 100pL for VX and Russian VX. We also examined the stability of CWAs in Tenax(®) TA tubes purged with either dry or 50% relative humidity air under storage conditions at room temperature or 4°C. More than 80% sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard were recovered from the tubes within 2 weeks. In contrast, the recoveries of VX and Russian VX drastically reduced with storage time at room temperature, resulting in a drop to 10-30% after 2 weeks. Moreover, we examined the trapping efficiency of Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes for vaporized CWA samples (100mL) prepared in a 500mL gas sampling cylinder. In the concentration range of 0.2-2.5mg/m(3), >50% of sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and HD were

  17. Thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor


    Thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the indoor environmental quality due to its effects on well-being, people's performance and building energy requirements. Its attainment is not an easy task requiring advanced design and operation of building and HVAC systems, taking...... under specific conditions. At operation level, only few variables are taken into account with unpredictable effects on the assessment of comfort indices. In this paper, the main criteria for the design and assessment of thermal comfort are discussed in order to help building and HVAC systems designers...... into account all parameters involved. Even though thermal comfort fundamentals are consolidated topics for more than forty years, often designers seem to ignore or apply them in a wrong way. Design input values from standards are often considered as universal values rather than recommended values to be used...

  18. Thermal defoliation (United States)

    The negative perception some consumers hold regarding agricultural chemicals has resulted in an increased demand for organic foods and fibers, and in increasing political pressure for the regulation of agricultural production practices. This has revived interest in thermal defoliation of cotton and ...

  19. Holographic thermalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramanian, V.; Bernamonti, A.; de Boer, J.; Copland, N.; Craps, B.; Keski-Vakkuri, E.; Müller, B.; Schäfer, A.; Shigemori, M.; Staessens, W.


    Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we probe the scale-dependence of thermalization in strongly coupled field theories following a quench, via calculations of two-point functions, Wilson loops and entanglement entropy in d=2,3,4. In the saddlepoint approximation these probes are computed in AdS space

  20. Nominal Mass? (United States)

    Attygalle, Athula B.; Pavlov, Julius


    The current IUPAC-recommended definition of the term "nominal mass," based on the most abundant naturally occurring stable isotope of an element, is flawed. We propose that Nominal mass should be defined as the sum of integer masses of protons and neutrons in any chemical species. In this way, all isotopes and isotopologues can be assigned a definitive identifier.

  1. Thermal Hardware for the Thermal Analyst (United States)

    Steinfeld, David


    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). NCTS 21070-1. Most Thermal analysts do not have a good background into the hardware which thermally controls the spacecraft they design. SINDA and Thermal Desktop models are nice, but knowing how this applies to the actual thermal hardware (heaters, thermostats, thermistors, MLI blanketing, optical coatings, etc...) is just as important. The course will delve into the thermal hardware and their application techniques on actual spacecraft. Knowledge of how thermal hardware is used and applied will make a thermal analyst a better engineer.

  2. Spacecraft Thermal Management (United States)

    Hurlbert, Kathryn Miller


    In the 21st century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Federal Space Agency, the National Space Agency of Ukraine, the China National Space Administration, and many other organizations representing spacefaring nations shall continue or newly implement robust space programs. Additionally, business corporations are pursuing commercialization of space for enabling space tourism and capital business ventures. Future space missions are likely to include orbiting satellites, orbiting platforms, space stations, interplanetary vehicles, planetary surface missions, and planetary research probes. Many of these missions will include humans to conduct research for scientific and terrestrial benefits and for space tourism, and this century will therefore establish a permanent human presence beyond Earth s confines. Other missions will not include humans, but will be autonomous (e.g., satellites, robotic exploration), and will also serve to support the goals of exploring space and providing benefits to Earth s populace. This section focuses on thermal management systems for human space exploration, although the guiding principles can be applied to unmanned space vehicles as well. All spacecraft require a thermal management system to maintain a tolerable thermal environment for the spacecraft crew and/or equipment. The requirements for human rating and the specified controlled temperature range (approximately 275 K - 310 K) for crewed spacecraft are unique, and key design criteria stem from overall vehicle and operational/programatic considerations. These criteria include high reliability, low mass, minimal power requirements, low development and operational costs, and high confidence for mission success and safety. This section describes the four major subsystems for crewed spacecraft thermal management systems, and design considerations for each. Additionally, some examples of specialized or advanced thermal system technologies are presented

  3. Electronic Equipment Cooling by Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer, (United States)


  4. Thermal Clothing (United States)


    Gateway Technologies, Inc. is marketing and developing textile insulation technology originally developed by Triangle Research and Development Corporation. The enhanced thermal insulation stems from Small Business Innovation Research contracts from NASA's Johnson Space Center and the U.S. Air Force. The effectiveness of the insulation comes from the microencapsulated phase-change materials originally made to keep astronauts gloved hands warm. The applications for the product range from outer wear, housing insulation, and blankets to protective firefighting gear and scuba diving suits. Gateway has developed and begun marketing thermal regulating products under the trademark, OUTLAST. Products made from OUTLAST are already on the market, including boot and shoe liners, winter headgear, hats and caps for hunting and other outdoor sports, and a variety of men's and women's ski gloves.

  5. Turbulent Thermalization

    CERN Document Server

    Micha, Raphael; Micha, Raphael; Tkachev, Igor I.


    We study, analytically and with lattice simulations, the decay of coherent field oscillations and the subsequent thermalization of the resulting stochastic classical wave-field. The problem of reheating of the Universe after inflation constitutes our prime motivation and application of the results. We identify three different stages of these processes. During the initial stage of ``parametric resonance'', only a small fraction of the initial inflaton energy is transferred to fluctuations in the physically relevant case of sufficiently large couplings. A major fraction is transfered in the prompt regime of driven turbulence. The subsequent long stage of thermalization classifies as free turbulence. During the turbulent stages, the evolution of particle distribution functions is self-similar. We show that wave kinetic theory successfully describes the late stages of our lattice calculation. Our analytical results are general and give estimates of reheating time and temperature in terms of coupling constants and...

  6. Management of Mass Casualty Burn Disasters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Pruitt, Basil A


    Mass casualty burn disasters are potentially challenging, in part because the majority of health care providers are inexperienced in the care of thermally injured patients and in part because of the...

  7. Water/rock interactions and mass transport within a thermal gradient Application to the confinement of high level nuclear waste; Interactions solide/solution et transferts de matiere dans un gradient de temperature. Application au confinement des dechets nucleaires de haute-activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poinssot, Ch. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets]|[Ecole Normale Superieure, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Laboratoire de Geologie


    The initial stage of a high level nuclear waste disposal will be characterised by a large heat release within the near-field environment of the canisters. This heat flux caused by radioactive decay will lead to an increase of temperature and a subsequent thermal gradient between the `hot` canisters and the `cold`geological medium. In addition, this thermal gradient will decrease with time due to the heat decay although it could last hundred years. What will be the consequences of such a thermal field varying both on space and time for the alteration of the different constituents of the near field environment. In particular, what could be the effects on the radionuclides migration in the accidental case of an early breach of a canister during the thermal stage? This study brings significant answers to these questions in the light of a performance assessment study. This work is supported by a triple methodological approach involving experimental studies, modelling calculations and a natural analogues study. This complete work demonstrates that a thermal gradient leads to a large re-distribution of elements within the system: some elements are incorporated in the solid phases of the hot end (Si, Zr, Ca) whereas some others are in those of the cold end (Fe, Al, Zn). The confrontation of the results of very simple experiments with the results of a model built on equilibrium thermodynamics allow us to evidence the probable mechanisms causing this mass transport: out-of-equilibrium thermodiffusion processes coupled to irreversible precipitation. Moreover, the effects of the variation of temperatures with time is studied by the way of a natural system which underwent a similar temperature evolution as a disposal and which was initially rich in uranium: the Jurassic Alpine bauxites. In addition, part of the initial bauxite escaped this temperature transformations due to their incorporation in outer thrusting nappes. They are used as a reference. (author)

  8. Lunar roving vehicle thermal control system. (United States)

    Elliott, R. G.; Paoletti, C. J.; Britt, M. A.


    A thermal control system was incorporated into the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) to maintain temperature sensitive components within appropriate temperature limits during the translunar transportation phase, lunar surface operation, and quiescent periods between lunar traverses. This paper describes the thermal control system and discusses its thermal characteristics during all phases of operation. The basic concept is a passive system which stores internally generated energy during operation with subsequent radiation to space. The external environments are regulated by selected radiative surface finishes. Multi-layer insulation blankets, space radiators, flexible thermal straps, and fusible mass heat sinks were designed to control the temperatures of the electronic components.

  9. Heat switch technology for cryogenic thermal management (United States)

    Shu, Q. S.; Demko, J. A.; E Fesmire, J.


    Systematic review is given of development of novel heat switches at cryogenic temperatures that alternatively provide high thermal connection or ideal thermal isolation to the cold mass. These cryogenic heat switches are widely applied in a variety of unique superconducting systems and critical space applications. The following types of heat switch devices are discussed: 1) magnetic levitation suspension, 2) shape memory alloys, 3) differential thermal expansion, 4) helium or hydrogen gap-gap, 5) superconducting, 6) piezoelectric, 7) cryogenic diode, 8) magneto-resistive, and 9) mechanical demountable connections. Advantages and limitations of different cryogenic heat switches are examined along with the outlook for future thermal management solutions in materials and cryogenic designs.

  10. Thermal insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, R.; Asada, Y.; Matsuo, Y.; Mikoda, M.


    A thermal insulator comprises an expanded resin body having embedded therein an evacuated powder insulation portion which consists of fine powder and a container of film-like plastics or a film-like composite of plastics and metal for enclosing the powder. The resin body has been expanded by a Freon gas as a blowing agent. Since a Freon gas has a larger molecular diameter than the constituent gases of air, it is less likely to permeate through the container than air. Thus present invention provides a novel composite insulator which fully utilizes the benefits of vacuum insulation without necessitating a strong and costly material for a vacuum container.

  11. Concentrating solar thermal power. (United States)

    Müller-Steinhagen, Hans


    In addition to wind and photovoltaic power, concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) will make a major contribution to electricity provision from renewable energies. Drawing on almost 30 years of operational experience in the multi-megawatt range, CSP is now a proven technology with a reliable cost and performance record. In conjunction with thermal energy storage, electricity can be provided according to demand. To date, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity of 1.3 GW are in operation worldwide, with an additional 2.3 GW under construction and 31.7 GW in advanced planning stage. Depending on the concentration factors, temperatures up to 1000°C can be reached to produce saturated or superheated steam for steam turbine cycles or compressed hot gas for gas turbine cycles. The heat rejected from these thermodynamic cycles can be used for sea water desalination, process heat and centralized provision of chilled water. While electricity generation from CSP plants is still more expensive than from wind turbines or photovoltaic panels, its independence from fluctuations and daily variation of wind speed and solar radiation provides it with a higher value. To become competitive with mid-load electricity from conventional power plants within the next 10-15 years, mass production of components, increased plant size and planning/operating experience will be accompanied by technological innovations. On 30 October 2009, a number of major industrial companies joined forces to establish the so-called DESERTEC Industry Initiative, which aims at providing by 2050 15 per cent of European electricity from renewable energy sources in North Africa, while at the same time securing energy, water, income and employment for this region. Solar thermal power plants are in the heart of this concept.

  12. Neutrino masses

    CERN Document Server

    Gelmini, Graciela B; Gelmini, Graciela; Roulet, Esteban


    This is a review for Reports of Progress in Physics. After an introduction we start by explaining the different neutrino masses corresponding to different types of neutrinos, Dirac or Majorana, in section 2. In section 3 we discuss the main elementary particle models for neutrino masses and their distinctive phenomenological consequences. In section 4 we describe the status of direct mass searches and Majorana mass searches in neutrinoless double beta decays. In section 5 we go over the many cosmological implications of, and constraints on, neutrino properties, mainly masses and lifetimes. Sections 6, 7 and 8 review neutrino oscillations, the solar neutrino problem and the atmospheric neutrino problem, their implications and the current and future experiments. In particular, we explain oscillations in vacuum in section 6 and oscillations in matter in section 7. Section 9 summarizes the main bounds imposed by stars, mainly SN1987A. A few concluding remarks follow.

  13. Mass Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian


    the negative features usually ascribed by late nineteenth-century crowd psychology to spontaneous crowds, and attributes these to the entire social fabric. However, in contrast to crowd psychology, theorists of mass society often place greater emphasis on how capitalism, technological advances, or demographic......Mass society is a societal diagnosis that emphasizes – usually in a pejorative, modernity critical manner – a series of traits allegedly associated with modern society, such as the leveling of individuality, moral decay, alienation, and isolation. As such, the notion of mass society generalizes...... developments condition such negative features, and some theorists argue that mass society produces a propensity to totalitarianism. Discussions of mass society culminated in the early and mid-twentieth century....

  14. The effects of thermal radiation and viscous dissipation on MHD heat and mass diffusion flow past an oscillating vertical plate embedded in a porous medium with variable surface conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore P.M.


    Full Text Available This investigation is undertaken to study the hydromagnetic flow of a viscous incompressible fluid past an oscillating vertical plate embedded in a porous medium with radiation, viscous dissipation and variable heat and mass diffusion. Governing equations are solved by unconditionally stable explicit finite difference method of DuFort - Frankel’s type for concentration, temperature, vertical velocity field and skin - friction and they are presented graphically for different values of physical parameters involved. It is observed that plate oscillation, variable mass diffusion, radiation, viscous dissipation and porous medium affect the flow pattern significantly.

  15. Improved fatty acid detection in micro-algae and aquatic meiofauna species using a direct thermal desorption interface combined with comprehensive gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, Lawrence; Stellaard, Frans; Irth, Hubertus; Vreuls, Rene J. J.; Pel, Roel


    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection is used to profile the fatty acid composition of whole/intact aquatic microorganisms such as the common fresh water green algae Scenedesmus acutus and the filamentous cyanobacterium Limnothrix

  16. Improved fatty acid detection in micro-algae and aquatic meiofauna species using a direct thermal desorption interface combined with comprehensive gas chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, L.; Stellaard, F.; Irth, H.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Pel, R.


    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection is used to profile the fatty acid composition of whole/intact aquatic microorganisms such as the common fresh water green algae Scenedesmus acutus and the filamentous cyanobacterium Limnothrix

  17. Improved fatty acid detection in micro-algae and aquatic meiofauna species using a direct thermal desorption interface combined with comprehensive gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, L.; Stellaard, F.; Irth, H.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Pel, R.


    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection is used to profile the fatty acid composition of whole/intact aquatic microorganisms such as the common fresh water green algae Scenedesmus acutus and the filamentous cyanobacterium Limnothrix

  18. Modifications induced by swift heavy ions in poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) (PHB/HV) and poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) films. Part 1. Thermal behaviour and molecular mass modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouxhet, L.; Legras, R. E-mail:


    Modifications induced by different energetic heavy ions in poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) (PHB/HV) have been investigated by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and steric exclusion chromatography (SEC). A certain dose of damages, depending mainly on the charge and mass of the ion and on the intensity of irradiation, has to be overcome in order to detect any effect on PHB/HV. Actually, at a given intensity of irradiation, superior to 10{sup 10} ions/cm{sup 2}, the level of damage intensity increased with the increase in charge and mass of the ion. Moreover, according to the SEC results, there seems to be a critical mass and/or charge threshold above which the dominant type of damages changes. As a matter of fact, high-density irradiation with Ar{sup 9+} and Kr{sup 15+} resulted mainly in chain scission whereas cross-linking was dominant when irradiating the polymer with Xe{sup 24+} and Pb{sup 56+}. The irradiation of PCL in the conditions studied did not modify significantly the values of the melting point, the crystallisation temperature and the molecular masses of the system studied. The main effect of the irradiation detected by the DSC is the cross-linking of the polymer chains.

  19. Measuring Neutron Star Mass and Radius with Three Mass-Radius Relations


    Zhang, C. M.; Yin, H. X.; Kojima, Y.; Chang, H. K.; Xu, R. X.; Li, X. D.; Zhang, B.; Kiziltan, B.


    We propose to determine the mass and the radius of a neutron star (NS) using three measurable mass-radius relationships, namely the ``apparent'' radius inferred from neutron star thermal emission, the gravitational redshift inferred from the absorption lines, as well as the averaged stellar mass density inferred from the orbital Keplerian frequency derived from the kilohertz quasi periodic oscillation (kHz QPO) data. We apply the method to constrain the NS mass and the radius of the X-ray sou...

  20. Multipurpose Thermal Insulation Test Apparatus (United States)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Augustynowicz, Stanislaw D. (Inventor)


    A multi-purpose thermal insulation test apparatus is used for testing insulation materials, or other components. The test apparatus is a fluid boil-off calorimeter system for calibrated measurement of the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value) of a specimen material at a fixed vacuum level. The apparatus includes an inner vessel for receiving a fluid with a normal boiling point below ambient temperature, such as liquid nitrogen, enclosed within a vacuum chamber. A cold mass assembly, including the inner vessel and thermal guards, is suspended from the top of the vacuum chamber. Handling tools attach to the cold mass assembly for convenient manipulation of the assembly and for the installation or wrapping of insulation test materials. Liquid nitrogen is typically supplied to the inner vessel using a fill tube with funnel. A single port through the top of the vacuum chamber facilitates both filling and venting. Aerogel composite stacks with reflective films are fastened to the top and the bottom of the inner vessel as thermal guards. The comparative k-value of the insulation material is determined by measuring the boil-off flow rate of gas, the temperature differential across the insulation thickness, and the dimensions (length and diameters) of the test specimen.

  1. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.


    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  2. Fundamentals of Thermal Expansion and Thermal Contraction


    Liu, Zi-Kui; Shang, Shun-Li; Wang, Yi


    Thermal expansion is an important property of substances. Its theoretical prediction has been challenging, particularly in cases the volume decreases with temperature, i.e., thermal contraction or negative thermal expansion at high temperatures. In this paper, a new theory recently developed by the authors has been reviewed and further examined in the framework of fundamental thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Its applications to cerium with colossal thermal expansion and Fe3Pt with th...

  3. Mass metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S V


    This book presents the practical aspects of mass measurements. Concepts of gravitational, inertial and conventional mass and details of the variation of acceleration of gravity are described. The Metric Convention and International Prototype Kilogram and BIPM standards are described. The effect of change of gravity on the indication of electronic balances is derived with respect of latitude, altitude and earth topography. The classification of weights by OIML is discussed. Maximum permissible errors in different categories of weights prescribed by national and international organizations are p

  4. Thermal conductivity of graphene laminate. (United States)

    Malekpour, H; Chang, K-H; Chen, J-C; Lu, C-Y; Nika, D L; Novoselov, K S; Balandin, A A


    We have investigated thermal conductivity of graphene laminate films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates. Two types of graphene laminate were studied, as deposited and compressed, in order to determine the physical parameters affecting the heat conduction the most. The measurements were performed using the optothermal Raman technique and a set of suspended samples with the graphene laminate thickness from 9 to 44 μm. The thermal conductivity of graphene laminate was found to be in the range from 40 to 90 W/mK at room temperature. It was found unexpectedly that the average size and the alignment of graphene flakes are more important parameters defining the heat conduction than the mass density of the graphene laminate. The thermal conductivity scales up linearly with the average graphene flake size in both uncompressed and compressed laminates. The compressed laminates have higher thermal conductivity for the same average flake size owing to better flake alignment. Coating plastic materials with thin graphene laminate films that have up to 600× higher thermal conductivity than plastics may have important practical implications.

  5. Thermal Ablation Modeling for Silicate Materials (United States)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq


    A general thermal ablation model for silicates is proposed. The model includes the mass losses through the balance between evaporation and condensation, and through the moving molten layer driven by surface shear force and pressure gradient. This model can be applied in the ablation simulation of the meteoroid and the glassy ablator for spacecraft Thermal Protection Systems. Time-dependent axisymmetric computations are performed by coupling the fluid dynamics code, Data-Parallel Line Relaxation program, with the material response code, Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal Ablation simulation program, to predict the mass lost rates and shape change. The predicted mass loss rates will be compared with available data for model validation, and parametric studies will also be performed for meteoroid earth entry conditions.

  6. Mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvang Hartmeyer, Gitte; Jensen, Anne Kvistholm; Böcher, Sidsel


    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is currently being introduced for the rapid and accurate identification of bacteria. We describe 2 MALDI-TOF MS identification cases - 1 directly on spinal fluid and 1 on grown bacteria. Rapidly obtained r...

  7. Folding Elastic Thermal Surface - FETS (United States)

    Urquiza, Eugenio; Zhang, Burt X.; Thelen, Michael P.; Rodriquez, Jose I.; Pellegrino, Sergio


    the FETS is also self-locking so the panels stay in a rigid and extended configuration after deployment. This unexpected benefit makes the tape-spring hinge design of the FETS a light, simple, reliable, compact, non-outgassing hinge, spring, and latch. While tape-spring hinges are not novel, they have never been used to deploy passive unfolding thermal surfaces (radiator panels, covers, sun shades, or IR thermal shields). Furthermore, because this technology is compact, it has minimal impact on the launch envelope and mass specifications. FETS enhances the performance of hosted payload instruments where the science data is limited by dark noise. Incorporating FETS into a thermal control system increases radiator area, which lowers the optical detector temperature. This results in higher SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) and improved science data.

  8. Thermal coupling within LTP dynamics control loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nofrarias, M; Garcia Marin, A F; Heinzel, G; Hewitson, M; Danzmann, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein Institut (AEI), Callinstrasse 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Lobo, A; Sanjuan, J [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (ICE-CSIC), Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Ramos-Castro, J, E-mail: miquel.nofrarias@aei.mpg.d [Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, UPC, Campus Nord, Edifici C4, Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)


    The Diagnostic Subsytem in the LISA Technology Package (LTP) on board the LISA Pathfinder mission (LPF) will characterise those external disturbances with a potential impact on the performance of the experiment coming from either thermal, magnetic or charged particles perturbations. A correct design of the experiments to measure these effects in flight requires a closed loop analysis that takes into account the dynamics of the test masses, the force applied by the controllers and those noisy terms (coming from sensing or force noise) that enters into the loop. We describe this analysis in the thermal case and we give a first numerical example of the instrument response to controlled thermal inputs.

  9. Thermal Characterization of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer (United States)

    Samal, Sneha; Thanh, Nhan Phan; Marvalova, Bohdana; Petrikova, Iva


    Thermal characterization of geopolymer powder was investigated at room and elevated temperatures. The physical, chemical and mass change with respect to various temperatures have been studied. The physical properties such as density, porosity, and particle size were analyzed in geopolymer powder. The chemical and phase compositions were determined by x-ray fluorescence. The surface images of solid blocks of geopolymer were examined at room and elevated temperatures using scanning electron microscopy. Thermal expansion, shrinkage, and mass loss behavior towards the elevated temperatures were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The endothermic peak arising in the DSC curve is due to evaporation of water, chemical, gases and weight loss.

  10. Thermal Ignition (United States)

    Boettcher, Philipp Andreas

    Accidental ignition of flammable gases is a critical safety concern in many industrial applications. Particularly in the aviation industry, the main areas of concern on an aircraft are the fuel tank and adjoining regions, where spilled fuel has a high likelihood of creating a flammable mixture. To this end, a fundamental understanding of the ignition phenomenon is necessary in order to develop more accurate test methods and standards as a means of designing safer air vehicles. The focus of this work is thermal ignition, particularly auto-ignition with emphasis on the effect of heating rate, hot surface ignition and flame propagation, and puffing flames. Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels is traditionally separated into slow reaction, cool flame, and ignition regimes based on pressure and temperature. Standard tests, such as the ASTM E659, are used to determine the lowest temperature required to ignite a specific fuel mixed with air at atmospheric pressure. It is expected that the initial pressure and the rate at which the mixture is heated also influences the limiting temperature and the type of combustion. This study investigates the effect of heating rate, between 4 and 15 K/min, and initial pressure, in the range of 25 to 100 kPa, on ignition of n-hexane air mixtures. Mixtures with equivalence ratio ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 were investigated. The problem is also modeled computationally using an extension of Semenov's classical auto-ignition theory with a detailed chemical mechanism. Experiments and simulations both show that in the same reactor either a slow reaction or an ignition event can take place depending on the heating rate. Analysis of the detailed chemistry demonstrates that a mixture which approaches the ignition region slowly undergoes a significant modification of its composition. This change in composition induces a progressive shift of the explosion limit until the mixture is no longer flammable. A mixture that approaches the ignition region

  11. Advanced Fuel Cell System Thermal Management for NASA Exploration Missions (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.


    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA exploration program. An analysis of a state-of-the-art fuel cell cooling systems was done to benchmark the portion of a fuel cell system s mass that is dedicated to thermal management. Additional analysis was done to determine the key performance targets of the advanced passive thermal management technology that would substantially reduce fuel cell system mass.

  12. Leptogenesis. Theory and neutrino masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, W.


    After a brief discussion of baryon and lepton number nonconservation, we review the status of thermal leptogenesis with GUT scale neutrino masses, as well as low scale alternatives with keV neutrinos as dark matter and heavy neutrino masses within the reach of the LHC. Recent progress towards a full quantum mechanical description of leptogenesis is described with resonant leptogenesis as an application. Finally, cosmological B-L breaking after inflation is considered as origin of the hot early universe, generating entropy, baryon asymmetry and dark matter.

  13. Active Thermal Control Experiments for LISA Ground Verification Testing (United States)

    Higuchi, Sei; DeBra, Daniel B.


    The primary mission goal of LISA is detecting gravitational waves. LISA uses laser metrology to measure the distance between proof masses in three identical spacecrafts. The total acceleration disturbance to each proof mass is required to be below 3 × 10-15 m/s2√Hz . Optical path length variations on each optical bench must be kept below 40 pm/√Hz over 1 Hz to 0.1 mHz. Thermal variations due to, for example, solar radiation or temperature gradients across the proof mass housing will distort the spacecraft causing changes in the mass attraction and sensor location. We have developed a thermal control system developed for the LISA gravitational reference sensor (GRS) ground verification testing which provides thermal stability better than 1 mK/√Hz to f control for the LISA spacecraft to compensate solar irradiation. Thermally stable environment is very demanded for LISA performance verification. In a lab environment specifications can be met with considerable amount of insulation and thermal mass. For spacecraft, the very limited thermal mass calls for an active control system which can meet disturbance rejection and stability requirements simultaneously in the presence of long time delay. A simple proportional plus integral control law presently provides approximately 1 mK/√Hz of thermal stability for over 80 hours. Continuing development of a model predictive feed-forward algorithm will extend performance to below 1 mK/√Hz at f < 1 mHz and lower.

  14. Thermal Analyses and Verification for HAUSAT-2 Small Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Hyeon Lee


    Full Text Available HAUSAT-2 is nano satellite with 25 kg mass being developed by Space System Research Lab. in Hnakuk Aviation University. This paper addresses HAUSAT-2 small satellite thermal analyses and its verification at satellite system, electronic box, and PCB levels. Thermal model which is used for system-level and box-level thermal analyses was verified and corrected through thermal vacuum/balance test. The new board-level thermal analysis methodology, modelling high-power dissipating EEE parts directly, was proposed. The proposed methodology has been verified with test results.

  15. Thermal morphing anisogrid smart space structures: thermal isolation design and linearity evaluation (United States)

    Phoenix, Austin A.


    To meet the requirements for the next generation of space missions, a paradigm shift is required from current structures that are static, heavy and stiff, toward innovative structures that are adaptive, lightweight, versatile, and intelligent. A novel morphing structure, the thermally actuated anisogrid morphing boom, can be used to meet the design requirements by making the primary structure actively adapt to the on-orbit environment. The anisogrid structure is able to achieve high precision morphing control through the intelligent application of thermal gradients. This active primary structure improves structural and thermal stability performance, reduces mass, and enables new mission architectures. This effort attempts to address limits to the author's previous work by incorporating the impact of thermal coupling that was initially neglected. This paper introduces a thermally isolated version of the thermal morphing anisogrid structure in order to address the thermal losses between active members. To evaluate the isolation design the stiffness and thermal conductivity of these isolating interfaces need to be addressed. This paper investigates the performance of the thermal morphing system under a variety of structural and thermal isolation interface properties.

  16. Passenger thermal perceptions, thermal comfort requirements, and adaptations in short- and long-haul vehicles. (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Huang, Kuo-Tsang; Sun, Chen-Yi; Huang, Ying-Che


    While thermal comfort in mass transportation vehicles is relevant to service quality and energy consumption, benchmarks for such comfort that reflect the thermal adaptations of passengers are currently lacking. This study reports a field experiment involving simultaneous physical measurements and a questionnaire survey, collecting data from 2,129 respondents, that evaluated thermal comfort in short- and long-haul buses and trains. Experimental results indicate that high air temperature, strong solar radiation, and low air movement explain why passengers feel thermally uncomfortable. The overall insulation of clothing worn by passengers and thermal adaptive behaviour in vehicles differ from those in their living and working spaces. Passengers in short-haul vehicles habitually adjust the air outlets to increase thermal comfort, while passengers in long-haul vehicles prefer to draw the drapes to reduce discomfort from extended exposure to solar radiation. The neutral temperatures for short- and long-haul vehicles are 26.2 degrees C and 27.4 degrees C, while the comfort zones are 22.4-28.9 degrees C and 22.4-30.1 degrees C, respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable reference for practitioners involved in determining the adequate control and management of in-vehicle thermal environments, as well as facilitating design of buses and trains, ultimately contributing to efforts to achieve a balance between the thermal comfort satisfaction of passengers and energy conserving measures for air-conditioning in mass transportation vehicles.

  17. Critical Mass

    CERN Multimedia



    Critical Mass is a cycling event typically held on the last Friday of every month; its purpose is not usually formalized beyond the direct action of meeting at a set location and time and traveling as a group through city or town streets on bikes. The event originated in 1992 in San Francisco; by the end of 2003, the event was being held in over 300 cities around the world. At CERN it is held once a year in conjunction with the national Swiss campaing "Bike to work".

  18. Dynamic thermal environment and thermal comfort. (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Ouyang, Q; Cao, B; Zhou, X; Yu, J


    Research has shown that a stable thermal environment with tight temperature control cannot bring occupants more thermal comfort. Instead, such an environment will incur higher energy costs and produce greater CO2 emissions. Furthermore, this may lead to the degeneration of occupants' inherent ability to combat thermal stress, thereby weakening thermal adaptability. Measured data from many field investigations have shown that the human body has a higher acceptance to the thermal environment in free-running buildings than to that in air-conditioned buildings with similar average parameters. In naturally ventilated environments, occupants have reported superior thermal comfort votes and much greater thermal comfort temperature ranges compared to air-conditioned environments. This phenomenon is an integral part of the adaptive thermal comfort model. In addition, climate chamber experiments have proven that people prefer natural wind to mechanical wind in warm conditions; in other words, dynamic airflow can provide a superior cooling effect. However, these findings also indicate that significant questions related to thermal comfort remain unanswered. For example, what is the cause of these phenomena? How we can build a comfortable and healthy indoor environment for human beings? This article summarizes a series of research achievements in recent decades, tries to address some of these unanswered questions, and attempts to summarize certain problems for future research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Thermal conductivity of microporous layers: Analytical modeling and experimental validation (United States)

    Andisheh-Tadbir, Mehdi; Kjeang, Erik; Bahrami, Majid


    A new compact relationship is developed for the thermal conductivity of the microporous layer (MPL) used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells as a function of pore size distribution, porosity, and compression pressure. The proposed model is successfully validated against experimental data obtained from a transient plane source thermal constants analyzer. The thermal conductivities of carbon paper samples with and without MPL were measured as a function of load (1-6 bars) and the MPL thermal conductivity was found between 0.13 and 0.17 W m-1 K-1. The proposed analytical model predicts the experimental thermal conductivities within 5%. A correlation generated from the analytical model was used in a multi objective genetic algorithm to predict the pore size distribution and porosity for an MPL with optimized thermal conductivity and mass diffusivity. The results suggest that an optimized MPL, in terms of heat and mass transfer coefficients, has an average pore size of 122 nm and 63% porosity.

  20. Transient response of a thermal buffer: A study for ISABELLE (United States)

    Schneider, W. J.

    The design and transient response of a buffer for use during cooldown of ISABELLE is discussed. Introduction of an insensitive thermal mass of the inlet of a sextant ahead of the first semiconducting magnets is considered.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov


    Full Text Available At the present time, still require further refinement of the mechanisms of thermodynamic and mass transfer processes in capillary-porous media. In this paper a mathematical description of the process of thermal regeneration of diatomaceous earth.

  2. Thermal properties of an erythritol derivative (United States)

    Trhlikova, Lucie; Prikryl, Radek; Zmeskal, Oldrich


    Erythritol (C4H10O4) is a sugar alcohol (or polyol) that is commonly used in the food industry. Its molar mass is 122.12 g.mol-1 and mass density 1450 kg.m-3. Erythritol, an odorless crystalline powder, can also be characterized by other physical parameters like melting temperature (121 °C) and boiling temperature (329 °C). The substance can be used for the accumulation of energy in heat exchangers based on various oils or water. The PlusICE A118 product manufactured by the PCM Products Ltd. company (melting temperature Θ = 118 °C, specific heat capacity cp = 2.70, mass density 1450 kg.m-3, latent heat capacity 340, volumetric heat capacity 493 MJ.m-3) is based on an erythritol-type medium. Thermal properties of the PlusICE A118 product in both solid and liquid phase were investigated for this purpose in terms of potential applications. Temperature dependences of its thermal parameters (thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity, and specific heat) were determined using a transient (step-wise) method. A fractal model of heat transport was used for determination of the above thermal parameters. This model is independent of geometry and type of sample heating. Moreover, it also considers heat losses. The experiment confirmed the formerly declared value of phase change temperature, about 120 °C.

  3. Lignin Derivatives Formation In Catalysed Thermal Decomposition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    in the heat of gasification and mass fraction of non-combustible volatiles in solid. NaOH-catalysed thermal decomposition of pure and fire-retardant- cellulose. Kuroda and co-workers14 studied the Curie-point pyrolysis of Japanese softwood species of the red pine, cedar and cypress in the presence of inorganic substances ...

  4. Thermal condensation mode in a dusty plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Far from the Debye sphere, radiative mode can damp due to thermal conduction of electrons and ions. Keywords. Dusty plasma; radiative condensation; charge fluctuations. PACS Nos 52.27.Lw; 52.35.Fp; 52.35.Qz. 1. Introduction. The structure formation in subcritical Jeans mass regions in the interstellar medium may.

  5. Novel Material Systems and Methodologies for Transient Thermal Management (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.


    Development of multifunctional and thermally switchable systems to address reduced mass and components, and tailored for both structural and transient thermal applications. Active, passive, and novel combinations of the two functional approaches are being developed along two lines of research investigation: switchable systems and transient heat spreading. The approach is to build in thermal functionality to structural elements to lay the foundation for a revolution in the way high energy space systems are designed.

  6. Large second-harmonic generation in thermally poled silica waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Pedersen, K.


    We report the observation of very large second-harmonic signals from thermally poled silica waveguide samples. Secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements show that significant amounts of silver ions are injected from the top electrode during poling.......We report the observation of very large second-harmonic signals from thermally poled silica waveguide samples. Secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements show that significant amounts of silver ions are injected from the top electrode during poling....

  7. Thermal escape from extrasolar giant planets. (United States)

    Koskinen, Tommi T; Lavvas, Panayotis; Harris, Matthew J; Yelle, Roger V


    The detection of hot atomic hydrogen and heavy atoms and ions at high altitudes around close-in extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) such as HD209458b implies that these planets have hot and rapidly escaping atmospheres that extend to several planetary radii. These characteristics, however, cannot be generalized to all close-in EGPs. The thermal escape mechanism and mass loss rate from EGPs depend on a complex interplay between photochemistry and radiative transfer driven by the stellar UV radiation. In this study, we explore how these processes change under different levels of irradiation on giant planets with different characteristics. We confirm that there are two distinct regimes of thermal escape from EGPs, and that the transition between these regimes is relatively sharp. Our results have implications for thermal mass loss rates from different EGPs that we discuss in the context of currently known planets and the detectability of their upper atmospheres.

  8. Lattice thermal conductivity of graphene with conventionally isotopic defects


    Adamyan, Vadym; Zavalniuk, Vladimir


    The thermal conductivity of doped graphene flake of finite size is investigated with emphasis on the influence of mass of substituting atoms on this property. It is shown that the graphene doping by small concentrations of relatively heavy atoms results in a disproportionately impressive drop of lattice thermal conductivity.

  9. Aircraft Thermal Management Using Loop Heat Pipes (United States)


    Conversion Engineering Conference. Portsmouth, VA: AIAA, 2003. AIAA 2003- 6082. Incropera , F., DeWitt, D. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer . New...m/s2 h Heat transfer coefficient, W/(m2-K) H Altitude, m k Thermal conductivity, W/(m-K) L Length, m m Mass , kg Ma Mach number, aU / n Number...Since the mass flow rate was kept constant at cpm& = 0.0077 kg/s, the uncertainty associated with that setting was 4.0%. The heat transferred

  10. Dynamic thermal characteristics of heat pipe via segmented thermal resistance model for electric vehicle battery cooling (United States)

    Liu, Feifei; Lan, Fengchong; Chen, Jiqing


    Heat pipe cooling for battery thermal management systems (BTMSs) in electric vehicles (EVs) is growing due to its advantages of high cooling efficiency, compact structure and flexible geometry. Considering the transient conduction, phase change and uncertain thermal conditions in a heat pipe, it is challenging to obtain the dynamic thermal characteristics accurately in such complex heat and mass transfer process. In this paper, a ;segmented; thermal resistance model of a heat pipe is proposed based on thermal circuit method. The equivalent conductivities of different segments, viz. the evaporator and condenser of pipe, are used to determine their own thermal parameters and conditions integrated into the thermal model of battery for a complete three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The proposed ;segmented; model shows more precise than the ;non-segmented; model by the comparison of simulated and experimental temperature distribution and variation of an ultra-thin micro heat pipe (UMHP) battery pack, and has less calculation error to obtain dynamic thermal behavior for exact thermal design, management and control of heat pipe BTMSs. Using the ;segmented; model, the cooling effect of the UMHP pack with different natural/forced convection and arrangements is predicted, and the results correspond well to the tests.

  11. Solar Thermal Energy Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Pitsenbarger, J. [eds.


    Solar Thermal Energy Technology (PST) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required for the advancement of solar thermal systems as a significant energy resource.

  12. Ouellette Thermal Test Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Test Facility is a joint Army/Navy state-of-the-art facility (8,100 ft2) that was designed to:Evaluate and characterize the effect of flame and thermal...

  13. Microfabricated thermal conductivity sensor: a high resolution tool for quantitative thermal property measurement of biomaterials and solutions. (United States)

    Liang, Xin M; Ding, Weiping; Chen, Hsiu-hung; Shu, Zhiquan; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Hai-feng; Gao, Dayong


    Obtaining accurate thermal properties of biomaterials plays an important role in the field of cryobiology. Currently, thermal needle, which is constructed by enclosing a manually winded thin metal wire with an insulation coating in a metallic sheath, is the only available device that is capable of measuring thermal conductivity of biomaterials. Major drawbacks, such as macroscale sensor size, lack of versatile format to accommodate samples with various shapes and sizes, neglected effects of heat transfer inside the probe and thermal contact resistance between the sensing element and the probe body, difficult to mass produce, poor data repeatability and reliability and labor-intense sensor calibration, have significantly reduced their potential to be an essential measurement tool to provide key thermal property information of biological specimens. In this study, we describe the development of an approach to measure thermal conductivity of liquids and soft bio-tissues using a proof-of-concept MEMS based thermal probe. By employing a microfabricated closely-packed gold wire to function as the heater and the thermistor, the presented thermal sensor can be used to measure thermal conductivities of fluids and natural soft biomaterials (particularly, the sensor may be directly inserted into soft tissues in living animal/plant bodies or into tissues isolated from the animal/plant bodies), where other more standard approaches cannot be used. Thermal standard materials have been used to calibrate two randomly selected thermal probes at room temperature. Variation between the obtained system calibration constants is less than 10%. By incorporating the previously obtained system calibration constant, three randomly selected thermal probes have been successfully utilized to measure the thermal conductivities of various solutions and tissue samples under different temperatures. Overall, the measurements are in agreement with the recommended values (percentage error less than 5

  14. A review of micromachined thermal accelerometers (United States)

    Mukherjee, Rahul; Basu, Joydeep; Mandal, Pradip; Guha, Prasanta Kumar


    A thermal convection based micro-electromechanical accelerometer is a relatively new kind of acceleration sensor that does not require a solid proof mass, yielding unique benefits like high shock survival rating, low production cost, and integrability with CMOS integrated circuit technology. This article provides a comprehensive survey of the research, development, and current trends in the field of thermal acceleration sensors, with detailed enumeration on the theory, operation, modeling, and numerical simulation of such devices. Different reported varieties and structures of thermal accelerometers have been reviewed highlighting key design, implementation, and performance aspects. Materials and technologies used for fabrication of such sensors have also been discussed. Further, the advantages and challenges for thermal accelerometers vis-à-vis other prominent accelerometer types have been presented, followed by an overview of associated signal conditioning circuitry and potential applications.

  15. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  16. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, G.


    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrayan Bravo Hidalgo


    Full Text Available Thermal accumulation facilities allow energy to be available in the absence of sunlight. This fact reduces the difficulty of the intermittence in the incidence of the king star in our planet. Thermal accumulation technology also contributes to smooth the fluctuations in energy demand during different times of the day. This contribution identifies the nations with the most favorable research results in this area; as well as the main research lines that are being developed today. A compendium of various thermal energy storage materials, their current costs per unit mass, and their physical properties are presented. Techniques for implementing thermal accumulation technologies can be classified as areas of high, medium and low temperature. In the high temperature area, inorganic materials such as nitrate salts are the most widely used thermal energy storage materials, while in the medium and lower temperature areas; organic materials such as commercial paraffin are more common. Currently, one of the research trends in this area are the projects aimed at optimizing the chemical and physical characteristics of thermal storage materials, because the success of any thermos-energetic storage technology has a strong dependence on the cost of the materials selected for thermal storage.

  18. Engineering thermal conductivity in polymer blends (United States)

    Rashidi, Vahid; Coyle, Eleanor; Kieffer, John; Pipe, Kevin

    Weak inter-chain bonding in polymers is believed to be a bottleneck for both thermal conductivity and mechanical strength. Most polymers have low thermal conductivity (~0.1 W/mK), hindering their performance in applications for which thermal management is critical (e.g., electronics packaging). In this work, we use computational methods to study how hydrogen bonding between polymer chains as well as water content can be used to engineer thermal transport in bulk polymers. We examine how changes in the number of hydrogen bonds, chain elongation, density, and vibrational density of states correlate with changes in thermal conductivity for polymer blends composed of different relative constituent fractions. We also consider the effects of bond strength, tacticity, and polymer chain mass. For certain blend fractions, we observe large increases in thermal conductivity, and we analyze these increases in terms of modifications to chain chemistry (e.g., inter-chain bonding) and chain morphology (e.g., chain alignment and radius of gyration). We observe that increasing the number of hydrogen bonds in the system results in better packing as well as better chain alignment and elongation that contribute to enhanced thermal conductivity. The Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Grant No. FA9550-14-1-0010.

  19. Thermal energy systems design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Penoncello, Steven G


    IntroductionThermal Energy Systems Design and AnalysisSoftwareThermal Energy System TopicsUnits and Unit SystemsThermophysical PropertiesEngineering DesignEngineering EconomicsIntroductionCommon Engineering Economics NomenclatureEconomic Analysis Tool: The Cash Flow DiagramTime Value of MoneyTime Value of Money ExamplesUsing Software to Calculate Interest FactorsEconomic Decision MakingDepreciation and TaxesProblemsAnalysis of Thermal Energy SystemsIntroductionNomenclatureThermophysical Properties of SubstancesSuggested Thermal Energy Systems Analysis ProcedureConserved and Balanced QuantitiesConservation of MassConservation of Energy (The First Law of Thermodynamics)Entropy Balance (The Second Law of Thermodynamics)Exergy Balance: The Combined LawEnergy and Exergy Analysis of Thermal Energy CyclesDetailed Analysis of Thermal Energy CyclesProblemsFluid Transport in Thermal Energy SystemsIntroductionPiping and Tubing StandardsFluid Flow FundamentalsValves and FittingsDesign and Analysis of Pipe NetworksEconomi...

  20. Second Law Analysis in Convective Heat and Mass Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ben Brahim


    Full Text Available This paper reports the numerical determination of the entropy generation due to heat transfer, mass transfer and fluid friction in steady state for laminar double diffusive convection, in an inclined enclosure with heat and mass diffusive walls, by solving numerically the mass, momentum, species conservation and energy balance equations, using a Control Volume Finite-Element Method. The influences of the inclination angle, the thermal Grashof number and the buoyancy ratio on total entropy generation were investigated. The irreversibilities localization due to heat transfer, mass transfer and fluid friction is discussed for three inclination angles at a fixed thermal Grashof number.

  1. Methods of Testing Thermal Insulation and Associated Test Apparatus (United States)


    The system and method for testing thermal insulation uses a cryostatic insulation tester having a vacuum chamber and a cold mass including a test chamber and upper and lower guard chambers adjacent thereto. The thermal insulation is positioned within the vacuum chamber and adjacent the cold mass. Cryogenic liquid is supplied to the test chamber, upper guard and lower guard to create a first gas layer in an upper portion of the lower guard chamber and a second gas layer in an upper portion of the test chamber. Temperature are sensed within the vacuum chamber to test the thermal insulation.

  2. Quantum Thermal Transistor. (United States)

    Joulain, Karl; Drevillon, Jérémie; Ezzahri, Younès; Ordonez-Miranda, Jose


    We demonstrate that a thermal transistor can be made up with a quantum system of three interacting subsystems, coupled to a thermal reservoir each. This thermal transistor is analogous to an electronic bipolar one with the ability to control the thermal currents at the collector and at the emitter with the imposed thermal current at the base. This is achieved by determining the heat fluxes by means of the strong-coupling formalism. For the case of three interacting spins, in which one of them is coupled to the other two, that are not directly coupled, it is shown that high amplification can be obtained in a wide range of energy parameters and temperatures. The proposed quantum transistor could, in principle, be used to develop devices such as a thermal modulator and a thermal amplifier in nanosystems.

  3. Transient natural convection heat and mass transfer in crystal growth (United States)

    Han, Samuel S.


    A numerical analysis of transient combined heat and mass transfer across a rectangular cavity is performed. The physical parameters are selected to represent a range of possible crystal growth in solutions. Good agreements with measurement data are observed. It is found that the thermal and solute fields become highly oscillatory when the thermal and solute Grashof numbers are large.

  4. Eliminating thermal violin spikes from LIGO noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamore, D. H.; Levin, Yuri


    We have developed a scheme for reducing LIGO suspension thermal noise close to violin-mode resonances. The idea is to monitor directly the thermally induced motion of a small portion of (a 'point' on) each suspension fiber, thereby recording the random forces driving the test-mass motion close to each violin-mode frequency. One can then suppress the thermal noise by optimally subtracting the recorded fiber motions from the measured motion of the test mass, i.e., from the LIGO output. The proposed method is a modification of an analogous but more technically difficult scheme by Braginsky, Levin and Vyatchanin for reducing broad-band suspension thermal noise. The efficiency of our method is limited by the sensitivity of the sensor used to monitor the fiber motion. If the sensor has no intrinsic noise (i.e. has unlimited sensitivity), then our method allows, in principle, a complete removal of violin spikes from the thermal-noise spectrum. We find that in LIGO-II interferometers, in order to suppress violin spikes below the shot-noise level, the intrinsic noise of the sensor must be less than {approx}2 x 10{sup -13} cm/Hz. This sensitivity is two orders of magnitude greater than that of currently available sensors.

  5. Thermal design of AOTV heatshields for a conical drag brake (United States)

    Pitts, W. C.; Murbach, M. S.


    Results are presented from an on-going study of the thermal performance of thermal protection systems for a conical drag brake type AOTV. Three types of heatshield are considered: rigid ceramic insulation, flexible ceramic blankets, and ceramic cloths. The results for the rigid insulation apply to other types of AOTV as well. Charts are presented in parametric form so that they may be applied to a variety of missions and vehicle configurations. The parameters considered include: braking maneuver heat flux and total heat load, heatshield material and thickness, heatshield thermal mass and conductivity, absorptivity and emissivity of surfaces, thermal mass of support structure, and radiation transmission through thin heatshields. Results of temperature calculations presented show trends with and sensitivities to these parameters. The emphasis is on providing information that will be useful in estimating the minimum required mass of these heatshield materials.

  6. Thermal design of AOTV heatshields for a conical drag brake (United States)

    Pitts, W. C.; Murbach, M. S.


    Results are presented from an on-going study of the thermal performance of thermal protection systems for a conical drag brake type AOTV. Three types of heatshield are considered: rigid ceramic insulation, flexible ceramic blankets, and ceramic cloths. The results for the rigid insulation apply to other types of AOTV as well. Charts are presented in parametric form so that they may be applied to a variety of missions and vehicle configurations. The parameters considered include: braking maneuver heat flux and total heat load, heatshield material and thickness, heatshield thermal mass and conductivity, absorptivity and emissivity of surfaces, thermal mass of support structure, and radiation transmission through thin heatshields. Results of temperature calculations presented show trends with and sensitivities to these parameters. The emphasis is on providing information that will be useful in estimating the minimum required mass of these heatshield materials.

  7. Building ceramics with improved thermal insulation parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzepa Karol


    Full Text Available One of the most important performance characteristics of masonry units is their high thermal insulation. There are many different ways to improve this parameter, however the most popular methods in case of ceramic masonry units are: addition of pore-creating raw materials and application of proper hole pattern. This study was an attempt to improve thermal insulation of ceramics by applying thermal insulation additives. Perlite dust created as a subgrain from expansion of perlite rock was used. Perlite subgrain is not very popular among consumers, that’s why it’s subjected to granulation to obtain coarse grain. The authors presented concept of direct application of perlite dust for the production of building ceramics with improved thermal insulation. Fineness of this additive is asset for molding of ceramic materials from plastic masses. Based on the results it was found that about 70% perlite by volume can be added to obtain material with a coefficient of heat conductivity of 0,37 W/mK. Higher content of this additive in ceramic mass causes deterioration of its rheological properties. Mass loses its plasticity, it tears up and formed green bodies are susceptible to deformation. During sintering perlite takes an active part in compaction process. Higher sintering dynamics is caused by: high content of alkali oxides in perlite and glass nature of perlite. Alkali oxides generate creation of liquid phase which intensifies mass compaction processes. Active role of perlite in sintering process causes good connection of its grains with clay groundwork which is important factor for mechanical parameters of ceramic materials. It was also noted that addition of perlite above 40% by volume of mass effectively neutralized negative effect of efflorescence in ceramic materials.

  8. Demonstration of Passive Fuel Cell Thermal Management Technology (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian; Colozza, Anthony; Wynne, Robert; Miller, Michael; Meyer, Al; Smith, William


    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA Exploration program. The passive thermal management system relies on heat conduction within highly thermally conductive cooling plates to move the heat from the central portion of the cell stack out to the edges of the fuel cell stack. Using the passive approach eliminates the need for a coolant pump and other cooling loop components within the fuel cell system which reduces mass and improves overall system reliability. Previous development demonstrated the performance of suitable highly thermally conductive cooling plates and integrated heat exchanger technology to collect the heat from the cooling plates (Ref. 1). The next step in the development of this passive thermal approach was the demonstration of the control of the heat removal process and the demonstration of the passive thermal control technology in actual fuel cell stacks. Tests were run with a simulated fuel cell stack passive thermal management system outfitted with passive cooling plates, an integrated heat exchanger and two types of cooling flow control valves. The tests were run to demonstrate the controllability of the passive thermal control approach. Finally, successful demonstrations of passive thermal control technology were conducted with fuel cell stacks from two fuel cell stack vendors.

  9. Influence of heat transferring media on durability of thermally modified wood


    Karlsson, Olov; Sidorova, Ekaterina; Morén, Tom


    Studies on the durability and dimensional stability of a series of hardwoods and softwoods after thermal modification in vegetable oils and in steam atmospheres have been performed. Mass loss after exposure to Coniophora puteana (BAM Ebw. 15) for 16 weeks was very low for European birch, European aspen, Norway spruce, and Scots pine thermally modified in a linseed oil product with preservative (for 1 hour at 200 degrees C). Fairly low mass losses were obtained for wood thermally modified in l...

  10. Thermal Performance of the LHC Short Straight Section Cryostat

    CERN Document Server

    Bergot, J B; Nielsen, L; Parma, Vittorio; Rohmig, P; Roy, E


    The LHC Short Straight Section (SSS) cryostat houses and thermally protects in vacuum the cold mass which contains a twin-aperture superconducting quadrupole magnet and superconducting corrector magnets operating at 1.9 K in superfluid helium. In addition to mechanical requirements, the cryostat is designed to minimize the heat in-leak from the ambient temperature to the cold mass. Mechanical components linking the cold mass to the vacuum vessel such as support posts and an insulation vacuum barrier are designed to have minimum heat conductivity with efficient thermalisations for heat interception. Heat in-leak by radiation is reduced by employing multilayer insulation wrapped around the cold mass and an actively cooled aluminium thermal shield. The recent commissioning and operation of two SSS prototypes in the LHC Test String 2 have given a first experimental validation of the thermal performance of the SSS cryostat in nominal operating conditions. Temperature sensors mounted in critical locations provide a...

  11. Low Mass, Two-Phase Thermal Switch Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future human spacecraft will venture far beyond the relatively benign environment of low Earth orbit. They will transit through the deep space, but they may...

  12. Thermal Imaging in Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Štumper


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the use of thermal imaging in aviation. In the never ending pursuit of lower costs, the Thermal Imaging offers shorter inspection times thanks to its application in aircraft inspections and can reduce the number of costly goarounds using the Enhanced Vision System, which also increases safety in one of the most dangerous parts of flight. Thermal Imaging also offers solutions for Airport Perimeter Security and it can be used for construction of ground surveillance system.

  13. Thermal waveguide OPO. (United States)

    Lin, S T; Lin, Y Y; Wang, T D; Huang, Y C


    We report a mid-infrared, CW singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with a thermally induced waveguide in its gain crystal. We measured a numerical aperture of 0.0062 for the waveguide at 80-W intracavity power at 3.2 microm. This thermal-guiding effect benefits to the stable operation of an OPO and improves the parametric conversion efficiency by more than a factor of two when compared with that without thermal guiding.

  14. Thermal Hyperbolic Metamaterials


    Guo, Yu; Jacob, Zubin


    We explore the near-field radiative thermal energy transfer properties of hyperbolic metamaterials. The presence of unique electromagnetic states in a broad bandwidth leads to super-planckian thermal energy transfer between metamaterials separated by a nano-gap. We consider practical phonon-polaritonic metamaterials for thermal engineering in the mid-infrared range and show that the effect exists in spite of the losses, absorption and finite unit cell size. For thermophotovoltaic energy conve...

  15. Building Thermal Models (United States)

    Peabody, Hume L.


    This presentation is meant to be an overview of the model building process It is based on typical techniques (Monte Carlo Ray Tracing for radiation exchange, Lumped Parameter, Finite Difference for thermal solution) used by the aerospace industry This is not intended to be a "How to Use ThermalDesktop" course. It is intended to be a "How to Build Thermal Models" course and the techniques will be demonstrated using the capabilities of ThermalDesktop (TD). Other codes may or may not have similar capabilities. The General Model Building Process can be broken into four top level steps: 1. Build Model; 2. Check Model; 3. Execute Model; 4. Verify Results.

  16. Thermal microactuator dimension analysis (United States)

    Azman, N. D.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.


    The focus of this study was to analyse the stress and thermal flow of thermal microactuator with different type of materials and parameter using COMSOL Multiphysics software. Simulations were conducted on the existing thermal actuator and integrated it to be more efficient, low cost and low power consumption. In this simulation, the U-shaped actuator was designed and five different materials of the microactuator were studied. The result showed that Si Polycrystalline was the most suitable material used to produce thermal actuator for commercialization.

  17. Thermal Performance Benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xuhui; Moreno, Gilbert; Bennion, Kevin


    The goal for this project is to thoroughly characterize the thermal performance of state-of-the-art (SOA) in-production automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Information obtained from these studies will be used to: evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management strategies; establish baseline metrics for the thermal management systems; identify methods of improvement to advance the SOA; increase the publicly available information related to automotive traction-drive thermal management systems; help guide future electric drive technologies (EDT) research and development (R&D) efforts. The thermal performance results combined with component efficiency and heat generation information obtained by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) may then be used to determine the operating temperatures for the EDT components under drive-cycle conditions. In FY16, the 2012 Nissan LEAF power electronics and 2014 Honda Accord Hybrid power electronics thermal management system were characterized. Comparison of the two power electronics thermal management systems was also conducted to provide insight into the various cooling strategies to understand the current SOA in thermal management for automotive power electronics and electric motors.

  18. Theory of thermal stresses

    CERN Document Server

    Boley, Bruno A


    Highly regarded text presents detailed discussion of fundamental aspects of theory, background, problems with detailed solutions. Basics of thermoelasticity, heat transfer theory, thermal stress analysis, more. 1985 edition.

  19. On the isolation of elemental carbon (EC) for micro-molar 14C accelerator mass spectrometry: development of a hybrid reference material for 14C-EC accuracy assurance, and a critical evaluation of the thermal optical kinetic (TOK) EC isolation procedure (United States)

    Currie, L. A.; Kessler, J. D.


    The primary objective of the research reported here has been the development of a hybrid reference material (RM) to serve as a test of accuracy for elemental carbon (EC) isotopic (14C) speciation measurements. Such measurements are vital for the quantitative apportionment of fossil and biomass sources of "soot" (EC), the tracer of fire that has profound effects on health, atmospheric visibility, and climate. Previous studies of 14C-EC measurement quality, carried out with NIST SRM 1649a (Urban Dust), showed a range of results, but since the "truth" was not known for this natural matrix RM, one had to rely on isotopic-chemical consistency evidence (14C in PAH, EC) of measurement validity (Currie et al., 2002). Components of the new Hybrid RM (DiesApple), however, have known 14C and EC composition, and they are nearly orthogonal (isotopically and chemically). NIST SRM 2975 (Forklift Diesel Soot) has little or no 14C, and its major compositional component is EC; SRM 1515 (Apple Leaves) has the 14C content of biomass-C, and it has little or no EC. Thus, the Hybrid RM can serve as an absolute isotopic test for the absence of EC-mimicking pyrolysis-C (char) from SRM 1515 in the EC isolate of the Hybrid RM, as well as a test for conservation of its dominant soot fraction throughout the isolation procedure. The secondary objective was to employ the Hybrid RM for the comparative evaluation of the thermal optical kinetic (TOK) and thermal optical transmission (TOT) methods for the isolation of EC for micro-molar carbon accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). As part of this process, the relatively new TOK method was subjected to a critical evaluation and significant development. Key findings of our study are: (1) both methods exhibited biomass-C "leakage"; for TOT, the EC fraction isolated for AMS contained about 8% of the original biomass-C; for TOK, the refractory carbon (RC) isolated contained about 3% of the original biomass-C.; (2) the initial isothermal oxidation stage of

  20. On the isolation of elemental carbon (EC for micro-molar 14C accelerator mass spectrometry: development of a hybrid reference material for 14C-EC accuracy assurance, and a critical evaluation of the thermal optical kinetic (TOK EC isolation procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Currie


    Full Text Available The primary objective of the research reported here has been the development of a hybrid reference material (RM to serve as a test of accuracy for elemental carbon (EC isotopic (14C speciation measurements. Such measurements are vital for the quantitative apportionment of fossil and biomass sources of 'soot' (EC, the tracer of fire that has profound effects on health, atmospheric visibility, and climate. Previous studies of 14C-EC measurement quality, carried out with NIST SRM 1649a (Urban Dust, showed a range of results, but since the 'truth' was not known for this natural matrix RM, one had to rely on isotopic-chemical consistency evidence (14C in PAH, EC of measurement validity (Currie et al., 2002. Components of the new Hybrid RM (DiesApple, however, have known 14C and EC composition, and they are nearly orthogonal (isotopically and chemically. NIST SRM 2975 (Forklift Diesel Soot has little or no 14C, and its major compositional component is EC; SRM 1515 (Apple Leaves has the 14C content of biomass-C, and it has little or no EC. Thus, the Hybrid RM can serve as an absolute isotopic test for the absence of EC-mimicking pyrolysis-C (char from SRM 1515 in the EC isolate of the Hybrid RM, as well as a test for conservation of its dominant soot fraction throughout the isolation procedure. The secondary objective was to employ the Hybrid RM for the comparative evaluation of the thermal optical kinetic (TOK and thermal optical transmission (TOT methods for the isolation of EC for micro-molar carbon accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS. As part of this process, the relatively new TOK method was subjected to a critical evaluation and significant development. Key findings of our study are: (1 both methods exhibited biomass-C 'leakage'; for TOT, the EC fraction isolated for AMS contained about 8% of the original biomass-C; for TOK, the refractory carbon (RC isolated contained about 3% of the original biomass-C.; (2 the initial isothermal oxidation stage

  1. Low mass integrated cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Mapelli, Alessandro


    Low mass on - detec tor cooling systems are being developed and stud ied by the Detector Technology group (PH - DT) in the CERN Physics Department in close collaboration with LHC and non - LHC experiments . Two approaches are currently being investigated. The first approach, for barrel configurations, consists in integrating the cooli ng apparatus in light mechanical structures support ing the detectors. In this case , the thermal management can be achieved either with light cooling pipes and thin plates or with a network of microchannels embedded in thin strips of silicon or polyimide . Both configuratio ns are being investigated in the context of the 2018 upgrade program of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). Moreover, it is also possible to use a s ilicon microchannel cooling device itself as structural support for the detectors and electronics. Such a configur ation has been adopted by the NA62 collaboration for the ir GigaTracKer (GTK) as well as by the LHCb collaboration for the 2018 major upgrade of...

  2. Contribution to the thermal properties of selected steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jonšta


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the influence of structural changes on heat transport phenomena of steels samples. Three samples of 10GN2MFA steel were thermally treated at quenching temperatures equal to 900 °C, 1 000 °C and 1 100 °C, and temperature of the tempering was 670 °C. Both thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity increase with the quenching temperature. Specific heat capacity of steel samples after thermal treatment does not change significantly. Further three different high manganese steels were measured. Maximal content of Mn and C was 27 and 0,5 mass percent. From results of thermophysical properties after ageing, one can see the increase of thermal diffusivity up to 20 percent, thermal conductivity up to 15 percent, decrease of specific heat capacity is not significant. All measured values of thermophysical properties are in good agreement with literary data (before ageing.

  3. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket (United States)

    Nelson, Paul A.; Malecha, Richard F.; Chilenskas, Albert A.


    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communcation with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket.

  4. Thermal Performance of Insulating Cryogenic Pin Spacers

    CERN Document Server

    Darve, C


    Following the proposal to introduce an actively cooled radiation screen (5-10 K) for the LHC machine, the design of the LHC cryostat foresees the need for spacers between the cold mass and the radiati on screen. The thermal impedance of the chosen material should be very high and the shape selected to withstrand the contact stress due to the displacements induced by the coll-down and warm-up transi ent. A cryogenic experiment dedicated to studying the thermal behaviour of several proposed spacers was performed at the cryogenics laboratory of CERN before choosing the one to be used for further i nvestigation on the LHC full-scale Cryostat Thermal Model [1] [2]. This paper describes a quantitative analysis leading to the choice of the spacer.

  5. Mass Customization Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Gerhard

    Topics of the IMCM’08 & PETO’08 and this book are: Mass customization in service, mass customizing financial services, mass customization in supply networks, implementation issues in logistics, product life cycle and mass customization. The research field of mass customization is more than 15 years...

  6. Gravitino production in a thermal Universe revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Arya


    Full Text Available We study the production of spin 1/2 gravitinos in a thermal Universe. Taking into account supersymmetry breaking due to the finite thermal energy density of the Universe, there is a large enhancement in the cross section of production of these gravitino states. We consider gravitinos with zero temperature masses of 0.1 eV, 1 keV, 100 GeV and 30 TeV as representative of gauge mediated, gravity mediated and anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking scenarios. We find that the abundance of gravitinos produced in the early Universe is very high for gravitinos of mass 1 keV and 100 GeV. The gravitino abundances can be sufficiently suppressed if the reheat temperature is less than 100 GeV and 4×104GeV respectively. However such low reheat temperatures will rule out many models of baryogenesis including those via leptogenesis.

  7. Gravitino production in a thermal Universe revisited (United States)

    Arya, Richa; Mahajan, Namit; Rangarajan, Raghavan


    We study the production of spin 1/2 gravitinos in a thermal Universe. Taking into account supersymmetry breaking due to the finite thermal energy density of the Universe, there is a large enhancement in the cross section of production of these gravitino states. We consider gravitinos with zero temperature masses of 0.1 eV, 1 keV, 100 GeV and 30 TeV as representative of gauge mediated, gravity mediated and anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking scenarios. We find that the abundance of gravitinos produced in the early Universe is very high for gravitinos of mass 1 keV and 100 GeV. The gravitino abundances can be sufficiently suppressed if the reheat temperature is less than 100 GeV and 4 ×104GeV respectively. However such low reheat temperatures will rule out many models of baryogenesis including those via leptogenesis.

  8. A thermal ground cloak (United States)

    Yang, Tianzhi; Wu, Qinghe; Xu, Weikai; Liu, Di; Huang, Lujun; Chen, Fei


    The thermal cloak has been a long-standing scientific dream of researchers and engineers. Recently thermal metamaterials with man-made micro-structure have been presented based on the principle of transformation optics (TO). This new concept has received considerable attention, which is a powerful tool for manipulating heat flux in thermal imaging systems. However, the inherent material singularity has long been a captivation of experimental realization. As an alternative method, the scattering-cancellation-based cloak (or bi-layer thermal cloak) has been presented to remove the singularity for achieving the same cloaking performance. Nevertheless, such strategy needs prerequisite knowledge (geometry and conductivity) of the object to be cloaked. In this paper, a new thermal ground cloak is presented to overcome the limitations. The device is designed, fabricated and measured to verify the thermal cloaking performance. We experimentally show that the remarkably low complexity of the device can fully and effectively be manipulated using realizable transformation thermal devices. More importantly, this thermal ground cloak is designed to exclude heat flux without knowing the information of the cloaked object.

  9. Power Electronics Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Gilberto [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Thermal modeling was conducted to evaluate and develop thermal management strategies for high-temperature wide-bandgap (WBG)-based power electronics systems. WBG device temperatures of 175 degrees C to 250 degrees C were modeled under various under-hood temperature environments. Modeling result were used to identify the most effective capacitor cooling strategies under high device temperature conditions.

  10. Thermally exfoliated graphite oxide (United States)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor)


    A modified graphite oxide material contains a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide displays no signature of the original graphite and/or graphite oxide, as determined by X-ray diffraction.

  11. Conceptual thermal design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijk, R.


    Present thermal design tools and methods insufficiently support the development of structural concepts engaged by typical practicing designers. Research described in this thesis identifies the main thermal design problems in practice. In addition, models and methods are developed that support an

  12. Thermal energy storage (United States)


    The planning and implementation of activities associated with lead center management role and the technical accomplishments pertaining to high temperature thermal energy storage subsystems are described. Major elements reported are: (1) program definition and assessment; (2) research and technology development; (3) industrial storage applications; (4) solar thermal power storage applications; and (5) building heating and cooling applications.

  13. Thermal flow micro sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    A review is given on sensors fabricated by silicon micromachining technology using the thermal domain for the measurement of fluid flow. Attention is paid especially to performance and geometry of the sensors. Three basic types of thermal flow sensors are discussed: anemometers, calorimetric flow

  14. High Thermal Conductivity Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Subhash L


    Thermal management has become a ‘hot’ field in recent years due to a need to obtain high performance levels in many devices used in such diverse areas as space science, mainframe and desktop computers, optoelectronics and even Formula One racing cars! Thermal solutions require not just taking care of very high thermal flux, but also ‘hot spots’, where the flux densities can exceed 200 W/cm2. High thermal conductivity materials play an important role in addressing thermal management issues. This volume provides readers a basic understanding of the thermal conduction mechanisms in these materials and discusses how the thermal conductivity may be related to their crystal structures as well as microstructures developed as a result of their processing history. The techniques for accurate measurement of these properties on large as well as small scales have been reviewed. Detailed information on the thermal conductivity of diverse materials including aluminum nitride (AlN), silicon carbide (SiC), diamond, a...

  15. Paradoxes of Thermal Radiation (United States)

    Besson, U.


    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal behaviour of objects exposed to a solar-type flux of thermal radiation. It aims to clarify certain apparent inconsistencies between theory and observation, and to give a detailed exposition of some critical points that physics textbooks usually treat in an insufficient or incorrect way. In particular,…

  16. Thermal Activated Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Pasold, Anke


    search procedure, the combination of materials and their bonding temperature is found in relation to the envelope effect on a thermal environment inside a defined space. This allows the designer to articulate dynamic composites with time-based thermal functionality, related to the material dynamics...

  17. Radiative Bistability and Thermal Memory (United States)

    Kubytskyi, Viacheslav; Biehs, Svend-Age; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe


    We predict the existence of a thermal bistability in many-body systems out of thermal equilibrium which exchange heat by thermal radiation using insulator-metal transition materials. We propose a writing-reading procedure and demonstrate the possibility to exploit the thermal bistability to make a volatile thermal memory. We show that this thermal memory can be used to store heat and thermal information (via an encoding temperature) for arbitrary long times. The radiative thermal bistability could find broad applications in the domains of thermal management, information processing, and energy storage.

  18. Hydrodynamic Simulation of Non-thermal Pressure Profiles of Galaxy Clusters


    Nelson, Kaylea; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke


    Cosmological constraints from X-ray and microwave observations of galaxy clusters are subjected to systematic uncertainties. Non-thermal pressure support due to internal gas motions in galaxy clusters is one of the major sources of astrophysical uncertainties. Using a mass-limited sample of galaxy clusters from a high-resolution hydrodynamical cosmological simulation, we characterize the non-thermal pressure fraction profile and study its dependence on redshift, mass, and mass accretion rate....

  19. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad


    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  20. Thermo-mechanical ratcheting in jointed rock masses

    KAUST Repository

    Pasten, C.


    Thermo-mechanical coupling takes place in jointed rock masses subjected to large thermal oscillations. Examples range from exposed surfaces under daily and seasonal thermal fluctuations to subsurface rock masses affected by engineered systems such as geothermal operations. Experimental, numerical and analytical results show that thermo-mechanical coupling can lead to wedging and ratcheting mechanisms that result in deformation accumulation when the rock mass is subjected to a biased static-force condition. Analytical and numerical models help in identifying the parameter domain where thermo-mechanical ratcheting can take place.

  1. Study of thermal behavior of phytic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Máximo Daneluti


    Full Text Available Phytic acid is a natural compound widely used as depigmenting agent in galenic cosmetic emulsions. However, we have observed experimentally that phytic acid, when heated to 150 ºC for around one hour, shows evidence of thermal decomposition. Few studies investigating this substance alone with regard to its stability are available in the literature. This fact prompted the present study to characterize this species and its thermal behavior using thermal analysis (TG/DTG and DSC and to associate the results of these techniques with those obtained by elemental analysis (EA and absorption spectroscopy in the infrared region. The TG/DTG and DSC curves allowed evaluation of the thermal behavior of the sample of phytic acid and enabled use of the non-isothermal thermogravimetric method to study the kinetics of the three main mass-loss events: dehydration I, dehydration II and thermal decomposition. The combination of infrared absorption spectroscopy and elemental analysis techniques allowed evaluation of the intermediate products of the thermal decomposition of phytic acid. The infrared spectra of samples taken during the heating process revealed a reduction in the intensity of the absorption band related to O-H stretching as a result of the dehydration process. Furthermore, elemental analysis results showed an increase in the carbon content and a decrease in the hydrogen content at temperatures of 95, 150, 263 and 380 °C. Visually, darkening of the material was observed at 150 °C, indicating that the thermal decomposition of the material started at this temperature. At a temperature of 380 °C, thermal decomposition progressed, leading to a decrease in carbon and hydrogen. The results of thermogravimetry coupled with those of elemental analysis allow us to conclude that there was agreement between the percentages of phytic acid found in aqueous solution. The kinetic study by the non-isothermal thermogravimetric method showed that the dehydration



  3. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand


    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  4. Thermal imaging in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Ogorevc


    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Body temperature monitoring is one of the oldest and still one of the most basic diagnostic methods in medicine. In recent years thermal imaging has been increasingly used in measurements of body temperature for diagnostic purposes. Thermal imaging is non-invasive, non-contact method for measuring surface body temperature. Method is quick, painless and patient is not exposed to ionizing radiation or any other body burden.Application of thermal imaging in medicine: Pathological conditions can be indicated as hyper- or hypothermic patterns in many cases. Thermal imaging is presented as a diagnostic method, which can detect such thermal anomalies. This article provides an overview of the thermal imaging applications in various fields of medicine. Thermal imaging has proven to be a suitable method for human febrile temperature screening, for the detection of sites of fractures and infections, a reliable diagnostic tool in the detection of breast cancer and determining the type of skin cancer tumour. It is useful in monitoring the course of a therapy after spinal cord injury, in the detection of food allergies and detecting complications at hemodialysis and is also very effective at the course of treatment of breast reconstruction after mastectomy. With thermal imaging is possible to determine the degrees of burns and early detection of osteomyelitis in diabetic foot phenomenon. The most common and the oldest application of thermal imaging in medicine is the field of rheumatology.Recommendations for use and standards: Essential performance of a thermal imaging camera, measurement method, preparation of a patient and environmental conditions are very important for proper interpretation of measurement results in medical applications of thermal imaging. Standard for screening thermographs was formed for the human febrile temperature screening application.Conclusion: Based on presented examples it is shown that thermal imaging can

  5. Extravehicular mobility unit thermal simulator (United States)

    Hixon, C. W.; Phillips, M. A.


    The analytical methods, thermal model, and user's instructions for the SIM bay extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) routine are presented. This digital computer program was developed for detailed thermal performance predictions of the crewman performing a command module extravehicular activity during transearth coast. It accounts for conductive, convective, and radiative heat transfer as well as fluid flow and associated flow control components. The program is a derivative of the Apollo lunar surface EMU digital simulator. It has the operational flexibility to accept card or magnetic tape for both the input data and program logic. Output can be tabular and/or plotted and the mission simulation can be stopped and restarted at the discretion of the user. The program was developed for the NASA-JSC Univac 1108 computer system and several of the capabilities represent utilization of unique features of that system. Analytical methods used in the computer routine are based on finite difference approximations to differential heat and mass balance equations which account for temperature or time dependent thermo-physical properties.

  6. Systematic approach to thermal leptogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frossard, T.; Kartavtsev, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Garny, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hohenegger, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, LPPC, BSP (Switzerland); Mitrouskas, D. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany)


    In this work we study thermal leptogenesis using non-equilibrium quantum field theory. Starting from fundamental equations for correlators of the quantum fields we describe the steps necessary to obtain quantum kinetic equations for quasiparticles. These can easily be compared to conventional results and overcome conceptional problems inherent in the canonical approach. Beyond CP-violating decays we include also those scattering processes which are tightly related to the decays in a consistent approximation of fourth order in the Yukawa couplings. It is demonstrated explicitly how the S-matrix elements for the scattering processes in the conventional approach are related to two- and three-loop contributions to the effective action. We derive effective decay and scattering amplitudes taking medium corrections and thermal masses into account. In this context we also investigate CP-violating Higgs decay within the same formalism. From the kinetic equations we derive rate equations for the lepton asymmetry improved in that they include quantum-statistical effects and medium corrections to the quasiparticle properties.

  7. Thermal properties of nanofluids. (United States)

    Philip, John; Shima, P D


    Colloidal suspensions of fine nanomaterials in the size range of 1-100 nm in carrier fluids are known as nanofluids. For the last one decade, nanofluids have been a topic of intense research due to their enhanced thermal properties and possible heat transfer applications. Miniaturization and increased operating speeds of gadgets warranted the need for new and innovative cooling concepts for better performance. The low thermal conductivity of conventional heat transfer fluid has been a serious impediment for improving the performance and compactness of engineering equipments. Initial studies on thermal conductivity of suspensions with micrometer-sized particles encountered problems of rapid settling of particles, clogging of flow channels and increased pressure drop in the fluid. These problems are resolved by using dispersions of fine nanometer-sized particles. Despite numerous experimental and theoretical studies, it is still unclear whether the thermal conductivity enhancement in nanofluids is anomalous or within the predictions of effective medium theory. Further, many reports on thermal conductivity of nanofluids are conflicting due to the complex issues associated with the surface chemistry of nanofluids. This review provides an overview of recent advances in the field of nanofluids, especially the important material properties that affect the thermal properties of nanofluids and novel approaches to achieve extremely high thermal conductivities. The background information is also provided for beginners to better understand the subject. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hot leptogenesis from thermal Dark Matter (United States)

    Bernal, Nicolás; Fong, Chee Sheng


    In this work, we investigate a scenario in which heavy Majorana Right-Handed Neutrinos (RHNs) are in thermal equilibrium with a dark sector with temperature higher than the Standard Model (SM) thermal bath. Specifically, we consider the scenario in which thermal Dark Matter (DM) abundance is fixed from the freeze-out of DM annihilations into RHNs. Due to the inert nature of the RHNs, we show that it is possible for the two sectors to remain thermally decoupled by having more than two generations of the RHNs. The hotter temperature implies higher abundances of DM and RHNs with the following consequences. For leptogenesis, an enhancement in efficiency up to a factor of 51.6 can be obtained, though a resonant enhancement of CP violation is still required due to an upper mass bound of about 4 TeV for the RHNs. For the DM, an enhanced annihilation cross section up to a factor of 51.6 is required to obtain the correct DM abundance. This scenario can be probed via indirect detection of DM annihilating into RHNs, which then decay into h ν, Z ν and W± lmp with an enhanced annihilation cross section above the typical thermal value.

  9. Advanced thermal management materials

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Guosheng; Kuang, Ken


    ""Advanced Thermal Management Materials"" provides a comprehensive and hands-on treatise on the importance of thermal packaging in high performance systems. These systems, ranging from active electronically-scanned radar arrays to web servers, require components that can dissipate heat efficiently. This requires materials capable of dissipating heat and maintaining compatibility with the packaging and dye. Its coverage includes all aspects of thermal management materials, both traditional and non-traditional, with an emphasis on metal based materials. An in-depth discussion of properties and m

  10. Alternatives to eigenstate thermalization. (United States)

    Rigol, Marcos; Srednicki, Mark


    An isolated quantum many-body system in an initial pure state will come to thermal equilibrium if it satisfies the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH). We consider alternatives to ETH that have been proposed. We first show that von Neumann's quantum ergodic theorem relies on an assumption that is essentially equivalent to ETH. We also investigate whether, following a sudden quench, special classes of pure states can lead to thermal behavior in systems that do not obey ETH, namely, integrable systems. We find examples of this, but only for initial states that obeyed ETH before the quench.

  11. Thermal energy transformer (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.; Thiele, C. L. (Inventor)


    For use in combination with a heat engine, a thermal energy transformer is presented. It is comprised of a flux receiver having a first wall defining therein a radiation absorption cavity for converting solar flux to thermal energy, and a second wall defining an energy transfer wall for the heat engine. There is a heat pipe chamber interposed between the first and second walls having a working fluid disposed within the chamber and a wick lining the chamber for conducting the working fluid from the second wall to the first wall. Thermal energy is transferred from the radiation absorption cavity to the heat engine.

  12. Graphene-based filament material for thermal ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewitt, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shick, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Siegfried, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The use of graphene oxide materials for thermal ionization mass spectrometry analysis of plutonium and uranium has been investigated. Filament made from graphene oxide slurries have been 3-D printed. A method for attaching these filaments to commercial thermal ionization post assemblies has been devised. Resistive heating of the graphene based filaments under high vacuum showed stable operation in excess of 4 hours. Plutonium ion production has been observed in an initial set of filaments spiked with the Pu 128 Certified Reference Material.

  13. Thermal-neutron capture for A=36-44

    CERN Document Server

    Chunmei, Z


    A new evaluation has been undertaken of the level properties, prompt gamma rays and decay scheme properties of thermal neutron capture for nuclides with mass number A=36-44. The cutoff date is March 2002. This evaluation is effectively an update of the data table of the Prompt Gamma Rays from Thermal Neutron Capture as published in Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 26, 511, (1981).

  14. Transient Simulation of Line-Focus Solar Thermal Power Plants


    do amaral Burghi, Ana Carolina


    Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) is a utility scale technology that pro duces electricity using the thermal energy of the sun. Due to the varying intensity of the solar irradiation, there is a constant change in the op eration point for solar thermal power plants. In order to optimize the process, a complex relation between irradiation intensity, fluid mass fl ow and collector focus must be considered and appropriate control strategies should take into account the transient...

  15. Thermal and prompt photons at RHIC and the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquet, Jean-François [Department of Physics & Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A2T8 (Canada); Shen, Chun [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A2T8 (Canada); Denicol, Gabriel [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A2T8 (Canada); Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Luzum, Matthew [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia-Spain (Spain); Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão Travessa R, no. 187, 05508-090, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo (Brazil); Schenke, Björn [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A2T8 (Canada)


    Thermal and prompt photon production in heavy ion collisions is evaluated and compared with measurements from both RHIC and the LHC. An event-by-event hydrodynamical model of heavy ion collisions that includes shear and bulk viscosities is used, along with up-to-date photon emission rates. Larger tension with measurements is observed at RHIC than at the LHC. The center-of-mass energy and centrality dependence of thermal and prompt photons is investigated.

  16. Aerogels for Thermal Insulation of Thermoelectric Devices (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Snyder, Jeffrey; Jones, Steven; Caillat, Thierry


    Silica aerogels have been shown to be attractive for use as thermal-insulation materials for thermoelectric devices. It is desirable to thermally insulate the legs of thermoelectric devices to suppress lateral heat leaks that degrade thermal efficiency. Aerogels offer not only high thermal- insulation effectiveness, but also a combination of other properties that are especially advantageous in thermoelectric- device applications. Aerogels are synthesized by means of sol-gel chemistry, which is ideal for casting insulation into place. As the scale of the devices to be insulated decreases, the castability from liquid solutions becomes increasingly advantageous: By virtue of castability, aerogel insulation can be made to encapsulate devices having any size from macroscopic down to nanoscopic and possibly having complex, three-dimensional shapes. Castable aerogels can permeate voids having characteristic dimensions as small as nanometers. Hence, practically all the void space surrounding the legs of thermoelectric devices could be filled with aerogel insulation, making the insulation highly effective. Because aerogels have the lowest densities of any known solid materials, they would add very little mass to the encapsulated devices. The thermal-conductivity values of aerogels are among the lowest reported for any material, even after taking account of the contributions of convection and radiation (in addition to true thermal conduction) to overall effective thermal conductivities. Even in ambient air, the contribution of convection to effective overall thermal conductivity of an aerogel is extremely low because of the highly tortuous nature of the flow paths through the porous aerogel structure. For applications that involve operating temperatures high enough to give rise to significant amounts of infrared radiation, opacifiers could be added to aerogels to reduce the radiative contributions to overall effective thermal conductivities. One example of an opacifier is

  17. Thermal cloak-concentrator (United States)

    Shen, Xiangying; Li, Ying; Jiang, Chaoran; Ni, Yushan; Huang, Jiping


    For macroscopically manipulating heat flow at will, thermal metamaterials have opened a practical way, which possesses a single function, such as either cloaking or concentrating the flow of heat even though environmental temperature varies. By developing a theory of transformation heat transfer for multiple functions, here we introduce the concept of intelligent thermal metamaterials with a dual function, which is in contrast to the existing thermal metamaterials with single functions. By assembling homogeneous isotropic materials and shape-memory alloys, we experimentally fabricate a kind of intelligent thermal metamaterials, which can automatically change from a cloak (or concentrator) to a concentrator (or cloak) when the environmental temperature changes. This work paves an efficient way for a controllable gradient of heat, and also provides guidance both for arbitrarily manipulating the flow of heat and for efficiently designing similar intelligent metamaterials in other fields.

  18. Paradoxes of thermal radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, U [Department of Physics ' A Volta' , University of Pavia, Via A Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)], E-mail:


    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal behaviour of objects exposed to a solar-type flux of thermal radiation. It aims to clarify certain apparent inconsistencies between theory and observation, and to give a detailed exposition of some critical points that physics textbooks usually treat in an insufficient or incorrect way. In particular, the paper examines the equilibrium temperature reached by objects exposed to solar thermal radiation and the temperature difference between their illuminated and shaded sides. These problems are studied first by analysing the simple ideal case of an isolated object, subsequently by taking into account the thermal radiation emitted by the environment, and finally by considering also the heat exchange with the surrounding air. Some examples are developed and numerical data are provided. The topic is developed in a way that can be suitable for both undergraduate student and general physicist.

  19. Compliant thermal microactuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsmann, Jacques; Sigmund, Ole; Bouwstra, Siebe


    Two dimensional compliant metallic thermal microactuators are designed using topology optimisation, and microfabricated using rapid prototyping techniques. Structures are characterised using advanced image analysis, yielding a very high precision. Characterised structures behave in a way which can...

  20. Compliant thermal microactuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsmann, Jacques; Sigmund, Ole; Bouwstra, Siebe


    Two dimensional compliant metallic thermal microactuators are designed using topology optimisation, and microfabricated using rapid prototyping techniques. Structures are characterised using advanced image analysis, yielding a very high precision. Characterised structures behave in accordance...

  1. Thermal Properties Measurement Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, Jon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Braase, Lori [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Papesch, Cynthia [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hurley, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonks, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Yongfeng [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gofryk, Krzysztof [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fielding, Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Knight, Collin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Meyer, Mitch [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the research, development, installation, and initial use of significant experimental thermal property characterization capabilities at the INL in FY 2015. These new capabilities were used to characterize a U3Si2 (candidate Accident Tolerant) fuel sample fabricated at the INL. The ability to perform measurements at various length scales is important and provides additional data that is not currently in the literature. However, the real value of the data will be in accomplishing a phenomenological understanding of the thermal conductivity in fuels and the ties to predictive modeling. Thus, the MARMOT advanced modeling and simulation capability was utilized to illustrate how the microstructural data can be modeled and compared with bulk characterization data. A scientific method was established for thermal property measurement capability on irradiated nuclear fuel samples, which will be installed in the Irradiated Material Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  2. Graphene thermal flux transistor. (United States)

    Shafranjuk, S E


    Insufficient flexibility of existing approaches to controlling the thermal transport in atomic monolayers limits their capability for use in many applications. Here, we examine the means of electrode doping to control the thermal flux Q due to phonons propagating along the atomic monolayer. We found that the frequency of the electron-restricted phonon scattering strongly depends on the concentration nC. of the electric charge carriers, established by the electric potentials applied to local gates. As a result of the electrode doping, nC is increased, causing a sharp rise in both the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, while the thermal conductivity tumbles. Therefore, the effect of the thermal transistor improves the figure of merit of nanoelectronic circuits.

  3. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.


    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  4. Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) is a progressive wave tube test facility that is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to...

  5. Thermal hyperbolic metamaterials. (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Jacob, Zubin


    We explore the near-field radiative thermal energy transfer properties of hyperbolic metamaterials. The presence of unique electromagnetic states in a broad bandwidth leads to super-planckian thermal energy transfer between metamaterials separated by a nano-gap. We consider practical phonon-polaritonic metamaterials for thermal engineering in the mid-infrared range and show that the effect exists in spite of the losses, absorption and finite unit cell size. For thermophotovoltaic energy conversion applications requiring energy transfer in the near-infrared range we introduce high temperature hyperbolic metamaterials based on plasmonic materials with a high melting point. Our work paves the way for practical high temperature radiative thermal energy transfer applications of hyperbolic metamaterials.

  6. ThermalTracker Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The software processes recorded thermal video and detects the flight tracks of birds and bats that passed through the camera's field of view. The output is a set of images that show complete flight tracks for any detections, with the direction of travel indicated and the thermal image of the animal delineated. A report of the descriptive features of each detected track is also output in the form of a comma-separated value text file.

  7. Thermal Anemometry Grid Sensor


    Martin Arlit; Eckhard Schleicher; Uwe Hampel


    A novel thermal anemometry grid sensor was developed for the simultaneous measurement of cross-sectional temperature and axial velocity distribution in a fluid flow. The sensor consists of a set of platinum resistors arranged in a regular grid. Each platinum resistor allows the simultaneous measurement of fluid temperature via electrical resistance and flow velocity via constant voltage thermal anemometry. Cross-sectional measurement was enabled by applying a special multiplexing-excitation s...

  8. Thermal conveyance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meador, J.T.


    The purpose of the evaluation is to characterize modern technology for long-distance, large-diameter, underground steam and high-temperature water (HTW) transport systems and for hot-water and chilled-water systems that distribute thermal energy within communities. Data on the status of existing systems have been compiled and compared with recommended design factors for fluid flow to aid in parameter selection for assessing performance in transporting and distributing thermal energy.

  9. Thermal properties examples


    Bantle, Michael


    Thermal properties of selected organic products were investigated using novel DSC technique and methods of determination. The report includes determination of freezing temperatures, glass transition temperatures, amount of ice, and end of freezing point, heat capacity and thermal conductivity for selected cases. One part of the experimental work was devoted to investigate the difference between oils extracted from organic and conventional salmon. The main aim of the investigation was to u...

  10. Thermal radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, John R; Siegel, Robert


    Further expanding on the changes made to the fifth edition, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition continues to highlight the relevance of thermal radiative transfer and focus on concepts that develop the radiative transfer equation (RTE). The book explains the fundamentals of radiative transfer, introduces the energy and radiative transfer equations, covers a variety of approaches used to gauge radiative heat exchange between different surfaces and structures, and provides solution techniques for solving the RTE.

  11. Hypothermia Prevention During Surgery: Comparison Between Thermal Mattress And Thermal Blanket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Marques Moysés


    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the efficiency of the thermal blanket and thermal mattress in the prevention of hypothermia during surgery. Thirty-eight randomized patients were divided into two groups (G1 – thermal blanket and G2 - thermal mattress. The variables studied were: length of surgery, length of stay in the post-anesthetic care unit, period without using the device after thermal induction, transport time from the operating room to post-anesthetic care unit, intraoperative fluid infusion, surgery size, anesthetic technique, age, body mass index, esophageal, axillary and operating room temperature. In G2, length of surgery and starch infusion longer was higher (both p=0.03, but no hypothermia occurred. During the surgical anesthetic procedure, the axillary temperature was higher at 120 minutes (p=0.04, and esophageal temperature was higher at 120 (p=0.002 and 180 minutes (p=0.03 and at the end of the procedure (p=0.002. The thermal mattress was more effective in preventing hypothermia during surgery.

  12. Thermal-Mechanical Optimization of Folded Core Sandwich Panels for Thermal Protection Systems of Space Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhou


    Full Text Available The integrated thermal protection system (ITPS is a complicated system that addresses both mechanical and thermal considerations. An M-pattern folded core sandwich panel packed with low-density insulation material provides inherently low mass for a potential ITPS panel. Herein, we identify the most influential geometric parameters and establish a viable, computationally efficient optimization procedure. Variables considered for optimization are geometric dimensions of the ITPS, while temperature and deflection are taken as constraints. A one-dimensional (1D thermal model based on a modified form of the rule of mixtures was established, while a three-dimensional (3D model was adopted for linear static analyses. Parametric models were generated to facilitate a design of experiment (DOE study, and approximate models using radial basis functions were obtained to carry out the optimization process. Sensitivity studies were first conducted to investigate the effect of geometric parameters on the ITPS responses. Then optimizations were performed for both thermal and thermal-mechanical constraints. The results show that the simplified 1D thermal model is able to predict temperature through the ITPS thickness satisfactorily. The combined optimization strategy evidently improves the computational efficiency of the design process showing it can be used for initial design of folded core ITPS.

  13. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The operating temperature is critical in achieving the right balance between performance, cost, and life for both Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors. The chemistries of advanced energy-storage devices - such as lithium-based batteries - are very sensitive to operating temperature. High temperatures degrade batteries faster while low temperatures decrease their power and capacity, affecting vehicle range, performance, and cost. Understanding heat generation in battery systems - from the individual cells within a module, to the inter-connects between the cells, and across the entire battery system - is imperative for designing effective thermal-management systems and battery packs. At NREL, we have developed unique capabilities to measure the thermal properties of cells and evaluate thermal performance of battery packs (air or liquid cooled). We also use our electro-thermal finite element models to analyze the thermal performance of battery systems in order to aid battery developers with improved thermal designs. NREL's tools are used to meet the weight, life, cost, and volume goals set by the U.S. Department of Energy for electric drive vehicles.

  14. Local Thermal Insulating Materials For Thermal Energy Storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal insulation is one of the most important components of a thermal energy storage system. In this paper the thermal properties of selected potential local materials which can be used for high temperature insulation are presented. Thermal properties of seven different samples were measured. Samples consisted of: ...

  15. Effects of water and sawdust additives on thermal effusivity, thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of water and sawdust additives on the thermal effusivity (e), thermal conductivity (λ), and durability of cement-stabilized laterites were investigated. The thermal effusivity (e) and conductivity(λ) have direct influ-ence on heat transfer and thermal insulation in buildings, and the parameters were determined by hot ...

  16. Buffer thermal energy storage for an air Brayton solar engine (United States)

    Strumpf, H. J.; Barr, K. P.


    The application of latent-heat buffer thermal energy storage to a point-focusing solar receiver equipped with an air Brayton engine was studied. To demonstrate the effect of buffer thermal energy storage on engine operation, a computer program was written which models the recuperator, receiver, and thermal storage device as finite-element thermal masses. Actual operating or predicted performance data are used for all components, including the rotating equipment. Based on insolation input and a specified control scheme, the program predicts the Brayton engine operation, including flows, temperatures, and pressures for the various components, along with the engine output power. An economic parametric study indicates that the economic viability of buffer thermal energy storage is largely a function of the achievable engine life.

  17. Heavy quark masses (United States)

    Testa, Massimo


    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  18. [Safety during the thermal disposal of medical waste containing PVC]. (United States)

    Soldatenko, N A; Karmanov, V V; Vaisman, Ya I; Samutin, N M


    In the article the issues of environmental, sanitary and hygienic safety of medical waste management are considered. Recently, for the treatment of certain types of medical waste thermal methods using small plants not equipped with a proper flue gas cleaning system are widely used. In this article the potential danger of supertoxicants generation when applying thermal methods of neutralization of medical waste that contains polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is justified by thermogravimetric and mass spectrometric studies. This research shows the necessity of introducing technologies of separate collection of PVC medical waste and its' thermal recycling in compliance with special requirements.

  19. MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvester (United States)

    Hunter, Scott R; Datskos, Panagiotis G


    A pyroelectric thermal energy harvesting apparatus for generating an electric current includes a cantilevered layered pyroelectric capacitor extending between a first surface and a second surface, where the first surface includes a temperature difference from the second surface. The layered pyroelectric capacitor includes a conductive, bimetal top electrode layer, an intermediate pyroelectric dielectric layer and a conductive bottom electrode layer. In addition, a pair of proof masses is affixed at a distal end of the layered pyroelectric capacitor to face the first surface and the second surface, wherein the proof masses oscillate between the first surface and the second surface such that a pyroelectric current is generated in the pyroelectric capacitor due to temperature cycling when the proof masses alternately contact the first surface and the second surface.

  20. Alienation, Mass Society and Mass Culture. (United States)

    Dam, Hari N.

    This monograph examines the nature of alienation in mass society and mass culture. Conceptually based on the "Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft" paradigm of sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies, discussion traces the concept of alienation as it appears in the philosophies of Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard, Sartre, and others. Dwight Macdonald's "A Theory of Mass…

  1. Tunable Radiative Thermal Rectifiers : Toward Thermal Logical Circuits


    Nefzaoui, Elyes; Ezzahri, Younès; Joulain, Karl; Drevillon, Jérémie


    International audience; Thermal rectification can be defined as an asymmetry in the heat flux when the temperature difference between two interacting thermal reservoirs is reversed. We present a thermal rectifier concept based on far-field radiative heat transfer. The device is composed of two opaque thermal baths 1 and 2 at temperatures T 1 and T 2 respectively and exchanging heat through thermal radiation. The two interacting bodies are made of spectrally selective photonic structures with ...

  2. Landsat and Thermal Infrared Imaging (United States)

    Arvidson, Terry; Barsi, Julia; Jhabvala, Murzy; Reuter, Dennis


    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the collection of thermal images by Landsat sensors already on orbit and to introduce the new thermal sensor to be launched in 2013. The chapter describes the thematic mapper (TM) and enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) sensors, the calibration of their thermal bands, and the design and prelaunch calibration of the new thermal infrared sensor (TIRS).

  3. Miniature Piezoelectric Macro-Mass Balance (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Bonitz, Robert G.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph


    Mass balances usually use a strain gauge that requires an impedance measurement and is susceptible to noise and thermal drift. A piezoelectric balance can be used to measure mass directly by monitoring the voltage developed across the piezoelectric balance, which is linear with weight or it can be used in resonance to produce a frequency change proportional to the mass change (see figure). The piezoelectric actuator/balance is swept in frequency through its fundamental resonance. If a small mass is added to the balance, the resonance frequency shifts down in proportion to the mass. By monitoring the frequency shift, the mass can be determined. This design allows for two independent measurements of mass. Additionally, more than one sample can be verified because this invention allows for each sample to be transported away from the measuring device upon completion of the measurement, if required. A piezoelectric actuator, or many piezoelectric actuators, was placed between the collection plate of the sampling system and the support structure. As the sample mass is added to the plate, the piezoelectrics are stressed, causing them to produce a voltage that is proportional to the mass and acceleration. In addition, a change in mass delta m produces a change in the resonance frequency with delta f proportional to delta m. In a microgravity environment, the spacecraft could be accelerated to produce a force on the piezoelectric actuator that would produce a voltage proportional to the mass and acceleration. Alternatively, the acceleration could be used to force the mass on the plate, and the inertial effects of the mass on the plate would produce a shift in the resonance frequency with the change in frequency related to the mass change. Three prototypes of the mass balance mechanism were developed. These macro-mass balances each consist of a solid base and an APA 60 Cedrat flextensional piezoelectric actuator supporting a measuring plate. A similar structure with 3 APA


    Water temperature is a key driver of ecological processes in aquatic environments and can influence biological connectivity among riverine habitats. Riverine fish and other mobile aquatic species often must navigate a variety of physical barriers such as dams and culverts. For Pacific salmon, warm water can also pose barriers to migration, but the presence of patches of cooler water within rivers can serve as important refuges and potentially as stepping stones at times of day when temperatures are elsewhere unsuitable along the migratory corridor. Rising water temperature associated with climate change has become a major conservation concern for freshwater species and poses challenges for natural resource managers who must consider multiple factors in addition to uncertainty in climate predictions. Thermal refuges can contribute to watershed-scale thermal resilience and are increasingly considered in water quality regulations; however, monitoring such refuges and effectively operationalizing the concept for management has proved difficult. We review what is known about use of thermal refuges by coldwater fishes in natural systems, and then we present two case study applications in which we characterize thermal patterns in rivers (e.g., the frequency, size, spacing, and location of thermal patches) and consider effects on salmon in a management context. In our first example, we illustrate methods for quantifying spatial heterogeneity in stream temperatures at bi

  5. Plasmonic mass and Johnson-Nyquist noise (United States)

    Chee, Jingyee; Yoon, Hosang; Qin, Ling; Ham, Donhee


    The fluctuation-dissipation theorem relates the thermal noise spectrum of a conductor to its linear response properties, with the ohmic resistance arising from the electron scattering being the most notable linear response property. But the linear response also includes the collective inertial acceleration of electrons, which should in principle influence the thermal noise spectrum as well. In practice, this effect would be largely masked by the Planck quantization for traditional conductors with short electron scattering times. But recent advances in nanotechnology have enabled the fabrication of conductors with greatly increased electron scattering times, with which the collective inertial effect can critically affect the thermal noise spectrum. In this paper we highlight this collective inertial effect—that is, the plasmonic effect—on the thermal noise spectrum under the framework of semiclassical electron dynamics, from both fundamental microscopic and practical modeling points of view. In graphene, where non-zero collective inertia arises from zero single-electron effective mass and where both electron and hole bands exist together, the thermal noise spectrum shows rich temperature and frequency dependencies, unseen in traditional conductors.

  6. Modeling Interfacial Thermal Boundary Conductance of Engineered Interfaces (United States)


    interface between materials 1 & 2 with an impurity mass mint , the energy transmission of all phonon frequencies is maximized when mint = (m1 +m2)/ of the source and sink. Figure 5: Phonon transmission spectra, with curves corresponding to different impurity masses, mint (left plot) or...substrate [2, 34]. The thermal decay of each sample, measured by TDTR, was compared to a multilayer solution of the heat diffusion equation to extract

  7. Thermal efficiency of single-pass solar air collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Zamry; Ibarahim, Zahari; Yatim, Baharudin [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz [Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)


    Efficiency of a finned single-pass solar air collector was studied. This paper presents the experimental study to investigate the effect of solar radiation and mass flow rate on efficiency. The fins attached at the back of absorbing plate to improve the thermal efficiency of the system. The results show that the efficiency is increased proportional to solar radiation and mass flow rate. Efficiency of the collector archived steady state when reach to certain value or can be said the maximum performance.

  8. Heat exchange studies on coconut oil cells as thermal energy storage for room thermal conditioning (United States)

    Sutjahja, I. M.; Putri, Widya A.; Fahmi, Z.; Wonorahardjo, S.; Kurnia, D.


    As reported by many thermal environment experts, room air conditioning might be controlled by thermal mass system. In this paper we discuss the performance of coconut oil cells as room thermal energy storage. The heat exchange mechanism of coconut oil (CO) which is one of potential organic Phase Change Material (PCM) is studied based on the results of temperature measurements in the perimeter and core parts of cells. We found that the heat exchange performance, i.e. heat absorption and heat release processes of CO cells are dominated by heat conduction in the sensible solid from the higher temperature perimeter part to the lower temperature core part and heat convection during the solid-liquid phase transition and sensible liquid phase. The capability of heat absorption as measured by the reduction of air temperature is not influenced by CO cell size. Besides that, the application of CO as the thermal mass has to be accompanied by air circulation to get the cool sensation of the room’s occupants.

  9. Mass spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides (United States)

    Becker, Johanna Sabine


    The capability of determining element concentrations at the trace and ultratrace level and isotope ratios is a main feature of inorganic mass spectrometry. The precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios of long-lived natural and artificial radionuclides is required, e.g. for their environmental monitoring and health control, for studying radionuclide migration, for age dating, for determining isotope ratios of radiogenic elements in the nuclear industry, for quality assurance and determination of the burn-up of fuel material in a nuclear power plant, for reprocessing plants, nuclear material accounting and radioactive waste control. Inorganic mass spectrometry, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as the most important inorganic mass spectrometric technique today, possesses excellent sensitivity, precision and good accuracy for isotope ratio measurements and practically no restriction with respect to the ionization potential of the element investigated—therefore, thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), which has been used as the dominant analytical technique for precise isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides for many decades, is being replaced increasingly by ICP-MS. In the last few years instrumental progress in improving figures of merit for the determination of isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides in ICP-MS has been achieved by the application of a multiple ion collector device (MC-ICP-MS) and the introduction of the collision cell interface in order to dissociate disturbing argon-based molecular ions, to reduce the kinetic energy of ions and neutralize the disturbing noble gas ions (e.g. of 129Xe + for the determination of 129I). The review describes the state of the art and the progress of different inorganic mass spectrometric techniques such as ICP-MS, laser ablation ICP-MS vs. TIMS, glow discharge mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass

  10. Analysis of Cattaneo-Christov heat and mass fluxes in the squeezed flow embedded in porous medium with variable mass diffusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq

    Full Text Available This research article investigates the squeezing flow of Newtonian fluid with variable viscosity over a stretchable sheet inserted in Darcy porous medium. Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion models are implemented to scrutinize the characteristics of heat and mass transfer via variable thermal conductivity and variable mass diffusivity. These models are the modification of conventional laws of Fourier’s and Fick’s via thermal and solutal relaxation times respectively. The homotopy analysis Method (HAM is being utilized to provide the solution of highly nonlinear system of coupled partial differential equations after converted into dimensionless governing equations. The behavior of flow parameters on velocity, concentration, and temperature distributions are sketched and analyzed physically. The result indicates that both concentration and temperature distributions decay for higher solutal and thermal relaxation parameters respectively. Keywords: Squeezing flow, Porous medium, Variable viscosity, Cattaneo-Christov heat and mass flux models, Variable thermal conductivity, Variable mass diffusivity

  11. Concepts in Thermal Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Stephen J


    This modern introduction to thermal physics contains a step-by-step presentation of the key concepts. The text is copiously illustrated and each chapter contains several worked examples. - ;An understanding of thermal physics is crucial to much of modern physics, chemistry and engineering. This book provides a modern introduction to the main principles that are foundational to thermal physics, thermodynamics, and statistical mechanics. The key concepts are carefully presented in a clear way, and new ideas are illustrated with copious worked examples as well as a description of the historical background to their discovery. Applications are presented to subjects as. diverse as stellar astrophysics, information and communication theory, condensed matter physics, and climate change. Each chapter concludes with detailed exercises. -

  12. Highly Thermal Conductive Nanocomposites (United States)

    Sun, Ya-Ping (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Veca, Lucia Monica (Inventor)


    Disclosed are methods for forming carbon-based fillers as may be utilized in forming highly thermal conductive nanocomposite materials. Formation methods include treatment of an expanded graphite with an alcohol/water mixture followed by further exfoliation of the graphite to form extremely thin carbon nanosheets that are on the order of between about 2 and about 10 nanometers in thickness. Disclosed carbon nanosheets can be functionalized and/or can be incorporated in nanocomposites with extremely high thermal conductivities. Disclosed methods and materials can prove highly valuable in many technological applications including, for instance, in formation of heat management materials for protective clothing and as may be useful in space exploration or in others that require efficient yet light-weight and flexible thermal management solutions.

  13. Electrical and Thermal Conductivity (United States)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    After a Sect. 1.1 devoted to electrical conductivity and a section that deals with magnetic and dielectric losses ( 1.2 ), this chapter explores the theory of thermal conduction in solids. The examined categories of solids are: metals Sect. 1.3.2 , Dielectrics Sects. 1.3.3 and 1.3.4 and Nanocomposites Sect. 1.3.5 . In Sect. 1.3.6 the problem of thermal and electrical contact between materials is considered because contact resistance occurring at conductor joints in magnets or other high power applications can lead to undesirable electrical losses. At low temperature, thermal contact is also critical in the mounting of temperature sensors, where bad contacts can lead to erroneous results, in particular when superconductivity phenomena are involved.

  14. Thermal Responsive Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Pasold, Anke


    alterations, their respective durability and copper’s architectural (visual and transformative) aesthetic qualities. Through the use of an evolutionary solver, the composite structure of the elements are organised to find the bending behaviour specified by and for the thermal environments. The entire model......The paper presents an architectural computational method and model, which, through additive and subtractive processes, create composite elements with bending behaviour based on thermal variations in the surrounding climatic environment. The present effort is focused on the manipulation of assembly...... composite layers and their relative layer lengths thereby embedding the merged material effect to create a responsive behavioural architectural envelope. Copper and polypropylene are used as base materials for the composite structure due to their high differences in thermal expansion, surface emissivity...

  15. Design without thermal bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltseva Irina


    Full Text Available The main focus of the article is on the quality design and implementation of the thermal insulation of buildings. Shells of buildings consist not only of conventional structures (wall, roof, ceiling, but also of edges, corners, joints and places of disruption of the outer thermal insulation shell integrity (due to through passage of pipelines, ventilation ducts and etc.. In all these places, heat losses are generally increased in comparison with conventional surfaces. Some of them are easily taken into account by calculation, using a special method proposed by the authors. Other thermal bridges due to unfavorable structural details can be avoided by observing the rules and recommendations that are classified and discussed in detail in this article.

  16. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration (United States)


    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  17. Thermal Anemometry Grid Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Arlit


    Full Text Available A novel thermal anemometry grid sensor was developed for the simultaneous measurement of cross-sectional temperature and axial velocity distribution in a fluid flow. The sensor consists of a set of platinum resistors arranged in a regular grid. Each platinum resistor allows the simultaneous measurement of fluid temperature via electrical resistance and flow velocity via constant voltage thermal anemometry. Cross-sectional measurement was enabled by applying a special multiplexing-excitation scheme. In this paper, we present the design and characterization of a prototypical sensor for measurements in a range of very low velocities.

  18. Thermal management of batteries (United States)

    Gibbard, H. F.; Chen, C.-C.

    Control of the internal temperature during high rate discharge or charge can be a major design problem for large, high energy density battery systems. A systematic approach to the thermal management of such systems is described for different load profiles based on: thermodynamic calculations of internal heat generation; calorimetric measurements of heat flux; analytical and finite difference calculations of the internal temperature distribution; appropriate system designs for heat removal and temperature control. Examples are presented of thermal studies on large lead-acid batteries for electrical utility load levelling and nickel-zinc and lithium-iron sulphide batteries for electric vehicle propulsion.

  19. Thermal Anemometry Grid Sensor. (United States)

    Arlit, Martin; Schleicher, Eckhard; Hampel, Uwe


    A novel thermal anemometry grid sensor was developed for the simultaneous measurement of cross-sectional temperature and axial velocity distribution in a fluid flow. The sensor consists of a set of platinum resistors arranged in a regular grid. Each platinum resistor allows the simultaneous measurement of fluid temperature via electrical resistance and flow velocity via constant voltage thermal anemometry. Cross-sectional measurement was enabled by applying a special multiplexing-excitation scheme. In this paper, we present the design and characterization of a prototypical sensor for measurements in a range of very low velocities.

  20. No Thermalization without Correlations (United States)

    Zhdanov, Dmitry V.; Bondar, Denys I.; Seideman, Tamar


    The proof of the long-standing conjecture is presented that Markovian quantum master equations are at odds with quantum thermodynamics under conventional assumptions of fluctuation-dissipation theorems (implying a translation invariant dissipation). Specifically, except for identified systems, persistent system-bath correlations of at least one kind, spatial or temporal, are obligatory for thermalization. A systematic procedure is proposed to construct translation invariant bath models producing steady states that well approximate thermal states. A quantum optical scheme for the laboratory assessment of the developed procedure is outlined.

  1. Thermal Inactivation of Viruses (United States)


    S) VIKU3FS THERMAL RESISTANCE FOODS FLUIDS FOOD PROCESSING FOOD PRESERVATION CONTAMINATION HEAT VIRAL NUCLEIC ACIDS ao’.AjUsTNACT ( rm**— •**» It nmc +nmy m>d Id+atttr by M«o* fmbm) A review of the literature pertaining to thermal inactivation of virus in fluid media» fluid...vacuum packaged in cans or in flexible pouches , frozen to ca. -40 C, and irradiated within a temperature range of -40 C to -8 C to obtain the

  2. Thermal Nanosystems and Nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Volz, Sebastian


    Heat transfer laws for conduction, radiation and convection change when the dimensions of the systems in question shrink. The altered behaviours can be used efficiently in energy conversion, respectively bio- and high-performance materials to control microelectronic devices. To understand and model those thermal mechanisms, specific metrologies have to be established. This book provides an overview of actual devices and materials involving micro-nanoscale heat transfer mechanisms. These are clearly explained and exemplified by a large spectrum of relevant physical models, while the most advanced nanoscale thermal metrologies are presented.

  3. Thermal Network Modelling Handbook (United States)


    Thermal mathematical modelling is discussed in detail. A three-fold purpose was established: (1) to acquaint the new user with the terminology and concepts used in thermal mathematical modelling, (2) to present the more experienced and occasional user with quick formulas and methods for solving everyday problems, coupled with study cases which lend insight into the relationships that exist among the various solution techniques and parameters, and (3) to begin to catalog in an orderly fashion the common formulas which may be applied to automated conversational language techniques.

  4. Modeling thermal effects in braking systems of railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Miloš S.


    Full Text Available The modeling of thermal effects has become increasingly important in product design in different transport means, road vehicles, airplanes, railway vehicles, and so forth. The thermal analysis is a very important stage in the study of braking systems, especially of railway vehicles, where it is necessary to brake huge masses, because the thermal load of a braked railway wheel prevails compared to other types of loads. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of railway wheels. Thus induced thermal loads determine thermomechanical behavior of the structure of railway wheels. In cases of thermal overloads, which mainly occur as a result of long-term braking on down-grade railroads, the generation of stresses and deformations occurs, whose consequences are the appearance of cracks on the rim of a wheel and the final total wheel defect. The importance to precisely determine the temperature distribution caused by the transfer process of the heat generated during braking due to the friction on contact surfaces of the braking system makes it a challenging research task. Therefore, the thermal analysis of a block-braked solid railway wheel of a 444 class locomotive of the national railway operator Serbian Railways is processed in detail in this paper, using analytical and numerical modeling of thermal effects during long-term braking for maintaining a constant speed on a down-grade railroad.

  5. Evanescent gravitational mass


    Bel, Lluis


    A simple and {\\it innocent} modification of Poisson's equation leads to a modified Newtonnian theory of gravitation where a localized and {\\it positive} energy density of the gravitational field contributes to its own source. The result is that the total {\\it active gravitational mass} of a compact object is the sum of its {\\it proper mass} and an {\\it evanescent gravitational mass} which is a mass equivalent to the gravitational energy.

  6. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    Gross, Michael L.; Rempel, Don L.


    Discusses the nature of Fourier transform mass spectrometry and its unique combination of high mass resolution, high upper mass limit, and multichannel advantage. Examines its operation, capabilities and limitations, applications (ion storage, ion manipulation, ion chemistry), and future applications and developments. (JN)

  7. On Defining Mass (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene


    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement…

  8. evaluation of mediastinal masses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mediastinal masses were the most common (63.8%) fol- lowed by posterior mediastinal masses (22.9%). Middle mediastinal masses made up the remaining (13.3%). The most common primary mediastinal tumour was lymphoma. (21.9%) next to which were thymus gland neoplasia and thymus cysts/hyperplasia (18.1 %).

  9. Thermal insulation testing method and apparatus (United States)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Augustynowicz, Stanislaw D. (Inventor)


    A test apparatus and method of its use for evaluating various performance aspects of a test specimen is disclosed. A chamber within a housing contains a cold mass tank with a contact surface in contact with a first surface of a test specimen. The first surface of the test specimen is spaced from the second surface of the test specimen by a thickness. The second surface of the test specimen is maintained at a desired warm temperature. The first surface is maintained at a constant temperature by a liquid disposed within the cold mass tank. A boil-off flow rate of the gas is monitored and provided to a processor along with the temperature of the first and second surfaces of the test specimen. The processor calculates thermal insulation values of the test specimen including comparative values for heat flux and apparent thermal conductivity (k-value). The test specimen may be placed in any vacuum pressure level ranging from about 0.01 millitorr to 1,000,000 millitorr with different residual gases as desired. The test specimen may be placed under a mechanical load with the cold mass tank and another factors may be imposed upon the test specimen so as to simulate the actual use conditions.

  10. Thermal management for LED applications

    CERN Document Server

    Poppe, András


    Thermal Management for LED Applications provides state-of-the-art information on recent developments in thermal management as it relates to LEDs and LED-based systems and their applications. Coverage begins with an overview of the basics of thermal management including thermal design for LEDs, thermal characterization and testing of LEDs, and issues related to failure mechanisms and reliability and performance in harsh environments. Advances and recent developments in thermal management round out the book with discussions on advances in TIMs (thermal interface materials) for LED applications, advances in forced convection cooling of LEDs, and advances in heat sinks for LED assemblies. This book also: Presents a comprehensive overview of the basics of thermal management as it relates to LEDs and LED-based systems Discusses both design and thermal management considerations when manufacturing LEDs and LED-based systems Covers reliability and performance of LEDs in harsh environments Has a hands-on applications a...

  11. Shape memory thermal conduction switch (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Rajan (Inventor); Krishnan, Vinu (Inventor); Notardonato, William U. (Inventor)


    A thermal conduction switch includes a thermally-conductive first member having a first thermal contacting structure for securing the first member as a stationary member to a thermally regulated body or a body requiring thermal regulation. A movable thermally-conductive second member has a second thermal contacting surface. A thermally conductive coupler is interposed between the first member and the second member for thermally coupling the first member to the second member. At least one control spring is coupled between the first member and the second member. The control spring includes a NiTiFe comprising shape memory (SM) material that provides a phase change temperature <273 K, a transformation range <40 K, and a hysteresis of <10 K. A bias spring is between the first member and the second member. At the phase change the switch provides a distance change (displacement) between first and second member by at least 1 mm, such as 2 to 4 mm.

  12. Thermal Models for Intelligent Heating of Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thavlov, Anders; Bindner, Henrik W.


    The Danish government has set the ambitious goal that the share of the total Danish electricity consumption, covered by wind energy, should be increased to 50% by year 2020. This asks for radical changes in how we utilize and transmit electricity in the future power grid. To fully utilize the high...... share of renewable power generation, which is in general intermittent and non-controllable, the consumption side has to be much more flexible than today. To achieve such flexibility, methods for moving power consumption in time, within the hourly timescale, have to be developed. One approach currently...... being pursued is to use the heat capacity of the thermal mass in buildings to temporarily store excess power production by increasing the electrical heating. Likewise can the electrical heating be postponed in periods with lack of production. To exploit the potential in thermal storage and to ensure...

  13. Thermal neutron capture gamma-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuli, J.K.


    The energy and intensity of gamma rays as seen in thermal neutron capture are presented. Only those (n,..cap alpha..), E = thermal, reactions for which the residual nucleus mass number is greater than or equal to 45 are included. These correspond to evaluations published in Nuclear Data Sheets. The publication source data are contained in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). The data presented here do not involve any additional evaluation. Appendix I lists all the residual nuclides for which the data are included here. Appendix II gives a cumulated index to A-chain evaluations including the year of publication. The capture gamma ray data are given in two tables - the Table 1 is the list of all gamma rays seen in (n,..gamma..) reaction given in the order of increasing energy; the Table II lists the gamma rays according to the nuclide.

  14. Thermal Efficiency of Natural Convection Solar Dryer (United States)

    Seetapong, N.; Chulok, S.; Khoonphunnarai, P.


    The purpose of this research is to study the thermal efficiency of natural convection. The working principle of natural convection solar dryer is, once the air in the solar dryer is heated by solar energy, the air relative humidity will drop and floating up through the drying. This air will take moisture out of the product and flow out to the ambient air. It was found from the experiment that, in the duration of 8.00 am - 4.00 pm on a clear sky day, an all-day average ambient air and inside the chamber temperature were 38.34°C and 63.19°C respectively. At the solar radiation intensity of 759.53W/m2, mass flow rate of air was 0.023 kg/s and the thermal efficiency of the solar dryer was 2.59%.

  15. Study of thermal destruction of lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reti, M.; Hojnos, J.


    Using thermofractography, infra- and mass-spectrometry and other techniques thermal destruction of lignin was investigated at a temp. range of 200 to 500/sup 0/C. At temp. from 225 to 330/sup 0/C first of all splitting of ..beta..-aryil- and benzyl-ether binds between principal phenylpropane links of lignin, thus forming derivative phenols, vinyl guaiacol, coinferyl alcohol and aldehyde and respective syringic derivatives. At temp. of 350/sup 0/C splitting of C-C connections occurs in the lateral chain, forming guaiacol, 2,6-dimetoxiphenol and their saturated 4-alkyl derivatives. With a speeded up pyrolysis process, thermal destruction of lignin occurs at temp. of greater than or equal to 400/sup 0/C, with 62% of overall quantity derived at 500-550/sup 0/C with an overall tar release of about 30.

  16. Advanced Rigid Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (United States)

    Feldman, J. D.; Gasch, M. J.; Poteet, C. C.; Szalai, Christine


    With the gradual increase in robotic rover sophistication and the desire for humans to explore the solar system, the need for reentry systems to deliver large payloads into planetary atmospheres is looming. Heritage ablative Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) using Viking or Pathfinder era materials are at or near their performance limits and will be inadequate for many future missions. Significant advances in TPS materials technology are needed in order to enable susequent human exploration missions. This paper summarizes some recent progress at NASA in developing families of advanced rigid ablative TPS that could be used for thermal protection in planetary entry missions. In particular, the effort focuses on technologies required to land heavy masses on Mars to facilitate exploration.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. Atan; W. A. N. W. Mohamed


    .... An analytical method by which the electrical resistance is evaluated based on the polarisation curve and the thermal resistance from the mass balance, was applied to a 72-cell PEM fuel cell assembly...

  18. Development of Passive Fuel Cell Thermal Management Technology (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian; Colozza, Anthony


    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA exploration program. The passive thermal management system relies on heat conduction within the cooling plate to move the heat from the central portion of the cell stack out to the edges of the fuel cell stack rather than using a pumped loop cooling system to convectively remove the heat. Using the passive approach eliminates the need for a coolant pump and other cooling loop components which reduces fuel cell system mass and improves overall system reliability. Previous analysis had identified that low density, ultra-high thermal conductivity materials would be needed for the cooling plates in order to achieve the desired reductions in mass and the highly uniform thermal heat sink for each cell within a fuel cell stack. A pyrolytic graphite material was identified and fabricated into a thin plate using different methods. Also a development project with Thermacore, Inc. resulted in a planar heat pipe. Thermal conductivity tests were done using these materials. The results indicated that lightweight passive fuel cell cooling is feasible.

  19. Anisotropic Thermal Diffusivities of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Akoshima, Megumi; Takahashi, Satoru


    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are used to shield the blades of gas turbines from heat and wear. There is a pressing need to evaluate the thermal conductivity of TBCs in the thermal design of advanced gas turbines with high energy efficiency. These TBCs consist of a ceramic-based top coat and a bond coat on a superalloy substrate. Usually, the focus is on the thermal conductivity in the thickness direction of the TBC because heat tends to diffuse from the surface of the top coat to the substrate. However, the in-plane thermal conductivity is also important in the thermal design of gas turbines because the temperature distribution within the turbine cannot be ignored. Accordingly, a method is developed in this study for measuring the in-plane thermal diffusivity of the top coat. Yttria-stabilized zirconia top coats are prepared by thermal spraying under different conditions. The in-plane and cross-plane thermal diffusivities of the top coats are measured by the flash method to investigate the anisotropy of thermal conduction in a TBC. It is found that the in-plane thermal diffusivity is higher than the cross-plane one for each top coat and that the top coats have significantly anisotropic thermal diffusivity. The cross-sectional and in-plane microstructures of the top coats are observed, from which their porosities are evaluated. The thermal diffusivity and its anisotropy are discussed in detail in relation to microstructure and porosity.

  20. Thermal probes of nanoparticle interfaces: Thermodiffusion and thermal conductivity of nanoparticle suspensions (United States)

    Putnam, Shawn Arthur

    This dissertation presents an experimental study of heat transport and mass transport in nanoparticle composites. The 3o-method was used for high precision thermal conductivity measurements of PMMA polymers filled with alumina nanoparticles. A microfluidic beam deflection technique, developed in this thesis, was used to measure both the thermal conductivity (Λ) and the thermodiffusion coefficient (DT) of nanoparticle suspensions. Thermal conductivity studies of polymer nanocomposites used effective medium theory and data for the changes in thermal conductivity to estimate the thermal conductance of PMMA/alumina interfaces in the temperature range of 40 30 nm. Thermal conductivity studies of nanoparticle suspensions measured the thermal diffusivity to a precision better than 1%. Solutions of G60--C 70 fullerenes and alkanethiolate-protected Au nanoparticles were measured to maximum volume fractions of 0.6% and 0.35 vol%, respectively. Anomalous enhancements in Λ were not observed. The largest enhancement in Λ was 1.3 +/- 0.8% for 4 nm diameter Au particles suspended in ethanol. Thermodiffusion studies investigated aqueous suspensions of charged polystyrene nanoparticles, proteins of T4 lysozyme, and mutant variants of T4 lysozyme at small particle concentrations (cp ≈ 1-2 vol%). DT was measured as a function of temperature, particle size, particle charge, ionic strength, and ionic species. At room temperature and high salt concentrations (>100 mM), DT for 26 nm polystyrene nanoparticles varied systematically within the range --0.9x10-7 cm2 K -1 50°C, the thermodiffusion coefficients were positive with a value consistent with the predictions of a theoretical model originally proposed by B. Derjaguin that is based on the enthalpy changes due to polarization of water molecules in the double-layer. At high temperatures, DT was also independent of particle size.

  1. The Meson Mass System

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzi, Paolo


    The neglected 35 MeV/c2 particle mass quantization hypothesis has recently been reassessed for all known meson states. The rule is found to be statistically relevant, once the states are grouped by quark composition and JPC, with slightly different mass units for each group. In certain groups the mass unit is spin-dependent. Also the mass units are linearly quantized, with highly structured correlation patterns. The baryon masses are organized along similar lines. These results support an indication that hadrons might be shell-structured.


    Augustynowicz, Stanislaw D. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor)


    Thermal insulation systems and with methods of their production. The thermal insulation systems incorporate at least one reflection layer and at least one spacer layer in an alternating pattern. Each spacer layer includes a fill layer and a carrier layer. The fill layer may be separate from the carrier layer, or it may be a part of the carrier layer, i.e., mechanically injected into the carrier layer or chemically formed in the carrier layer. Fill layers contain a powder having a high surface area and low bulk density. Movement of powder within a fill layer is restricted by electrostatic effects with the reflection layer combined with the presence of a carrier layer, or by containing the powder in the carrier layer. The powder in the spacer layer may be compressed from its bulk density. The thermal insulation systems may further contain an outer casing. Thermal insulation systems may further include strips and seams to form a matrix of sections. Such sections serve to limit loss of powder from a fill layer to a single section and reduce heat losses along the reflection layer.

  3. Spacecraft thermal modelling (United States)

    Chin, J. H.; Panczak, T. D.; Fried, L.


    Thermal modeling of spacecraft requires approaches which can handle dominant radiative heat transfers and many special thermal control components. Present network-type thermal analyzers allow simulation, especially for components with rectangular geometries, but at the expense of considerable awkwardness and much error-prone manual input. The user interfaces for pre- and postprocessing for these analyzers are also very deficient. Finite element thermal analyzers solve some of the analytical difficulties, but are not widely used because they lack the flexibility to simulate special operations. The Galerkin finite element method (GFEM) distributes the contributions within an element to the element nodal points. The assembly of the contributions from all elements yields a system of energy balance equations for the nodal points of the system. Monte Carlo raytracing, in conjunction with a GFEM energy distribution to element nodal points, yields a procedure of consistent nonisothermal surface radiation exchange. This procedure reduces a source of simulation error caused by nonuniform element illumination and shading. Orbital heating, fluid flow and special analysis features are discussed. The main analysis program is interfaced to the preprocessing and postprocessing modules.

  4. Thermal inactivation of microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelt, J.P.P.M.; Brul, S.


    This paper serves as an overview of various aspects of thermal processing. Heat processing of foods has a long history and is still one of the most important preservation methods. To guarantee microbiological safety and stability, large safety margins are often applied in traditional heat processes.

  5. Thermal decomposition of hemicelluloses


    Werner, Kajsa; Pommer, Linda; Broström, Markus


    Decomposition modeling of biomass often uses commercially available xylan as model compound representing hemicelluloses, not taking in account the heterogeneous nature of that group of carbohydrates. In this study, the thermal decomposition behavior of seven different hemicelluloses (beta-glucan, arabinogalactan, arabinoxylan, galactomannan, glucomannan, xyloglucan, and xylan) were investigated in inert atmosphere using (i) thermogravimetric analysis coupled to Fourier transform infrared spec...

  6. Thermal Cameras and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.


    Thermal cameras are passive sensors that capture the infrared radiation emitted by all objects with a temperature above absolute zero. This type of camera was originally developed as a surveillance and night vision tool for the military, but recently the price has dropped, significantly opening up...

  7. Solar Thermal Power. (United States)

    McDaniels, David K.

    The different approaches to the generation of power from solar energy may be roughly divided into five categories: distributed collectors; central receivers; biomass; ocean thermal energy conversion; and photovoltaic devices. The first approach (distributed collectors) is the subject of this module. The material presented is designed to…

  8. Combining thermal comfort models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigit, A.


    Two models commonly used in thermal comfort studies were combined to develop a two-dimensional computer model that estimates the resistance to dry and evaporative heat transfer for a clothing system from fabric resistance data, fabric thickness data, and information concerning the amount of body surface area covered by different fabric layers and the amount of air trapped between fabric layers. Five different clothing ensembles with different total thermal insulation and very different distributions of the insulation on the body were simulated with 16 sedentary subjects. This paper first evaluates total thermal insulation predictions from the Fanger steady-state model and then uses these data in the Gagge two-compartment (or two-node) model. The combined model uses the transient heat balance of each segment and the whole body. It estimates total insulation value and then uses this value to calculate transient temperature and wettedness. By application of the combined model, predictions of human responses to a wide range of thermal conditions are compared with the responses of human subjects as described in reports of laboratory experiments. Possible reasons for discrepancies between the observed data and predictions of the model are briefly discussed.

  9. Thermal Reactor Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  10. Solar thermal financing guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.A.; Cole, R.J.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Holmlund, I.; Malhotra, S.; Smith, S.A.; Sommers, P.; Willke, T.L.


    This guidebook contains information on alternative financing methods that could be used to develop solar thermal systems. The financing arrangements discussed include several lease alternatives, joint venture financing, R and D partnerships, industrial revenue bonds, and ordinary sales. In many situations, alternative financing arrangements can significantly enhance the economic attractiveness of solar thermal investments by providing a means to efficiently allocate elements of risk, return on investment, required capital investment, and tax benefits. A net present value approach is an appropriate method that can be used to investigate the economic attractiveness of alternative financing methods. Although other methods are applicable, the net present value approach has advantages of accounting for the time value of money, yielding a single valued solution to the financial analysis, focusing attention on the opportunity cost of capital, and being a commonly understood concept that is relatively simple to apply. A personal computer model for quickly assessing the present value of investments in solar thermal plants with alternative financing methods is presented in this guidebook. General types of financing arrangements that may be desirable for an individual can be chosen based on an assessment of his goals in investing in solar thermal systems and knowledge of the individual's tax situation. Once general financing arrangements have been selected, a screening analysis can quickly determine if the solar investment is worthy of detailed study.

  11. Preparation, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Cement Board with Expanded Perlite Based Composite Phase Change Material for Improving Buildings Thermal Behavior. (United States)

    Ye, Rongda; Fang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhengguo; Gao, Xuenong


    Here we demonstrate the mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, and thermal energy storage performance of construction elements made of cement and form-stable PCM-Rubitherm® RT 28 HC (RT28)/expanded perlite (EP) composite phase change materials (PCMs). The composite PCMs were prepared by adsorbing RT28 into the pores of EP, in which the mass fraction of RT28 should be limited to be no more than 40 wt %. The adsorbed RT28 is observed to be uniformly confined into the pores of EP. The phase change temperatures of the RT28/EP composite PCMs are very close to that of the pure RT28. The apparent density and compression strength of the composite cubes increase linearly with the mass fraction of RT28. Compared with the thermal conductivity of the boards composed of cement and EP, the thermal conductivities of the composite boards containing RT28 increase by 15%-35% with the mass fraction increasing of RT28. The cubic test rooms that consist of six boards were built to evaluate the thermal energy storage performance, it is found that the maximum temperature different between the outside surface of the top board with the indoor temperature using the composite boards is 13.3 °C higher than that of the boards containing no RT28. The thermal mass increase of the built environment due to the application of composite boards can contribute to improving the indoor thermal comfort and reducing the energy consumption in the buildings.

  12. Preparation, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Cement Board with Expanded Perlite Based Composite Phase Change Material for Improving Buildings Thermal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongda Ye


    Full Text Available Here we demonstrate the mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, and thermal energy storage performance of construction elements made of cement and form-stable PCM-Rubitherm® RT 28 HC (RT28/expanded perlite (EP composite phase change materials (PCMs. The composite PCMs were prepared by adsorbing RT28 into the pores of EP, in which the mass fraction of RT28 should be limited to be no more than 40 wt %. The adsorbed RT28 is observed to be uniformly confined into the pores of EP. The phase change temperatures of the RT28/EP composite PCMs are very close to that of the pure RT28. The apparent density and compression strength of the composite cubes increase linearly with the mass fraction of RT28. Compared with the thermal conductivity of the boards composed of cement and EP, the thermal conductivities of the composite boards containing RT28 increase by 15%–35% with the mass fraction increasing of RT28. The cubic test rooms that consist of six boards were built to evaluate the thermal energy storage performance, it is found that the maximum temperature different between the outside surface of the top board with the indoor temperature using the composite boards is 13.3 °C higher than that of the boards containing no RT28. The thermal mass increase of the built environment due to the application of composite boards can contribute to improving the indoor thermal comfort and reducing the energy consumption in the buildings.

  13. Thermal Testing Measurements Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wagner


    The purpose of the Thermal Testing Measurements Report (Scientific Analysis Report) is to document, in one report, the comprehensive set of measurements taken within the Yucca Mountain Project Thermal Testing Program since its inception in 1996. Currently, the testing performed and measurements collected are either scattered in many level 3 and level 4 milestone reports or, in the case of the ongoing Drift Scale Test, mostly documented in eight informal progress reports. Documentation in existing reports is uneven in level of detail and quality. Furthermore, while all the data collected within the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Thermal Testing Program have been submitted periodically to the Technical Data Management System (TDMS), the data structure--several incremental submittals, and documentation formats--are such that the data are often not user-friendly except to those who acquired and processed the data. The documentation in this report is intended to make data collected within the YMP Thermal Testing Program readily usable to end users, such as those representing the Performance Assessment Project, Repository Design Project, and Engineered Systems Sub-Project. Since either detailed level 3 and level 4 reports exist or the measurements are straightforward, only brief discussions are provided for each data set. These brief discussions for different data sets are intended to impart a clear sense of applicability of data, so that they will be used properly within the context of measurement uncertainty. This approach also keeps this report to a manageable size, an important consideration because the report encompasses nearly all measurements for three long-term thermal tests. As appropriate, thermal testing data currently residing in the TDMS have been reorganized and reformatted from cumbersome, user-unfriendly Input-Data Tracking Numbers (DTNs) into a new set of Output-DTNs. These Output-DTNs provide a readily usable data structure

  14. Quasiparticles in leptogenesis. A hard-thermal-loop study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessig, Clemens Paul


    We analyse the effects of thermal quasiparticles in leptogenesis using hard-thermal-loop-resummed propagators in the imaginary time formalism of thermal field theory. We perform our analysis in a leptogenesis toy model with three right-handed heavy neutrinos N{sub 1}, N{sub 2} and N{sub 3}. We consider decays and inverse decays and work in the hierarchical limit where the mass of N{sub 2} is assumed to be much larger than the mass of N{sub 1}, that is M{sub 2} >> M{sub 1}. We neglect flavour effects and assume that the temperatures are much smaller than M{sub 2} and M{sub 3}. We pay special attention to the influence of fermionic quasiparticles. We allow for the leptons to be either decoupled from each other, except for the interactions with neutrinos, or to be in chemical equilibrium by some strong interaction, for example via gauge bosons. In two additional cases, we approximate the full hard-thermal-loop lepton propagators with zero-temperature propagators, where we replace the zero-temperature mass by the thermal mass of the leptons m{sub l}(T) in one case and the asymptotic mass of the positive-helicity mode {radical}(2)m{sub l}(T) in the other case. We calculate all relevant decay rates and CP-asymmetries and solve the corresponding Boltzmann equations we derived. We compare the final lepton asymmetry of the four thermal cases and the vacuum case for three different initial neutrino abundances; zero, thermal and dominant abundance. The final asymmetries of the thermal cases differ considerably from the vacuum case and from each other in the weak washout regime for zero abundance and in the intermediate regime for dominant abundance. In the strong washout regime, where no influences from thermal corrections are commonly expected, the final lepton asymmetry can be enhanced by a factor of two by hiding part of the lepton asymmetry in the quasi-sterile minus-mode in the case of strongly interacting lepton modes. (orig.)

  15. Colloidal Thermal Fluids (United States)

    Lotzadeh, Saba

    In this dissertation, a reversible system with a well controlled degree of particle aggregation was developed. By surface modification of colloidal silica with aminosilanes, interactions among the particles were tuned in a controlled way to produce stable sized clusters at different pH values ranges from well-disposed to a colloidal gel. N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine (TMPE) monolayer on particle surface not only removes all the reactive sites to prevent chemical aggregation, also provides steric stabilization in the absence of any repulsion. After surface modification, electrokinetic behavior of silica particles were changed to that of amino groups, positive in acidic pH and neutral at basic pH values. By tuning the pH, the balance between electrostatic repulsion and hydrophobic interactions was reversibly controlled. As a result, clusters with different sizes were developed. The effect of clustering on the thermal conductivity of colloidal dispersions was quantified using silane-treated silica, a system engineered to exhibit reversible clustering under well-controlled conditions. Thermal conductivity of this system was measured by transient hot wire, the standard method of thermal conductivity measurements in liquids. We show that the thermal conductivity increases monotonically with cluster size and spans the entire range between the two limits of Maxwell's theory. The results, corroborated by numerical simulation, demonstrate that large increases of the thermal conductivity of colloidal dispersions are possible, yet fully within the predictions of classical theory. Numerical calculations were performed to evaluate the importance of structural properties of particles/aggregates on thermal conduction in colloidal particles. Thermal conductivity of non-spherical particles including hollow particles, cubic particles and rods was studied using a Monte Carlo algorithm. We show that anisotropic shapes, increase conductivity above that of isotropic


    Blainey, A.


    A body is presented for use in a thermal fission reactor comprising a sintered compressed mass of a substance of the group consisting of uranium, thorium, and oxides and carbides of uranium and thorium, enclosed in an envelope of a sintered, compacted, heat-conductive material of the group consisting of beryllium, zirconium, and oxides and carbides of beryllium and zirconium.

  17. Time-Separating Heating and Sensor Functions of Thermistors in Precision Thermal Control Applications (United States)

    Cho, Hyung J.; Sukhatme, Kalyani G.; Mahoney, John C.; Penanen, Konstantin Penanen; Vargas, Rudolph, Jr.


    A method allows combining the functions of a heater and a thermometer in a single device, a thermistor, with minimal temperature read errors. Because thermistors typically have a much smaller thermal mass than the objects they monitor, the thermal time to equilibrate the thermometer to the temperature of the object is typically much shorter than the thermal time of the object to change its temperature in response to an external perturbation.

  18. Thermal delay provided by floors containing layers that incorporate expanded cork granule waste


    Tadeu, A.; Moreira, A.; António, J.; Simões, N.; Simões, I.


    This paper reports the computation of the thermal delay provided by concrete floors built with layers of cork and lightweight screed that incorporate expanded cork granule waste. The heat transfer by conduction across these multilayer systems is simulated analytically under unsteady boundary conditions. The thermal delay is computed for multilayer concrete floors with varying numbers of layers and layer thicknesses. The mass density and thermal conductivity of the various materials were d...

  19. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.


    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the speculation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  20. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.


    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the spec- ulation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  1. Thermal Decomposition Model Development of EN-7 and EN-8 Polyurethane Elastomers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keedy, Ryan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harrison, Kale Warren [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Thermogravimetric analysis - gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TGA- GC/MS) experiments were performed on EN-7 and EN-8, analyzed, and reported in [1] . This SAND report derives and describes pyrolytic thermal decomposition models for use in predicting the responses of EN-7 and EN-8 in an abnormal thermal environment.

  2. House thermal model parameter estimation method for Model Predictive Control applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; de Wit, J.B.; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    In this paper we investigate thermal network models with different model orders applied to various Dutch low-energy house types with high and low interior thermal mass and containing floor heating. Parameter estimations are performed by using data from TRNSYS simulations. The paper discusses results

  3. Measuring thermal conductivity in freezing and thawing soil using the soil temperature response to heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overduin, P.; Kane, D.L.; Loon, van W.K.P.


    The thermal conductivity of the thin seasonally freezing and thawing soil layer in permafrost landscapes exerts considerable control over the sensitivity of the permafrost to energy and mass exchanges at the surface. At the same time, the thermal conductivity is sensitive to the state of the soil,

  4. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Development Risks (United States)

    Kim, Tony


    There are clear advantages of development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) for a crewed mission to Mars. NTP for in-space propulsion enables more ambitious space missions by providing high thrust at high specific impulse ((is) approximately 900 sec) that is 2 times the best theoretical performance possible for chemical rockets. Missions can be optimized for maximum payload capability to take more payload with reduced total mass to orbit; saving cost on reduction of the number of launch vehicles needed. Or missions can be optimized to minimize trip time significantly to reduce the deep space radiation exposure to the crew. NTR propulsion technology is a game changer for space exploration to Mars and beyond. However, 'NUCLEAR' is a word that is feared and vilified by some groups and the hostility towards development of any nuclear systems can meet great opposition by the public as well as from national leaders and people in authority. The public often associates the 'nuclear' word with weapons of mass destruction. The development NTP is at risk due to unwarranted public fears and clear honest communication of nuclear safety will be critical to the success of the development of the NTP technology. Reducing cost to NTP development is critical to its acceptance and funding. In the past, highly inflated cost estimates of a full-scale development nuclear engine due to Category I nuclear security requirements and costly regulatory requirements have put the NTP technology as a low priority. Innovative approaches utilizing low enriched uranium (LEU). Even though NTP can be a small source of radiation to the crew, NTP can facilitate significant reduction of crew exposure to solar and cosmic radiation by reducing trip times by 3-4 months. Current Human Mars Mission (HMM) trajectories with conventional propulsion systems and fuel-efficient transfer orbits exceed astronaut radiation exposure limits. Utilizing extra propellant from one additional SLS launch and available

  5. Network and guest dependent thermal stability and thermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    after the guest loss.32,64–66 Previously, lower thermal expansion due to low guest content have been shown only in the case of metal-organic frameworks. Thermal vibration of the guest molecules along the open channel axis does not cause expansion in the host network. This could be another reason for lower thermal ...

  6. Quantum thermal rectification to design thermal diodes and transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joulain, Karl; Ezzahri, Younes; Ordonez-Miranda, Jose [Univ. de Poitiers, Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France). Inst. Pprime, CNRS


    We study in this article how heat can be exchanged between two-level systems, each of them being coupled to a thermal reservoir. Calculations are performed solving a master equation for the density matrix using the Born-Markov approximation. We analyse the conditions for which a thermal diode and a thermal transistor can be obtained as well as their optimisation.

  7. Local Thermal Insulating Materials For Thermal Energy Storage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown User

    1. Introduction. It is necessary to use thermal insulating materials around thermal energy storage systems to minimize heat losses from the systems [1]. There are varieties of insulating materials which come in various forms like loose fill, rigid boards, pipe and foam. The thermal insulation is provided by embedding insulation ...

  8. Dynamic Thermal Features of Insulated Blocks: Actual Behavior and Myths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cianfrini


    Full Text Available The latest updates in the European directive on energy performance of buildings have introduced the fundamental “nearly zero-energy building (NZEB” concept. Thus, a special focus needs to be addressed to the thermal performance of building envelopes, especially concerning the role played by thermal inertia in the energy requirements for cooling applications. In fact, a high thermal inertia of the outer walls results in a mitigation of the daily heat wave, which reduces the cooling peak load and the related energy demand. The common assumption that high mass means high thermal inertia typically leads to the use of high-mass blocks. Numerical and experimental studies on thermal inertia of hollow envelope components have not confirmed this general assumption, even though no systematic analysis is readily available in the open literature. Yet, the usually employed methods for the calculation of unsteady heat transfer through walls are based on the hypothesis that such walls are composed of homogeneous layers. In this framework, a study of the dynamic thermal performance of insulated blocks is brought forth in the present paper. A finite-volume method is used to solve the two-dimensional equation of conduction heat transfer, using a triangular-pulse temperature excitation to analyze the heat flux response. The effects of both the type of clay and the insulating filler are investigated and discussed at length. The results obtained show that the wall front mass is not the basic independent variable, since clay and insulating filler thermal diffusivities are more important controlling parameters.

  9. Fission product studies in the symmetric mass region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Laeter, J.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.; Loss, R.D. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth (AU)


    Fission yields can be determined by radiochemical or mass spectrometric techniques. Mass spectrometry can provide more accurate data, particularly in the symmetric mass region where the probability of fission is low and uncertainties in isometric ratios occur. Fine structure in the mass distribution can usually only be determined by mass spectrometry. Many of the elements in the valley of symmetry have high ionization potentials and are therefore difficult to measure by solid source mass spectrometry. Analytical techniques have been developed to provide the sensitivity required to measure the small sample sizes available in fission product studies. Cumulative fission yields for ruthenium, palladium, cadmium, tin, and tellurium have been measured by mass spectrometry for the thermal and epicadmium fission of {sup 233}U and for thermal and epicadmium fission of {sup 239}Pu. These fission yields, which span the mass range 101 {le} A {le} 130, can be combined to give a mass yield curve for {sup 235}U in the valley region, which is symmetrical about A = 116.8 and exhibits fine structure in the mass 113 to 114 region. Fine structure in {sup 233}U is also present at mass 111. Mass spectrometric determinations of the fission yields of uranium ore at the Oklo mine site in Gabon enable the nuclear parameters of this natural reactor to be evaluated. This in turn enables the amounts of fission products produced in the reactor zone and the surrounding rocks enables an assessment to be made of the efficiency of this geological repository for containing radioactive waste. The elemental abundances can be determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Unfortunately, the paucity of good fission yield data available for {sup 238}U by fast neutrons is a severe constraint in this evaluation.

  10. Imaging Heat and Mass Transfer Processes Visualization and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Panigrahi, Pradipta Kumar


    Imaging Heat and Mass Transfer Processes: Visualization and Analysis applies Schlieren and shadowgraph techniques to complex heat and mass transfer processes. Several applications are considered where thermal and concentration fields play a central role. These include vortex shedding and suppression from stationary and oscillating bluff bodies such as cylinders, convection around crystals growing from solution, and buoyant jets. Many of these processes are unsteady and three dimensional. The interpretation and analysis of images recorded are discussed in the text.

  11. Thermal Pyrolytic Graphite Enhanced Components (United States)

    Hardesty, Robert E. (Inventor)


    A thermally conductive composite material, a thermal transfer device made of the material, and a method for making the material are disclosed. Apertures or depressions are formed in aluminum or aluminum alloy. Plugs are formed of thermal pyrolytic graphite. An amount of silicon sufficient for liquid interface diffusion bonding is applied, for example by vapor deposition or use of aluminum silicon alloy foil. The plugs are inserted in the apertures or depressions. Bonding energy is applied, for example by applying pressure and heat using a hot isostatic press. The thermal pyrolytic graphite, aluminum or aluminum alloy and silicon form a eutectic alloy. As a result, the plugs are bonded into the apertures or depressions. The composite material can be machined to produce finished devices such as the thermal transfer device. Thermally conductive planes of the thermal pyrolytic graphite plugs may be aligned in parallel to present a thermal conduction path.

  12. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi


    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  13. A Thermal Test System for Helmet Cooling Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Fitzgerald


    Full Text Available One of the primary causes of discomfort to both irregular and elite cyclists is heat entrapment by a helmet resulting in overheating and excessive sweating of the head. To accurately assess the cooling effectiveness of bicycle helmets, a heated plastic thermal headform has been developed. The construction consists of a 3D-printed headform of low thermal conductivity with an internal layer of high thermal mass that is heated to a constant uniform temperature by an electrical heating element. Testing is conducted in a wind tunnel where the heater power remains constant and the resulting surface temperature distribution is directly measured by 36 K-type thermocouples embedded within the surface of the head in conjunction with a thermal imaging camera. Using this new test system, four bicycle helmets were studied in order to measure their cooling abilities and to identify ‘hot spots’ where cooling performance is poor.

  14. Parametric study of closed wet cooling tower thermal performance (United States)

    Qasim, S. M.; Hayder, M. J.


    The present study involves experimental and theoretical analysis to evaluate the thermal performance of modified Closed Wet Cooling Tower (CWCT). The experimental study includes: design, manufacture and testing prototype of a modified counter flow forced draft CWCT. The modification based on addition packing to the conventional CWCT. A series of experiments was carried out at different operational parameters. In view of energy analysis, the thermal performance parameters of the tower are: cooling range, tower approach, cooling capacity, thermal efficiency, heat and mass transfer coefficients. The theoretical study included develops Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models to predicting various thermal performance parameters of the tower. Utilizing experimental data for training and testing, the models simulated by multi-layer back propagation algorithm for varying all operational parameters stated in experimental test.

  15. ISS-CREAM Thermal and Fluid System Design and Analysis (United States)

    Thorpe, Rosemary S.


    Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS), Silver Spring MD NCTS 21070-15. The ISS-CREAM (Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass for the International Space Station) payload is being developed by an international team and will provide significant cosmic ray characterization over a long time frame. Cold fluid provided by the ISS Exposed Facility (EF) is the primary means of cooling for 5 science instruments and over 7 electronics boxes. Thermal fluid integrated design and analysis was performed for CREAM using a Thermal Desktop model. This presentation will provide some specific design and modeling examples from the fluid cooling system, complex SCD (Silicon Charge Detector) and calorimeter hardware, and integrated payload and ISS level modeling. Features of Thermal Desktop such as CAD simplification, meshing of complex hardware, External References (Xrefs), and FloCAD modeling will be discussed.

  16. Imaging Thermal He(+)in Geospace from the Lunar Surface (United States)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Sandel, B. R.; Adrian, Mark L.; Goldstein, Jerry; Jahn, Joerg-Micha; Spasojevic, Maria; Griffin, Brand


    By mass, thermal plasma dominates near-earth space and strongly influences the transport of energy and mass into the earth's atmosphere. It is proposed to play an important role in modifying the strength of space weather storms by its presence in regions of magnetic reconnection in the dayside magnetopause and in the near to mid-magnetotail. Ionospheric-origin thermal plasma also represents the most significant potential loss of atmospheric mass from our planet over geological time. Knowledge of the loss of convected thermal plasma into the solar wind versus its recirculation across high latitudes and through the magnetospheric flanks into the magnetospheric tail will enable determination of the mass balance for this mass-dominant component of the Geospace system and of its influence on global magnetospheric processes that are critical to space weather prediction and hence to the impact of space processes on human technology in space and on Earth. Our proposed concept addresses this basic issue of Geospace dynamics by imaging thermal He(+) ions in extreme ultraviolet light with an instrument on the lunar surface. The concept is derived from the highly successful Extreme Ultraviolet imager (EUV) flown on the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft. From the lunar surface an advanced EUV imager is anticipated to have much higher sensitivity, lower background noise, and higher communication bandwidth back to Earth. From the near-magnetic equatorial location on the lunar surface, such an imager would be ideally located to follow thermal He(+) ions to high latitudes, into the magnetospheric flanks, and into the magnetotail.

  17. Thermal conductivity of porous structures (United States)

    Braginsky, L.; Shklover, V.; Witz, G.; Bossmann, H.-P.


    Thermal conductivity of porous media is considered. The model permits regular power-series expansion of the expression for thermal conductivity as a function of porosity. The coefficients of the expansion depend on two-site correlation function of local thermal conductivities, which can be calculated from the microscopy image of the structure. Thermal conductivities of some model two-dimensional structures as well as a real porous yttria-stabilized zirconia film are calculated and discussed.

  18. Thermal Forces in Simple and Complex Fluids (United States)

    Piazza, Roberto; Giglio, Marzio


    This topical issue of The European Physical Journal E deals with mass transport effects driven by thermal gradients, or, as we shall call them, with “thermal forces”. In simple fluid mixtures, coupling of heat and mass diffusion is due to the Ludwig-Soret effect, also known as thermal diffusion. The Soret effect dramatically lowers the thermal convection threshold, since concentration gradients relax much more slowly than temperature gradients, due to the disparate values of the mass diffusion coefficient and of the thermal diffusivity. Therefore, thermal diffusion plays an important role in naturally occurring processes like thermohaline convection (“salt fingering”) in oceans, crystal growth, component segregation in metallic alloys, volcanic lava and the Earth crust. More recently, its has been shown that thermal diffusion is a very convenient process in the generation of giant non-equilibrium fluctuations in fluid mixtures. Thermophoresis is a closely akin process that takes place both in aerosols and in liquid suspensions, consisting in the drift of dispersed particles induced by thermal inhomogeneities. Thermophoresis of airborne particles has an important role in atmospheric physics and ambient pollution, and can seriously affect semiconductor manufacturing. In macromolecular solutions and colloidal suspensions, these “thermal forces” are generally much stronger than in simple mixtures or in gases: for instance, recent experiments on DNA solutions have shown that thermophoresis may concur with thermal convection in leading to patterns where the local macromolecular concentration is amplified up to a thousandfold. Although known since a long time and clearly framed in terms of non-equilibrium thermodynamics concepts, both the Soret effect and particle thermophoresis in liquids still lack a general microscopic picture. For instance, in most cases the denser component of a binary mixture drifts to the cold, but examples of reverse behaviour are

  19. Thermal degradation process of polysulfone aramid fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Fang-Long


    Full Text Available Polysulfone aramid fiber is one kind of high temperature fibers. In the paper, thermal degradation behavior and kinetics of polysulfone aramid fiber were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermogravimetric at different heating rates under nitrogen and air, respectively. The experimental results show that its initial degradation temperature is 375°C in nitrogen and 410°C in air at heating rate of 10 K/min. When temperature went to 800°C, the fiber loses all mass in air. The mass losses in the stage showed that degradation of polysulfone aramid occurs in two-step process as could be concluded by the presence of two distinct exothermic peaks in differential thermogravimetric curves.

  20. Mass Customization Measurements Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn


    A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choic...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization.......A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...

  1. Thermal comfort: research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitja Mazej; Jan Hensen; Ir. Joost van Hoof


    Thermal comfort -the state of mind, which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment- is an important aspect of the building design process as modern man spends most of the day indoors. This paper reviews the developments in indoor thermal comfort research and practice since the second half

  2. Thermal Response Of Composite Insulation (United States)

    Stewart, David A.; Leiser, Daniel B.; Smith, Marnell; Kolodziej, Paul


    Engineering model gives useful predictions. Pair of reports presents theoretical and experimental analyses of thermal responses of multiple-component, lightweight, porous, ceramic insulators. Particular materials examined destined for use in Space Shuttle thermal protection system, test methods and heat-transfer theory useful to chemical, metallurgical, and ceramic engineers needing to calculate transient thermal responses of refractory composites.

  3. Thermal effects in supercapacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Guoping; Fisher, Timothy S


    This Brief reviews contemporary research conducted in university and industry laboratories on thermal management in electrochemical energy storage systems (capacitors and batteries) that have been widely used as power sources in many practical applications, such as automobiles, hybrid transport, renewable energy installations, power backup and electronic devices. Placing a particular emphasis on supercapacitors, the authors discuss how supercapacitors, or ultra capacitors, are complementing and  replacing, batteries because of their faster power delivery, longer life cycle and higher coulombic efficiency, while providing higher energy density than conventional electrolytic capacitors. Recent advances in both macro- and micro capacitor technologies are covered. The work facilitates systematic understanding of thermal transport in such devices that can help develop better power management systems.

  4. Encyclopedia of thermal stresses

    CERN Document Server


    The Encyclopedia of Thermal Stresses is an important interdisciplinary reference work.  In addition to topics on thermal stresses, it contains entries on related topics, such as the theory of elasticity, heat conduction, thermodynamics, appropriate topics on applied mathematics, and topics on numerical methods. The Encyclopedia is aimed at undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and engineers. It brings together well established knowledge and recently received results. All entries were prepared  by leading experts from all over the world, and are presented in an easily accessible format. The work is lavishly illustrated, examples and applications are given where appropriate, ideas for further development abound, and the work will challenge many students and researchers to pursue new results of their own. This work can also serve as a one-stop resource for all who need succinct, concise, reliable and up to date information in short encyclopedic entries, while the extensive references will be of inte...

  5. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  6. Thermally stable diamond brazing (United States)

    Radtke, Robert P [Kingwood, TX


    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  7. Thermal Space in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines

    Present research is revolving around the design process and the use of digital applications to support the design process among architects. This work is made in relation to the current discussions about sustainable architecture and the increased focus on energy consumption and the comfort in our...... and understanding of spaces in buildings can change significantly and instead of the creation of frozen geometrical spaces, thermal spaces can be created as it is suggested in meteorological architecture where functions are distributed in relation to temperature gradients. This creates an interesting contrast......-introducing an increased adaptability in the architecture can be a part of re-defining the environmental agenda and re-establish a link between the environment of the site and the environment of the architecture and through that an increased appreciation of the sensuous space here framed in discussions about thermal...

  8. Subsystem eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (United States)

    Dymarsky, Anatoly; Lashkari, Nima; Liu, Hong


    Motivated by the qualitative picture of canonical typicality, we propose a refined formulation of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) for chaotic quantum systems. This formulation, which we refer to as subsystem ETH, is in terms of the reduced density matrix of subsystems. This strong form of ETH outlines the set of observables defined within the subsystem for which it guarantees eigenstate thermalization. We discuss the limits when the size of the subsystem is small or comparable to its complement. In the latter case we outline the way to calculate the leading volume-proportional contribution to the von Neumann and Renyi entanglment entropies. Finally, we provide numerical evidence for the proposal in the case of a one-dimensional Ising spin chain.

  9. Solar thermal technology (United States)


    This annual report describes the accomplishments and progress of government-funded activities initiated, renewed, or completed during Fiscal Year (FY) 1987 (October 1, 1986, through September 30, 1987). It highlights the program tasks conducted by participating federal laboratories and by industrial, academic, or other research under a subcontract. The emphasis of the Solar Thermal Technology Program during the year was: (1) to perform research and development leading to the economic viability of two primary solar thermal concepts, central receiver and parabolic dish, and (2) to explore applications of national significance where the special attributes of concentrated sunlight are appropriate. The report includes three appendices that cover principal contacts and sources of additional information (Appendix A), acronyms and abbreviations (Appendix B), and a glossary of terms (Appendix C). A bibliography of relevant publications from Sandia National Laboratories and the Solar Energy Research Institute completes this annual report.

  10. On thermal gravitational contribution to particle production and dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tang


    Full Text Available We investigate the particle production from thermal gravitational annihilation in the very early universe, which is an important contribution for particles that might not be in thermal equilibrium or/and might only have gravitational interaction, such as dark matter (DM. For particles with spin 0,1/2 and 1 we calculate the relevant cross sections through gravitational annihilation and give the analytic formulas with full mass-dependent terms. We find that DM with mass between TeV and 1016 GeV could have the relic abundance that fits the observation, with small dependence on its spin. We also discuss the effects of gravitational annihilation from inflatons. Interestingly, contributions from inflatons could be dominant and have the same power dependence on Hubble parameter of inflation as that from vacuum fluctuation. Also, fermion production from inflaton, in comparison to boson, is suppressed by its mass due to helicity selection.

  11. Thermal barriers for compartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreutzer, Cory J.; Lustbader, Jason A.


    An aspect of the present disclosure is a thermal barrier that includes a core layer having a first surface, a second surface, and a first edge, and a first outer layer that includes a third surface and a second edge, where the third surface substantially contacts the first surface, the core layer is configured to minimize conductive heat transfer through the barrier, and the first outer layer is configured to maximize reflection of light away from the barrier.

  12. Thermal reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  13. Solar Thermal Concept Evaluation (United States)

    Hawk, Clark W.; Bonometti, Joseph A.


    Concentrated solar thermal energy can be utilized in a variety of high temperature applications for both terrestrial and space environments. In each application, knowledge of the collector and absorber's heat exchange interaction is required. To understand this coupled mechanism, various concentrator types and geometries, as well as, their relationship to the physical absorber mechanics were investigated. To conduct experimental tests various parts of a 5,000 watt, thermal concentrator, facility were made and evaluated. This was in anticipation at a larger NASA facility proposed for construction. Although much of the work centered on solar thermal propulsion for an upper stage (less than one pound thrust range), the information generated and the facility's capabilities are applicable to material processing, power generation and similar uses. The numerical calculations used to design the laboratory mirror and the procedure for evaluating other solar collectors are presented here. The mirror design is based on a hexagonal faceted system, which uses a spherical approximation to the parabolic surface. The work began with a few two dimensional estimates and continued with a full, three dimensional, numerical algorithm written in FORTRAN code. This was compared to a full geometry, ray trace program, BEAM 4, which optimizes the curvatures, based on purely optical considerations. Founded on numerical results, the characteristics of a faceted concentrator were construed. The numerical methodologies themselves were evaluated and categorized. As a result, the three-dimensional FORTRAN code was the method chosen to construct the mirrors, due to its overall accuracy and superior results to the ray trace program. This information is being used to fabricate and subsequently, laser map the actual mirror surfaces. Evaluation of concentrator mirrors, thermal applications and scaling the results of the 10 foot diameter mirror to a much larger concentrator, were studied. Evaluations

  14. Solar thermal conversion (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.


    A brief review of the fundamentals of the conversion of solar energy into mechanical work (or electricity via generators) is given. Both past and present work on several conversion concepts are discussed. Solar collectors, storage systems, energy transport, and various types of engines are examined. Ongoing work on novel concepts of collectors, energy storage and thermal energy conversion are outlined and projections for the future are described. Energy costs for various options are predicted and margins and limitations are discussed.


    Spinrad, B.I.


    A novel thermal reactor was designed in which a first reflector formed from a high atomic weight, nonmoderating material is disposed immediately adjacent to the reactor core. A second reflector composed of a moderating material is disposed outwardly of the first reflector. The advantage of this novel reflector arrangement is that the first reflector provides a high slow neutron flux in the second reflector, where irradiation experiments may be conducted with a small effect on reactor reactivity.

  16. Thermally conductive polymers (United States)

    Byrd, N. R.; Jenkins, R. K.; Lister, J. L. (Inventor)


    A thermally conductive polymer is provided having physical and chemical properties suited to use as a medium for potting electrical components. The polymer is prepared from hydroquinone, phenol, and formaldehyde, by conventional procedures employed for the preparation of phenol-formaldehyde resins. While the proportions of the monomers can be varied, a preferred polymer is formed from the monomers in a 1:1:2.4 molar or ratio of hydroquinone:phenol:formaldehyde.

  17. Preparation of Thermal Insulation Plaster with FGD Gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chao Zhang


    Full Text Available Thermal insulation gypsum plaster was prepared from flue gas desulphurization (FGD gypsum. K12 is more recommendable as foaming agent, when the mass fraction of K12 is around 0.1 %, the setting time and compressive strength meet the requirements of gypsum-based construction materials. In the meanwhile, the thermal conductivity is 0.18 W m–1 K–1, which can be used as a thermal insulation material. The hemihydrate mixtures obtained, allow the design of a new wall structure, which is more efficient as a thermal insulation system. The wall heat transfer coefficient test was carried out to compare thermal performance of two different thermal insulation systems. Compared with the thermal performance of a conventional system, the heat transfer coefficient of the new system was reduced by 5.6 %. Finally, energy-saving analysis of a building was carried out to compare the energy-saving effect of the conventional and new systems of building. The energy-savings of the building with the new system increased by almost 2 %, thus resulting in low energy consumption of the building.

  18. Environmental controls on the thermal structure of alpine glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Wilson


    Full Text Available Water entrapped in glacier accumulation zones represents a significant latent heat contribution to the development of thermal structure. It also provides a direct link between glacier environments and thermal regimes. We apply a two-dimensional mechanically-coupled model of heat flow to synthetic glacier geometries in order to explore the environmental controls on flowband thermal structure. We use this model to test the sensitivity of thermal structure to physical and environmental variables and to explore glacier thermal response to environmental changes. In different conditions consistent with a warming climate, mean glacier temperature and the volume of temperate ice may either increase or decrease, depending on the competing effects of elevated meltwater production, reduced accumulation zone extent and thinning firn. For two model reference states that exhibit commonly-observed thermal structures, the fraction of temperate ice is shown to decline with warming air temperatures. Mass balance and aquifer sensitivities play an important role in determining how the englacial thermal regimes of alpine glaciers will adjust in the future.

  19. Methods of forming thermal management systems and thermal management methods (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.


    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  20. MassAI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A software tool for general analysis and data-mining of mass-spectrometric datasets. The program features a strong emphasis on scan-by-scan identification and results-transparency. MassAI also accommodates residue level analysis of labelled runs, e.g. HDX.......A software tool for general analysis and data-mining of mass-spectrometric datasets. The program features a strong emphasis on scan-by-scan identification and results-transparency. MassAI also accommodates residue level analysis of labelled runs, e.g. HDX....

  1. Development of metal based thermal barrier coatings (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Il

    In this work, metal-based thermal barrier coatings (MBTBCs) have been produced, using high frequency induction plasma spraying (IPS) of iron-based nanostructured alloy powders. Important advances have been made over recent years to the development of ceramic-based thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for internal combustion engines application, but they are not yet applied in mass production situations. Besides the important economic considerations, the reliability of ceramic: TBCs is also an issue, being associated with the difficulty of predicting their "in-service" lifetime. Through engineering of the nano/amorphous structure of MBTBCs, their thermal conductivity can be made as low as those of ceramic-based TBCs, with reduced mean free paths of the electrons/phonons scattering. In this work, nano/amorphous structured coatings were deposited by IPS using the following spray parameters: spraying distance (210 ˜ 270 mm), plasma gas composition (Ar/N2), IPS torch power (24kW), and powder feed-rate (16g/min.). The structure and properties of the deposited layers were characterized through SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) observations. The thermal diffusivity (alpha) properties of the MBTBCs were measured using a laser flash method. Density (rho) and specific heat (Cp) of the MBTBCs were also measured, and their thermal conductivity (k) calculated (k =alpharhoCp). The thermal conductivity of MBTBCs was found to be as low as 1.99 W/m/K. The heat treatment study showed that crystal structure changes, and grain size growth from a few nanometers to tenth of nanometers occurred at 550°C under static exposure conditions. Thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of MBTBCs was 13E-6/K, which is close to the TEC of cast iron and thus, closer to the TEC values of aluminium alloys than are conventional TBCs. Fracture toughness of MBTBCs has also been assessed by use of Vickers hardness tests, with a 500 g load for 15 s, and the results show that there are no measurable crack

  2. Rectenna thermal model development (United States)

    Kadiramangalam, Murall; Alden, Adrian; Speyer, Daniel


    Deploying rectennas in space requires adapting existing designs developed for terrestrial applications to the space environment. One of the major issues in doing so is to understand the thermal performance of existing designs in the space environment. Toward that end, a 3D rectenna thermal model has been developed, which involves analyzing shorted rectenna elements and finite size rectenna element arrays. A shorted rectenna element is a single element whose ends are connected together by a material of negligible thermal resistance. A shorted element is a good approximation to a central element of a large array. This model has been applied to Brown's 2.45 GHz rectenna design. Results indicate that Brown's rectenna requires redesign or some means of enhancing the heat dissipation in order for the diode temperature to be maintained below 200 C above an output power density of 620 W/sq.m. The model developed in this paper is very general and can be used for the analysis and design of any type of rectenna design of any frequency.

  3. Multiscale thermal transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Samuel Jr. (; .); Wong, C. C.; Piekos, Edward Stanley


    A concurrent computational and experimental investigation of thermal transport is performed with the goal of improving understanding of, and predictive capability for, thermal transport in microdevices. The computational component involves Monte Carlo simulation of phonon transport. In these simulations, all acoustic modes are included and their properties are drawn from a realistic dispersion relation. Phonon-phonon and phonon-boundary scattering events are treated independently. A new set of phonon-phonon scattering coefficients are proposed that reflect the elimination of assumptions present in earlier analytical work from the simulation. The experimental component involves steady-state measurement of thermal conductivity on silicon films as thin as 340nm at a range of temperatures. Agreement between the experiment and simulation on single-crystal silicon thin films is excellent, Agreement for polycrystalline films is promising, but significant work remains to be done before predictions can be made confidently. Knowledge gained from these efforts was used to construct improved semiclassical models with the goal of representing microscale effects in existing macroscale codes in a computationally efficient manner.

  4. A Lumped Thermal Model Including Thermal Coupling and Thermal Boundary Conditions for High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Detailed thermal dynamics of high power IGBT modules are important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated thermal behavior in the IGBTs: The typically used...... thermal model based on one-dimensional RC lumps have limits to provide temperature distributions inside the device, moreover some variable factors in the real-field applications like the cooling and heating conditions of the converter cannot be adapted. On the other hand, the more advanced three......-dimensional thermal models based on Finite Element Method (FEM) need massive computations, which make the long-term thermal dynamics difficult to calculate. In this paper, a new lumped three-dimensional thermal model is proposed, which can be easily characterized from FEM simulations and can acquire the critical...

  5. Fundamentals of spacecraft thermal design. (United States)

    Lucas, J. W.


    The papers deal with and are grouped according to four major issues. These are: surface radiation properties, including synthesis and measurement, space flight effect, and contamination effects; thermal analysis, including reentry vehicle analysis, radiant heat transfer between surfaces, and thermal contact conductance of surfaces; heat pipes, including possible applications, operating characteristics, and design, fabrication and testing of heat pipes; and thermal design, including radiative, ablative, and active cooling thermal protection of the leading edge of a space-shuttle wing, and space station environmental thermal control. Individual items were previously announced in issues 06 and 11, 1971.

  6. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of PWR core including intermediate flow mixers with the THYC code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mur, J. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France); Meignin, J.C. [Electricite de France (EDF), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)


    Departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) is one of the major limiting factors of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Safety requires that occurrence of DNB should be precluded under normal or incidental operating conditions. The thermal-hydraulic THYC code developed by EDF is described. The code is devoted to heat and mass transfer in nuclear components. Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is predicted from local thermal-hydraulic parameters such as pressure, mass flow rate, and quality. A three stage methodology to evaluate thermal margins in order to perform standard core design is described. (K.A.) 8 refs.

  7. Thermal design of two-stage evaporative cooler based on thermal comfort criterion (United States)

    Gilani, Neda; Poshtiri, Amin Haghighi


    Performance of two-stage evaporative coolers at various outdoor air conditions was numerically studied, and its geometric and physical characteristics were obtained based on thermal comfort criteria. For this purpose, a mathematical model was developed based on conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy to determine heat and mass transfer characteristics of the system. The results showed that two-stage indirect/direct cooler can provide the thermal comfort condition when outdoor air temperature and relative humidity are located in the range of 34-54 °C and 10-60 %, respectively. Moreover, as relative humidity of the ambient air rises, two-stage evaporative cooler with the smaller direct and larger indirect cooler will be needed. In building with high cooling demand, thermal comfort may be achieved at a greater air change per hour number, and thus an expensive two-stage evaporative cooler with a higher electricity consumption would be required. Finally, a design guideline was proposed to determine the size of required plate heat exchangers at various operating conditions.

  8. Modeling energy and mass fluxes from prairie canopies (United States)

    Norman, John M.


    The main emphasis of this research project is on partitioning of mass and energy fluxes between vegetation and soil at the FIFE site, preparation of data from the FIFE Information System for an international thermal data set comparison, and studying the relation between surface temperatures observed from satellites and in situ measurements of surface temperature.

  9. On some group properties of heat and mass transfer equations (United States)

    Stepanova, I. V.


    Heat and mass transfer equations with variable transport coefficients are under study. The forms of unknown thermal conductivity, diffusion and Dufour coefficients are found by means of Lie group theory. It is shown that arbitrary elements have the power-law, logarithmic and exponential dependencies on temperature and concentration.

  10. Mass as a Form of Energy in a Simple Example (United States)

    Dib, Claudio


    A major consequence of special relativity, expressed in the relation E[subscript 0] = mc[superscript 2], is that the total energy content of an object at rest, including its thermal motion and binding energy among its constituents, is a measure of its inertia, i.e., its mass. This relation was first stated by Einstein. He showed that, in order to…

  11. Thermal Properties of the Mixed n-Octadecane/Cu Nanoparticle Nanofluids during Phase Transition: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qibin Li


    Full Text Available Paraffin based nanofluids are widely used as thermal energy storage materials and hold many applications in the energy industry. In this work, equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations are employed to study the thermal properties of the mixed nanofluids of n-octadecane and Cu nanoparticles during phase transition. Four different nanofluids systems with different mass ratios between the n-octadecane and Cu nanoparticles have been studied and the results show that Cu nanoparticles can improve the thermal properties of n-octadecane. The melting point, heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the mixed systems are decreased with the increasing of the mass ratio of n-octadecane.

  12. Type-II superlattice hole effective masses (United States)

    Ting, David Z.; Soibel, Alexander; Gunapala, Sarath D.


    A long wavelength infrared (LWIR) type-II superlattice (T2SL) is typically characterized by a very large valence-band-edge curvature effective mass, which is often assumed to lead to poor hole mobility. A detailed examination of the LWIR T2SL heavy-hole 1 (hh1) band structure reveals that a hole with non-zero in-plane momentum (k‖ ≠ 0) can move with a much larger group velocity component along the growth direction than one at the band edge (k‖ = 0), and that the hh1 miniband width can exhibit a very strong dependence on the in-plane wavevector k‖ . To distill the band structure effects relevant to hole transport into a simple quantity, we describe a formulation for computing the thermally averaged conductivity effective mass. We show that the LWIR T2SL hole conductivity effective masses along the growth direction can be orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding band-edge curvature effective masses. We compare the conductivities effective masses of InAs/GaSb T2SL and InAs/InAsSb T2SL grown pseudomorphically on GaSb substrate, as well as the metamorphic bulk InAsSb and InAs/InAsSb T2SL.

  13. Thermal architecture for the SPIDER flight cryostat (United States)

    Gudmundsson, J. E.; Ade, P. A. R.; Amiri, M.; Benton, S. J.; Bihary, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Bonetti, J. A.; Bryan, S. A.; Burger, B.; Chiang, H. C.; Contaldi, C. R.; Crill, B. P.; Doré, O.; Farhang, M.; Filippini, J.; Fissel, L. M.; Gandilo, N. N.; Golwala, S. R.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G.; Holmes, W.; Hristov, V. V.; Irwin, K. D.; Jones, W. C.; Kuo, C. L.; MacTavish, C. J.; Mason, P. V.; Montroy, T. E.; Morford, T. A.; Netterfield, C. B.; O'Dea, D. T.; Rahlin, A. S.; Reintsema, C. D.; Ruhl, J. E.; Runyan, M. C.; Schenker, M. A.; Shariff, J. A.; Soler, J. D.; Trangsrud, A.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, R. S.; Turner, A. D.


    We describe the cryogenic system for SPIDER, a balloon-borne microwave polarimeter that will map 8% of the sky with degree-scale angular resolution. The system consists of a 1284 L liquid helium cryostat and a 16 L capillary-filled superfluid helium tank, which provide base operating temperatures of 4 K and 1.5 K, respectively. Closed-cycle 3He adsorption refrigerators supply sub-Kelvin cooling power to multiple focal planes, which are housed in monochromatic telescope inserts. The main helium tank is suspended inside the vacuum vessel with thermally insulating fiberglass flexures, and shielded from thermal radiation by a combination of two vapor cooled shields and multi-layer insulation. This system allows for an extremely low instrumental background and a hold time in excess of 25 days. The total mass of the cryogenic system, including cryogens, is approximately 1000 kg. This enables conventional long duration balloon flights. We will discuss the design, thermal analysis, and qualification of the cryogenic system.

  14. Smoldering combustion hazards of thermal insulation materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlemiller, T.J.; Rogers, F.E.


    Work on the smolder ignitability in cellulosic insulation and on thermal analytical characterization of the oxidation of this material is presented. Thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) shows that both retarded and unretarded cellulosic insulation oxidizes in two overall stages, both of which are exothermic. The second stage (oxidation of the char left as a residue of the first stage) is much more energetic on a unit mass basis than the first. However, kinetics and a sufficient exothermicity make the first stage responsible for ignition in most realistic circumstances. Existing smolder retardants such as boric acid have their major effect on the kinetics of the second oxidation stage and thus produce only a rather small (20/sup 0/C) increase in smolder ignition temperature. Several simplified analogs of attic insulations have been tested to determine the variability of minimum smolder ignition temperature. These employed planar or tubular constant temperature heat sources in a thermal environment quite similar to a realistic attic application. Go/no-go tests provided the borderline (minimum) ignition temperature for each configuration. The wide range (150/sup 0/C) of minimum ignition temperatures confirmed the predominant dependence of smolder ignition on heat flow geometry. Other factors (bulk density, retardants) produced much less effect on ignitability.

  15. Manufacturable plastic microfluidic valves using thermal actuation. (United States)

    Pitchaimani, Karthik; Sapp, Brian C; Winter, Adam; Gispanski, Austin; Nishida, Toshikazu; Hugh Fan, Z


    A low-cost, manufacturable, thermally actuated, plastic microfluidic valve has been developed. The valve contains an encapsulated, temperature-sensitive fluid, which expands, deflecting a thin elastomeric film into a fluidic channel to control fluid flow. The power input for thermal expansion of each microfluidic valve can be controlled using a printed circuit board (PCB)-based controller, which is suitable for mass production and large-scale integration. A plastic microfluidic device with such valves was fabricated using compression molding and thermal lamination. The operation of the valves was investigated by measuring a change in the microchannel's ionic conduction current mediated by the resistance variation corresponding to the deflection of the microvalve. Valve closing was also confirmed by the disappearance of fluorescence when a fluorescent solution was displaced in the valve region. Valve operation was characterized for heater power ranging from 36 mW to 80 mW. When the valve was actuating, the local channel temperature was 10 to 19 degrees C above the ambient temperature depending on the heater power used. Repetitive valve operations (up to 50 times) have been demonstrated with a flow resulting from a hydrostatic head. Valve operation was tested for a flow rate of 0.33-4.7 microL/min.

  16. evaluation of mediastinal masses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    63,8%) suivi par masses médiastinites postérieures (22,9%). Masses .... (23.8%). CT complemented the role of biplane chest x-rays. Figure 1 shows biplane chest x-ray presentation of poste-. 157. WAJM VOL. 22 NO. 2, APRIL -JUNE, 2003 ...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.


    We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....

  18. Introduction to thermal and fluid engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Allan D; Aziz, Abdul; Ghajar, Afshin J


    The Thermal/Fluid Sciences: Introductory ConceptsThermodynamicsFluid MechanicsHeat TransferEngineered Systems and ProductsHistorical DevelopmentThe Thermal/Fluid Sciences and the EnvironmentThermodynamics: Preliminary Concepts and DefinitionsThe Study of ThermodynamicsSome DefinitionsDimensions and UnitsDensity and Related PropertiesPressureTemperature and the Zeroth Law of ThermodynamicsProblem-Solving MethodologyEnergy and the First Law of ThermodynamicsKinetic, Potential, and Internal EnergyWorkHeatThe First Law of ThermodynamicsThe Energy Balance for Closed SystemsThe Ideal Gas ModelIdeal Gas Enthalpy and Specific HeatsProcesses of an Ideal GasProperties of Pure, Simple Compressible SubstancesThe State PostulateP-v-T RelationshipsThermodynamic Property DataThe T-s and h-s DiagramsReal Gas BehaviorEquations of StateThe Polytropic Process for an Ideal GasControl Volume Mass and Energy Analysis The Control VolumeConservation of MassConservation of Energy for a Control VolumeSpecific Heats of Incompressible S...

  19. The thermal performance of earth buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heathcote, K.


    Full Text Available This paper examines the theoretical basis for the thermal performance of earth walls and links it to some test results on buildings constructed by the author, and to their predicted performance using a sophisticated computer modelling program. The analysis shows that for all earth walls the steady state thermal resistance is low but that for walls greater than about 450 mm thick the cyclic thermal resistance is high and increases exponentially. Whilst the steady state resistance of all thickness walls is low and results in higher than normal average temperatures in summer and lower than normal in winter the ability of thick earth walls to even out the swings in temperature is thought to be responsible for the materials reputation. The paper notes that good passive design principles (such as providing internal thermal mass and large areas of glazing for winter performance will greatly improve the performance of earth buildings with thin walls, but it is the author’s opinion that external earth walls should be at least 450 mm thick to gain the full benefit of thermal mass.

    Este artículo examina la base teórica del comportamiento térmico de las paredes de tierra y la relaciona con varios resultados de test realizados sobre edificios construidos por el autor, y con su comportamiento previsto utilizando un sofisticado programa de modelado por ordenador. El análisis muestra que la resistencia térmica constante es baja para todas las paredes de tierra, pero que para muros con un grosor mayor que 450 mm la resistencia térmica cíclica es alta y se incrementa exponencialmente. Mientras que la resistencia térmica constante de las paredes de cualquier grosor es baja y se traduce en temperaturas más altas que la media en verano y más bajas que la media en invierno, la capacidad de las paredes gruesas de tierra para amortiguar las variaciones de temperatura es la responsable de la reputación de los materiales. El artículo señala que los

  20. Miniature mass analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B


    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...