WorldWideScience

Sample records for thermal infrared remote

  1. Thermal infrared remote sensing sensors, methods, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuenzer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the field of thermal infrared remote sensing. Temperature is one of the most important physical environmental variables monitored by earth observing remote sensing systems. Temperature ranges define the boundaries of habitats on our planet. Thermal hazards endanger our resources and well-being. In this book renowned international experts have contributed chapters on currently available thermal sensors as well as innovative plans for future missions. Further chapters discuss the underlying physics and image processing techni

  2. Thermal infrared remote sensing of crude oil slicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salisbury, J.W.; D'Aria, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    It is important to develop a remote sensing technique for reliable detection of oil slicks for reasons of both oil exploration and environmental protection. Yet, unambiguous detection has proven an elusive goal. This article presents new thermal infrared spectra of oil slicks made from five different crude oil samples with a wide range of API gravities and compositions. After a brief outgassing phase, all oil slick spectra are quite similar and little affected by thickness, extended exposure to air or sunlight, and even by emulsification with seawater (mousse formation). Thus, oil slicks provide a remarkably unvarying spectral signature as remote sensing targets in the thermal infrared compared to other regions of the spectrum. This spectral signature in the 8-14 μm atmospheric window is flat, with an average reflectance of 4%. Seawater, on the other hand, has a spectrum that varies in reflectance with wavelength in the 8-14 μm window from 0.90 to 3.65%. In addition, the authors show that sea foam displays a reflectance spectrum quite similar to that of seawater in the 8-14 μm region, because the very high absorption coefficient of water in this wavelength region prevents volume scattering in foam bubbles. This results in a relatively uniform spectral background, against which oil slicks can be detected, based on their different spectral signature. Thus, thermal infrared multispectral remote sensing appears to offer a simple and reliable technique for aircraft or satellite detection of oil slicks

  3. Discussion on the application potential of thermal infrared remote sensing technology in uranium deposits exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junhu; Zhang Jielin; Liu Dechang

    2011-01-01

    With the continual development of new thermal infrared sensors and thermal radiation theory, the technology of thermal infrared remote sensing has shown great potential for applications in resources exploration, especially in the field of uranium exploration. The paper makes a systemic summary of the theoretical basis and research status of the thermal infrared remote sensing applications in resources exploration from the surface temperature, thermal inertia and thermal infrared spectrum. What's more, the research objective and the research content of thermal infrared remote sensing in the uranium deposits exploration applications are discussed in detail. Besides, based on the thermal infrared ASTER data, the paper applies this technology to the granite-type uranium deposits in South China and achieves good result. Above all, the practice proves that the thermal infrared remote sensing technology has a good application prospects and particular value in the field of uranium prospecting and will play an important role in the prospecting target of the uranium deposits. (authors)

  4. Conceptual thermal design and analysis of a far-infrared/mid-infrared remote sensing instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roettker, William A.

    1992-07-01

    This paper presents the conceptual thermal design and analysis results for the Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far-Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) instrument. SAFIRE has been proposed for Mission to Planet Earth to study ozone chemistry in the middle atmosphere using remote sensing of the atmosphere in the far-infrared (21-87 microns) and mid-infrared (9-16 microns) spectra. SAFIRE requires that far-IR detectors be cooled to 3-4 K and mid-IR detectors to 80 K for the expected mission lifetime of five years. A superfluid helium dewar and Stirling-cycle cryocoolers provide the cryogenic temperatures required by the infrared detectors. The proposed instrument thermal design uses passive thermal control techniques to reject 465 watts of waste heat from the instrument.

  5. Quantitative remote sensing in thermal infrared theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Huajun

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive technical overview of the core theory of thermal remote sensing and its applications in hydrology, agriculture, and forestry includes a host of illuminating examples and covers everything from the basics to likely future trends in the field.

  6. Thermal infrared remote sensing of water temperature in riverine landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handcock, Rebecca N.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Cherkauer, Keith A.; Gillespie, Alan R.; Klement, Tockner; Faux, Russell N.; Tan, Jing; Carbonneau, Patrice E.; Piégay, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    Water temperature in riverine landscapes is an important regional indicator of water quality that is influenced by both ground- and surface-water inputs, and indirectly by land use in the surrounding watershed (Brown and Krygier, 1970; Beschta et al., 1987; Chen et al., 1998; Poole and Berman, 2001).Coldwater fishes such as salmon and trout are sensitive to elevated water temperature; therefore, water temperature must meet management guidelines and quality standards, which aim to create a healthy environment for endangered populations (McCullough et al., 2009). For example, in the USA, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established water quality standards to identify specific temperature criteria to protect coldwater fishes (Environmental Protection Agency, 2003). Trout and salmon can survive in cool-water refugia even when temperatures at other measurement locations are at or above the recommended maximums (Ebersole et al., 2001; Baird and Krueger, 2003; High et al., 2006). Spatially extensive measurements of water temperature are necessary to locate these refugia, to identify the location of ground- and surface-water inputs to the river channel, and to identify thermal pollution sources. Regional assessment of water temperature in streams and rivers has been limited by sparse sampling in both space and time. Water temperature has typically been measured using a network of widely distributed instream gages, which record the temporal change of the bulk, or kinetic, temperature of the water (Tk) at specific locations. For example, the State of Washington (USA) recorded water quality conditions at 76 stations within the Puget Lowlands eco region, which contains 12,721 km of streams and rivers (Washington Department of Ecology, 1998). Such gages are sparsely distributed, are typically located only in larger streams and rivers, and give limited information about the spatial distribution of water temperature.

  7. Use of visible, near-infrared, and thermal infrared remote sensing to study soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, M. B.; Greeley, R.; Goettelman, R.

    1974-01-01

    Two methods are described which are used to estimate soil moisture remotely using the 0.4- to 14.0 micron wavelength region: (1) measurement of spectral reflectance, and (2) measurement of soil temperature. The reflectance method is based on observations which show that directional reflectance decreases as soil moisture increases for a given material. The soil temperature method is based on observations which show that differences between daytime and nighttime soil temperatures decrease as moisture content increases for a given material. In some circumstances, separate reflectance or temperature measurements yield ambiguous data, in which case these two methods may be combined to obtain a valid soil moisture determination. In this combined approach, reflectance is used to estimate low moisture levels; and thermal inertia (or thermal diffusivity) is used to estimate higher levels. The reflectance method appears promising for surface estimates of soil moisture, whereas the temperature method appears promising for estimates of near-subsurface (0 to 10 cm).

  8. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing for Analysis of Landscape Ecological Processes: Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal Infrared (TIR) remote sensing data can provide important measurements of surface energy fluxes and temperatures, which are integral to understanding landscape processes and responses. One example of this is the successful application of TIR remote sensing data to estimate evapotranspiration and soil moisture, where results from a number of studies suggest that satellite-based measurements from TIR remote sensing data can lead to more accurate regional-scale estimates of daily evapotranspiration. With further refinement in analytical techniques and models, the use of TIR data from airborne and satellite sensors could be very useful for parameterizing surface moisture conditions and developing better simulations of landscape energy exchange over a variety of conditions and space and time scales. Thus, TIR remote sensing data can significantly contribute to the observation, measurement, and analysis of energy balance characteristics (i.e., the fluxes and redistribution of thermal energy within and across the land surface) as an implicit and important aspect of landscape dynamics and landscape functioning. The application of TIR remote sensing data in landscape ecological studies has been limited, however, for several fundamental reasons that relate primarily to the perceived difficulty in use and availability of these data by the landscape ecology community, and from the fragmentation of references on TIR remote sensing throughout the scientific literature. It is our purpose here to provide evidence from work that has employed TIR remote sensing for analysis of landscape characteristics to illustrate how these data can provide important data for the improved measurement of landscape energy response and energy flux relationships. We examine the direct or indirect use of TIR remote sensing data to analyze landscape biophysical characteristics, thereby offering some insight on how these data can be used more robustly to further the understanding and modeling of

  9. Remote detection of physiological depression in crop plants with infrared thermal imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The infrared thermal imagery was measured concurrently with physiological status in stressed and non-stressed corn and wheat canopies. Thermal images were obtained with an infrared thermography system from a distance of 5 to 20 m. Each thermal image, composed of 512 (H) × 240 (V) pixels with a sensitivity of 0.05°C, was recorded in a video tape every 8 seconds in the field, and analyzed in a laboratory later. A root-reducing treatment was used for simulating environmental stresses, which treatment was carried out by cutting a root system with a thin metal plate at the depth of 20 cm, but brought little apparent change in plant stands. Photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance in the stressed canopy were depressed, which were accompanied with an inverse change in the canopy surface temperature. The maximum difference in mean surface temperatures of the stressed and non-stressed parts of the canopy was no less than 4.2°C in corn and 3.1°C in wheat. Gaussian distribution of spatial temperature frequency in the stressed part shifted toward higher temperature from that of non-stressed part of the canopy, which was visualized clearly on the pseudo-color thermal image while no visible changes were observed directly from the distance. The infrared imagery was effective, especially, for detecting phisiological depression or for comparing various canopies in their physiological status on a remote and real-time basis

  10. Remote detection of physiological depression in crop plants with infrared thermal imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Y. [Agricultural Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1990-12-15

    The infrared thermal imagery was measured concurrently with physiological status in stressed and non-stressed corn and wheat canopies. Thermal images were obtained with an infrared thermography system from a distance of 5 to 20 m. Each thermal image, composed of 512 (H) × 240 (V) pixels with a sensitivity of 0.05°C, was recorded in a video tape every 8 seconds in the field, and analyzed in a laboratory later. A root-reducing treatment was used for simulating environmental stresses, which treatment was carried out by cutting a root system with a thin metal plate at the depth of 20 cm, but brought little apparent change in plant stands. Photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance in the stressed canopy were depressed, which were accompanied with an inverse change in the canopy surface temperature. The maximum difference in mean surface temperatures of the stressed and non-stressed parts of the canopy was no less than 4.2°C in corn and 3.1°C in wheat. Gaussian distribution of spatial temperature frequency in the stressed part shifted toward higher temperature from that of non-stressed part of the canopy, which was visualized clearly on the pseudo-color thermal image while no visible changes were observed directly from the distance. The infrared imagery was effective, especially, for detecting phisiological depression or for comparing various canopies in their physiological status on a remote and real-time basis.

  11. A Study of Coal Fire Propagation with Remotely Sensed Thermal Infrared Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyuan Huo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal fires are a common and serious problem in most coal-bearing countries. Thus, it is very important to monitor changes in coal fires. Remote sensing provides a useful technique for investigating coal fields at a large scale and for detecting coal fires. In this study, the spreading direction of a coal fire in the Wuda Coal Field (WCF, northwest China, was analyzed using multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+ thermal infrared (TIR data. Using an automated method and based on the land surface temperatures (LST that were retrieved from these thermal data, coal fires related to thermal anomalies were identified; the locations of these fires were validated using a coal fire map (CFM that was developed via field surveys; and the cross-validation of the results was also carried out using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER thermal infrared images. Based on the results from longtime series of satellite TIR data set, the spreading directions of the coal fires were determined and the coal fire development on the scale of the entire coal field was predicted. The study delineated the spreading direction using the results of the coal fire dynamics analysis, and a coal fire spreading direction map was generated. The results showed that the coal fires primarily spread north or northeast in the central part of the WCF and south or southwest in the southern part of the WCF. In the northern part of the WCF, some coal fires were spreading north, perhaps coinciding with the orientation of the coal belt. Certain coal fires scattered in the northern and southern parts of the WCF were extending in bilateral directions. A quantitative analysis of the coal fires was also performed; the results indicate that the area of the coal fires increased an average of approximately 0.101 km2 per year.

  12. SENSOR++: Simulation of Remote Sensing Systems from Visible to Thermal Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paproth, C.; Schlüßler, E.; Scherbaum, P.; Börner, A.

    2012-07-01

    During the development process of a remote sensing system, the optimization and the verification of the sensor system are important tasks. To support these tasks, the simulation of the sensor and its output is valuable. This enables the developers to test algorithms, estimate errors, and evaluate the capabilities of the whole sensor system before the final remote sensing system is available and produces real data. The presented simulation concept, SENSOR++, consists of three parts. The first part is the geometric simulation which calculates where the sensor looks at by using a ray tracing algorithm. This also determines whether the observed part of the scene is shadowed or not. The second part describes the radiometry and results in the spectral at-sensor radiance from the visible spectrum to the thermal infrared according to the simulated sensor type. In the case of earth remote sensing, it also includes a model of the radiative transfer through the atmosphere. The final part uses the at-sensor radiance to generate digital images by using an optical and an electronic sensor model. Using SENSOR++ for an optimization requires the additional application of task-specific data processing algorithms. The principle of the simulation approach is explained, all relevant concepts of SENSOR++ are discussed, and first examples of its use are given, for example a camera simulation for a moon lander. Finally, the verification of SENSOR++ is demonstrated.

  13. Application of Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing for Quantitative Evaluation of Crop Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, J.; Luvall, J.; Rickman, D.; Mask, P.; Wersinger, J.; Sullivan, D.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Evidence suggests that thermal infrared emittance (TIR) at the field-scale is largely a function of the integrated crop/soil moisture continuum. Because soil moisture dynamics largely determine crop yields in non-irrigated farming (85 % of Alabama farms are non-irrigated), TIR may be an effective method of mapping within field crop yield variability, and possibly, absolute yields. The ability to map yield variability at juvenile growth stages can lead to improved soil fertility and pest management, as well as facilitating the development of economic forecasting. Researchers at GHCC/MSFC/NASA and Auburn University are currently investigating the role of TIR in site-specific agriculture. Site-specific agriculture (SSA), or precision farming, is a method of crop production in which zones and soils within a field are delineated and managed according to their unique properties. The goal of SSA is to improve farm profits and reduce environmental impacts through targeted agrochemical applications. The foundation of SSA depends upon the spatial and temporal characterization of soil and crop properties through the creation of management zones. Management zones can be delineated using: 1) remote sensing (RS) data, 2) conventional soil testing and soil mapping, and 3) yield mapping. Portions of this research have concentrated on using remote sensing data to map yield variability in corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) crops. Remote sensing data have been collected for several fields in the Tennessee Valley region at various crop growth stages during the last four growing seasons. Preliminary results of this study will be presented.

  14. High Spatial Resolution Airborne Multispectral Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Data for Analysis of Urban Landscape Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have used airborne multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data collected at a high spatial resolution (i.e., 10m) over several cities in the United States to study thermal energy characteristics of the urban landscape. These TIR data provide a unique opportunity to quantify thermal responses from discrete surfaces typical of the urban landscape and to identify both the spatial arrangement and patterns of thermal processes across the city. The information obtained from these data is critical to understanding how urban surfaces drive or force development of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect, which exists as a dome of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities in contrast to surrounding non-urbanized areas. The UHI is most pronounced in the summertime where urban surfaces, such as rooftops and pavement, store solar radiation throughout the day, and release this stored energy slowly after sunset creating air temperatures over the city that are in excess of 2-4'C warmer in contrast with non-urban or rural air temperatures. The UHI can also exist as a daytime phenomenon with surface temperatures in downtown areas of cities exceeding 38'C. The implications of the UHI are significant, particularly as an additive source of thermal energy input that exacerbates the overall production of ground level ozone over cities. We have used the Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS), flown onboard a Lear 23 jet aircraft from the NASA Stennis Space Center, to acquire high spatial resolution multispectral TIR data (i.e., 6 bandwidths between 8.2-12.2 (um) over Huntsville, Alabama, Atlanta, Georgia, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Salt Lake City, Utah, and Sacramento, California. These TIR data have been used to produce maps and other products, showing the spatial distribution of heating and cooling patterns over these cities to better understand how the morphology of the urban landscape affects development of the UHI. In turn, these data have been used

  15. Estimation of Surface Soil Moisture from Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Using an Improved Trapezoid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface soil moisture (SM plays a fundamental role in energy and water partitioning in the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum. A reliable and operational algorithm is much needed to retrieve regional surface SM at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Here, we provide an operational framework of estimating surface SM at fine spatial resolutions (using visible/thermal infrared images and concurrent meteorological data based on a trapezoidal space defined by remotely sensed vegetation cover (Fc and land surface temperature (LST. Theoretical solutions of the wet and dry edges were derived to achieve a more accurate and effective determination of the Fc/LST space. Subjectivity and uncertainty arising from visual examination of extreme boundaries can consequently be largely reduced. In addition, theoretical derivation of the extreme boundaries allows a per-pixel determination of the VI/LST space such that the assumption of uniform atmospheric forcing over the entire domain is no longer required. The developed approach was tested at the Tibetan Plateau Soil Moisture/Temperature Monitoring Network (SMTMN site in central Tibet, China, from August 2010 to August 2011 using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Terra images. Results indicate that the developed trapezoid model reproduced the spatial and temporal patterns of observed surface SM reasonably well, with showing a root-mean-square error of 0.06 m3·m−3 at the site level and 0.03 m3·m−3 at the regional scale. In addition, a case study on 2 September 2010 highlighted the importance of the theoretically calculated wet and dry edges, as they can effectively obviate subjectivity and uncertainties in determining the Fc/LST space arising from visual interpretation of satellite images. Compared with Land Surface Models (LSMs in Global Land Data Assimilation System-1, the remote sensing-based trapezoid approach gave generally better surface SM estimates, whereas the LSMs showed

  16. Effect of metal stress on the thermal infrared emission of soybeans: A greenhouse experiment - Possible utility in remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, R.; Schwaller, M. R.; Foy, C. D.; Weidner, J. R.; Schnetzler, C. S.

    1989-01-01

    Manganese-sensitive forest and manganese-tolerant lee soybean cultivars were subjected to differential manganese stress in loring soil in a greenhouse experiment. Leaf temperature measurements were made using thermistors for forest and lee. Manganese-stressed plants had higher leaf temperatures than control plants in both forest and lee. Results of this experiment have potential applications in metal stress detection using remote sensing thermal infrared data over large areas of vegetation. This technique can be useful in reconnaissance mineral exploration in densely-vegetated regions where conventional ground-based methods are of little help.

  17. Thermal infrared remote sensing for riverscape analysis of water temperature heterogeneity: current research and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, S.; Hannah, D. M.; Malcolm, I.; Bergeron, N.; St-Hilaire, A.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change will increase summer water temperatures in northern latitude rivers. It is likely that this will have a negative impact on fish species such as salmonids, which are sensitive to elevated temperatures. Salmonids currently avoid heat stress by opportunistically using cool water zones that arise from the spatio-temporal mosaic of thermal habitats present within rivers. However, there is a general lack of information about the processes driving this thermal habitat heterogeneity or how these spatio-temporal patterns might vary under climate change. In this paper, we document how thermal infrared imaging has previously been used to better understand the processes driving river temperature patterns. We then identify key knowledge gaps that this technology can help to address in the future. First, we demonstrate how repeat thermal imagery has revealed the role of short-term hydrometeorological variability in influencing longitudinal river temperature patterns, showing that precipitation depth is strongly correlated with the degree of longitudinal temperature heterogeneity. Second, we document how thermal infrared imagery of a large watershed in Eastern Canada has shed new light on the landscape processes driving the spatial distribution of cool water patches, revealing that the distribution of cool patches is strongly linked to channel confinement, channel curvature and the proximity of dry tributary valleys. Finally, we detail gaps in current understanding of spatio-temporal patterns of river temperature heterogeneity. We explain how advances in unmanned aerial vehicle technology and deterministic temperature modelling will be combined to address these current limitations, shedding new light on the landscape processes driving geographical variability in patterns of river temperature heterogeneity. We then detail how such advances will help to identify rivers that will be resilient to future climatic warming, improving current and future strategies for

  18. Preliminary determination of geothermal working area based on Thermal Infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoes Nugroho, Indra; Kurniawahidayati, Beta; Syahputra Mulyana, Reza; Saepuloh, Asep

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing is one of the methods for geothermal exploration. This method can be used to map the geological structures, manifestations, and predict the geothermal potential area. The results from remote sensing were used as guidance for the next step exploration. Analysis of target in remote sensing is an efficient method to delineate geothermal surface manifestation without direct contact to the object. The study took a place in District Merangin, Jambi Province, Indonesia. The area was selected due to existing of Merangin volcanic complex composed by Mounts Sumbing and Hulunilo with surface geothermal manifestations presented by hot springs and hot pools. The location of surface manifestations could be related with local and regional structures of Great Sumatra Fault. The methods used in this study were included identification of volcanic products, lineament extraction, and lineament density quantification. The objective of this study is to delineate the potential zones for sitting the geothermal working site based on Thermal Infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors. The lineament-related to geological structures, was aimed for high lineament density, is using ALOS - PALSAR (Advanced Land Observing Satellite - The Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar) level 1.1. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis was used to predict the vegetation condition using Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS (The Operational Land Imager - Thermal Infrared Sensor). The brightness temperature was extracted from TIR band to estimate the surface temperature. Geothermal working area identified based on index overlay method from extracted parameter of remote sensing data was located at the western part of study area (Graho Nyabu area). This location was identified because of the existence of high surface temperature about 30°C, high lineament density about 4 - 4.5 km/km2 and low NDVI values less than 0.3.

  19. Thermal signatures of urban land cover types: High-resolution thermal infrared remote sensing of urban heat island in Huntsville, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chor Pang

    1996-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to apply airborne high-resolution thermal infrared imagery for urban heat island studies, using Huntsville, AL, a medium-sized American city, as the study area. The occurrence of urban heat islands represents human-induced urban/rural contrast, which is caused by deforestation and the replacement of the land surface by non-evaporating and non-porous materials such as asphalt and concrete. The result is reduced evapotranspiration and more rapid runoff of rain water. The urban landscape forms a canopy acting as a transitional zone between the atmosphere and the land surface. The composition and structure of this canopy have a significant impact on the thermal behavior of the urban environment. Research on the trends of surface temperature at rapidly growing urban sites in the United States during the last 30 to 50 years suggests that significant urban heat island effects have caused the temperatures at these sites to rise by 1 to 2 C. Urban heat islands have caused changes in urban precipitation and temperature that are at least similar to, if not greater than, those predicted to develop over the next 100 years by global change models. Satellite remote sensing, particularly NOAA AVHRR thermal data, has been used in the study of urban heat islands. Because of the low spatial resolution (1.1 km at nadir) of the AVHRR data, these studies can only examine and map the phenomenon at the macro-level. The present research provides the rare opportunity to utilize 5-meter thermal infrared data acquired from an airplane to characterize more accurately the thermal responses of different land cover types in the urban landscape as input to urban heat island studies.

  20. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing for Analysis of Landscape Ecological Processes: Current Insights and Trends. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    NASA or NOAA Earth-observing satellites are not the only space-based TIR platforms. The European Space Agency (ESA), the Chinese, and other countries have in orbit or plan to launch TIR remote sensing systems. Satellite remote sensing provides an excellent opportunity to study land-atmosphere energy exchanges at the regional scale. A predominant application of TIR data has been in inferring evaporation, evapotranspiration (ET), and soil moisture. In addition to using TIR data for ET and soil moisture analysis over vegetated surfaces, there is also a need for using these data for assessment of drought conditions. The concept of ecological thermodynamics provides a quantification of surface energy fluxes for landscape characterization in relation to the overall amount of energy input and output from specific land cover types.

  1. Thermal infrared remote sensing in assessing groundwater and surface-water resources related to Hannukainen mining development site, northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, Anne B.; Korkka-Niemi, Kirsti I.; Salonen, Veli-Pekka

    2018-02-01

    Mining development sites occasionally host complicated aquifer systems with notable connections to natural surface water (SW) bodies. A low-altitude thermal infrared (TIR) imaging survey was conducted to identify hydraulic connections between aquifers and rivers and to map spatial surface temperature patterns along the subarctic rivers in the proximity of the Hannukainen mining development area, northern Finland. In addition to TIR data, stable isotopic compositions ( δ 18O, δD) and dissolved silica concentrations were used as tracers to verify the observed groundwater (GW) discharge into the river system. Based on the TIR survey, notable GW discharge into the main river channel and its tributaries (61 km altogether) was observed and over 500 GW discharge sites were located. On the basis of the survey, the longitudinal temperature patterns of the studied rivers were found to be highly variable. Hydrological and hydrogeological information is crucial in planning and siting essential mining operations, such as tailing areas, in order to prevent any undesirable environmental impacts. The observed notable GW discharge was taken into consideration in the planning of the Hannukainen mining development area. The results of this study support the use of TIR imagery in GW-SW interaction and environmental studies in extensive and remote areas with special concerns for water-related issues but lacking the baseline research.

  2. Thermal infrared remote sensing of water temperature in riverine landscapes: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Rebecca N.; Piégay, Hervé; Handcock, R.N; Torgersen, Christian E.; Cherkauer, K.A; Gillespie, A.R; Tockner, K; Faux, R. N.; Tan, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Water temperature in riverine landscapes is an important regional indicator of water quality that is influenced by both ground- and surface-water inputs, and indirectly by land use in the surrounding watershed (Brown and Krygier, 1970; Beschta et al., 1987; Chen et al., 1998; Poole and Berman, 2001). Coldwater fishes such as salmon and trout are sensitive to elevated water temperature; therefore, water temperature must meet management guidelines and quality standards, which aim to create a healthy environment for endangered populations (McCullough et al., 2009). For example, in the USA, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established water quality standards to identify specific temperature criteria to protect coldwater fishes (Environmental Protection Agency, 2003). Trout and salmon can survive in cool-water refugia even when temperatures at other measurement locations are at or above the recommended maximums (Ebersole et al., 2001; Baird and Krueger, 2003; High et al., 2006). Spatially extensive measurements of water temperature are necessary to locate these refugia, to identify the location of ground- and surface-water inputs to the river channel, and to identify thermal pollution sources. Regional assessment of water temperature in streams and rivers has been limited by sparse sampling in both space and time. Water temperature has typically been measured using a network of widely distributed instream gages, which record the temporal change of the bulk, or kinetic, temperature of the water (Tk) at specific locations. For example, the State of Washington (USA) recorded water quality conditions at 76 stations within the Puget Lowlands eco region, which contains 12,721 km of streams and rivers (Washington Department of Ecology, 1998). Such gages are sparsely distributed, are typically located only in larger streams and rivers, and give limited information about the spatial distribution of water temperature (Cherkauer et al., 2005).

  3. Ground and satellite-based remote sensing of mineral dust using AERI spectra and MODIS thermal infrared window brightness temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, Richard Allen, Jr.

    The radiative effects of dust aerosol on our climate system have yet to be fully understood and remain a topic of contemporary research. To investigate these effects, detection/retrieval methods for dust events over major dust outbreak and transport areas have been developed using satellite and ground-based approaches. To this end, both the shortwave and longwave surface radiative forcing of dust aerosol were investigated. The ground-based remote sensing approach uses the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer brightness temperature spectra to detect mineral dust events and to retrieve their properties. Taking advantage of the high spectral resolution of the AERI instrument, absorptive differences in prescribed thermal IR window sub-band channels were exploited to differentiate dust from cirrus clouds. AERI data collected during the UAE2 at Al-Ain UAE was employed for dust retrieval. Assuming a specified dust composition model a priori and using the light scattering programs of T-matrix and the finite difference time domain methods for oblate spheroids and hexagonal plates, respectively, dust optical depths have been retrieved and compared to those inferred from a collocated and coincident AERONET sun-photometer dataset. The retrieved optical depths were then used to determine the dust longwave surface forcing during the UAE2. Likewise, dust shortwave surface forcing is investigated employing a differential technique from previous field studies. The satellite-based approach uses MODIS thermal infrared brightness temperature window data for the simultaneous detection/separation of mineral dust and cirrus clouds. Based on the spectral variability of dust emissivity at the 3.75, 8.6, 11 and 12 mum wavelengths, the D*-parameter, BTD-slope and BTD3-11 tests are combined to identify dust and cirrus. MODIS data for the three dust-laden scenes have been analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this detection/separation method. Detected daytime dust and cloud

  4. Mapping Weathering and Alteration Minerals in the Comstock and Geiger Grade Areas using Visible to Thermal Infrared Airborne Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Greg R.; Calvin, Wendy M.

    2005-01-01

    To support research into both precious metal exploration and environmental site characterization a combination of high spatial/spectral resolution airborne visible, near infrared, short wave infrared (VNIR/SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) image data were acquired to remotely map hydrothermal alteration minerals around the Geiger Grade and Comstock alteration regions, and map the mineral by-products of weathered mine dumps in Virginia City. Remote sensing data from the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), SpecTIR Corporation's airborne hyperspectral imager (HyperSpecTIR), the MODIS-ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER), and the Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System (SEBASS) were acquired and processed into mineral maps based on the unique spectral signatures of image pixels. VNIR/SWIR and TIR field spectrometer data were collected for both calibration and validation of the remote data sets, and field sampling, laboratory spectral analyses and XRD analyses were made to corroborate the surface mineralogy identified by spectroscopy. The resulting mineral maps show the spatial distribution of several important alteration minerals around each study area including alunite, quartz, pyrophyllite, kaolinite, montmorillonite/muscovite, and chlorite. In the Comstock region the mineral maps show acid-sulfate alteration, widespread propylitic alteration and extensive faulting that offsets the acid-sulfate areas, in contrast to the larger, dominantly acid-sulfate alteration exposed along Geiger Grade. Also, different mineral zones within the intense acid-sulfate areas were mapped. In the Virginia City historic mining district the important weathering minerals mapped include hematite, goethite, jarosite and hydrous sulfate minerals (hexahydrite, alunogen and gypsum) located on mine dumps. Sulfate minerals indicate acidic water forming in the mine dump environment. While there is not an immediate threat to the community, there are clearly sources of

  5. Thermal infrared spectra of surface rocks. Comparison of in the laboratory, in situ, and remote sensing data; Chihyo ganseki no netsusekigaiiki bunko tokusei. Chijo sokutei data to remote sensing data no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, Y; Matsunaga, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    An ASTER (advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer) is one of the image sensors. It is to be installed in an earth survey polar orbit platform satellite, EOS-AM1, which is to be launched in 1998, and it is going to start its operation. Data observed by the thermal infrared remote sensing of ASTER include the spectral emissivity, and the spectral emission reflectivity which is expressed by the function of temperature. It is required to overcome technical problems how to extract the spectral emissivity from the observed data. The spectral emissivity extracted from the remote sensing data by the MMD method, measured for samples collected in Cuprite area, Nevada, and/or measured at sampled points were compared to each other and discussed. The hemisphere spectral reflectivity, which is indirect spectral emissivity, agreed well with the direct spectral emissivity. Data suggesting the establishment of Kirchhoff`s law were obtained even for the weathered samples. The spectral emissivity derived from the remote sensing data by the MMD method was in harmony with the spectral characteristics measured strictly on the ground. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  7. Infrared thermal annealing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladys, M.J.; Clarke, I.; O'Connor, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    A device for annealing samples within an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscopy system was designed, constructed, and tested. The device is based on illuminating the sample with infrared radiation from outside the UHV chamber with a tungsten projector bulb. The apparatus uses an elliptical mirror to focus the beam through a sapphire viewport for low absorption. Experiments were conducted on clean Pd(100) and annealing temperatures in excess of 1000 K were easily reached

  8. Remote sensing of potential and actual daily transpiration of plant canopies based on spectral reflectance and infrared thermal measurements: Concept with preliminary test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Moran, M.S.; Pinter, P.J.Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A new concept for estimating potential and actual values of daily transpiration rate of vegetation canopies is presented along with results of an initial test. The method is based on a physical foundation of spectral radiation balance for a vegetation canopy, the key inputs to the model being the remotely sensed spectral reflectance and the surface temperature of the plant canopy. The radiation interception or absorptance is estimated more directly from remotely sensed spectral data than it is from the leaf area index. The potential daily transpiration is defined as a linear function of the absorbed solar radiation, which can be estimated using a linear relationship between the fraction absorptance of solar radiation and the remotely sensed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index for the canopy. The actual daily transpiration rate is estimated by combining this concept with the Jackson-Idso Crop Water Stress Index, which also can be calculated from remotely sensed plant leaf temperatures measured by infrared thermometry. An initial demonstration with data sets from an alfalfa crop and a rangeland suggests that the method may give reasonable estimates of potential and actual values of daily transpiration rate over diverse vegetation area based on simple remote sensing measurements and basic meteorological parameters

  9. Remote infrared audible signage (RIAS) pilot program report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Remote Infrared Audible Sign Model Accessibility Program (RIAS MAP) is a program funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) to evaluate the effectiveness of remote infrared audible sign systems in enabling persons with visual and cognitiv...

  10. Infrared signatures for remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, R.S.; Sharpe, S.W.; Kelly, J.F.

    1994-04-01

    PNL's capabilities for infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy include tunable-diode-laser (TDL) systems covering 300--3,000 cm -1 at 2 laser. PNL also has a beam expansion source with a 12-cm slit, which provides a 3-m effective path for gases at ∼10 K, giving a Doppler width of typically 10 MHz; and long-path static gas cells (to 100 m). In applying this equipment to signatures work, the authors emphasize the importance of high spectral resolution for detecting and identifying atmospheric interferences; for identifying the optimum analytical frequencies; for deriving, by spectroscopic analysis, the molecular parameters needed for modeling; and for obtaining data on species and/or bands that are not in existing databases. As an example of such spectroscopy, the authors have assigned and analyzed the C-Cl stretching region of CCl 4 at 770--800 cm -1 . This is an important potential signature species whose IR absorption has remained puzzling because of the natural isotopic mix, extensive hot-band structure, and a Fermi resonance involving a nearby combination band. Instrument development projects include the IR sniffer, a small high-sensitivity, high-discrimination (Doppler-limited) device for fence-line or downwind monitoring that is effective even in regions of atmospheric absorption; preliminary work has achieved sensitivities at the low-ppb level. Other work covers trace species detection with TDLs, and FM-modulated CO 2 laser LIDAR. The authors are planning a field experiment to interrogate the Hanford tank farm for signature species from Rattlesnake Mountain, a standoff of ca. 15 km, to be accompanied by simultaneous ground-truthing at the tanks

  11. Mid infrared lasers for remote sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Brian M., E-mail: brian.m.walsh@nasa.gov [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Lee, Hyung R. [National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, VA 23666 (United States); Barnes, Norman P. [Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, VA 23666 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To accurately measure the concentrations of atmospheric gasses, especially the gasses with low concentrations, strong absorption features must be accessed. Each molecular species or constituent has characteristic mid-infrared absorption features by which either column content or range resolved concentrations can be measured. Because of these characteristic absorption features the mid infrared spectral region is known as the fingerprint region. However, as noted by the Decadal Survey, mid-infrared solid-state lasers needed for DIAL systems are not available. The primary reason is associated with short upper laser level lifetimes of mid infrared transitions. Energy gaps between the energy levels that produce mid-infrared laser transitions are small, promoting rapid nonradiative quenching. Nonradiative quenching is a multiphonon process, the more phonons needed, the smaller the effect. More low energy phonons are required to span an energy gap than high energy phonons. Thus, low energy phonon materials have less nonradiative quenching compared to high energy phonon materials. Common laser materials, such as oxides like YAG, are high phonon energy materials, while fluorides, chlorides and bromides are low phonon materials. Work at NASA Langley is focused on a systematic search for novel lanthanide-doped mid-infrared solid-state lasers using both quantum mechanical models (theoretical) and spectroscopy (experimental) techniques. Only the best candidates are chosen for laser studies. The capabilities of modeling materials, experimental challenges, material properties, spectroscopy, and prospects for lanthanide-doped mid-infrared solid-state laser devices will be presented. - Highlights: • We discuss mid infrared lasers and laser materials. • We discuss applications to remote sensing. • We survey the lanthanide ions in low phonon materials for potential. • We present examples of praseodymium mid infrared spectroscopy and laser design.

  12. In-Flight Validation of Mid and Thermal Infrared Remotely Sensed Data Using the Lake Tahoe and Salton Sea Automated Validation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Simon J.

    2008-01-01

    The presentation includes an introduction, Lake Tahoe site layout and measurements, Salton Sea site layout and measurements, field instrument calibration and cross-calculations, data reduction methodology and error budgets, and example results for MODIS. Summary and conclusions are: 1) Lake Tahoe CA/NV automated validation site was established in 1999 to assess radiometric accuracy of satellite and airborne mid and thermal infrared data and products. Water surface temperatures range from 4-25C.2) Salton Sea CA automated validation site was established in 2008 to broaden range of available water surface temperatures and atmospheric water vapor test cases. Water surface temperatures range from 15-35C. 3) Sites provide all information necessary for validation every 2 mins (bulk temperature, skin temperature, air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, net radiation, relative humidity). 4) Sites have been used to validate mid and thermal infrared data and products from: ASTER, AATSR, ATSR2, MODIS-Terra, MODIS-Aqua, Landsat 5, Landsat 7, MTI, TES, MASTER, MAS. 5) Approximately 10 years of data available to help validate AVHRR.

  13. Optical/Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Picard, R. H; Dewan, E. M; Winick, J. R; O'Neil, R. R

    2007-01-01

    This report describes work carried out under the Air Force Research Laboratory's basic research task in optical remote-sensing signatures, entitled Optical / Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing...

  14. A novel technique to monitor thermal discharges using thermal infrared imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthulakshmi, A L; Natesan, Usha; Ferrer, Vincent A; Deepthi, K; Venugopalan, V P; Narasimhan, S V

    2013-09-01

    Coastal temperature is an important indicator of water quality, particularly in regions where delicate ecosystems sensitive to water temperature are present. Remote sensing methods are highly reliable for assessing the thermal dispersion. The plume dispersion from the thermal outfall of the nuclear power plant at Kalpakkam, on the southeast coast of India, was investigated from March to December 2011 using thermal infrared images along with field measurements. The absolute temperature as provided by the thermal infrared (TIR) images is used in the Arc GIS environment for generating a spatial pattern of the plume movement. Good correlation of the temperature measured by the TIR camera with the field data (r(2) = 0.89) make it a reliable method for the thermal monitoring of the power plant effluents. The study portrays that the remote sensing technique provides an effective means of monitoring the thermal distribution pattern in coastal waters.

  15. Remote detection of canopy water stress in coniferous forests using the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator and the thermal infrared multispectral scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Lars L.; Running, Steven W.; Riggs, George A.

    1990-01-01

    Water stress was induced in two coniferous forest stands in West Germany by severing tree sapwood. Leaf water potential, Psi(L), measurements indicated that maximum, naturally occurring levels of water stress developed in the stressed plots while control plots exhibited natural diurnal trends. Images of each site were obtained with the Thematic Mapper Simulator (NS001) and the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) 12 to 15 days after stress induction. NS001 bands 2 to 6, NS001 indices combining bands 4 and 6, and NS001 and TIMS thermal bands showed significant radiance differences between stressed and control plots when large differences in Psi(L) and relative water content (RWC) existed during the morning overflights at Munich. However, the NS001 and TIMS sensors could not detect the slightly smaller differences in Psi(L) and RWC during the Munich afternoon and Frankfurt overflights. The results suggest that routine detection of canopy water stress under operational conditions is difficult utilizing current sensor technology.

  16. Importance of Surface Texture to Infrared Remote Sensing Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, L. E.; Adams, P. M.; Herr, K. C.; Salisbury, J. W.

    2001-11-01

    Thermal infrared remote sensing may be used to identify minerals present on the surface using diagnostic spectral bands. As band depth (spectral contrast) exhibited by the mineral increases, the mineral is easier to detect. In order to determine the expected spectral contrast, thermal infrared spectra of typical mineral endmembers are commonly measured in the laboratory. For example, for calcite, well-crystalline limestone is commonly studied. However, carbonates occur in several forms, including thin coatings, indurated carbonate (calcrete), and hot springs deposits. Different formation pathways may cause different microstructures and surface textures. This in turn can also affect the surface texture of the weathered material. Different surface textures can affect the measured band contrast, through roughness that causes a cavity (hohlraum) effect, and particle size and roughness on a scale that causes volume scattering. Thus since detection limits vary with the spectral contrast, surface texture can be an important variable in how detectable a mineral is. To study these issues, we have examined limestone and calcrete deposits at Mormon Mesa, Nevada that have two distinctly different microstructures and surface texture [Kirkland et al., 2001]. The limestone studied has larger grains and the grains frequently have flat, smooth surfaces on the order of 10-50 microns in cross-section length. The calcrete has smaller, more angular calcite grains, which exhibit almost no flat surfaces longer than 5 microns in cross-section length. We will show scanning electron microscope images to compare the different microstructures and surface textures of both the fresh and weathered surfaces, and we will show corresponding thermal infrared spectra to illustrate the different spectral signatures. The results demonstrate the importance of understanding the microstructure of mineral deposits to accurately interpret infrared remote sensing data, especially for studies that lack ground

  17. Face recognition in the thermal infrared domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, M.; Grudzień, A.; Palka, N.; Szustakowski, M.

    2017-10-01

    Biometrics refers to unique human characteristics. Each unique characteristic may be used to label and describe individuals and for automatic recognition of a person based on physiological or behavioural properties. One of the most natural and the most popular biometric trait is a face. The most common research methods on face recognition are based on visible light. State-of-the-art face recognition systems operating in the visible light spectrum achieve very high level of recognition accuracy under controlled environmental conditions. Thermal infrared imagery seems to be a promising alternative or complement to visible range imaging due to its relatively high resistance to illumination changes. A thermal infrared image of the human face presents its unique heat-signature and can be used for recognition. The characteristics of thermal images maintain advantages over visible light images, and can be used to improve algorithms of human face recognition in several aspects. Mid-wavelength or far-wavelength infrared also referred to as thermal infrared seems to be promising alternatives. We present the study on 1:1 recognition in thermal infrared domain. The two approaches we are considering are stand-off face verification of non-moving person as well as stop-less face verification on-the-move. The paper presents methodology of our studies and challenges for face recognition systems in the thermal infrared domain.

  18. Remote Infrared Audible Signage (RIAS) Pilot Program : evaluation report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This report presents evaluation findings on the Remote Infrared Audible Signage (RIAS) Pilot Program in the Puget Sound Region of Washington. The installation, demonstration and evaluation of RIAS were required by a provision in the Safe, Accountable...

  19. Infrared remote sensing of Earth degassing - Ground study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Strobl

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Geodynamical processes e.g., volcanoes, often cause degassing at the Earth surface. The geogas emanates via mineral springs, water mofettes, or dry mofettes. It is assumed that the emerging gas influences the temperature of the spring or mofette water, respectively and the surface temperature of the soil at and around the dry gas vents. This causes a thermal anomaly in comparison to the close vicinity. Under specific conditions this effect should be extractable from remotely acquired infrared images allowing detection, mapping and monitoring of gas vents/springs within large areas and short times. This article describes preparatory investigations for which emanating Earth gas was simulated by leading compressed air into the ground and releasing it in some depth via a metal lance. The thermal effect at the surface was observed from a nearby thermovision camera in summer and winter under varying meteorological conditions. A procedure was developed to reliably identify gas release areas within the recorded thermal images of the scene. The investigations are aiming at studies to be performed later in the Western Bohemia (Czech Republic earthquake swarm region where especially CO2 of magmatic origin from European SubContinental Mantle (ESCM emanates.

  20. Visible and infrared remote imaging of hazardous waste: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.; Aiello, Danielle P.; Haack, Barry

    2010-01-01

    One of the critical global environmental problems is human and ecological exposure to hazardous wastes from agricultural, industrial, military and mining activities. These wastes often include heavy metals, hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals. Traditional field and laboratory detection and monitoring of these wastes are generally expensive and time consuming. The synoptic perspective of overhead remote imaging can be very useful for the detection and remediation of hazardous wastes. Aerial photography has a long and effective record in waste site evaluations. Aerial photographic archives allow temporal evaluation and change detection by visual interpretation. Multispectral aircraft and satellite systems have been successfully employed in both spectral and morphological analysis of hazardous wastes on the landscape and emerging hyperspectral sensors have permitted determination of the specific contaminants by processing strategies using the tens or hundreds of acquired wavelengths in the solar reflected and/or thermal infrared parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. This paper reviews the literature of remote sensing and overhead imaging in the context of hazardous waste and discusses future monitoring needs and emerging scientific research areas.

  1. Visible and Infrared Remote Imaging of Hazardous Waste: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Haack

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the critical global environmental problems is human and ecological exposure to hazardous wastes from agricultural, industrial, military and mining activities. These wastes often include heavy metals, hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals. Traditional field and laboratory detection and monitoring of these wastes are generally expensive and time consuming. The synoptic perspective of overhead remote imaging can be very useful for the detection and remediation of hazardous wastes. Aerial photography has a long and effective record in waste site evaluations. Aerial photographic archives allow temporal evaluation and change detection by visual interpretation. Multispectral aircraft and satellite systems have been successfully employed in both spectral and morphological analysis of hazardous wastes on the landscape and emerging hyperspectral sensors have permitted determination of the specific contaminants by processing strategies using the tens or hundreds of acquired wavelengths in the solar reflected and/or thermal infrared parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. This paper reviews the literature of remote sensing and overhead imaging in the context of hazardous waste and discusses future monitoring needs and emerging scientific research areas.

  2. Robust remote monitoring of breathing function by using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carina B; Yu, Xinchi; Blazek, Vladimir; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    An abnormal breathing rate (BR) is one of the strongest markers of physiological distress. Moreover, it plays an important role in early detection of sudden infant death syndrome, as well as in the diagnosis of respiratory disorders. However, the current measuring modalities can cause discomfort to the patient, since attachment to the patient's body is required. This paper proposes a new approach based on infrared thermography to remotely monitor BR. This method allows to (1) detect automatically the nose, (2) track the associate region of interest (ROI), and (3) extract BR. To evaluate the performance of this method, thermal recording of 5 healthy subjects were acquired. Results were compared with BR obtained by capnography. The introduced approach demonstrated an excellent performance. ROIs were precisely segmented and tracked. Furthermore, a Bland-Altman diagram showed a good agreement between estimated BR and gold standard. The mean correlation and mean absolute BR error are 0.92 ± 0.07 and 0.53 bpm, respectively. In summary, infrared thermography seems to be a great, clinically relevant alternative to attached sensors, due to its outstanding characteristics and performance.

  3. Physics teaching by infrared remote sensing of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttler, Tobias; Maman, Shimrit; Girwidz, Raimund

    2018-05-01

    Context- and project-based teaching has proven to foster different affective and cognitive aspects of learning. As a versatile and multidisciplinary scientific research area with diverse applications for everyday life, satellite remote sensing is an interesting context for physics education. In this paper we give a brief overview of satellite remote sensing of vegetation and how to obtain your own, individual infrared remote sensing data with affordable converted digital cameras. This novel technique provides the opportunity to conduct individual remote sensing measurement projects with students in their respective environment. The data can be compared to real satellite data and is of sufficient accuracy for educational purposes.

  4. Remote monitoring of breathing dynamics using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carina Barbosa; Yu, Xinchi; Czaplik, Michael; Rossaint, Rolf; Blazek, Vladimir; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-11-01

    An atypical or irregular respiratory frequency is considered to be one of the earliest markers of physiological distress. In addition, monitoring of this vital parameter plays a major role in diagnosis of respiratory disorders, as well as in early detection of sudden infant death syndrome. Nevertheless, the current measurement modalities require attachment of sensors to the patient's body, leading to discomfort and stress. The current paper presents a new robust algorithm to remotely monitor breathing rate (BR) by using thermal imaging. This approach permits to detect and to track the region of interest (nose) as well as to estimate BR. In order to study the performance of the algorithm, and its robustness against motion and breathing disorders, three different thermal recordings of 11 healthy volunteers were acquired (sequence 1: normal breathing; sequence 2: normal breathing plus arbitrary head movements; and sequence 3: sequence of specific breathing patterns). Thoracic effort (piezoplethysmography) served as "gold standard" for validation of our results. An excellent agreement between estimated BR and ground truth was achieved. Whereas the mean correlation for sequence 1-3 were 0.968, 0.940 and 0.974, the mean absolute BR errors reached 0.33, 0.55 and 0.96 bpm (breaths per minute), respectively. In brief, this work demonstrates that infrared thermography is a promising, clinically relevant alternative for the currently available measuring modalities due to its performance and diverse remarkable advantages.

  5. A primary study on finding hot groundwater using infrared remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Y.; Wu, Q.

    Hot groundwater is a kind of valuable natural resources to be explored utilized. Shanxi Province, located in the eastern Loess Plateau of China, is rich in geothermal resources, most of which was found in irrigation well drilling or geological survey. Basic study is weak. Now new developed Remote Sensing technique provides geothermal study with an advanced way. Air-RS information of thermal infrared and dada from thermal channel of Meteorological Landset AVHRR has been used widely. A thermal infrared channel (TM6) was installed in the U. S. second Landset, Its resolving power of space is as high as 120 m, 10 times more t an one ofh AVHRR. A Landset earth recourses launched by China and Brazil (CBERS-1) in 1999, including a spectrum of thermal infrared. It is paid a great interested and attention to survey geothermal resources using thermal infrared. This article is a brief introduction of finding hot groundwater with on the bases of differences of thermal radiation of objects reflected by thermal infrared in the Landset, and treated with HIS colors changes. This study provides an advanced way widely used to exploit hot groundwater and to promote the development of tourism and geothermal medical in China.

  6. The remote infrared remote control system based on LPC1114

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yingjie; Guo, Kai; Xu, Xinni; Sun, Dayu; Wang, Li

    2018-05-01

    In view of the shortcomings such as the short control distance of the traditional air conditioner remote controller on the market nowadays and combining with the current smart home new mode "Cloud+ Terminal" mode, a smart home system based on internet is designed and designed to be fully applied to the simple and reliable features of the LPC1114 chip. The controller is added with temperature control module, timing module and other modules. Through the actual test, it achieved remote control air conditioning, with reliability and stability and brought great convenience to people's lives.

  7. Studies of planetary boundary layer by infrared thermal imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albina, Bogdan; Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe, E-mail: dimitriu@uaic.ro; Gurlui, Silviu Octavian, E-mail: dimitriu@uaic.ro [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi (Romania); Cazacu, Marius Mihai [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi, Romania and Department of Physics, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, 59A Mangeron Blvd., 700 (Romania); Timofte, Adrian [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi, Romania and National Meteorological Administration, Regional Forecast Center Bacau, 1 Cuza Voda Str., 60 (Romania)

    2014-11-24

    The IR camera is a relatively novel device for remote sensing of atmospheric thermal processes from the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) based on measurements of the infrared radiation. Infrared radiation is energy radiated by the motion of atoms and molecules on the surface of aerosols, when their temperature is more than absolute zero. The IR camera measures directly the intensity of radiation emitted by aerosols which is converted by an imaging sensor into an electric signal, resulting a thermal image. Every image pixel that corresponds to a specific radiance is pre-processed to identify the brightness temperature. The thermal infrared imaging radiometer used in this study, NicAir, is a precision radiometer developed by Prata et al. The device was calibrated for the temperature range of 270–320 K and using a calibration table along with image processing software, important information about variations in temperature can be extracted from acquired IR images. The PBL is the lowest layer of the troposphere where the atmosphere interacts with the ground surfaces. The importance of PBL lies in the fact that it provides a finite but varying volume in which pollutants can disperse. The aim of this paper is to analyze the PBL altitude and thickness variations over Iasi region using the IR imaging camera as well as its behavior from day to night and thermal processes occurring in PBL.

  8. Development of models for thermal infrared radiation above and within plant canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paw u, Kyaw T.

    1992-01-01

    Any significant angular dependence of the emitted longwave radiation could result in errors in remotely estimated energy budgets or evapotranspiration. Empirical data and thermal infrared radiation models are reviewed in reference to anisotropic emissions from the plant canopy. The biometeorological aspects of linking longwave models with plant canopy energy budgets and micrometeorology are discussed. A new soil plant atmosphere model applied to anisotropic longwave emissions from a canopy is presented. Time variation of thermal infrared emission measurements is discussed.

  9. Thermal infrared panoramic imaging sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutin, Mikhail; Tsui, Eddy K.; Gutin, Olga; Wang, Xu-Ming; Gutin, Alexey

    2006-05-01

    Panoramic cameras offer true real-time, 360-degree coverage of the surrounding area, valuable for a variety of defense and security applications, including force protection, asset protection, asset control, security including port security, perimeter security, video surveillance, border control, airport security, coastguard operations, search and rescue, intrusion detection, and many others. Automatic detection, location, and tracking of targets outside protected area ensures maximum protection and at the same time reduces the workload on personnel, increases reliability and confidence of target detection, and enables both man-in-the-loop and fully automated system operation. Thermal imaging provides the benefits of all-weather, 24-hour day/night operation with no downtime. In addition, thermal signatures of different target types facilitate better classification, beyond the limits set by camera's spatial resolution. The useful range of catadioptric panoramic cameras is affected by their limited resolution. In many existing systems the resolution is optics-limited. Reflectors customarily used in catadioptric imagers introduce aberrations that may become significant at large camera apertures, such as required in low-light and thermal imaging. Advantages of panoramic imagers with high image resolution include increased area coverage with fewer cameras, instantaneous full horizon detection, location and tracking of multiple targets simultaneously, extended range, and others. The Automatic Panoramic Thermal Integrated Sensor (APTIS), being jointly developed by Applied Science Innovative, Inc. (ASI) and the Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) combines the strengths of improved, high-resolution panoramic optics with thermal imaging in the 8 - 14 micron spectral range, leveraged by intelligent video processing for automated detection, location, and tracking of moving targets. The work in progress supports the Future Combat Systems (FCS) and the

  10. Teaching physics and understanding infrared thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter

    2017-08-01

    Infrared thermal imaging is a very rapidly evolving field. The latest trends are small smartphone IR camera accessories, making infrared imaging a widespread and well-known consumer product. Applications range from medical diagnosis methods via building inspections and industrial predictive maintenance etc. also to visualization in the natural sciences. Infrared cameras do allow qualitative imaging and visualization but also quantitative measurements of the surface temperatures of objects. On the one hand, they are a particularly suitable tool to teach optics and radiation physics and many selected topics in different fields of physics, on the other hand there is an increasing need of engineers and physicists who understand these complex state of the art photonics systems. Therefore students must also learn and understand the physics underlying these systems.

  11. The Improvement of Land Cover Classification by Thermal Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liya Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Land cover classification has been widely investigated in remote sensing for agricultural, ecological and hydrological applications. Landsat images with multispectral bands are commonly used to study the numerous classification methods in order to improve the classification accuracy. Thermal remote sensing provides valuable information to investigate the effectiveness of the thermal bands in extracting land cover patterns. k-NN and Random Forest algorithms were applied to both the single Landsat 8 image and the time series Landsat 4/5 images for the Attert catchment in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, trained and validated by the ground-truth reference data considering the three level classification scheme from COoRdination of INformation on the Environment (CORINE using the 10-fold cross validation method. The accuracy assessment showed that compared to the visible and near infrared (VIS/NIR bands, the time series of thermal images alone can produce comparatively reliable land cover maps with the best overall accuracy of 98.7% to 99.1% for Level 1 classification and 93.9% to 96.3% for the Level 2 classification. In addition, the combination with the thermal band improves the overall accuracy by 5% and 6% for the single Landsat 8 image in Level 2 and Level 3 category and provides the best classified results with all seven bands for the time series of Landsat TM images.

  12. Aeolian system dynamics derived from thermal infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt, Stephen Paul

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote-sensing and field-based observations were used to study aeolian systems, specifically sand transport pathways, dust emission sources and Saharan atmospheric dust. A method was developed for generating seamless and radiometrically accurate mosaics of thermal infrared data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument. Using a combination of high resolution thermal emission spectroscopy results of sand samples and mosaic satellite data, surface emissivity was derived to map surface composition, which led to improvement in the understanding of sand accumulation in the Gran Desierto of northern Sonora, Mexico. These methods were also used to map sand transport pathways in the Sahara Desert, where the interaction between sand saltation and dust emission sources was explored. The characteristics and dynamics of dust sources were studied at White Sands, NM and in the Sahara Desert. At White Sands, an application was developed for studying the response of dust sources to surface soil moisture based on the relationship between soil moisture, apparent thermal inertia and the erosion potential of dust sources. The dynamics of dust sources and the interaction with sand transport pathways were also studied, focusing on the Bodele Depression of Chad and large dust sources in Mali and Mauritania. A dust detection algorithm was developed using ASTER data, and the spectral emissivity of observed atmospheric dust was related to the dust source area in the Sahara. At the Atmospheric Observatory (IZO) in Tenerife, Spain where direct measurement of the Saharan Air Layer could be made, the cycle of dust events occurring in July 2009 were examined. From the observation tower at the IZO, measurements of emitted longwave atmospheric radiance in the TIR wavelength region were made using a Forward Looking Infrared Radiometer (FLIR) handheld camera. The use of the FLIR to study atmospheric dust from the Saharan is a

  13. Provisional maps of thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park, based on satellite thermal infrared imaging and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Heasler, Henry; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

    2014-01-01

    Maps that define the current distribution of geothermally heated ground are useful toward setting a baseline for thermal activity to better detect and understand future anomalous hydrothermal and (or) volcanic activity. Monitoring changes in the dynamic thermal areas also supports decisions regarding the development of Yellowstone National Park infrastructure, preservation and protection of park resources, and ensuring visitor safety. Because of the challenges associated with field-based monitoring of a large, complex geothermal system that is spread out over a large and remote area, satellite-based thermal infrared images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were used to map the location and spatial extent of active thermal areas, to generate thermal anomaly maps, and to quantify the radiative component of the total geothermal heat flux. ASTER thermal infrared data acquired during winter nights were used to minimize the contribution of solar heating of the surface. The ASTER thermal infrared mapping results were compared to maps of thermal areas based on field investigations and high-resolution aerial photos. Field validation of the ASTER thermal mapping is an ongoing task. The purpose of this report is to make available ASTER-based maps of Yellowstone’s thermal areas. We include an appendix containing the names and characteristics of Yellowstone’s thermal areas, georeferenced TIFF files containing ASTER thermal imagery, and several spatial data sets in Esri shapefile format.

  14. Monitoring Thermal Pollution in Rivers Downstream of Dams with Landsat ETM+ Thermal Infrared Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ling

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dams play a significant role in altering the spatial pattern of temperature in rivers and contribute to thermal pollution, which greatly affects the river aquatic ecosystems. Understanding the temporal and spatial variation of thermal pollution caused by dams is important to prevent or mitigate its harmful effect. Assessments based on in-situ measurements are often limited in practice because of the inaccessibility of water temperature records and the scarcity of gauges along rivers. By contrast, thermal infrared remote sensing provides an alternative approach to monitor thermal pollution downstream of dams in large rivers, because it can cover a large area and observe the same zone repeatedly. In this study, Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ thermal infrared imagery were applied to assess the thermal pollution caused by two dams, the Geheyan Dam and the Gaobazhou Dam, located on the Qingjiang River, a tributary of the Yangtze River downstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir in Central China. The spatial and temporal characteristics of thermal pollution were analyzed with water temperatures estimated from 54 cloud-free Landsat ETM+ scenes acquired in the period from 2000 to 2014. The results show that water temperatures downstream of both dams are much cooler than those upstream of both dams in summer, and the water temperature remains stable along the river in winter, showing evident characteristic of the thermal pollution caused by dams. The area affected by the Geheyan Dam reaches beyond 20 km along the downstream river, and that affected by the Gaobazhou Dam extends beyond the point where the Qingjiang River enters the Yangtze River. Considering the long time series and global coverage of Landsat ETM+ imagery, the proposed technique in the current study provides a promising method for globally monitoring the thermal pollution caused by dams in large rivers.

  15. Thermal Infrared and Visible to Near-Infrared Spectral Analysis of Chert and Amorphous Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. L.; Hamilton, V. E.; Cady, S. L.; Knauth, P.

    2009-03-01

    We look in detail at the thermal infrared and visible to near-infrared spectra of various forms of chert and amorphous silica and compare the spectral variations between samples with variations in physical and chemical characteristics.

  16. Remote infrared signage evaluation for transit stations and intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, W; Brabyn, J; Bentzen, B L; Myers, L

    1999-10-01

    Opportunities for education and employment depend upon effective and independent travel. For mainstream society, this is accomplished to a large extent by printed signs. People who are print disabled, visually impaired, or totally blind are at a disadvantage because they do not have access to signage. Remote infrared signage, such as the Talking Signs (TS) system, provides a solution to this need by labeling the environment for distant viewing. The system uses a transmitting "sign" and a hand-held receiver to tell people about their surroundings. In a seamless infrared signage environment, a visually impaired traveler could: walk safely across an intersection to an ATM or fare machine, from fare machine to bus stop, from bus stop to bus; from bus to building, from building to elevator, from elevator to office, from office to restroom, and so forth. This paper focuses on two problems that are among the most challenging and dangerous faced by blind travelers: negotiating complex transit stations and controlled intersections. We report on human factors studies of TS in these critical tasks, examining such issues as how much training is needed to use the system, its impact on performance and safety, benefits for different population subgroups and user opinions of its value. Results indicate that blind people can quickly and easily learn to use remote infrared signage effectively, and that its use improves travel safety, efficiency, and independence.

  17. Detecting Plastic PFM-1 Butterfly Mines Using Thermal Infrared Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, J.; de Smet, T.; Nikulin, A.

    2017-12-01

    Remnant plastic-composite landmines, such as the mass-produced PFM-1, represent an ongoing humanitarian threat aggravated by high costs associated with traditional demining efforts. These particular unexploded ordnance (UXO) devices pose a challenge to conventional geophysical detection methods, due their plastic-body design and small size. Additionally, the PFM-1s represent a particularly heinous UXO, due to their low mass ( 25 lb) trigger limit and "butterfly" wing design, earning them the reputation of a "toy mine" - disproportionally impacting children across post-conflict areas. We developed a detection algorithm based on data acquired by a thermal infrared camera mounted to a commercial UAV to detect time-variable temperature difference between the PFM-1 and the surrounding environment. We present results of a field study focused on thermal detection and identification of the PFM-1 anti-personnel landmines from a remotely operated unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). We conducted a series of field detection experiments meant to simulate the mountainous terrains where PFM-1 mines were historically deployed and remain in place. In our tests, 18 inert PFM-1 mines along with the aluminum KSF-1 casing were randomly dispersed to mimic an ellipsoidal minefield of 8-10 x 18-20 m dimensions in a de-vegetated rubble yard at Chenango Valley State Park (New York State). We collected multiple thermal infrared imagery datasets focused on these model minefields with the FLIR Vue Pro R attached to the 3DR Solo UAV flying at approximately at 2 m. We identified different environmental variables to constrain the optimal time of day and daily temperature variations to reveal presence of these plastic UXOs. We show that in the early-morning hours when thermal inertia is greatest, the PFM-1 mines can be detected based on their differential thermal inertia. Because the mines have statistically different temperatures than background and a characteristic shape, we were able to train a

  18. Detection of leaks in buried rural water pipelines using thermal infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidenshink, Jeffery C.

    1985-01-01

    Leakage is a major problem in many pipelines. Minor leaks called 'seeper leaks', which generally range from 2 to 10 m3 per day, are common and are difficult to detect using conventional ground surveys. The objective of this research was to determine whether airborne thermal-infrared remote sensing could be used in detecting leaks and monitoring rural water pipelines. This study indicates that such leaks can be detected using low-altitude 8.7- to 11.5. micrometer wavelength, thermal infrared images collected under proper conditions.

  19. The Visualization of Infrared Radiation Using Thermal Sensitive Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochnícek, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a set of demonstration school experiments where infrared radiation is detected using thermal sensitive foils. The possibility of using standard glass lenses for infrared imaging is discussed in detail. It is shown that with optic components made from glass, infrared radiation up to 2.5 µm of wavelength can be detected. The…

  20. Infrared frequency-tunable coherent thermal sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hao; Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we numerically demonstrate an infrared (IR) frequency-tunable selective thermal emitter made of graphene-covered silicon carbide (SiC) gratings. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis shows temporally-coherent emission peaks associated with magnetic polariton (MP), whose resonance frequency can be dynamically tuned within the phonon absorption band of SiC by varying graphene chemical potential. An analytical inductor–capacitor circuit model is introduced to quantitatively predict the resonance frequency and further elucidate the mechanism for the tunable emission peak. The effects of grating geometric parameters, such as grating height, groove width and grating period, on the selective emission peak are explored. The direction-independent behavior of MP and associated coherent emission are also demonstrated. Moreover, by depositing four layers of graphene sheets onto the SiC gratings, a large tunability of 8.5% in peak frequency can be obtained to yield the coherent emission covering a broad frequency range from 820 to 890 cm −1 . The novel tunable metamaterial could pave the way to a new class of tunable thermal sources in the IR region. (paper)

  1. Remote Thermal IR Spectroscopy of our Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodor; Hewagama, Tilak; Goldstein, Jeffrey; Livengood, Timothy; Fast, Kelly

    1999-01-01

    containing hydrocarbons such as methane and ethane. Spectroscopic information on extrasolar planets thus can permit their classification. Spectra and spectral lines contain information on the temperature structure of the atmosphere. Line and band spectra can be used to identify the molecular constituents and retrieve species abundances, thereby classifying and characterizing the planet. At high enough spectral resolution characteristic planetary atmospheric dynamics and unique phenomena such as failure of local thermodynamic equilibrium can be identified. Dynamically induced effects such as planetary rotation and orbital velocity shift and change the shape of spectral features and must be modeled in detailed spectral studies. We will use our knowledge of the compositional, thermal and dynamical characteristics of planetary atmospheres in our own solar system to model spectra observed remotely on similar planets in extrasolar planetary systems. We will use a detailed radiative transfer and beam integration program developed for the modeling and interpretation of thermal infrared spectra measured from nearby planet planets to generate models of an extra-solar "Earth" and "Jupiter". From these models we will show how key spectral features distinguish between terrestrial and gaseous planets, what information can be obtained with different spectral resolution, what spectral features can be used to search for conditions for biogenic activity, and how dynamics and distance modify the observed spectra. We also will look at unique planetary phenomena such as atmospheric lasing and discuss their utility as probes for detection and identification of planets. Results of such studies will provide information to constrain design for instrumentation needed to directly detect extrasolar planets.

  2. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, John F.; Jones, Roger W.

    1991-12-03

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a material (16, 42) by applying a cooling medium (20, 54) to cool a thin surface layer portion of the material and to transiently generate a temperature differential between the thin surface layer portion and the lower portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material. The altered thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material is detected by a spectrometer/detector (28, 50) while the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of the emitted infrared radiation. The detection is effected prior to the temperature differential propagating into the lower portion of the material to an extent such that the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is no longer sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation, so that the detected altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is indicative of the characteristics relating to the molecular composition of the material.

  3. Thermal infrared imaging of the temporal variability in stomatal conductance for fruit trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struthers, Raymond; Ivanova, Anna; Tits, Laurent; Swennen, Rony; Coppin, Pol

    2015-07-01

    Repeated measurements using thermal infrared remote sensing were used to characterize the change in canopy temperature over time and factors that influenced this change on 'Conference' pear trees (Pyrus communis L.). Three different types of sensors were used, a leaf porometer to measure leaf stomatal conductance, a thermal infrared camera to measure the canopy temperature and a meteorological sensor to measure weather variables. Stomatal conductance of water stressed pear was significantly lower than in the control group 9 days after stress began. This decrease in stomatal conductance reduced transpiration, reducing evaporative cooling that increased canopy temperature. Using thermal infrared imaging with wavelengths between 7.5 and13 μm, the first significant difference was measured 18 days after stress began. A second order derivative described the average rate of change of the difference between the stress treatment and control group. The average rate of change for stomatal conductance was 0.06 (mmol m-2 s-1) and for canopy temperature was -0.04 (°C) with respect to days. Thermal infrared remote sensing and data analysis presented in this study demonstrated that the differences in canopy temperatures between the water stress and control treatment due to stomata regulation can be validated.

  4. OBSERVED ASTEROID SURFACE AREA IN THE THERMAL INFRARED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, C. R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Kramer, E.; Sonnett, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wright, E. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The rapid accumulation of thermal infrared observations and shape models of asteroids has led to increased interest in thermophysical modeling. Most of these infrared observations are unresolved. We consider what fraction of an asteroid’s surface area contributes the bulk of the emitted thermal flux for two model asteroids of different shapes over a range of thermal parameters. The resulting observed surface in the infrared is generally more fragmented than the area observed in visible wavelengths, indicating high sensitivity to shape. For objects with low values of the thermal parameter, small fractions of the surface contribute the majority of thermally emitted flux. Calculating observed areas could enable the production of spatially resolved thermal inertia maps from non-resolved observations of asteroids.

  5. Soil moisture estimation using reflected solar and emitted thermal infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. D.; Cihlar, J.; Estes, J. E.; Heilman, J. L.; Kahle, A.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Millard, J.; Price, J. C.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    Classical methods of measuring soil moisture such as gravimetric sampling and the use of neutron moisture probes are useful for cases where a point measurement is sufficient to approximate the water content of a small surrounding area. However, there is an increasing need for rapid and repetitive estimations of soil moisture over large areas. Remote sensing techniques potentially have the capability of meeting this need. The use of reflected-solar and emitted thermal-infrared radiation, measured remotely, to estimate soil moisture is examined.

  6. Thermal Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Plant Species and Stress Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlerf, M.; Rock, G.; Ullah, S.; Gerhards, M.; Udelhoven, T.; Skidmore, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) spectroscopy offers a novel opportunity for measuring emissivity spectra of natural surfaces. Emissivity spectra are not directly measured, they first have to be retrieved from the raw measurements. Once retrieved, the spectra can be used, for example, to discriminate plant species or to detect plant stress. Knowledge of plant species distribution is essential for the sustainable management of ecosystems. Remote sensing of plant species has so far mostly been limited to data in the visible and near-infrared where, however, different species often reveal similar reflectance curves. Da Luz and Crowley showed in a recent paper that in the TIR plants indeed have distinct spectral features. Also with a certain species, subtle changes of emissivity in certain wavebands may occur, when biochemical compounds change due to osmotic adjustment induced by water stress. Here we show, that i) emissive imaging spectroscopy allows for reliable and accurate retrieval of plant emissivity spectra, ii) emissivity spectra are well suited to discriminate plant species, iii) a reduction in stomatal conductance (caused by stress) changes the thermal infrared signal. For 13 plant species in the laboratory and for 8 plant species in a field setup emissivity spectra were retrieved. A comparison shows, that for most species the shapes of the emissivity curves agree quite well, but that clear offsets between the two types of spectra exist. Discrimination analysis revealed that based on the lab spectra, 13 species could be distinguished with an average overall classification accuracy of 92% using the 6 best spectral bands. For the field spectra (8 species), a similar high OAA of 89% was achieved. Species discrimination is likely to be possible due to variations in the composition of the superficial epidermal layer of plant leaves and in internal chemical concentrations producing unique emissivity features. However, to date, which spectral feature is responsible for which

  7. Thermal Remote Sensing and the Thermodynamics of Ecosystem Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Doug.; Fraser, Roydon F.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal remote sensing can provide environmental measuring tools with capabilities for measuring ecosystem development and integrity. Recent advances in applying principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics to ecology provide fundamental insights into energy partitioning in ecosystems. Ecosystems are nonequilibrium systems, open to material and energy flows, which grow and develop structures and processes to increase energy degradation. More developed terrestrial ecosystems will be more effective at dissipating the solar gradient (degrading its exergy content) and can be measured by the effective surface temperature of the ecosystem on a landscape scale. Ecosystems are viewed as open thermodynamic systems with a large gradient impressed on them by the exergy flux from the sun. Ecosystems, according to the restated second law, develop in ways that systematically increases their ability to degrade the incoming solar exergy, hence negating it's ability to set up even larger gradients. Thus it should be expected that more mature ecosystems degrade the exergy they capture more completely than a less developed ecosystem. The degree to which incoming solar exergy is degraded is a function of the surface temperature of the ecosystem. If a group of ecosystems receives the same amount of incoming radiation, we would expect that the most mature ecosystem would reradiate its energy at the lowest quality level and thus would have the lowest surface temperature (coldest black body temperature). Initial development work was done using NASA's airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) followed by the use of a multispectral visible and thermal scanner- Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS). Luvall and his coworkers have documented ecosystem energy budgets, including tropical forests, midlatitude varied ecosystems, and semiarid ecosystems. These data show that under similar environmental conditions (air temperature, relative humidity, winds, and solar

  8. Validating an infrared thermal switch as a novel access technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memarian Negar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a novel single-switch access technology based on infrared thermography was proposed. The technology exploits the temperature differences between the inside and surrounding areas of the mouth as a switch trigger, thereby allowing voluntary switch activation upon mouth opening. However, for this technology to be clinically viable, it must be validated against a gold standard switch, such as a chin switch, that taps into the same voluntary motion. Methods In this study, we report an experiment designed to gauge the concurrent validity of the infrared thermal switch. Ten able-bodied adults participated in a series of 3 test sessions where they simultaneously used both an infrared thermal and conventional chin switch to perform multiple trials of a number identification task with visual, auditory and audiovisual stimuli. Participants also provided qualitative feedback about switch use. User performance with the two switches was quantified using an efficiency measure based on mutual information. Results User performance (p = 0.16 and response time (p = 0.25 with the infrared thermal switch were comparable to those of the gold standard. Users reported preference for the infrared thermal switch given its non-contact nature and robustness to changes in user posture. Conclusions Thermal infrared access technology appears to be a valid single switch alternative for individuals with disabilities who retain voluntary mouth opening and closing.

  9. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, John F.; Jones, Roger W.

    1991-12-24

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a solid material (16, 42) by applying energy from an energy source (20, 70) top a surface region of the solid material sufficient to cause transient heating in a thin surface layer portion of the solid material (16, 42) so as to enable transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion, and by detecting with a spectrometer/detector (28, 58) substantially only the transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion of the solid material. The detected transient thermal emission of infrared radiation is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the solid material of emitted infrared radiation, so as to be indicative of characteristics relating to molecular composition of the solid material.

  10. Formation and Thermal Infrared Spectroscopy of Halite Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, A. M.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-12-01

    Efflorescent salt crusts form as groundwater evaporates from capillary updraw of brine through sediment. Salts precipitate at the surface, coating and cementing the upper few layers of sediment. If enough brine is present to completely saturate and pond on top of the surface, halite will precipitate at the surface of the brine and settle out as layers of crystalline salt on top of the sediment. In playa environments, salts such as sulfates, carbonates and halides, and forms such crusts. In remote sensing studies of such surfaces, it is important to understand how the presence of salt crusts affects the spectral features of the surrounding sediment. This is especially true when the crusts form from a non-absorbing salt such as halite. Halite has been observed to exhibit unusual spectral properties in the thermal infrared. Specifically, granular mixtures of minerals with halite produced spectra in which the spectral features inverted form reflectivity, shifted to shorter wavelengths and the spectral contrast increased near absorption bands. However, in crusted surfaces, in which the halite cements, coats or overlays the mineral grains, the presence of halite has a different affect on the spectra. This work will examine the precipitation of halite and the formation of salt crusts for several sediment and brine mixtures. Laboratory measurements of thermal emission spectra for the crusts will be compared to previous studies for particulate mixtures of halite with minerals and well as to natural surface crusts. Detailed knowledge of such surfaces will allow for their discrimination and identification in terrestrial playa settings as well as in paleo-environments on Mars.

  11. Factors affecting thermal infrared images at selected field sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisson, J.B.; Ferguson, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    A thermal infrared (TIR) survey was conducted to locate surface ordnance in and around the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area, and a thermal anomaly was found. This report documents studies conducted to identify the position of cause of the thermal anomaly. Also included are results of a long path Fourier transform infrared survey, soil sampling activities, soil gas surveys, and buried heater studies. The results of these studies indicated that the thermal anomaly was caused by a gravel pad, which had thermal properties different than those of the surrounding soil. Results from this investigation suggest that TIR is useful for locating surface objects having a high thermal inertia compared to the surrounding terrain, but TIR is of very limited use for characterizing buried waste or other similar buried objects at the INEL

  12. Thermal Infrared Imaging-Based Computational Psychophysiology for Psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, Daniela; Pinti, Paola; Merla, Arcangelo

    2015-01-01

    Thermal infrared imaging has been proposed as a potential system for the computational assessment of human autonomic nervous activity and psychophysiological states in a contactless and noninvasive way. Through bioheat modeling of facial thermal imagery, several vital signs can be extracted, including localized blood perfusion, cardiac pulse, breath rate, and sudomotor response, since all these parameters impact the cutaneous temperature. The obtained physiological information could then be used to draw inferences about a variety of psychophysiological or affective states, as proved by the increasing number of psychophysiological studies using thermal infrared imaging. This paper presents therefore a review of the principal achievements of thermal infrared imaging in computational physiology with regard to its capability of monitoring psychophysiological activity.

  13. Using infrared spectroscopy and satellite data to accurately monitor remote volcanoes and map their eruptive products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    The ability to detect the onset of new activity at a remote volcano commonly relies on high temporal resolution thermal infrared (TIR) satellite-based observations. These observations from sensors such as AVHRR and MODIS are being used in innovative ways to produce trends of activity, which are critical for hazard response planning and scientific modeling. Such data are excellent for detection of new thermal features, volcanic plumes, and tracking changes over the hour time scale, for example. For some remote volcanoes, the lack of ground-based monitoring typically means that these sensors provide the first and only confirmation of renewed activity. However, what is lacking is the context of the higher spatial scale, which provides the volcanologist with meter-scale information on specific temperatures and changes in the composition and texture of the eruptive products. For the past eleven years, the joint US-Japanese ASTER instrument has been acquiring image-based data of volcanic eruptions around the world, including in the remote northern Pacific region. There have been more ASTER observations of Kamchatka volcanoes than any other location on the globe due mainly to an operational program put into place in 2004. Automated hot spot alarms from AVHRR data trigger ASTER acquisitions using the instrument's "rapid response" mode. Specifically for Kamchatka, this program has resulted in more than 700 additional ASTER images of the most thermally-active volcanoes (e.g., Shiveluch, Kliuchevskoi, Karymsky, Bezymianny). The scientific results from this program at these volcanoes will be highlighted. These results were strengthened by several field seasons used to map new products, collect samples for laboratory-based spectroscopy, and acquire TIR camera data. The fusion of ground, laboratory and space-based spectroscopy provided the most accurate interpretation of the eruptions and laid the ground work for future VSWIR/TIR sensors such as HyspIRI, which are a critically

  14. Remote sensing of thermal plumes at the Savannah River Plant in Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.R.; Christensen, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    The report describes a study undertaken to evaluate the utility of a remote sensing technique for measurement of thermal plumes in bodies of water such as the Savannah River. This relatively new technique, which involves aerial infrared sensing and computer analysis of the resulting data, has the potential for delineating thermal plume boundaries and determining compliance with regulatory limits for thermal discharges. Two sets of aerial infrared data were used in the evaluation. One set was taken from an elevation of 1220 meters at 5:44 a.m. on March 28, 1981; the other set of data was taken from an altitude of 3500 meters on April 3, 1981. The study shows that computer analysis of data taken at the lower altitude can yield useful information on thermal plumes in bodies of water. Data taken at the higher altitude did not have sufficient resolution for accurate analysis. This study shows clearly that thermal plumes in the Savannah River from SRP operations can be measured by remote sensing

  15. Stream temperature estimated in situ from thermal-infrared images: best estimate and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iezzi, F; Todisco, M T

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to show a technique to estimate in situ the stream temperature from thermal-infrared images deepening its best estimate and uncertainty. Stream temperature is an important indicator of water quality and nowadays its assessment is important particularly for thermal pollution monitoring in water bodies. Stream temperature changes are especially due to the anthropogenic heat input from urban wastewater and from water used as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. The stream temperatures assessment using ordinary techniques (e.g. appropriate thermometers) is limited by sparse sampling in space due to a spatial discretization necessarily punctual. Latest and most advanced techniques assess the stream temperature using thermal-infrared remote sensing based on thermal imagers placed usually on aircrafts or using satellite images. These techniques assess only the surface water temperature and they are suitable to detect the temperature of vast water bodies but do not allow a detailed and precise surface water temperature assessment in limited areas of the water body. The technique shown in this research is based on the assessment of thermal-infrared images obtained in situ via portable thermal imager. As in all thermographic techniques, also in this technique, it is possible to estimate only the surface water temperature. A stream with the presence of a discharge of urban wastewater is proposed as case study to validate the technique and to show its application limits. Since the technique analyzes limited areas in extension of the water body, it allows a detailed and precise assessment of the water temperature. In general, the punctual and average stream temperatures are respectively uncorrected and corrected. An appropriate statistical method that minimizes the errors in the average stream temperature is proposed. The correct measurement of this temperature through the assessment of thermal- infrared images obtained in situ via portable

  16. An assessment of radiance in Landsat TM middle and thermal infrared wavebands for the detection of tropical forest regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, D.S.; Foody, G.M.; Curran, P.J.; Lucas, R.M.; Honzak, M.

    1996-01-01

    It has been postulated that tropical forests regenerating after deforestation constitute an unmeasured terrestrial sink of atmospheric carbon, and that the strength of this sink is a function of regeneration stage. Such regeneration stages can be characterized by biophysical properties, such as leaf and wood biomass, which influence the radiance emitted and/or reflected from the forest canopy. Remotely sensed data can therefore be used to estimate these biophysical properties and thereby determine the forest regenerative stage. Studies conducted on temperate forests have related biophysical properties successfully with red and near-infrared radiance, particularly within the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). However, only weak correlations have generally been observed for tropical forests and it is suggested here that the relationship between forest biophysical properties and middle and thermal infrared radiance may be stronger than that between those properties and visible and near-infrared radiance.An assessment of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data revealed that radiance acquired in middle and thermal infrared wavebands contained significant information for the detection of regeneration stages in Amazonian tropical forests. It was demonstrated that tropical forest regeneration stages were most separable using middle infrared and thermal infrared wavebands and that the correlation with regeneration stage was stronger with middle infrared, thermal infrared or combinations of these wavebands than they were with visible, near infrared or combinations of these wavebands. For example, correlation coefficients increased from — 0·26 (insignificant at 95 per cent confidence level) when using the NDVI, to up to 0·93 (significant at 99 per cent confidence level) for a vegetation index containing data acquired in the middle and thermal infrared wavebands. These results point to the value of using data acquired in middle and thermal infrared wavebands for the

  17. Far-infrared spectroscopy of thermally annealed tungsten silicide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiotti, M.; Borghesi, A.; Guizzetti, G.; Nava, F.; Santoro, G.

    1991-01-01

    The far-infrared transmittance spectrum of tungsten silicide has been observed for the first time. WSi 2 polycrystalline films were prepared by coevaporation and chemical-vapour deposition on silicon wafers, and subsequently thermally annealed at different temperatures. The observed structures are interpreted, on the basis of the symmetry properties of the crystal, such as infrared-active vibrational modes. Moreover, the marked lineshape dependence on annealing temperature enables this technique to analyse the formation of the solid silicide phases

  18. Remote Sensing of Rock Type in the Visible and Near-Infrared,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visible and near-infrared spectra of minerals and rocks have been measured and evaluated in terms of remote sensing applications. The authors...difficult or impossible to use in a generalized remote sensing effort in which the composition of all rocks is to be mapped. Instead, this spectral

  19. Estimating the Infrared Radiation Wavelength Emitted by a Remote Control Device Using a Digital Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catelli, Francisco; Giovannini, Odilon; Bolzan, Vicente Dall Agnol

    2011-01-01

    The interference fringes produced by a diffraction grating illuminated with radiation from a TV remote control and a red laser beam are, simultaneously, captured by a digital camera. Based on an image with two interference patterns, an estimate of the infrared radiation wavelength emitted by a TV remote control is made. (Contains 4 figures.)

  20. Infrared difficulties with thermal quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandou, T.

    1997-01-01

    Reviewing briefly the two main difficulties encountered in thermal quantum field theories at finite temperature when dealing with the Braaten-Pisarski (BP) resummation program, the motivation is introduced of an analysis relying on the bare perturbation theory, right from the onset. (author)

  1. Characteristics of Turbulent Airflow Deduced from Rapid Surface Thermal Fluctuations: An Infrared Surface Anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzadeh, Milad; Breitenstein, Daniel; Or, Dani

    2017-12-01

    The intermittent nature of turbulent airflow interacting with the surface is readily observable in fluctuations of the surface temperature resulting from the thermal imprints of eddies sweeping the surface. Rapid infrared thermography has recently been used to quantify characteristics of the near-surface turbulent airflow interacting with the evaporating surfaces. We aim to extend this technique by using single-point rapid infrared measurements to quantify properties of a turbulent flow, including surface exchange processes, with a view towards the development of an infrared surface anemometer. The parameters for the surface-eddy renewal (α and β ) are inferred from infrared measurements of a single-point on the surface of a heat plate placed in a wind tunnel with prescribed wind speeds and constant mean temperatures of the surface. Thermally-deduced parameters are in agreement with values obtained from standard three-dimensional ultrasonic anemometer measurements close to the plate surface (e.g., α = 3 and β = 1/26 (ms)^{-1} for the infrared, and α = 3 and β = 1/19 (ms)^{-1} for the sonic-anemometer measurements). The infrared-based turbulence parameters provide new insights into the role of surface temperature and buoyancy on the inherent characteristics of interacting eddies. The link between the eddy-spectrum shape parameter α and the infrared window size representing the infrared field of view is investigated. The results resemble the effect of the sampling height above the ground in sonic anemometer measurements, which enables the detection of larger eddies with higher values of α . The physical basis and tests of the proposed method support the potential for remote quantification of the near-surface momentum field, as well as scalar-flux measurements in the immediate vicinity of the surface.

  2. Spectral characterization of surface emissivities in the thermal infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niclòs, Raquel; Mira, Maria; Valor, Enric; Caselles, Diego; García-Santos, Vicente; Caselles, Vicente; Sánchez, Juan M.

    2015-04-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing trends to hyperspectral sensors on board satellites in the last decades, e.g., the current EOS-MODIS and EOS-ASTER and future missions like HyspIRI, ECOSTRESS, THIRSTY and MISTIGRI. This study aims to characterize spectrally the emissive properties of several surfaces, mostly soils. A spectrometer ranging from 2 to 16 μm, D&P Model 102, has been used to measure samples with singular spectral features, e.g. a sandy soil rich in gypsum sampled in White Sands (New Mexico, USA), salt samples, powdered quartz, and powdered calcite. These samples were chosen for their role in the assessment of thermal emissivity of soils, e.g., the calcite and quartz contents are key variables for modeling TIR emissivities of bare soils, along with soil moisture and organic matter. Additionally, the existence of large areas in the world with abundance of these materials, some of them used for calibration/validation activities of satellite sensors and products, makes the chosen samples interesting. White Sands is the world's largest gypsum dune field encompassing 400 km^2; the salt samples characterize the Salar of Uyuni (Bolivia), the largest salt flat in the world (up to 10,000 km^2), as well as the Jordanian and Israeli salt evaporation ponds at the south end of the Dead Sea, or the evaporation lagoons in Aigües-Mortes (France); and quartz is omnipresent in most of the arid regions of the world such as the Algodones Dunes or Kelso Dunes (California, USA), with areas around 700 km2 and 120 km^2, respectively. Measurements of target leaving radiance, hemispherical radiance reflected by a diffuse reflectance panel, and the radiance from a black body at different temperatures were taken to obtain thermal spectra with the D&P spectrometer. The good consistency observed between our measurements and laboratory spectra of similar samples (ASTER and MODIS spectral libraries) indicated the validity of the measurement protocol. Further, our study showed the

  3. Sea surface temperature mapping using a thermal infrared scanner

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R; Pandya, R; Mathur, K.M.; Charyulu, R; Rao, L.V.G.

    1 metre water column below the sea surface. A thermal infrared scanner developed by the Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad was operated on board R.V. Gaveshani in April/May 1984 for mapping SST over the eastern Arabian Sea. SST values...

  4. Thermal infrared sensors for postharvest deficit irrigation of peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    California has been in a historic drought and the lack of water has been a major problem for agriculture especially for crops that depend on irrigation. A multi-year field study was carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of applying thermal infrared sensors for managing deficit irrigation in an ...

  5. Thermal remote sensing data for estimating evapotranspiration on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As an alternative to in-situ hydro -physical measurements, theoretical and computer-based models, a method that applies thermal infrared band (6) of Landsat TM data for the estimation of ET on a basin-wide scale is presented. Journal of Applied Science and Technology (JAST) , Vol. 5, Nos. 1 & 2, 2000, pp. 98 - 107 ...

  6. Infrared thermal imaging for automated detection of diabetic foot complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Liu, C.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Bus, Sicco A.

    Background: Although thermal imaging can be a valuable technology in the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease, it is not yet widely used in clinical practice. Technological advancement in infrared imaging increases its application range. The aim was to explore the first steps in the

  7. Infrared thermal imaging for automated detection of diabetic foot complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; Bus, Sicco A.

    2013-01-01

    Although thermal imaging can be a valuable technology in the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease, it is not yet widely used in clinical practice. Technological advancement in infrared imaging increases its application range. The aim was to explore the first steps in the applicability

  8. THERMAL AND VISIBLE SATELLITE IMAGE FUSION USING WAVELET IN REMOTE SENSING AND SATELLITE IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Ahrari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal remote sensing approach is based on merging different data in different portions of electromagnetic radiation that improves the accuracy in satellite image processing and interpretations. Remote Sensing Visible and thermal infrared bands independently contain valuable spatial and spectral information. Visible bands make enough information spatially and thermal makes more different radiometric and spectral information than visible. However low spatial resolution is the most important limitation in thermal infrared bands. Using satellite image fusion, it is possible to merge them as a single thermal image that contains high spectral and spatial information at the same time. The aim of this study is a performance assessment of thermal and visible image fusion quantitatively and qualitatively with wavelet transform and different filters. In this research, wavelet algorithm (Haar and different decomposition filters (mean.linear,ma,min and rand for thermal and panchromatic bands of Landast8 Satellite were applied as shortwave and longwave fusion method . Finally, quality assessment has been done with quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative parameters such as Entropy, Standard Deviation, Cross Correlation, Q Factor and Mutual Information were used. For thermal and visible image fusion accuracy assessment, all parameters (quantitative and qualitative must be analysed with respect to each other. Among all relevant statistical factors, correlation has the most meaningful result and similarity to the qualitative assessment. Results showed that mean and linear filters make better fused images against the other filters in Haar algorithm. Linear and mean filters have same performance and there is not any difference between their qualitative and quantitative results.

  9. BOOK REVIEW: Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd

    2011-09-01

    Ten years ago, a book with a title like this would be interesting only to a narrow circle of specialists. Thanks to rapid advances in technology, the price of thermal imaging devices has dropped sharply, so they have, almost overnight, become accessible to a wide range of users. As the authors point out in the preface, the growth of this area has led to a paradoxical situation: now there are probably more infrared (IR) cameras sold worldwide than there are people who understand the basic physics behind them and know how to correctly interpret the colourful images that are obtained with these devices. My experience confirms this. When I started using the IR camera during lectures on the didactics of physics, I soon realized that I needed more knowledge, which I later found in this book. A wide range of potential readers and topical areas provides a good motive for writing a book such as this one, but it also represents a major challenge for authors, as compromises in the style of writing and choice of topics are required. The authors of this book have successfully achieved this, and indeed done an excellent job. This book addresses a wide range of readers, from engineers, technicians, and physics and science teachers in schools and universities, to researchers and specialists who are professionally active in the field. As technology in this area has made great progress in recent times, this book is also a valuable guide for those who opt to purchase an infrared camera. Chapters in this book could be divided into three areas: the fundamentals of IR thermal imaging and related physics (two chapters); IR imaging systems and methods (two chapters) and applications, including six chapters on pedagogical applications; IR imaging of buildings and infrastructure, industrial applications, microsystems, selected topics in research and industry, and selected applications from other fields. All chapters contain numerous colour pictures and diagrams, and a rich list of relevant

  10. Remote Thermal Analysis Through the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malroy, Eric T.

    2002-07-01

    The Heater of the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) was modeled using SINDA/FLUINT thermal software. A description of the model is given. The project presented the opportunity of interfacing the thermal model with the Internet and was a demonstration that complex analysis is possible through the Internet. Some of the issues that need to be addressed related to interfacing software with the Internet are the following: justification for using the Internet, selection of the web server, choice of the CGI language, security of the system, communication among the parties, maintenance of state between web pages, and simultaneous users on the Internet system. The opportunities available for using the Internet for analysis are many and can present a significant jump in technology. This paper presents a vision how interfacing with the Internet could develop in the future. Using a separate Optical Internet (OI) for analysis, coupled with virtual reality analysis rooms (VRAR), could provide a synergistic environment to couple together engineering analysis within industry, academia, and government. The process of analysis could be broken down into sub-components so that specialization could occur resulting in superior quality, minimized cost and reduced time for engineering analysis and manufacturing. Some possible subcomponents of the system are solver routines, databases, Graphical User Interfaces, engineering design software, VRARs, computer processing, CAD systems, manufacturing, and a plethora of other options only limited by ones imagination. On a larger scope, the specialization of companies on the optical network would allow companies to rapidly construct and reconstruct their infrastructure based on changing economic conditions. This could transform business.

  11. Progress in Analysis to Remote Sensed Thermal Abnormity with Fault Activity and Seismogenic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Lixin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Research to the remote sensed thermal abnormity with fault activity and seismogenic process is a vital topic of the Earth observation and remote sensing application. It is presented that a systematic review on the international researches on the topic during the past 30 years, in the respects of remote sensing data applications, anomaly analysis methods, and mechanism understanding. Firstly, the outlines of remote sensing data applications are given including infrared brightness temperature, microwave brightness temperature, outgoing longwave radiation, and assimilated data from multiple earth observations. Secondly, three development phases are summarized as qualitative analysis based on visual interpretation, quantitative analysis based on image processing, and multi-parameter spatio-temporal correlation analysis. Thirdly, the theoretical hypotheses presented for the mechanism understanding are introduced including earth degassing, stress-induced heat, crustal rock battery conversion, latent heat release due to radon decay as well as multi-spheres coupling effect. Finally, three key directions of future research on this topic are proposed:anomaly recognizing by remote sensing monitoring and data analysis for typical tectonic activity areas; anomaly mechanism understanding based on earthquake-related earth system responses; spatio-temporal correlation analysis of air-based, space-based and ground-based stereoscopic observations.

  12. Remotely sensed thermal pollution and its relationship with energy consumption and industry in a rapidly urbanizing Chinese city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Huina; Zhao, Juanjuan; Qiu, Quanyi; Tapper, Nigel; Hua, Lizhong

    2013-01-01

    Taking the city of Xiamen, China, as an example, we used thermal infrared remote sensing to detect thermal pollution, and examined its relationship to energy consumption and the industrial economy. Monthly changes in 2002 and dynamics throughout the period of rapid urbanization (1987–2007) are analysed. It is found that seasonal variation led to distinct shapes and sizes of thermal pollution areas, and winter thermal pollution was highly indicative of industrial and energy transformation sources. Industrial enterprises were the dominant sources of winter thermal pollution in Xiamen. The number and ratio of industrial thermal pollution sources increased stably in the earlier years, and dramatically in the later period (2002–2007), attributable to the effects of China entering the World Trade Organization. Linear regression shows that the number of thermal pollution sources was strongly correlated with several factors of the industrial economy and energy consumption, including industrial outputs, industrial enterprise numbers, LPG and electricity. Related mitigation measures are also discussed. This research builds a link between remote sensing-detected thermal pollution information and statistical energy consumption data, as well as industrial economy statistics. It thereby enhances understanding of the relationship between urbanization, industrialization, energy consumption and related environmental effects. - Highlights: ► A method was provided for detecting thermal pollution through remote sensing. ► Seasonal dynamics and dynamics with the process of urbanization were examined. ► Winter thermal pollution is quite indicative of industrial energy consumption. ► Thermal pollution has high correlations with industrial economy and energy factors. ► It builds a link between remotely sensed thermal pollution and energy-economic data

  13. Uranyl soaps - thermal, electronic and infrared spectral study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanki, A.K.; Bhandari, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    The electronic and infrared spectra and TGA thermogram of uranyl soaps (laurate, mystrate, palmitate and stearate) have been studied. The environment about the UO 2+ 2 ion would comprise two 'short bite' bidentate carboxylate groups and oxygen atoms bridging from adjacent carboxylic molecules. The uranyl soaps have UO 2+ 2 vibronic absorption (approx. equal to 22730 cm -1 ) in the range found for eight coordinate uranyl complexes. The greater resistance to thermal degradation (approx. equal to 300 0 C) of these soaps and their stepwise thermal degradation infer strong metal-ligand interaction. (orig.) [de

  14. Thermal Design of a Protomodel Space Infrared Cryogenic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Suk Yang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Protomodel Space Infrared Cryogenic System (PSICS cooled by a stirling cryocooler has been designed. The PSICS has an IR sensor inside the cold box which is cooled by a stirling cryocooler with refrigeration capacity of 500mW at 80K in a vacuum vessel. It is important to minimize the heat load so that the background thermal noise can be reduced. In order to design the cryogenic system with low heat load and to reduce the remained heat load, we have performed numerical analyses. In this paper, we present the design factors and the results obtained by the thermal analysis of the PSICS.

  15. Waveguide resonances with selectable polarization in an infrared thermal emitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lun Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A multi-band infrared thermal emitter with polarized waveguide resonances was investigated. The device is constructed by embedding the metallic grating strips within the resonant cavity of a metal/dielectric/metal (MDM structure. The proposed arrangement makes it possible to generate waveguide resonances with mutually orthogonal polarization, thereby providing an additional degree of freedom to vary the resonant wavelengths and polarizations in the medium infrared region. The measured reflection spectra and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD simulation indicated that the electric fields of the waveguide modes with two orthogonal polarizations are distributed in different regions of the cavity. Resonant wavelengths in different polarizations can be adjusted by altering the period, the metallic line width, or the position of the embedded gold strips. The ratio of the full width at half maximum (FWHM to the peak wavelength was achieved to be smaller than 0.035. This study demonstrated a multi-band infrared thermal emission featuring a narrow bandwidth and polarization characteristics, which is quite suitable to be applied to the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR detection system.

  16. Thermal imaging method to visualize a hidden painting thermally excited by far infrared radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, T.; Wang, X.; Chabane, A.; Pawelko, R.; Guida, G.; Serio, B.; Hervé, P.

    2015-06-01

    The diagnosis of hidden painting is a major issue for cultural heritage. In this paper, a non-destructive active infrared thermographic technique was considered to reveal paintings covered by a lime layer. An extended infrared spectral range radiation was used as the excitation source. The external long wave infrared energy source delivered to the surface is then propagated through the material until it encounters a painting zone. Due to several thermal effects, the sample surface then presents non-uniformity patterns. Using a high sensitive infrared camera, the presence of covered pigments can thus be highlighted by the analysis of the non-stationary phenomena. Reconstituted thermal contrast images of mural samples covered by a lime layer are shown.

  17. Optical/Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Picard, R. H; Dewan, E. M; Winick, J. R; O'Neil, R. R

    2007-01-01

    ... (mesosphere and thermosphere) in terms of the structure of the underlying medium. Advances in non-LTE radiative transfer and atmospheric waves and localized excitations are detailed, as well as analysis and modeling of the databases resulting from two groundbreaking space infrared experiments, DoD MSX/SPIRIT III and NASA TIMED/SABER.

  18. The Use of Thermal Remote Sensing to Study Thermodynamics of Ecosystem Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Doug L.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Thermal remote sensing can provide environmental measuring tools with capabilities for measuring ecosystem development and integrity. Recent advances in applying principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics to ecology provide fundamental insights into energy partitioning in ecosystems. Ecosystems are nonequilibrium systems, open to material and energy flows, which grow and develop structures and processes to increase energy degradation. More developed terrestrial ecosystems will be more effective at dissipating the solar gradient (degrading its energy content). This can be measured by the effective surface temperature of the ecosystem on a landscape scale. A series of airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner data were collected from several forested ecosystems ranging from a western US douglas-fir forest to a tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. These data were used to develop measures of ecosystem development and integrity based on surface temperature.

  19. Shape memory nanocomposite of poly(L-lactic acid/graphene nanoplatelets triggered by infrared light and thermal heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lashgari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs on the shape memory properties of poly(L-lactic acid (PLLA was studied. In addition to thermal activation, the possibility of infrared actuating of thermo-responsive shape memory PLLA/GNPs nanocomposite was investigated. The incorporated GNPs were expected to absorb infrared wave’s energy and activate shape memory PLLA/GNPs. Different techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD, field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA were used to characterize samples. DSC and WAXD results indicated that GNPs augmented crystallinity due to nucleating effect of graphene particles. GNPs improved both thermal and infrared activating shape memory properties along with faster response. Pure shape memory PLLA was slightly responsive to infrared light and its infrared actuated shape recovery ratio was 86% which increased to more than 95% with loading of GNPs. Drastic improvement in the crystallinity was obtained in nanocomposites with lower GNPs contents (0.5 and 1 wt% due to finer dispersion of graphene which resulted in more prominent mechanical and shape memory properties enhancement. Infrared activated shape memory PLLA/GNPs nanocomposites can be developed for wireless remote shape control of smart medical and bio-systems.

  20. The Thermal Infrared Sensor onboard NASA's Mars 2020 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, G.; Perez-Izquierdo, J.; Sebastian, E.; Ramos, M.; Bravo, A.; Mazo, M.; Rodriguez-Manfredi, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Mars 2020 rover mission is scheduled for launch in July/August 2020 and will address key questions about the potential for life on Mars. The Mars Environmental Dynamics Analyzer (MEDA) is one of the seven instruments onboard the rover [1] and has been designed to assess the environmental conditions across the rover traverse. MEDA will extend the current record of in-situ meteorological measurements at the surface [2] to other locations on Mars. The Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS) [3] is one of the six sensors comprising MEDA. TIRS will use three downward-looking channels to measure (1) the surface skin temperature (with high heritage from the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station onboard the Mars Science Laboratory mission [4]), (2) the upwelling thermal infrared radiation from the surface and (3) the reflected solar radiation at the surface, and two upward-looking channels to measure the (4) downwelling thermal infrared radiation at the surface and (5) the atmospheric temperature. In combination with other MEDA's sensors, TIRS will allow the quantification of the surface energy budget [5] and the determination of key geophysical properties of the terrain such as the albedo and thermal inertia with an unprecedented spatial resolution. Here we present a general description of the TIRS, with focus on its scientific requirements and results from field campaigns showing the performance of the different channels. References:[1] Rodríguez-Manfredi, J. A. et al. (2014), MEDA: An environmental and meteorological package for Mars 2020, LPSC, 45, 2837. [2] Martínez, G.M. et al. (2017), The Modern Near-Surface Martian Climate: A Review of In-situ Meteorological Data from Viking to Curiosity, Space Science Reviews, 1-44. [3] Pérez-Izquierdo, J. et al. (2017), The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) of the Mars Environmental Dynamics Analyzer (MEDA) Instrument onboard Mars 2020, IEEE. [4] Sebastián, E. et al. (2010), The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground

  1. Synegies Between Visible/Near-Infrared Imaging Spectrometry and the Thermal Infrared in an Urban Environment: An Evaluation of the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HYSPIRI) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dar A.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Hulley, Glynn C.; Hook, Simon J.; Green, Robert O.

    2012-01-01

    A majority of the human population lives in urban areas and as such, the quality of urban environments is becoming increasingly important to the human population. Furthermore, these areas are major sources of environmental contaminants and sinks of energy and materials. Remote sensing provides an improved understanding of urban areas and their impacts by mapping urban extent, urban composition (vegetation and impervious cover fractions), and urban radiation balance through measures of albedo, emissivity and land surface temperature (LST). Recently, the National Research Council (NRC) completed an assessment of remote sensing needs for the next decade (NRC, 2007), proposing several missions suitable for urban studies, including a visible, near-infrared and shortwave infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectrometer and a multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) instrument called the Hyperspectral Infrared Imagery (HyspIRI). In this talk, we introduce the HyspIRI mission, focusing on potential synergies between VSWIR and TIR data in an urban area. We evaluate potential synergies using an Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and MODIS-ASTER (MASTER) image pair acquired over Santa Barbara, United States. AVIRIS data were analyzed at their native spatial resolutions (7.5m VSWIR and 15m TIR), and aggregated 60 m spatial resolution similar to HyspIRI. Surface reflectance was calculated using ACORN and a ground reflectance target to remove atmospheric and sensor artifacts. MASTER data were processed to generate estimates of spectral emissivity and LST using Modtran radiative transfer code and the ASTER Temperature Emissivity Separation algorithm. A spectral library of common urban materials, including urban vegetation, roofs and roads was assembled from combined AVIRIS and field-measured reflectance spectra. LST and emissivity were also retrieved from MASTER and reflectance/emissivity spectra for a subset of urban materials were retrieved from co-located MASTER and

  2. Modeling of aircraft exhaust emissions and infrared spectra for remote measurement of nitrogen oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Beier

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR molecular spectroscopy is proposed to perform remote measurements of NOx concentrations in the exhaust plume and wake of aircraft. The computer model NIRATAM is applied to simulate the physical and chemical properties of the exhaust plume and to generate low resolution IR spectra and synthetical thermal images of the aircraft in its natural surroundings. High-resolution IR spectra of the plume, including atmospheric absorption and emission, are simulated using the molecular line-by-line radiation model FASCODE2. Simulated IR spectra of a Boeing 747-400 at cruising altitude for different axial and radial positions in the jet region of the exhaust plume are presented. A number of spectral lines of NO can be identified that can be discriminated from lines of other exhaust gases and the natural atmospheric background in the region around 5.2 µm. These lines can be used to determine NO concentration profiles in the plume. The possibility of measuring nitrogen dioxide NO2 is also discussed briefly, although measurements turn out to be substantially less likely than those of NO. This feasibility study compiles fundamental data for the optical and radiometric design of an airborne Fourier transform spectrometer and the preparation of in-flight measurements for monitoring of aircraft pollutants.

  3. Modeling of aircraft exhaust emissions and infrared spectra for remote measurement of nitrogen oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Beier

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR molecular spectroscopy is proposed to perform remote measurements of NOx concentrations in the exhaust plume and wake of aircraft. The computer model NIRATAM is applied to simulate the physical and chemical properties of the exhaust plume and to generate low resolution IR spectra and synthetical thermal images of the aircraft in its natural surroundings. High-resolution IR spectra of the plume, including atmospheric absorption and emission, are simulated using the molecular line-by-line radiation model FASCODE2. Simulated IR spectra of a Boeing 747-400 at cruising altitude for different axial and radial positions in the jet region of the exhaust plume are presented. A number of spectral lines of NO can be identified that can be discriminated from lines of other exhaust gases and the natural atmospheric background in the region around 5.2 µm. These lines can be used to determine NO concentration profiles in the plume. The possibility of measuring nitrogen dioxide NO2 is also discussed briefly, although measurements turn out to be substantially less likely than those of NO. This feasibility study compiles fundamental data for the optical and radiometric design of an airborne Fourier transform spectrometer and the preparation of in-flight measurements for monitoring of aircraft pollutants.

  4. Human ear detection in the thermal infrared spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaza, Ayman; Bourlai, Thirimachos

    2012-06-01

    In this paper the problem of human ear detection in the thermal infrared (IR) spectrum is studied in order to illustrate the advantages and limitations of the most important steps of ear-based biometrics that can operate in day and night time environments. The main contributions of this work are two-fold: First, a dual-band database is assembled that consists of visible and thermal profile face images. The thermal data was collected using a high definition middle-wave infrared (3-5 microns) camera that is capable of acquiring thermal imprints of human skin. Second, a fully automated, thermal imaging based ear detection method is developed for real-time segmentation of human ears in either day or night time environments. The proposed method is based on Haar features forming a cascaded AdaBoost classifier (our modified version of the original Viola-Jones approach1 that was designed to be applied mainly in visible band images). The main advantage of the proposed method, applied on our profile face image data set collected in the thermal-band, is that it is designed to reduce the learning time required by the original Viola-Jones method from several weeks to several hours. Unlike other approaches reported in the literature, which have been tested but not designed to operate in the thermal band, our method yields a high detection accuracy that reaches ~ 91.5%. Further analysis on our data set yielded that: (a) photometric normalization techniques do not directly improve ear detection performance. However, when using a certain photometric normalization technique (CLAHE) on falsely detected images, the detection rate improved by ~ 4%; (b) the high detection accuracy of our method did not degrade when we lowered down the original spatial resolution of thermal ear images. For example, even after using one third of the original spatial resolution (i.e. ~ 20% of the original computational time) of the thermal profile face images, the high ear detection accuracy of our method

  5. Infrared Thermal Signature Evaluation of a Pure and Saline Ice for Marine Operations in Cold Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimur Rashid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine operations in cold climates are subjected to abundant ice accretion, which can lead to heavy ice loads over larger surface area. For safe and adequate operations on marine vessels over a larger area, remote ice detection and ice mitigation system can be useful. To study this remote ice detection option, lab experimentation was performed to detect the thermal gradient of ice with the infrared camera. Two different samples of ice blocks were prepared from tap water and saline water collected from the North Atlantic Ocean stream. The surfaces of ice samples were observed at room temperature. A complete thermal signature over the surface area was detected and recorded until the meltdown process was completed. Different temperature profiles for saline and pure ice samples were observed, which were kept under similar conditions. This article is focused to understand the experimentation methodology and thermal signatures of samples. However, challenges remains in terms of the validation of the detection signature and elimination of false detection.

  6. Remote observations of eruptive clouds and surface thermal activity during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, P. W.; Lopez, T. M.; Ekstrand, A. L.; Dean, K. G.; Rinkleff, P.; Dehn, J.; Cahill, C. F.; Wessels, R. L.; Bailey, J. E.; Izbekov, P.; Worden, A.

    2013-06-01

    Volcanoes often erupt explosively and generate a variety of hazards including volcanic ash clouds and gaseous plumes. These clouds and plumes are a significant hazard to the aviation industry and the ground features can be a major hazard to local communities. Here, we provide a chronology of the 2009 Redoubt Volcano eruption using frequent, low spatial resolution thermal infrared (TIR), mid-infrared (MIR) and ultraviolet (UV) satellite remote sensing data. The first explosion of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano occurred on March 15, 2009 (UTC) and was followed by a series of magmatic explosive events starting on March 23 (UTC). From March 23-April 4 2009, satellites imaged at least 19 separate explosive events that sent ash clouds up to 18 km above sea level (ASL) that dispersed ash across the Cook Inlet region. In this manuscript, we provide an overview of the ash clouds and plumes from the 19 explosive events, detailing their cloud-top heights and discussing the variations in infrared absorption signals. We show that the timing of the TIR data relative to the event end time was critical for inferring the TIR derived height and true cloud top height. The ash clouds were high in water content, likely in the form of ice, which masked the negative TIR brightness temperature difference (BTD) signal typically used for volcanic ash detection. The analysis shown here illustrates the utility of remote sensing data during volcanic crises to measure critical real-time parameters, such as cloud-top heights, changes in ground-based thermal activity, and plume/cloud location.

  7. Infrared thermal imaging for automated detection of diabetic foot complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Netten, Jaap J; van Baal, Jeff G; Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; Bus, Sicco A

    2013-09-01

    Although thermal imaging can be a valuable technology in the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease, it is not yet widely used in clinical practice. Technological advancement in infrared imaging increases its application range. The aim was to explore the first steps in the applicability of high-resolution infrared thermal imaging for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease. The plantar foot surfaces of 15 diabetes patients were imaged with an infrared camera (resolution, 1.2 mm/pixel): 5 patients had no visible signs of foot complications, 5 patients had local complications (e.g., abundant callus or neuropathic ulcer), and 5 patients had diffuse complications (e.g., Charcot foot, infected ulcer, or critical ischemia). Foot temperature was calculated as mean temperature across pixels for the whole foot and for specified regions of interest (ROIs). No differences in mean temperature >1.5 °C between the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were found in patients without complications. In patients with local complications, mean temperatures of the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were similar, but temperature at the ROI was >2 °C higher compared with the corresponding region in the contralateral foot and to the mean of the whole ipsilateral foot. In patients with diffuse complications, mean temperature differences of >3 °C between ipsilateral and contralateral foot were found. With an algorithm based on parameters that can be captured and analyzed with a high-resolution infrared camera and a computer, it is possible to detect signs of diabetic foot disease and to discriminate between no, local, or diffuse diabetic foot complications. As such, an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease is one step closer. Future studies are essential to confirm and extend these promising early findings. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  8. Thermal Remote Sensing with Uav-Based Workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, R.

    2017-08-01

    Climate change will have a significant influence on vegetation health and growth. Predictions of higher mean summer temperatures and prolonged summer draughts may pose a threat to agriculture areas and forest canopies. Rising canopy temperatures can be an indicator of plant stress because of the closure of stomata and a decrease in the transpiration rate. Thermal cameras are available for decades, but still often used for single image analysis, only in oblique view manner or with visual evaluations of video sequences. Therefore remote sensing using a thermal camera can be an important data source to understand transpiration processes. Photogrammetric workflows allow to process thermal images similar to RGB data. But low spatial resolution of thermal cameras, significant optical distortion and typically low contrast require an adapted workflow. Temperature distribution in forest canopies is typically completely unknown and less distinct than for urban or industrial areas, where metal constructions and surfaces yield high contrast and sharp edge information. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of interior camera orientation, tie point matching and ground control points on the resulting accuracy of bundle adjustment and dense cloud generation with a typically used photogrammetric workflow for UAVbased thermal imagery in natural environments.

  9. Urban thermal environment and its biophysical parameters derived from satellite remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.; Savastru, Dan M.; Tautan, Marina N.; Baschir, Laurentiu V.

    2013-10-01

    In frame of global warming, the field of urbanization and urban thermal environment are important issues among scientists all over the world. This paper investigated the influences of urbanization on urban thermal environment as well as the relationships of thermal characteristics to other biophysical variables in Bucharest metropolitan area of Romania based on satellite remote sensing imagery Landsat TM/ETM+, time series MODIS Terra/Aqua data and IKONOS acquired during 1990 - 2012 period. Vegetation abundances and percent impervious surfaces were derived by means of linear spectral mixture model, and a method for effectively enhancing impervious surface has been developed to accurately examine the urban growth. The land surface temperature (Ts), a key parameter for urban thermal characteristics analysis, was also retrieved from thermal infrared band of Landsat TM/ETM+, from MODIS Terra/Aqua datasets. Based on these parameters, the urban growth, urban heat island effect (UHI) and the relationships of Ts to other biophysical parameters have been analyzed. Results indicated that the metropolitan area ratio of impervious surface in Bucharest increased significantly during two decades investigated period, the intensity of urban heat island and heat wave events being most significant. The correlation analyses revealed that, at the pixel-scale, Ts possessed a strong positive correlation with percent impervious surfaces and negative correlation with vegetation abundances at the regional scale, respectively. This analysis provided an integrated research scheme and the findings can be very useful for urban ecosystem modeling.

  10. Thermal noise in mid-infrared broadband upconversion detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barh, Ajanta; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Low noise detection with state-of-the-art mid-infrared (MIR) detectors (e.g., PbS, PbSe, InSb, HgCdTe) is a primary challenge owing to the intrinsic thermal background radiation of the low bandgap detector material itself. However, researchers have employed frequency upconversion based detectors...... of the noise-equivalent power of an UCD system. In this article, we rigorously analyze the optical power generated by frequency upconversion of the intrinsic black-body radiation in the nonlinear material itself due to the crystals residual emissivity, i.e. absorption. The thermal radiation is particularly...... prominent at the optical absorption edge of the nonlinear material even at room temperature. We consider a conventional periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) based MIR-UCD for the investigation. The UCD is designed to cover a broad spectral range, overlapping with the entire absorption edge of the PPLN...

  11. Ground-based infrared surveys: imaging the thermal fields at volcanoes and revealing the controlling parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, Michele; Walter, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Temperature monitoring is a widespread procedure in the frame of volcano hazard monitoring. Indeed temperature changes are expected to reflect changes in volcanic activity. We propose a new approach, within the thermal monitoring, which is meant to shed light on the parameters controlling the fluid pathways and the fumarole sites by using infrared measurements. Ground-based infrared cameras allow one to remotely image the spatial distribution, geometric pattern and amplitude of fumarole fields on volcanoes at metre to centimetre resolution. Infrared mosaics and time series are generated and interpreted, by integrating geological field observations and modeling, to define the setting of the volcanic degassing system at shallow level. We present results for different volcano morphologies and show that lithology, structures and topography control the appearance of fumarole field by the creation of permeability contrasts. We also show that the relative importance of those parameters is site-dependent. Deciphering the setting of the degassing system is essential for hazard assessment studies because it would improve our understanding on how the system responds to endogenous or exogenous modification.

  12. Development of an Infrared Remote Sensing System for Continuous Monitoring of Stromboli Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harig, R.; Burton, M.; Rausch, P.; Jordan, M.; Gorgas, J.; Gerhard, J.

    2009-04-01

    In order to monitor gases emitted by Stromboli volcano in the Eolian archipelago, Italy, a remote sensing system based on Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy has been developed and installed on the summit of Stromboli volcano. Hot rocks and lava are used as sources of infrared radiation. The system is based on an interferometer with a single detector element in combination with an azimuth-elevation scanning mirror system. The mirror system is used to align the field of view of the instrument. In addition, the system is equipped with an infrared camera. Two basic modes of operation have been implemented: The user may use the infrared image to align the system to a vent that is to be examined. In addition, the scanning system may be used for (hyperspectral) imaging of the scene. In this mode, the scanning mirror is set sequentially move to all positions within a region of interest which is defined by the operator using the image generated from the infrared camera. The spectral range used for the measurements is 1600 - 4200 cm-1 allowing the quantification of many gases such as CO, CO2, SO2, and HCl. The spectral resolution is 0.5 cm-1. In order to protect the optical, mechanical and electrical parts of the system from the volcanic gases, all components are contained in a gas-tight aluminium housing. The system is controlled via TCP/IP (data transfer by WLAN), allowing the user to operate it from a remote PC. The infrared image of the scene and measured spectra are transferred to and displayed by a remote PC at INGV or TUHH in real-time. However, the system is capable of autonomous operation on the volcano, once a measurement has been started. Measurements are stored by an internal embedded PC.

  13. Thermal Remote Sensing: A Powerful Tool in the Characterization of Landscapes on a Functional Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Luvall C.; Kay, James; Fraser, Roydon

    1999-01-01

    Thermal remote sensing instruments can function as environmental measuring tools, with capabilities leading toward new directions in functional landscape ecology. Theoretical deduction and phenomenological observation leads us to believe that the second law of thermodynamics requires that all dynamically systems develop in a manner which dissipates gradients as rapidly as possible within the constraints of the system at hand. The ramification of this requirement is that dynamical systems will evolve dissipative structures which grow and complexify over time. This perspective has allowed us to develop a framework for discussing ecosystem development and integrity. In the context of this framework we have developed measures of development and integrity for ecosystems. One set of these measures is based on destruction of the exergy content of incoming solar energy. More developed ecosystems will be more effective at dissipating the solar gradient (destroying its exergy content). This can be measured by the effective surface temperature of the ecosystem on a landscape scale. These surface temperatures are measured using airborne thermal scanners such as the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) and the Airborne Thermal/Visible Land Application Sensor(ATLAS) sensors. An analysis of agriculture and forest ecosystems will be used to illustrate the concept of ecological thermodynamics and the development of ecosystems.

  14. Satellite infrared imagery for thermal plume contamination monitoring in coastal ecosystem of Cernavoda NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, M. A.; Zoran, Liviu Florin V.; Dida, Adrian I.

    2017-10-01

    Satellite remote sensing is an important tool for spatio-temporal analysis and surveillance of NPP environment, thermal heat waste of waters being a major concern in many coastal ecosystems involving nuclear power plants. As a test case the adopted methodology was applied for 700x2 MW Cernavoda nuclear power plant (NPP) located in the South-Eastern part of Romania, which discharges warm water affecting coastal ecology. The thermal plume signatures in the NPP hydrological system have been investigated based on TIR (Thermal Infrared) spectral bands of NOAA AVHRR, Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI, and MODIS Terra/Aqua time series satellite data during 1990-2016 period. If NOAA AVHRR data proved the general pattern and extension of the thermal plume signature in Danube river and Black Sea coastal areas, Landsat TM/ETM and MODIS data used for WST (Water Surface Temperature) change detection, mapping and monitoring provided enhanced information about the plume shape, dimension and direction of dispersion in these waters. Thermal discharge from two nuclear reactors cooling is dissipated as waste heat in Danube-Black -Sea Channel and Danube River. From time-series analysis of satellite data during period 1990-2016 was found that during the winter season thermal plume was localized to an area of a few km of NPP, and the mean temperature difference between the plume and non-plume areas was about 1.7 oC. During summer and fall, derived mean temperature difference between the plume and non-plume areas was of about 1.3°C and thermal plume area was extended up to 5- 10 km far along Danube Black Sea Channel.

  15. ATTIRE (analytical tools for thermal infrared engineering): A sensor simulation and modeling package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Sensor Development Laboratory (ASDL) at the Stennis Space Center develops, maintains and calibrates remote sensing instruments for the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA). To perform system design trade-offs, analysis, and establish system parameters, ASDL has developed a software package for analytical simulation of sensor systems. This package called 'Analytical Tools for Thermal InfraRed Engineering' - ATTIRE, simulates the various components of a sensor system. The software allows each subsystem of the sensor to be analyzed independently for its performance. These performance parameters are then integrated to obtain system level information such as Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Noise Equivalent Radiance (NER), Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) etc. This paper describes the uses of the package and the physics that were used to derive the performance parameters.

  16. PHyTIR - A Prototype Thermal Infrared Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jau, Bruno M.; Hook, Simon J.; Johnson, William R.; Foote, Marc C.; Paine, Christopher G.; Pannell, Zack W.; Smythe, Robert F.; Kuan, Gary M.; Jakoboski, Julie K.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the PHyTIR (Prototype HyspIRI Thermal Infrared Radiometer) instrument, which is the engineering model for the proposed HyspIRI (Hyperspectral Infrared Imager) earth observing instrument. The HyspIRI mission would be comprised of the HyspIRI TIR (Thermal Infrared Imager), and a VSWIR (Visible Short-Wave Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer). Both instruments would be used to address key science questions related to the earth's carbon cycle, ecosystems, climate, and solid earth properties. Data gathering of volcanic activities, earthquakes, wildfires, water use and availability, urbanization, and land surface compositions and changes, would aid the predictions and evaluations of such events and the impact they create. Even though the proposed technology for the HyspIRI imager is mature, the PHyTIR prototype is needed to advance the technology levels for several of the instrument's key components, and to reduce risks, in particular to validate 1) the higher sensitivity, spatial resolution, and higher throughput required for this focal plane array, 2) the pointing accuracy, 2) the characteristics of several spectral channels, and 4) the use of ambient temperature optics. The PHyTIR telescope consists of the focal plane assembly that is housed within a cold housing located inside a vacuum enclosure; all mounted to a bulkhead, and an optical train that consists of 3 powered mirrors; extending to both sides of the bulkhead. A yoke connects the telescope to a scan mirror. The rotating mirror enables to scan- a large track on the ground. This structure is supported by kinematic mounts, linking the telescope assembly to a base plate that would also become the spacecraft interface for HyspIRI. The focal plane's cooling units are also mounted to the base plate, as is an overall enclosure that has two viewing ports with large exterior baffles, shielding the focal plane from incoming stray light. PHyTIR's electronics is distributed inside and near the vacuum

  17. Use of a remote infrared thermography in experimental medicine at extreme influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datsenko A.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents an analysis of published data on the use of remote infrared thermography in medicine and veterinary science and evaluated the main opportunities, methods and ways of thermovision registration in experimental medical studies on biological objects, including at extreme influences. The following resources of the bibliographic electronic databases had been used: eLibrary, PubMed, Clinical Key, Science. Now methods of infrared thermography in insufficient degree are used in experimental medicine, including when studying adverse biological effect of various harmful and dangerous extreme factors, which main manifestation, especially in the early period after exposure, are systemic microvascular disorders, determining the state of capacity of human biomodels. These dynamic remote ther-mographic studies of experimental biological objects can be used to evaluate disorders of the peripheral circulation, working capacity and an emotional condition of the biomodels exposed to extreme factors, including early after experimental studies in laboratory and field work.

  18. Looking Forward - A Next Generation of Thermal Infrared Planetary Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P. R.; Hamilton, V. E.; Edwards, C. S.; Spencer, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal infrared measurements have provided important information about the physical properties of planetary surfaces beginning with the initial Mariner spacecraft in the early 1960's. These infrared measurements will continue into the future with a series of instruments that are now on their way or in development that will explore a suite of asteroids, Europa, and Mars. These instruments are being developed at Arizona State University, and are next-generation versions of the TES, Mini-TES, and THEMIS infrared spectrometers and imagers. The OTES instrument on OSIRIS-REx, which was launched in Sept. 2016, will map the surface of the asteroid Bennu down to a resolution of 40 m/pixel at seven times of day. This multiple time of day coverage will be used to produce global thermal inertia maps that will be used to determine the particle size distribution, which will in turn help select a safe and appropriate sample site. The EMIRS instrument, which is being built in partnership with the UAE's MBRSC for the Emirates Mars Mission, will measure martian surface temperatures at 200-300 km/pixel scales at over the full diurnal cycle - the first time the full diurnal temperature cycle has been observed since the Viking mission. The E-THEMIS instrument on the Europa Clipper mission will provide global mapping at 5-10 km/pixel scale at multiple times of day, and local observations down to resolutions of 50 m/pixel. These measurements will have a precision of 0.2 K for a 90 K scene, and will be used to map the thermal inertia and block abundances across Europa and to identify areas of localized endogenic heat. These observations will be used to investigate the physical processes of surface formation and evolution and to help select the landing site of a future Europa lander. Finally, the LTES instrument on the Lucy mission will measure temperatures on the day and night sides of the target Trojan asteroids, again providing insights into their surface properties and evolution

  19. Soil water content and evaporation determined by thermal parameters obtained from ground-based and remote measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Vedder, J. F.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Soil water contents from both smooth and rough bare soil were estimated from remotely sensed surface soil and air temperatures. An inverse relationship between two thermal parameters and gravimetric soil water content was found for Avondale loam when its water content was between air-dry and field capacity. These parameters, daily maximum minus minimum surface soil temperature and daily maximum soil minus air temperature, appear to describe the relationship reasonably well. These two parameters also describe relative soil water evaporation (actual/potential). Surface soil temperatures showed good agreement among three measurement techniques: in situ thermocouples, a ground-based infrared radiation thermometer, and the thermal infrared band of an airborne multispectral scanner.

  20. Laboratory Thermal Infrared and Visible to Near-Infrared Spectral Analysis of Chert

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. L.; Hamilton, V. E.

    2007-12-01

    Though basaltic materials dominate the composition of the Martian surface, a material with a relatively high silica component in an area of Eos Chasma was reported by [1] from thermal infrared (TIR) data. The spectrum of the silica phase resembles quartz or chert, but with the existing information it is difficult to tell which phase best fits the observations. Though quartz, chert, and amorphous silica are chemically identical (SiO2), their physical differences (e.g., microstructures) result in different TIR spectral characteristics. Previous studies have analyzed a limited number of chert samples using emission infrared spectroscopy [2] and transmission infrared spectroscopy [3]. We continue these preliminary studies with an investigation aiming to more completely understand and document the variation in spectral character of cherts. This knowledge may help to identify the silica phase in Eos Chasma and any future discoveries. Our study includes a more extensive sampling of geologic chert in hand sample (>15 samples) with various sources, methods of formation, surface textures, and crystallinities. We analyzed their visible to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra, as well as spectral features in TIR emission spectra. We measured multiple locations on each sample to determine spectral homogeneity across the sample and between various orientations. Where possible, natural, cut, and recently fractured surfaces were measured. We compared the collected TIR spectra for similarities and differences in shape and spectral contrast within each sample and between samples that may relate to variations in the samples' structure (e.g. crystallinity, and surface texture). VNIR measurements show features indicative of non-silica phases and water that may be present in the cherts. [1] Hamilton, V.E. (2005) Eos Trans. AGU, Fall Meeting Suppl., Abstract P24A-08. [2] Michalski, J.R. (2005) PhD Diss., ASU, Tempe. [3] Long, D. G. et al. (2001) Canadian Archaeological Assoc., 33rd

  1. Vacuum Radiance-Temperature Standard Facility for Infrared Remote Sensing at NIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, X. P.; Song, J.; Xu, M.; Sun, J. P.; Gong, L. Y.; Yuan, Z. D.; Lu, X. F.

    2018-06-01

    As infrared remote sensors are very important parts of Earth observation satellites, they must be calibrated based on the radiance temperature of a blackbody in a vacuum chamber prior to launch. The uncertainty of such temperature is thus an essential component of the sensors' uncertainty. This paper describes the vacuum radiance-temperature standard facility (VRTSF) at the National Institute of Metrology of China, which will serve to calibrate infrared remote sensors on Chinese meteorological satellites. The VRTSF can be used to calibrate vacuum blackbody radiance temperature, including those used to calibrate infrared remote sensors. The components of the VRTSF are described in this paper, including the VMTBB, the LNBB, the FTIR spectrometer, the reduced-background optical system, the vacuum chamber used to calibrate customers' blackbody, the vacuum-pumping system and the liquid-nitrogen-support system. The experimental methods and results are expounded. The uncertainty of the radiance temperature of VMTBB is 0.026 °C at 30 °C over 10 μm.

  2. Groundwater discharge mapping at Altnabreac by thermal infrared linescan surveying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, N.R.; Hall, D.H.

    1983-07-01

    A thermal infra-red linescan survey has been carried out of the area around Altnabreac, Caithness. The objectives of the survey were: to assess the applicability of the technique to the location of springs discharging from peat covered crystalline rocks; to provide the locations of springs for a subsequent geochemical sampling programme; and to gain clearer understanding of the ground water circulation patterns in the area. The number and distribution of springs located by the survey has proved to be far greater than had been previously anticipated and the capabilities of the technique have been clearly demonstrated. The results, together with other geochemical and hydrogeological data, indicate that the majority of the springs represent near surface recent groundwaters circulating within the moraine deposits and weathered granite. (author)

  3. Longwave thermal infrared spectral variability in individual rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balick, Lee K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gillespie, Alan [UN. WASHINGTON; French, Andrew [USDA-ARS; Danilina, Iryna [UN. WASHINGTON

    2008-01-01

    A hyperspectral imaging spectrometer measuring in the longwave thermal infrared (7.6-11.6 {micro}m) with a spatial resolution less than 4 mm was used in the field to observe the variability of emissivity spectra within individual rocks. The rocks were obtained commercially, were on the order of 20 cm in size and were selected to have distinct spectral features: they include alabaster (gypsum), soapstone (steatite with talc), obsidian (volcanic glass), norite (plagioclase and orthopyroxene), and 'jasper' (silica with iron oxides). The advantages of using an imaging spectrometer to spectrally characterize these rocks are apparent. Large spectral variations were observed within individual rocks that may be attributed to roughness, surface geometry, and compositional variation. Non-imaging spectrometers would normally miss these variations as would small samples used in laboratory measurements, spatially averaged spectra can miss the optimum spectra for identification materials and spatially localized components of the rock can be obscured.

  4. Unmanned Ground Vehicle Perception Using Thermal Infrared Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry; Bajracharya, Max; Assad, Christopher; Brennan, Shane; Bellutta, Paolo; Sherwin, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to perform off-road autonomous navigation at any time of day or night is a requirement for some unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) programs. Because there are times when it is desirable for military UGVs to operate without emitting strong, detectable electromagnetic signals, a passive only terrain perception mode of operation is also often a requirement. Thermal infrared (TIR) cameras can be used to provide day and night passive terrain perception. TIR cameras have a detector sensitive to either mid-wave infrared (MWIR) radiation (3-5?m) or long-wave infrared (LWIR) radiation (8-12?m). With the recent emergence of high-quality uncooled LWIR cameras, TIR cameras have become viable passive perception options for some UGV programs. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has used a stereo pair of TIR cameras under several UGV programs to perform stereo ranging, terrain mapping, tree-trunk detection, pedestrian detection, negative obstacle detection, and water detection based on object reflections. In addition, we have evaluated stereo range data at a variety of UGV speeds, evaluated dual-band TIR classification of soil, vegetation, and rock terrain types, analyzed 24 hour water and 12 hour mud TIR imagery, and analyzed TIR imagery for hazard detection through smoke. Since TIR cameras do not currently provide the resolution available from megapixel color cameras, a UGV's daytime safe speed is often reduced when using TIR instead of color cameras. In this paper, we summarize the UGV terrain perception work JPL has performed with TIR cameras over the last decade and describe a calibration target developed by General Dynamics Robotic Systems (GDRS) for TIR cameras and other sensors.

  5. Reflective all-sky thermal infrared cloud imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Brian J; Shaw, Joseph A; Nugent, Paul W; Clark, R Trevor; Piazzolla, Sabino

    2018-04-30

    A reflective all-sky imaging system has been built using a long-wave infrared microbolometer camera and a reflective metal sphere. This compact system was developed for measuring spatial and temporal patterns of clouds and their optical depth in support of applications including Earth-space optical communications. The camera is mounted to the side of the reflective sphere to leave the zenith sky unobstructed. The resulting geometric distortion is removed through an angular map derived from a combination of checkerboard-target imaging, geometric ray tracing, and sun-location-based alignment. A tape of high-emissivity material on the side of the reflector acts as a reference that is used to estimate and remove thermal emission from the metal sphere. Once a bias that is under continuing study was removed, sky radiance measurements from the all-sky imager in the 8-14 μm wavelength range agreed to within 0.91 W/(m 2 sr) of measurements from a previously calibrated, lens-based infrared cloud imager over its 110° field of view.

  6. Contribution of thermal infrared images on the understanding of the subsurface/atmosphere exchanges on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Teodolina; Antoine, Raphaël; Baratoux, David; Rabinowicz, Michel

    2017-04-01

    High temporal resolution of space-based thermal infrared images (METEOSAT, MODIS) and the development of field thermal cameras have permitted the development of thermal remote sensing in Earth Sciences. Thermal images are influenced by many factors such as atmosphere, solar radiation, topography and physico-chemical properties of the surface. However, considering these limitations, we have discovered that thermal images can be used in order to better understand subsurface hydrology. In order to reduce as much as possible the impact of these perturbing factors, our approach combine 1) field observations and 2) numerical modelling of surface/subsurface thermal processes. Thermal images of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Réunion Island), acquired by hand, show that the Formica Leo inactive scoria cone and some fractures close to the Bory-Dolomieu caldera are always warmer, inducing a thermal difference with the surrounding of at least 5°C and a Self-Potential anomaly [1, 2]. Topography cannot explain this thermal behaviour, but Piton de la Fournaise is known as highly permeable. This fact allows the development of an air convection within the whole permeable structure volcanic edifice [2]. Cold air enters the base of the volcano, and exits warmer upslope, as the air is warmed by the geothermal flow [1,2]. Then, we have decided to understand the interaction between subsurface hydrogeological flows and the humidity in the atmosphere. In the Lake Chad basin, regions on both sides of Lake Chad present a different thermal behaviour during the diurnal cycle and between seasons [3]. We propose that this thermal behaviour can only be explained by lateral variations of the surface permeability that directly impact the process of evaporation/condensation cycle. These studies bring new highlights on the understanding of the exchanges between subsurface and the atmosphere, as the presence of a very permeable media and/or variations of the surface permeability may enhance or

  7. Emerging Use of Dual Channel Infrared for Remote Sensing of Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, N. S.; Serreze, M. C.; Gallaher, D. W.; Koenig, L.; Schaefer, K. M.; Campbell, G. G.; Thompson, J. A.; Grant, G.; Fetterer, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Using GOES-16 data as a proxy for overhead persistent infrared, we examine the feasibility of using a dual channel shortwave / midwave infrared (SWIR/MWIR) approach to detect and chart sea ice in Hudson Bay through a series of images with a temporal scale of less than fifteen minutes. While not traditionally exploited for sea ice remote sensing, the availability of near continuous shortwave and midwave infrared data streams over the Arctic from overhead persistent infrared (OPIR) satellites could provide an invaluable source of information regarding the changing Arctic climate. Traditionally used for the purpose of missile warning and strategic defense, characteristics of OPIR make it an attractive source for Arctic remote sensing as the temporal resolution can provide insight into ice edge melt and motion processes. Fundamentally, the time series based algorithm will discern water/ice/clouds using a SWIR/MWIR normalized difference index. Cloud filtering is accomplished through removing pixels categorized as clouds while retaining a cache of previous ice/water pixels to replace any cloud obscured (and therefore omitted) pixels. Demonstration of the sensitivity of GOES-16 SWIR/MWIR to detect and discern water/ice/clouds provides a justification for exploring the utility of military OPIR sensors for civil and commercial applications. Potential users include the scientific community as well as emergency responders, the fishing industry, oil and gas industries, and transportation industries that are seeking to exploit changing conditions in the Arctic but require more accurate and timely ice charting products.

  8. Thermal conductivity of a film of single walled carbon nanotubes measured with infrared thermal imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ya; Inoue, Taiki; Xiang, Rong; Chiashi, Shohei; Maruyama, Shigeo

    Heat dissipation has restricted the modern miniaturization trend with the development of electronic devices. Theoretically proven to be with high axial thermal conductivity, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) have long been expected to cool down the nanoscale world. Even though the tube-tube contact resistance limits the capability of heat transfer of the bulk film, the high intrinsic thermal conductivity of SWNT still glorify the application of films of SWNT network as a thermal interface material. In this work, we proposed a new method to straightly measure the thermal conductivity of SWNT film. We bridged two cantilevered Si thin plate with SWNT film, and kept a steady state heat flow in between. With the infrared camera to record the temperature distribution, the Si plates with known thermal conductivity can work as a reference to calculate the heat flux going through the SWNT film. Further, the thermal conductivity of the SWNT film can be obtained through Fourier's law after deducting the effect of thermal radiation. The sizes of the structure, the heating temperature, the vacuum degree and other crucial impact factors are carefully considered and analyzed. The author Y. F. was supported through the Advanced Integration Science Innovation Education and Research Consortium Program by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology.

  9. Mapping temperature and radiant geothermal heat flux anomalies in the Yellowstone geothermal system using ASTER thermal infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to use satellite-based thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data to measure, map, and monitor geothermal activity within the Yellowstone geothermal area to help meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey Yellowstone Volcano Observatory and the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program. Specifically, the goals were to: 1) address the challenges of remotely characterizing the spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in Yellowstone by using nighttime TIR data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and 2) estimate the temperature, geothermal radiant emittance, and radiant geothermal heat flux (GHF) for Yellowstone’s thermal areas (both Park wide and for individual thermal areas). ASTER TIR data (90-m pixels) acquired at night during January and February, 2010, were used to estimate surface temperature, radiant emittance, and radiant GHF from all of Yellowstone’s thermal features, produce thermal anomaly maps, and update field-based maps of thermal areas. A background subtraction technique was used to isolate the geothermal component of TIR radiance from thermal radiance due to insolation. A lower limit for the Yellowstone’s total radiant GHF was established at ~2.0 GW, which is ~30-45% of the heat flux estimated through geochemical (Cl-flux) methods. Additionally, about 5 km2 was added to the geodatabase of mapped thermal areas. This work provides a framework for future satellite-based thermal monitoring at Yellowstone as well as exploration of other volcanic / geothermal systems on a global scale.

  10. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry of flowable enclosed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, John F.; Jones, Roger W.

    1993-03-02

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a flowable material enclosed in a transport system having an infrared transparent wall portion. A temperature differential is transiently generated between a thin surface layer portion of the material and a lower or deeper portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material, and the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is detected through the infrared transparent portion of the transport system while the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. The detection is effected prior to the temperature differential propagating into the lower or deeper portion of the material to an extent such that the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is no longer sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. By such detection, the detected altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is indicative of characteristics relating to molecular composition of the material.

  11. Analytical tools for thermal infrared engineerig: a thermal sensor simulation package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, Sandeep

    1992-09-01

    The Advanced Sensor Development Laboratory (ASDL) at the Stennis Space Center develops, maintains and calibrates remote sensing instruments for the National Aeronautics & Space Administration. To perform system design trade-offs, analysis, and establish system parameters, ASDL has developed a software package for analytical simulation of sensor systems. This package called 'Analytical Tools for Thermal InfraRed Engineering'--ATTIRE, simulates the various components of a sensor system. The software allows each subsystem of the sensor to be analyzed independently for its performance. These performance parameters are then integrated to obtain system level information such as SNR, NER, NETD etc. This paper describes the uses of the package and the physics that were used to derive the performance parameters. In addition, ATTIRE can be used as a tutorial for understanding the distribution of thermal flux or solar irradiance over selected bandwidths of the spectrum. This spectrally distributed incident flux can then be analyzed as it propagates through the subsystems that constitute the entire sensor. ATTIRE provides a variety of functions ranging from plotting black-body curves for varying bandwidths and computing the integral flux, to performing transfer function analysis of the sensor system. The package runs from a menu- driven interface in a PC-DOS environment. Each sub-system of the sensor is represented by windows and icons. A user-friendly mouse-controlled point-and-click interface allows the user to simulate various aspects of a sensor. The package can simulate a theoretical sensor system. Trade-off studies can be easily done by changing the appropriate parameters and monitoring the effect of the system performance. The package can provide plots of system performance versus any system parameter. A parameter (such as the entrance aperture of the optics) could be varied and its effect on another parameter (e.g., NETD) can be plotted. A third parameter (e.g., the

  12. Thermal interpretation of infrared dynamics in de Sitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigopoulos, Gerasimos, E-mail: gerasimos.rigopoulos@ncl.ac.uk [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University, Herschel Building, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU U.K. (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    The infrared dynamics of a light, minimally coupled scalar field in de Sitter spacetime with Ricci curvature R = 12 H {sup 2}, averaged over horizon sized regions of physical volume V {sub H} = (4π/3)(1/ H ){sup 3}, can be interpreted as Brownian motion in a medium with de Sitter temperature T {sub DS} = h-bar H /2π. We demonstrate this by directly deriving the effective action of scalar field fluctuations with wavelengths larger than the de Sitter curvature radius and generalizing Starobinsky's seminal results on stochastic inflation. The effective action describes stochastic dynamics and the fluctuating force drives the field to an equilibrium characterized by a thermal Gibbs distribution at temperature T {sub DS} which corresponds to a de Sitter invariant state. Hence, approach towards this state can be interpreted as thermalization. We show that the stochastic kinetic energy of the coarse-grained description corresponds to the norm of ∂{sub μ}φ and takes a well defined value per horizon volume ½((∇φ){sup 2}) = − ½ T {sub DS}/ V {sub H} . This approach allows for the non-perturbative computation of the de Sitter invariant stress energy tensor ( T {sub μν}) for an arbitrary scalar potential.

  13. Thermal comfort of seats as visualized by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Rosemary Bom Conselho; Pereira, Romeu Rodrigues; Aguilar, Maria Teresa Paulino; Cardoso, Antônio Valadão

    2017-07-01

    Published studies that deal with the question of how the temperature of chair seats influences human activities are few, but the studies considering such a factor, a function of the type of material, could contribute to improvements in the design of chairs. This study evaluates seat temperatures of 8 types of chairs made of different materials. The parts of the furniture that people come into contact with, and the thermal response of the material to heating and cooling have been evaluated. Infrared thermography was used for this, as it is a non-contact technique that does not present any type of risk in the measurement of temperatures. Seats made of synthetic leather (leatherette), wood and polyester fabric were found to have the highest temperatures, and the plywood seat showed the lowest. The study has also revealed that thermography can contribute to studies of thermal comfort of chair seats in addition to determining the most suitable material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Geological characterization of remote field sites using visible and infrared spectroscopy: Results from the 1999 Marsokhod field test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Ruff, S.W.; Moersch, J.; Roush, T.; Horton, K.; Bishop, J.; Cabrol, N.A.; Cockell, C.; Gazis, P.; Newsom, Horton E.; Stoker, C.

    2001-01-01

    Upcoming Mars Surveyor lander missions will include extensive spectroscopic capabilities designed to improve interpretations of the mineralogy and geology of landing sites on Mars. The 1999 Marsokhod Field Experiment (MFE) was a Mars rover simulation designed in part to investigate the utility of visible/near-infrared and thermal infrared field spectrometers to contribute to the remote geological exploration of a Mars analog field site in the California Mojave Desert. The experiment simultaneously investigated the abilities of an off-site science team to effectively analyze and acquire useful imaging and spectroscopic data and to communicate efficiently with rover engineers and an on-site field team to provide meaningful input to rover operations and traverse planning. Experiences gained during the MFE regarding effective communication between different mission operation teams will be useful to upcoming Mars mission teams. Field spectra acquired during the MFE mission exhibited features interpreted at the time as indicative of carbonates (both dolomitic and calcitic), mafic rocks and associated weathering products, and silicic rocks with desert varnish-like coatings. The visible/near-infrared spectra also suggested the presence of organic compounds, including chlorophyll in one rock. Postmission laboratory petrologic and spectral analyses of returned samples confirmed that all rocks identified as carbonates using field measurements alone were calc-silicates and that chlorophyll associated with endolithic organisms was present in the one rock for which it was predicted. Rocks classified from field spectra as silicics and weathered mafics were recognized in the laboratory as metamorphosed monzonites and diorite schists. This discrepancy was likely due to rock coatings sampled by the field spectrometers compared to fresh rock interiors analyzed petrographically, in addition to somewhat different surfaces analyzed by laboratory thermal spectroscopy compared to field

  15. Remote measurement of surface-water velocity using infrared videography and PIV: a proof-of-concept for Alaskan rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Paul J.; Legleiter, Carl; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal cameras with high sensitivity to medium and long wavelengths can resolve features at the surface of flowing water arising from turbulent mixing. Images acquired by these cameras can be processed with particle image velocimetry (PIV) to compute surface velocities based on the displacement of thermal features as they advect with the flow. We conducted a series of field measurements to test this methodology for remote sensing of surface velocities in rivers. We positioned an infrared video camera at multiple stations across bridges that spanned five rivers in Alaska. Simultaneous non-contact measurements of surface velocity were collected with a radar gun. In situ velocity profiles were collected with Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP). Infrared image time series were collected at a frequency of 10Hz for a one-minute duration at a number of stations spaced across each bridge. Commercial PIV software used a cross-correlation algorithm to calculate pixel displacements between successive frames, which were then scaled to produce surface velocities. A blanking distance below the ADCP prevents a direct measurement of the surface velocity. However, we estimated surface velocity from the ADCP measurements using a program that normalizes each ADCP transect and combines those normalized transects to compute a mean measurement profile. The program can fit a power law to the profile and in so doing provides a velocity index, the ratio between the depth-averaged and surface velocity. For the rivers in this study, the velocity index ranged from 0.82 – 0.92. Average radar and extrapolated ADCP surface velocities were in good agreement with average infrared PIV calculations.

  16. Tree health monitoring: perspectives from the visible and near infrared remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonthier P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on a comprehensive literature analysis, we present a critical review of those optical remote sensing techniques operating with the visible (VIS and near infrared (NIR bands for the assessment of health in forest trees. Physical, biological and physio-pathological issues of VIS-NIR reflectance of leaves are described pointing out that a decrease of NIR reflectance is highly influenced by stress conditions on tree caused by abiotic and biotic factors. In many cases the NIR spectral band is more sensitive than the VIS one, allowing to detect plant stress long before the appearance of visible symptoms. A description of the main remote sensing methods is provided, including radiometric measurements and multispectral imaging approaches. False colour infrared (FCIR images collection and their photointerpretation and processing are shown as they represent the most relevant means to acquire information of canopy from its reflectance properties. The amount and the quality of the obtainable data depend on: (i field conditions; (ii the type of the adopted instrument (camera, radiometer; (iii the recording system position (ground platforms, aircraft, satellite; (iv the format of the data (analogical, digitalised or digital; and (v the photointerpretation technique. Results from literature are discussed stressing the limits of remote sensing methods. Remote sensing in VIS and NIR spectral bands is generally a powerful classification tool to detect and score tree stress. Nevertheless, it is not a diagnostic tool in that it does not provide information on the cause of stress. Moreover, the method should be adequately tested at single tree level for many important pathogens, in particular root rot, butt rot and stem rot fungi. In perspective, new high spatial resolution satellite images and their GIS software elaboration might be suitable to improve remote sensing analysis.

  17. Thermal Intertias of Main-Belt Asteroids from Wise Thermal Infrared Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Josef; Delbo', Marco; Durech, Josef; Alí-Lagoa, Victor

    2014-11-01

    By means of a modified thermophysical model (TPM) that takes into account asteroid shape and pole uncertainties, we analyze the thermal infrared data acquired by the NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) of about 300 asteroids with derived convex shape models. We adopt convex shape models from the DAMIT database (Durech et al., 2010, A&A 513, A46) and present new determinations based on optical disk-integrated photometry and the lightcurve inversion method (Kaasalainen & Torppa, 2001, Icarus 153, 37). This work more than double the number of asteroids with determined thermophysical properties. We also discuss cases in which shape uncertainties prevent the determination of reliable thermophysical properties. This is per-se a novel result, as the effect of shape has been often neglected in thermophysical modeling of asteroids.We also present the main results of the statistical study of derived thermophysical parameters within the whole population of MBAs and within few asteroid families. The thermal inertia increases with decreasing size, but a large range of thermal inertia values is observed within the similar size ranges between 10-100 km. Surprisingly, we derive low (10 km, indicating a very fine and mature regolith on these small bodies. The work of JH and MD was carried under the contract 11-BS56-008 (SHOCKS) of the French Agence National de la Recherche (ANR), and JD has been supported by the grant GACR P209/10/0537 of the Czech Science Foundation.

  18. Geothermal area detection using Landsat ETM+ thermal infrared data and its mechanistic analysis—A case study in Tengchong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qiming; Zhang, Ning; Nan, Peng; Chai, Leilei

    2011-08-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing is an important technique in the exploration of geothermal resources. In this study, a geothermal survey is conducted in Tengchong area of Yunnan province in China using TIR data from Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. Based on radiometric calibration, atmospheric correction and emissivity calculation, a simple but efficient single channel algorithm with acceptable precision is applied to retrieve the land surface temperature (LST) of study area. The LST anomalous areas with temperature about 4-10 K higher than background area are discovered. Four geothermal areas are identified with the discussion of geothermal mechanism and the further analysis of regional geologic structure. The research reveals that the distribution of geothermal areas is consistent with the fault development in study area. Magmatism contributes abundant thermal source to study area and the faults provide thermal channels for heat transfer from interior earth to land surface and facilitate the present of geothermal anomalies. Finally, we conclude that TIR remote sensing is a cost-effective technique to detect LST anomalies. Combining TIR remote sensing with geological analysis and the understanding of geothermal mechanism is an accurate and efficient approach to geothermal area detection.

  19. Volcanic Eruption Observations from an Elevated Point of the Stromboli Using Thermal Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, V.; Gagnon, M. A.; Marcotte, F.; Gouhier, M.; Smekens, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Many urban areas are located near active volcanoes around the world. Therefore, scientific research on different indicators of imminent eruptions is carried out on an ongoing basis. Due to the hazardous and unpredictable behavior of volcanoes, remote sensing technologies are normally preferred for investigations. Over the years, the Telops Hyper-Cam, a high-performance infrared hyperspectral camera, has established itself as a reference tool for investigating gas clouds over large distances. In order to illustrate the benefits of standoff infrared hyperspectral imaging for characterizing volcanic processes, many different measurements were carried out from an elevated point ( 800 m) of the Stromboli volcano (Italy) by researchers from the Université Blaise-Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand, France). The Stromboli volcano is well known for its periodic eruptions of small magnitude containing various proportions of ash, lava and gases. Imaging was carried out at a relatively high spectral and spatial resolution before and during eruptions from the North-East (NE) craters. Both sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur tetrafluoride (SiF4) could be successfully identified within the volcano's plume from their distinct spectral features. During the passive degassing phase, a total amount of 3.3 kg of SO2 and 0.8 g of SiF4 were estimated. A violent eruption from NE1 crater was then observed and a total of 45 g and and 7 g of SO2 and SiF4 were estimated respectively. These results are in good agreement with previous work using a UV-SO2 camera. Finally, a smaller eruption from NE2 crater was observed. Total amounts of 3 kg and 17 g of SO2 and SiF4 were estimated respectively. Quantitative chemical maps for both gases will be presented. The results show that standoff thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging provides unique insights for a better understanding of volcanic eruptions.

  20. Detection of emission sources using passive-remote Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirgian, J.C.; Macha, S.M.; Darby, S.M.; Ditillo, J.

    1995-01-01

    The detection and identification of toxic chemicals released in the environment is important for public safety. Passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers can be used to detect these releases. Their primary advantages are their small size and ease of setup and use. Open-path FTIR spectrometers are used to detect concentrations of pollutants from a fixed frame of reference. These instruments detect plumes, but they are too large and difficult to aim to be used to track a plume to its source. Passive remote FTIR spectrometers contain an interferometer, optics, and a detector. They can be used on tripods and in some cases can be hand-held. A telescope can be added to most units. We will discuss the capability of passive-remote FTIR spectrometers to detect the origin of plumes. Low concentration plumes were released using a custom-constructed vaporizer. These plumes were detected with different spectrometers from different distances. Passive-remote spectrometers were able to detect small 10 cm on a side chemical releases at concentration-pathlengths at the low parts per million-meter (ppm-m) level

  1. Thermal consequences of colour and near-infrared reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Fox, Devi; Newton, Elizabeth; Clusella-Trullas, Susana

    2017-07-05

    The importance of colour for temperature regulation in animals remains controversial. Colour can affect an animal's temperature because all else being equal, dark surfaces absorb more solar energy than do light surfaces, and that energy is converted into heat. However, in reality, the relationship between colour and thermoregulation is complex and varied because it depends on environmental conditions and the physical properties, behaviour and physiology of the animal. Furthermore, the thermal effects of colour depend as much on absorptance of near-infrared ((NIR), 700-2500 nm) as visible (300-700 nm) wavelengths of direct sunlight; yet the NIR is very rarely considered or measured. The few available data on NIR reflectance in animals indicate that the visible reflectance is often a poor predictor of NIR reflectance. Adaptive variation in animal coloration (visible reflectance) reflects a compromise between multiple competing functions such as camouflage, signalling and thermoregulation. By contrast, adaptive variation in NIR reflectance should primarily reflect thermoregulatory requirements because animal visual systems are generally insensitive to NIR wavelengths. Here, we assess evidence and identify key research questions regarding the thermoregulatory function of animal coloration, and specifically consider evidence for adaptive variation in NIR reflectance.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. A Thermal Infrared Radiation Parameterization for Atmospheric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Suarez, Max J.; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Yan, Michael M.-H.; Cote, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This technical memorandum documents the longwave radiation parameterization developed at the Climate and Radiation Branch, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, for a wide variety of weather and climate applications. Based on the 1996-version of the Air Force Geophysical Laboratory HITRAN data, the parameterization includes the absorption due to major gaseous absorption (water vapor, CO2, O3) and most of the minor trace gases (N2O, CH4, CFCs), as well as clouds and aerosols. The thermal infrared spectrum is divided into nine bands. To achieve a high degree of accuracy and speed, various approaches of computing the transmission function are applied to different spectral bands and gases. The gaseous transmission function is computed either using the k-distribution method or the table look-up method. To include the effect of scattering due to clouds and aerosols, the optical thickness is scaled by the single-scattering albedo and asymmetry factor. The parameterization can accurately compute fluxes to within 1% of the high spectral-resolution line-by-line calculations. The cooling rate can be accurately computed in the region extending from the surface to the 0.01-hPa level.

  3. Thermal Remote Sensing of Lava Lakes on Io and Earth (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A. G.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; McEwen, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanology has been transformed by remote sensing. For decades, Earth's volcanoes have been studied in the infrared by a wide variety of instruments on spacecraft at widely varying spectral, spatial and temporal resolutions, for which techniques have been developed to interpret and understand ongoing volcanic eruptions. The study of volcanism on Io, the only Solar System body besides Earth known to have ongoing, high temperature, silicate-based effusive and explosive volcanic eruptions, requires new remote sensing techniques. The extraordinary volcanism allows us to examine Io's interior and composition from the material erupted onto the surface. For Io, the biggest question in the wake of NASA's Galileo mission concerns the eruption temperature of Io's dominant silicate lavas [1,2]. Constraining eruption temperature constrains magma composition, in turn a reflection of the composition, physical state and tidal heating within Io. However, the extraction of lava eruption temperature from remote sensing data is difficult. Detector saturation is likely except when the hot material fills a tiny fraction of a resolution element, unless instruments are designed for this objective. High temperature lava surfaces cool rapidly, so remote observations can miss the peak temperature. Observations at different wavelengths must be acquired nearly simultaneously to derive accurate temperatures of very hot and dynamic sources [3]. Uncertainties regarding hot lava emissivity [4] also reduce the confidence in derived temperatures. From studying thermal emission data from different styles of volcanic activity on Earth by remote sensing in conjunction with contemporaneous observations on the ground, it is found that only certain styles of volcanic activity are suitable for deriving liquid lava temperatures [3]. Active lava lakes are particularly useful, especially during a phase of lava fountaining. Examination and analysis of FLIR data obtained at the Erta'Ale (Ethiopia) basaltic

  4. Surface Composition of Trojan Asteroids from Thermal-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A.; Emery, J. P.; Lindsay, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Asteroid origins provide an effective means of constraining the events that dynamically shaped the solar system. Jupiter Trojan asteroids (hereafter Trojans) may help in determining the extent of radial mixing that occurred during giant planet migration. Previous studies aimed at characterizing surface composition show that Trojans have low albedo surfaces and fall into two distinct spectral groups the near infrared (NIR). Though, featureless in this spectral region, NIR spectra of Trojans either exhibit a red or less-red slope. Typically, red-sloped spectra are associated with organics, but it has been shown that Trojans are not host to much, if any, organic material. Instead, the red slope is likely due to anhydrous silicates. The thermal infrared (TIR) wavelength range has advantages for detecting silicates on low albedo asteroids such as Trojans. The 10 µm region exhibits strong features due to the Si-O fundamental molecular vibrations. We hypothesize that the two Trojan spectral groups have different compositions (silicate mineralogy). With TIR spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we identify mineralogical features from the surface of 11 Trojan asteroids, five red and six less-red. Preliminary results from analysis of the 10 µm region indicate red-sloped Trojans have a higher spectral contrast compared to less-red-sloped Trojans. Fine-grain mixtures of crystalline pyroxene and olivine exhibit a 10 µm feature with sharp cutoffs between about 9 µm and 12 µm, which create a broad flat plateau. Amorphous phases, when present, smooth the sharp emission features, resulting in a dome-like shape. Further spectral analysis in the 10 µm, 18 µm, and 30 µm band region will be performed for a more robust analysis. If all Trojans come from the same region, it is expected that they share spectral and compositional characteristics. Therefore, if spectral analysis in the TIR reinforce the NIR spectral slope dichotomy, it is likely that Trojans were sourced from

  5. Quantitative assessment of pain-related thermal dysfunction through clinical digital infrared thermal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frize Monique

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The skin temperature distribution of a healthy human body exhibits a contralateral symmetry. Some nociceptive and most neuropathic pain pathologies are associated with an alteration of the thermal distribution of the human body. Since the dissipation of heat through the skin occurs for the most part in the form of infrared radiation, infrared thermography is the method of choice to study the physiology of thermoregulation and the thermal dysfunction associated with pain. Assessing thermograms is a complex and subjective task that can be greatly facilitated by computerised techniques. Methods This paper presents techniques for automated computerised assessment of thermal images of pain, in order to facilitate the physician's decision making. First, the thermal images are pre-processed to reduce the noise introduced during the initial acquisition and to extract the irrelevant background. Then, potential regions of interest are identified using fixed dermatomal subdivisions of the body, isothermal analysis and segmentation techniques. Finally, we assess the degree of asymmetry between contralateral regions of interest using statistical computations and distance measures between comparable regions. Results The wavelet domain-based Poisson noise removal techniques compared favourably against Wiener and other wavelet-based denoising methods, when qualitative criteria were used. It was shown to improve slightly the subsequent analysis. The automated background removal technique based on thresholding and morphological operations was successful for both noisy and denoised images with a correct removal rate of 85% of the images in the database. The automation of the regions of interest (ROIs delimitation process was achieved successfully for images with a good contralateral symmetry. Isothermal division complemented well the fixed ROIs division based on dermatomes, giving a more accurate map of potentially abnormal regions. The measure

  6. Groundwater discharge mapping by thermal infra-red imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, N.R.

    1984-02-01

    An area around Altnabreac in northern Scotland has been studied as part of the UK programme of research into the feasibility of disposal of radioactive waste into geological formations. An essential prerequisite to being able to predict the behaviour, migratory pathways and travel times of radionuclides emanating from a waste repository is an understanding of the regional and near surface groundwater flow systems and groundwater geochemical evolution. The groundwater system at depth has been studied by means of boreholes but an understanding of the shallow groundwater flow, and its interaction with groundwater upwelling from depth, can be gained from studies of the spatial distribution and geochemistry of surface springs and discharges. A survey was carried out using the thermal infra-red linescan technique with the objective of locating all significant spring discharges over the study area. The terrain around Altnabreac is largely covered by superficial deposits which overlie weathered granite. The survey was carried out from a height of 275m at a spatial resolution of about 0.5m. About 280 line Km were covered but allowing for overlap between adjacent flight lines and some repeat coverage, the actual area surveyed was 68 sq Km. The most striking aspect of the results is the wide distribution of groundwater discharges in the Altnabreac area. An analysis of the data identified three general categories of spring and many of these springs were subsequently visited for verification and to allow samples to be collected for chemical analysis. The results from this survey indicates that the groundwater table is strongly influenced by local topography and that the majority of the spring discharges represent near surface recent groundwaters circulating within the superficial deposits and weathered granite

  7. Multiphoton dissociation and thermal unimolecular reactions induced by infrared lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, H.L.

    1981-04-01

    Multiphoton dissociation (MPD) of ethyl chloride was studied using a tunable 3.3 μm laser to excite CH stretches. The absorbed energy increases almost linearly with fluence, while for 10 μm excitation there is substantial saturation. Much higher dissociation yields were observed for 3.3 μm excitation than for 10 μm excitation, reflecting bottlenecking in the discrete region of 10 μm excitation. The resonant nature of the excitation allows the rate equations description for transitions in the quasicontinuum and continuum to be extended to the discrete levels. Absorption cross sections are estimated from ordinary ir spectra. A set of cross sections which is constant or slowly decreasing with increasing vibrational excitation gives good fits to both absorption and dissociation yield data. The rate equations model was also used to quantitatively calculate the pressure dependence of the MPD yield of SF 6 caused by vibrational self-quenching. Between 1000-3000 cm -1 of energy is removed from SF 6 excited to approx. > 60 kcal/mole by collision with a cold SF 6 molecule at gas kinetic rate. Calculation showed the fluence dependence of dissociation varies strongly with the gas pressure. Infrared multiphoton excitation was applied to study thermal unimolecular reactions. With SiF 4 as absorbing gas for the CO 2 laser pulse, transient high temperature pulses were generated in a gas mixture. IR fluorescence from the medium reflected the decay of the temperature. The activation energy and the preexponential factor of the reactant dissociation were obtained from a phenomenological model calculation. Results are presented in detail

  8. Is the aerosol emission detectable in the thermal infrared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollweg, H.-D.; Bakan, S.; Taylor, J. P.

    2006-08-01

    The impact of aerosols on the thermal infrared radiation can be assessed by combining observations and radiative transfer calculations. Both have uncertainties, which are discussed in this paper. Observational uncertainties are obtained for two FTIR instruments operated side by side on the ground during the LACE 1998 field campaign. Radiative transfer uncertainties are assessed using a line-by-line model taking into account the uncertainties of the HITRAN 2004 spectroscopic database, uncertainties in the determination of the atmospheric profiles of water vapor and ozone, and differences in the treatment of the water vapor continuum absorption by the CKD 2.4.1 and MT_CKD 1.0 algorithms. The software package OPAC was used to describe the optical properties of aerosols for climate modeling. The corresponding radiative signature is a guideline to the assessment of the uncertainty ranges of observations and models. We found that the detection of aerosols depends strongly on the measurement accuracy of atmospheric profiles of water vapor and ozone and is easier for drier conditions. Within the atmospheric window, only the forcing of downward radiation at the surface by desert aerosol emerges clearly from the uncertainties of modeling and FTIR measurement. Urban and polluted continental aerosols are only partially detectable depending on the wave number and on the atmospheric water vapor amount. Simulations for the space-borne interferometer IASI show that only upward radiation above transported mineral dust aloft emerges out of the uncertainties. The detection of aerosols with weak radiative impact by FTIR instruments like ARIES and OASIS is made difficult by noise as demonstrated by the signal to noise ratio for clean continental aerosols. Altogether, the uncertainties found suggest that it is difficult to detect the optical depths of nonmineral and unpolluted aerosols.

  9. Technical Note: Interference errors in infrared remote sounding of the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sussmann

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Classical error analysis in remote sounding distinguishes between four classes: "smoothing errors," "model parameter errors," "forward model errors," and "retrieval noise errors". For infrared sounding "interference errors", which, in general, cannot be described by these four terms, can be significant. Interference errors originate from spectral residuals due to "interfering species" whose spectral features overlap with the signatures of the target species. A general method for quantification of interference errors is presented, which covers all possible algorithmic implementations, i.e., fine-grid retrievals of the interfering species or coarse-grid retrievals, and cases where the interfering species are not retrieved. In classical retrieval setups interference errors can exceed smoothing errors and can vary by orders of magnitude due to state dependency. An optimum strategy is suggested which practically eliminates interference errors by systematically minimizing the regularization strength applied to joint profile retrieval of the interfering species. This leads to an interfering-species selective deweighting of the retrieval. Details of microwindow selection are no longer critical for this optimum retrieval and widened microwindows even lead to reduced overall (smoothing and interference errors. Since computational power will increase, more and more operational algorithms will be able to utilize this optimum strategy in the future. The findings of this paper can be applied to soundings of all infrared-active atmospheric species, which include more than two dozen different gases relevant to climate and ozone. This holds for all kinds of infrared remote sounding systems, i.e., retrievals from ground-based, balloon-borne, airborne, or satellite spectroradiometers.

  10. Impact of Soil Water Content on Landmine Detection Using Radar and Thermal Infrared Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Sung-ho

    2001-01-01

    .... The most important of these is water content since it directly influences the three other properties in this study, the ground penetrating radar and thermal infrared sensors were used to identify non...

  11. Airborne Thematic Thermal InfraRed and Electro-Optical Imaging System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is an advanced Airborne Thematic Thermal InfraRed and Electro-Optical Imaging System (ATTIREOIS). ATTIREOIS sensor payload consists of two sets of...

  12. TIRCIS: A Thermal Infrared, Compact Imaging Spectrometer for Small Satellite Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will demonstrate how hyperspectral thermal infrared (TIR; 8-14 microns) image data, with a spectral resolution of up to 8 wavenumbers, can be acquired...

  13. Thermal Infrared Spectra of Microcrystalline Sedimentary Phases: Effects of Natural Surface Roughness on Spectral Feature Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardgrove, C.; Rogers, A. D.

    2012-03-01

    Thermal infrared spectral features of common microcrystalline phases (chert, alabaster, micrite) are presented. Spectra are sensitive to mineralogy and micron-scale (~1-25 µm) surface roughness. Roughness is on the scale of the average crystal size.

  14. Advances in passive-remote and extractive Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirgian, J.C.; Hammer, C.; Hwang, E.; Mao, Zhuoxiong.

    1993-01-01

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires the monitoring of air toxics including those from incinerator emissions. Continuous emission monitors (CEM) would demonstrate the safety of incinerators and address public concern about emissions of hazardous organic compounds. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can provide the technology for continuous emission monitoring of stacks. Stack effluent can be extracted and analyzed in less than one minute with conventional FTIR spectrometers. Passive-remote FTIR spectrometers can detect certain emission gases over 1 km away from a stack. The authors discuss advances in both extractive and passive-remote FTIR technology. Extractive systems are being tested with EPA protocols, which will soon replace periodic testing methods. Standard operating procedures for extractive systems are being developed and tested. Passive-remote FTIR spectrometers have the advantage of not requiring an extracted sample; however, they have less sensitivity. We have evaluated the ability of commercially available systems to detect fugitive plumes and to monitor carbon monoxide at a coal-fired power plant

  15. Thermal infrared images to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base on target tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran; Wang, Jia; Liu, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Hyperthermia (42-46°C), treatment of tumor tissue through elevated temperature, offers several advantages including high cost-effectiveness, highly targeted ablation and fewer side effects and hence higher safety level over traditional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, hyperthermia using heat release through exothermic acid-base neutralization comes into view owing to its relatively safe products of salt and water and highly confined ablation. However, lack of quantitative understanding of the spatial and temporal temperature profiles that are produced by simultaneous diffusion of liquid chemical and its chemical reaction within tumor tissue impedes the application of this method. This article is dedicated to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base both individually and as in neutralization via infrared captured thermal images. A theoretical model is used to approximate specific heat absorption rate (SAR) based on experimental measurements that contrast two types of tissue, normal pork and pig liver. According to the computation, both pork and liver tissue has a higher ability in absorbing hydrochloric acid (HCl) than sodium hydroxide, hence suggesting that a reduced dosage for HCl is appropriate in a surgery. The heating effect depends heavily on the properties of tissue types and amount of chemical reagents administered. Given thermal parameters such as SAR for different tissues, a computational model can be made in predicting temperature transitions which will be helpful in planning and optimizing surgical hyperthermia procedures.

  16. Thermal infrared images to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base on target tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia (42-46°C, treatment of tumor tissue through elevated temperature, offers several advantages including high cost-effectiveness, highly targeted ablation and fewer side effects and hence higher safety level over traditional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, hyperthermia using heat release through exothermic acid-base neutralization comes into view owing to its relatively safe products of salt and water and highly confined ablation. However, lack of quantitative understanding of the spatial and temporal temperature profiles that are produced by simultaneous diffusion of liquid chemical and its chemical reaction within tumor tissue impedes the application of this method. This article is dedicated to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base both individually and as in neutralization via infrared captured thermal images. A theoretical model is used to approximate specific heat absorption rate (SAR based on experimental measurements that contrast two types of tissue, normal pork and pig liver. According to the computation, both pork and liver tissue has a higher ability in absorbing hydrochloric acid (HCl than sodium hydroxide, hence suggesting that a reduced dosage for HCl is appropriate in a surgery. The heating effect depends heavily on the properties of tissue types and amount of chemical reagents administered. Given thermal parameters such as SAR for different tissues, a computational model can be made in predicting temperature transitions which will be helpful in planning and optimizing surgical hyperthermia procedures.

  17. Thermal infrared images to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base on target tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ran, E-mail: jliubme@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: liuran@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, Jing, E-mail: jliubme@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: liuran@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jia [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Hyperthermia (42-46°C), treatment of tumor tissue through elevated temperature, offers several advantages including high cost-effectiveness, highly targeted ablation and fewer side effects and hence higher safety level over traditional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, hyperthermia using heat release through exothermic acid-base neutralization comes into view owing to its relatively safe products of salt and water and highly confined ablation. However, lack of quantitative understanding of the spatial and temporal temperature profiles that are produced by simultaneous diffusion of liquid chemical and its chemical reaction within tumor tissue impedes the application of this method. This article is dedicated to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base both individually and as in neutralization via infrared captured thermal images. A theoretical model is used to approximate specific heat absorption rate (SAR) based on experimental measurements that contrast two types of tissue, normal pork and pig liver. According to the computation, both pork and liver tissue has a higher ability in absorbing hydrochloric acid (HCl) than sodium hydroxide, hence suggesting that a reduced dosage for HCl is appropriate in a surgery. The heating effect depends heavily on the properties of tissue types and amount of chemical reagents administered. Given thermal parameters such as SAR for different tissues, a computational model can be made in predicting temperature transitions which will be helpful in planning and optimizing surgical hyperthermia procedures.

  18. A unified approach to infrared aerosol remote sensing and type specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Clarisse

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols impact air quality and global climate. Space based measurements are the best way to observe their spatial and temporal distributions, and can also be used to gain better understanding of their chemical, physical and optical properties. Aerosol composition is the key parameter affecting the refractive index, which determines how much radiation is scattered and absorbed. Composition of aerosols is unfortunately not measured by state of the art satellite remote sounders. Here we use high resolution infrared measurements for aerosol type differentiation, exploiting, in that part of spectrum, the dependency of their refractive index on wavelength. We review existing detection methods and present a unified detection method based on linear discrimination analysis. We demonstrate this method on measurements of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI and five different aerosol types, namely volcanic ash, windblown sand, sulfuric acid droplets, ammonium sulfate and smoke particles. We compare these with traditional MODIS AOD measurements. The detection of the last three types is unprecedented in the infrared in nadir mode, but is very promising, especially for sulfuric acid droplets which are detected in the lower troposphere and up to 6 months after injection in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere.

  19. Use of ASTER and MODIS thermal infrared data to quantify heat flow and hydrothermal change at Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The overarching aim of this study was to use satellite thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing to monitor geothermal activity within the Yellowstone geothermal area to meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey and the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program. Specific goals were to: 1) address the challenges of monitoring the surface thermal characteristics of the > 10,000 spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in the Park (including hot springs, pools, geysers, fumaroles, and mud pots) that are spread out over ~ 5000 km2, by using satellite TIR remote sensing tools (e.g., ASTER and MODIS), 2) to estimate the radiant geothermal heat flux (GHF) for Yellowstone's thermal areas, and 3) to identify normal, background thermal changes so that significant, abnormal changes can be recognized, should they ever occur (e.g., changes related to tectonic, hydrothermal, impending volcanic processes, or human activities, such as nearby geothermal development). ASTER TIR data (90-m pixels) were used to estimate the radiant GHF from all of Yellowstone's thermal features and update maps of thermal areas. MODIS TIR data (1-km pixels) were used to record background thermal radiance variations from March 2000 through December 2010 and establish thermal change detection limits. A lower limit for the radiant GHF estimated from ASTER TIR temperature data was established at ~ 2.0 GW, which is ~ 30–45% of the heat flux estimated through geochemical thermometry. Also, about 5 km2 of thermal areas was added to the geodatabase of mapped thermal areas. A decade-long time-series of MODIS TIR radiance data was dominated by seasonal cycles. A background subtraction technique was used in an attempt to isolate variations due to geothermal changes. Several statistically significant perturbations were noted in the time-series from Norris Geyser Basin, however many of these did not correspond to documented thermal disturbances. This study provides concrete examples of the

  20. Applications of infrared technology; Proceedings of the Meeting, London, England, June 9, 10, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments in thermal imaging and other infrared systems relating to military, industrial, medical, and scientific applications are reviewed. Papers are presented on a new thermal imager using a linear pyroelectric detector array; multichannel near infrared spectroradiometer; technological constraints on the use of thermal imagery for remote sensing; and infrared optical system of the improved stratospheric and mesospheric sounder. Other topics discussed include infrared thermography development for composite material evaluation; infrared process linescanner, and optical infrared starting radiometer

  1. Assessment and Correction of on-Orbit Radiometric Calibration for FY-3 VIRR Thermal Infrared Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Xu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available FengYun-3 (FY-3 Visible Infrared Radiometer (VIRR, along with its predecessor, Multispectral Visible Infrared Scanning Radiometer (MVISR, onboard FY-1C&D have had continuous global observation more than 14 years. This data record is valuable for weather prediction, climate monitoring, and environment research. Data quality is vital for satellite data assimilations in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP and quantitative remote sensing applications. In this paper, the accuracies of radiometric calibration for VIRR onboard FY-3A and FY-3B, in thermal infrared (TIR channels, are evaluated using the Low Earth Orbit (LEO-LEO simultaneous nadir overpass intercalibration method. Hyperspectral and high-quality observations from Infrared Atmosphere Sounding Instrument (IASI onboard METOP-A are used as reference. The biases of VIRR measurements with respect to IASI over one-and-a-half years indicate that the TIR calibration accuracy of FY-3B VIRR is better than that of FY-3A VIRR. The brightness temperature (BT measured by FY-3A/VIRR is cooler than that measured by IASI with monthly mean biases ranging from −2 K to −1 K for channel 4 and −1 K to 0.2 K for channel 5. Measurements from FY-3B/VIRR are more consistent with that from IASI, and the annual mean biases are 0.84 ± 0.16 K and −0.66 ± 0.18 K for channels 4 and 5, respectively. The BT biases of FY-3A/VIRR show scene temperature-dependence and seasonal variation, which are not found from FY-3B/VIRR BT biases. The temperature-dependent biases are shown to be attributed to the nonlinearity of detectors. New nonlinear correction coefficients of FY-3A/VIRR TIR channels are reevaluated using various collocation samples. Verification results indicate that the use of the new nonlinear correction can greatly correct the scene temperature-dependent and systematic biases.

  2. Tree Canopy Characterization for EO-1 Reflective and Thermal Infrared Validation Studies: Rochester, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Jerrell R., Jr.; Smith, James A.

    2002-01-01

    The tree canopy characterization presented herein provided ground and tree canopy data for different types of tree canopies in support of EO-1 reflective and thermal infrared validation studies. These characterization efforts during August and September of 2001 included stem and trunk location surveys, tree structure geometry measurements, meteorology, and leaf area index (LAI) measurements. Measurements were also collected on thermal and reflective spectral properties of leaves, tree bark, leaf litter, soil, and grass. The data presented in this report were used to generate synthetic reflective and thermal infrared scenes and images that were used for the EO-1 Validation Program. The data also were used to evaluate whether the EO-1 ALI reflective channels can be combined with the Landsat-7 ETM+ thermal infrared channel to estimate canopy temperature, and also test the effects of separating the thermal and reflective measurements in time resulting from satellite formation flying.

  3. Remotely Characterizing the Topographic and Thermal Evolution of Kīlauea's Lava Flow Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, M. E.; Vaughan, R. G.; Poland, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    New technologies in satellite data acquisition and the continuous development of analysis software capabilities are greatly improving the ability of scientists to monitor volcanoes in near-real-time. Satellite-based thermal infrared (TIR) data are used to monitor and analyze new and ongoing volcanic activity by identifying and quantifying surface thermal characteristics and lava flow discharge rates. Improved detector sensitivities provide unprecedented spatial detail in visible to shortwave infrared (VSWIR) satellite imagery. The acquisition of stereo and tri-stereo visible imagery, as well as SAR, by an increasing number of satellite systems enables the creation of digital elevation models (DEMs) at higher temporal frequencies and resolutions than in the past. Free, user-friendly software programs, such as NASA's Ames Stereo Pipeline and Google Earth Engine, ease the accessibility and usability of satellite data to users unfamiliar with traditional analysis techniques. An effective and efficient integration of these technologies can be utilized towards volcano monitoring.Here, we use the active lava flows from the East Rift Zone vents of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i as a testing ground for developing new techniques in multi-sensor volcano remote sensing. We use DEMs generated from stereo and tri-stereo images captured by the WorldView3 and Pleiades satellite systems to assess topographic changes over time at the active flow fields. Time-series data of lava flow area, thickness, and discharge rate developed from thermal emission measurements collected by ASTER, Landsat 8, and WorldView3 are compared to satellite-detected topographic changes and to ground observations of flow development to identify behavioral patterns and to monitor flow field evolution. We explore methods of combining these visual and TIR data sets collected by multiple satellite systems with a variety of resolutions and repeat times. Our ultimate goal is to develop integrative tools for near

  4. The Urban Fabric of the City as Its Affects Thermal Energy Responses Derived from Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The physical geography of the city affects numerous aspects of its interlinked biophysical, social, and land-atmosphere characteristics - those attributes that come together to form the total urban environment. One approach to studying the multitude of interactions that occur as a result of urbanization is to view the city from a systems ecology perspective, where energy and material cycle into and out of the urban milieu. Thus, the urban ecosystem is synergistic in linking land, air, water, and living organisms in a vast network of interrelated physical, human, and biological process. Given the number and the shear complexity of the exchanges and, ultimately, their effects, that occur within the urban environment, we are focusing our research on looking at how the morphology or urban fabric of the city, drives thermal energy exchanges across the urban landscape. The study of thermal energy attributes for different cities provides insight into how thermal fluxes and characteristics are partitioned across the city landscape in response to each city's morphology. We are using thermal infrared remote sensing data obtained at a high spatial resolution from aircraft, along with satellite data, to identify and quantify thermal energy characteristics for 4 U.S. cities: Atlanta, GA, Baton Rouge, LA, Salt Lake City, UT, and Sacramento, CA. Analysis of how thermal energy is spatially distributed across the urban landscapes for these cities provides a unique perspective for understanding how the differing morphology of cities forces land-atmosphere exchanges, such as the urban heat island effect, as well as related meteorological and air quality interactions. Keyword: urban ecosystems, remote sensing, urban heat island

  5. Analysis and research on thermal infrared properties and adaptability of the camouflage net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guangzhen; Hu, Jianghua; Jian, Chaochao; Yang, Juntang

    2016-10-01

    As camouflage equipment, camouflage net which covers or obstruct the enemy reconnaissance and attack, have the compatibility such as optics, infrared, radar wave band performance. To improve the adaptive between the camouflage net with background in infrared wavelengths, the heat shield and heat integration requirements on the surface of the camouflage net was analyzed. The condition that satisfied the heat shield was when the average thermal infrared transmittance was less than 25.38% on camouflage screen surface. Studies have shown that camouflage nets and the background field fused together when infrared radiation temperature difference control is within the scope of ± 4K . Experiment on temperature contrast was tested in situ background, thermal camouflage spots and camouflage net with sponge material, the infrared heat maps was recorded in the period of experiment through the thermal imager. Results showed that the thermal inertia of camouflage net was markedly lower than the background and the exposed signs were obvious. It was difficult to reach camouflage thermal infrared fusion requirements by relying on camouflage spot emissivity, but sponge which mix with polymer resin can reduce target significance in the context of mottled and realize the fusion effect.

  6. Gaussian mixture models-based ship target recognition algorithm in remote sensing infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shoukui; Qin, Xiaojuan

    2018-02-01

    Since the resolution of remote sensing infrared images is low, the features of ship targets become unstable. The issue of how to recognize ships with fuzzy features is an open problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ship target recognition algorithm based on Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). In the proposed algorithm, there are mainly two steps. At the first step, the Hu moments of these ship target images are calculated, and the GMMs are trained on the moment features of ships. At the second step, the moment feature of each ship image is assigned to the trained GMMs for recognition. Because of the scale, rotation, translation invariance property of Hu moments and the power feature-space description ability of GMMs, the GMMs-based ship target recognition algorithm can recognize ship reliably. Experimental results of a large simulating image set show that our approach is effective in distinguishing different ship types, and obtains a satisfactory ship recognition performance.

  7. RESEARCH OF REGISTRATION APPROACHES OF THERMAL INFRARED IMAGES AND INTENSITY IMAGES OF POINT CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize the analysis of thermal energy of the objects in 3D vision, the registration approach of thermal infrared images and TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner point cloud was studied. The original data was pre-processed. For the sake of making the scale and brightness contrast of the two kinds of data meet the needs of basic matching, the intensity image of point cloud was produced and projected to spherical coordinate system, histogram equalization processing was done for thermal infrared image.This paper focused on the research of registration approaches of thermal infrared images and intensity images of point cloud based on SIFT,EOH-SIFT and PIIFD operators. The latter of which is usually used for medical image matching with different spectral character. The comparison results of the experiments showed that PIIFD operator got much more accurate feature point correspondences compared to SIFT and EOH-SIFT operators. The thermal infrared image and intensity image also have ideal overlap results by quadratic polynomial transformation. Therefore, PIIFD can be used as the basic operator for the registration of thermal infrared images and intensity images, and the operator can also be further improved by incorporating the iteration method.

  8. Radar and infrared remote sensing of terrain, water resources, arctic sea ice, and agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, A. W.

    1983-01-01

    Radar range measurements, basic waveforms of radar systems, and radar displays are initially described. These are followed by backscatter from several types of terrain and vegetation as a function of frequency and grazing angle. Analytical models for this backscatter include the facet models of radar return, with range-angle, velocity-range, velocity-angle, range, velocity, and angular only discriminations. Several side-looking airborne radar geometries are presented. Radar images of Arctic sea ice, fresh water lake ice, cloud-covered terrain, and related areas are presented to identify applications of radar imagery. Volume scatter models are applied to radar imagery from alpine snowfields. Short pulse ice thickness radar for subsurface probes is discussed in fresh-water ice and sea ice detection. Infrared scanners, including multispectral, are described. Diffusion of cold water into a river, Arctic sea ice, power plant discharges, volcanic heat, and related areas are presented in thermal imagery. Multispectral radar and infrared imagery are discussed, with comparisons of photographic, infrared, and radar imagery of the same terrain or subjects.

  9. Added Value of Far-Infrared Radiometry for Ice Cloud Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libois, Q.; Blanchet, J. P.; Ivanescu, L.; S Pelletier, L.; Laurence, C.

    2017-12-01

    Several cloud retrieval algorithms based on satellite observations in the infrared have been developed in the last decades. However, most of these observations only cover the midinfrared (MIR, λ technology, though, now make it possible to consider spaceborne remote sensing in the FIR. Here we show that adding a few FIR channels with realistic radiometric performances to existing spaceborne narrowband radiometers would significantly improve their ability to retrieve ice cloud radiative properties. For clouds encountered in the polar regions and the upper troposphere, where the atmosphere above clouds is sufficiently transparent in the FIR, using FIR channels would reduce by more than 50% the uncertainties on retrieved values of optical thickness, effective particle diameter, and cloud top altitude. This would somehow extend the range of applicability of current infrared retrieval methods to the polar regions and to clouds with large optical thickness, where MIR algorithms perform poorly. The high performance of solar reflection-based algorithms would thus be reached in nighttime conditions. Using FIR observations is a promising venue for studying ice cloud microphysics and precipitation processes, which is highly relevant for cirrus clouds and convective towers, and for investigating the water cycle in the driest regions of the atmosphere.

  10. Remote sensing analysis of thermal plumes at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doak, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear reactors of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in Aiken, South Carolina, use cold water diverted from the Savannah River to dissipate unused thermal energy. This water is heated by heat exchangers of the reactors during the materials production process, and then returned to the natural drainage system. Thermal effluents were monitored by an airborne thermal infrared scanner during predawn overlights. Images were generated to show the surface temperature distribution of the thermal outfall plumes into the Savannah River. The thermal analysis provides information related to compliance with permit requirements of the regulatory agencies

  11. Thermal comfort index and infrared temperatures for lambs subjected to different environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago do Prado Paim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an abundance of thermal indices with different input parameters and applicabilities. Infrared thermography is a promising technique for evaluating the response of animals to the environment and differentiating between genetic groups. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate superficial body temperatures of lambs from three genetic groups under different environmental conditions, correlating these with thermal comfort indices. Forty lambs (18 males and 22 females from three genetic groups (Santa Inês, Ile de France × Santa Inês and Dorper × Santa Inês were exposed to three climatic conditions: open air, housed and artificial heating. Infrared thermal images were taken weekly at 6h, 12h and 21h at the neck, front flank, rear flank, rump, nose, skull, trunk and eye. Four thermal comfort indices were calculated using environmental measurements including black globe temperature, air humidity and wind speed. Artificial warming, provided by infrared lamps and wind protection, conserved and increased the superficial body temperature of the lambs, thus providing lower daily thermal ranges. Artificial warming did not influence daily weight gain or mortality. Skin temperatures increased along with increases in climatic indices. Again, infrared thermography is a promising technique for evaluating thermal stress conditions and differentiating environments. However, the use of thermal imaging for understanding animal responses to environmental conditions requires further study.

  12. The automated infrared thermal imaging system for the continuous long-term monitoring of the surface temperature of the Vesuvius crater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Sansivero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Infrared remote sensing monitoring is a significant tool aimed to integrated surveillance system of active volcanic areas. In this paper we describe the realization and the technological evolution of the permanent image thermal infrared (TIR surveillance system of the Vesuvius volcano. The TIR monitoring station was installed on the Vesuvius crater rim on July 2004 in order to acquire scenes of the SW inner slope of Vesuvius crater that is characterized by a significant thermal emission. At that time, it represented the first achievement all over the world of a permanent surveillance thermal imaging system on a volcano. It has been working in its prototypal configuration till May 2007. The experience gained over years about the engineering, management and maintenance of TIR remote acquisition systems in extreme environmental conditions, allows us to design and realize a new release of the TIR monitoring station with improved functionalities and more flexibility for the IR image acquisition, management and storage, which became operational in June 2011. In order to characterize the thermal background of the Vesuvius crater at present state of volcanic quiescence, the time series of TIR images gathered between July 2004 and May 2012 were analyzed using a statistical approach. Results show no significant changes in the thermal radiation during the observation periods, so they can be assumed as representative of a background level to which refer for the interpretation of possible future anomalies related to a renewal of the volcanic dynamics of the Vesuvius volcano.

  13. Experimental Evaluation of Camouflage Effectiveness in the Thermal Infrared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The detectability of a target ln the infrared spectral region ls determined by differences between the radiative stignatures of the target and the local background. This implies that both, the difference in surface temperature and emissivity ^T resp. ^€ and the distribution of these differences over

  14. MINERAL INFORMATION EXTRACTION BASED ON GAOFEN-5’S THERMAL INFRARED DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Gaofen-5 carries six instruments aimed at various land and atmosphere applications, and it’s an important unit of China High-resolution Earth Observation System. As Gaofen-5’s thermal infrared payload is similar to that of ASTER, which is widely used in mineral exploration, application of Gaofen-5’s thermal infrared data is discussed regarding its capability in mineral classification and silica content estimation. First, spectra of silicate, carbonate, sulfate minerals from a spectral library are used to conduct spectral feature analysis on Gaofen-5’s thermal infrared emissivities. Spectral indices of band emissivities are proposed, and by setting thresholds of these spectral indices, it can classify three types of minerals mentioned above. This classification method is tested on a simulated Gaofen-5 emissivity image. With samples acquired from the study area, this method is proven to be feasible. Second, with band emissivities of silicate and their silica content from the same spectral library, correlation models have been tried to be built for silica content inversion. However, the highest correlation coefficient is merely 0.592, which is much lower than that of correlation model built on ASTER thermal infrared emissivity. It can be concluded that GF-5’s thermal infrared data can be utilized in mineral classification but not in silica content inversion.

  15. Visible-infrared remote-sensing model and applications for ocean waters. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhongping

    1994-01-01

    Remote sensing has become important in the ocean sciences, especially for research involving large spatial scales. To estimate the in-water constituents through remote sensing, whether carried out by satellite or airplane, the signal emitted from beneath the sea surface, the so called water-leaving radiance (L(w)), is of prime importance. The magnitude of L(w) depends on two terms: one is the intensity of the solar input, and the other is the reflectance of the in-water constituents. The ratio of the water-leaving radiance to the downwelling irradiance (E(d)) above the sear surface (remote-sensing reflectance, R(sub rs)) is independent of the intensity of the irradiance input, and is largely a function of the optical properties of the in-water constituents. In this work, a model is developed to interpret r(sub rs) for ocean water in the visible-infrared range. In addition to terms for the radiance scattered from molecules and particles, the model includes terms that describe contributions from bottom reflectance, fluorescence of gelbstoff or colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and water Raman scattering. By using this model, the measured R(sub rs) of waters from the West Florida Shelf to the Mississippi River plume, which covered a (concentration of chlorophyll a) range of 0.07 - 50 mg/cu m, were well interpreted. The average percentage difference (a.p.d.) between the measured and modeled R(sub rs) is 3.4%, and, for the shallow waters, the model-required water depth is within 10% of the chart depth. Simple mathematical simulations for the phytoplankton pigment absorption coefficient (a(sub theta)) are suggested for using the R(sub rs) model. The inverse problem of R(sub rs), which is to analytically derive the in-water constituents from R(sub rs) data alone, can be solved using the a(sub theta) functions without prior knowledge of the in-water optical properties. More importantly, this method avoids problems associated with a need for knowledge of the shape

  16. Conformational changes in matrix-isolated 6-methoxyindole: Effects of the thermal and infrared light excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes Jesus, A. J. [CQC, Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); CQC, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3004-295 Coimbra (Portugal); Reva, I., E-mail: reva@qui.uc.pt; Fausto, R. [CQC, Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Araujo-Andrade, C. [CQC, Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Unidad Académica de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico); ICFO–The Institute of Photonic Sciences, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2016-03-28

    Conformational changes induced thermally or upon infrared excitation of matrix-isolated 6-methoxyindole were investigated. Narrowband near-infrared excitation of the first overtone of the N–H stretching vibration of each one of the two identified conformers is found to induce a selective large-scale conversion of the pumped conformer into the other one. This easily controllable bidirectional process consists in the intramolecular reorientation of the methoxy group and allowed a full assignment of the infrared spectra of the two conformers. Matrices with different conformational compositions prepared by narrow-band irradiations were subsequently used to investigate the effects of both thermal and broadband infrared excitations on the conformational mixtures. Particular attention is given to the influence of the matrix medium (Ar vs. Xe) and conformational effects of exposition of the sample to the spectrometer light source during the measurements.

  17. Solar panel thermal cycling testing by solar simulation and infrared radiation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    For the solar panels of the European Space Agency (ESA) satellites OTS/MAROTS and ECS/MARECS the thermal cycling tests were performed by using solar simulation methods. The performance data of two different solar simulators used and the thermal test results are described. The solar simulation thermal cycling tests for the ECS/MARECS solar panels were carried out with the aid of a rotatable multipanel test rig by which simultaneous testing of three solar panels was possible. As an alternative thermal test method, the capability of an infrared radiation method was studied and infrared simulation tests for the ultralight panel and the INTELSAT 5 solar panels were performed. The setup and the characteristics of the infrared radiation unit using a quartz lamp array of approx. 15 sq and LN2-cooled shutter and the thermal test results are presented. The irradiation uniformity, the solar panel temperature distribution, temperature changing rates for both test methods are compared. Results indicate the infrared simulation is an effective solar panel thermal testing method.

  18. Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  19. USING OF THE MULTITEMPORAL THERMAL INFRARED SATELLITE IMAGERY FOR NATURAL AREAS MAPPING (CASE OF MENDELEEV VOLCANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Grishchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper authors examine the mountain group of Mendeleev volcano situated on the Kunashir island, Kuril archipelago, Russia. Ground observations were led to examine the vegetation cover of the area as well as its typical landscapes. The other type of used data is Landsat imagery. Images were combined into multitemporal thermal infrared and multispectral pictures, which were classified to reveal the heterogeneity of the study area. Ground observations and comparison of the classification results with landscape map derive that the multitemporal thermal infrared image classification result describes better the vegetation cover structure of the area and particularity of its typical landscapes distribution. It leads to the proposition that miltitemporal thermal infrared imagery can be used to refine landscape and vegetation cover contours. 

  20. Biodegradable starch-based films containing saturated fatty acids: thermal, infrared and raman spectroscopic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo M. Nobrega

    Full Text Available Biodegradable films of thermoplastic starch and poly (butylene adipate co-terephthalate (PBAT containing fatty acids were characterized thermally and with infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The symmetrical character of the benzene ring in PBAT provided a means to illustrate the difference between these spectroscopic techniques, because a band appeared in the Raman spectrum but not in the infrared. The thermal analysis showed three degradation stages related to fatty acids, starch and PBAT. The incorporation of saturated fatty acids with different molecular mass (caproic, lauric and stearic did not change the nature of the chemical bonds among the components in the blends of starch, PBAT and glycerol, according to the thermal analysis, infrared and Raman spectroscopies.

  1. Key issues in the thermal design of spaceborne cryogenic infrared instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schember, Helene R.; Rapp, Donald

    1992-12-01

    Thermal design and analysis play an integral role in the development of spaceborne cryogenic infrared (IR) instruments. From conceptual sketches to final testing, both direct and derived thermal requirements place significant constraints on the instrument design. Although in practice these thermal requirements are interdependent, the sources of most thermal constraints may be grouped into six distinct categories. These are: (1) Detector temperatures, (2) Optics temperatures, (3) Pointing or alignment stability, (4) Mission lifetime, (5) Orbit, and (6) Test and Integration. In this paper, we discuss these six sources of thermal requirements with particular regard to development of instrument packages for low background infrared astronomical observatories. In the end, the thermal performance of these instruments must meet a set of thermal requirements. The development of these requirements is typically an ongoing and interactive process, however, and the thermal design must maintain flexibility and robustness throughout the process. The thermal (or cryogenic) engineer must understand the constraints imposed by the science requirements, the specific hardware, the observing environment, the mission design, and the testing program. By balancing these often competing factors, the system-oriented thermal engineer can work together with the experiment team to produce an effective overall design of the instrument.

  2. New orientation and accessibility option for persons with visual impairment: transportation applications for remote infrared audible signage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, William; Bentzen, Billie Louise; Myers, Linda; Brabyn, John

    2001-05-01

    BACKGROUND: For a blind or visually impaired person, a vital prerequisite to accessing any feature of the built environment is being able to find this feature. Braille signs, even where available, do not replace the functions of print signage because they cannot be read from a distance. Remotely readable infrared signs utilise spoken infrared message transmissions to label key environmental features, so that a blind person with a suitable receiver can locate and identify them from a distance. METHODS: Three problems that are among the most challenging and dangerous faced by blind travellers are negotiating complex transit stations, locating bus stops and safely and efficiently crossing light-controlled intersections. We report the results of human factors studies using a remote infrared audible sign system (RIAS), Talking Signs(R), in these critical tasks, examining issues such as the amount of training needed to use the system, its impact on performance and safety, benefits for different population subgroups and user opinions of its value. RESULTS: Results are presented in the form of both objective performance measures and in subjects' ratings of the usefulness of the system in performing these tasks. Findings are that blind people can quickly and easily learn to use remote infrared audible signage effectively and that its use improves travel safety, efficiency and independence.? CONCLUSIONS: The technology provides equal access to a wide variety of public facilities.

  3. Retrieval of leaf water content spanning the visible to thermal infrared spectra

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ullah, S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ; Hunt and Rock 1989; Sepulcre-Cantó et al. 2006). 45 Retrieving leaf water content using remote sensing data, has been widely investigated in the 46 visible near infrared (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectra (Thomas et al. 1971; 47 Danson et..., USA: NASA / GSFC 400 Savitzky, A., & Golay, M.J.E. (1964). Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified Least 401 squares procedures. Analytical Chemistry, 36, 1627-1639 402 Sepulcre-Cantó, G., Zarco-Tejada, P.J., Jiménez-Muñoz, J.C., Sobrino...

  4. [Using infrared thermal asymmetry analysis for objective assessment of the lesion of facial nerve function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu-long; Hong, Wen-xue; Song, Jia-lin; Wu, Zhen-ying

    2012-03-01

    The skin temperature distribution of a healthy human body exhibits a contralateral symmetry. Some lesions of facial nerve function are associated with an alteration of the thermal distribution of the human body. Since the dissipation of heat through the skin occurs for the most part in the form of infrared radiation, infrared thermography is the method of choice to capture the alteration of the infrared thermal distribution. This paper presents a new method of analysis of the thermal asymmetry named effective thermal area ratio, which is a product of two variables. The first variable is mean temperature difference between the specific facial region and its contralateral region. The second variable is a ratio, which is equal to the area of the abnormal region divided by the total area. Using this new method, we performed a controlled trial to assess the facial nerve function of the healthy subjects and the patients with Bell's palsy respectively. The results show: that the mean specificity and sensitivity of this method are 0.90 and 0.87 respectively, improved by 7% and 26% compared with conventional methods. Spearman correlation coefficient between effective thermal area ratio and the degree of facial nerve function is an average of 0.664. Hence, concerning the diagnosis and assessment of facial nerve function, infrared thermography is a powerful tool; while the effective ther mal area ratio is an efficient clinical indicator.

  5. Exploring the mid-infrared region for urban remote sensing: seasonal and view angle effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, C. P.; Kovalskyy, V.; Henebry, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Spanning 3-5 microns, the mid-infrared (MIR) region is the mixing zone between reflected sunlight and emitted earthlight in roughly equal proportions. While the MIR has been utilized in atmospheric remote sensing, its potential in terrestrial remote sensing--particularly urban remote sensing, has yet to be realized. One major advantage of the MIR is the ability to penetrate most anthropogenic haze and smog. Green vegetation appears MIR-dark, urban building materials appear MIR-grey, and bare soil and dried vegetation appear MIR-bright. Thus, there is an intrinsic seasonality in MIR radiance dynamics due both to surface type differences and to seasonal change in insolation. These factors merit exploration into the potential applications of the MIR for monitoring urban change. We investigated MIR radiance dynamics in relation to (1) the spectral properties of land cover types, (2) time of year and (3) sensor view zenith angle (VZA). We used Aqua MODIS daily swaths for band 23 (~ 4.05 μm) at 1 km spatial resolution from 2009-2010 and the NLCD Percent Impervious Surface Area (%ISA) 30 m product from 2001 and 2006. We found the effects of time of year, sensor VZA, and %ISA to be three principal factors influencing MIR radiance dynamics. We focused on analyzing the relationship between MIR radiance and %ISA over eight major cities in the Great Plains of the USA. This region is characterized by four distinct seasons, relatively flat terrain, and isolated urban centers situated within a vegetated landscape. We used west-east transects beginning in the agricultural areas outside of each city, passing through the urban core and extending back out into the agricultural periphery to observe the spatial pattern of MIR radiance and how it changes seasonally. Sensor VZA influences radiance dynamics by affecting the proportion of surface elements detected--especially pertinent at the coarse spatial resolution (~1 km) of MODIS. For example, smaller VZAs (30°). Larger VZAs detect

  6. Infrared, X-ray and thermal analysis of praseodym soaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrotra, K.N.; Sharma, M.; Gahlaut, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    Infrared spectra tests have shown that fatty acids exist with a dimeric structure through hydrogen bonding between two molecules of fatty acids whereas metal-to-oxygen bonds in metal soaps have an ionic character but the bonds are not purely ionic. X-ray diffraction tests confirm that praseodymium soaps have a double layer structure with molecular axes slightly inclined to the basal plane. It is concluded that the decomposition reaction of praseodymium soaps is kinetically of zero order and the activation energy for the process lies in the range of 1 to 10 kcal mole -1 . (orig.) [de

  7. Infrared photon-echo spectroscopy of water : The thermalization effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Yeremenko, Sergey; Wiersma, Douwe A.; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Nelson, Keith A.; Okada, Tadashi; Silvestri, Sandro De

    2005-01-01

    The larger part of the nonlinear response in IR photon-echo and transient-grating spectroscopy on HDO-D2O mixtures at > 1-ps delays is found to originate from the D2O refractive index modulation due to local volume thermalization.

  8. Near infrared spectroscopy for controlling the quality of distal leg perfusion in remote access cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Thomas; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Bonatti, Johannes; Kolbitsch, Christian

    2008-12-01

    The prevention of leg ischemia is necessary in all patients undergoing femoral artery cannulation for extracorporeal circulation. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an established non-invasive method for measuring tissue oxygen saturation. Ten patients underwent robotically assisted endoscopic coronary surgery or ASD repair on the arrested heart using aortic endo-occlusion catheters. They were monitored by transcutaneous NIRS (placed on both lower legs) for quality control of distal leg perfusion during femoral access cardiopulmonary bypass. The baseline NIRS values were 61 (52-80) on the cannulated side versus 70 (53-80) on the contralateral leg (p=n.s.). During clamping of the femoral artery for installation of the remote access perfusion system the tissue oxygen saturation dropped to 38 (18-58) (p=0.001 vs baseline) while it remained stable on the contralateral leg. After successful implantation of the distal leg perfusion the NIRS values normalized to similar amounts on both legs. We conclude that transcutaneous NIRS of the lower legs might be a useful non-invasive tool for monitoring leg perfusion in patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation via the femoral vessels.

  9. AT89S52 Microcontroller Based Remote Room Monitoring System Using Passive Infrared Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Gifson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research describes about the design of the room detection system using a Passive Infrared sensors (PIR controlled by Microcontroller AT89S52 for remote control application. The output of the PIR is a low logic when it captures the heat waves of the human body. The output PIR is connected to the port 1.7 on Microcontroller in high logic. The maximum distance is 5 meters for the sensor to detect an object. When there is a signal sent by PIR, the Microcontroller processes the data and activates the buzzer to beep and the stepper motor to stop. Microcontroller also sends data through the RS-232 that continues a signal to the personal mobile phone. In order that the message is able to be sent, then first, messages must be programmed and stored in the Microcontroller AT89S52. The average message delivery time is 8.8 seconds. The recipient can turn the alarm of system on or off by a missed call.

  10. A Multi-Wavelength Thermal Infrared and Reflectance Scene Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, J. R., Jr.; Smith, J. A.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Several theoretical calculations are presented and our approach discussed for simulating overall composite scene thermal infrared exitance and canopy bidirectional reflectance of a forest canopy. Calculations are performed for selected wavelength bands of the DOE Multispectral Thermal Imagery and comparisons with atmospherically corrected MTI imagery are underway. NASA EO-1 Hyperion observations also are available and the favorable comparison of our reflective model results with these data are reported elsewhere.

  11. Thermal remote sensing of active vegetation fires and biomass burning events [Chapter 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin J. Wooster; Gareth Roberts; Alistair M.S. Smith; Joshua Johnston; Patrick Freeborn; Stefania Amici; Andrew T. Hudak

    2013-01-01

    Thermal remote sensing is widely used in the detection, study, and management of biomass burning occurring in open vegetation fires. Such fires may be planned for land management purposes, may occur as a result of a malicious or accidental ignition by humans, or may result from lightning or other natural phenomena. Under suitable conditions, fires may spread rapidly...

  12. Remote assessment of permeability/thermal diffusivity of consolidated clay sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovell, M.A.; Ogden, P.

    1984-02-01

    The aim of this project was to examine the feasibility of predicting marine sediment permeability and thermal diffusivity by remote geophysical observations. For this purpose a modified consolidation cell was developed and constructed and tests on deep sea sediment samples carried out. Results and conclusions of a nineteen month programme are presented. (U.K.)

  13. Sea-land segmentation for infrared remote sensing images based on superpixels and multi-scale features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Sen; Zou, Zhengxia; Liu, Dunge; Xia, Zhenghuan; Shi, Zhenwei

    2018-06-01

    Sea-land segmentation is a key step for the information processing of ocean remote sensing images. Traditional sea-land segmentation algorithms ignore the local similarity prior of sea and land, and thus fail in complex scenarios. In this paper, we propose a new sea-land segmentation method for infrared remote sensing images to tackle the problem based on superpixels and multi-scale features. Considering the connectivity and local similarity of sea or land, we interpret the sea-land segmentation task in view of superpixels rather than pixels, where similar pixels are clustered and the local similarity are explored. Moreover, the multi-scale features are elaborately designed, comprising of gray histogram and multi-scale total variation. Experimental results on infrared bands of Landsat-8 satellite images demonstrate that the proposed method can obtain more accurate and more robust sea-land segmentation results than the traditional algorithms.

  14. Infrared electro-thermal NDE of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.R.; Hassberger, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Electro-thermal examination, a branch of thermal testing, is a promising method being developed for nondestructive examination of stainless steel welds. This paper describes the first phase of development; i.e., preliminary demonstration and laboratory evaluation of the method's sensitivity to notches in Type 304 stainless steel plate specimens. It also includes a description of the basic principles, together with a description of the hardware and experimental results showing that electrical discharge machined notches down to 0.16 cm long x 0.08 cm deep were detected. A qualitative technique for interpreting the test results to determine whether defects are at the surface or deeper within the material is demonstrated

  15. Infrared X-ray and thermal analysis of terbium soaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrotra, K.N.; Sharma, N.

    1996-01-01

    Terbium sops (laureate, myristate and palmitate) were synthesized by direct metathesis of corresponding potassium soap with an aqueous solution of terbium nitrate. The physico-chemical characteristics of soaps in solid state were investigated by IR spectra, X-ray diffraction patterns and TGA measurements. The IR results revealed that the fatty acids exist in dimeric state through hydrogen bonding while the soaps possess partial ionic character. The X-ray analysis showed that the soaps have double layer structure with molecular axes slightly inclined to the basal plane. The thermal analysis suggested that the decomposition of soaps occur in two steps. The energy of activation, order of reaction and various kinetic parameters (i.e. frequency factor, entropy of activation and free energy) for the thermal decomposition of soaps were evaluated. (author). 26 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  16. Thermal infrared spectroscopy and partial least squares regression to determine mineral modes of granitoid rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hecker, Christoph; Dilles, John H.; van der Meijde, Mark; van der Meer, Freek D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to extracting mineralogic information from thermal infrared (TIR) spectra that is not based on an input library of pure mineral spectra nor tries to extract spectral end‐members from the data. Instead, existing modal mineralogy for a number of samples are used

  17. Cancellation of infrared and mass singularities in the thermal di-lepton rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altherr, T.; Becherrawy, T.

    1989-03-01

    We give a rigorous proof that, at first order in α s , the thermal di-lepton rate is free of infrared and mass singularities. The calculation is performed for massive quarks in the real-time formalism with the n-dimensional regularization scheme. The cancellation is shown to occur within each topology

  18. University Physics Students' Ideas of Thermal Radiation Expressed in Open Laboratory Activities Using Infrared Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Jesper; Melander, Emil; Weiszflog, Matthias; Andersson, Staffan

    2017-01-01

    Background: University physics students were engaged in open-ended thermodynamics laboratory activities with a focus on understanding a chosen phenomenon or the principle of laboratory apparatus, such as thermal radiation and a heat pump. Students had access to handheld infrared (IR) cameras for their investigations. Purpose: The purpose of the…

  19. Exploring the use of thermal infrared imaging in human stress research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Engert

    Full Text Available High resolution thermal infrared imaging is a pioneering method giving indices of sympathetic activity via the contact-free recording of facial tissues (thermal imprints. Compared to established stress markers, the great advantage of this method is its non-invasiveness. The goal of our study was to pilot the use of thermal infrared imaging in the classical setting of human stress research. Thermal imprints were compared to established stress markers (heart rate, heart rate variability, finger temperature, alpha-amylase and cortisol in 15 participants undergoing anticipation, stress and recovery phases of two laboratory stress tests, the Cold Pressor Test and the Trier Social Stress Test. The majority of the thermal imprints proved to be change-sensitive in both tests. While correlations between the thermal imprints and established stress markers were mostly non-significant, the thermal imprints (but not the established stress makers did correlate with stress-induced mood changes. Multivariate pattern analysis revealed that in contrast to the established stress markers the thermal imprints could not disambiguate anticipation, stress and recovery phases of both tests. Overall, these results suggest that thermal infrared imaging is a valuable method for the estimation of sympathetic activity in the stress laboratory setting. The use of this non-invasive method may be particularly beneficial for covert recordings, in the study of special populations showing difficulties in complying with the standard instruments of data collection and in the domain of psychophysiological covariance research. Meanwhile, the established stress markers seem to be superior when it comes to the characterization of complex physiological states during the different phases of the stress cycle.

  20. Physiology-based face recognition in the thermal infrared spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddharaju, Pradeep; Pavlidis, Ioannis T; Tsiamyrtzis, Panagiotis; Bazakos, Mike

    2007-04-01

    The current dominant approaches to face recognition rely on facial characteristics that are on or over the skin. Some of these characteristics have low permanency can be altered, and their phenomenology varies significantly with environmental factors (e.g., lighting). Many methodologies have been developed to address these problems to various degrees. However, the current framework of face recognition research has a potential weakness due to its very nature. We present a novel framework for face recognition based on physiological information. The motivation behind this effort is to capitalize on the permanency of innate characteristics that are under the skin. To establish feasibility, we propose a specific methodology to capture facial physiological patterns using the bioheat information contained in thermal imagery. First, the algorithm delineates the human face from the background using the Bayesian framework. Then, it localizes the superficial blood vessel network using image morphology. The extracted vascular network produces contour shapes that are characteristic to each individual. The branching points of the skeletonized vascular network are referred to as Thermal Minutia Points (TMPs) and constitute the feature database. To render the method robust to facial pose variations, we collect for each subject to be stored in the database five different pose images (center, midleft profile, left profile, midright profile, and right profile). During the classification stage, the algorithm first estimates the pose of the test image. Then, it matches the local and global TMP structures extracted from the test image with those of the corresponding pose images in the database. We have conducted experiments on a multipose database of thermal facial images collected in our laboratory, as well as on the time-gap database of the University of Notre Dame. The good experimental results show that the proposed methodology has merit, especially with respect to the problem of

  1. Detection of water leakage in buried pipes using infrared technology; a comparative study of using high and low resolution infrared cameras for evaluating distant remote detection

    OpenAIRE

    Shakmak, B; Al-Habaibeh, A

    2015-01-01

    Water is one of the most precious commodities around the world. However, significant amount of water is lost daily in many countries through broken and leaking pipes. This paper investigates the use of low and high resolution infrared systems to detect water leakage in relatively dry countries. The overall aim is to develop a non-contact and high speed system that could be used to detect leakage in pipes remotely via the effect of the change in humidity on the temperature of the ground due to...

  2. Ten years of ASTER thermal infrared data from Terra: Discoveries, lessons learned, and insights into future missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, M. S.; Dehn, J.; Duda, K.; Hughes, C. G.; Lee, R.; Rose, S.; Scheidt, S. P.; Wessels, R. L.

    2009-12-01

    Soon after its launch in December 1999, the ASTER sensor on the NASA Terra satellite began acquiring infrared data of dynamic surface processes around the world. For the first time in history, well calibrated, relatively high spatial resolution thermal infrared (TIR) data was being collected in more than two spectral bands. These data began a new era in Earth science from space allowing us to examine such diverse topics as the compositional mapping of eolian systems, the accurate detection of subpixel thermal heterogeneities, the relationship between emitted energy from glassy materials and the volcanic processes that formed them, and the thermophysical behavior of the land surface. The TIR subsystem of ASTER has maintained very good radiometric accuracy over the last decade, which is double the original design life. The diligence of the ASTER Science Team to maintain this quality and expand the data through programs such as the night time TIR global map will provide a scientific dataset utilized for many years in the future. For example, one such program started in 2003 was a new collaboration between the ASTER project and the U.S. Geological Survey to help better monitor the explosive volcanoes of the northern Pacific region. The rapid response mode of the instrument has now been automated and linked to a larger-scale and more rapid monitoring alert system operated by the Alaska Volcano Observatory. ASTER TIR data collected under this project are commonly the first detailed views of new activity at these remote volcanoes, with over 1400 TIR images having been acquired for the five most active Kamchatka volcanoes. This presentation will focus on an overview of the science and operational results over the last decade using data from the ASTER TIR sensor. ASTER has the capability to acquire high spatial resolution data from the visible to the TIR wavelength region. Those data, in conjunction with its ability to generate digital elevation models (DEM’s), makes the

  3. A Decision Support Information System for Urban Landscape Management Using Thermal Infrared Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Howell, Burgess F.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we describe efforts to use remote sensing data within the purview of an information support system, to assess urban thermal landscape characteristics as a means for developing more robust models of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. We also present a rationale on how we have successfully translated the results from the study of urban thermal heating and cooling regimes as identified from remote sensing data, to decision-makers, planners, government officials, and the public at large in several US cities to facilitate better understanding of how the UHI affects air quality. Additionally, through the assessment of the spatial distribution of urban thermal landscape characteristics using remote sensing data, it is possible to develop strategies to mitigate the UHI that hopefully will in turn, drive down ozone levels and improve overall urban air quality. Four US cities have been the foci for intensive analysis as part of our studies: Atlanta, GA, Baton Rouge, LA, Salt Lake City, UT, and Sacramento, CA. The remote sensing data for each of these cities has been used to generate a number of products for use by "stakeholder" working groups to convey information on what the effects are of the UHI and what measures can be taken to mitigate it. In turn, these data products are used to both educate and inform policy-makers, planners, and the general public about what kinds of UHI mitigation strategies are available.

  4. Near-infrared remotely triggered drug-release strategies for cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Amanda M.; Neumann, Oara; Nørregaard, Kamilla; Henderson, Luke; Choi, Mi-Ran; Clare, Susan E.; Halas, Naomi J.

    2017-11-01

    Remotely controlled, localized drug delivery is highly desirable for potentially minimizing the systemic toxicity induced by the administration of typically hydrophobic chemotherapy drugs by conventional means. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems provide a highly promising approach for localized drug delivery, and are an emerging field of interest in cancer treatment. Here, we demonstrate near-IR light-triggered release of two drug molecules from both DNA-based and protein-based hosts that have been conjugated to near-infrared-absorbing Au nanoshells (SiO2 core, Au shell), each forming a light-responsive drug delivery complex. We show that, depending upon the drug molecule, the type of host molecule, and the laser illumination method (continuous wave or pulsed laser), in vitro light-triggered release can be achieved with both types of nanoparticle-based complexes. Two breast cancer drugs, docetaxel and HER2-targeted lapatinib, were delivered to MDA-MB-231 and SKBR3 (overexpressing HER2) breast cancer cells and compared with release in noncancerous RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Continuous wave laser-induced release of docetaxel from a nanoshell-based DNA host complex showed increased cell death, which also coincided with nonspecific cell death from photothermal heating. Using a femtosecond pulsed laser, lapatinib release from a nanoshell-based human serum albumin protein host complex resulted in increased cancerous cell death while noncancerous control cells were unaffected. Both methods provide spatially and temporally localized drug-release strategies that can facilitate high local concentrations of chemotherapy drugs deliverable at a specific treatment site over a specific time window, with the potential for greatly minimized side effects.

  5. The Development of a Low-Cost, Near Infrared, High-Temperature Thermal Imaging System and Its Application to the Retrieval of Accurate Lava Lake Temperatures at Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Charles Wilkes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Near infrared thermal cameras can provide useful low-cost imaging systems for high temperature applications, as an alternative to ubiquitous mid-/long-wavelength infrared systems. Here, we present a new Raspberry Pi-based near infrared thermal camera for use at temperatures of ≈>500 °C. We discuss in detail the building of the optical system, calibration using a Sakuma-Hattori model and quantification of uncertainties in remote temperature retrievals. We then present results from the deployment of the system on Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua, where the active lava lake was imaged. Temperatures reached a maximum of 1104 ± 14 °C and the lake radiative power output was found to range between 30 and 45 MW. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published ground-based data on the thermal characteristics of this relatively nascent lava lake, which became visible in late 2015.

  6. Added value of far-infrared radiometry for remote sensing of ice clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libois, Quentin; Blanchet, Jean-Pierre

    2017-06-01

    Several cloud retrieval algorithms based on satellite observations in the infrared have been developed in the last decades. However, these observations only cover the midinfrared (MIR, λ transparent in the FIR, using FIR channels would reduce by more than 50% the uncertainties on retrieved values of optical thickness, effective particle diameter, and cloud top altitude. Notably, this would extend the range of applicability of current retrieval methods to the polar regions and to clouds with large optical thickness, where MIR algorithms perform poorly. The high performance of solar reflection-based algorithms would thus be reached in nighttime conditions. Since the sensitivity of ice cloud thermal emission to effective particle diameter is approximately 5 times larger in the FIR than in the MIR, using FIR observations is a promising venue for studying ice cloud microphysics and precipitation processes. This is highly relevant for cirrus clouds and convective towers. This is also essential to study precipitation in the driest regions of the atmosphere, where strong feedbacks are at play between clouds and water vapor. The deployment in the near future of a FIR spaceborne radiometer is technologically feasible and should be strongly supported.

  7. A design of an on-orbit radiometric calibration device for high dynamic range infrared remote sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yicheng; Jin, Weiqi; Dun, Xiong; Zhou, Feng; Xiao, Si

    2017-10-01

    manufacture of the scanning infrared imaging system, the infrared remote sensing system, the infrared early-warning satellite, and so on.

  8. Wide-area remote-sensing system of pollution and gas dispersal by near-infrared absorption based on low-loss optical fiber network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, H.

    1986-01-01

    An all optical remote sensing system utilizing long distance, ultralow loss optical fiber networks is studied and discussed for near infrared absorption measurements of combustible and/or explosive gases such as CH4 and C3H8 in our environment, including experimental results achieved in a diameter more than 20 km. The use of a near infrared wavelength range is emphasized.

  9. A debugging method of the Quadrotor UAV based on infrared thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guangjie; Hao, Qian; Yang, Jianguo; Chen, Lizhi; Hu, Hongkang; Zhang, Lijun

    2018-01-01

    High-performance UAV has been popular and in great need in recent years. The paper introduces a new method in debugging Quadrotor UAVs. Based on the infrared thermal technology and heat transfer theory, a UAV is under debugging above a hot-wire grid which is composed of 14 heated nichrome wires. And the air flow propelled by the rotating rotors has an influence on the temperature distribution of the hot-wire grid. An infrared thermal imager below observes the distribution and gets thermal images of the hot-wire grid. With the assistance of mathematic model and some experiments, the paper discusses the relationship between thermal images and the speed of rotors. By means of getting debugged UAVs into test, the standard information and thermal images can be acquired. The paper demonstrates that comparing to the standard thermal images, a UAV being debugging in the same test can draw some critical data directly or after interpolation. The results are shown in the paper and the advantages are discussed.

  10. Estimating top-of-atmosphere thermal infrared radiance using MERRA-2 atmospheric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleynhans, Tania; Montanaro, Matthew; Gerace, Aaron; Kanan, Christopher

    2017-05-01

    Thermal infrared satellite images have been widely used in environmental studies. However, satellites have limited temporal resolution, e.g., 16 day Landsat or 1 to 2 day Terra MODIS. This paper investigates the use of the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis data product, produced by NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to predict global topof-atmosphere (TOA) thermal infrared radiance. The high temporal resolution of the MERRA-2 data product presents opportunities for novel research and applications. Various methods were applied to estimate TOA radiance from MERRA-2 variables namely (1) a parameterized physics based method, (2) Linear regression models and (3) non-linear Support Vector Regression. Model prediction accuracy was evaluated using temporally and spatially coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal infrared data as reference data. This research found that Support Vector Regression with a radial basis function kernel produced the lowest error rates. Sources of errors are discussed and defined. Further research is currently being conducted to train deep learning models to predict TOA thermal radiance

  11. Infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis of prepared cation exchangers from cellulosic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.M.A.; EI-Sherief, S.; Nasr, A.; Kamel, M.

    2005-01-01

    Different cation exchangers were prepared by incorporation of phosphate and sulfate groups into acid or alkali treated wood pulp. The molecular structure of these cation exchangers were followed by infrared spectroscopy and thermal degradation analysis technique. From infrared spectra, a new bands are seen at 1200 and 980 cm-1 in phosphorylated wood pulp due to the formation of C-O-P bond. Another bands were seen at 1400, 1200 and 980 cm-1 in phospho sulfonated wood pulp due to the formation of CO- P and C-O-S bonds. Also, it is seen from infrared spectra that the crystallinity index for acid treated wood pulp has a higher value than untreated and alkali treated wood pulp. On the other hand, the acid treated and phosphorylated acid treated wood pulp have a higher activation energy than untreated and phosphorylated alkali treated wood pulp

  12. On the metal-rich surfaces of (16) Psyche and other M-type asteroids from interferometric observations in the thermal infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbo, Marco; Matter, A.; Gundlach, B.; Blum, J.

    2013-10-01

    Asteroids belonging to the spectroscopic M-type exhibit a quasi featureless and moderately red reflectance spectrum and a geometric visible albedo between 0.1 and 0.3. These asteroids were initially thought to be metallic cores of differentiated asteroids that were exposed to space by a catastrophic disruption by impacts. Later, this view has been challenged by the detection of silicates and hydration spectroscopic bands on these bodies. Unveiling the physical properties of the surfaces of these asteroids, and identifying their meteorite analogs is a challenge from remote-sensing observations. Nevertheless, these are crucial problems, important for estimating the number of asteroids that underwent differentiation in the early phases of the formation of our solar system. The thermal inertia is a sensitive indicator for the presence of metal in the regolith on the surfaces of asteroids. We developed a new thermophysical model that allow us to derive the value of the thermal inertia from interferometric observations in the thermal infrared. We report on our investigation of the thermal inertia of M-type asteroids, including the asteroids (16) Psyche, for which we obtained a thermal inertia value anomalously high compared to the thermal inertia values of other asteroids in the same size range. From the thermal inertia and model of heat conductivity that accounts for different values of the packing fraction (a measure of the degree of compaction of the regolith particles) the regolith grain size is derived.

  13. MIS photodetectors on intrinsic semiconductors for thermal infrared imagery - A design aid for focal plane matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farre, J.

    1980-12-01

    The physical mechanisms determining the operational behavior of an MIS photodetector for thermal infrared imagery based on a two-dimensional matrix of intrinsic semiconductors constituting a charge injection device are examined. The general principles of a thermal infrared imagery system composed of radiation source, atmosphere, sensor system with entrance optics, detector and environment, and data processing means are introduced, and the parameters of the system as a whole influencing detector characteristics are indicated. The properties of an ideal and a real MIS photodetector are discussed, with attention given to the physical properties of narrow bandgap materials such as InSb, operational properties in the dynamic regime, the carrier tunneling component and experimentally observed instability phenomena. The matrix organization of MIS photodetectors is then considered, with particular attention given to a simple model of charge transfer between two electrodes and the two principal reading mechanisms: charge injection and the floating potential method.

  14. Prospective for graphene based thermal mid-infrared light emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, L. M.; Mahlmeister, N. H.; Luxmoore, I. J.; Nash, G. R.

    2014-08-01

    We have investigated the spatial and spectral characteristics of mid-infrared thermal emission from large area Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) graphene, transferred onto SiO2/Si, and show that the emission is broadly that of a grey-body emitter, with emissivity values of approximately 2% and 6% for mono- and multilayer graphene. For the currents used, which could be sustained for over one hundred hours, the emission peaked at a wavelength of around 4 μm and covered the characteristic absorption of many important gases. A measurable modulation of thermal emission was obtained even when the drive current was modulated at frequencies up to 100 kHz.

  15. Infrared remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols; Apports du sondage infrarouge a l'etude des aerosols atmospheriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierangelo, C.

    2005-09-15

    The 2001 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emphasized the very low level of understanding of atmospheric aerosol effects on climate. These particles originate either from natural sources (dust, volcanic aerosols...) or from anthropogenic sources (sulfates, soot...). They are one of the main sources of uncertainty on climate change, partly because they show a very high spatio-temporal variability. Observation from space, being global and quasi-continuous, is therefore a first importance tool for aerosol studies. Remote sensing in the visible domain has been widely used to obtain a better characterization of these particles and their effect on solar radiation. On the opposite, remote sensing of aerosols in the infrared domain still remains marginal. Yet, not only the knowledge of the effect of aerosols on terrestrial radiation is needed for the evaluation of their total radiative forcing, but also infrared remote sensing provides a way to retrieve other aerosol characteristics (observations are possible at night and day, over land and sea). In this PhD dissertation, we show that aerosol optical depth, altitude and size can be retrieved from infrared sounder observations. We first study the sensitivity of aerosol optical properties to their micro-physical properties, we then develop a radiative transfer code for scattering medium adapted to the very high spectral resolution of the new generation sounder NASA-Aqua/AIRS, and we finally focus on the inverse problem. The applications shown here deal with Pinatubo stratospheric volcanic aerosol, observed with NOAA/HIRS, and with the building of an 8 year climatology of dust over sea and land from this sounder. Finally, from AIRS observations, we retrieve the optical depth at 10 {mu}m, the average altitude and the coarse mode effective radius of mineral dust over sea. (author)

  16. Infrared remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols; Apports du sondage infrarouge a l'etude des aerosols atmospheriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierangelo, C

    2005-09-15

    The 2001 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emphasized the very low level of understanding of atmospheric aerosol effects on climate. These particles originate either from natural sources (dust, volcanic aerosols...) or from anthropogenic sources (sulfates, soot...). They are one of the main sources of uncertainty on climate change, partly because they show a very high spatio-temporal variability. Observation from space, being global and quasi-continuous, is therefore a first importance tool for aerosol studies. Remote sensing in the visible domain has been widely used to obtain a better characterization of these particles and their effect on solar radiation. On the opposite, remote sensing of aerosols in the infrared domain still remains marginal. Yet, not only the knowledge of the effect of aerosols on terrestrial radiation is needed for the evaluation of their total radiative forcing, but also infrared remote sensing provides a way to retrieve other aerosol characteristics (observations are possible at night and day, over land and sea). In this PhD dissertation, we show that aerosol optical depth, altitude and size can be retrieved from infrared sounder observations. We first study the sensitivity of aerosol optical properties to their micro-physical properties, we then develop a radiative transfer code for scattering medium adapted to the very high spectral resolution of the new generation sounder NASA-Aqua/AIRS, and we finally focus on the inverse problem. The applications shown here deal with Pinatubo stratospheric volcanic aerosol, observed with NOAA/HIRS, and with the building of an 8 year climatology of dust over sea and land from this sounder. Finally, from AIRS observations, we retrieve the optical depth at 10 {mu}m, the average altitude and the coarse mode effective radius of mineral dust over sea. (author)

  17. Construction of a Near-Infrared-Activatable Enzyme Platform To Remotely Trigger Intracellular Signal Transduction Using an Upconversion Nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hua-De; Thanasekaran, Pounraj; Chiang, Chao-Wei; Hong, Jia-Lin; Liu, Yen-Chun; Chang, Yu-Hsu; Lee, Hsien-Ming

    2015-07-28

    Photoactivatable (caged) bioeffectors provide a way to remotely trigger or disable biochemical pathways in living organisms at a desired time and location with a pulse of light (uncaging), but the phototoxicity of ultraviolet (UV) often limits its application. In this study, we have demonstrated the near-infrared (NIR) photoactivatable enzyme platform using protein kinase A (PKA), an important enzyme in cell biology. We successfully photoactivated PKA using NIR to phosphorylate its substrate, and this induced a downstream cellular response in living cells with high spatiotemporal resolution. In addition, this system allows NIR to selectively activate the caged enzyme immobilized on the nanoparticle surface without activating other caged proteins in the cytosol. This NIR-responsive enzyme-nanoparticle system provides an innovative approach to remote-control proteins and enzymes, which can be used by researchers who need to avoid direct UV irradiation or use UV as a secondary channel to turn on a bioeffector.

  18. Design of the driving system for visible near-infrared spatial programmable push-broom remote CCD sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhipeng; Wei, Jun; Zhou, Qianting; Weng, Dongshan; Li, Jianwei

    2010-11-01

    VNIR multi-spectral image sensor has wide applications in remote sensing and imaging spectroscopy. An image spectrometer of a spatial remote programmable push-broom sensing satellite requires visible near infrared band ranges from 0.4μm to 1.04μm which is one of the most important bands in remote sensing. This paper introduces a method of design the driving system for 1024x1024 VNIR CCD sensor for programmable push-broom remote sensing. The digital driving signal is generated by the FPGA device. There are seven modules in the FPGA program and all the modules are coded by VHDL. The driving system have five mainly functions: drive the sensor as the demand of timing schedule, control the AD convert device to work, get the parameter via RS232 from control platform, process the data input from the AD device, output the processed data to PCI sample card to display in computer end. All the modules above succeed working on FPGA device APA600. This paper also introduced several important keys when designing the driving system including module synchronization, critical path optimization.

  19. Planck 2015 results: XXIII. The thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect-cosmic infrared background correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    We use Planck data to detect the cross-correlation between the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect and the infrared emission from the galaxies that make up the the cosmic infrared background (CIB). We first perform a stacking analysis towards Planck-confirmed galaxy clusters. We detect infrared...... that infrared galaxies in the outskirts of clusters have higher infrared flux than cluster-core galaxies. We also study the cross-correlation between tSZ and CIB anisotropies, following three alternative approaches based on power spectrum analyses: (i) using a catalogue of confirmed clusters detected in Planck...... data; (ii) using an all-sky tSZ map built from Planck frequency maps; and (iii) using cross-spectra between Planck frequency maps. With the three different methods, we detect the tSZ-CIB cross-power spectrum at significance levels of (i) 6σ; (ii) 3σ; and (iii) 4σ. We model the tSZ-CIB cross-correlation...

  20. Remote thermal IR surveying to detect abandoned mineshafts in former mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, D.A.; Marsh, S.H.; Gibson, A.; Ager, G.J.; McManus, K.B.; Caunt, S.; Culshaw, M.G. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    In former mining areas it is critical to locate unknown, abandoned mineshafts prior to the development of a site. Abandoned mineshafts are ground disturbances that have very localized effects on the morphology and the physical, chemical, drainage and moisture properties of the surface geological materials and thus thermo-physical properties. Remotely sensed thermal IR surveys provide the potential for a rapid, inexpensive and non-intrusive technique for mineshaft detection. The key parameters of thermal IR radiation and the application of remote thermal IR surveys to planning are described, using case histories from former mining areas in Lancashire, Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire. Field-measured IR temperature differences correlated well with different ground conditions caused by changes in vegetation, disturbance, compaction and moisture-drainage regimes. A thermal anomaly over an area of c. 6 m{sup 2} above a known mineshaft was characterized by traces of methane and temperatures higher by 0.5-1{sup o}C than those of the adjacent ground surface. Using thermal IR images, collected with the Daedalus 1260 Airborne Thematic Mapper, a scheme was developed to classify and map mineshafts with and without any observed visual characteristics. When applied using thermal imagery obtained from commercial flights the scheme identified several potential sites of abandoned mineshafts in an area designated for the redevelopment of the Nottingham Business Park, East Midlands. The thermal anomalies were associated with minor topographic features such as mounds, depressions and dereliction, as well as compositional features caused by coal enrichment and Coal Measures mudstone infill. These features had very little surface expression and were confirmed only using soil stripping.

  1. Remote sensing of height of a fog layer and temperature of fog droplets using infrared thermometer and meteorological satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Abe, H.

    1998-01-01

    To study meteorological characteristics of cool foggy easterly (Yamase), by which rice production in the Tohoku region was frequently damaged, we measured temperature of the fog layer resulted from Yamase, using infrared thermal indicator and meteorological satellite (HIMAWARI). These temperature data were compared with wet-bulb and dry-bulb temperatures obtained by a ventilated psychrometer. Generally, the temperature of fog droplets estimated from infrared thermal indicator was higher than the wet-bulb temperature by about 0∼1°C. This result indicates clearly that fog droplets were cooled by evaporation on the droplet surface. Under the conditions that the fog layer is homogeneous in liquid water content and fog droplet size distribution, the height of the fog layer can be estimated by the observation of visibility and relative solar radiation flux. (author)

  2. A protocol for analysing thermal stress in insects using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Belén; Verdú, José R; Carrascal, Luis M; Lobo, Jorge M

    2016-02-01

    The study of insect responses to thermal stress has involved a variety of protocols and methodologies that hamper the ability to compare results between studies. For that reason, the development of a protocol to standardize thermal assays is necessary. In this sense, infrared thermography solves some of the problems allowing us to take continuous temperature measurements without handling the individuals, an important fact in cold-blooded organisms like insects. Here, we present a working protocol based on infrared thermography to estimate both cold and heat thermal stress in insects. We analyse both the change in the body temperature of individuals and their behavioural response. In addition, we used partial least squares regression for the statistical analysis of our data, a technique that solves the problem of having a large number of variables and few individuals, allowing us to work with rare or endemic species. To test our protocol, we chose two species of congeneric, narrowly distributed dung beetles that are endemic to the southeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula. With our protocol we have obtained five variables in the response to cold and twelve in the response to heat. With this methodology we discriminate between the two flightless species of Jekelius through their thermal response. In response to cold, Jekelius hernandezi showed a higher rate of cooling and reached higher temperatures of stupor and haemolymph freezing than Jekelius punctatolineatus. Both species displayed similar thermoregulation ranges before reaching lethal body temperature with heat stress. Overall, we have demonstrated that infrared thermography is a suitable method to assess insect thermal responses with a high degree of sensitivity, allowing for the discrimination between closely related species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of an Infrared Lamp Array for the Smap Spacecraft Thermal Balance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer R.; Emis, Nickolas; Forgette, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    NASA launched the SMAP observatory in January 2015 aboard a Delta II into a sun-synchronous orbit around Earth. The science payload of a radar and a radiometer utilizes a shared rotating six-meter antenna to provide a global map of the Earth's soil moisture content and its freeze/thaw state on a global, high-resolution scale in this three-year mission. An observatory-level thermal balance test conducted in May/June 2014 validated the thermal design and demonstrated launch readiness as part of the planned environmental test campaign. An infrared lamp array was designed and used in the thermal balance test to replicate solar heating on the solar array and sunlit side of the spacecraft that would normally be seen in orbit. The design, implementation, and operation of an infrared lamp array used for this nineteen-day system thermal test are described in this paper. Instrumental to the smooth operation of this lamp array was a characterization test performed in the same chamber two months prior to the observatory test to provide insight into its array operation and flux uniformity. This knowledge was used to identify the lamp array power settings that would provide the worst case predicted on-orbit fluxes during eclipse, cold, and hot cases. It also showed the lamp array variation when adjustments in flux were needed. Calorimeters calibrated prior to testing determined a relationship between calorimeter temperature and lamp array flux. This allowed the team to adjust the lamp output for the desired absorbed flux on the solar array. Flux levels were within 10% of the desired value at the center of the solar array with an ability to maintain these levels within 5% during steady state cases. All tests demonstrated the infrared lamp array functionality and furthered lamp array understanding for modeling purposes. This method contributed to a high-fidelity environmental simulation, which was required to replicate the extreme on-orbit thermal environments.

  4. An Efficient Algorithm for Server Thermal Fault Diagnosis Based on Infrared Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Xie, Ting; Ran, Jian; Gao, Shan

    2017-10-01

    It is essential for a data center to maintain server security and stability. Long-time overload operation or high room temperature may cause service disruption even a server crash, which would result in great economic loss for business. Currently, the methods to avoid server outages are monitoring and forecasting. Thermal camera can provide fine texture information for monitoring and intelligent thermal management in large data center. This paper presents an efficient method for server thermal fault monitoring and diagnosis based on infrared image. Initially thermal distribution of server is standardized and the interest regions of the image are segmented manually. Then the texture feature, Hu moments feature as well as modified entropy feature are extracted from the segmented regions. These characteristics are applied to analyze and classify thermal faults, and then make efficient energy-saving thermal management decisions such as job migration. For the larger feature space, the principal component analysis is employed to reduce the feature dimensions, and guarantee high processing speed without losing the fault feature information. Finally, different feature vectors are taken as input for SVM training, and do the thermal fault diagnosis after getting the optimized SVM classifier. This method supports suggestions for optimizing data center management, it can improve air conditioning efficiency and reduce the energy consumption of the data center. The experimental results show that the maximum detection accuracy is 81.5%.

  5. A Tunable Mid-Infrared Solid-State Laser with a Compact Thermal Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyang Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tunable mid-infrared lasers are widely used in laser spectroscopy, gas sensing and many other related areas. In order to solve heat dissipation problems and improve the environmental temperature adaptability of solid-state laser sources, a tunable all-fiber laser pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO was established, and a compact thermal control system based on thermoelectric coolers, an automatic temperature control circuit, cooling fins, fans and heat pipes was integrated and designed for the laser. This system is compact, light and air-cooling which satisfies the demand for miniaturization of lasers. A mathematical model and method was established to estimate the cooling capacity of this thermal control system under different ambient environments. A finite-element model was built and simulated to analyze the thermal transfer process. Experiments in room and high temperature environments were carried out and showed that the substrate temperature of a pump module could be maintained at a stable value with controlled precision to 0.2 degrees, while the output power stability of the laser was within ±1%. The experimental results indicate that this compact air-cooling thermal control system could effectively solve the heat dissipation problem of mid-infrared solid-state lasers with a one hundred watts level pump module in room and high temperature environments.

  6. Experimental and numerical investigations of heat transfer and thermal efficiency of an infrared gas stove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenlerdchanya, A.; Rattanadecho, P.; Keangin, P.

    2018-01-01

    An infrared gas stove is a low-pressure gas stove type and it has higher thermal efficiency than the other domestic cooking stoves. This study considers the computationally determine water and air temperature distributions, water and air velocity distributions and thermal efficiency of the infrared gas stove. The goal of this work is to investigate the effect of various pot diameters i.e. 220 mm, 240 mm and 260 mm on the water and air temperature distributions, water and air velocity distributions and thermal efficiency of the infrared gas stove. The time-dependent heat transfer equation involving diffusion and convection coupled with the time-dependent fluid dynamic equation is implemented and is solved by using the finite element method (FEM). The computer simulation study is validated with an experimental study, which is use standard experiment by LPG test for low-pressure gas stove in households (TIS No. 2312-2549). The findings revealed that the water and air temperature distributions increase with greater heating time, which varies with the three different pot diameters (220 mm, 240 mm and 260 mm). Similarly, the greater heating time, the water and air velocity distributions increase that vary by pot diameters (220, 240 and 260 mm). The maximum water temperature in the case of pot diameter of 220 mm is higher than the maximum water velocity in the case of pot diameters of 240 mm and 260 mm, respectively. However, the maximum air temperature in the case of pot diameter of 260 mm is higher than the maximum water velocity in the case of pot diameters of 240 mm and 220 mm, respectively. The obtained results may provide a basis for improving the energy efficiency of infrared gas stoves and other equipment, including helping to reduce energy consumption.

  7. Multi-Wavelength Observations of Asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom: Visible, Infrared, and Thermal Spectroscopy Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Beth Ellen; Shepard, M.; Bus, S. J.; Vilas, F.; Rivkin, A. S.; Lim, L.; Lederer, S.; Jarvis, K.; Shah, S.; McConnochie, T.

    2004-01-01

    The August 2003 apparition of asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom brought together a collaboration of observers with the goal of obtaining rotationally resolved multiwavelength spectra at each of 5 facilities: infrared spectra at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (Clark and Shepard), radar images at Arecibo (Shepard and Clark), thermal infrared spectra at Palomar (Lim, McConnochie and Bell), visible spectra at McDonald Observatory (Vilas, Lederer and Jarvis), and visible lightcurves at Ondrojev Observatory (Pravec). The radar data was to be used to develop a high spatial resolution physical model to be used in conjunction with spectral data to investigate compositional and textural properties on the near surface of Ra Shalom as a function of rotation phase. This was the first coordinated multi-wavelength investigation of any Aten asteroid. There are many reasons to study near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 2100 Ra-Shalom: 1) It has a controversial classification (is it a C- or K-type object)? 2) There would be interesting dynamical ramifications if Ra-Shalom is a K-type because most K-types come from the Eos family and there are no known dynamical pathways from Eos to the Aten population. 3) The best available spectra obtained previously may indicate a heterogeneous surface (most asteroids appear to be fairly homogeneous). 4) Ra-Shalom thermal observations obtained previously indicated a lack of regolith, minimizing the worry of space weathering effects in the spectra. 5) Radar observations obtained previously hinted at interesting surface structures. 6) Ra-Shalom is one of the largest Aten objects. And 7) Ra-Shalom is on a short list of proposed NEAs for spacecraft encounters and possible sample returns. Preliminary results from the visible, infrared, and thermal spectroscopy measurements will be presented here.

  8. Measurement of thermal properties of magnetic nanoparticles using infrared thermal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jae Young; Chang, Ki Soo; Kook, Myung Ho

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are considered promising for biomedical applications such as hyperthermia treatment and disease diagnosis owing to their distinctive thermal properties. For these applications, it is essential to screen the temperature distribution in the targeted disease site....... This study aimed to investigate and observe the thermal properties of a small amount of MNPs used as highly sensitive biomarkers for disease diagnosis by microthermography. Toward this end, we used polyacrylamide and agarose phantoms containing a small amount of MNPs (30 mg Fe-1). In phantoms, the increasing...

  9. Near-near-infrared thermal lens spectroscopy to assess overtones and combination bands of sulfentrazone pesticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, M.; Silva, J. R.; Andrade, L. H. C.; Scorza Júnior, R. P.; Lima, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    Thermal lens spectroscopy (TLS) in the near-near-infrared region was used to explore the absorptions of overtones and combination bands of sulfentrazone (SFZ) herbicide diluted in methanol. This spectroscopic region was chosen in order to guarantee that only thermal lens effect is noted during the experimental procedure. The results showed that it was possible to detect very low concentrations ( 2 ng/μL) of SFZ in methanol by determining its thermal diffusivity or the absorption coefficient due to the 3ν(NH) + 1δ(CH) combination band. This minimum SFZ concentration is the limit observed by chromatography method. The findings demonstrated that the TLS can be used for precise and accurate assessment of pesticides in ecosystems. Besides, the 3ν(NH) + 1δ(CH) combination band at 960 nm can be used as a marker for SFZ in methanol.

  10. Extraction of Curcumin Pigment from Indonesian Local Turmeric with Its Infrared Spectra and Thermal Decomposition Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Wiryani, A. S.; Rusli, A.; Purnamasari, A.; Abdullah, A. G.; Ana; Widiaty, I.; Hurriyati, R.

    2017-03-01

    Curcumin is one of the pigments which is used as a spice in Asian cuisine, traditional cosmetic, and medicine. Therefore, process for getting curcumin has been widely studied. Here, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the simple method for extracting curcumin from Indonesian local turmeric and investigate the infrared spectra and thermal decomposition properties. In the experimental procedure, the washed turmeric was dissolved into an ethanol solution, and then put into a rotary evaporator to enrich curcumin concentration. The result showed that the present method is effective to isolate curcumin compound from Indonesian local turmeric. Since the process is very simple, this method can be used for home industrial application. Further, understanding the thermal decomposition properties of curcumin give information, specifically relating to the selection of treatment when curcumin must face the thermal-related process.

  11. Thermal radiators with embedded pulsating heat pipes: Infra-red thermography and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemadri, Vadiraj A.; Gupta, Ashish; Khandekar, Sameer

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of exploring potential applications of Pulsating Heat Pipes (PHP), for space/terrestrial sectors, experimental study of embedded PHP thermal radiators, having two different effective Biot numbers respectively, and subjected to conjugate heat transfer conditions on their surface, i.e., natural convection and radiation, has been carried out under different thermo-mechanical boundary conditions. High resolution infrared camera is used to obtain spatial temperature profiles of the radiators. To complement the experimental study, detailed 3D computational heat transfer simulation has also been undertaken. By embedding PHP structures, it was possible to make the net thermal resistance of the mild steel radiator plate equivalent to the aluminum radiator plate, in spite of the large difference in their respective thermal conductivities (k Al ∼ 4k MS ). The study reveals that embedded PHP structures can be beneficial only under certain boundary conditions. The degree of isothermalization achieved in these structures strongly depends on its effective Biot number. The relative advantage of embedded PHP is appreciably higher if the thermal conductivity of the radiator plate material itself is low. The study indicates that the effective thermal conductivity of embedded PHP structure is of the order of 400 W/mK to 2300 W/mK, depending on the operating conditions. - Research highlights: → Study of radiator plates with embedded Pulsating Heat Pipe by infrared thermography. → Radiator is subjected to natural convection and radiation boundary conditions. → Experimental study is supported by 3D simulation. → Effective thermal conductivity of PHPs of the order of 2000 W/mK is obtained. → Efficacy of embedded PHPs depends on the effective Biot number of the system.

  12. [Study on Hollow Brick Wall's Surface Temperature with Infrared Thermal Imaging Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ming-fang; Yin, Yi-hua

    2015-05-01

    To address the characteristic of uneven surface temperature of hollow brick wall, the present research adopts soft wares of both ThermaCAM P20 and ThermaCAM Reporter to test the application of infrared thermal image technique in measuring surface temperature of hollow brick wall, and further analyzes the thermal characteristics of hollow brick wall, and building material's impact on surface temperature distribution including hollow brick, masonry mortar, and so on. The research selects the construction site of a three-story-high residential, carries out the heat transfer experiment, and further examines the exterior wall constructed by 3 different hollow bricks including sintering shale hollow brick, masonry mortar and brick masonry. Infrared thermal image maps are collected, including 3 kinds of sintering shale hollow brick walls under indoor heating in winter; and temperature data of wall surface, and uniformity and frequency distribution are also collected for comparative analysis between 2 hollow bricks and 2 kinds of mortar masonry. The results show that improving heat preservation of hollow brick aid masonry mortar can effectively improve inner wall surface temperature and indoor thermal environment; non-uniformity of surface temperature decreases from 0. 6 to 0. 4 °C , and surface temperature frequency distribution changes from the asymmetric distribution into a normal distribution under the condition that energy-saving sintering shale hollow brick wall is constructed by thermal mortar replacing cement mortar masonry; frequency of average temperature increases as uniformity of surface temperature increases. This research provides a certain basis for promotion and optimization of hollow brick wall's thermal function.

  13. Reconstructing Face Image from the Thermal Infrared Spectrum to the Visible Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmastro Kresnaraman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available During the night or in poorly lit areas, thermal cameras are a better choice instead of normal cameras for security surveillance because they do not rely on illumination. A thermal camera is able to detect a person within its view, but identification from only thermal information is not an easy task. The purpose of this paper is to reconstruct the face image of a person from the thermal spectrum to the visible spectrum. After the reconstruction, further image processing can be employed, including identification/recognition. Concretely, we propose a two-step thermal-to-visible-spectrum reconstruction method based on Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA. The reconstruction is done by utilizing the relationship between images in both thermal infrared and visible spectra obtained by CCA. The whole image is processed in the first step while the second step processes patches in an image. Results show that the proposed method gives satisfying results with the two-step approach and outperforms comparative methods in both quality and recognition evaluations.

  14. A Study on infrared tracing and monitoring of thermal discharge from the power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Sun; Hong, Wuk Hee; Kim, Yung Bae; Park, Jang Rae; Choi, Yung An; Park, Yung San [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1996-08-01

    Massive discharge of cooling water from the nuclear power plants as well as many thermal power plants would cause serious environmental problems. Hence, the task of predicting cooling water dispersion areas has enormous importance for better environmental management related with the power plant operation. For the last two decades, extensive field survey and dispersion modeling have been mainly applied to predict thermal discharge dispersion areas. In this study, the method of infrared thermal sensing was tested as a possible means of measuring the affected areas of thermal discharge at the thermal power plant sites. Many IR images obtained by using the terrestrial camera, or by using the airborne scanner, or from the Landsat iv satellite were analyzed from the pc with the IDRISI and resource software and further enhanced with other image analysis technologies. The result of study proved this IR imaging technology to be an potentially cost-effective tool for assessment of water-temperature increase caused by the thermal discharge from the power plants, however, further elaboration of procedure was highly requested. (author). 9 refs., 24 figs.

  15. Real-Time Monitoring of Occupants’ Thermal Comfort through Infrared Imaging: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Pavlin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermally comfortable indoor environments are of great importance, as modern lifestyles often require people to spend more than 20 h per day indoors. Since most of the thermal comfort models use a variety of different environmental and personal factors that need to be measured or estimated, real-time and continuous assessment of thermal comfort is often not practically feasible. This work presents a cheap and non-invasive approach based on infrared imaging for monitoring the occupants’ thermal sensation and comfort in real time. Thanks to a mechatronic device developed by the authors, the imaging is performed on the forehead skin, selected because it is always exposed to the environment and, thus, facilitating the monitoring activity in a non-invasive manner. Tests have been performed in controlled conditions on ten subjects to assess the hypothesis that the forehead temperature is correlated with subjects’ thermal sensation. This allows the exploitation of this quantity as a base for a simple monitoring of thermal comfort, which could later be tuned with an extensive experimental campaign.

  16. Time series analysis of infrared satellite data for detecting thermal anomalies: a hybrid approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppen, W. C.; Pilger, E.; Wright, R.

    2011-07-01

    We developed and tested an automated algorithm that analyzes thermal infrared satellite time series data to detect and quantify the excess energy radiated from thermal anomalies such as active volcanoes. Our algorithm enhances the previously developed MODVOLC approach, a simple point operation, by adding a more complex time series component based on the methods of the Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) algorithm. Using test sites at Anatahan and Kīlauea volcanoes, the hybrid time series approach detected ~15% more thermal anomalies than MODVOLC with very few, if any, known false detections. We also tested gas flares in the Cantarell oil field in the Gulf of Mexico as an end-member scenario representing very persistent thermal anomalies. At Cantarell, the hybrid algorithm showed only a slight improvement, but it did identify flares that were undetected by MODVOLC. We estimate that at least 80 MODIS images for each calendar month are required to create good reference images necessary for the time series analysis of the hybrid algorithm. The improved performance of the new algorithm over MODVOLC will result in the detection of low temperature thermal anomalies that will be useful in improving our ability to document Earth's volcanic eruptions, as well as detecting low temperature thermal precursors to larger eruptions.

  17. Multi-Scale Drought Analysis using Thermal Remote Sensing: A Case Study in Georgia’s Altamaha River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J. M.; Bhat, S.; Choi, M.; Mecikalski, J. R.; Anderson, M. C.

    2009-12-01

    The unprecedented recent droughts in the Southeast US caused reservoir levels to drop dangerously low, elevated wildfire hazard risks, reduced hydropower generation and caused severe economic hardships. Most drought indices are based on recent rainfall or changes in vegetation condition. However in heterogeneous landscapes, soils and vegetation (type and cover) combine to differentially stress regions even under similar weather conditions. This is particularly true for the heterogeneous landscapes and highly variable rainfall in the Southeastern United States. This research examines the spatiotemperal evolution of watershed scale drought using a remotely sensed stress index. Using thermal-infrared imagery, a fully automated inverse model of Atmosphere-Land Exchange (ALEXI), GIS datasets and analysis tools, modeled daily surface moisture stress is examined at a 10-km resolution grid covering central to southern Georgia. Regional results are presented for the 2000-2008 period. The ALEXI evaporative stress index (ESI) is compared to existing regional drought products and validated using local hydrologic measurements in Georgia’s Altamaha River watershed at scales from 10 to 10,000 km2.

  18. Combination of Well-Logging Temperature and Thermal Remote Sensing for Characterization of Geothermal Resources in Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingwei Tian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal resources have become an increasingly important source of renewable energy for electrical power generation worldwide. Combined Three Dimension (3D Subsurface Temperature (SST and Land Surface Temperature (LST measurements are essential for accurate assessment of geothermal resources. In this study, subsurface and surface temperature distributions were combined using a dataset comprised of well logs and Thermal Infrared Remote sensing (TIR images from Hokkaido island, northern Japan. Using 28,476 temperature data points from 433 boreholes sites and a method of Kriging with External Drift or trend (KED, SST distribution model from depths of 100 to 1500 m was produced. Regional LST was estimated from 13 scenes of Landsat 8 images. Resultant SST ranged from around 50 °C to 300 °C at a depth of 1500 m. Most of western and part of the eastern Hokkaido are characterized by high temperature gradients, while low temperatures were found in the central region. Higher temperatures in shallower crust imply the western region and part of the eastern region have high geothermal potential. Moreover, several LST zones considered to have high geothermal potential were identified upon clarification of the underground heat distribution according to 3D SST. LST in these zones showed the anomalies, 3 to 9 °C higher than the surrounding areas. These results demonstrate that our combination of TIR and 3D temperature modeling using well logging and geostatistics is an efficient and promising approach to geothermal resource exploration.

  19. Infrared survey of 50 buildings constructed during 100 years: thermal performances and damage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    1995-03-01

    Different building constructions and craftsmanship give rise to different thermal performance and damage conditions. The building stock of most industrial countries consists of buildings of various age, and constructions, from old historic buildings with heavy stone or wooden construction, to new buildings with heavy or light concrete construction, or modern steel or wooden construction. In this paper the result from a detailed infrared survey of 50 buildings from six Swedish military camps is presented. The presentation is limited to a comparison of thermal performance and damage conditions of buildings of various ages, functions, and constructions, of a building period of more than 100 years. The result is expected to be relevant even to civilian buildings. Infrared surveys were performed during 1992-1993, with airborne, and mobile short- and longwave infrared systems, out- and indoor thermography. Interpretation and analysis of infrared data was performed with interactive image and analyzing systems. Field inspections were carried out with fiber optics system, and by ocular inspections. Air-exchange rate was measured in order to quantify air leakages through the building envelope, indicated in thermograms. The objects studied were single-family houses, barracks, office-, service-, school- and exercise buildings, military hotels and restaurants, aircraft hangars, and ship factory buildings. The main conclusions from this study are that most buildings from 1880 - 1940 have a solid construction with a high quality of craftsmanship, relatively good thermal performance, due to extremely thick walls, and adding insulation at the attic floor. From about 1940 - 1960 the quality of construction, thermal performance and craftsmanship seem to vary a lot. Buildings constructed during the period of 1960 - 1990 have in general the best thermal performance due to a better insulation capacity, however, also one finds here the greatest variety of problems. The result from this

  20. Infrared remote sensing for canopy temperature in paddy field and relationship between leaf temperature and leaf color

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakiyama, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Infrared remote sensing is used for crop monitoring, for example evaluation of water stress, detection of infected crops and estimation of transpiration and photosynthetic rates. This study was conducted to show another application of remote sensing information. The relationship between rice leaf temperature and chlorophyll content in the leaf blade was investigated by using thermography during the ripening period. The canopy of a rice community fertilized by top dressing was cooler than that not fertilized in a 1999 field experiment. In an experiment using thermocouples to measure leaf temperature, a rice leaf with high chlorophyll content was also cooler than that with a low chlorophyll content. Transpiration resistance and transpiration rate were measured with a porometer. Transpiration rate was higher with increasing chlorophyll content in the leaf blade. Stomatal aperture is related to chlorophyll content in the leaf blade. High degree of stomatal aperture is caused by high chlorophyll content in the leaf blade. As degree of stomatal aperture increases, transpiration rate increases. Therefore the rice leaf got cooler with increasing chlorophyll content in leaf blade. Paddy rice communities with different chlorophyll contents were provided with fertilization of different nitrogen levels on basal and top dressing in a 2000 field experiment. Canopy temperature of the rice community with high chlorophyll content was 0.85°C cooler than that of the rice community with low chlorophyll content. Results of this study revealed that infrared remote sensing could detect difference in chlorophyll contents in rice communities and could be used in fertilizer management in paddy fields. (author)

  1. Application of Infrared Thermal Imaging in a Violinist with Temporomandibular Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, M; Coimbra, D; Silva, A; Aguiar Branco, C; Pinho, J C

    2015-12-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) consist of a group of pathologies that affect the masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joints (TMJ), and/or related structures. String instrumentalists, like many orchestra musicians, can spend hours with head postures that may influence the biomechanical behavior of the TMJ and the muscles of the craniocervicomandibular complex (CCMC). The adoption of abnormal postures acquired during performance by musicians can lead to muscular hyperactivity of the head and cervical muscles, with the possible appearance of TMD. Medical infrared thermography is a non-invasive procedure that can monitor the changes in the superficial tissue related to blood circulation and may serve as a complement to the clinical examination. The objective of this study was to use infrared thermography to evaluate, in one subject, the cutaneous thermal changes adjacent to the CCMC that occur before, during, and after playing a string instrument.

  2. The infrared spectroscopy in the study of the bone crystallinity thermally affected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, C.; Tiesler, V.; Azamar, J.A.; Alvarado G, J.J.; Quintana, P.

    2006-01-01

    Bone is made up by both organic and inorganic components. Among the latter stands out hydroxyapatite (HAP), composed by hexagonal crystallites arranged in a laminar form. The size of the hydroxyapatite crystals may be altered by different conditions, among those figures thermal exhibition, since during burning the bone eliminates organic matrix and thus promotes the crystallization process of the material. An experimental series was designed to measure crystallinity, in which pig bone remains were burnt at different temperatures and analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). By means of analogy a comparison was made between the infrared spectra in order to compare with the ones obtained from the archaeological samples, coming from the Classic period Maya sites of Calakmul and Becan, Campeche. (Author)

  3. Definitions in use by the visible and near-infrared, and thermal working groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruegge, Carol J.; Miller, ED; Martin, Bob; Kieffer, Hugh H.; Palmer, James M.

    1992-01-01

    The Calibration Advisory Panel (CAP) is composed of calibration experts from each of the Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments, science investigation, and cross-calibration teams. These members come from a variety of institutions and backgrounds. In order to facilitate an exchange of ideas, and assure a common basis for communication, it was desirable to assemble this list of definitions. These definitions were developed for use by the visible and near-infrared working group, and the thermal infrared working group. Where necessary or appropriate, deviations from these for specific instruments or other sensor types are given in the individual calibration plans. The definitions contained in this document are derived, wherever possible, from definitions accepted by international and national metrological commissions including the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML).

  4. Flaw evaluation of Nd:YAG laser welding based plume shape by infrared thermal camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Yeol; Yoo, Young Tae; Yang, Dong Jo; Song, Kyung Seol; Ro, Kyoung Bo

    2003-01-01

    In Nd:YAG laser welding evaluation methods of welding flaw are various. But, the method due to plume shape is difficult to classification od welding flaw. The Nd:YAG laser process is known to have high speed and deep penetration capability to become one of the most advanced welding technologies. At the present time, some methods are studied for measurement of plume shape by using high-speed camera and photo diode. This paper describes the machining characteristics of SM45C carbon steel welding by use of an Nd:YAG laser. In spite of its good mechanical characteristics, SM45C carbon steel has a high carbon contents and suffers a limitation in the industrial application due to the poor welding properties. In this study, plume shape was measured by infrared thermal camera that is non-contact/non-destructive thermal measurement equipment through change of laser generating power, speed, focus. Weld was performed on bead-on method. Measurement results are compared as two equipment. Here, two results are composed of measurement results of plume quantities due to plume shape by infrared thermal camera and inspection results of weld bead include weld flaws by ultrasonic inspector.

  5. Apple detection using infrared thermal image, 3: Real-time temperature measurement of apple tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.H.; Takahashi, T.; Fukuchi, H.; Sun, M.; Terao, H.

    1998-01-01

    In Part 1, we reported the thermal distribution characteristics and the identification methods of apples, leaves and branches by using the infrared thermal image at the specific time. This paper reports the temperature changing characteristics and the relationships among apples, leaves and air temperature based on the information measured by the infrared thermal image equipment in the real-time for 24 hours. As a result, it was confirmed that the average temperature of apples was 1 degree C or more higher than the one of the leaves, and the average temperature of the leaves was almost same as the air temperature within daytime and about 3 hours period after sunset. It was also clarified for a remarkable temperature difference not to exist for midnight and the early morning between the apples and the leaves, and both became almost as well as the air temperature. Moreover, a binary image was easily obtained and the apples could be detected by using this temperature difference informat

  6. Comparative Analysis of Infrared Thermography and CFD Modelling for Assessing the Thermal Performance of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in the building sector has increased significantly in the developed countries over the last decades. For this reason, the new European standards have become stricter in terms of energy saving. This paper establishes a comparison between using infrared thermography for technical building inspection and modelling with Computational Flow Dynamics (CFD tools for the study of thermal performance of the building. The results show that the use of this type of tools gives a reliable response with the difference in thermal changes lower than 0.5 °C with respect to the data taken in situ. Moreover, these simulators of flow dynamics allow to evaluate the efficiency of proposed measures for energy savings and to obtain a reliable approximation to thermal comfort applying the improvement, deepening in the surface analysis of infrared thermography before performing rehabilitation project. In this research, Predicted Mean Vote Index (PMV comfort index of 0.7 for a living room and 0.6 for a bedroom were obtained, that corresponds to C class that includes values in the range of −0.7 < PMV < 0.7 according to the standard UNE-EN 7730.

  7. Thermal and Chemical Characterization of Non-Metallic Materials Using Coupled Thermogravimetric Analysis and Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is widely employed in the thermal characterization of non-metallic materials, yielding valuable information on decomposition characteristics of a sample over a wide temperature range. However, a potential wealth of chemical information is lost during the process, with the evolving gases generated during thermal decomposition escaping through the exhaust line. Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is a powerful analytical technique for determining many chemical constituents while in any material state, in this application, the gas phase. By linking these two techniques, evolving gases generated during the TGA process are directed into an appropriately equipped infrared spectrometer for chemical speciation. Consequently, both thermal decomposition and chemical characterization of a material may be obtained in a single sample run. In practice, a heated transfer line is employed to connect the two instruments while a purge gas stream directs the evolving gases into the FT-IR. The purge gas can be either high purity air or an inert gas such as nitrogen to allow oxidative and pyrolytic processes to be examined, respectively. The FT-IR data is collected realtime, allowing continuous monitoring of chemical compositional changes over the course of thermal decomposition. Using this coupled technique, an array of diverse materials has been examined, including composites, plastics, rubber, fiberglass epoxy resins, polycarbonates, silicones, lubricants and fluorocarbon materials. The benefit of combining these two methodologies is of particular importance in the aerospace community, where newly developing materials have little available data with which to refer. By providing both thermal and chemical data simultaneously, a more definitive and comprehensive characterization of the material is possible. Additionally, this procedure has been found to be a viable screening technique for certain materials, with the generated data useful in

  8. MODVOLC2: A Hybrid Time Series Analysis for Detecting Thermal Anomalies Applied to Thermal Infrared Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppen, W. C.; Wright, R.; Pilger, E.

    2009-12-01

    We developed and tested a new, automated algorithm, MODVOLC2, which analyzes thermal infrared satellite time series data to detect and quantify the excess energy radiated from thermal anomalies such as active volcanoes, fires, and gas flares. MODVOLC2 combines two previously developed algorithms, a simple point operation algorithm (MODVOLC) and a more complex time series analysis (Robust AVHRR Techniques, or RAT) to overcome the limitations of using each approach alone. MODVOLC2 has four main steps: (1) it uses the original MODVOLC algorithm to process the satellite data on a pixel-by-pixel basis and remove thermal outliers, (2) it uses the remaining data to calculate reference and variability images for each calendar month, (3) it compares the original satellite data and any newly acquired data to the reference images normalized by their variability, and it detects pixels that fall outside the envelope of normal thermal behavior, (4) it adds any pixels detected by MODVOLC to those detected in the time series analysis. Using test sites at Anatahan and Kilauea volcanoes, we show that MODVOLC2 was able to detect ~15% more thermal anomalies than using MODVOLC alone, with very few, if any, known false detections. Using gas flares from the Cantarell oil field in the Gulf of Mexico, we show that MODVOLC2 provided results that were unattainable using a time series-only approach. Some thermal anomalies (e.g., Cantarell oil field flares) are so persistent that an additional, semi-automated 12-µm correction must be applied in order to correctly estimate both the number of anomalies and the total excess radiance being emitted by them. Although all available data should be included to make the best possible reference and variability images necessary for the MODVOLC2, we estimate that at least 80 images per calendar month are required to generate relatively good statistics from which to run MODVOLC2, a condition now globally met by a decade of MODIS observations. We also found

  9. Thermal Field Analysis and Simulation of an Infrared Belt Furnace Used for Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During solar cell firing, volatile organic compounds (VOC and a small number of metal particles were removed using the gas flow. When the gas flow was disturbed by the thermal field of infrared belt furnace and structure, the metal particles in the discharging gas flow randomly adhered to the surface of solar cell, possibly causing contamination. Meanwhile, the gas flow also affected the thermal uniformity of the solar cell. In this paper, the heating mechanism of the solar cell caused by radiation, convection, and conduction during firing was analyzed. Afterward, four 2-dimensional (2D models of the furnace were proposed. The transient thermal fields with different gas inlets, outlets, and internal structures were simulated. The thermal fields and the temperature of the solar cell could remain stable and uniform when the gas outlets were installed at the ends and in the middle of the furnace, with the gas inlets being distributed evenly. To verify the results, we produced four types of furnaces according to the four simulated results. The experimental results indicated that the thermal distribution of the furnace and the characteristics of the solar cells were consistent with the simulation. These experiments improved the efficiency of the solar cells while optimizing the solar cell manufacturing equipment.

  10. Proximity and Gaze Influences Facial Temperature: A Thermal Infrared Imaging Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanos eIoannou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Direct gaze and interpersonal proximity are known to lead to changes in psycho-physiology, behaviour and brain function. We know little, however, about subtler facial reactions such as rise and fall in temperature, which may be sensitive to contextual effects and functional in social interactions. Using thermal infrared imaging cameras 18 female adult participants were filmed at two interpersonal distances (intimate and social and two gaze conditions (averted and direct. The order of variation in distance was counterbalanced: half the participants experienced a female experimenter’s gaze at the social distance first before the intimate distance (a socially ‘normal’ order and half experienced the intimate distance first and then the social distance (an odd social order. At both distances averted gaze always preceded direct gaze. We found strong correlations in thermal changes between six areas of the face (forehead, chin, cheeks, nose, maxilliary and periorbital regions for all experimental conditions and developed a composite measure of thermal shifts for all analyses. Interpersonal proximity led to a thermal rise, but only in the ‘normal’ social order. Direct gaze, compared to averted gaze, led to a thermal increase at both distances with a stronger effect at intimate distance, in both orders of distance variation. Participants reported direct gaze as more intrusive than averted gaze, especially at the intimate distance. These results demonstrate the powerful effects of another person’s gaze on psycho-physiological responses, even at a distance and independent of context.

  11. Simulated transient thermal infrared emissions of forest canopies during rainfall events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Jerrell R.; Hawkins, William R.; Howington, Stacy E.; Kala, Raju V.

    2017-05-01

    We describe the development of a centimeter-scale resolution simulation framework for a theoretical tree canopy that includes rainfall deposition, evaporation, and thermal infrared emittance. Rainfall is simulated as discrete raindrops with specified rate. The individual droplets will either fall through the canopy and intersect the ground; adhere to a leaf; bounce or shatter on impact with a leaf resulting in smaller droplets that are propagated through the canopy. Surface physical temperatures are individually determined by surface water evaporation, spatially varying within canopy wind velocities, solar radiation, and water vapor pressure. Results are validated by theoretical canopy gap and gross rainfall interception models.

  12. Discrimination techniques employing both reflective and thermal multispectral signals. [for remote sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malila, W. A.; Crane, R. B.; Richardson, W.

    1973-01-01

    Recent improvements in remote sensor technology carry implications for data processing. Multispectral line scanners now exist that can collect data simultaneously and in registration in multiple channels at both reflective and thermal (emissive) wavelengths. Progress in dealing with two resultant recognition processing problems is discussed: (1) More channels mean higher processing costs; to combat these costs, a new and faster procedure for selecting subsets of channels has been developed. (2) Differences between thermal and reflective characteristics influence recognition processing; to illustrate the magnitude of these differences, some explanatory calculations are presented. Also introduced, is a different way to process multispectral scanner data, namely, radiation balance mapping and related procedures. Techniques and potentials are discussed and examples presented.

  13. Diurnal thermal behavior of selected urban objects using remote sensing measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Ben-Dor, E. [The Remote Sensing and GIS Laboratory, Department of Geography and Human Environment, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Saaroni, H. [Unit for Applied Climatology and Environmental Aspects, Department of Geography and Human Environment, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2004-07-01

    This research analyzes and summarizes some thermal behavior of various urban surfaces in time and space using high-resolution video thermal radiometer situated at a height of 103 m, in the city of Tel-Aviv. The physical properties of the various urban elements, their color, the sky view factor, street geometry, traffic loads, and anthropogenic activity are important among the factors that determine the radiant surface temperature in the urban environment. During daytime, asphalt paved roads and rooftops were found to be the warmest urban elements in our study area. In contrast, exterior walls and trees hold the highest surface temperatures at night. Open spaced surfaces that are exposed to direct solar radiation during daytime and to heat loss at night were characterized by the highest diurnal temperature range. The radiometric stationary experiment revealed the temperature differences between diverse urban coverage to be at most 10 {sup o}C; such maximum temperature differences were measured in the early noon hours. The minimal temperatures were observed just before sunrise, when the temperature contrasts (4-5 {sup o}C) were smaller than in the early noon hours. The daytime hours between 9-10 a.m. and 5-8 p.m. turned out to be problematic for remote sensing of the urban environment, because the thermal differences between different objects were found to be insignificant. A remote survey aiming to study the urban environment should be conducted twice: in the early morning hours before sunrise (5 a.m.) and in the early noon hours (12-1 p.m.). The knowledge of thermal behavior of various urban components is an important tool for designers and decision-makers. If utilized properly, it can lead to climatic rehabilitation in urban areas and a reduction of the UHI. (author)

  14. Effects of Cloud Particles on Remote Sensing from Space in the 10-Micrometer Infrared Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    ayers , that is , a plane-parallel atmosphere wi th infinite hori zontal extent . As a matter of fact, this is how the planeta ry atmosphere is being...Remote Probin g of the Atmosphe re, 1973. 43 . Hansen , J. E. and L. D. Travis , 1974 , “Light Scattering in Planeta ry • Atmospheres ,” Goddard

  15. Micromachined single-level nonplanar polycrystalline SiGe thermal microemitters for infrared dynamic scene projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyutenko, V. K.; Malyutenko, O. Yu.; Leonov, V.; Van Hoof, C.

    2009-05-01

    The technology for self-supported membraneless polycrystalline SiGe thermal microemitters, their design, and performance are presented. The 128-element arrays with a fill factor of 88% and a 2.5-μm-thick resonant cavity have been grown by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition and fabricated using surface micromachining technology. The 200-nm-thick 60×60 μm2 emitting pixels enforced with a U-shape profile pattern demonstrate a thermal time constant of 2-7 ms and an apparent temperature of 700 K in the 3-5 and 8-12 μm atmospheric transparency windows. The application of the devices to the infrared dynamic scene simulation and their benefit over conventional planar membrane-supported emitters are discussed.

  16. Prospective for graphene based thermal mid-infrared light emitting devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Lawton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the spatial and spectral characteristics of mid-infrared thermal emission from large area Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD graphene, transferred onto SiO2/Si, and show that the emission is broadly that of a grey-body emitter, with emissivity values of approximately 2% and 6% for mono- and multilayer graphene. For the currents used, which could be sustained for over one hundred hours, the emission peaked at a wavelength of around 4 μm and covered the characteristic absorption of many important gases. A measurable modulation of thermal emission was obtained even when the drive current was modulated at frequencies up to 100 kHz.

  17. Thermal infrared properties of the Martian atmosphere 2. The 15-μm band measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.Z.; Kieffer, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    Viking infrared thermal mapper observations of Mars in the 15-μm CO 2 band reveal global atmospheric thermal behavior at the 0.3- to 0.6-mbar level. Dust entrained by storms produces major modification of diurnal and latitudinal structure in the brightness temperature T 15 . In the dust-laden atmosphere of southern spring and summer 1977, T 15 was a maximum in late afternoon at a latitude well south of the subsolar latitude. Diurnal amplitude was as great as 30 K, while diurnal mean temperatures exceeded 220 K. Over the northern winter polar cap, T 15 increased dramatically following the second global dust storm of 1977; even in regions of polar night the change was up to 80 K. Inversions of similar magnitude resulted, and the change in downward radiance was sufficient to modify substantially the rate of CO 2 condensation at the surface

  18. Characterization of optical and micro-physical properties of cirrus clouds using a wideband thermal infrared spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchetti, Luca; Di Natale, Gianluca; Bianchini, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    High-altitude ice clouds such as cirrus clouds play a key role in the Earth's radiation budget since they cover permanently about 20-30% of the surface of the planet, reaching even to 60-70% in the tropics. The modulation of the incoming solar radiation and the outgoing Earth's thermal emission due to cirrus can contribute to heat or to cool the atmosphere, according to their optical properties, which must be characterised with great accuracy and over the whole spectral range involved in the scattering and emission processes. Here we present the infrared measurements over the wide spectral range from 9 to 50 micron performed by the Fourier transform spectrometer REFIR-PAD (Radiation Explorer in Far InfraRed - Prototype for Application and Development) during many field campaigns that have taken place since 2007 from different high-altitude ground-based stations: Testa Grigia Station, Cervinia-Italy, (3480 m asl), Cerro Toco, Atacama-Chile, (5380 m asl), Concordia Base, Dome C-Antarctica (3230 m asl). These measurements show for the first time the spectral effect of cirrus clouds in the long-wave part of the emission spectrum above 15 micron of wavelength. To characterise these measurements over the wide spectral range as a function of the optical properties of ice particles, a model of the radiative transfer, that integrates the well known numerical code LBLRTM, which simulates the radiative transfer in the atmosphere, with a specific code which simulates the propagation of the radiation through the cloud, was developed. The optical properties of clouds have been modelled using the δ-scaled Eddington approximation for a single layer and the Ping Yang's database for the single-scattering properties of ice crystals. The preliminary results of the fit procedure used for the determination of the micro-physical parameters of ice crystals, such as the effective diameter, ice water path, effective temperature and optical thickness will be shown in the presentation. The

  19. Thermal deposition analysis during disruptions on DIII-D using infrared scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.L.; Hyatt, A.W.; Kellman, A.G.; Taylor, P.L.; Lasnier, C.J.

    1995-12-01

    The DIII-D tokamak generates plasma discharges with currents up to 3 MA and auxiliary input power up to 20 MW from neutral beams and 4 MW from radio frequency systems. In a disruption, a rapid loss of the plasma current and internal thermal energy occurs and the energy is deposited onto the torus graphite wall. Quantifying the spatial and temporal characteristics of the heat deposition is important for engineering and physics-related issues, particularly for designing future machines such as ITER. Using infrared scanners with a time resolution of 120 micros, measurements of the heat deposition onto the all-graphite walls of DIII-D during two types of disruptions have been made. Each scanner contains a single point detector sensitive to 8--12 microm radiation, allowing surface temperatures from 20 C to 2,000 C to be measured. A zinc selenide window that transmits in the infrared is used as the vacuum window. Views of the upper and lower divertor regions and the centerpost provide good coverage of the first wall for single and double null divertor discharges. During disruptions, the thermal energy is not deposited evenly onto the inner surface of the tokamak, but is deposited primarily in the divertor region when operating diverted discharges. Analysis of the heat deposition during a radiative collapse disruption of a 1.5 MA discharge revealed power densities of 300--350 MW/m 2 in the divertor region. During the thermal quench of the disruption, the energy deposited onto the divertor region was more than 70% of the stored thermal energy in the discharge prior to the disruption. The spatial distribution and temporal behavior of power deposition during high β disruptions will also be presented

  20. Structural analysis and thermal remote sensing of the Los Humeros Volcanic Complex: Implications for volcano structure and geothermal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norini, G.; Groppelli, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Carrasco-Núñez, G.; Dávila-Harris, P.; Pellicioli, C.; Zucca, F.; De Franco, R.

    2015-08-01

    The Los Humeros Volcanic Complex (LHVC) is an important geothermal target in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Understanding the structure of the LHVC and its influence on the occurrence of thermal anomalies and hydrothermal fluids is important to get insights into the interplay between the volcano-tectonic setting and the characteristics of the geothermal resources in the area. In this study, we present a structural analysis of the LHVC, focused on Quaternary tectonic and volcano-tectonic features, including the areal distribution of monogenetic volcanic centers. Morphostructural analysis and structural field mapping revealed the geometry, kinematics and dynamics of the structural features in the study area. Also, thermal infrared remote sensing analysis has been applied to the LHVC for the first time, to map the main endogenous thermal anomalies. These data are integrated with newly proposed Unconformity Bounded Stratigraphic Units, to evaluate the implications for the structural behavior of the caldera complex and geothermal field. The LHVC is characterized by a multistage formation, with at least two major episodes of caldera collapse: Los Humeros Caldera (460 ka) and Los Potreros Caldera (100 ka). The study suggests that the geometry of the first collapse recalls a trap-door structure and impinges on a thick volcanic succession (10.5-1.55 Ma), now hosting the geothermal reservoir. The main ring-faults of the two calderas are buried and sealed by the widespread post-calderas volcanic products, and for this reason they probably do not have enough permeability to be the main conveyers of the hydrothermal fluid circulation. An active, previously unrecognized fault system of volcano-tectonic origin has been identified inside the Los Potreros Caldera. This fault system is the main geothermal target, probably originated by active resurgence of the caldera floor. The active fault system defines three distinct structural sectors in the caldera floor, where the

  1. An Improved Mono-Window Algorithm for Land Surface Temperature Retrieval from Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The successful launch of the Landsat 8 satellite with two thermal infrared bands on February 11, 2013, for continuous Earth observation provided another opportunity for remote sensing of land surface temperature (LST. However, calibration notices issued by the United States Geological Survey (USGS indicated that data from the Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS Band 11 have large uncertainty and suggested using TIRS Band 10 data as a single spectral band for LST estimation. In this study, we presented an improved mono-window (IMW algorithm for LST retrieval from the Landsat 8 TIRS Band 10 data. Three essential parameters (ground emissivity, atmospheric transmittance and effective mean atmospheric temperature were required for the IMW algorithm to retrieve LST. A new method was proposed to estimate the parameter of effective mean atmospheric temperature from local meteorological data. The other two essential parameters could be both estimated through the so-called land cover approach. Sensitivity analysis conducted for the IMW algorithm revealed that the possible error in estimating the required atmospheric water vapor content has the most significant impact on the probable LST estimation error. Under moderate errors in both water vapor content and ground emissivity, the algorithm had an accuracy of ~1.4 K for LST retrieval. Validation of the IMW algorithm using the simulated datasets for various situations indicated that the LST difference between the retrieved and the simulated ones was 0.67 K on average, with an RMSE of 0.43 K. Comparison of our IMW algorithm with the single-channel (SC algorithm for three main atmosphere profiles indicated that the average error and RMSE of the IMW algorithm were −0.05 K and 0.84 K, respectively, which were less than the −2.86 K and 1.05 K of the SC algorithm. Application of the IMW algorithm to Nanjing and its vicinity in east China resulted in a reasonable LST estimation for the region. Spatial

  2. Bulk mineralogy of the NE Syrtis and Jezero crater regions of Mars derived through thermal infrared spectral analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Goudge, T. A.; Bramble, M. S.; Edwards, C. S.; Bandfield, J. L.; Amador, E. S.; Mustard, J. F.; Christensen, P. R.

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the area to the northwest of the Isidis impact basin (hereby referred to as "NW Isidis") using thermal infrared emission datasets to characterize and quantify bulk surface mineralogy throughout this region. This area is home to Jezero crater and the watershed associated with its two deltaic deposits in addition to NE Syrtis and the strong and diverse visible/near-infrared spectral signatures observed in well-exposed stratigraphic sections. The spectral signatures throughout this region show a diversity of primary and secondary surface mineralogies, including olivine, pyroxene, smectite clays, sulfates, and carbonates. While previous thermal infrared investigations have sought to characterize individual mineral groups within this region, none have systematically assessed bulk surface mineralogy and related these observations to visible/near-infrared studies. We utilize an iterative spectral unmixing method to statistically evaluate our linear thermal infrared spectral unmixing models to derive surface mineralogy. All relevant primary and secondary phases identified in visible/near-infrared studies are included in the unmixing models and their modeled spectral contributions are discussed in detail. While the stratigraphy and compositional diversity observed in visible/near-infrared spectra are much better exposed and more diverse than most other regions of Mars, our thermal infrared analyses suggest the dominance of basaltic compositions with less observed variability in the amount and diversity of alteration phases. These results help to constrain the mineralogical context of these previously reported visible/near-infrared spectral identifications. The results are also discussed in the context of future in situ investigations, as the NW Isidis region has long been promoted as a region of paleoenvironmental interest on Mars.

  3. Infrared and laser-Raman spectroscopic studies of thermally-induced globular protein gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A H; Saunderson, D H; Suggett, A

    1981-03-01

    Infrared and laser-Raman spectroscopy have been used to follow secondary structure changes during the heat-set gelation of a number of aqueous (D2O) globular protein solutions. Measurements of the infrared Amide I' absorption band around 1650 cm-1, for BSA gels of varying clarity and texture, have shown that the very considerable variations in network structure underlying these materials are not reflected in obvious differences in secondary structure. In all cases aggregation is accompanied by development of beta-sheet of a kind common in fibrous protein systems, but for BSA at least this does not appear to vary significantly in amount from one gel type to another. Infrared studies of gels formed from other protein systems have confirmed this tendency for beta-sheet to develop during aggregation, and the tendency is further substantiated by laser-Raman evidence which provides the extra information that in most of the examples studied alpha-helix content simultaneously falls. From these, and other observations, some generalisations are made about the thermally-induced sol-to-gel transformations of globular proteins.

  4. Passive thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging for quantitative imaging of shale gas leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marc-André; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Farley, Vincent; Guyot, Éric; Lagueux, Philippe; Morton, Vince; Giroux, Jean; Chamberland, Martin

    2017-10-01

    There are many types of natural gas fields including shale formations that are common especially in the St-Lawrence Valley (Canada). Since methane (CH4), the major component of shale gas, is odorless, colorless and highly flammable, in addition to being a greenhouse gas, methane emanations and/or leaks are important to consider for both safety and environmental reasons. Telops recently launched on the market the Hyper-Cam Methane, a field-deployable thermal infrared hyperspectral camera specially tuned for detecting methane infrared spectral features under ambient conditions and over large distances. In order to illustrate the benefits of this novel research instrument for natural gas imaging, the instrument was brought on a site where shale gas leaks unexpectedly happened during a geological survey near the Enfant-Jesus hospital in Quebec City, Canada, during December 2014. Quantitative methane imaging was carried out based on methane's unique infrared spectral signature. Optical flow analysis was also carried out on the data to estimate the methane mass flow rate. The results show how this novel technique could be used for advanced research on shale gases.

  5. Analyses of thermal plume of Cernavoda nuclear power plant by satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, M. A.; Nicolae, D. N.; Talianu, C. L.; Ciobanu, M.; Ciuciu, J. G.

    2005-10-01

    The synergistic use of multi-temporal and multi-spectral remote sensing data offers the possibility of monitoring of environment quality in the vicinity of nuclear power plants (NPP). Advanced digital processing techniques applied to several LANDSAT, MODIS and ASTER data are used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation and non-radiation effects on the water, near field soil, vegetation and air for NPP Cernavoda , Romania . Cernavoda Unit 1 power plant, using CANDU technology, having 706.5 MW power, is successfully in operation since 1996. Cernavoda Unit 2 which is currently under construction will be operational in 2007. Thermal discharge from nuclear reactor cooling is dissipated as waste heat in Danube-Black -Sea Canal and Danube river. Water temperature distributions captured in thermal IR imagery are correlated with meteorological parameters. Additional information regarding flooding events and earthquake risks is considered . During the winter, the thermal plume is localized to an area within a few km of the power plant, and the temperature difference between the plume and non-plume areas is about 1.5 oC. During the summer and fall, there is a larger thermal plume extending 5-6 km far along Danube Black Sea Canal, and the temperature change is about 1.0 oC. Variation of surface water temperature in the thermal plume is analyzed. The strong seasonal difference in the thermal plume is related to vertical mixing of the water column in winter and to stratification in summer. Hydrodynamic simulation leads to better understanding of the mechanisms by which waste heat from NPP Cernavoda is dissipated in the environment.

  6. XRD- and infrared-probed anisotropic thermal expansion properties of an organic semiconducting single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraj, J; Capria, E; Benevoli, L; Perucchi, A; Demitri, N; Fraleoni-Morgera, A

    2018-01-17

    The anisotropic thermal expansion properties of an organic semiconducting single crystal constituted by 4-hydroxycyanobenzene (4HCB) have been probed by XRD in the range 120-300 K. The anisotropic thermal expansion coefficients for the three crystallographic axes and for the crystal volume have been determined. A careful analysis of the crystal structure revealed that the two different H-bonds stemming from the two independent, differently oriented 4HCB molecules composing the unit cell have different rearrangement patterns upon temperature variations, in terms of both bond length and bond angle. Linearly Polarized Mid InfraRed (LP-MIR) measurements carried out in the same temperature range, focused on the O-H bond spectral region, confirm this finding. The same LP-MIR measurements, on the basis of a semi-empirical relation and of geometrical considerations and assumptions, allowed calculation of the -CNH-O- hydrogen bond length along the a and b axes of the crystal. In turn, the so-calculated -CNH-O- bond lengths were used to derive the thermal expansion coefficients along the corresponding crystal axes, as well as the volumetric one, using just the LP-MIR data. Reasonable to good agreement with the same values obtained from XRD measurements was obtained. This proof-of-principle opens interesting perspectives about the possible development of a rapid, low cost and industry-friendly assessment of the thermal expansion properties of organic semiconducting single crystals (OSSCs) involving hydrogen bonds.

  7. Power Generation from a Radiative Thermal Source Using a Large-Area Infrared Rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Joshua; Kadlec, Emil A.; Jarecki, Robert L.; Starbuck, Andrew; Howell, Stephen; Peters, David W.; Davids, Paul S.

    2018-05-01

    Electrical power generation from a moderate-temperature thermal source by means of direct conversion of infrared radiation is important and highly desirable for energy harvesting from waste heat and micropower applications. Here, we demonstrate direct rectified power generation from an unbiased large-area nanoantenna-coupled tunnel diode rectifier called a rectenna. Using a vacuum radiometric measurement technique with irradiation from a temperature-stabilized thermal source, a generated power density of 8 nW /cm2 is observed at a source temperature of 450 °C for the unbiased rectenna across an optimized load resistance. The optimized load resistance for the peak power generation for each temperature coincides with the tunnel diode resistance at zero bias and corresponds to the impedance matching condition for a rectifying antenna. Current-voltage measurements of a thermally illuminated large-area rectenna show current zero crossing shifts into the second quadrant indicating rectification. Photon-assisted tunneling in the unbiased rectenna is modeled as the mechanism for the large short-circuit photocurrents observed where the photon energy serves as an effective bias across the tunnel junction. The measured current and voltage across the load resistor as a function of the thermal source temperature represents direct current electrical power generation.

  8. A review on the application of medical infrared thermal imaging in hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Elsa; Vardasca, Ricardo; Teixeira, Sérgio; Seixas, Adérito; Mendes, Joaquim; Costa-Ferreira, António

    2017-09-01

    Infrared Thermal (IRT) imaging is a medical imaging modality to study skin temperature in real time, providing physiological information about the underlining structures. One of the most accessible body sites to be investigated using such imaging method is the hands, which can reflect valuable information about conditions affecting the upper limbs. The aim of this review is to acquaint the successful applications of IRT in the hands with a medical scope, opening horizons for future applications based in the achieved results. A systematic literature review was performed in order to assess in which applications medical IRT imaging was applied to the hands. The literature search was conducted in the reference databases: PubMed, Scopus and ISI Web of Science, making use of keywords (hand, thermography, infrared imaging, thermal imaging) combination that were present at the title and abstract. No temporal restriction was made. As a result, 4260 articles were identified, after removal of duplicates, 3224 articles remained and from first title and abstract filtering, a total of 388 articles were considered. After application of exclusion criteria (non-availability, non-clinical applications, reviews, case studies, written in other languages than English and using liquid crystal thermography), 146 articles were considered for this review. It can be verified that thermography provides useful diagnostic and monitoring information of conditions that directly or indirectly related to hands, as well as aiding in the treatment assessment. Trends and future challenges for IRT applications on hands are provided to stimulate researchers and clinicians to explore and address them.

  9. Integrated optics for nulling interferometry in the thermal infrared: progress and recent achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillot, M.; Barthelemy, E.; Bastard, L.; Broquin, J.-E.; Hawkins, G.; Kirschner, V.; Ménard, S.; Parent, G.; Poinsot, C.; Pradel, A.; Vigreux, C.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X.

    2017-11-01

    The search for Earth-like exoplanets, orbiting in the habitable zone of stars other than our Sun and showing biological activity, is one of the most exciting and challenging quests of the present time. Nulling interferometry from space, in the thermal infrared, appears as a promising candidate technique for the task of directly observing extra-solar planets. It has been studied for about 10 years by ESA and NASA in the framework of the Darwin and TPF-I missions respectively [1]. Nevertheless, nulling interferometry in the thermal infrared remains a technological challenge at several levels. Among them, the development of the "modal filter" function is mandatory for the filtering of the wavefronts in adequacy with the objective of rejecting the central star flux to an efficiency of about 105. Modal filtering [2] takes benefit of the capability of single-mode waveguides to transmit a single amplitude function, to eliminate virtually any perturbation of the interfering wavefronts, thus making very high rejection ratios possible. The modal filter may either be based on single-mode Integrated Optics (IO) and/or Fiber Optics. In this paper, we focus on IO, and more specifically on the progress of the on-going "Integrated Optics" activity of the European Space Agency.

  10. Delineation of thermal effluents discharged into tropical waters around Puerto Rico by aerial infrared scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.D.

    1975-01-01

    Aerial infrared scanning offers a versatile tool with which to monitor thermal discharges and a rapid method of detecting extraneous discharges, whose temperatures differ from the ambient waters. Knowledge of the extent and distribution of thermal effluents is necessary to assist in determining the effects of the added heat upon biota of the region. An AGA Model 680 Thermovision infrared scanner with a 45 0 lens was mounted in a Cessna 182, and flown at altitudes of 600 to 2000 m during night and twilight hours. The detector was InSb, cooled with liquid nitrogen and sensitive to the range 2 to 5.6 μm. The picture was originally displayed on a color monitor which assigned ten arbitrary colors to shades of gray on the control unit. Isotherms have been assigned using coincidental surface measurements made with a thermometer, read to the nearest 0.1 0 C. The data were then recorded on film. Ranges were set at 2 0 C and 5 0 C, common sensitivities were 0.2 0 C and 0.5 0 C, respectively. More recently, the data have been recorded on magnetic tapes with a Sabre III instrumentation tape recorder. Observed data have been compared to predictions made using the Pritchard Plume Model. Anomalies can be explained by boundary, wind, and tidal effects. (U.S.)

  11. An intelligent approach for cooling radiator fault diagnosis based on infrared thermal image processing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri-Garavand, Amin; Ahmadi, Hojjat; Omid, Mahmoud; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Mollazade, Kaveh; Russell Smith, Alan John; Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria

    2015-01-01

    This research presents a new intelligent fault diagnosis and condition monitoring system for classification of different conditions of cooling radiator using infrared thermal images. The system was adopted to classify six types of cooling radiator faults; radiator tubes blockage, radiator fins blockage, loose connection between fins and tubes, radiator door failure, coolant leakage, and normal conditions. The proposed system consists of several distinct procedures including thermal image acquisition, image pre-processing, image processing, two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (2D-DWT), feature extraction, feature selection using a genetic algorithm (GA), and finally classification by artificial neural networks (ANNs). The 2D-DWT is implemented to decompose the thermal images. Subsequently, statistical texture features are extracted from the original images and are decomposed into thermal images. The significant selected features are used to enhance the performance of the designed ANN classifier for the 6 types of cooling radiator conditions (output layer) in the next stage. For the tested system, the input layer consisted of 16 neurons based on the feature selection operation. The best performance of ANN was obtained with a 16-6-6 topology. The classification results demonstrated that this system can be employed satisfactorily as an intelligent condition monitoring and fault diagnosis for a class of cooling radiator. - Highlights: • Intelligent fault diagnosis of cooling radiator using thermal image processing. • Thermal image processing in a multiscale representation structure by 2D-DWT. • Selection features based on a hybrid system that uses both GA and ANN. • Application of ANN as classifier. • Classification accuracy of fault detection up to 93.83%

  12. A novel linear physical model for remote sensing of snow wetness and snow density using the visible and infrared bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varade, D. M.; Dikshit, O.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling and forecasting of snowmelt runoff are significant for understanding the hydrological processes in the cryosphere which requires timely information regarding snow physical properties such as liquid water content and density of snow in the topmost layer of the snowpack. Both the seasonal runoffs and avalanche forecasting are vastly dependent on the inherent physical characteristics of the snowpack which are conventionally measured by field surveys in difficult terrains at larger impending costs and manpower. With advances in remote sensing technology and the increase in the availability of satellite data, the frequency and extent of these surveys could see a declining trend in future. In this study, we present a novel approach for estimating snow wetness and snow density using visible and infrared bands that are available with most multi-spectral sensors. We define a trapezoidal feature space based on the spectral reflectance in the near infrared band and the Normalized Differenced Snow Index (NDSI), referred to as NIR-NDSI space, where dry snow and wet snow are observed in the left diagonal upper and lower right corners, respectively. The corresponding pixels are extracted by approximating the dry and wet edges which are used to develop a linear physical model to estimate snow wetness. Snow density is then estimated using the modeled snow wetness. Although the proposed approach has used Sentinel-2 data, it can be extended to incorporate data from other multi-spectral sensors. The estimated values for snow wetness and snow density show a high correlation with respect to in-situ measurements. The proposed model opens a new avenue for remote sensing of snow physical properties using multi-spectral data, which were limited in the literature.

  13. Thin film coatings for new generation infrared thermal picture synthesising devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The usefulness of infrared imaging devices has been proved by the continuous marketing of such products for more than 10 years. The need to produce thermal images with high apparent temperature values (600-800 deg. C) in the 3-5 micron waveband, mean that the operating temperature of the device pixels must be high. Such high temperature operation compromises the lifetime and switching speed of the pixels. It is hence desired that the real temperature of the pixels is kept as low as possible to achieve the desired apparent temperature. This requires coating the pixels with a high emissivity coating in the infrared. Current devices have multi-layer double resonating cavity interference structures built on their top surface. These structures enhance the emissivity of the pixels to a value around 50%. However, the manufacturing of such structures on top of the delicate pixels is time intensive and involves many delicate processes, which increase the probability of device failure during manufacture. The work presented in this thesis aims at achieving a simple and quick process that will provide the pixels with a single high emissivity coating. The process is carried out using standard cleanroom equipment with the coating aimed at being than one micron thick, and being able to withstand the operating temperatures of the pixel under ambient atmospheres. The work concludes with an optimised sputter-deposition process of two coatings with a combined thickness of 7000A, followed by annealing at 700 deg. C. This process achieves a coating with an emissivity of 84%. The work also describes the deposition of a thermally stable SiC coating which is highly transparent in the infrared. (author)

  14. A Satellite-Based Imaging Instrumentation Concept for Hyperspectral Thermal Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udelhoven, Thomas; Schlerf, Martin; Segl, Karl; Mallick, Kaniska; Bossung, Christian; Retzlaff, Rebecca; Rock, Gilles; Fischer, Peter; Müller, Andreas; Storch, Tobias; Eisele, Andreas; Weise, Dennis; Hupfer, Werner; Knigge, Thiemo

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the concept of the hyperspectral Earth-observing thermal infrared (TIR) satellite mission HiTeSEM (High-resolution Temperature and Spectral Emissivity Mapping). The scientific goal is to measure specific key variables from the biosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, and geosphere related to two global problems of significant societal relevance: food security and human health. The key variables comprise land and sea surface radiation temperature and emissivity, surface moisture, thermal inertia, evapotranspiration, soil minerals and grain size components, soil organic carbon, plant physiological variables, and heat fluxes. The retrieval of this information requires a TIR imaging system with adequate spatial and spectral resolutions and with day-night following observation capability. Another challenge is the monitoring of temporally high dynamic features like energy fluxes, which require adequate revisit time. The suggested solution is a sensor pointing concept to allow high revisit times for selected target regions (1-5 days at off-nadir). At the same time, global observations in the nadir direction are guaranteed with a lower temporal repeat cycle (>1 month). To account for the demand of a high spatial resolution for complex targets, it is suggested to combine in one optic (1) a hyperspectral TIR system with ~75 bands at 7.2-12.5 µm (instrument NEDT 0.05 K-0.1 K) and a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 60 m, and (2) a panchromatic high-resolution TIR-imager with two channels (8.0-10.25 µm and 10.25-12.5 µm) and a GSD of 20 m. The identified science case requires a good correlation of the instrument orbit with Sentinel-2 (maximum delay of 1-3 days) to combine data from the visible and near infrared (VNIR), the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and TIR spectral regions and to refine parameter retrieval.

  15. A Satellite-Based Imaging Instrumentation Concept for Hyperspectral Thermal Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Udelhoven

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the concept of the hyperspectral Earth-observing thermal infrared (TIR satellite mission HiTeSEM (High-resolution Temperature and Spectral Emissivity Mapping. The scientific goal is to measure specific key variables from the biosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, and geosphere related to two global problems of significant societal relevance: food security and human health. The key variables comprise land and sea surface radiation temperature and emissivity, surface moisture, thermal inertia, evapotranspiration, soil minerals and grain size components, soil organic carbon, plant physiological variables, and heat fluxes. The retrieval of this information requires a TIR imaging system with adequate spatial and spectral resolutions and with day-night following observation capability. Another challenge is the monitoring of temporally high dynamic features like energy fluxes, which require adequate revisit time. The suggested solution is a sensor pointing concept to allow high revisit times for selected target regions (1–5 days at off-nadir. At the same time, global observations in the nadir direction are guaranteed with a lower temporal repeat cycle (>1 month. To account for the demand of a high spatial resolution for complex targets, it is suggested to combine in one optic (1 a hyperspectral TIR system with ~75 bands at 7.2–12.5 µm (instrument NEDT 0.05 K–0.1 K and a ground sampling distance (GSD of 60 m, and (2 a panchromatic high-resolution TIR-imager with two channels (8.0–10.25 µm and 10.25–12.5 µm and a GSD of 20 m. The identified science case requires a good correlation of the instrument orbit with Sentinel-2 (maximum delay of 1–3 days to combine data from the visible and near infrared (VNIR, the shortwave infrared (SWIR and TIR spectral regions and to refine parameter retrieval.

  16. Remote characterization of mixed waste by infrared spectroscopy: Fiscal year 1995 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebagay, T.V.; Reich, F.R.; Dodd, D.A.; Lopez, T.; Watts, J.K.; Cash, R.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes development work completed in FY 1995 on near-infrared (NIR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of determining the moisture content and solid species present in Hanford Site high-level waste. In prior fiscal years, the main emphasis was on identification of cyanide species that might be present in the ferrocyanide waste tanks, but the present thrust has been more focused on determining the moisture content of the waste. If sufficient moisture is present in the waste, propagating reactions in reactive waste are precluded, regardless of its fuel content. A prototype hot cell NIR moisture probe is now ready for hot cell deployment to sense moisture contents and homogeneity in tank waste samples

  17. The use of Kodak aerochrome infrared color film, type 2443, as a remote sensing tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, G. R.; Bowen, R. L.; Gausman, H. W.

    1972-01-01

    An infrared color film, Kodak Aerochrome, type 2443, has replaced the 8443 film. The 2443 has lower contrast than the 8443 film, and allows deeper probing into areas that appear as solid black shadows on the 8443 film. The cyan layer of 2443 is approximately 1 1/2 stops slower, at a density of 1.4, than the yellow and magenta emulsion layers.

  18. Short-range remote spectral sensor using mid-infrared semiconductor lasers with orthogonal code-division multiplexing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbi, Zulfikar; Ho, D. B.; Ren, H.-W.; Le, Han Q.; Pei, Shin Shem

    2002-09-01

    Demonstration of short-range multispectral remote sensing, using 3 to 4-micrometers mid- infrared Sb semiconductor lasers based on code-division multiplexing (CDM) architecture, is described. The system is built on a principle similar to intensity- modulated/direct-detection optical-CDMA for communications, but adapted for sensing with synchronous, orthogonal codes to distinguish different wavelength channels with zero interchannel correlation. The concept is scalable for any number of channels, and experiments with a two-wavelength system are conducted. The CDM-signal processing yielded a white-Gaussian-like system noise that is found to be near the theoretical level limited by the detector fundamental intrinsic noise. With sub-mW transmitter average power, the system was able to detect an open-air acetylene gas leak of 10-2 STP ft3/hr from 10-m away with time-varying, random, noncooperative backscatters. A similar experiment detected and positively distinguished hydrocarbon oil contaminants on water from bio-organic oils and detergents. Projection for more advanced systems suggests a multi-kilometer-range capability for watt-level transmitters, and hundreds of wavelength channels can also be accommodated for active hyperspectral remote sensing application.

  19. Change detection and characterization of volcanic activity using ground based low-light and near infrared cameras to monitor incandescence and thermal signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrild, Martin; Webley, Peter; Dehn, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge and understanding of precursory events and thermal signatures are vital for monitoring volcanogenic processes, as activity can often range from low level lava effusion to large explosive eruptions, easily capable of ejecting ash up to aircraft cruise altitudes. Using ground based remote sensing techniques to monitor and detect this activity is essential, but often the required equipment and maintenance is expensive. Our investigation explores the use of low-light cameras to image volcanic activity in the visible to near infrared (NIR) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These cameras are ideal for monitoring as they are cheap, consume little power, are easily replaced and can provide near real-time data. We focus here on the early detection of volcanic activity, using automated scripts, that capture streaming online webcam imagery and evaluate image pixel brightness values to determine relative changes and flag increases in activity. The script is written in Python, an open source programming language, to reduce the overall cost to potential consumers and increase the application of these tools across the volcanological community. In addition, by performing laboratory tests to determine the spectral response of these cameras, a direct comparison of collocated low-light and thermal infrared cameras has allowed approximate eruption temperatures and effusion rates to be determined from pixel brightness. The results of a field campaign in June, 2013 to Stromboli volcano, Italy, are also presented here. Future field campaigns to Latin America will include collaborations with INSIVUMEH in Guatemala, to apply our techniques to Fuego and Santiaguito volcanoes.

  20. Fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for remote label-free sensing of medical device surface contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Moinuddin; Tan, Xin; Welle, Elissa; Ilev, Ilko

    2013-05-01

    As a potential major source of biochemical contamination, medical device surfaces are of critical safety concerns in the clinical practice and public health. The development of innovative sensing methods for accurate and real-time detection of medical device surface contamination is essential to protect patients from high risk infection. In this paper, we demonstrate an alternative fiber-optic Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy based sensing approach for remote, non-contact, and label-free detection of biochemical contaminants in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) region. The sensing probe is designed using mid-IR hollow fibers and FTIR measurements are carried out in reflection mode. Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and bacterial endotoxin of different concentrations under thoroughly dry condition are used to evaluate the detection sensitivity. The devised system can identify ≤0.0025% (≤4 × 1011 molecules) BSA and 0.5% (0.5 EU/ml) endotoxin concentration. The developed sensing approach may be applied to detect various pathogens that pose public health threats.

  1. Usefulness of the infrared heterodyne radiometer in remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, R. T.; Shumate, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    The application of narrow-band optical receivers to the problem of sensing atmospheric pollution is discussed. The emission/absorption lines of many major atmospheric pollutant molecules overlap the operating frequency bands of CO2 laser and CO laser heterodyne receivers. Several remote pollution sensing systems which are based upon utilization of these spectral overlaps are described, and an analysis of their potential is presented. The possibility of using other lasers (e.g.: the PbSnTe tunable diode laser) as local oscillators is also considered. Results of laboratory experiments with a CO2 laser heterodyne radiometer are presented.

  2. Thermal Band Atmospheric Correction Using Atmospheric Profiles Derived from Global Positioning System Radio Occultation and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Holekamp, Kara; Stewart, Randy; Vaughan, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    This Rapid Prototyping Capability study explores the potential to use atmospheric profiles derived from GPS (Global Positioning System) radio occultation measurements and by AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) onboard the Aqua satellite to improve surface temperature retrieval from remotely sensed thermal imagery. This study demonstrates an example of a cross-cutting decision support technology whereby NASA data or models are shown to improve a wide number of observation systems or models. The ability to use one data source to improve others will be critical to the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) where a large number of potentially useful systems will require auxiliary datasets as input for decision support. Atmospheric correction of thermal imagery decouples TOA radiance and separates surface emission from atmospheric emission and absorption. Surface temperature can then be estimated from the surface emission with knowledge of its emissivity. Traditionally, radiosonde sounders or atmospheric models based on radiosonde sounders, such as the NOAA (National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration) ARL (Air Resources Laboratory) READY (Real-time Environmental Application and Display sYstem), provide the atmospheric profiles required to perform atmospheric correction. Unfortunately, these types of data are too spatially sparse and too infrequently taken. The advent of high accuracy, global coverage, atmospheric data using GPS radio occultation and AIRS may provide a new avenue for filling data input gaps. In this study, AIRS and GPS radio occultation derived atmospheric profiles from the German Aerospace Center CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload), the Argentinean Commission on Space Activities SAC-C (Satellite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C), and the pair of NASA GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are used as input data in atmospheric radiative transport modeling based on the MODTRAN (MODerate resolution atmospheric

  3. An On-Line Method for Thermal Diffusivity Detection of Thin Films Using Infrared Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Huilong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for thermal diffusivity evolution of thin-film materials with pulsed Gaussian beam and infrared video is reported. Compared with common pulse methods performed in specialized labs, the proposed method implements a rapid on-line measurement without producing the off-centre detection error. Through mathematical deduction of the original heat conduction model, it is discovered that the area s, which is encircled by the maximum temperature curve rTMAX(θ, increases linearly over elapsed time. The thermal diffusivity is acquired from the growth rate of the area s. In this study, the off-centre detection error is avoided by performing the distance regularized level set evolution formulation. The area s was extracted from the binary images of temperature variation rate, without inducing errors from determination of the heat source centre. Thermal diffusivities of three materials, 304 stainless steel, titanium, and zirconium have been measured with the established on-line detection system, and the measurement errors are: −2.26%, −1.07%, and 1.61% respectively.

  4. Relationship between dynamic infrared thermal images and blood perfusion rate of the tongue in anaemia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haiwei; Zhang, Yan

    2018-03-01

    The relationship between dynamic infrared (IR) thermal images and blood perfusion rate of the tongues of anaemia patients was investigated. Blood perfusion rates at multiple locations on the tongues of 62 anaemia patients and 70 control subjects were measured. For both groups of subjects, dynamic IR thermal images were also recorded within 16 s after the mouth opened. The results showed that the blood perfusion rates at different sites (apex, middle, left side and right side) on the tongues in anaemia patients (3.49, 3.71, 3.85 and 3.77 kg/s m-3) were significantly lower than those at the corresponding sites in control subjects (4.45, 4.66, 4.81 and 4.70 kg/s m-3). After the mouth opened, the tongue temperature decreased more rapidly in anaemia patients than in control subjects. To analyse the heat transfer mechanism, a transient heat transfer model of the tongue was developed. The tongue temperatures in anaemia patients and control subjects were calculated using this model and compared to the tongue temperatures measured by the IR thermal imager. The relationship between the tongue surface temperature and the tongue blood perfusion rate was analysed. The simulation results indicated that the low blood perfusion rate and the correlated changes in anaemia patients can cause faster temperature decreases of the tongue surface.

  5. Localization of thermal anomalies in electrical equipment using Infrared Thermography and support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laib dit Leksir, Y.; Mansour, M.; Moussaoui, A.

    2018-03-01

    Analysis and processing of databases obtained from infrared thermal inspections made on electrical installations require the development of new tools to obtain more information to visual inspections. Consequently, methods based on the capture of thermal images show a great potential and are increasingly employed in this field. However, there is a need for the development of effective techniques to analyse these databases in order to extract significant information relating to the state of the infrastructures. This paper presents a technique explaining how this approach can be implemented and proposes a system that can help to detect faults in thermal images of electrical installations. The proposed method classifies and identifies the region of interest (ROI). The identification is conducted using support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. The aim here is to capture the faults that exist in electrical equipments during an inspection of some machines using A40 FLIR camera. After that, binarization techniques are employed to select the region of interest. Later the comparative analysis of the obtained misclassification errors using the proposed method with Fuzzy c means and Ostu, has also be addressed.

  6. A Thermal-Electrically Cooled Quantum-Dot Middle-Wave Infrared Photodetector with High Quantum Efficiency and Photodetectivity, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Middle-wave infrared (LWIR, 3.2-3.6 m) photodetectors with a high specific photodetectivity (D*) are of great importance in NASA's lidar and remote sensing...

  7. Remote sensing image fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano; Garzelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis of more than ten years of experience, Remote Sensing Image Fusion covers methods specifically designed for remote sensing imagery. The authors supply a comprehensive classification system and rigorous mathematical description of advanced and state-of-the-art methods for pansharpening of multispectral images, fusion of hyperspectral and panchromatic images, and fusion of data from heterogeneous sensors such as optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and integration of thermal and visible/near-infrared images. They also explore new trends of signal/image processing, such as

  8. Detection of environmental disturbance using color aerial photography and thermal infrared imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronoff, S.; Ross, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Characteristics of a program for satellite remote sensing for long-period environmental monitoring are examined, noting that establishing early mapping surveys of areas of concern aids in detection of stressful environmental conditions. The process is described with an example from IR and color photography of a 30,000 sq km area in the Athabasca Oil Sands, with the photography carried out from aircraft and satellite. The IR data was gathered between 8-14 microns and the photographs were taken at a 1:11,000 scale. Water-related disturbances detected included turbidity which indicated the possible presence of oil, and higher thermal emission near a tailings pond which also suggested an oil source. The presence of surface aquatic vegetation is an indicator of nutrient imbalance in a pond near a sewage pond. Finally, dead trees were observed near improperly installed culverts along new roads

  9. Remote sensing study of the impact of vegetation on thermal environment in different contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qijiao; Wu, Yingjiao; Zhou, Zhixiang; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2018-02-01

    Satellite remote sensing technology provides informative data for detecting the land surface temperature (LST) distribution and urban heat island (UHI) effect remotely and regionally. In this study, two Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images acquired on September 26, 1987 and September 17, 2013 were used to derive LST and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values in Wuhan, China. The relationships between NDVI and LST were examined in different contexts, namely built-up area, farmland, grassland and forest. Results showed that negative correlations between the mean NDVI and LST were detected in all observed land covers, which meant that vegetation was efficient in decreasing surface temperatures and mitigating UHI effect. The cooling efficiency of vegetation on thermal environment varied with different contexts. As mean NDVI increased at each 0.1, the decreased LST values in built-up area, farmland, grassland and forest were 1.4 °C, 1.4 °C, 1.1 °C, 1.9 °C in 1987 and 1.4 °C, 1.7 °C, 1.3 °C, 1.8 °C in 2013, respectively. This finding encourages urban planners and greening designers to devote more efforts in protecting urban forests.

  10. Cooling Effect of Evapotranspiration (ET) and ET Measurement by Thermal Remote Sensing in Urban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, G. Y.; Yang, B.; Li, X.; Guo, Q.; Tan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Affected by global warming and rapid urbanization, urban thermal environment and livability are getting worse over the world. Global terrestrial evapotranspiration (ET) can annually consume 1.483 × 1023 joules of solar energy, which is about 300 times of the annual human energy use on the earth (4.935×1020 joules). This huge amount of energy use by ET indicates that there is great potential to cool the urban by regulating ET. However, accurately measurement of urban ET is quiet difficult because of the great spatial heterogeneity in urban. This study focuses on to quantify the cooling effects ET by mobile traverse method and improve a methodology to measure the urban ET by thermal remote sensing. The verifying experiment was carried out in Shenzhen, a sub-tropical mega city in China. Results showed that ET of vegetation could obviously reduce the urban temperature in hot season. Daily transpiration rate of a small-sized Ficus tree (Ficus microcarpa, 5 m in height and 20 cm of trunk diameter, measured by sap-flow method) was 36-55 kg and its cooling effect was equivalent to a 1.6-2.4 kWh air conditioner working for 24 hours. A 10% increase in the vegetated area could decrease urban temperature by 0.60°C at hot night. Moreover, it was found that a region with a vegetated area ratio over 55% had obvious effect on temperature decreasing. In addition, a methodology by using "thermal remote sensing + three-temperature model" was improved to measure the urban ET. Results showed that the urban ET could be reasonably measured by the proposed method. The daily ET of an urban lawn was 0.01-2.86 mm and monthly ET was 21-60 mm. This result agreed well with the verification study (Bowen ratio method, r=0.953). These results are very useful for urban planning, urban lower impact development, and improving of urban thermal environment.

  11. A STUDY FOR REMOTE DETECTION OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS’ EFFECT ON RICE USING THERMAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dehnavi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important nutritious grains all over the world, so that only in some parts of Asia more than 300 million acres allocated for cultivating this product. Therefore, qualitative and quantitative management of this product is of great importance in commercial, political and financial viewpoints. Rice plant is very influenced by physical and chemical characteristics of irrigation water, due to its specific kind of planting method. Hence, chemically-polluted waters which received by plant can change in live plants and their products. Thus, a very high degree of treatment will be required if the effluent discharges to rice plants. Current waters receive a variety of land-based water pollutants ranging from industrial wastes to excess sediments. One of the most hazardous wastes are chemicals that are toxic. Some factories discharge their effluents directly into a water body. So, what would happen for rice plant or its product if this polluted water flow to paddies? Is there any remotely-based method to study for this effect? Are surface temperature distributions (thermal images useful in this context? The first goal in this research is thus to investigate the effect of a simulated textile factory’s effluent sample on the rice product. The second goal is to investigate whether the polluted plant can be identified by means of thermal remote sensing or not. The results of this laboratory research have proven that the presence of industrial wastewater cause a decrease in plant’s product and its f-cover value, also some changes in radiant temperature.

  12. Thermal investigation of an infrared reflow oven with a convection fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Ro; Choi, Young Ki; Lee, Jung Hee; Lee, Gyu Bong; Chung, Il Yong; Kim, Jung Duck

    1998-01-01

    A two-dimensional numerical model for an infrared reflow soldering with a convection fan is used by modifying the Eftychiou's numerical modeling. The two-dimensional tunnel model which predicts convective conditions within the reflow oven are solved using the finite volume method with the SIMPLER algorithm. The card model solves the transient two-dimensional heat conduction equation in conjunction with a radiative heat transfer analysis. We also performed an experiment to validate the numerical modeling. The numerical result shows excellent agreement with experimental data. Based on the capability of this model, parametric simulations are performed to determine the thermal response of the solder to variations in the oven operating conditions and heat transfer conditions. This study shows that radiation and conveyor velocity are important factors in the preheat region

  13. Cryogenic and thermal design for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Brooks, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    The 1-meter class cryogenically cooled Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) planned by NASA, is scheduled for a 1992 launch. SIRTF would be deployed from the Shuttle, and placed into a sun synchronous polar orbit of 700 km. The facility has been defined for a mission with a minimum initial lifetime of one year in orbit with mission extension that could be made possible through in-orbit servicing of the superfluid helium cryogenic system, and use of a thermal control system. The superfluid dewar would use an orbital disconnect system for the tank supports, and vapor cooling of the barrel baffle. The transient analysis of the design shows that the superfluid helium tank with no active feedback comes within temperature requirements for the nominal orbital aperture heat load, quiescent instrument, and chopper conditions.

  14. Analysis of rocks involving the x-ray diffraction, infrared and thermal gravimetric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, M.; Rauf, M.A.; Munir, N.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical analysis of rocks and minerals are usually obtained by a number of analytical techniques. The purpose of present work is to investigate the chemical composition of the rock samples and also to find that how far the results obtained by different instrumental methods are closely related. Chemical tests wee performed before using the instrumental techniques in order to determined the nature of these rocks. The chemical analysis indicated mainly the presence of carbonate and hence the carbonate nature of these rocks. The x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis techniques were used for the determination of chemical composition of these samples. The results obtained by using these techniques have shown a great deal of similarities. (author)

  15. Infrared reflecting glazing for automotive application. New developments to improve fuel efficiency and thermal comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielsch, R.; Wahl, A.; Kleinhempel, R. [Southwall Europe GmbH, Grossroehrsdorf (Germany); Coda, M.; Boman, L. [Southwall Technologies Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Solar control coatings in automotive glazing improve the thermal comfort for passengers, degrease solar irradiation into the cabin and reduce fading of materials. In IRR glazing solar radiation reduction is performed by silver based low-e-stacks with high visual transmittance and high near infrared reflectance. The proposed ARB regulation for Califormia published 2009 demanded for reduced total solartransmittance Tts of <50% of automotive glazing in new cars from 2012 on and of <40% starting 2016. Unfortunately, the regulation was ceased last minute and of March 2010 due to some technical concerns related to proper operation of electronic communication devices. Nevertheless, the technical goals regarding the total solar energy transmittance became a widely accepted performance target for solar heat protection glazing in upcoming new car models for the next years. In order to achieve the challenging new Tts target <40% major steps forward in coating design and optimization of layer properties are required. (orig.)

  16. These images show thermal infrared radiation from Jupiter at different wavelengths which are diagnos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These images show thermal infrared radiation from Jupiter at different wavelengths which are diagnostic of physical phenomena The 7.85-micron image in the upper left shows stratospheric temperatures which are elevated in the region of the A fragment impact (to the left of bottom). Temperatures deeper in the atmosphere near 150-mbar are shown by the 17.2-micron image in the upper right. There is a small elevation of temperatures at this depth, indicated by the arrow, and confirmed by other measurements near this wavelength. This indicates that the influence of the impact of fragment A on the troposphere has been minimal. The two images in the bottom row show no readily apparent perturbation of the ammmonia condensate cloud field near 600 mbar, as diagnosed by 8.57-micron radiation, and deeper cloud layers which are diagnosed by 5-micron radiation.

  17. Thermal effects of an ICL-based mid-infrared CH4 sensor within a wide atmospheric temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weilin; Zheng, Chuantao; Sanchez, Nancy P.; Girija, Aswathy V.; He, Qixin; Zheng, Huadan; Griffin, Robert J.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2018-03-01

    The thermal effects of an interband cascade laser (ICL) based mid-infrared methane (CH4) sensor that uses long-path absorption spectroscopy were studied. The sensor performance in the laboratory at a constant temperature of ∼25 °C was measured for 5 h and its Allan deviation was ∼2 ppbv with a 1 s averaging time. A LabVIEW-based simulation program was developed to study thermal effects on infrared absorption and a temperature compensation technique was developed to minimize these effects. An environmental test chamber was employed to investigate the thermal effects that occur in the sensor system with variation of the test chamber temperature between 10 and 30 °C. The thermal response of the sensor in a laboratory setting was observed using a 2.1 ppm CH4 standard gas sample. Indoor/outdoor CH4 measurements were conducted to evaluate the sensor performance within a wide atmospheric temperature range.

  18. Thermal analysis and infrared emission spectroscopic study of halloysite-potassium acetate intercalation compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hongfei [School of Geoscience and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 China (China); School of Mining Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Chemistry Discipline, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Liu, Qinfu [School of Geoscience and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 China (China); Yang, Jing [Chemistry Discipline, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Zhang, Jinshan [School of Mining Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Frost, Ray L., E-mail: r.frost@qut.edu.au [Chemistry Discipline, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia)

    2010-11-20

    The thermal decomposition of halloysite-potassium acetate intercalation compound was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and infrared emission spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that intercalation of potassium acetate into halloysite caused an increase of the basal spacing from 1.00 to 1.41 nm. The thermogravimetry results show that the mass losses of intercalation the compound occur in main three main steps, which correspond to (a) the loss of adsorbed water, (b) the loss of coordination water and (c) the loss of potassium acetate and dehydroxylation. The temperature of dehydroxylation and dehydration of halloysite is decreased about 100 {sup o}C. The infrared emission spectra clearly show the decomposition and dehydroxylation of the halloysite intercalation compound when the temperature is raised. The dehydration of the intercalation compound is followed by the loss of intensity of the stretching vibration bands at region 3600-3200 cm{sup -1}. Dehydroxylation is followed by the decrease in intensity in the bands between 3695 and 3620 cm{sup -1}. Dehydration was completed by 300 {sup o}C and partial dehydroxylation by 350 {sup o}C. The inner hydroxyl group remained until around 500 {sup o}C.

  19. Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging in Nano-Therapeutics and Photo-Thermal Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, Mukti; Mishra, Sumit Kumar; Baghini, Mahdieh Shojaei; Chauhan, Deepak S.; Srivastava, Rohit; De, Abhijit

    2017-01-01

    The unresolved and paramount challenge in bio-imaging and targeted therapy is to clearly define and demarcate the physical margins of tumor tissue. The ability to outline the healthy vital tissues to be carefully navigated with transection while an intraoperative surgery procedure is performed sets up a necessary and under-researched goal. To achieve the aforementioned objectives, there is a need to optimize design considerations in order to not only obtain an effective imaging agent but to also achieve attributes like favorable water solubility, biocompatibility, high molecular brightness, and a tissue specific targeting approach. The emergence of near infra-red fluorescence (NIRF) light for tissue scale imaging owes to the provision of highly specific images of the target organ. The special characteristics of near infra-red window such as minimal auto-fluorescence, low light scattering, and absorption of biomolecules in tissue converge to form an attractive modality for cancer imaging. Imparting molecular fluorescence as an exogenous contrast agent is the most beneficial attribute of NIRF light as a clinical imaging technology. Additionally, many such agents also display therapeutic potentials as photo-thermal agents, thus meeting the dual purpose of imaging and therapy. Here, we primarily discuss molecular imaging and therapeutic potentials of two such classes of materials, i.e., inorganic NIR dyes and metallic gold nanoparticle based materials. PMID:28452928

  20. Dust coatings on basaltic rocks and implications for thermal infrared spectroscopy of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Christensen, P.R.; Lucey, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Thin coatings of atmospherically deposited dust can mask the spectral characteristics of underlying surfaces on Mars from the visible to thermal infrared wavelengths, making identification of substrate and coating mineralogy difficult from lander and orbiter spectrometer data. To study the spectral effects of dust coatings, we acquired thermal emission and hemispherical reflectance spectra (5-25 μm; 2000-400 cm-1) of basaltic andesite coated with different thicknesses of air fall-deposited palagonitic soils, fine-grained ceramic clay powders, and terrestrial loess. The results show that thin coatings (10-20 μm) reduce the spectral contrast of the rock substrate substantially, consistent with previous work. This contrast reduction continues linearly with increasing coating thickness until a "saturation thickness" is reached, after which little further change is observed. The saturation thickness of the spectrally flat palagonite coatings is ~100-120 μm, whereas that for coatings with higher spectral contrast is only ~50-75 μm. Spectral differences among coated and uncoated samples correlate with measured coating thicknesses in a quadratic manner, whereas correlations with estimated surface area coverage are better fit by linear functions. Linear mixture modeling of coated samples using the rock substrate and coating materials as end-members is also consistent with their measured coating thicknesses and areal coverage. A comparison of ratios of Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) spectra of dark and bright intracrater and windstreak deposits associated with Radau crater suggests that the dark windstreak material may be coated with as much as 90% areal coverage of palagonitic dust. The data presented here also will help improve interpretations of upcoming mini-TES and Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) observations of coated Mars surface materials.

  1. Infrared thermometry: a remote sensing technique for predicting yield in water-stressed cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinter, P.J.; Fry, K.E.; Guinn, G.; Mauney, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A crop water stress index (CWSI) was derived from air temperatures, air vapor pressure deficits and the midday radiant leaf temperatures of cotton plants that were exposed to different early-season irrigation treatments at Phoenix, AZ, U.S.A. To calculate the CWSI, an infrared thermometer was used to measure leaf temperatures which were then scaled relative to minimum and maximum temperatures expected for no-stress (CWSI=0) and extreme drought-stress conditions (CWSI=1). Results showed the CWSI behaved as expected, dropping to low levels following an irrigation and increasing gradually as the cotton plants depleted soil moisture reserves. The final yield of seed cotton was significantly inversely correlated with the average CWSI observed over the interval from the appearance of the first square until two weeks following the final irrigation

  2. Thermal and Infrared Studies of Garnierite from the Soroako Nickeliferous Laterite Deposit, Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufriadin Sufriadin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v7i2.137Mineralogical characterization of some garnierite samples from Soroako have been conducted using X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and infrared spectroscopy methods. XRD patterns reveal the samples mainly containing the mixture of kerolite (talc-like phase and serpentine with minor smectite, sepiolite, and silica. Thermal analyses of garnierite samples indicated by DTA curves are in good agreement with patterns that have been reported in literature. Three endothermic peaks normally occur in the ranges between 58º C and <800º C illustrating three steps of weight losses: adsorbed, bound, and hydroxyl/crystal water. One additional weight loss in low temperature region of sepiolite is corresponding to the lost of zeolitic water. Infrared spectra appeared in 3800 - 3200 cm-1 region generally exhibit broad absorption bands, indicating low crystallinities of studied samples and can be assigned to the presence of hydroxyl group bonded to octahedral coordination mainly Mg atom. The bands observed at 1660 cm-1, 1639 cm-1, 1637 cm-1, and 1633 cm-1 in all samples indicate water molecules. FTIR spectra displaying the strong bands at 1045 cm-1, 1038 cm-1, and 1036 cm-1 could be related to the presence of Si-O-Si bonds linking to tetrahedral coordination. The strong absorption bands appeared at 511 cm-1, 505 cm-1, 499 cm-1, and 496 cm-1 in respective samples are attributed to divalent cation bonds (e.g. Mg, Ni-O. Both TG/DTA and FTIR seem to be the powerful tool in diagnosing the crystal chemistry of garnierite which is mainly composed of phyllosilicate minerals.

  3. Structurally Integrated Coatings for Wear and Corrosion (SICWC): Arc Lamp, InfraRed (IR) Thermal Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Sebright, J. [Caterpillar Corp.

    2007-12-15

    The primary goal of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) betwe1311 UT-Battelle (Contractor) and Caterpillar Inc. (Participant) was to develop the plasma arc lamp (PAL), infrared (IR) thermal processing technology 1.) to enhance surface coating performance by improving the interfacial bond strength between selected coatings and substrates; and 2.) to extend this technology base for transitioning of the arc lamp processing to the industrial Participant. Completion of the following three key technical tasks (described below) was necessary in order to accomplish this goal. First, thermophysical property data sets were successfully determined for composite coatings applied to 1010 steel substrates, with a more limited data set successfully measured for free-standing coatings. These data are necessary for the computer modeling simulations and parametric studies to; A.) simulate PAL IR processing, facilitating the development of the initial processing parameters; and B.) help develop a better understanding of the basic PAL IR fusing process fundamentals, including predicting the influence of melt pool stirring and heat tnmsfar characteristics introduced during plasma arc lamp infrared (IR) processing; Second, a methodology and a set of procedures were successfully developed and the plasma arc lamp (PAL) power profiles were successfully mapped as a function of PAL power level for the ORNL PAL. The latter data also are necessary input for the computer model to accurately simulate PAL processing during process modeling simulations, and to facilitate a better understand of the fusing process fundamentals. Third, several computer modeling codes have been evaluated as to their capabilities and accuracy in being able to capture and simulate convective mixing that may occur during PAL thermal processing. The results from these evaluation efforts are summarized in this report. The intention of this project was to extend the technology base and provide for

  4. Evaluation of Shortwave Infrared Atmospheric Correction for Ocean Color Remote Sensing of Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; Franz, Bryan A.; Bailey, Sean W.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer onboard the Aqua platform (MODIS-Aqua) provides a viable data stream for operational water quality monitoring of Chesapeake Bay. Marine geophysical products from MODIS-Aqua depend on the efficacy of the atmospheric correction process, which can be problematic in coastal environments. The operational atmospheric correction algorithm for MODIS-Aqua requires an assumption of negligible near-infrared water-leaving radiance, nL(sub w)(NIR). This assumption progressively degrades with increasing turbidity and, as such, methods exist to account for non-negligible nL(sub w)(NIR) within the atmospheric correction process or to use alternate radiometric bands where the assumption is satisfied, such as those positioned within shortwave infrared (SWIR) region of the spectrum. We evaluated a decade-long time-series of nL(sub w)(lambda) from MODIS-Aqua in Chesapeake Bay derived using NIR and SWIR bands for atmospheric correction. Low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) for the SWIR bands of MODIS-Aqua added noise errors to the derived radiances, which produced broad, flat frequency distributions of nL(sub w)(lambda) relative to those produced using the NIR bands. The SWIR approach produced an increased number of negative nL(sub w)(lambda) and decreased sample size relative to the NIR approach. Revised vicarious calibration and regional tuning of the scheme to switch between the NIR and SWIR approaches may improve retrievals in Chesapeake Bay, however, poor SNR values for the MODIS-Aqua SWIR bands remain the primary deficiency of the SWIR-based atmospheric correction approach.

  5. Integrating SAR with Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Operational Near Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; Webley, P.; Dehn, J.; Arko, S. A.; McAlpin, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are among the most significant hazards to human society, capable of triggering natural disasters on regional to global scales. In the last decade, remote sensing techniques have become established in operational forecasting, monitoring, and managing of volcanic hazards. Monitoring organizations, like the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), are nowadays heavily relying on remote sensing data from a variety of optical and thermal sensors to provide time-critical hazard information. Despite the high utilization of these remote sensing data to detect and monitor volcanic eruptions, the presence of clouds and a dependence on solar illumination often limit their impact on decision making processes. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems are widely believed to be superior to optical sensors in operational monitoring situations, due to the weather and illumination independence of their observations and the sensitivity of SAR to surface changes and deformation. Despite these benefits, the contributions of SAR to operational volcano monitoring have been limited in the past due to (1) high SAR data costs, (2) traditionally long data processing times, and (3) the low temporal sampling frequencies inherent to most SAR systems. In this study, we present improved data access, data processing, and data integration techniques that mitigate some of the above mentioned limitations and allow, for the first time, a meaningful integration of SAR into operational volcano monitoring systems. We will introduce a new database interface that was developed in cooperation with the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) and allows for rapid and seamless data access to all of ASF's SAR data holdings. We will also present processing techniques that improve the temporal frequency with which hazard-related products can be produced. These techniques take advantage of modern signal processing technology as well as new radiometric normalization schemes, both enabling the combination of

  6. ANALYSIS OF COMBINED UAV-BASED RGB AND THERMAL REMOTE SENSING DATA: A NEW APPROACH TO CROWD MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schulte

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Collecting vast amount of data does not solely help to fulfil information needs related to crowd monitoring, it is rather important to collect data that is suitable to meet specific information requirements. In order to address this issue, a prototype is developed to facilitate the combination of UAV-based RGB and thermal remote sensing datasets. In an experimental approach, image sensors were mounted on a remotely piloted aircraft and captured two video datasets over a crowd. A group of volunteers performed diverse movements that depict real world scenarios. The prototype is deriving the movement on the ground and is programmed in MATLAB. This novel detection approach using combined data is afterwards evaluated against detection algorithms that only use a single data source. Our tests show that the combination of RGB and thermal remote sensing data is beneficial for the field of crowd monitoring regarding the detection of crowd movement.

  7. Infrared spectroscopy (2.3-20 microns) for the geological interpretation of remotely-sensed multispectral thermal infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane; Kahle, Anne B.; Hoover, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    The spectral radiance and spectral reflectance of natural weathered surfaces of common sedimentary and igneous rocks is determined from in situ and in the laboratory measurements. In situ spectral radiance measurements (5-14 microns) were made with a portable spectral radiometer and were used to derive the spectral emissivity of the rocks. The spectral reflectance measurements (2.3-20 microns) were made in a laboratory with a Fourier transform IR spectrometer with a diffuse reflectance accessory. Good agreement is found between the two techniques. The field portable spectrometer has a larger field of view and the in situ data provide more accurate measurements of the intensity of spectral features related to temperature and atmospheric effects.

  8. Remote measurement of river discharge using thermal particle image velocimetry (PIV) and various sources of bathymetric information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legleiter, Carl; Kinzel, Paul J.; Nelson, Jonathan M.

    2017-01-01

    Although river discharge is a fundamental hydrologic quantity, conventional methods of streamgaging are impractical, expensive, and potentially dangerous in remote locations. This study evaluated the potential for measuring discharge via various forms of remote sensing, primarily thermal imaging of flow velocities but also spectrally-based depth retrieval from passive optical image data. We acquired thermal image time series from bridges spanning five streams in Alaska and observed strong agreement between velocities measured in situ and those inferred by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), which quantified advection of thermal features by the flow. The resulting surface velocities were converted to depth-averaged velocities by applying site-specific, calibrated velocity indices. Field spectra from three clear-flowing streams provided strong relationships between depth and reflectance, suggesting that, under favorable conditions, spectrally-based bathymetric mapping could complement thermal PIV in a hybrid approach to remote sensing of river discharge; this strategy would not be applicable to larger, more turbid rivers, however. A more flexible and efficient alternative might involve inferring depth from thermal data based on relationships between depth and integral length scales of turbulent fluctuations in temperature, captured as variations in image brightness. We observed moderately strong correlations for a site-aggregated data set that reduced station-to-station variability but encompassed a broad range of depths. Discharges calculated using thermal PIV-derived velocities were within 15% of in situ measurements when combined with depths measured directly in the field or estimated from field spectra and within 40% when the depth information also was derived from thermal images. The results of this initial, proof-of-concept investigation suggest that remote sensing techniques could facilitate measurement of river discharge.

  9. Nintendo Wii remote controllers for head posture measurement: accuracy, validity, and reliability of the infrared optical head tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongshin; Nam, Kyoung Won; Jang, Ik Gyu; Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Kwang Gi; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2012-03-15

    To evaluate the accuracy, validity, and reliability of a newly developed infrared optical head tracker (IOHT) using Nintendo Wii remote controllers (WiiMote; Nintendo Co. Ltd., Kyoto, Japan) for measurement of the angle of head posture. The IOHT consists of two infrared (IR) receivers (WiiMote) that are fixed to a mechanical frame and connected to a monitoring computer via a Bluetooth communication channel and an IR beacon that consists of four IR light-emitting diodes (LEDs). With the use of the Cervical Range of Motion (CROM; Performance Attainment Associates, St. Paul, MN) as a reference, one- and three-dimensional (1- and 3-D) head postures of 20 normal adult subjects (20-37 years of age; 9 women and 11 men) were recorded with the IOHT. In comparison with the data from the CROM, the IOHT-derived results showed high consistency. The measurements of 1- and 3-D positions of the human head with the IOHT were very close to those of the CROM. The correlation coefficients of 1- and 3-D positions between the IOHT and the CROM were more than 0.99 and 0.96 (P < 0.05, Pearson's correlation test), respectively. Reliability tests of the IOHT for the normal adult subjects for 1- and 3-D positions of the human head had 95% limits of agreement angles of approximately ±4.5° and ±8.0°, respectively. The IOHT showed strong concordance with the CROM and relatively good test-retest reliability, thus proving its validity and reliability as a head-posture-measuring device. Considering its high performance, ease of use, and low cost, the IOHT has the potential to be widely used as a head-posture-measuring device in clinical practice.

  10. Miniature, Low-Power, Waveguide Based Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer for Spacecraft Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewagama, TIlak; Aslam, Shahid; Talabac, Stephen; Allen, John E., Jr.; Annen, John N.; Jennings, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform spectrometers have a venerable heritage as flight instruments. However, obtaining an accurate spectrum exacts a penalty in instrument mass and power requirements. Recent advances in a broad class of non-scanning Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) devices, generally called spatial heterodyne spectrometers, offer distinct advantages as flight optimized systems. We are developing a miniaturized system that employs photonics lightwave circuit principles and functions as an FTS operating in the 7-14 micrometer spectral region. The inteferogram is constructed from an ensemble of Mach-Zehnder interferometers with path length differences calibrated to mimic scan mirror sample positions of a classic Michelson type FTS. One potential long-term application of this technology in low cost planetary missions is the concept of a self-contained sensor system. We are developing a systems architecture concept for wide area in situ and remote monitoring of characteristic properties that are of scientific interest. The system will be based on wavelength- and resolution-independent spectroscopic sensors for studying atmospheric and surface chemistry, physics, and mineralogy. The self-contained sensor network is based on our concept of an Addressable Photonics Cube (APC) which has real-time flexibility and broad science applications. It is envisaged that a spatially distributed autonomous sensor web concept that integrates multiple APCs will be reactive and dynamically driven. The network is designed to respond in an event- or model-driven manner or reconfigured as needed.

  11. Numerical investigation of steady-state thermal behavior of an infrared detector cryo chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhal Mayank

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An infrared (IR detector is simply a transducer of radiant energy, converting radiant energy into a measurable form. Since radiation does not rely on visible light, it offers the possibility of seeing in the dark or through obscured conditions, by detecting the IR energy emitted by objects. One of the prime applications of IR detector systems for military use is in target acquisition and tracking of projectile systems. The IR detectors also have great potential in commercial market. Typically, IR detectors perform best when cooled to cryogenic temperatures in the range of nearly 120 K. However, the necessity to operate in such cryogenic regimes makes the application of IR detectors extremely complex. Further, prior to proceeding on to a full blown transient thermal analysis it is worthwhile to perform a steady-state numerical analysis for ascertaining the effect of variation in viz., material, gas conduction coefficient, h, emissivity, ε, on the temperature profile along the cryo chamber length. This would enable understanding the interaction between the cryo chamber and its environment. Hence, the present work focuses on the development of steady-state numerical models for thermal analysis of IR cryo chamber using MATLAB. The numerical results show that gas conduction coefficient has marked influence on the temperature profile of the cryo chamber whereas the emissivity has a weak effect. The experimental validation of numerical results has also been presented.

  12. Airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) images over disseminated gold deposits, Osgood Mountains, Humboldt County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, M. Dennis

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquired airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) images over several disseminated gold deposits in northern Nevada in 1983. The aerial surveys were flown to determine whether TIMS data could depict jasperoids (siliceous replacement bodies) associated with the gold deposits. The TIMS data were collected over the Pinson and Getchell Mines in the Osgood Mountains, the Carlin, Maggie Creek, Bootstrap, and other mines in the Tuscarora Mountains, and the Jerritt Canyon Mine in the Independence Mountains. The TIMS data seem to be a useful supplement to conventional geochemical exploration for disseminated gold deposits in the western United States. Siliceous outcrops are readily separable in the TIMS image from other types of host rocks. Different forms of silicification are not readily separable, yet, due to limitations of spatial resolution and spectral dynamic range. Features associated with the disseminated gold deposits, such as the large intrusive bodies and fault structures, are also resolvable on TIMS data. Inclusion of high-resolution thermal inertia data would be a useful supplement to the TIMS data.

  13. MERTIS: the thermal infrared imaging spectrometer onboard of the Mercury Planetary Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeh, T.; Peter, G.; Walter, I.; Kopp, E.; Knollenberg, J.; Helbert, J.; Gebhardt, A.; Weber, I.; Hiesinger, Harry

    2017-11-01

    The MERTIS instrument is a thermal infrared imaging spectrometer onboard of ESA's cornerstone mission BepiColombo to Mercury. MERTIS has four goals: the study of Mercury's surface composition, identification of rock-forming minerals, mapping of the surface mineralogy, and the study of the surface temperature variations and thermal inertia. MERTIS will provide detailed information about the mineralogical composition of Mercury's surface layer by measuring the spectral emittance in the spectral range from 7-14 μm at high spatial and spectral resolution. Furthermore MERTIS will obtain radiometric measurements in the spectral range from 7-40 μm to study the thermo-physical properties of the surface material. The MERTIS detector is based on an uncooled micro-bolometer array providing spectral separation and spatial resolution according to its 2-dimensional shape. The operation principle is characterized by intermediate scanning of the planet surface and three different calibration targets - free space view and two on-board black body sources. In the current project phase, the MERTIS Qualification Model (QM) is under a rigorous testing program. Besides a general overview of the instrument principles, the papers addresses major aspects of the instrument design, manufacturing and verification.

  14. Experimental investigation of thermal loading of a horizontal thin plate using infrared camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Y. Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the results of experimental investigations of the characteristics of thermal loading of a thin plate by discrete radiative heat sources. The carbon–steel thin plate is horizontally located above the heat sources. Temperature distribution of the plate is measured using an infrared camera. The effects of various parameters, such as the Rayleigh number, from 107 to 1011, the aspect ratio, from 0.05 to 0.2, the distance ratio, from 0.05 to 0.2, the number of heaters, from 1 to 24, the thickness ratio, from 0.003 to 0.005, and the thermal radiative emissivity, from 0.567 to 0.889 on the maximum temperature and the length of uniform temperature region on a thin plate are explored. The results indicate that the most effective parameters on the order of impact on the maximum temperature is Rayleigh number, the number of heat sources, the distance ratio, the aspect ratio, the surface emissivity, and the plate thickness ratio. Finally, the results demonstrated that there is an optimal distance ratio to maximize the region of uniform temperature on the plate.

  15. Near-infrared Thermal Emission Detections of a Number of Hot Jupiters and the Systematics of Ground-based Near-infrared Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Bryce; Albert, Loic; Jayawardhana, Ray; Cushing, Michael; Moutou, Claire; Lafreniere, David; Johnson, John Asher; Bonomo, Aldo S.; Deleuil, Magali; Fortney, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    We present detections of the near-infrared thermal emission of three hot Jupiters and one brown dwarf using the Wide-field Infrared Camera (WIRCam) on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). These include Ks-band secondary eclipse detections of the hot Jupiters WASP-3b and Qatar-1b and the brown dwarf KELT-1b. We also report Y-band, K CONT-band, and two new and one reanalyzed Ks-band detections of the thermal emission of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b. We present a new reduction pipeline for CFHT/WIRCam data, which is optimized for high precision photometry. We also describe novel techniques for constraining systematic errors in ground-based near-infrared photometry, so as to return reliable secondary eclipse depths and uncertainties. We discuss the noise properties of our ground-based photometry for wavelengths spanning the near-infrared (the YJHK bands), for faint and bright stars, and for the same object on several occasions. For the hot Jupiters WASP-3b and WASP-12b we demonstrate the repeatability of our eclipse depth measurements in the Ks band; we therefore place stringent limits on the systematics of ground-based, near-infrared photometry, and also rule out violent weather changes in the deep, high pressure atmospheres of these two hot Jupiters at the epochs of our observations. Based on observations obtained with WIRCam, a joint project of Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), Taiwan, Korea, Canada, France, at the CFHT, which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  16. Greenhouse gas emission rate estimates from airborne remote sensing in the short-wave infrared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krings, Thomas

    2013-01-30

    The quantification of emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) is essential for attributing the roles of anthropogenic activity and natural phenomena in global climate change. The current measurement systems and networks, whilst having improved during the last decades, are deficient in many respects. For example, the emissions from localised and point sources such as fossil fuel exploration sites are not readily assessed. A tool developed to better understand point sources of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} is the optical remote sensing instrument MAMAP, operated from aircraft. With a ground scene size of the order of 50m and a relative accuracy of the column-averaged dry air mole fractions of about 0.3% for XCO{sub 2} and less than 0.4% for XCH{sub 4}, MAMAP can make a significant contribution in this respect. Detailed sensitivity studies showed that the modified WFM-DOAS retrieval algorithm used for MAMAP has an approximate accuracy of about 0.24% for XCH{sub 4} and XCO{sub 2} in typical atmospheric conditions. At the example of CO{sub 2} plumes from two different power plants and CH{sub 4} plumes from coal mine ventilation shafts, two inversion approaches to obtain emission rates were developed and tested. One is based on an optimal estimation scheme to fit Gaussian plume models from multiple sources to the data and the other is based on a simple Gaussian integral method. Compared to CO{sub 2} emission estimates as reported by the power plants' operator within the framework of emission databases (24 and 13 MtCO{sub 2} yr{sup -1}), the results of the individual inversion techniques were within ±10% with uncertainties of ±20-30% mainly due to insufficient wind information and non-stationary atmospheric conditions. Measurements at the coal mine included on-site wind observations by an aircraft turbulence probe that could be utilised to calibrate the wind model. In this case, the inversion results have a bias of less than 1

  17. A fast infrared radiative transfer model based on the adding-doubling method for hyperspectral remote-sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhibo; Yang Ping; Kattawar, George; Huang, H.-L.; Greenwald, Thomas; Li Jun; Baum, Bryan A.; Zhou, Daniel K.; Hu Yongxiang

    2007-01-01

    A fast infrared radiative transfer (RT) model is developed on the basis of the adding-doubling principle, hereafter referred to as FIRTM-AD, to facilitate the forward RT simulations involved in hyperspectral remote-sensing applications under cloudy-sky conditions. A pre-computed look-up table (LUT) of the bidirectional reflection and transmission functions and emissivities of ice clouds in conjunction with efficient interpolation schemes is used in FIRTM-AD to alleviate the computational burden of the doubling process. FIRTM-AD is applicable to a variety of cloud conditions, including vertically inhomogeneous or multilayered clouds. In particular, this RT model is suitable for the computation of high-spectral-resolution radiance and brightness temperature (BT) spectra at both the top-of-atmosphere and surface, and thus is useful for satellite and ground-based hyperspectral sensors. In terms of computer CPU time, FIRTM-AD is approximately 100-250 times faster than the well-known discrete-ordinate (DISORT) RT model for the same conditions. The errors of FIRTM-AD, specified as root-mean-square (RMS) BT differences with respect to their DISORT counterparts, are generally smaller than 0.1 K

  18. Retrieval of Saharan desert dust optical depth from thermal infrared measurements by IASI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbussche, S.; Kochenova, S.; Vandaele, A.-C.; Kumps, N.; De Mazière, M.

    2012-04-01

    Aerosols are a major actor in the climate system. They are responsible for climate forcing by both direct (by emission, absorption and scattering) and indirect effects (for example, by altering cloud microphysics). A better knowledge of aerosol optical properties, of the atmospheric aerosol load and of aerosol sources and sinks may therefore significantly improve the modeling of climate changes. Aerosol optical depth and other properties are retrieved on an operational basis from daytime measurements in the visible and near infrared spectral range by a number of instruments, like the satellite instruments MODIS, CALIOP, POLDER, MISR and ground-based sunphotometers. Aerosol retrievals from day and night measurements at thermal infrared (TIR) wavelengths (for example, from SEVIRI, AIRS and IASI satellite instruments) are less common, but they receive growing interest in more recent years. Among those TIR measuring instruments, IASI on METOP has one major advantage for aerosol retrievals: its large continuous spectral coverage, allowing to better capture the broadband signature of aerosols. Furthermore, IASI has a high spectral resolution (0.5cm-1 after apodization) which allows retrieving a large number of trace gases at the same time, it will nominally be in orbit for 15 years and offers a quasi global Earth coverage twice a day. Here we will show recently obtained results of desert aerosol properties (concentration, altitude, optical depth) retrieved from IASI TIR measurements, using the ASIMUT software (BIRA-IASB, Belgium) linked to (V)LIDORT (R. Spurr, RTsolutions Inc, US) and to SPHER (M. Mishchenko, NASA GISS, USA). In particular, we will address the case of Saharan desert dust storms, which are a major source of desert dust particles in the atmosphere. Those storms frequently transport sand to Europe, Western Asia or even South America. We will show some test-case comparisons between our retrievals and measurements from other instruments like those listed

  19. Observation of SO2 degassing at Stromboli volcano using a hyperspectral thermal infrared imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smekens, Jean-François; Gouhier, Mathieu

    2018-05-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) imaging is a common tool for the monitoring of volcanic activity. Broadband cameras with increasing sampling frequency give great insight into the physical processes taking place during effusive and explosive event, while Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) methods provide high resolution spectral information used to assess the composition of volcanic gases but are often limited to a single point of interest. Continuing developments in detector technology have given rise to a new class of hyperspectral imagers combining the advantages of both approaches. In this work, we present the results of our observations of volcanic activity at Stromboli volcano with a ground-based imager, the Telops Hyper-Cam LW, when used to detect emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) produced at the vent, with data acquired at Stromboli volcano (Italy) in early October of 2015. We have developed an innovative technique based on a curve-fitting algorithm to quickly extract spectral information from high-resolution datasets, allowing fast and reliable identification of SO2. We show in particular that weak SO2 emissions, such as inter-eruptive gas puffing, can be easily detected using this technology, even with poor weather conditions during acquisition (e.g., high relative humidity, presence of fog and/or ash). Then, artificially reducing the spectral resolution of the instrument, we recreated a variety of commonly used multispectral configurations to examine the efficiency of four qualitative SO2 indicators based on simple Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD). Our results show that quickly changing conditions at the vent - including but not limited to the presence of summit fog - render the establishment of meaningful thresholds for BTD indicators difficult. Building on those results, we propose recommendations on the use of multispectral imaging for SO2 monitoring and routine measurements from ground-based instruments.

  20. Ring-patterned plasmonic photonic crystal thermal light source for miniaturized near-infrared spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Shady R.; Elsayed, Ahmed A.; Sabry, Yasser M.; Khalil, Diaa

    2018-02-01

    There is a growing number of spectroscopy applications in the near-infrared (NIR) range including gas sensing, food analysis, pharmaceutical and industrial applications that requires highly efficient, more compact and low-cost miniaturized spectrometers. One of the key components for such systems is the wideband light source that can be fabricated using Silicon technology and hence integrated with other components on the same chip. In this work, we report a ring-patterned plasmonic photonic crystal (PC) thermal light source for miniaturized near-infrared spectrometers. The design is based on silicon and tuned to achieve wavelength selectivity in the emitted spectrum. The design is optimized by using Rigorous Coupled-Wave Analysis (RCWA) simulation, which is used to compute the power reflectance and transmittance that are used to predict the emissivity of the structure. The design consists of a PC of silicon rings coated with platinum. The period of the structure is about 2 μm and the silicon is highly-doped with n-type doping level in the order of 1019-1020 cm-3 to enhance the free-carrier absorption. The ring etching depth, diameter and shell thickness are optimized to increase its emissivity within a specific wavelength range of interest. The simulation results show an emissivity exceeding 0.9 in the NIR range up to 2.5 μm, while the emissivity is decreased significantly for longer wavelengths suppressing the emission out of the range of interest, and hence increasing the efficiency for the source. The reported results open the door for black body radiation engineering in integrated silicon sources for spectrometer miniaturization.

  1. A new paradigm of oral cancer detection using digital infrared thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Dasgupta, A.; Banerjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Patsa, S.; Ray, J. G.; Chaudhuri, K.

    2016-03-01

    Histopathology is considered the gold standard for oral cancer detection. But a major fraction of patient pop- ulation is incapable of accessing such healthcare facilities due to poverty. Moreover, such analysis may report false negatives when test tissue is not collected from exact cancerous location. The proposed work introduces a pioneering computer aided paradigm of fast, non-invasive and non-ionizing modality for oral cancer detection us- ing Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging (DITI). Due to aberrant metabolic activities in carcinogenic facial regions, heat signatures of patients are different from that of normal subjects. The proposed work utilizes asymmetry of temperature distribution of facial regions as principle cue for cancer detection. Three views of a subject, viz. front, left and right are acquired using long infrared (7:5 - 13μm) camera for analysing distribution of temperature. We study asymmetry of facial temperature distribution between: a) left and right profile faces and b) left and right half of frontal face. Comparison of temperature distribution suggests that patients manifest greater asymmetry compared to normal subjects. For classification, we initially use k-means and fuzzy k-means for unsupervised clustering followed by cluster class prototype assignment based on majority voting. Average classification accuracy of 91:5% and 92:8% are achieved by k-mean and fuzzy k-mean framework for frontal face. The corresponding metrics for profile face are 93:4% and 95%. Combining features of frontal and profile faces, average accuracies are increased to 96:2% and 97:6% respectively for k-means and fuzzy k-means framework.

  2. Automated processing of thermal infrared images of Osservatorio Vesuviano permanent surveillance network by using Matlab code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansivero, Fabio; Vilardo, Giuseppe; Caputo, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    The permanent thermal infrared surveillance network of Osservatorio Vesuviano (INGV) is composed of 6 stations which acquire IR frames of fumarole fields in the Campi Flegrei caldera and inside the Vesuvius crater (Italy). The IR frames are uploaded to a dedicated server in the Surveillance Center of Osservatorio Vesuviano in order to process the infrared data and to excerpt all the information contained. In a first phase the infrared data are processed by an automated system (A.S.I.R.A. Acq- Automated System of IR Analysis and Acquisition) developed in Matlab environment and with a user-friendly graphic user interface (GUI). ASIRA daily generates time-series of residual temperature values of the maximum temperatures observed in the IR scenes after the removal of seasonal effects. These time-series are displayed in the Surveillance Room of Osservatorio Vesuviano and provide information about the evolution of shallow temperatures field of the observed areas. In particular the features of ASIRA Acq include: a) efficient quality selection of IR scenes, b) IR images co-registration in respect of a reference frame, c) seasonal correction by using a background-removal methodology, a) filing of IR matrices and of the processed data in shared archives accessible to interrogation. The daily archived records can be also processed by ASIRA Plot (Matlab code with GUI) to visualize IR data time-series and to help in evaluating inputs parameters for further data processing and analysis. Additional processing features are accomplished in a second phase by ASIRA Tools which is Matlab code with GUI developed to extract further information from the dataset in automated way. The main functions of ASIRA Tools are: a) the analysis of temperature variations of each pixel of the IR frame in a given time interval, b) the removal of seasonal effects from temperature of every pixel in the IR frames by using an analytic approach (removal of sinusoidal long term seasonal component by using a

  3. Thermal and infrared-diode laser effects on indocyanine-green-treated corneal collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, George T.; Patmore, Ann; Shallal, Assaad; McHugh, Dominic; Marshall, John

    1993-07-01

    It has been suggested that laser welds of collagenous tissues form by interdigitation and chemical bonding of thermally 'unraveled' collagen fibrils. We investigated this proposal by attempting to weld highly collagenous, avascular corneal tissue with an infrared (IR) diode laser as follows. First, the temperature at which corneal collagen shrinks and collagen fibrils 'split' into subfibrillary components was determined. Second, since use of a near-IR laser wavelength necessitated addition of an absorbing dye (indocyanine green (ICG) to the cornea, we measured absorption spectra of ICG-treated tissue to ensure that peak ICG absorbance did not change markedly when ICG was present in the cornea. Third, using gel electrophoresis of thermally altered corneal collagen, we searched for covalently crosslinked compounds predicted by the proposed welding mechanism. Finally, we attempted to weld partial thickness corneal incisions infused with ICG. Principal experimental findings were as follows: (1) Human corneal (type I) collagen splits into subfibrillary components at approximately 63 degree(s)C, the same temperature that produces collagen shrinkage. (2) Peak ICG absorption does not change significantly in corneal stroma or with laser heating. (3) No evidence was found for the formation of novel compounds or the loss of proteins as a result of tissue heating. All tissue treated with ICG, however, exhibited a novel 244 kD protein band indicating chemical activity between collagen and corneal stromal components. (4) Laser welding corneal incisions was unsuccessful possibly due to shrinkage of the sides of the incision, lack of incision compression during heating, or a less than optimal combination of ICG concentration and radiant exposure. In summary, these experiments demonstrate the biochemical and morphological complexity of ICG-enhanced IR laser-tissue welding and the need for further investigation of laser welding mechanisms.

  4. Thermal Infrared Emission Spectroscopy of Synthetic Allophane and its Potential Formation on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Kraft, M. D.; Sharp, T. G.; Golden, D. C.; Ming, Douglas W.

    2010-01-01

    Allophane is a poorly-crystalline, hydrous aluminosilicate with variable Si/Al ratios approx.0.5-1 and a metastable precursor of clay minerals. On Earth, it forms rapidly by aqueous alteration of volcanic glass under neutral to slightly acidic conditions [1]. Based on in situ chemical measurements and the identification of alteration phases [2-4], the Martian surface is interpreted to have been chemically weathered on local to regional scales. Chemical models of altered surfaces detected by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit in Gusev crater suggest the presence of an allophane-like alteration product [3]. Thermal infrared (TIR) spectroscopy and spectral deconvolution models are primary tools for determining the mineralogy of the Martian surface [5]. Spectral models of data from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) indicate a global compositional dichotomy, where high latitudes tend to be enriched in a high-silica material [6,7], interpreted as high-silica, K-rich volcanic glass [6,8]. However, later interpretations proposed that the high-silica material may be an alteration product (such as amorphous silica, clay minerals, or allophane) and that high latitude surfaces are chemically weathered [9-11]. A TIR spectral library of pure minerals is available for the public [12], but it does not contain allophane spectra. The identification of allophane on the Martian surface would indicate high water activity at the time of its formation and would help constrain the aqueous alteration environment [13,14]. The addition of allophane to the spectral library is necessary to address the global compositional dichotomy. In this study, we characterize a synthetic allophane by IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to create an IR emission spectrum of pure allophane for the Mars science community to use in Martian spectral models.

  5. Determination of thermal diffusivity of dental enamel and dentin as a function of temperature, using infrared thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Thiago Martini

    2009-01-01

    In this work it was developed a software that calculates automatically, the thermal diffusivity value as a function of temperature in materials. The infrared thermography technique was used for data acquisition of temperature distribution as a function of time. These data were used to adjust a temperature function obtained from the homogeneous heat equation with specific boundary conditions. For that, an infrared camera (detecting from 8 μm to 9 μm) was calibrated to detect temperature ranging from 185 degree C up to 1300 degree C at an acquisition rate of 300 Hz. It was used, 10 samples of dental enamel and 10 samples of dentin, with 4 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm, which were obtained from bovine lower incisor teeth. These samples were irradiated with an Er:Cr:YSGG pulsed laser (λ = 2,78 μm). The resulting temperature was recorded 2 s prior, 10 s during irradiation and continuing for 2 more seconds after it. After each irradiation, all obtained thermal images were processed in the software, creating a file with the data of thermal diffusivity as a function of temperature. Another file with the thermal diffusivity values was also calculated after each laser pulse. The mean result of thermal diffusivity obtained for dental enamel was 0,0084 ± 0,001 cm2/s for the temperature interval of 220-550 degree C. The mean value for thermal diffusivity obtained for dentin was 0,0015 0,0004 cm2/s in temperatures up to 360 degree C; however, this value increases for higher temperatures. According to these results, it was possible to conclude that the use of infrared thermography, associated with the software developed in this work, is an efficient method to determine the thermal diffusivity values as a function of temperature in different materials. (author)

  6. Identification of thermal properties distribution in building wall using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, Jordan; Dumoulin, Jean

    2016-04-01

    [1] L. Ibos, J-P. Monchau, V. Feuillet, Y. Candau, A comparative study of in-situ measurement methods of a building wall thermal resistance using infrared thermography, in Proc. SPIE 9534, Twelfth International Conference on Quality Control by Artificial Vision 2015, 95341I (April 30, 2015); doi:10.1117/12.2185126 [2] Nassiopoulos, A., Bourquin, F., On-site building walls characterization, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A : Applications, 63(3) :179 :200, 2013 [3] J. Brouns, Développement d'outils numériques pour l'audit énergétique des bâtiments, PhD thesis, Université Paris-Est, SIE, 2014 [4] J.-L. Lions, Contrôle optimal de systèmes gouvernés par des équations aux dérivées partielles. Book, Dunod editor, 1968.

  7. Comparison of satellite-derived LAI and precipitation anomalies over Brazil with a thermal infrared-based Evaporative Stress Index for 2003-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Martha C.; Zolin, Cornelio A.; Hain, Christopher R.; Semmens, Kathryn; Tugrul Yilmaz, M.; Gao, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Shortwave vegetation index (VI) and leaf area index (LAI) remote sensing products yield inconsistent depictions of biophysical response to drought and pluvial events that have occurred in Brazil over the past decade. Conflicting reports of severity of drought impacts on vegetation health and functioning have been attributed to cloud and aerosol contamination of shortwave reflectance composites, particularly over the rainforested regions of the Amazon basin which are subject to prolonged periods of cloud cover and episodes of intense biomass burning. This study compares timeseries of satellite-derived maps of LAI from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and precipitation from the Tropical Rainfall Mapping Mission (TRMM) with a diagnostic Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) retrieved using thermal infrared remote sensing over South America for the period 2003-2013. This period includes several severe droughts and floods that occurred both over the Amazon and over unforested savanna and agricultural areas in Brazil. Cross-correlations between absolute values and standardized anomalies in monthly LAI and precipitation composites as well as the actual-to-reference evapotranspiration (ET) ratio used in the ESI were computed for representative forested and agricultural regions. The correlation analyses reveal strong apparent anticorrelation between MODIS LAI and TRMM precipitation anomalies over the Amazon, but better coupling over regions vegetated with shorter grass and crop canopies. The ESI was more consistently correlated with precipitation patterns over both landcover types. Temporal comparisons between ESI and TRMM anomalies suggest longer moisture buffering timescales in the deeper rooted rainforest systems. Diagnostic thermal-based retrievals of ET and ET anomalies, such as used in the ESI, provide independent information on the impacts of extreme hydrologic events on vegetation health in comparison with VI and precipitation-based drought

  8. Thermal infrared spectrometer MERTIS for the BepiColumbo Mission to Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeh, T.; Kaiser, S.; Lenfert, K.; Peter, G.; Walter, I.; Hirsch, H.; Knollenberg, J.; Helbert, J.; Multhaup, K.; Hiesinger, H.; Gebhardt, A.; Risse, S.; Damm, C.; Eberhardt, R.; Baier, V.; Kessler, E.

    2017-11-01

    The MERTIS instrument is a thermal infrared imaging spectrometer onboard of ESA's cornerstone mission BepiColombo to Mercury. MERTIS will provide detailed information about the mineralogical composition of Mercury's surface layer by measuring the spectral emittance in the spectral range from 7-14 μm with a high spatial and spectral resolution. Furthermore MERTIS will obtain radiometric measurements in the spectral range from 7-40 μm to study the thermo-physical properties of the surface material. Under the lead of the German Aerospace Center DLR (Dep. Optical Information Systems, Berlin) a development model (DM) is in development which integrates all MERTIS sub-units of later flight models. With the DM the general design and performance goals of the system shall be investigated and verified. Besides a general overview about the instrument principles the following topics are addressed: Optics setup with a Three Mirror Anastigmatic (TMA) telescope and Offner Spectrometer, Manufacturing techniques for the robust and high precision optics and Radiometer Concept and Design

  9. Hot spots in energetic materials generated by infrared and ultrasound, detected by thermal imaging microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Wei; You, Sizhu; Suslick, Kenneth S; Dlott, Dana D

    2014-02-01

    We have observed and characterized hot spot formation and hot-spot ignition of energetic materials (EM), where hot spots were created by ultrasonic or long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) exposure, and were detected by high-speed thermal microscopy. The microscope had 15-20 μm spatial resolution and 8.3 ms temporal resolution. LWIR was generated by a CO2 laser (tunable near 10.6 μm or 28.3 THz) and ultrasound by a 20 kHz acoustic horn. Both methods of energy input created spatially homogeneous energy fields, allowing hot spots to develop spontaneously due to the microstructure of the sample materials. We observed formation of hot spots which grew and caused the EM to ignite. The EM studied here consisted of composite solids with 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine crystals and polymer binders. EM simulants based on sucrose crystals in binders were also examined. The mechanisms of hot spot generation were different with LWIR and ultrasound. With LWIR, hot spots were most efficiently generated within the EM crystals at LWIR wavelengths having longer absorption depths of ∼25 μm, suggesting that hot spot generation mechanisms involved localized absorbing defects within the crystals, LWIR focusing in the crystals or LWIR interference in the crystals. With ultrasound, hot spots were primarily generated in regions of the polymer binder immediately adjacent to crystal surfaces, rather than inside the EM crystals.

  10. The Response of the Ocean Thermal Skin Layer to Variations in Incident Infrared Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elizabeth W.; Minnett, Peter J.

    2018-04-01

    Ocean warming trends are observed and coincide with the increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere resulting from human activities. At the ocean surface, most of the incoming infrared (IR) radiation is absorbed within the top micrometers of the ocean's surface where the thermal skin layer (TSL) exists. Thus, the incident IR radiation does not directly heat the upper few meters of the ocean. This paper investigates the physical mechanism between the absorption of IR radiation and its effect on heat transfer at the air-sea boundary. The hypothesis is that given the heat lost through the air-sea interface is controlled by the TSL, the TSL adjusts in response to variations in incident IR radiation to maintain the surface heat loss. This modulates the flow of heat from below and hence controls upper ocean heat content. This hypothesis is tested using the increase in incoming longwave radiation from clouds and analyzing vertical temperature profiles in the TSL retrieved from sea-surface emission spectra. The additional energy from the absorption of increasing IR radiation adjusts the curvature of the TSL such that the upward conduction of heat from the bulk of the ocean into the TSL is reduced. The additional energy absorbed within the TSL supports more of the surface heat loss. Thus, more heat beneath the TSL is retained leading to the observed increase in upper ocean heat content.

  11. Application methods of infrared thermal images in the health care field of traditional Chinese medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng

    2008-12-01

    Infrared thermal imaging (ITI) is the potential imaging technique for the health care field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Successful application demands obeying the characteristics and regularity of the ITI of human body and designing rigorous trials. First, the influence of time must be taken into account as the ITI of human body varies with time markedly. Second, relative magnitude is preferred to be the index of the image features. Third, scatter diagrams and the method of least square could present important information for evaluating the health care effect. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial was undertaken to study the influences of Shengsheng capsule, one of the TCM health food with immunity adjustment function, on the ITI of human body. The results showed that the effect of Shengsheng capsule to people with weak constitution or in the period of being weak could be reflected objectively by ITI. The relative efficacy rate was 81.3% for the trial group and 30.0% for the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups (P=0.003). So the sensitivity and objectivity of ITI are of great importance to the health care field of TCM.

  12. Thermal analysis of fused deposition modeling process using infrared thermography imaging and finite element modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xunfei; Hsieh, Sheng-Jen

    2017-05-01

    After years of development, Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) has become the most popular technique in commercial 3D printing due to its cost effectiveness and easy-to-operate fabrication process. Mechanical strength and dimensional accuracy are two of the most important factors for reliability of FDM products. However, the solid-liquid-solid state changes of material in the FDM process make it difficult to monitor and model. In this paper, an experimental model was developed to apply cost-effective infrared thermography imaging method to acquire temperature history of filaments at the interface and their corresponding cooling mechanism. A three-dimensional finite element model was constructed to simulate the same process using element "birth and death" feature and validated with the thermal response from the experimental model. In 6 of 9 experimental conditions, a maximum of 13% difference existed between the experimental and numerical models. This work suggests that numerical modeling of FDM process is reliable and can facilitate better understanding of bead spreading and road-to-road bonding mechanics during fabrication.

  13. Sympathy Crying: Insights from Infrared Thermal Imaging on a Female Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul; Terry, Samantha; Baker, Marc; Gallese, Vittorio; Reddy, Vasudevi

    2016-01-01

    Sympathy crying is an odd and complex mixture of physiological and emotional phenomena. Standard psychophysiological theories of emotion cannot attribute crying to a single subdivision of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and disagreement exists regarding the emotional origin of sympathy crying. The current experiment examines sympathy crying using functional thermal infrared imaging (FTII), a novel contactless measure of ANS activity. To induce crying female participants were given the choice to decide which film they wanted to cry to. Compared to baseline, temperature started increasing on the forehead, the peri-orbital region, the cheeks and the chin before crying and reached even higher temperatures during crying. The maxillary area showed the opposite pattern and a gradual temperature decrease was observed compared to baseline as a result of emotional sweating. The results suggest that tears of sympathy are part of a complex autonomic interaction between the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems, with the latter preceding the former. The emotional origin of the phenomenon seems to derive from subjective internal factors that relate to one’s personal experiences and attributes with tears arising in the form of catharses or as part of shared sadness. PMID:27716801

  14. The Prototype HyspIRI Thermal Infrared Radiometer (PHyTIR): A High Speed, Multispectral, Thermal Instrument Development in Support of HyspIRI-TIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The Prototype HyspIRI Thermal Infrared Radiometer (PHyTIR) is being developed as part of the risk reduction activities associated with the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI). The HyspIRI mission was recommended by the National Research Council Decadal Survey and includes a visible shortwave infrared (SWIR) pushboom spectrometer and a multispectral whiskbroom thermal infrared (TIR) imager. Data from the HyspIRI mission will be used to address key science questions related to the Solid Earth and Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems focus areas of the NASA Science Mission Directorate. The HyspIRI TIR system will have 60m ground resolution, better than 200mK noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT), 0.5C absolute temperature resolution with a 5-day repeat from LEO orbit. PHyTIR addresses the technology readiness level (TRL) of certain key subsystems of the TIR imager, primarily the detector assembly and scanning mechanism. PHyTIR will use Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) technology at the focal plane and operate in time delay integration mode. A custom read out integrated circuit (ROIC) will provide the high speed readout hence allowing the high data rates needed for the 5 day repeat. PHyTIR will also demonstrate a newly developed interferometeric metrology system. This system will provide an absolute measurement of the scanning mirror to an order of magnitude better than conventional optical encoders. This will minimize the reliance on ground control points hence minimizing post-processing (e.g. geo-rectification computations).

  15. Structure and composition of enamel and dentin after thermal treatment or infrared laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, Luciano

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to identify the crystallographic structure, optical properties, chemical composition and electron paramagnetic signals that laser irradiation or oven heating produces on the tissue. The thermal treatment was conducted in oven with temperature range below 1000 deg C and the laser irradiation with holmium (Ho:YLF - 2,065 μm) and erbium (Er:YAG - 2,94 μm) laser. The tissue characterization was carried out with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet and visible transmission spectroscopy, light microscopy, infrared transmission/reflection spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance. The holmium irradiated enamel (600-800 J/cm 2 ) shows the presence of tetracalcium phosphate that coexists with the natural phase (hydroxyapatite). The irradiated dentin shows only the sharper diffraction peaks of the natural phase. The narrows peaks, observed after irradiation, could be assigned to the dentin crystal growth and impurities elimination. Tissue discoloration is observed after thermal treatment with temperatures above 100 deg C. Heated enamel become white-opaque and the origin is assigned to the water elimination, which promotes higher light scattering by the prismatic structure. On the other hand, heated dentin, with similar temperatures becomes brown. The dentin browning changes with the temperature and shown two peaks, at 375 deg C and 700 deg C. The peak at 375 deg C is assigned to the collagen structure degradation and at 700 deg C to the cyanate formation. The dentin discoloration produced with temperatures below 200 deg C is reversible after the tissue hydration. Both enamel and dentin discoloration are also observed in erbium irradiated tissues. Thermal treatments, heating in oven or laser irradiation, change mainly the organic matrix composition and water present in the tissues. The inorganic matrix is more stable and its radicals are changed, with more predominance, only at temperatures higher than 500 deg

  16. Accounting for particle non-sphericity in modeling of mineral dust radiative properties in the thermal infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, M.; Dubovik, O.; Lapyonok, T.; Derimian, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Spectral radiative parameters (extinction optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry factor) of spheroids of mineral dust composed of quartz and clays have been simulated at wavelengths between 7.0 and 10.2 µm using a T-matrix code. In spectral intervals with high values of complex index of refraction and for large particles, the parameters cannot be fully calculated with the code. Practically, the calculations are stopped at a truncation radius over which the particles contribution cannot thus be taken into account. To deal with this issue, we have developed and applied an accurate corrective technique of T-matrix Size Truncation Compensation (TSTC). For a mineral dust described by its AERONET standard aspect ratio (AR) distribution, the full error margin when applying the TSTC is within 0.3% (or ±0.15%), whatever the radiative parameter and the wavelength considered, for quartz (the most difficult case). Large AR values limit also the possibilities of calculation with the code. The TSTC has been able to complete the calculations of the T-matrix code for a modified AERONET AR distribution with a maximum AR of 4.7 instead of 3 for the standard distribution. Comparison between the simulated properties of spheroids and of spheres of same volume confirms, in agreement with the literature, that significant differences are observed in the vicinity of the mineral resonant peaks (λ ca. 8.3–8.7 µm for quartz, ca. 9.3–9.5 µm for clays) and that they are due to absorption by the small particles. This is a favorable circumstance for the TSTC, which is concerned with the contribution of the largest particles. This technique of numerical calculation improves the accuracy of the simulated radiative parameters of mineral dust, which must lead to a progress in view of applications such as remote sensing or determination of energy balance of dust in the thermal infrared (TIR), incompletely investigated so far. - Highlights: • Completion of computation of mineral

  17. Validating the accuracy of SO2 gas retrievals in the thermal infrared (8-14 μm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, Andrea; Porter, John N.; Wright, Robert; Lucey, Paul G.

    2017-11-01

    Quantifying sulfur dioxide (SO2) in volcanic plumes is important for eruption predictions and public health. Ground-based remote sensing of spectral radiance of plumes contains information on the path-concentration of SO2. However, reliable inversion algorithms are needed to convert plume spectral radiance measurements into SO2 path-concentrations. Various techniques have been used for this purpose. Recent approaches have employed thermal infrared (TIR) imaging between 8 μm and 14 μm to provide two-dimensional mapping of plume SO2 path-concentration, using what might be described as "dual-view" techniques. In this case, the radiance (or its surrogate brightness temperature) is computed for portions of the image that correspond to the plume and compared with spectral radiance obtained for adjacent regions of the image that do not (i.e., "clear sky"). In this way, the contribution that the plume makes to the measured radiance can be isolated from the background atmospheric contribution, this residual signal being converted to an estimate of gas path-concentration via radiative transfer modeling. These dual-view approaches suffer from several issues, mainly the assumption of clear sky background conditions. At this time, the various inversion algorithms remain poorly validated. This paper makes two contributions. Firstly, it validates the aforementioned dual-view approaches, using hyperspectral TIR imaging data. Secondly, it introduces a new method to derive SO2 path-concentrations, which allows for single point SO2 path-concentration retrievals, suitable for hyperspectral imaging with clear or cloudy background conditions. The SO2 amenable lookup table algorithm (SO2-ALTA) uses the MODTRAN5 radiative transfer model to compute radiance for a variety (millions) of plume and atmospheric conditions. Rather than searching this lookup table to find the best fit for each measured spectrum, the lookup table was used to train a partial least square regression (PLSR) model

  18. Facile and high spatial resolution ratio-metric luminescence thermal mapping in microfluidics by near infrared excited upconversion nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Shunbo; Wen, Weijia; Cao, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    A local area temperature monitor is important for precise control of chemical and biological processes in microfluidics. In this work, we developed a facile method to realize micron spatial resolution of temperature mapping in a microfluidic channel quickly and cost effectively. Based on the temperature dependent fluorescence emission of NaYF 4 :Yb 3+ , Er 3+ upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) under near-infrared irradiation, ratio-metric imaging of UCNPs doped polydimethylsiloxane can map detailed temperature distribution in the channel. Unlike some reported strategies that utilize temperature sensitive organic dye (such as Rhodamine) to achieve thermal sensing, our method is highly chemically inert and physically stable without any performance degradation in long term operation. Moreover, this method can be easily scaled up or down, since the spatial and temperature resolution is determined by an optical imaging system. Our method supplied a simple and efficient solution for temperature mapping on a heterogeneous surface where usage of an infrared thermal camera was limited

  19. Analysis on nondestructive temperature distribution of tire tread part in a running using infrared thermal vision camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Yeol; Yang, Dong Jo; Ma, Sang Dong; Park, Byoung Gu; Lee, Ju Wan

    2001-01-01

    The experimental method which investigates validity of numerical simulation for wheeling tires has not developed until now. Separation of belt caused by sudden temperature increase is the most serious problem with wheeling tires. Actually, separation of belt is closely related with the life cycle and design of tires. It is important to investigate the temperature history of tires because sudden temperature increase on belt accelerates the thermal fatigue and then causes the destruction of bending area in the radial direction. Therefore, in the present study, finite element method (FEM) was used to obtain the accurate temperature distribution of tire. Its results were compared with experimental data acquired by infrared thermal camera.

  20. Research on the Compression Algorithm of the Infrared Thermal Image Sequence Based on Differential Evolution and Double Exponential Decay Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Yu; Meng, Xiang-Bing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    This paper has proposed a new thermal wave image sequence compression algorithm by combining double exponential decay fitting model and differential evolution algorithm. This study benchmarked fitting compression results and precision of the proposed method was benchmarked to that of the traditional methods via experiment; it investigated the fitting compression performance under the long time series and improved model and validated the algorithm by practical thermal image sequence compression and reconstruction. The results show that the proposed algorithm is a fast and highly precise infrared image data processing method. PMID:24696649

  1. Research on the Compression Algorithm of the Infrared Thermal Image Sequence Based on Differential Evolution and Double Exponential Decay Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has proposed a new thermal wave image sequence compression algorithm by combining double exponential decay fitting model and differential evolution algorithm. This study benchmarked fitting compression results and precision of the proposed method was benchmarked to that of the traditional methods via experiment; it investigated the fitting compression performance under the long time series and improved model and validated the algorithm by practical thermal image sequence compression and reconstruction. The results show that the proposed algorithm is a fast and highly precise infrared image data processing method.

  2. Synergistic Use of Thermal Infrared Field and Satellite Data: Eruption Detection, Monitoring and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The ASTER-based observational success of active volcanic processes early in the Terra mission later gave rise to a funded NASA program designed to both increase the number of ASTER scenes following an eruption and perform the ground-based science needed to validate that data. The urgent request protocol (URP) system for ASTER grew out of this initial study and has now operated in conjunction with and the support of the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the University of Hawaii, the USGS Land Processes DAAC, and the ASTER science team. The University of Pittsburgh oversees this rapid response/sensor-web system, which until 2011 had focused solely on the active volcanoes in the North Pacific region. Since that time, it has been expanded to operate globally with AVHRR and MODIS and now ASTER visible and thermal infrared (TIR) data are being acquired at numerous active volcanoes around the world. This program relies on the increased temporal resolution of AVHRR/MODIS midwave infrared data to trigger the next available ASTER observation, which results in ASTER data as frequently as every 2-5 days. For many new targets such as Mt. Etna, the URP has increased the observational frequency by as much 50%. Examples of these datasets will be presented, which have been used for operational response to new eruptions as well as longer-term scientific studies. These studies include emplacement of new lava flows, detection of endogenous dome growth, and interpretation of hazardous dome collapse events. As a means to validate the ASTER TIR data and capture higher-resolution images, a new ground-based sensor has recently been developed that consists of standard FLIR camera modified with wavelength filters similar to the ASTER bands. Data from this instrument have been acquired of the lava lake at Kilauea and reveal differences in emissivity between molten and cooled surfaces confirming prior laboratory results and providing important constraints on lava

  3. High-efficiency electroluminescence and amplified spontaneous emission from a thermally activated delayed fluorescent near-infrared emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hyeon; D'Aléo, Anthony; Chen, Xian-Kai; Sandanayaka, Atula D. S.; Yao, Dandan; Zhao, Li; Komino, Takeshi; Zaborova, Elena; Canard, Gabriel; Tsuchiya, Youichi; Choi, Eunyoung; Wu, Jeong Weon; Fages, Frédéric; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Ribierre, Jean-Charles; Adachi, Chihaya

    2018-02-01

    Near-infrared organic light-emitting diodes and semiconductor lasers could benefit a variety of applications including night-vision displays, sensors and information-secured displays. Organic dyes can generate electroluminescence efficiently at visible wavelengths, but organic light-emitting diodes are still underperforming in the near-infrared region. Here, we report thermally activated delayed fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes that operate at near-infrared wavelengths with a maximum external quantum efficiency of nearly 10% using a boron difluoride curcuminoid derivative. As well as an effective upconversion from triplet to singlet excited states due to the non-adiabatic coupling effect, this donor-acceptor-donor compound also exhibits efficient amplified spontaneous emission. By controlling the polarity of the active medium, the maximum emission wavelength of the electroluminescence spectrum can be tuned from 700 to 780 nm. This study represents an important advance in near-infrared organic light-emitting diodes and the design of alternative molecular architectures for photonic applications based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence.

  4. A method to quickly test the emissivity with an infrared thermal imaging system within a small distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan-yu; Hu, Rui; Wang, Rui-xin

    2015-10-01

    A simple method has been set up to quickly test the emissivity with an infrared thermal imaging system within a small distance according to the theory of measuring temperature by infrared system, which is based on the Planck radiation law and Lambert-beer law. The object's temperature is promoted and held on by a heater while a temperature difference has been formed between the target and environment. The emissivity of human skin, galvanized iron plate, black rubber and liquid water has been tested under the condition that the emissivity is set in 1.0 and the testing distance is 1m. According to the invariance of human's body temperature, a testing curve is established to describe that the thermal imaging temperatures various with the emissivity which is set in from 0.9 to 1.0. As a result, the method has been verified. The testing results show that the emissivity of human skin is 0.95. The emissivity of galvanized iron plate, black rubber and liquid water decreases with the increase of object's temperature. The emissivity of galvanized iron plate is far smaller than the one of human skin, black rubber or water. The emissivity of water slowly linearly decreases with the increase of its temperature. By the study, within a small distance and clean atmosphere, the infrared emissivity of objects may be expediently tested with an infrared thermal imaging system according to the method, which is promoting the object's temperature to make it different from the environment temperature, then simultaneously measures the environmental temperature, the real temperature and thermal imaging temperature of the object when the emissivity is set in 1.0 and the testing distance is 1.0m.

  5. Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis of Radiative Transfer Equation: Temperature and Gas Mixing Ratio Weighting Functions for Remote Sensing of Scattering Atmospheres in Thermal IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, E.

    1999-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis based on using of the adjoint equation of radiative transfer is applied to the case of atmospheric remote sensing in the thermal spectral region with non-negligeable atmospheric scattering.

  6. Predicting ambient aerosol Thermal Optical Reflectance (TOR) measurements from infrared spectra: organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillner, A. M.; Takahama, S.

    2014-11-01

    Organic carbon (OC) can constitute 50% or more of the mass of atmospheric particulate matter. Typically, the organic carbon concentration is measured using thermal methods such as Thermal-Optical Reflectance (TOR) from quartz fiber filters. Here, methods are presented whereby Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon) filters are used to accurately predict TOR OC. Transmittance FT-IR analysis is rapid, inexpensive, and non-destructive to the PTFE filters. To develop and test the method, FT-IR absorbance spectra are obtained from 794 samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites sampled during 2011. Partial least squares regression is used to calibrate sample FT-IR absorbance spectra to artifact-corrected TOR OC. The FTIR spectra are divided into calibration and test sets by sampling site and date which leads to precise and accurate OC predictions by FT-IR as indicated by high coefficient of determination (R2; 0.96), low bias (0.02 μg m-3, all μg m-3 values based on the nominal IMPROVE sample volume of 32.8 m-3), low error (0.08 μg m-3) and low normalized error (11%). These performance metrics can be achieved with various degrees of spectral pretreatment (e.g., including or excluding substrate contributions to the absorbances) and are comparable in precision and accuracy to collocated TOR measurements. FT-IR spectra are also divided into calibration and test sets by OC mass and by OM / OC which reflects the organic composition of the particulate matter and is obtained from organic functional group composition; this division also leads to precise and accurate OC predictions. Low OC concentrations have higher bias and normalized error due to TOR analytical errors and artifact correction errors, not due to the range of OC mass of the samples in the calibration set. However, samples with low OC mass can be used to predict samples with high OC mass indicating that the

  7. A Useful Tool for Atmospheric Correction and Surface Temperature Estimation of Landsat Infrared Thermal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalland, Vincent; Tardy, Benjamin; Huc, Mireille; Hagolle, Olivier; Marcq, Sébastien; Boulet, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Land Surface temperature (LST) is a critical variable for studying the energy and water budgets at the Earth surface, and is a key component of many aspects of climate research and services. The Landsat program jointly carried out by NASA and USGS has been providing thermal infrared data for 40 years, but no associated LST product has been yet routinely proposed to community. To derive LST values, radiances measured at sensor-level need to be corrected for the atmospheric absorption, the atmospheric emission and the surface emissivity effect. Until now, existing LST products have been generated with multi channel methods such as the Temperature/Emissivity Separation (TES) adapted to ASTER data or the generalized split-window algorithm adapted to MODIS multispectral data. Those approaches are ill-adapted to the Landsat mono-window data specificity. The atmospheric correction methodology usually used for Landsat data requires detailed information about the state of the atmosphere. This information may be obtained from radio-sounding or model atmospheric reanalysis and is supplied to a radiative transfer model in order to estimate atmospheric parameters for a given coordinate. In this work, we present a new automatic tool dedicated to Landsat thermal data correction which improves the common atmospheric correction methodology by introducing the spatial dimension in the process. The python tool developed during this study, named LANDARTs for LANDsat Automatic Retrieval of surface Temperature, is fully automatic and provides atmospheric corrections for a whole Landsat tile. Vertical atmospheric conditions are downloaded from the ERA Interim dataset from ECMWF meteorological organization which provides them at 0.125 degrees resolution, at a global scale and with a 6-hour-time step. The atmospheric correction parameters are estimated on the atmospheric grid using the commercial software MODTRAN, then interpolated to 30m resolution. We detail the processing steps

  8. Airborne thermal infrared imaging of the 2004-2005 eruption of Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D. J.; Vallance, J. W.; Logan, M.; Wessels, R.; Ramsey, M.

    2005-12-01

    A helicopter-mounted forward-looking infrared imaging radiometer (FLIR) documented the explosive and effusive activity at Mount St. Helens during the 2004-2005 eruption. A gyrostabilzed gimbal controlled by a crew member houses the FLIR radiometer and an optical video camera attached at the lower front of the helicopter. Since October 1, 2004 the system has provided an unprecedented data set of thermal and video dome-growth observations. Flights were conducted as frequently as twice daily during the initial month of the eruption (when changes in the crater and dome occurred rapidly), and have been continued on a tri-weekly basis during the period of sustained dome growth. As with any new technology, the routine use of FLIR images to aid in volcano monitoring has been a learning experience in terms of observation strategy and data interpretation. Some of the unique information that has been derived from these data to date include: 1) Rapid identification of the phreatic nature of the early explosive phase; 2) Observation of faulting and associated heat flow during times of large scale deformation; 3) Venting of hot gas through a short lived crater lake, indicative of a shallow magma source; 4) Increased heat flow of the crater floor prior to the initial dome extrusion; 5) Confirmation of new magma reaching the surface; 6) Identification of the source of active lava extrusion, dome collapse, and block and ash flows. Temperatures vary from ambient, in areas insulated by fault gouge and talus produced during extrusion, to as high as 500-740 degrees C in regions of active extrusion, collapse, and fracturing. This temperature variation needs to be accounted for in the retrieval of eruption parameters using satellite-based techniques as such features are sub-pixel size in satellite images.

  9. Estimating spatially distributed soil texture using time series of thermal remote sensing - a case study in central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Benjamin; Bernhardt, Matthias; Jackisch, Conrad; Schulz, Karsten

    2016-09-01

    For understanding water and solute transport processes, knowledge about the respective hydraulic properties is necessary. Commonly, hydraulic parameters are estimated via pedo-transfer functions using soil texture data to avoid cost-intensive measurements of hydraulic parameters in the laboratory. Therefore, current soil texture information is only available at a coarse spatial resolution of 250 to 1000 m. Here, a method is presented to derive high-resolution (15 m) spatial topsoil texture patterns for the meso-scale Attert catchment (Luxembourg, 288 km2) from 28 images of ASTER (advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer) thermal remote sensing. A principle component analysis of the images reveals the most dominant thermal patterns (principle components, PCs) that are related to 212 fractional soil texture samples. Within a multiple linear regression framework, distributed soil texture information is estimated and related uncertainties are assessed. An overall root mean squared error (RMSE) of 12.7 percentage points (pp) lies well within and even below the range of recent studies on soil texture estimation, while requiring sparser sample setups and a less diverse set of basic spatial input. This approach will improve the generation of spatially distributed topsoil maps, particularly for hydrologic modeling purposes, and will expand the usage of thermal remote sensing products.

  10. Use of the Vis-SWIR to Aid Atmospheric Correction of Multispectral and Hyperspectral Thermal Infrared (TIR) Imagery: The TIR Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gruninger, John; Fox, Marsha; Lee, Jamine; Ratkowski, Anthony J; Hoke, Michael L

    2006-01-01

    The atmospheric correction of thermal infrared (TIR) imagery involves the combined tasks of separation of atmospheric transmittance, downwelling flux and upwelling radiance from the surface material spectral emissivity and temperature...

  11. In situ characterization of thermal conductivities of irradiated solids by using ion beam heating and infrared imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondrik, Nicholas; Gigax, Jonathan; Wang, Xuemei; Price, Lloyd [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Wei, Chaochen [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Shao, Lin, E-mail: lshao@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We propose a method to characterize thermal properties of ion irradiated materials. This method uses an ion beam as a heating source to create a hot spot on sample surface. Infrared imaging is used as a surface temperature mapping tool to record hot zone spreading. Since ion energy, ion flux, and ion penetration depth can be precisely controlled, the beam heating data is highly reliable and repeatable. Using a high speed infrared camera to capture lateral spreading of the hot zone, thermal diffusivity can be readily extracted. The proposed method has advantages in studying radiation induced thermal property changes, for which radiation damage can be introduced by using an irradiating beam over a relatively large beam spot and beam heating can be introduced by using a focused testing beam over a relatively small beam spot. These two beams can be switched without breaking vacuum. Thus thermal conductivity changes can be characterized in situ with ion irradiation. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated on a single crystal quartz substrate.

  12. In situ characterization of thermal conductivities of irradiated solids by using ion beam heating and infrared imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondrik, Nicholas; Gigax, Jonathan; Wang, Xuemei; Price, Lloyd; Wei, Chaochen; Shao, Lin

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method to characterize thermal properties of ion irradiated materials. This method uses an ion beam as a heating source to create a hot spot on sample surface. Infrared imaging is used as a surface temperature mapping tool to record hot zone spreading. Since ion energy, ion flux, and ion penetration depth can be precisely controlled, the beam heating data is highly reliable and repeatable. Using a high speed infrared camera to capture lateral spreading of the hot zone, thermal diffusivity can be readily extracted. The proposed method has advantages in studying radiation induced thermal property changes, for which radiation damage can be introduced by using an irradiating beam over a relatively large beam spot and beam heating can be introduced by using a focused testing beam over a relatively small beam spot. These two beams can be switched without breaking vacuum. Thus thermal conductivity changes can be characterized in situ with ion irradiation. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated on a single crystal quartz substrate

  13. Development trends of remote sensing technology for uranium exploration in 12th Five Year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jielin

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduced the research status,application requirements, technique questions and development trends of remote sensing technology for uranium exploration in the 12th five year, and discussed the applicant prospects and potential of applied basic research innovation, thermal infrared hyperspectral and microwave remote sensing, 4D geological mapping and stereo exploration model in the uranium exploration. (authors)

  14. Mars Thermal Inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows the global thermal inertia of the Martian surface as measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor. The data were acquired during the first 5000 orbits of the MGS mapping mission. The pattern of inertia variations observed by TES agrees well with the thermal inertia maps made by the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper experiment, but the TES data shown here are at significantly higher spatial resolution (15 km versus 60 km).The TES instrument was built by Santa Barbara Remote Sensing and is operated by Philip R. Christensen, of Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.

  15. Analysis of peripheral thermal damage after laser irradiation of dentin using polarized light microscopy and synchrotron radiation infrared spectromicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Rosa, Alfredo; Sarma, Anupama V.; Le, Charles Q.; Jones, Robert S.; Fried, Daniel

    2004-05-01

    It is necessary to minimize peripheral thermal damage during laser irradiation, since thermal damage to collagen and mineral compromises the bond strength to restorative materials in dentin and inhibits healing and osteointegration in bone. The overall objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that lasers resonant to the specific absorption of water, collagen, and hydroxyapatite with pulse durations less than the thermal relaxation times at each respective laser wavelength will efficiently remove dentin with minimal peripheral thermal damage. Precise incisions were produced in 3 x 3 mm2 blocks of human dentin using CO2 (9.6 μm), Er:YSGG (2.79 μm), and Nd:YAG (355 nm) lasers with and without a computer controlled water spray. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography was used to obtain optical cross-sections of each incision to determine the rate and efficiency of ablation. The peripheral thermal damage zone around each incision was analyzed using polarized light microscopy (PLM) and Synchrotron-Radiation Fourier Transform Infrared Spectro-microscopy (SR-FTIR). Thermally induced chemical changes to both mineral and the collagen matrix was observed with SR-FTIR with a 10-μm spatial resolution and those changes were correlated with optical changes observed with PLM. Minimal (alveolar bone.

  16. Elucidation of the thermal deterioration mechanism of bio-oil pyrolyzed from rice husk using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Xu, Yu; Lu, Rui; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-09-14

    In this study, the rationale for exploring the thermal deterioration mechanism of the bio-oil pyrolyzed from rice husk is established. This is based on identification of the unstable intermediates in the thermal deterioration process. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to monitor such a thermal deterioration process of bio-oil samples in thermal treatment and/or during long-term storage at ambient temperatures of 20-30 °C. Terminal olefins, as a key intermediate, so-called "signature", were identified qualitatively by using FTIR spectroscopy. A band shift observed at 880 cm(-1), which was assigned to the C-H out-of-plane deformation vibration of terminal olefins, indicates the start-up of the bio-oil thermal deterioration. A two-step pathway was proposed to describe the thermal deterioration process of bio-oil. This study suggests that the status of bio-oil could be rapidly monitored by the FTIR method.

  17. Thermal infrared and microwave absorbing properties of SrTiO3/SrFe12O19/polyaniline nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Hossein; Zamani, Parisa; Mousavi, S.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We have developed a new perspective of applications and properties of conducting polymers. The combination of absorption ability prepared nanocomposites in the present of PANI display a great potential in organization of shielding structures into thermal IR and microwave. Further investigations using other conducting polymers to demonstrate their capability for advance thermal IR and microwave shielding devices is under way. The application of these samples may improve the IR thermographic detection, catalysis, sensors, magnetic data storage, electromagnetic resonance wave absorption, photonic crystals, and microelectronic devices and military aspects. - Highlights: • The SrTiO 3 /SrFe 12 O 19 /PANI exhibited electric and electromagnetic properties. • The SrTiO 3 /SrFe 12 O 19 /PANI has shielding structures into thermal IR and microwave. • Increasing weight ratios and thicknesses will increase thermal IR ability. • Increasing weight ratios and thicknesses will increase microwave absorption ability. - Abstract: Polyaniline (PANI) as a unique polymer that also has electromagnetic absorption used as the substrate. In this research, SrTiO 3 was synthesized as IR absorbent and core and then SrFe 12 O 19 as microwave absorbent was prepared on SrTiO 3 via co-precipitation method as the first shell. As the next step, PANI was coated on SrTiO 3 /SrFe 12 O 19 nanoparticles via in situ polymerization by multi core–shell structures (SrTiO 3 /SrFe 12 O 19 /PANI). Nanometer size and structures of samples were measured by TEM, XRD and FTIR. Morphology of nanocomposite was showed by SEM images. The magnetic and electric properties were also performed by VSM and four probe techniques. Thermal infrared (IR) absorption and microwave reflection loss of nanocomposites were investigated at 10–40 μm and 8–12 GHz, IR and microwave frequencies, respectively. The results showed that the SrTiO 3 /SrFe 12 O 19 /PANI nanocomposites have good compatible

  18. Predicting ambient aerosol thermal-optical reflectance measurements from infrared spectra: elemental carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillner, A. M.; Takahama, S.

    2015-10-01

    Elemental carbon (EC) is an important constituent of atmospheric particulate matter because it absorbs solar radiation influencing climate and visibility and it adversely affects human health. The EC measured by thermal methods such as thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) is operationally defined as the carbon that volatilizes from quartz filter samples at elevated temperatures in the presence of oxygen. Here, methods are presented to accurately predict TOR EC using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from atmospheric particulate matter collected on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon) filters. This method is similar to the procedure developed for OC in prior work (Dillner and Takahama, 2015). Transmittance FT-IR analysis is rapid, inexpensive and nondestructive to the PTFE filter samples which are routinely collected for mass and elemental analysis in monitoring networks. FT-IR absorbance spectra are obtained from 794 filter samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites collected during 2011. Partial least squares regression is used to calibrate sample FT-IR absorbance spectra to collocated TOR EC measurements. The FT-IR spectra are divided into calibration and test sets. Two calibrations are developed: one developed from uniform distribution of samples across the EC mass range (Uniform EC) and one developed from a uniform distribution of Low EC mass samples (EC < 2.4 μg, Low Uniform EC). A hybrid approach which applies the Low EC calibration to Low EC samples and the Uniform EC calibration to all other samples is used to produce predictions for Low EC samples that have mean error on par with parallel TOR EC samples in the same mass range and an estimate of the minimum detection limit (MDL) that is on par with TOR EC MDL. For all samples, this hybrid approach leads to precise and accurate TOR EC predictions by FT-IR as indicated by high coefficient of determination (R2; 0.96), no bias (0.00 μg m-3, a

  19. Predicting ambient aerosol thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) measurements from infrared spectra: organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillner, A. M.; Takahama, S.

    2015-03-01

    Organic carbon (OC) can constitute 50% or more of the mass of atmospheric particulate matter. Typically, organic carbon is measured from a quartz fiber filter that has been exposed to a volume of ambient air and analyzed using thermal methods such as thermal-optical reflectance (TOR). Here, methods are presented that show the feasibility of using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon) filters to accurately predict TOR OC. This work marks an initial step in proposing a method that can reduce the operating costs of large air quality monitoring networks with an inexpensive, non-destructive analysis technique using routinely collected PTFE filter samples which, in addition to OC concentrations, can concurrently provide information regarding the composition of organic aerosol. This feasibility study suggests that the minimum detection limit and errors (or uncertainty) of FT-IR predictions are on par with TOR OC such that evaluation of long-term trends and epidemiological studies would not be significantly impacted. To develop and test the method, FT-IR absorbance spectra are obtained from 794 samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites collected during 2011. Partial least-squares regression is used to calibrate sample FT-IR absorbance spectra to TOR OC. The FTIR spectra are divided into calibration and test sets by sampling site and date. The calibration produces precise and accurate TOR OC predictions of the test set samples by FT-IR as indicated by high coefficient of variation (R2; 0.96), low bias (0.02 μg m-3, the nominal IMPROVE sample volume is 32.8 m3), low error (0.08 μg m-3) and low normalized error (11%). These performance metrics can be achieved with various degrees of spectral pretreatment (e.g., including or excluding substrate contributions to the absorbances) and are comparable in precision to collocated TOR measurements. FT-IR spectra are also

  20. Predicting ambient aerosol Thermal Optical Reflectance (TOR) measurements from infrared spectra: elemental carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillner, A. M.; Takahama, S.

    2015-06-01

    Elemental carbon (EC) is an important constituent of atmospheric particulate matter because it absorbs solar radiation influencing climate and visibility and it adversely affects human health. The EC measured by thermal methods such as Thermal-Optical Reflectance (TOR) is operationally defined as the carbon that volatilizes from quartz filter samples at elevated temperatures in the presence of oxygen. Here, methods are presented to accurately predict TOR EC using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from atmospheric particulate matter collected on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon) filters. This method is similar to the procedure tested and developed for OC in prior work (Dillner and Takahama, 2015). Transmittance FT-IR analysis is rapid, inexpensive, and non-destructive to the PTFE filter samples which are routinely collected for mass and elemental analysis in monitoring networks. FT-IR absorbance spectra are obtained from 794 filter samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites collected during 2011. Partial least squares regression is used to calibrate sample FT-IR absorbance spectra to collocated TOR EC measurements. The FTIR spectra are divided into calibration and test sets. Two calibrations are developed, one which is developed from uniform distribution of samples across the EC mass range (Uniform EC) and one developed from a~uniform distribution of low EC mass samples (EC < 2.4 μg, Low Uniform EC). A hybrid approach which applies the low EC calibration to low EC samples and the Uniform EC calibration to all other samples is used to produces predictions for low EC samples that have mean error on par with parallel TOR EC samples in the same mass range and an estimate of the minimum detection limit (MDL) that is on par with TOR EC MDL. For all samples, this hybrid approach leads to precise and accurate TOR EC predictions by FT-IR as indicated by high coefficient of variation (R2; 0.96), no

  1. An investigation into the applicability of thermal infrared scanning for exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broicher, H.

    1981-07-01

    PRATT's theory of thermal inertia stripping leads to thermal inertia calculations for the subsurface zones subjected to the diurnal and the annual temperature variations, as well as to temperatures at the zone limits. Thermal inertia mapping after separating these zones gains in importance for exploration. It should be investigated, if orebodies would cause detectable subsurface temperature anomalies. Technical infrastructure problems caused the termination of the project. The realization of thermal inertia stripping should be pursued. (orig.) [de

  2. Surface Temperature Mapping of the University of Northern Iowa Campus Using High Resolution Thermal Infrared Aerial Imageries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Sugumaran

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project was to map the surface temperature of the University of Northern Iowa campus using high-resolution thermal infrared aerial imageries. A thermal camera with a spectral bandwidth of 3.0-5.0 μm was flown at the average altitude of 600 m, achieving ground resolution of 29 cm. Ground control data was used to construct the pixelto-temperature conversion model, which was later used to produce temperature maps of the entire campus and also for validation of the model. The temperature map then was used to assess the building rooftop conditions and steam line faults in the study area. Assessment of the temperature map revealed a number of building structures that may be subject to insulation improvement due to their high surface temperatures leaks. Several hot spots were also identified on the campus for steam pipelines faults. High-resolution thermal infrared imagery proved highly effective tool for precise heat anomaly detection on the campus, and it can be used by university facility services for effective future maintenance of buildings and grounds.

  3. Surface Temperature Mapping of the University of Northern Iowa Campus Using High Resolution Thermal Infrared Aerial Imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Alexander; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this project was to map the surface temperature of the University of Northern Iowa campus using high-resolution thermal infrared aerial imageries. A thermal camera with a spectral bandwidth of 3.0-5.0 μm was flown at the average altitude of 600 m, achieving ground resolution of 29 cm. Ground control data was used to construct the pixel- to-temperature conversion model, which was later used to produce temperature maps of the entire campus and also for validation of the model. The temperature map then was used to assess the building rooftop conditions and steam line faults in the study area. Assessment of the temperature map revealed a number of building structures that may be subject to insulation improvement due to their high surface temperatures leaks. Several hot spots were also identified on the campus for steam pipelines faults. High-resolution thermal infrared imagery proved highly effective tool for precise heat anomaly detection on the campus, and it can be used by university facility services for effective future maintenance of buildings and grounds. PMID:27873800

  4. Uncertainty Evaluations of the CRCS In-orbit Field Radiometric Calibration Methods for Thermal Infrared Channels of FENGYUN Meteorological Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Rong, Z.; Min, M.; Hao, X.; Yang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Meteorological satellites have become an irreplaceable weather and ocean-observing tool in China. These satellites are used to monitor natural disasters and improve the efficiency of many sectors of Chinese national economy. It is impossible to ignore the space-derived data in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, and agriculture, as well as disaster monitoring in China, a large agricultural country. For this reason, China is making a sustained effort to build and enhance its meteorological observing system and application system. The first Chinese polar-orbiting weather satellite was launched in 1988. Since then China has launched 14 meteorological satellites, 7 of which are sun synchronous and 7 of which are geostationary satellites; China will continue its two types of meteorological satellite programs. In order to achieve the in-orbit absolute radiometric calibration of the operational meteorological satellites' thermal infrared channels, China radiometric calibration sites (CRCS) established a set of in-orbit field absolute radiometric calibration methods (FCM) for thermal infrared channels (TIR) and the uncertainty of this method was evaluated and analyzed based on TERRA/AQUA MODIS observations. Comparisons between the MODIS at pupil brightness temperatures (BTs) and the simulated BTs at the top of atmosphere using radiative transfer model (RTM) based on field measurements showed that the accuracy of the current in-orbit field absolute radiometric calibration methods was better than 1.00K (@300K, K=1) in thermal infrared channels. Therefore, the current CRCS field calibration method for TIR channels applied to Chinese metrological satellites was with favorable calibration accuracy: for 10.5-11.5µm channel was better than 0.75K (@300K, K=1) and for 11.5-12.5µm channel was better than 0.85K (@300K, K=1).

  5. Non-thermal near-infrared exposure photobiomodulates cellular responses to ionizing radiation in human full thickness skin models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Anke; Zöller, Nadja; Kippenberger, Stefan; Bernd, August; Kaufmann, Roland; Layer, Paul G; Heselich, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Ionizing and near-infrared radiation are both part of the therapeutic spectrum in cancer treatment. During cancer therapy ionizing radiation is typically used for non-invasive reduction of malignant tissue, while near-infrared photobiomodulation is utilized in palliative medical approaches, e.g. for pain reduction or impairment of wound healing. Furthermore, near-infrared is part of the solar wavelength spectrum. A combined exposure of these two irradiation qualities - either intentionally during medical treatment or unintentionally due to solar exposure - is therefore presumable for cancer patients. Several studies in different model organisms and cell cultures show a strong impact of near-infrared pretreatment on ionizing radiation-induced stress response. To investigate the risks of non-thermal near-infrared (NIR) pretreatment in patients, a human in vitro full thickness skin models (FTSM) was evaluated for radiation research. FTSM were pretreated with therapy-relevant doses of NIR followed by X-radiation, and then examined for DNA-double-strand break (DSB) repair, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Double-treated FTSM revealed a clear influence of NIR on X-radiation-induced stress responses in cells in their typical tissue environment. Furthermore, over a 24h time period, double-treated FTSM presented a significant persistence of DSBs, as compared to samples exclusively irradiated by X-rays. In addition, NIR pretreatment inhibited apoptosis induction of integrated fibroblasts, and counteracted the radiation-induced proliferation inhibition of basal keratinocytes. Our work suggests that cancer patients treated with X-rays should be prevented from uncontrolled NIR irradiation. On the other hand, controlled double-treatment could provide an alternative therapy approach, exposing the patient to less radiation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Design of a temperature control system using incremental PID algorithm for a special homemade shortwave infrared spatial remote sensor based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhipeng; Wei, Jun; Li, Jianwei; Zhou, Qianting

    2010-11-01

    An image spectrometer of a spatial remote sensing satellite requires shortwave band range from 2.1μm to 3μm which is one of the most important bands in remote sensing. We designed an infrared sub-system of the image spectrometer using a homemade 640x1 InGaAs shortwave infrared sensor working on FPA system which requires high uniformity and low level of dark current. The working temperature should be -15+/-0.2 Degree Celsius. This paper studies the model of noise for focal plane array (FPA) system, investigated the relationship with temperature and dark current noise, and adopts Incremental PID algorithm to generate PWM wave in order to control the temperature of the sensor. There are four modules compose of the FPGA module design. All of the modules are coded by VHDL and implemented in FPGA device APA300. Experiment shows the intelligent temperature control system succeeds in controlling the temperature of the sensor.

  7. An Assessment of Polynomial Regression Techniques for the Relative Radiometric Normalization (RRN of High-Resolution Multi-Temporal Airborne Thermal Infrared (TIR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mustafizur Rahman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal Infrared (TIR remote sensing images of urban environments are increasingly available from airborne and satellite platforms. However, limited access to high-spatial resolution (H-res: ~1 m TIR satellite images requires the use of TIR airborne sensors for mapping large complex urban surfaces, especially at micro-scales. A critical limitation of such H-res mapping is the need to acquire a large scene composed of multiple flight lines and mosaic them together. This results in the same scene components (e.g., roads, buildings, green space and water exhibiting different temperatures in different flight lines. To mitigate these effects, linear relative radiometric normalization (RRN techniques are often applied. However, the Earth’s surface is composed of features whose thermal behaviour is characterized by complexity and non-linearity. Therefore, we hypothesize that non-linear RRN techniques should demonstrate increased radiometric agreement over similar linear techniques. To test this hypothesis, this paper evaluates four (linear and non-linear RRN techniques, including: (i histogram matching (HM; (ii pseudo-invariant feature-based polynomial regression (PIF_Poly; (iii no-change stratified random sample-based linear regression (NCSRS_Lin; and (iv no-change stratified random sample-based polynomial regression (NCSRS_Poly; two of which (ii and iv are newly proposed non-linear techniques. When applied over two adjacent flight lines (~70 km2 of TABI-1800 airborne data, visual and statistical results show that both new non-linear techniques improved radiometric agreement over the previously evaluated linear techniques, with the new fully-automated method, NCSRS-based polynomial regression, providing the highest improvement in radiometric agreement between the master and the slave images, at ~56%. This is ~5% higher than the best previously evaluated linear technique (NCSRS-based linear regression.

  8. Thermal and ghost reflection modeling for a 180-deg. field-of-view long-wave infrared lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weimin; Couture, Michael E.

    2001-03-01

    Optics 1, Inc. has successfully designed and developed a 180 degree(s) field of view long wave infrared lens for USAF/AFRL under SBIR phase I and II funded projects in support of the multi-national Programmable Integrated Ordinance Suite (PIOS) program. In this paper, a procedure is presented on how to evaluate image degradation caused by asymmetric aerodynamic dome heating. In addition, a thermal gradient model is proposed to evaluate degradation caused by axial temperature gradient throughout the entire PIOS lens. Finally, a ghost reflection analysis is demonstrated with non-sequential model.

  9. New interpretations of the Fort Clark State Historic Site based on aerial color and thermal infrared imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Andrew Roland

    The Fort Clark State Historic Site (32ME2) is a well known site on the upper Missouri River, North Dakota. The site was the location of two Euroamerican trading posts and a large Mandan-Arikara earthlodge village. In 2004, Dr. Kenneth L. Kvamme and Dr. Tommy Hailey surveyed the site using aerial color and thermal infrared imagery collected from a powered parachute. Individual images were stitched together into large image mosaics and registered to Wood's 1993 interpretive map of the site using Adobe Photoshop. The analysis of those image mosaics resulted in the identification of more than 1,500 archaeological features, including as many as 124 earthlodges.

  10. Aerial infrared monitoring for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankevich, S.A.; Dudar, T.V.; Kovalenko, G.D.; Kartashov, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    The scientific research overall objective is rapid express detection and preliminary identification of pre-accidental conditions at nuclear fuel cycle facilities. We consider development of a miniature unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with high-precision infrared spectroradiometer able to detect remotely internal warming up of hazardous facilities by its thermal infrared radiation. The possibility of remote monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicle is considered at the example of the dry spent fuel storage facility of the Zaporizhzhya Nuclear Power Plant. Infrared remote monitoring is supposed to present additional information on the monitored facilities based on different physical principles rather than those currently in use. Models and specifications towards up-to-date samples of infrared surveying equipment and its small-sized unmanned vehicles are presented in the paper.

  11. Application of gas-fired infra-red radiator to thermal disinfection of horticultural substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawer, M.; Osiński, A.

    1998-01-01

    The studies were carried out on heating horticultural substrate (moor peat - bark, 1:1 by volume) with a gas-fired infra-red radiator to destroy the pests and pathogens. Minimum distance between radiator and substrate surface was determined considering assumed time of heating. Dynamics of substrate heating was determined depending on its layer thickness and kind of surface under substrate layer; black rubber, ground steel sheet and aluminium foil were used as the surface. Considerable decreasing of infra-red radiation penetrability through the substrate layer above 7 mm thick was found as well as an significant effect of the radiation reflected from the surface under substrate layer on the intensity of its heating. It was also stated that heating horticultural substrates with the gas-fired infra-red radiator enables to rise the temperature of thin substrate layer up to 70 degree of C within relatively short time [pl

  12. Detection of coastal and submarine discharge on the Florida Gulf Coast with an airborne thermal-infrared mapping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Ellen; Stonehouse, David; Ebersol, Kristin; Holland, Kathryn; Robbins, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Along the Gulf Coast of Florida north of Tampa Bay lies a region characterized by an open marsh coast, low topographic gradient, water-bearing limestone, and scattered springs. The Floridan aquifer system is at or near land surface in this region, discharging water at a consistent 70-72°F. The thermal contrast between ambient water and aquifer discharge during winter months can be distinguished using airborne thermal-infrared imagery. An airborne thermal-infrared mapping system was used to collect imagery along 126 miles of the Gulf Coast from Jefferson to Levy County, FL, in March 2009. The imagery depicts a large number of discharge locations and associated warm-water plumes in ponds, creeks, rivers, and nearshore waters. A thermal contrast of 6°F or more was set as a conservative threshold for identifying sites, statistically significant at the 99% confidence interval. Almost 900 such coastal and submarine-discharge locations were detected, averaging seven to nine per mile along this section of coast. This represents approximately one hundred times the number of previously known discharge sites in the same area. Several known coastal springs in Taylor and Levy Counties were positively identified with the imagery and were used to estimate regional discharge equivalent to one 1st-order spring, discharging 100 cubic feet per second or more, for every two miles of coastline. The number of identified discharge sites is a conservative estimate and may represent two-thirds of existing features due to low groundwater levels at time of overflight. The role of aquifer discharge in coastal and estuarine health is indisputable; however, mapping and quantifying discharge in a complex karst environment can be an elusive goal. The results of this effort illustrate the effectiveness of the instrument and underscore the influence of coastal springs along this stretch of the Florida coast.

  13. Influence of season, age and management on scrotal thermal profile in Murrah bulls using scrotal infrared digital thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahirwar, Maneesh Kumar; Kataktalware, Mukund Amritrao; Ramesha, Kerekoppa Puttaiah; Pushpadass, Heartwin Amaladhas; Jeyakumar, Sakthivel; Revanasiddu, Deginal; Kour, Reen Jagish; Nath, Sapna; Nagaleekar, Anand Kumar; Nazar, Sayyad

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of non-genetic factors on scrotal thermographic profile viz., proximal pole temperature (PPT °C), mid pole temperature (MPT °C), distal pole temperature (DPT °C) and ocular temperature (OcT) of Murrah ( Bubalus bubalis) breeding bulls. A total of 109 buffalo bulls, maintained at three semen stations (SS), were monitored for scrotal surface and ocular temperatures using infrared thermography twice daily during rainy, winter and summer seasons using an FLIR i5 infrared camera and temperatures were measured. Thermograms were analysed by FLIR QuickReport v.1.2 SP2 software. Statistical analysis revealed that semen station, season, temperature humidity index (THI), housing system and timing of observations had significant ( P 80.88; system and timing of observations had a significant influence on scrotal surface temperature. The monitoring of scrotal surface temperature by infrared thermography was found to be useful in evaluating the effects of thermal stress on physiology and health of buffalo bulls.

  14. Investigation of Thermal Properties of High-Density Polyethylene/Aluminum Nanocomposites by Photothermal Infrared Radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, H. D.; Evgin, T.; Horny, N.; Chirtoc, M.; Turgut, A.; Tavman, I. H.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, thermal properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) filled with nanosized Al particles (80 nm) were investigated. Samples were prepared using melt mixing method up to filler volume fraction of 29 %, followed by compression molding. By using modulated photothermal radiometry (PTR) technique, thermal diffusivity and thermal effusivity were obtained. The effective thermal conductivity of nanocomposites was calculated directly from PTR measurements and from the measurements of density, specific heat capacity (by differential scanning calorimetry) and thermal diffusivity (obtained from PTR signal amplitude and phase). It is concluded that the thermal conductivity of HDPE composites increases with increasing Al fraction and the highest effective thermal conductivity enhancement of 205 % is achieved at a filler volume fraction of 29 %. The obtained results were compared with the theoretical models and experimental data given in the literature. The results demonstrate that Agari and Uno, and Cheng and Vachon models can predict well the thermal conductivity of HDPE/Al nanocomposites in the whole range of Al fractions.

  15. Non-destructive evaluation of degradation in EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings by infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flattum, Richard Y.; Cooney, Adam T.

    2013-01-01

    At room temperature and atmospheric conditions infrared reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were employed for the detection of the phase transformation and residual stress within thermal barrier coatings (TBC). The TBC's samples initially consisted of the porous ceramic topcoat deposited by electron beam plasma vapor deposition, a bond coat and a superalloy substrate. Reflectance spectroscopy scans were performed from 7497 cm −1 to 68 cm −1 to analysis the fingerprint region as well as the chemical bonding region. These regions should indicate if a detectable change within the TBC response is a result of thermal degradation of the microstructure and the changes in yttrium dispersion throughout the yttrium stabilized zirconium. The thermal degradation was induced by thermal cycling the samples to 1100° C and then cooling them in an atmospheric environment. X-ray diffraction was also used to detect the phase composition within the TBC samples and see if either would clearly identify failure prior to actual spallation. The eventual measurability and quantify-ability of the phase changes within the TBC's may be used as an effective non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique that would allow personnel in the field to know when servicing of the turbine blade was necessary.

  16. Robust Vehicle Detection under Various Environmental Conditions Using an Infrared Thermal Camera and Its Application to Road Traffic Flow Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Nakamiya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We have already proposed a method for detecting vehicle positions and their movements (henceforth referred to as “our previous method” using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. Our experiments have shown that our previous method detects vehicles robustly under four different environmental conditions which involve poor visibility conditions in snow and thick fog. Our previous method uses the windshield and its surroundings as the target of the Viola-Jones detector. Some experiments in winter show that the vehicle detection accuracy decreases because the temperatures of many windshields approximate those of the exterior of the windshields. In this paper, we propose a new vehicle detection method (henceforth referred to as “our new method”. Our new method detects vehicles based on tires’ thermal energy reflection. We have done experiments using three series of thermal images for which the vehicle detection accuracies of our previous method are low. Our new method detects 1,417 vehicles (92.8% out of 1,527 vehicles, and the number of false detection is 52 in total. Therefore, by combining our two methods, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environmental conditions. Finally, we apply the traffic information obtained by our two methods to traffic flow automatic monitoring, and show the effectiveness of our proposal.

  17. Robust vehicle detection under various environmental conditions using an infrared thermal camera and its application to road traffic flow monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Misumi, Masato; Nakamiya, Toshiyuki

    2013-06-17

    We have already proposed a method for detecting vehicle positions and their movements (henceforth referred to as "our previous method") using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. Our experiments have shown that our previous method detects vehicles robustly under four different environmental conditions which involve poor visibility conditions in snow and thick fog. Our previous method uses the windshield and its surroundings as the target of the Viola-Jones detector. Some experiments in winter show that the vehicle detection accuracy decreases because the temperatures of many windshields approximate those of the exterior of the windshields. In this paper, we propose a new vehicle detection method (henceforth referred to as "our new method"). Our new method detects vehicles based on tires' thermal energy reflection. We have done experiments using three series of thermal images for which the vehicle detection accuracies of our previous method are low. Our new method detects 1,417 vehicles (92.8%) out of 1,527 vehicles, and the number of false detection is 52 in total. Therefore, by combining our two methods, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environmental conditions. Finally, we apply the traffic information obtained by our two methods to traffic flow automatic monitoring, and show the effectiveness of our proposal.

  18. Superimpose methods for uncooled infrared camera applied to the micro-scale thermal characterization of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Junko

    2015-05-01

    The mobile type apparatus for a quantitative micro-scale thermography using a micro-bolometer was developed based on our original techniques such as an achromatic lens design to capture a micro-scale image in long-wave infrared, a video signal superimposing for the real time emissivity correction, and a pseudo acceleration of a timeframe. The total size of the instrument was designed as it was put in the 17 cm x 28 cm x 26 cm size carrying box. The video signal synthesizer enabled to record a direct digital signal of monitoring temperature or positioning data. The encoded digital signal data embedded in each image was decoded to read out. The protocol to encode/decode the measured data was originally defined. The mixed signals of IR camera and the imposed data were applied to the pixel by pixel emissivity corrections and the pseudo-acceleration of the periodical thermal phenomena. Because the emissivity of industrial materials and biological tissues were usually inhomogeneous, it has the different temperature dependence on each pixel. The time-scale resolution for the periodic thermal event was improved with the algorithm for "pseudoacceleration". It contributes to reduce the noise by integrating the multiple image data, keeping a time resolution. The anisotropic thermal properties of some composite materials such as thermal insulating materials of cellular plastics and the biometric composite materials were analyzed using these techniques.

  19. Facile and high spatial resolution ratio-metric luminescence thermal mapping in microfluidics by near infrared excited upconversion nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Shunbo; Wen, Weijia, E-mail: phwen@ust.hk [Department of Physics, KAUST-HKUST Joint Micro/Nanofluidic Laboratory, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Cao, Wenbin [Nano Science and Technology Program, Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2016-02-01

    A local area temperature monitor is important for precise control of chemical and biological processes in microfluidics. In this work, we developed a facile method to realize micron spatial resolution of temperature mapping in a microfluidic channel quickly and cost effectively. Based on the temperature dependent fluorescence emission of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) under near-infrared irradiation, ratio-metric imaging of UCNPs doped polydimethylsiloxane can map detailed temperature distribution in the channel. Unlike some reported strategies that utilize temperature sensitive organic dye (such as Rhodamine) to achieve thermal sensing, our method is highly chemically inert and physically stable without any performance degradation in long term operation. Moreover, this method can be easily scaled up or down, since the spatial and temperature resolution is determined by an optical imaging system. Our method supplied a simple and efficient solution for temperature mapping on a heterogeneous surface where usage of an infrared thermal camera was limited.

  20. Synthetic hydroxyapatites doped with Zn(II) studied by X-ray diffraction, infrared, Raman and thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-López, José R.; Echeverría, Gustavo A.; Güida, Jorge A.; Viña, Raúl; Punte, Graciela

    2015-06-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHap) formation when different amounts of Zn(II) are present in the mother solution has been investigated by atomic absorption, infrared and Raman spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis (DTA and TG). The studied samples have been synthesized at T=95 °C and pH 9 in air. The analysis of the results have shown that the pure CaHap sample crystallizes in the monoclinic form P21/b. Concentrations up to 20% of Zn(II) in the mother solution, equivalent to smaller concentrations in solid (up to 9.1% in wt), favor the formation of the hexagonal apatite, P63/m, while Zn(II) concentrations higher than 20% in solution help an amorphous phase development where vibrational spectra indicated coexistence of two phases: an apatite and ZnNH4PO4·H2O. Infrared data of thermal treated samples endorse that HPO42- ion had not been incorporated in Zn(II) doped samples during the synthesis process. Present results also allow to conclude that Zn(II) cation exhibits a preference to occupy the Ca2 site of the apatite structure and induces water adsorption and a small quantity of CO32- cation incorporation, leading to formation of a less crystalline Ca deficient apatite.

  1. Atmospheric effects on the remote determination of thermal inertia on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberle, R.M.; Jakosky, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the IR brightness temperature at the Martian surface at many different times of day are presently compared with temperatures predicted by thermal models which allow sunlight to reach the surface unattenuated, in order to determine the thermal inertia of the uppermost 1-10 cm of the Martian surface. The consequences of the assumptions made are assessed in view of results from a different thermal model which invokes radiation-transfer through a dusty CO2 atmosphere, as well as sensible heat-exchange with the surface. Smaller thermal inertias imply smaller particle sizes; the results obtained suggest that low thermal-inertia regions consist of 5-micron, rather than 50-micron, particle sizes. 52 refs

  2. Cancellation of infrared and collinear singularities in relativistic thermal field theories. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bellac, M.; Reynaud, P.

    1992-01-01

    We study the infrared and collinear divergences of a renormalizable scalar field theory at finite temperature. We give the final results of an investigation undertaken in a previous work by showing the complete cancellation of all divergences at two-loop order in a physical process. This result makes the validity of the Kinoshita-Lee-Nauenberg theorem at finite temperature extremely plausible. (orig.)

  3. Keck observations of near-Earth asteroids in the thermal infrared

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Delbó, M.; Harris, A. W.; Binzel, R. P.; Pravec, Petr; Davies, J. K.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 166, č. 1 (2003), s. 116-130 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003204; GA ČR GA205/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : asteroids * infrared observtions * photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.611, year: 2003

  4. Effects of varying environmental conditions on emissivity spectra of bulk lunar soils: Application to Diviner thermal infrared observations of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Patterson, W. R.; Pieters, C. M.; Mustard, J. F.; Bowles, N. E.; Paige, D. A.; Glotch, T. D.; Thompson, C.

    2017-02-01

    Currently, few thermal infrared measurements exist of fine particulate (samples (e.g. minerals, mineral mixtures, rocks, meteorites, and lunar soils) measured under simulated lunar conditions. Such measurements are fundamental for interpreting thermal infrared (TIR) observations by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (Diviner) onboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter as well as future TIR observations of the Moon and other airless bodies. In this work, we present thermal infrared emissivity measurements of a suite of well-characterized Apollo lunar soils and a fine particulate (sample as we systematically vary parameters that control the near-surface environment in our vacuum chamber (atmospheric pressure, incident solar-like radiation, and sample cup temperature). The atmospheric pressure is varied between ambient (1000 mbar) and vacuum (radiation is varied between 52 and 146 mW/cm2, and the sample cup temperature is varied between 325 and 405 K. Spectral changes are characterized as each parameter is varied, which highlight the sensitivity of thermal infrared emissivity spectra to the atmospheric pressure and the incident solar-like radiation. Finally spectral measurements of Apollo 15 and 16 bulk lunar soils are compared with Diviner thermal infrared observations of the Apollo 15 and 16 sampling sites. This comparison allows us to constrain the temperature and pressure conditions that best simulate the near-surface environment of the Moon for future laboratory measurements and to better interpret lunar surface compositions as observed by Diviner.

  5. Comparison of human skin opto-thermal response to near-infrared and visible laser irradiations: a theoretical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Tianhong [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Pikkula, Brian M [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Wang, Lihong V [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Anvari, Bahman [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 (United States)

    2004-11-07

    Near-infrared wavelengths are absorbed less by epidermal melanin, and penetrate deeper into human skin dermis and blood than visible wavelengths. Therefore, laser irradiation using near-infrared wavelengths may improve the therapeutic outcome of cutaneous hyper-vascular malformations in moderately to heavily pigmented skin patients and those with large-sized blood vessels or blood vessels extending deeply into the skin. A mathematical model composed of a Monte Carlo algorithm to estimate the distribution of absorbed light, numerical solution of a bio-heat diffusion equation to calculate the transient temperature distribution, and a damage integral based on an empirical Arrhenius relationship to quantify the tissue damage was utilized to investigate the opto-thermal response of human skin to near-infrared and visible laser irradiations in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling. In addition, the thermal effects of a single continuous laser pulse and micropulse-composed laser pulse profiles were compared. Simulation results indicated that a 940 nm wavelength induces improved therapeutic outcome compared with a 585 and 595 nm wavelengths for the treatment of patients with large-sized blood vessels and moderately to heavily pigmented skin. On the other hand, a 585 nm wavelength shows the best efficacy in treating small-sized blood vessels, as characterized by the largest laser-induced blood vessel damage depth compared with 595 and 940 nm wavelengths. Dermal blood content has a considerable effect on the threshold incident dosage for epidermal damage, while the effect of blood vessel size is minimal. For the same macropulse duration and incident dosage, a micropulse-composed pulse profile results in higher peak temperature at the basal layer of skin epidermis than an ideal single continuous pulse profile.

  6. Investigation of adulteration of sunflower oil with thermally deteriorated oil using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vilela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy based on attenuated total reflectance sampling technique, combined with multivariate analysis methods was used to monitor the adulteration of pure sunflower oil (SO with thermally deteriorated oil (TDO. Contrary to published research, in this work, SO was thermally deteriorated in the absence of foodstuff. SO samples were exposed to temperatures between 125 and 225°C from 6 to 24 h. Quantification of adulteration of SO with TDO, based on principal components regression (PCR, partial least squares regression (PLS-R, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA applied to mid-infrared spectra and to their first and second derivatives is reported for the first time. Infrared frequencies associated with the biochemical differences between TDO samples deteriorated in different conditions were investigated by principal component analysis (PCA. LDA was effective in the twofold classification presence/absence of TDO in adulterated SO (with 5% V/V of less of TDO. It provided 93.7% correct classification for the calibration set and 91.3% correct classification when cross-validated. A detection limit of 1% V/V of TDO in SO was determined. Investigation of an external set of samples allowed the evaluation of the predictability of the models. The regression coefficient (R2 for prediction was 0.95 and 0.96 and the RMSE was 2.1 and 1.9% V/V when using the PCR or PLS-R models, respectively, and the first derivative of spectra. To the best of our knowledge, no investigation of adulteration of SO with TDO based on PCR, PLS-R, and LDA has been reported so far.

  7. Thermal infrared imagery as a tool for analysing the variability of surface saturated areas at various temporal and spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Barbara; Antonelli, Marta; Pfister, Laurent; Klaus, Julian

    2017-04-01

    Surface saturated areas are important for the on- and offset of hydrological connectivity within the hillslope-riparian-stream continuum. This is reflected in concepts such as variable contributing areas or critical source areas. However, we still lack a standardized method for areal mapping of surface saturation and for observing its spatiotemporal variability. Proof-of-concept studies in recent years have shown the potential of thermal infrared (TIR) imagery to record surface saturation dynamics at various temporal and spatial scales. Thermal infrared imagery is thus a promising alternative to conventional approaches, such as the squishy boot method or the mapping of vegetation. In this study we use TIR images to investigate the variability of surface saturated areas at different temporal and spatial scales in the forested Weierbach catchment (0.45 km2) in western Luxembourg. We took TIR images of the riparian zone with a hand-held FLIR infrared camera at fortnightly intervals over 18 months at nine different locations distributed over the catchment. Not all of the acquired images were suitable for a derivation of the surface saturated areas, as various factors influence the usability of the TIR images (e.g. temperature contrasts, shadows, fog). Nonetheless, we obtained a large number of usable images that provided a good insight into the dynamic behaviour of surface saturated areas at different scales. The images revealed how diverse the evolution of surface saturated areas can be throughout the hydrologic year. For some locations with similar morphology or topography we identified diverging saturation dynamics, while other locations with different morphology / topography showed more similar behaviour. Moreover, we were able to assess the variability of the dynamics of expansion / contraction of saturated areas within the single locations, which can help to better understand the mechanisms behind surface saturation development.

  8. Remotely monitoring evaporation rate and soil water status using thermal imaging and "three-temperatures model (3T Model)" under field-scale conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guo Yu; Zhao, Ming

    2010-03-01

    Remote monitoring of soil evaporation and soil water status is necessary for water resource and environment management. Ground based remote sensing can be the bridge between satellite remote sensing and ground-based point measurement. The primary object of this study is to provide an algorithm to estimate evaporation and soil water status by remote sensing and to verify its accuracy. Observations were carried out in a flat field with varied soil water content. High-resolution thermal images were taken with a thermal camera; soil evaporation was measured with a weighing lysimeter; weather data were recorded at a nearby meteorological station. Based on the thermal imaging and the three-temperatures model (3T model), we developed an algorithm to estimate soil evaporation and soil water status. The required parameters of the proposed method were soil surface temperature, air temperature, and solar radiation. By using the proposed method, daily variation in soil evaporation was estimated. Meanwhile, soil water status was remotely monitored by using the soil evaporation transfer coefficient. Results showed that the daily variation trends of measured and estimated evaporation agreed with each other, with a regression line of y = 0.92x and coefficient of determination R(2) = 0.69. The simplicity of the proposed method makes the 3T model a potentially valuable tool for remote sensing.

  9. Thermal remote sensing from Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner data in the framework of the SPARC and SEN2FLEX projects: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Shen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The AHS (Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner instrument has 80 spectral bands covering the visible and near infrared (VNIR, short wave infrared (SWIR, mid infrared (MIR and thermal infrared (TIR spectral range. The instrument is operated by Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aerospacial (INTA, and it has been involved in several field campaigns since 2004.

    This paper presents an overview of the work performed with the AHS thermal imagery provided in the framework of the SPARC and SEN2FLEX campaigns, carried out respectively in 2004 and 2005 over an agricultural area in Spain. The data collected in both campaigns allowed for the first time the development and testing of algorithms for land surface temperature and emissivity retrieval as well as the estimation of evapotranspiration from AHS data. Errors were found to be around 1.5 K for land surface temperature and 1 mm/day for evapotranspiration.

  10. Characterizing the first historic eruption of Nabro, Eritrea: Insights from thermal and UV remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealing, Christine R.

    June 2011 saw the first historic eruption of Nabro volcano, one of an ongoing sequence of eruptions in the Afar-Red Sea region since 2005. It halted air travel in northern Africa, contaminated food and water sources, and displaced thousands from their homes. Due to its remote location, little was known about this event in terms of the quantity of erupted products and the timing and mechanisms of their emplacement. Geographic isolation, previous quiescence and regional civil unrest meant that this volcano was effectively unmonitored at the time of eruption, and opportunities for field study are limited. Using free, publicly available satellite data, I examined rates of lava effusion and SO2 emission in order to quantify the amount of erupted products and understand the temporal evolution of the eruption, as well as explore what information can be gleaned about eruption mechanisms using remote sensing data. These data revealed a bimodal eruption, beginning with explosive activity marked by high SO2 emission totalling 1824 - 2299 KT, and extensive ash fall of 270 - 440 km2. This gave way to a period of rapid effusion, producing a ˜17 km long lava flow, and a volume of ˜22.1 x 106 m3. Mass balance between the SO2 and lava flows reveals no sulfur 'excess', suggesting that nearly all of the degassed magma was extruded. The 2011 eruption of Nabro lasted nearly 6 weeks, and may be considered the second largest historic eruption in Africa. Work such as this highlights the importance of satellite remote sensing for studying and monitoring volcanoes, particularly those in remote regions that may be otherwise inaccessible.

  11. Comparison of Three Infrared Thermal Detection Systems and Self Report for Mass Fever Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Nicole Cohen describes research that examined the usefulness of thermal scanners for detecting fever in large groups of people in public settings, such as hospitals and airports.

  12. Next-Generation Thermal Infrared Multi-Body Radiometer Experiment (TIMBRE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, M.; Mariani, G.; Johnson, B.; Brageot, E.; Hayne, P.

    2016-10-01

    We have developed an instrument concept called TIMBRE which belongs to the important class of instruments called thermal imaging radiometers (TIRs). TIMBRE is the next-generation TIR with unparalleled performance compared to the state-of-the-art.

  13. A Mobile Remote Lab System to Monitor in Situ Thermal Solar Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Saez de Arregui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the design and development of interconnected devices which allow monitoring in situ the performance of solar boilers. This mobile remote lab system comprises two huge blocks of hardware: a mobile station located by the boiler, which is monitored and controlled in a remote way, and a fixed station, located in the Laboratory of Energy for the Sustained Development of the Universidad Nacional de Rosario. The communication between the fixed and mobile devices is controlled by microcontrollers included in both stations and programmed in C language. The project is being developed through three parallel lines of work: 1 Design and development of fixed and mobile hardware; 2 Development of firmware and software necessary to register and communicate data; 3 Design and development of learning activities. This mobile remote lab will be useful to test the behavior of solar boilers in the place and environmental conditions where they are placed so as to evaluate their performance and efficiency anywhere. This is also in order to contribute for the implementation of norms for the certification of solar boilers. On the other hand, the data and results obtained from the development will be used as supplies for the design of learning activities

  14. Remotely controlled cutting techniques in the field of nuclear decommissioning. Overview of effectively applied thermal and non thermal cutting methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienia, H.

    2008-01-01

    Remote disassembly of radiologically burdened large components is among the most sophisticated and complex activities in the dismantling of nuclear installations. The required space for the technical equipment during the dismantling operations, especially for the removal of larger components is often an additional problem. Conventional cutting technologies like sawing with a disk saw or band saw require large and heavy frameworks as well as guiding systems with high rigidity. These solutions are expensive and sometimes not applicable. The essential question of all cutting and dismantling tasks is the physiological constitution of the component which will be dismantled. That means size, material and structure of the component. All these points are primarily technological questions. The last question is about the estimated costs of the used dismantling technology. Therefore following questions must be answered. How much are the investments for the cutting equipment itself and how much are the investments for the supporting equipment (e.g. necessary handling equipment)? Can I use this cutting equipment only for one special task or is it applicable for many tasks and therefore saves money because other cutting or dismantling technologies are dispensable? How long is the cutting time and what is the to control this technique required personnel? Four different cutting and dismantling technologies will be introduced and described. These four technologies differ in their principle of operation but all of them are used by cutting and dismantling tasks in nuclear power plants. (author)

  15. Constraints on Circumstellar Dust Grain Sizes from High Spatial Resolution Observations in the Thermal Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemhof, E. E.; Danen, R. M.; Gwinn, C. R.

    1996-01-01

    We describe how high spatial resolution imaging of circumstellar dust at a wavelength of about 10 micron, combined with knowledge of the source spectral energy distribution, can yield useful information about the sizes of the individual dust grains responsible for the infrared emission. Much can be learned even when only upper limits to source size are available. In parallel with high-resolution single-telescope imaging that may resolve the more extended mid-infrared sources, we plan to apply these less direct techniques to interpretation of future observations from two-element optical interferometers, where quite general arguments may be made despite only crude imaging capability. Results to date indicate a tendency for circumstellar grain sizes to be rather large compared to the Mathis-Rumpl-Nordsieck size distribution traditionally thought to characterize dust in the general interstellar medium. This may mean that processing of grains after their initial formation and ejection from circumstellar atmospheres adjusts their size distribution to the ISM curve; further mid-infrared observations of grains in various environments would help to confirm this conjecture.

  16. Infrared and optical polarimetry of the radio elliptical IC 5063 (PKS2048-57): discovery of a highly polarized non-thermal nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, J H; Brindle, C; Axon, D J; Bailey, J; Sparks, W B

    1987-02-15

    Two-aperture optical and near-infrared polarization and flux measurements of the radio elliptical galaxy IC 5063 are presented. Analysis of the polarized flux shows that the large infrared excess in the nucleus most likely arises from a steep-spectrum non-thermal source with a polarization of 17 per cent and near-infrared luminosity 6x10/sup 41/ erg s/sup -1/. This result suggests that IC5063 is closely related to the more luminous blazars. The origin of the polarization in the optical is, however, not clear.

  17. Infrared and optical polarimetry of the radio elliptical IC 5063 (PKS2048-57): discovery of a highly polarized non-thermal nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hough, J.H.; Brindle, C.; Axon, D.J.; Bailey, J.; Sparks, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    Two-aperture optical and near-infrared polarization and flux measurements of the radio elliptical galaxy IC 5063 are presented. Analysis of the polarized flux shows that the large infrared excess in the nucleus most likely arises from a steep-spectrum non-thermal source with a polarization of 17 per cent and near-infrared luminosity 6x10 41 erg s -1 . This result suggests that IC5063 is closely related to the more luminous blazars. The origin of the polarization in the optical is, however, not clear. (author)

  18. Robust Vehicle Detection under Various Environments to Realize Road Traffic Flow Surveillance Using an Infrared Thermal Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Misumi, Masato; Nakamiya, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    To realize road traffic flow surveillance under various environments which contain poor visibility conditions, we have already proposed two vehicle detection methods using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. The first method uses pattern recognition for the windshields and their surroundings to detect vehicles. However, the first method decreases the vehicle detection accuracy in winter season. To maintain high vehicle detection accuracy in all seasons, we developed the second method. The second method uses tires' thermal energy reflection areas on a road as the detection targets. The second method did not achieve high detection accuracy for vehicles on left-hand and right-hand lanes except for two center-lanes. Therefore, we have developed a new method based on the second method to increase the vehicle detection accuracy. This paper proposes the new method and shows that the detection accuracy for vehicles on all lanes is 92.1%. Therefore, by combining the first method and the new method, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environments, and road traffic flow surveillance can be realized. PMID:25763384

  19. Robust Vehicle Detection under Various Environments to Realize Road Traffic Flow Surveillance Using an Infrared Thermal Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Iwasaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize road traffic flow surveillance under various environments which contain poor visibility conditions, we have already proposed two vehicle detection methods using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. The first method uses pattern recognition for the windshields and their surroundings to detect vehicles. However, the first method decreases the vehicle detection accuracy in winter season. To maintain high vehicle detection accuracy in all seasons, we developed the second method. The second method uses tires’ thermal energy reflection areas on a road as the detection targets. The second method did not achieve high detection accuracy for vehicles on left-hand and right-hand lanes except for two center-lanes. Therefore, we have developed a new method based on the second method to increase the vehicle detection accuracy. This paper proposes the new method and shows that the detection accuracy for vehicles on all lanes is 92.1%. Therefore, by combining the first method and the new method, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environments, and road traffic flow surveillance can be realized.

  20. Robust vehicle detection under various environments to realize road traffic flow surveillance using an infrared thermal camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Misumi, Masato; Nakamiya, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    To realize road traffic flow surveillance under various environments which contain poor visibility conditions, we have already proposed two vehicle detection methods using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. The first method uses pattern recognition for the windshields and their surroundings to detect vehicles. However, the first method decreases the vehicle detection accuracy in winter season. To maintain high vehicle detection accuracy in all seasons, we developed the second method. The second method uses tires' thermal energy reflection areas on a road as the detection targets. The second method did not achieve high detection accuracy for vehicles on left-hand and right-hand lanes except for two center-lanes. Therefore, we have developed a new method based on the second method to increase the vehicle detection accuracy. This paper proposes the new method and shows that the detection accuracy for vehicles on all lanes is 92.1%. Therefore, by combining the first method and the new method, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environments, and road traffic flow surveillance can be realized.

  1. Evidence of a metal-rich surface for the Asteroid (16) Psyche from interferometric observations in the thermal infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Alexis; Delbo, Marco; Carry, Benoit; Ligori, Sebastiano

    2013-09-01

    We describe the first determination of thermal properties and size of the M-type Asteroid (16) Psyche from interferometric observations obtained with the Mid-Infrared Interferometric Instrument (MIDI) of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer. We used a thermophysical model to interpret our interferometric data. Our analysis shows that Psyche has a low macroscopic surface roughness. Using a convex 3-D shape model obtained by Kaasalainen et al. (Kaasalainen, M., Torppa, J., Piironen, J. [2002]. Icarus 159, 369-395), we derived a volume-equivalent diameter for (16) Psyche of 247 ± 25 km or 238 ± 24 km, depending on the possible values of surface roughness. Our corresponding thermal inertia estimates are 133 or 114 J m-2 s-0.5 K-1, with a total uncertainty estimated at 40 J m-2 s-0.5 K-1. They are among the highest thermal inertia values ever measured for an asteroid of this size. We consider this as a new evidence of a metal-rich surface for the Asteroid (16) Psyche.

  2. Scale dependence of cirrus horizontal heterogeneity effects on TOA measurements – Part I: MODIS brightness temperatures in the thermal infrared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fauchez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the impact of cirrus cloud heterogeneities on MODIS simulated thermal infrared (TIR brightness temperatures (BTs at the top of the atmosphere (TOA as a function of spatial resolution from 50 m to 10 km. A realistic 3-D cirrus field is generated by the 3DCLOUD model (average optical thickness of 1.4, cloud-top and base altitudes at 10 and 12 km, respectively, consisting of aggregate column crystals of Deff = 20 µm, and 3-D thermal infrared radiative transfer (RT is simulated with the 3DMCPOL code. According to previous studies, differences between 3-D BT computed from a heterogenous pixel and 1-D RT computed from a homogeneous pixel are considered dependent at nadir on two effects: (i the optical thickness horizontal heterogeneity leading to the plane-parallel homogeneous bias (PPHB and the (ii horizontal radiative transport (HRT leading to the independent pixel approximation error (IPAE. A single but realistic cirrus case is simulated and, as expected, the PPHB mainly impacts the low-spatial-resolution results (above ∼ 250 m with averaged values of up to 5–7 K, while the IPAE mainly impacts the high-spatial-resolution results (below ∼ 250 m with average values of up to 1–2 K. A sensitivity study has been performed in order to extend these results to various cirrus optical thicknesses and heterogeneities by sampling the cirrus in several ranges of parameters. For four optical thickness classes and four optical heterogeneity classes, we have found that, for nadir observations, the spatial resolution at which the combination of PPHB and HRT effects is the smallest, falls between 100 and 250 m. These spatial resolutions thus appear to be the best choice to retrieve cirrus optical properties with the smallest cloud heterogeneity-related total bias in the thermal infrared. For off-nadir observations, the average total effect is increased and the minimum is shifted to coarser spatial

  3. Thermal Infrared Radiometric Calibration of the Entire Landsat 4, 5, and 7 Archive (1982-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, John R.; Hook, Simon J.; Barsi, Julia A.; Markham, Brian L.; Miller, Jonathan; Padula, Francis P.; Raqueno, Nina G.

    2012-01-01

    Landsat's continuing record of the thermal state of the earth's surface represents the only long term (1982 to the present) global record with spatial scales appropriate for human scale studies (i.e., tens of meters). Temperature drives many of the physical and biological processes that impact the global and local environment. As our knowledge of, and interest in, the role of temperature on these processes have grown, the value of Landsat data to monitor trends and process has also grown. The value of the Landsat thermal data archive will continue to grow as we develop more effective ways to study the long term processes and trends affecting the planet. However, in order to take proper advantage of the thermal data, we need to be able to convert the data to surface temperatures. A critical step in this process is to have the entire archive completely and consistently calibrated into absolute radiance so that it can be atmospherically compensated to surface leaving radiance and then to surface radiometric temperature. This paper addresses the methods and procedures that have been used to perform the radiometric calibration of the earliest sizable thermal data set in the archive (Landsat 4 data). The completion of this effort along with the updated calibration of the earlier (1985 1999) Landsat 5 data, also reported here, concludes a comprehensive calibration of the Landsat thermal archive of data from 1982 to the present

  4. Thermal characterization of rods, tubes and spheres using pulsed infrared thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apinaniz, E; Mendioroz, A; Madariaga, N; Oleaga, A; Celorrio, R; Salazar, A

    2008-01-01

    In this work we analyse the accuracy of an extension of the flash method to measure the thermal diffusivity of rods, tubes and spheres, which was recently proposed by the authors. We have performed measurements in a wide set of calibrated samples of different sizes and we have found that a lower limiting size of the radius can be established for the validity of the method. On the other hand, a procedure to retrieve the thermal conductivity of tubes, based on filling them with a contrast liquid (water), is proposed. Moreover, the thermal contact resistance between the two layers of coated cylinders is also obtained. Measurements on calibrated samples confirm the validity of the two latest methods

  5. Thermal emission before earthquakes by analyzing satellite infra-red data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, D.; Taylor, P.; Bryant, N.; Pulinets, S.; Freund, F.

    2004-05-01

    Satellite thermal imaging data indicate long-lived thermal anomaly fields associated with large linear structures and fault systems in the Earth's crust but also with short-lived anomalies prior to major earthquakes. Positive anomalous land surface temperature excursions of the order of 3-4oC have been observed from NOAA/AVHRR, GOES/METEOSAT and EOS Terra/Aqua satellites prior to some major earthquake around the world. The rapid time-dependent evolution of the "thermal anomaly" suggests that is changing mid-IR emissivity from the earth. These short-lived "thermal anomalies", however, are very transient therefore there origin has yet to be determined. Their areal extent and temporal evolution may be dependent on geology, tectonic, focal mechanism, meteorological conditions and other factors.This work addresses the relationship between tectonic stress, electro-chemical and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere and increasing mid-IR flux as part of a larger family of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena related to seismic activity.We still need to understand better the link between seismo-mechanical processes in the crust, on the surface, and at the earth-atmospheric interface that trigger thermal anomalies. This work serves as an introduction to our effort to find an answer to this question. We will present examples from the strong earthquakes that have occurred in the Americas during 2003/2004 and the techniques used to record the thermal emission mid-IR anomalies, geomagnetic and ionospheric variations that appear to associated with impending earthquake activity.

  6. Outdoor thermal monitoring of large scale structures by infrared thermography integrated in an ICT based architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Jean; Crinière, Antoine; Averty, Rodolphe

    2015-04-01

    An infrared system has been developed to monitor transport infrastructures in a standalone configuration. Results obtained on bridges open to traffic allows to retrieve the inner structure of the decks. To complete this study, experiments were carried out over several months to monitor two reinforced concrete beams of 16 m long and 21 T each. Detection of a damaged area over one of the two beams was made by Pulse Phase Thermography approach. Measurements carried out over several months. Finally, conclusion on the robustness of the system is proposed and perspectives are presented.

  7. Verification of Rapid Focused-Recharge in Depressions of Kuwait and the Arabian Peninsula Using Thermal and VNIR Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, R. R.; Milewski, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the Arabian Peninsula, freshwater recharge from rainfall is infrequent. Recharge is typically focused in small depressions that fill with seasonal runoff and potentially form freshwater lenses. This phenomenon has been verified in the Raudhatain watershed in Kuwait. This study aims to substantiate previously hypothesized lens locations and detect water in the subsurface by using thermal remote sensing and rainfall data. Potential freshwater lenses (~142) have been previously postulated throughout Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, but lack verification due to inadequate monitoring networks. We hypothesize that due to water's unique heat capacity, recharge zones can be detected by identifying areas with lower changes in surface radiance values than neighboring dry areas between day and night after peak or sustained rainfall. If successful, recharge zones and freshwater lenses can be identified and verified in remote hyper-arid regions. We collected 320 high-resolution (15m - 90m), low cloud cover (lens locations, runoff channels, agricultural regions, and wetlands were detected in areas where radiance values change between 0.067 - 2.25 Wsr-1m-2 from day to night scenes and verified by Google Earth (15m), Landsat (30m), and ASTER VNIR (15m) images. Additionally, two seasonal peak rainfall (~35mm/day) events positively correlate with the surface radiance difference values. Surface radiance values for dry areas adjacent to the postulated lens locations range between 2.25 - 12.2 Wsr-1m-2. Results demonstrate the potential for shallow groundwater detection through the presence of ephemeral water bodies in hyper-arid regions en masse; however, the absence of comparable diurnal images limits data in these regions. Linking high rainfall events with low diurnal surface radiance images is ideal for capturing the presence of temporary surface runoff and recharge zones. Expanded research on hyper-arid regions including thermal values, proposed lens locations, and in-situ data will

  8. Remote Sensing of Ecology, Biodiversity and Conservation: A Review from the Perspective of Remote Sensing Specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Cattet

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing, the science of obtaining information via noncontact recording, has swept the fields of ecology, biodiversity and conservation (EBC. Several quality review papers have contributed to this field. However, these papers often discuss the issues from the standpoint of an ecologist or a biodiversity specialist. This review focuses on the spaceborne remote sensing of EBC from the perspective of remote sensing specialists, i.e., it is organized in the context of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology, including instruments and techniques. Herein, the instruments to be discussed consist of high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, thermal infrared, small-satellite constellation, and LIDAR sensors; and the techniques refer to image classification, vegetation index (VI, inversion algorithm, data fusion, and the integration of remote sensing (RS and geographic information system (GIS.

  9. Remote sensing of ecology, biodiversity and conservation: a review from the perspective of remote sensing specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Franklin, Steven E; Guo, Xulin; Cattet, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing, the science of obtaining information via noncontact recording, has swept the fields of ecology, biodiversity and conservation (EBC). Several quality review papers have contributed to this field. However, these papers often discuss the issues from the standpoint of an ecologist or a biodiversity specialist. This review focuses on the spaceborne remote sensing of EBC from the perspective of remote sensing specialists, i.e., it is organized in the context of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology, including instruments and techniques. Herein, the instruments to be discussed consist of high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, thermal infrared, small-satellite constellation, and LIDAR sensors; and the techniques refer to image classification, vegetation index (VI), inversion algorithm, data fusion, and the integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS).

  10. Near Real-Time Ground-to-Ground Infrared Remote-Sensing Combination and Inexpensive Visible Camera Observations Applied to Tomographic Stack Emission Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe de Donato

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the environmental impact of gas plumes from stack emissions at the local level requires precise knowledge of the spatial development of the cloud, its evolution over time, and quantitative analysis of each gaseous component. With extensive developments, remote-sensing ground-based technologies are becoming increasingly relevant to such an application. The difficulty of determining the exact 3-D thickness of the gas plume in real time has meant that the various gas components are mainly expressed using correlation coefficients of gas occurrences and path concentration (ppm.m. This paper focuses on a synchronous and non-expensive multi-angled approach combining three high-resolution visible cameras (GoPro-Hero3 and a scanning infrared (IR gas system (SIGIS, Bruker. Measurements are performed at a NH3 emissive industrial site (NOVACARB Society, Laneuveville-devant-Nancy, France. Visible data images were processed by a first geometrical reconstruction gOcad® protocol to build a 3-D envelope of the gas plume which allows estimation of the plume’s thickness corresponding to the 2-D infrared grid measurements. NH3 concentration data could thereby be expressed in ppm and have been interpolated using a second gOcad® interpolation algorithm allowing a precise volume visualization of the NH3 distribution in the flue gas steam.

  11. Study of the gamma radiation effect on lincomycin by two techniques thermal analysis and fourier transform infrared (FTIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zier, A.; Al-Kassiri, H.; Al Aji, Z.

    1999-02-01

    Sample of Lincomycin were irradiated by means of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) at dose rate ca. (408 kGy/h) in the range (3, 5, 15, 20)kGy in presence of air. Samples were investigated using two techniques: Thermal analysis (Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry (TG)) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). DSC purity study, which depends on Vant Hof equation, showed that the purity of Lincomycin reduced by means of gamma radiation. The purity of theses samples decreased by increasing the dose, and the purity of lincomycin was still above (99%) at dose (10 kGy). To follow up this effects, (FTIR) spectrums of these sample were recorded before and after irradiation. The two peaks at (1500 - 1750 Cm -1 ) which belong to amide group, and the peak at (1050 - 1100 Cm -1 ) which belongs to the S-C groups have reduced. (author)

  12. Study of the gamma radiation effect on the lincomycin by two techniques thermal analysis and fourier transform infrared (FTIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zier, A.; Al-Kassiri, H.

    1999-01-01

    Sample of Lincomycin were irradiated by means of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) at dose rate ca. (408 kGy/h) in the range (3, 5, 15, 20)kGy in presence of air. Samples were investigated using two techniques: Thermal analysis (Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry (TG)) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). DSC purity study, which depends on Vant Hof equation, showed that the purity of Lincomycin reduced by means of gamma radiation. The purity of theses samples decreased by increasing the dose, and the purity of lincomycin was still above (99%) at dose (10 kGy). To follow up this effects, (FTIR) spectrums of these sample were recorded before and after irradiation. The two peaks at (1500 - 1750 Cm -1 ) which belong to amide group, and the peak at (1050 - 1100 Cm -1 ) which belongs to the S-C groups have reduced. (author)

  13. Dual-Telescope Multi-Channel Thermal-Infrared Radiometer for Outer Planet Fly-By Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Shahid; Amato, Michael; Bowles, Neil; Calcutt, Simon; Hewagama, Tilak; Howard, Joseph; Howett, Carly; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Hurford, Terry; Hurley, Jane; hide

    2016-01-01

    The design of a versatile dual-telescope thermal-infrared radiometer spanning the spectral wavelength range 8-200 microns, in five spectral pass bands, for outer planet fly-by missions is described. The dual- telescope design switches between a narrow-field-of-view and a wide-field-of-view to provide optimal spatial resolution images within a range of spacecraft encounters to the target. The switchable dual-field- of-view system uses an optical configuration based on the axial rotation of a source-select mirror along the optical axis. The optical design, spectral performance, radiometric accuracy, and retrieval estimates of the instrument are discussed. This is followed by an assessment of the surface coverage performance at various spatial resolutions by using the planned NASA Europa Mission 13-F7 fly-by trajectories as a case study.

  14. Infrared absorption study of ammonium uranates and uranium oxide powders formed during their thermal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rofail, N.H.; ELfekey, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Ammonium uranates (AU) were precipitated from a nuclear-pure uranyl nitrate solution using different precipitating agents. IR spectra of the obtained uranates and oxides formed during their thermal decomposition have been studied. The results indicated that the precipitating agent, mode of stirring, washing and calcining temperature are important factors for a specific oxide formation.4 FIG., 3 TAB

  15. Burn Depth Estimation Based on Infrared Imaging of Thermally Excited Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickey, F.M.; Hoswade, S.C.; Yee, M.L.

    1999-03-05

    Accurate estimation of the depth of partial-thickness burns and the early prediction of a need for surgical intervention are difficult. A non-invasive technique utilizing the difference in thermal relaxation time between burned and normal skin may be useful in this regard. In practice, a thermal camera would record the skin's response to heating or cooling by a small amount-roughly 5 C for a short duration. The thermal stimulus would be provided by a heat lamp, hot or cold air, or other means. Processing of the thermal transients would reveal areas that returned to equilibrium at different rates, which should correspond to different burn depths. In deeper thickness burns, the outside layer of skin is further removed from the constant-temperature region maintained through blood flow. Deeper thickness areas should thus return to equilibrium more slowly than other areas. Since the technique only records changes in the skin's temperature, it is not sensitive to room temperature, the burn's location, or the state of the patient. Preliminary results are presented for analysis of a simulated burn, formed by applying a patch of biosynthetic wound dressing on top of normal skin tissue.

  16. Mapping surface flow in low gradient areas with thermal remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christian; Petersen, Rasmus Jes; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    of drainage input into the buffer system and 2) the flow path of the water. The TIR imagery was collected by a UAV (eBee from SenseFly) with a thermal camera (ThermoMap from SenseFly) at early spring in 2016 and 2017. The surveys are conducted in cold periods where discharging drainage water (and groundwater...

  17. Comparison of Three Infrared Thermal Detection Systems and Self Report for Mass Fever Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-20

    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Nicole Cohen describes research that examined the usefulness of thermal scanners for detecting fever in large groups of people in public settings, such as hospitals and airports.  Created: 10/20/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/20/2010.

  18. Structural Evolution of Kerogen and Bitumen during Thermal Maturation examined by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, P. R.; Le Doan, T. V.; Pomerantz, A.

    2014-12-01

    Kerogen—the organic matter that is solid and insoluble in organic solvents—is a key component of organic-rich mudstones. The composition of kerogen affects the storage and transport of hydrocarbons in these unconventional resources and is known to change with thermal maturity. We report here using FTIR spectroscopy, the compositional characteristics of kerogen as a function of thermal maturity, together with the compositional characteristics of the organic phase, bitumen—the organic matter that is solid, but soluble in organic solvents. Kerogen is consumed during thermal maturation, whereas bitumen is an intermediary formed at low maturity from kerogen and consumed at higher maturities in formation of oil and gas. Bitumen relative to kerogen has higher aliphatic content, lower aromatic content, and lower abundance of oxygenated functions. At low maturity (vitrinite reflectance equivalent VRe ~ 0.5-0.9 %), the average length of aliphatic chains in bitumen increases during bitumen formation. At higher thermal maturities (VRe > 1.0-1.3 %), average aliphatic chain length decreases as bitumen is consumed. This evolution contrasts to that in kerogen, where aliphatic chain lengths shorten during all stages of maturation. Breakdown of kerogen appears to be driven by cleavage of oxygen functions at low maturity and removal of aliphatic carbons at higher maturities. These aliphatic-rich fragments may comprise the bitumen, and may in part explain the solubility of bitumen in organic solvents. Bitumen shows evidence of oxidation at low thermal maturity, a phenonemom not documented for kerogen. Bitumen maturation and degradation at higher thermal maturity is driven by cleavage and loss of aliphatic carbons, and is coincident with the maximum generation of oil and gas. The aromatic content of bitumen and of kerogen both increase during maturation as a consequence of the loss of aliphatic carbon. The oil and gas generation potential of the residual organic matter thus

  19. Highly thermal conductivity and infrared emissivity of flexible transparent film heaters utilizing silver-decorated carbon nanomaterials as fillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yu-An; Chen, Yin-Ju; Tai, Nyan-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    A flexible transparent film heater using functionalized few-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene nanosheets decorated with silver nanoparticles as fillers and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)- poly(4-stryrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as a dispersant possesses excellent optoelectronic and electrothermal properties. The film possesses a low sheet resistance of 53.0 ± 4.2 ohm · sq −1 , a transmittance of 80.2 ± 0.8% at a wavelength of 550 nm, a high thermal conductivity of 142.0 ± 9.6 W · m −1  · K −1 , a quick response time of less than 60 s, stable heating performance, good reliability, low power consumption, flexibility, and uniform heat diffusion. Besides, the film shows an average infrared emissivity of 0.53 in the wavelength range of 4 to 14 μm, which shows an outstanding heat release performance by radiation. The flexible transparent film heaters adopting graphene and carbon nanotubes as fillers boast excellent electrothermal performance through heat conduction and infrared radiation, suggesting that they are good substitutes for traditional metallic and indium tin oxide film heaters. (papers)

  20. Infrared laser induced organic reactions. 2. Laser vs. thermal inducment of unimolecular and hydrogen bromide catalyzed bimolecular dehydration of alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danen, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that a mixture of reactant molecules can be induced by pulsed infrared laser radiation to react via a route which is totally different from the pathway resulting from heating the mixture at 300 0 C. The high-energy unimolecular elimination of H 2 O from ethanol in the presence of 2-propanol and HBr can be selectively induced with a pulsed CO 2 laser in preference to either a lower energy bimolecular HBr-catalyzed dehydration or the more facile dehydration of 2-propanol. Heating the mixture resulted in the almost exclusive reaction of 2-propanol to produce propylene. It was demonstrated that the bimolecular ethanol + HBr reaction cannot be effectively induced by the infrared laser radiation as evidenced by the detrimental effect on the yield of ethylene as the HBr pressure was increased. The selective, nonthermal inducement of H 2 O elimination from vibrationally excited ethanol in the presence of 2-propanol required relatively low reactant pressures. At higher pressures intermolecular V--V energy transfer allowed the thermally more facile dehydration from 2-propanol to become the predominant reaction channel

  1. Remotely sensed soil temperatures beneath snow-free skin-surface using thermal observations from tandem polar-orbiting satellites: An analytical three-time-scale model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhan, Wenfeng; Zhou, Ji; Ju, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    Subsurface soil temperature is a key variable of land surface processes and not only responds to but also modulates the interactions of energy fluxes at the Earth's surface. Thermal remote sensing has traditionally been regarded as incapable of detecting the soil temperature beneath the skin-surf...

  2. Feasibility study on infrared electro-thermal NDE of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.R.; Hassberger, J.A.

    1975-11-01

    Electro-thermal examination, a branch of thermal testing (TT), is a promising method being developed for NDE of stainless steel welds. This report describes the first phase of development; i.e., preliminary demonstration and laboratory evaluation of the method's sensitivity to notches in Type 304 stainless steel plate specimens. It also includes a description of the basic principles, together with a description of the hardware and experimental results showing that electrical discharge machined notches down to 0.16 cm (0.06 in.) long x 0.08 cm (0.03 in.) deep were detected. A qualitative technique for interpreting the test results to determine whether defects are at the surface or deeper within the material is demonstrated

  3. Human Wearable Attribute Recognition Using Probability-Map-Based Decomposition of Thermal Infrared Images

    OpenAIRE

    KRESNARAMAN, Brahmastro; KAWANISHI, Yasutomo; DEGUCHI, Daisuke; TAKAHASHI, Tomokazu; MEKADA, Yoshito; IDE, Ichiro; MURASE, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the attribute recognition problem, a field of research that is dominated by studies in the visible spectrum. Only a few works are available in the thermal spectrum, which is fundamentally different from the visible one. This research performs recognition specifically on wearable attributes, such as glasses and masks. Usually these attributes are relatively small in size when compared with the human body, on top of a large intra-class variation of the human body itself, th...

  4. Physical, thermal, infrared and optical properties of Nd3+ doped lithium–lead-germanate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veeranna Gowda, V.C.

    2015-01-01

    The structure–property relationships of neodymium doped lithium–lead-germanate glasses were investigated. The density was found to increase with the increase of Nd 2 O 3 concentration and its variation is explained in terms of its molecular mass, structural transformation and packing density. Addition of modifier oxide to lead-germanate glass suggests a decreased free space within the glass matrix, resulting in the formation of stiff network. The increase in glass transition temperature specifies strengthening of glass by forming bridging oxygens. The optical properties of glass were measured employing UV–visible spectroscopy. The refractive index values varied nonlinearly with Nd 2 O 3 concentration and were speculated to depend on the electronic polarizability of oxide glasses. The frequencies of the infrared absorption bands were affected marginally and the absorption peaks revealed that the glass matrix consists of [GeO 4/2 ], [GeO 6/2 ] and [PbO 4/2 ] structural units

  5. Thermal screening of facial skin arterial hot spots using non-contact infrared radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, E M; Heusch, A I; McCarthy, P W

    2008-01-01

    Non-contact infrared thermometry of facial skin offers advantages over less accessible internal body sites, especially when considering mass screening for febrile infectious disease. The forehead offers an obvious site, but does not present an isothermic surface, as various small arteries passing close to the surface create 'hot-spots'. The aim of this study is to use non-contact infrared (IR) thermometry to determine the link between the temperature at specific facial skin sites and clinical body temperature. A sample of 169 asymptomatic adults (age range 18–54 years) was screened with IR thermometers (Braun Thermoscan proLT for auditory meatus (AM) temperature representing clinical body temperature, and a Raytek, Raynger MX for skin surface temperature). Peak IR skin temperature was measured over the course of each posterior auricular artery (PAA) and each superficial temporal artery (STA). In a sub-group (n = 54) the peak skin temperature of the forehead's metopic region (MR) was also recorded. There were no differences (P > 0.05) between the PAA and STA at 34.2 ± 0.9 °C and 34.2 ± 0.7 °C, respectively, which were 2.5 °C cooler than the AM temperature (36.7 ± 0.5 °C, p 2 = 0.63, p < 0.001) between PAA and STA. There were no asymmetric temperature differences between the left and right sides and males had warmer skin over the MR (F, 33.6 ± 0.7 °C versus M, 34.4 ± 0.6 °C, p < 0.001). Although a lack of correlation between either PAA or STA and AM was apparent in asymptomatics, further research in symptomatics is required to determine the usefulness of these measurements in mass screening of conditions such as fever

  6. Proceedings of the eighth thematic conference on geologic remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, M.L.; Lange, F.F.; Levi, C.G.

    1991-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the Eighth Thematic Conference on Geologic Remote Sensing. This meeting was held April 29-May 2, 1991, in Denver, Colorado, USA. The conference was organized by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, in Cooperation with an international program committee composed primarily of geologic remote sensing specialists. The meeting was convened to discuss state-of-the-art exploration, engineering, and environmental applications of geologic remote sensing as well as research and development activities aimed at increasing the future capabilities of this technology. The presentations in these volumes address the following topics: Spectral Geology; U.S. and International Hydrocarbon Exploration; Radar and Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing; Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology; Minerals Exploration; Remote Sensing for Marine and Environmental Applications; Image Processing and Analysis; Geobotanical Remote Sensing; Data Integration and Geographic Information Systems

  7. Thermal Infrared Spectra of a Suite of Forsterite Samples and Ab-initio Modelling of theirs Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturilli, A.; Stangarone, C.; Helbert, J.; Tribaudino, M.; Prencipe, M.

    2017-12-01

    Forsterite is the dominating component in olivine, a major constituent in ultrafemic rocks, as well as planetary bodies. Messenger X-ray spectrometer has shown that Mg-rich silicate minerals, such as enstatite and forsterite, dominate Mercury's surface (Weider et al 2012). A careful and detailed acquaintance with the forsterite spectral features and their dependence wrt environmental conditions on Mercury is needed to interpret the remote sensing data from previous and forthcoming missions. We propose an experimental vs calculation approach to reproduce and describe the spectral features of forsterite. TIR emissivity measurements are performed by the Planetary Spectroscopy Laboratory (PSL) of DLR. PSL offers the unique capability to measure the emissivity of samples at temperature up to 1000K under vacuum conditions. TIR emissivity and reflectance measurements are performed on 11 olivine samples having a different composition within the forsterite-fayalite series. When available, the sample has been measured in 2 different grain sizes (chameleon-like effects of Mercury surface already observed (Helbert et al. 2013), this study wants to point out the main spectral features due to the composition and temperature. Our results are used to create a theoretical background to interpret the high temperature infrared emissivity spectra from MERTIS onboard the ESA BepiColombo mission to Mercury (Helbert et al. 2010).

  8. Thermal monitoring of hydrothermal activity by permanent infrared automatic stations: Results obtained at Solfatara di Pozzuoli, Campi Flegrei (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, G.; Vilardo, G.; Augusti, V.; Granieri, D.; Caliro, S.; Minopoli, C.; Terranova, C.

    2007-12-01

    A permanent automatic infrared (IR) station was installed at Solfatara crater, the most active zone of Campi Flegrei caldera. After a positive in situ calibration of the IR camera, we analyze 2175 thermal IR images of the same scene from 2004 to 2007. The scene includes a portion of the steam heated hot soils of Solfatara. The experiment was initiated to detect and quantify temperature changes of the shallow thermal structure of a quiescent volcano such as Solfatara over long periods. Ambient temperature is the main parameter affecting IR temperatures, while air humidity and rain control image quality. A geometric correction of the images was necessary to remove the effects of slow movement of the camera. After a suitable correction the images give a reliable and detailed picture of the temperature changes, over the period October 2004 to January 2007, which suggests that origin of the changes were linked to anthropogenic activity, vegetation growth, and the increase of the flux of hydrothermal fluids in the area of the hottest fumaroles. Two positive temperature anomalies were registered after the occurrence of two seismic swarms which affected the hydrothermal system of Solfatara in October 2005 and October 2006. It is worth noting that these signs were detected in a system characterized by a low level of activity with respect to systems affected by real volcanic crisis where more spectacular results will be expected. Results of the experiment show that this kind of monitoring system can be a suitable tool for volcanic surveillance.

  9. MgB2-Based Bolometer Array for Far Infra-Red Thermal Imaging and Fourier Transform Spectroscopy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Brasunas, J.

    2012-01-01

    The mid-superconducting critical temperature (T(sub c) approximately 39 K) of the simple binary, intermetallic MgB, [1] makes it a very good candidate for the development of the next generation of electrooptical devices (e.g. [2]). In particular, recent advances in thin film deposition teclmiques to attain higb quality polycrystalline thin film MgB, deposited on SiN-Si substrates, with T(sub c) approximately 38K [3] coupled with the low voltage noise performance of the film [4] makes it higbly desirable for the development of moderately cooled bolometer arrays for integration into future space-bourne far infra-red (FIR) spectrometers and thermal mappers for studying the outer planets, their icy moons and other moons of interest in the 17-250 micrometer spectral wavelength range. Presently, commercially available pyroelectric detectors operating at 300 K have specific detectivity, D(*), around 7 x 10(exp 8) to 2 x 10(exp 9) centimeters square root of Hz/W. However, a MgB2 thin film based bolometer using a low-stress (less than 140 MPa) SiN membrane isolated from the substrate by a small thermal conductive link, operating at 38 K, promises to have two orders of magnitude higher specific detectivity [5][6].

  10. Assessment of a landfill methane emission screening method using an unmanned aerial vehicle mounted thermal infrared camera – A field study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, A. G.; Larsen, J. E.

    2018-01-01

    An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-mounted thermal infrared (TIR) camera’s ability to delineate landfill gas (LFG) emission hotspots was evaluated in a field test at two Danish landfills (Hedeland landfill and Audebo landfill). At both sites, a test area of 100 m2 was established and divided into a...

  11. Simultaneous measurement of thermal diffusivity and effective infrared absorption coefficient in IR semitransparent and semiconducting n-CdMgSe crystals using photothermal radiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlak, M., E-mail: mpawlak@fizyka.umk.pl [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziądzka 5/7, Toruń (Poland); Maliński, M. [Department of Electronics and Computer Science, Koszalin University of Technology, 2 Śniadeckich St., Koszalin 75-453 (Poland)

    2015-01-10

    Highlights: • The new method of determination of the effective infrared absorption coefficient is presented. • The method can be used for transparent samples for the excitation radiation. • The effect of aluminum foil on the PTR signal in a transmission configuration is discussed. - Abstract: In this paper we propose a new procedure of simultaneous estimation of the effective infrared optical absorption coefficient and the thermal diffusivity of solid state samples using the photothermal infrared radiometry method in the transmission configuration. The proposed procedure relies on the analysis of the frequency dependent signal obtained from the samples covered with thin aluminum foil. This method can be applied for both optically opaque and transparent samples. The proposed method is illustrated with the results of the thermal diffusivity and the effective IR absorption coefficient obtained for several Cd{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}Se crystals.

  12. Thermal-Infrared Surveys of Near-Earth Object Diameters and Albedos with Spitzer and IRTF/MIRSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Hora, Joseph L.; Chesley, Steven; Emery, Josh; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan W.; Moskovitz, Nick; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2015-08-01

    More than 12000 Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have been discovered over the past few decades and current discovery surveys find on average 4 new NEOs every night. In comparison to asteroid discovery, the physical characterization of NEOs lags far behind: measured diameters and albedos exist only for roughly 10% of all known NEOs. We describe a current and a future observing program that provide diameter and albedo measurements of a large number of NEOs.In our Spitzer Space Telescope Exploration Science program 'NEOSurvey', we are performing a fast and efficient flux-limited survey in which we measure the diameters and albedos of ~600 NEOs in a total of 710 hrs of observing time. We measure the thermal emission of our targets at 4.5 micron and combine these measurements with optical data in a thermal model. Our diameters and albedos come with highly realistic uncertainties that account for a wide range of potential asteroid properties. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties, including diameters, albedos, and flux density data. This catalog is publicly accessible and provides the latest results usually within 2 weeks after the observation.Starting in 2016, we will also make use of the refurbished and recommissioned MIRSI mid-infrared imaging camera on NASA's InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) to derive the diameters and albedos of up to 750 NEOs over a period of 3 yrs. MIRSI will be equipped with an optical camera that will allow for simultaneous optical imaging, which will improve our thermal modeling results. With MIRSI, we will focus on newly discovered NEOs that are close to Earth and hence relatively bright.The results from both programs, together with already exisiting diameter and albedo results from the literature, will form the largest database of NEO physical properties available to date. With this data set, we will be able to refine the size distribution of small NEOs and the corresponding impact frequency, and compare the

  13. Camera pose refinement by matching uncertain 3D building models with thermal infrared image sequences for high quality texture extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaszczuk, Dorota; Stilla, Uwe

    2017-10-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) images are often used to picture damaged and weak spots in the insulation of the building hull, which is widely used in thermal inspections of buildings. Such inspection in large-scale areas can be carried out by combining TIR imagery and 3D building models. This combination can be achieved via texture mapping. Automation of texture mapping avoids time consuming imaging and manually analyzing each face independently. It also provides a spatial reference for façade structures extracted in the thermal textures. In order to capture all faces, including the roofs, façades, and façades in the inner courtyard, an oblique looking camera mounted on a flying platform is used. Direct geo-referencing is usually not sufficient for precise texture extraction. In addition, 3D building models have also uncertain geometry. In this paper, therefore, methodology for co-registration of uncertain 3D building models with airborne oblique view images is presented. For this purpose, a line-based model-to-image matching is developed, in which the uncertainties of the 3D building model, as well as of the image features are considered. Matched linear features are used for the refinement of the exterior orientation parameters of the camera in order to ensure optimal co-registration. Moreover, this study investigates whether line tracking through the image sequence supports the matching. The accuracy of the extraction and the quality of the textures are assessed. For this purpose, appropriate quality measures are developed. The tests showed good results on co-registration, particularly in cases where tracking between the neighboring frames had been applied.

  14. Infrared thermography--a non-invasive tool to evaluate thermal status of neonatal pigs based on surface temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammersgaard, T S; Malmkvist, J; Pedersen, L J

    2013-12-01

    Hypothermia is a major cause of mortality in neonatal pigs. Infrared (IR) thermography is a promising non-invasive method to assess thermal status, but has not been evaluated for use on neonatal pigs from birth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of IR thermography as a non-invasive tool to estimate body temperature and assess the thermal status in newborn pigs by (1) estimating the relationship between surface temperature and rectal temperature (RT) in neonatal pigs; and (2) estimating the influence of air temperature (AT), birth weight and the time from birth on the relationship between surface temperature and RT. The method was evaluated on the basis of 1695 thermograms and 915 RTs on 91 neonatal pigs born in loose farrowing pens with floor heating at 34°C, and three different ATs (15°C, 20°C and 25°C). Full-body thermograms of the back and the side of the pigs and RT were acquired at 11 sampling times between birth and 48 h after birth. The maximum (IRmax), minimum, average of the full body and ear minimum IR surface temperatures were derived from the thermograms. IRmax had the highest correlation with RT (0.82) and was therefore used in the statistical analysis. The relation of RT by IRmax depended on time at: 0 h (slope: 0.20°C, Pmethod has the potential to be used without the need for manual restraint of the pigs. On the basis of the results of this study, we propose that IRmax temperature from full-body thermograms has implication as a valid tool to assess the thermal status in neonatal piglets but not as an identical substitute for RT.

  15. Investigation of human frontal cortex under noxious thermal stimulation of temporo-mandibular joint using functional near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yennu, Amarnath; Rawat, Rohit; Manry, Michael T.; Gatchel, Robert; Liu, Hanli

    2013-03-01

    According to American Academy of Orofacial Pain, 75% of the U.S. population experiences painful symptoms of temporo-mandibular joint and muscle disorder (TMJMD) during their lifetime. Thus, objective assessment of pain is crucial for efficient pain management. We used near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a tool to explore hemodynamic responses in the frontal cortex to noxious thermal stimulation of temporomadibular joint (TMJ). NIRS experiments were performed on 9 healthy volunteers under both low pain stimulation (LPS) and high pain stimulation (HPS), using a temperature-controlled thermal stimulator. To induce thermal pain, a 16X16 mm2 thermode was strapped onto the right TMJ of each subject. Initially, subjects were asked to rate perceived pain on a scale of 0 to 10 for the temperatures from 41°C to 47°C. For the NIRS measurement, two magnitudes of temperatures, one rated as 3 and another rated as 7, were chosen as LPS and HPS, respectively. By analyzing the temporal profiles of changes in oxy-hemoglobin concentration (HbO) using cluster-based statistical tests, we were able to identify several regions of interest (ROI), (e.g., secondary somatosensory cortex and prefrontal cortex), where significant differences (ppain, a neural-network-based classification algorithm was used. With leave-one-out cross validation from 9 subjects, the two levels of pain were identified with 100% mean sensitivity, 98% mean specificity and 99% mean accuracy to high pain. From the receiver operating characteristics curve, 0.99 mean area under curve was observed.

  16. Broadband and tunable optical parametric generator for remote detection of gas molecules in the short and mid-infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert-Girard, Simon; Allard, Martin; Piché, Michel; Babin, François

    2015-04-01

    The development of a novel broadband and tunable optical parametric generator (OPG) is presented. The OPG properties are studied numerically and experimentally in order to optimize the generator's use in a broadband spectroscopic LIDAR operating in the short and mid-infrared. This paper discusses trade-offs to be made on the properties of the pump, crystal, and seeding signal in order to optimize the pulse spectral density and divergence while enabling energy scaling. A seed with a large spectral bandwidth is shown to enhance the pulse-to-pulse stability and optimize the pulse spectral density. A numerical model shows excellent agreement with output power measurements; the model predicts that a pump having a large number of longitudinal modes improves conversion efficiency and pulse stability.

  17. A multilevel multispectral data set analysis in the visible and infrared wavelength regions. [for land use remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, L. L.; Silva, L. F.

    1975-01-01

    Skylab multispectral scanner data, digitized Skylab color infrared (IR) photography, digitized Skylab black and white multiband photography, and Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) multispectral scanner data collected within a 24-hr time period over an area in south-central Indiana near Bloomington on June 9 and 10, 1973, were compared in a machine-aided land use analysis of the area. The overall classification performance results, obtained with nine land use classes, were 87% correct classification using the 'best' 4 channels of the Skylab multispectral scanner, 80% for the channels on the Skylab multispectral scanner which are spectrally comparable to the ERTS multispectral scanner, 88% for the ERTS multispectral scanner, 83% for the digitized color IR photography, and 76% for the digitized black and white multiband photography. The results indicate that the Skylab multispectral scanner may yield even higher classification accuracies when a noise-filtered multispectral scanner data set becomes available in the near future.

  18. An evapotranspiration product for arid regions based on the three-temperature model and thermal remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yu Jiu; Zhao, Shao Hua; Tian, Fei; Qiu, Guo Yu

    2015-11-01

    An accurate estimation of evapotranspiration (ET) is crucial to better understand the water budget and improve related studies. Satellite remote sensing provides an unprecedented opportunity to map the spatiotemporal distribution of ET. However, ET values from barren or sparsely vegetated areas in arid regions are often assumed to be zero in typical ET products because of their low values. In addition, separating ET into soil evaporation (Es) and vegetation transpiration (Ec) is difficult. To address these challenges, we developed an ET product (MOD3T) based on a three-temperature model and thermal remote sensing, specifically Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. MOD3T has a spatial resolution of 1 km and a temporal resolution of 8 days. All input parameters except air temperature were obtained from MODIS datasets. Validation in two adjacent arid river basins in northwestern China showed that the mean absolute errors (mean absolute percent errors) between the MOD3T and flux tower ET were 0.71 mm d-1 (18.5%) and 0.16 mm d-1 (24.9%) for a densely vegetated area and sparsely vegetated sandy desert, respectively. The error between the MOD3T and water balance ET was 24 mm y-1 (8.1%). The Ec/ET or Es/ET of MOD3T was comparable to the observed stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. Unlike the MODIS ET (MOD16), MOD3T could not provide continuous ET values (as 70% of the MOD16 area lacked data) but exhibited relatively low uncertainty, particularly in cold seasons. Therefore, MOD3T can provide ET, Es and Ec estimates for arid regions within acceptable ranges.

  19. Management applications for thermal IR imagery of lake processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, J. M.; Haynes, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    A thermal infrared scanning program was conducted in the Lake Ontario Basin region in an effort to determine: (1) limonologic data that could be collected by remote sensing techniques, and (2) local interest in and routine use of such data in water management programs. Difficulties encountered in the development of an infrared survey program in New York suggest that some of the major obstacles to acceptance of remotely sensed data for routine use are factors of psychology rather than technology. Also, terminology used should suit the measurement technique in order to encourage acceptance of the surface thermal data obtained.

  20. Method of improving the performance of lenses for use in thermal infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. W.; Klee, H. W.

    1980-10-01

    A method is described whereby the field performance of an all-germanium triplet, as used for imaging radiation in the 8 to 13 micron waveband, can be improved. The principle of the method, which could also be used to improve the performance of achromatic triplets or aspherized doublets, involves the use of a field flattener lens which replaces the germanium window of the detector. The curvature of this lens can be optimized to minimize field curvature, which together with chromatic aberration is one of the most serious residuals of thermal imaging systems with relative apertures of around f/0.7. It is also shown that for such relative apertures, and for typical fields of less than 15 degrees, at 100 mm focal length, the location of the aperture stop is not a significant design parameter. This arises as a result of the intrinsic optical properties of germanium.

  1. Thermal, infrared and X-ray studies on praseodymium and neodymium myristates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyaya, S.K.; Sharma, P.S.

    1993-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of praseodymium and neodymium myristates has been studied both as a function of temperature and of time. The thermogravimetric analysis has shown that order of decomposition reaction is kinetically of zero order and the energy of activation for the decomposition process lies in the range of 10-15 kcal mol -1 . The IR results showed that lanthanide myristates have an ionic character. The X-ray analysis indicated that the zigzag chains of the fatty acid radical constituent of the soap molecules extend straight forward on both sides of each basal plane and the molecular axes of the soap molecules are somewhat inclined to the basal plane. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs

  2. High-sensitivity broadband infrared monitor of spatial structure of relativistic bunches and thermal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, A.A.; Mal'tsev, M.A.; Maslova, M.V.

    2004-01-01

    The monitor is intended for registration of spatial distribution of density of energy of pulsing radiation of thermal fields and bunches of relativistic electrons and protons in a wide spectral range 0,4 - 4 μm. In a measuring system of a monitor effective means of active and passive increase of the relation of a useful signal to noise, in view of particular conditions and requirements are used. The measuring channel can confidently allocate a useful signal on a background of handicaps, the size of which can make about 20 kE in a pulse [1]. The accuracy of measurement of amplitude of a signal of radiation makes 0,2% of maximum significances of a registrar scale. (author)

  3. Diagnosis Of The Risk For Carotid Artery Stenos Based On Thermal Model In Infrared Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Valipoori Goodarzi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Ischemic stroke is the third leading cause of death and a common cause of hospitalization in the United States of America and is also an important factor for Inability of patients and carotid stenos is one of the most important factors in creating it. Now, Imaging studies include: Angiography, MRI, CT scan and Doppler ultrasonography , are used to detect carotid artery stenos that is one of the most important causes of ischemic stroke. However, each method has unique advantages and disadvantages, that many of them will have a compromise between performance and accuracy versus easy usage and cost considerations. In contrast, in this paper, thermography is used as a non-invasive and cost effective to detect carotid artery Stenos and thus the risk of stroke. Materials and methods: This study is done on a series of thermal images obtained from the Clinical Center in California. In this imaging, the automatic detection of carotid artery stenos and thus Risk for stroke was done, based on: (1 the difference of average temperature between the right and left carotid arteries in the neck (2 The presence or absence of internal and external carotid arteries. Results: In this study, with the survey conducted by a specialist brain of patients had been previously, the accuracy of this work is confirmed. the techniques and points that are Experimental and  scientifically based  and obtained in this study, can help to doctors for Early detection of Artery disease, based on analysis of thermal images . Conclusion: The method presented in this paper is considered as a non-invasive and cost-effective method that automatically operates to detect the carotid arteries and prevent the Risk for stroke.

  4. Characteristics of Evapotranspiration of Urban Lawns in a Sub-Tropical Megacity and Its Measurement by the ‘Three Temperature Model + Infrared Remote Sensing’ Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyu Qiu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET is one of the most important factors in urban water and energy regimes. Because of the extremely high spatial heterogeneity of urban area, accurately measuring ET using conventional methods remains a challenge due to their fetch requirements and low spatial resolution. The goals of this study were to investigate the characteristics of urban ET and its main influencing factors and subsequently to improve a fetch-free, high spatial resolution method for urban ET estimation. The Bowen ratio and the ‘three-temperature model (3T model + infrared remote sensing (RS’ methods were used for these purposes. The results of this study are listed in the following lines. (1 Urban ET is mainly affected by solar radiation and the effects of air humidity, wind velocity, and air temperature are very weak; (2 The average daily, monthly, and annual ETs of the urban lawn are 2.70, 60–100, and 990 mm, respectively, which are obvious compared with other landscapes; (3 The ratio of ET to precipitation is 0.65 in the wet season and 2.6 in the dry season, indicating that most of the precipitation is evaporated; (4 The fetch-free approach of ‘3T model + infrared RS’ is verified to be an accurate method for measuring urban ET and it agrees well with the Bowen ratio method (R2 is over 0.93 and the root mean square error is less than 0.04 mm h−1; (5 The spatial heterogeneity of urban ET can also be accurately estimated by the proposed approach. These results are helpful for improving the accuracy of ET estimation in urban areas and are useful for urban water and environmental planning and management.

  5. Evaluation of nitroglycerin effect on remote photoplethysmogram waveform acquired at green and near infra-red illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkevics, Z.; Rubins, U.; Caica, A.; Grabovskis, A.

    2017-12-01

    Assessment of skin microcirculation provides diagnostically valuable information during the early stages of pathologies. The simple, cost-effective and intrusive alternative to existing circulation assessment methods is remote photoplethysmography (rPPG). The objective of the present pilot study was to reveal an effect on sublingual administration of 1 mg nitroglycerin on systemic hemodynamic parameters and rPPG waveforms, at 810 nm and 530nm illumination. The protocol comprised 3 minutes of baseline recording, 15 minutes recording of NTG effect, 2 minutes of arterial occlusion and the following 3 min reactive hyperemia. Two PPG signals were acquired from glabrous skin of the middle finger distal phalange, consecutively at 530 nm and 810nm, 125 fps per channel, and systemic cardiovascular parameters were continuously registered in a beat-to-beat manner with a Finameter-midi system. The NTG effect was observed 0.7- 1.2 minutes post administration, reaching its maximum after 3 minutes. Systemic cardiovascular parameters significantly changed: mean arterial pressure decreased by 7.7+/-3.6%, total peripheral resistance by 10.5+/-9.0%, whereas the heart rate increased by 27.2+/-11.8%. Substantial alterations were observed for rPPG waveforms during NTG effect, decreasing reflection and stiffness indices. It has been concluded that rPPG waveform may provide information related to arterial stiffness, and could be potentially utilized in the clinics.

  6. Application of infrared thermal imaging in the study of preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases with Chinese medicine health food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng

    2009-08-01

    To explore the assessing technique which could objectively reflect the characteristics of Chinese medicine in the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, four balance features of infrared thermal images (ITI) corresponding to the up and down, left and right, proximal and distal balance of blood circulation of human body were studied. First, the ITI features of the middle-aged and elderly people with lipid abnormality history were compared with those of the healthy youth. It was found that the balance state of the youth was significantly better than that of the middle-aged and elderly, Pfood with the function of helping to decrease serum lipid, on the balance features. The subjects were middle-aged and elderly people with lipid abnormality history. Shengyi capsule was taken by the trial group while Xuezhikang capsule (with lovastatin as the main effective component) by the control group for 108 days. The balance features of ITI showed that Shengyi was significantly better than Xuezhikang in improving the whole body balance of blood circulation (including the up and down, left and right, proximal and distal balance). The relative efficacy rate was 81.0% for the trial group and 33.3% for the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups (P=0.002). Shengyi could effectively decrease the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) but the effect of Xuezhikang in decreasing total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C was better than Shengyi. Though the lipid-lowering effect of Shengyi was not as good as Xuezhikang, ITI reflected the obvious advantage of Shengyi in improving the whole body balance of blood circulation which indicated that helping to decrease serum lipid is only part of the health function of Shengyi. The physiology and pathology basis of the influences of Shengyi on the four balance features and its relationship with the clinical outcome deserves further study. So the prospect of infrared thermal imaging is indicated as

  7. Evaluation of thermal infrared hyperspectral imagery for the detection of onshore methane plumes: Significance for hydrocarbon exploration and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafutto, Rebecca DeĺPapa Moreira; de Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto; Riley, Dean N.; de Oliveira, Wilson Jose

    2018-02-01

    Methane (CH4) is the main constituent of natural gas. Fugitive CH4 emissions partially stem from geological reservoirs (seepages) and leaks in pipelines and petroleum production plants. Airborne hyperspectral sensors with enough spectral and spatial resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio can potentially detect these emissions. Here, a field experiment performed with controlled release CH4 sources was conducted in the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC), Casper, WY (USA). These sources were configured to deliver diverse emission types (surface and subsurface) and rates (20-1450 scf/hr), simulating natural (seepages) and anthropogenic (pipeline) CH4 leaks. The Aerospace Corporation's SEBASS (Spatially-Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System) sensor acquired hyperspectral thermal infrared data over the experimental site with 128 bands spanning the 7.6 μm-13.5 μm range. The data was acquired with a spatial resolution of 0.5 m at 1500 ft and 0.84 m at 2500 ft above ground level. Radiance images were pre-processed with an adaptation of the In-Scene Atmospheric Compensation algorithm and converted to emissivity through the Emissivity Normalization algorithm. The data was processed with a Matched Filter. Results allowed the separation between endmembers related to the spectral signature of CH4 from the background. Pixels containing CH4 signatures (absorption bands at 7.69 μm and 7.88 μm) were highlighted and the gas plumes mapped with high definition in the imagery. The dispersion of the mapped plumes is consistent with the wind direction measured independently during the experiment. Variations in the dimension of mapped gas plumes were proportional to the emission rate of each CH4 source. Spectral analysis of the signatures within the plumes shows that CH4 spectral absorption features are sharper and deeper in pixels located near the emitting source, revealing regions with higher gas density and assisting in locating CH4 sources in the field

  8. Scale Issues Related to the Accuracy Assessment of Land Use/Land Cover Maps Produced Using Multi-Resolution Data: Comments on “The Improvement of Land Cover Classification by Thermal Remote Sensing”. Remote Sens. 2015, 7(7, 8368–8390

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Much remote sensing (RS research focuses on fusing, i.e., combining, multi-resolution/multi-sensor imagery for land use/land cover (LULC classification. In relation to this topic, Sun and Schulz [1] recently found that a combination of visible-to-near infrared (VNIR; 30 m spatial resolution and thermal infrared (TIR; 100–120 m spatial resolution Landsat data led to more accurate LULC classification. They also found that using multi-temporal TIR data alone for classification resulted in comparable (and in some cases higher classification accuracies to the use of multi-temporal VNIR data, which contrasts with the findings of other recent research [2]. This discrepancy, and the generally very high LULC accuracies achieved by Sun and Schulz (up to 99.2% overall accuracy for a combined VNIR/TIR classification result, can likely be explained by their use of an accuracy assessment procedure which does not take into account the multi-resolution nature of the data. Sun and Schulz used 10-fold cross-validation for accuracy assessment, which is not necessarily inappropriate for RS accuracy assessment in general. However, here it is shown that the typical pixel-based cross-validation approach results in non-independent training and validation data sets when the lower spatial resolution TIR images are used for classification, which causes classification accuracy to be overestimated.

  9. Evaluate depth of field limits of fixed focus lens arrangements in thermal infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Norbert

    2016-05-01

    More and more modern thermal imaging systems use uncooled detectors. High volume applications work with detectors that have a reduced pixel count (typically between 200x150 and 640x480). This reduces the usefulness of modern image treatment procedures such as wave front coding. On the other hand, uncooled detectors demand lenses with fast fnumbers, near f/1.0, which reduces the expected Depth of Field (DoF). What are the limits on resolution if the target changes distance to the camera system? The desire to implement lens arrangements without a focusing mechanism demands a deeper quantification of the DoF problem. A new approach avoids the classic "accepted image blur circle" and quantifies the expected DoF by the Through Focus MTF of the lens. This function is defined for a certain spatial frequency that provides a straightforward relation to the pixel pitch of imaging device. A certain minimum MTF-level is necessary so that the complete thermal imaging system can realize its basic functions, such as recognition or detection of specified targets. Very often, this technical tradeoff is approved with a certain lens. But what is the impact of changing the lens for one with a different focal length? Narrow field lenses, which give more details of targets in longer distances, tighten the DoF problem. A first orientation is given by the hyperfocal distance. It depends in a square relation on the focal length and in a linear relation on the through focus MTF of the lens. The analysis of these relations shows the contradicting requirements between higher thermal and spatial resolution, faster f-number and desired DoF. Furthermore, the hyperfocal distance defines the DoF-borders. Their relation between is such as the first order imaging formulas. A calculation methodology will be presented to transfer DoF-results from an approved combination lens and camera to another lens in combination with the initial camera. Necessary input for this prediction is the accepted DoF of

  10. Real-time person detection in low-resolution thermal infrared imagery with MSER and CNNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Christian; Müller, Thomas; Willersinn, Dieter; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    In many camera-based systems, person detection and localization is an important step for safety and security applications such as search and rescue, reconnaissance, surveillance, or driver assistance. Long-wave infrared (LWIR) imagery promises to simplify this task because it is less affected by background clutter or illumination changes. In contrast to a lot of related work, we make no assumptions about any movement of persons or the camera, i.e. persons may stand still and the camera may move or any combination thereof. Furthermore, persons may appear arbitrarily in near or far distances to the camera leading to low-resolution persons in far distances. To address this task, we propose a two-stage system, including a proposal generation method and a classifier to verify, if the detected proposals really are persons. In contradiction to use all possible proposals as with sliding window approaches, we apply Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (MSER) and classify the detected proposals afterwards with a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The MSER algorithm acts as a hot spot detector when applied to LWIR imagery. Because the body temperature of persons is usually higher than the background, they appear as hot spots in the image. However, the MSER algorithm is unable to distinguish between different kinds of hot spots. Thus, all further LWIR sources such as windows, animals or vehicles will be detected, too. Still by applying MSER, the number of proposals is reduced significantly in comparison to a sliding window approach which allows employing the high discriminative capabilities of deep neural networks classifiers that were recently shown in several applications such as face recognition or image content classification. We suggest using a CNN as classifier for the detected hot spots and train it to discriminate between person hot spots and all further hot spots. We specifically design a CNN that is suitable for the low-resolution person hot spots that are common with

  11. THE 1.6 μm NEAR-INFRARED NUCLEI OF 3C RADIO GALAXIES: JETS, THERMAL EMISSION, OR SCATTERED LIGHT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, Ranieri D.; Chiaberge, Marco; Sparks, William; Macchetto, F. Duccio; Capetti, Alessandro; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Axon, David J.; Baum, Stefi A.; Quillen, Alice C.

    2010-01-01

    Using HST NICMOS 2 observations we have measured 1.6 μm near-infrared nuclear luminosities of 100 3CR radio galaxies with z < 0.3, by modeling and subtracting the extended emission from the host galaxy. We performed a multiwavelength statistical analysis (including optical and radio data) of the properties of the nuclei following classification of the objects into FR I and FR II, and low-ionization galaxies (LIGs), high-ionization galaxies (HIGs), and broad-line objects (BLOs) using the radio morphology and optical spectra, respectively. The correlations among near-infrared, optical, and radio nuclear luminosity support the idea that the near-infrared nuclear emission of FR Is has a non-thermal origin. Despite the difference in radio morphology, the multiwavelength properties of FR II LIG nuclei are statistically indistinguishable from those of FR Is, an indication of a common structure of the central engine. All BLOs show an unresolved near-infrared nucleus and a large near-infrared excess with respect to FR II LIGs and FR Is of equal radio core luminosity. This requires the presence of an additional (and dominant) component other than the non-thermal light. Considering the shape of their spectral energy distribution, we ascribe the origin of their near-infrared light to hot circumnuclear dust. A near-infrared excess is also found in HIGs, but their nuclei are substantially fainter than those of BLO. This result indicates that substantial obscuration along the line of sight to the nuclei is still present at 1.6 μm. Nonetheless, HIG nuclei cannot simply be explained in terms of dust obscuration: a significant contribution from light reflected in a circumnuclear scattering region is needed to account for their multiwavelength properties.

  12. Modelling and experimentation of the SO2 remotion through a plasma out of thermal equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno S, H.; Pacheco P, M.; Pacheco S, J.; Cruz A, A.

    2005-01-01

    In spite of the measures that have taken for the decrease of the emitted pollution by mobile sources ( T oday it doesn't Circulate , implementation of catalysts in those exhaust pipes,...), the pollution in the Valley of Mexico area overcomes the limits fixed by Mexican standards several days each year. It is foreseen that for 2020 those emissions of pollutants will be increase considerably, as example we can mention to the sulfur oxides which will be increase a 48% with regard to 1998. The purpose of this work is of proposing a technique for the degradation of the sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) that consists in introducing this gas to a plasma out of thermal equilibrium where its were formed key radicals (O, OH) for its degradation. The proposed reactor has the advantage of combining the kindness of the dielectric barrier discharge and of corona discharge, besides working to atmospheric pressure and having small dimensions. The first obtained results of the modelling of the degradation of the SO 2 in plasma as well as those experimentally obtained are presented. (Author)

  13. Far infrared thermal detectors for laser radiometry using a carbon nanotube array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, John H.; Lee, Bob; Grossman, Erich N.

    2011-07-20

    We present a description of a 1.5 mm long, vertically aligned carbon nanotube array (VANTA) on a thermopile and separately on a pyroelectric detector. Three VANTA samples, having average lengths of 40 {mu}m, 150 {mu}m, and 1.5 mm were evaluated with respect to reflectance at a laser wavelength of 394 {mu}m(760 GHz), and we found that the reflectance decreases substantially with increasing tube length, ranging from 0.38 to 0.23 to 0.01, respectively. The responsivity of the thermopile by electrical heating (98.4 mA/W) was equal to that by optical heating (98.0 mA/W) within the uncertainty of the measurement. We analyzed the frequency response and temporal response and found a thermal decay period of 500 ms, which is consistent with the specific heat of comparable VANTAs in the literature. The extremely low (0.01) reflectance of the 1.5 mm VANTAs and the fact that the array is readily transferable to the detector's surface is, to our knowledge, unprecedented.

  14. Analysis of the Tikhonov regularization to retrieve thermal conductivity depth-profiles from infrared thermography data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apiñaniz, Estibaliz; Mendioroz, Arantza; Salazar, Agustín; Celorrio, Ricardo

    2010-09-01

    We analyze the ability of the Tikhonov regularization to retrieve different shapes of in-depth thermal conductivity profiles, usually encountered in hardened materials, from surface temperature data. Exponential, oscillating, and sigmoidal profiles are studied. By performing theoretical experiments with added white noises, the influence of the order of the Tikhonov functional and of the parameters that need to be tuned to carry out the inversion are investigated. The analysis shows that the Tikhonov regularization is very well suited to reconstruct smooth profiles but fails when the conductivity exhibits steep slopes. We check a natural alternative regularization, the total variation functional, which gives much better results for sigmoidal profiles. Accordingly, a strategy to deal with real data is proposed in which we introduce this total variation regularization. This regularization is applied to the inversion of real data corresponding to a case hardened AISI1018 steel plate, giving much better anticorrelation of the retrieved conductivity with microindentation test data than the Tikhonov regularization. The results suggest that this is a promising way to improve the reliability of local inversion methods.

  15. Optical temperature sensor based on the Nd{sup 3+} infrared thermalized emissions in a fluorotellurite glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalla, E.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de la Laguna, San Cristóbal de la Laguna, 38200 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); León-Luis, S.F., E-mail: sleonlui@ull.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad de la Laguna, San Cristóbal de la Laguna, 38200 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Malta Consolider Team, Universidad de la Laguna, San Cristóbal de la Laguna, 38200 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Monteseguro, V. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de la Laguna, San Cristóbal de la Laguna, 38200 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Malta Consolider Team, Universidad de la Laguna, San Cristóbal de la Laguna, 38200 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Pérez-Rodríguez, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de la Laguna, San Cristóbal de la Laguna, 38200 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Cáceres, J.M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial, Universidad de la Laguna, San Cristóbal de la Laguna, 38200 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); and others

    2015-10-15

    The temperature dependence of the infrared luminescence of a fluorotellurite glass doped with 0.01 and 2.5 mol% of Nd{sup 3+} ions was studied in order to use it as a high temperature sensing probe. For this purpose, the emission intensities of the ({sup 4}S{sub 3/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}), ({sup 2}H{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 5/2}),{sup 4}F{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 9/2} transitions were measured in a wide range of temperatures from 300 upto 650 K. The changes in the emission profiles were calibrated by means of the fluorescence intensity ratio technique. The calibrations showed a strong dependence on the Nd{sup 3+} ions concentration, having the low-doped concentrated sample the best response to changes of temperature. The maximum value obtained for the thermal sensibility is 17×10{sup −4} K{sup −1} at 640 K, being one of the highest values found in the literature for Nd{sup 3+} optical temperature sensors. Finally, the experimental calibrations were compared with the theoretical temperature luminescence response calculated from the Judd–Ofelt theory. - Highlights: • Nd{sup 3+}-doped fluorotellurite glasses were prepared. • The intensities of the ({sup 4}S{sub 3/2},{sup 4}F{sub 7/2}),({sup 2}H{sub 9/2},{sup 4}F{sub 5/2}), {sup 4}F{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 9/2} transitions. • The highest thermal sensitivity has been obtained for the glass with the lowest concentration of Nd{sup 3+} ions. • The Nd{sup 3+}-doped fluorotellurite glass fits the requirement for a good temperature sensor.

  16. An Integrated and Optimal Joint Scheduling of Energy Resources to Feed Electrical, Thermal and Potable Water Demands in Remote Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghaffarpour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuous spread of distributed energy resources (DERs such as combined heating and power (CHP, diesel generators, boilers and renewable energy sources provide an effective solution to energy related problems to serve the power and heat demands with minimum cost. Moreover, the DERs may play a significant role for supplying power and heat in rural areas, where grid electricity is not available. Also, some dry areas may face water scarcity and salinity problems. So, one important solution is the use of DERs to drive desalination units in order to solve water scarcity and salinity problems. In this study, the optimal scheduling of DERs and reverse osmosis (RO desalination unit that feed the required electric, thermal and potable water demands are determined. The present paper describes the operation constraints and cost function of components of the system in detail. Operation constraints of generation units as well as feasible region of operation CHP in dual dependency characteristic are taken into account. To confirm the performance of the proposed model the approach is tested on a realistic remote area over a 24-h period. The results show that the economical scheduling of DERs and desalination units can be obtained using proposed methodology by implementing the proposed formulation.

  17. Thermal infrared and optical photometry of Asteroidal Comet C/2002 CE10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Miyasaka, Seidai; Dermawan, Budi; Mueller, Thomas; Takato, Naruhisa; Watanabe, Junichi; Boehnhardt, Hermann

    2018-04-01

    C/2002 CE10 is an object in a retrograde elliptical orbit with Tisserand parameter - 0.853 indicating a likely origin in the Oort Cloud. It appears to be a rather inactive comet since no coma and only a very weak tail was detected during the past perihelion passage. We present multi-color optical photometry, lightcurve and thermal mid-IR observations of the asteroidal comet. With the photometric analysis in BVRI, the surface color is found to be redder than asteroids, corresponding to cometary nuclei and TNOs/Centaurs. The time-resolved differential photometry supports a rotation period of 8.19 ± 0.05 h. The effective diameter and the geometric albedo are 17.9 ± 0.9 km and 0.03 ± 0.01, respectively, indicating a very dark reflectance of the surface. The dark and redder surface color of C/2002 CE10 may be attribute to devolatilized material by surface aging suffered from the irradiation by cosmic rays or from impact by dust particles in the Oort Cloud. Alternatively, C/2002 CE10 was formed of very dark refractory material originally like a rocky planetesimal. In both cases, this object lacks ices (on the surface at least). The dynamical and known physical characteristics of C/2002 CE10 are best compatible with those of the Damocloids population in the Solar System, that appear to be exhaust cometary nucleus in Halley-type orbits. The study of physical properties of rocky Oort cloud objects may give us a key for the formation of the Oort cloud and the solar system.

  18. Reflectance and Thermal Infrared Spectroscopy of Mars: Relationship Between ISM and TES for Compositional Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Joseph (Technical Monitor); Mustard, John

    2004-01-01

    Reflectance spectroscopy has demonstrated that high albedo surfaces on Mars contain heavily altered materials with some component of hematite, poorly crystalline ferric oxides, and an undefined silicate matrix. The spectral properties of many low albedo regions indicate crystalline basalts containing both low and high calcium pyroxene, a mineralogy consistent with the basaltic SNC meteorites. The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) experiment on the Mars Geochemical Surveyor has acquired critical new data relevant to surface composition and mineralogy, but in a wavelength region that is complementary to reflectance spectroscopy. The essence of the completed research was to analyze TES data in the context of reflectance data obtained by the French ISM imaging spectrometer experiment in 1989. This approach increased our understanding of the complementary nature of these wavelength regions for mineralogic determinations using actual observations of the martian surface. The research effort focused on three regions of scientific importance: Syrtis Major-Isidis Basin, Oxia Palus-Arabia, and Valles Marineris. In each region distinct spatial variations related to reflectance, and in derived mineralogic information and interpreted compositional units were analyzed. In addition, specific science questions related to the composition of volcanics and crustal evolution, soil compositions and pedogenic processes, and the relationship between pristine lithologies and weathering provided an overall science-driven framework for the work. The detailed work plan involved colocation of TES and ISM data, extraction of reflectance and emissivity spectra from areas of known reflectance variability, and quantitative analysis using factor analysis and statistical techniques to determine the degree of correspondence between these different wavelength regions. Identified coherent variations in TES spectroscopy were assessed against known atmospheric effects to validate that the variations

  19. Thermal unimolecular decomposition of bicyclopropyl and deuterated analogues: infrared photoactivation as a diagnostic tool in mechanistic organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farneth, W.E.; Thomsen, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    The infrared photochemistry of bicyclopropyl yields product mixtures that are not easily rationalized on the basis of the mechanistic scheme suggested by previous pyrolysis work. As a result of this inconsistency the thermal chemistry of bicyclopropyl and analogues deuterated specifically on one ring has been reexamined. A significant new reaction channel involving the chemically activated decomposition of cyclohexene to ethylene and butadiene has been demonstrated. Evidence for the involvement of chemically activated cyclohexene is as follows: (1) isotopic labeling studies implying a symmetric intermediate, (2) a pressure-dependent ratio of cyclohexene to butadiene and ethylene, (3) good agreement between experimental and calculated values for the unimolecular rate constant for retro-Diels-Alder decay of ''hot'' cyclohexene. A comprehensive mechanism for the unimolecular decay of bicyclopropyl is proposed. The important elements of this mechanism are a single first-formed 1,3 biradical common to all products and the intervention of chemical activation in the generation of several of the secondary products

  20. HOW MANY HIPPOS (HOMHIP: ALGORITHM FOR AUTOMATIC COUNTS OF ANIMALS WITH INFRA-RED THERMAL IMAGERY FROM UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lhoest

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius L. is part of the animal species endangered because of multiple human pressures. Monitoring of species for conservation is then essential, and the development of census protocols has to be chased. UAV technology is considering as one of the new perspectives for wildlife survey. Indeed, this technique has many advantages but its main drawback is the generation of a huge amount of data to handle. This study aims at developing an algorithm for automatic count of hippos, by exploiting thermal infrared aerial images acquired from UAV. This attempt is the first known for automatic detection of this species. Images taken at several flight heights can be used as inputs of the algorithm, ranging from 38 to 155 meters above ground level. A Graphical User Interface has been created in order to facilitate the use of the application. Three categories of animals have been defined following their position in water. The mean error of automatic counts compared with manual delineations is +2.3% and shows that the estimation is unbiased. Those results show great perspectives for the use of the algorithm in populations monitoring after some technical improvements and the elaboration of statistically robust inventories protocols.

  1. EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR COREGISTRATION AND FUSION OF RPAS-BASED 3D POINT CLOUDS AND THERMAL INFRARED IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hoegner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the automatic coregistration and fusion of 3d point clouds generated from aerial image sequences and corresponding thermal infrared (TIR images. Both RGB and TIR images have been taken from a RPAS platform with a predefined flight path where every RGB image has a corresponding TIR image taken from the same position and with the same orientation with respect to the accuracy of the RPAS system and the inertial measurement unit. To remove remaining differences in the exterior orientation, different strategies for coregistering RGB and TIR images are discussed: (i coregistration based on 2D line segments for every single TIR image and the corresponding RGB image. This method implies a mainly planar scene to avoid mismatches; (ii coregistration of both the dense 3D point clouds from RGB images and from TIR images by coregistering 2D image projections of both point clouds; (iii coregistration based on 2D line segments in every single TIR image and 3D line segments extracted from intersections of planes fitted in the segmented dense 3D point cloud; (iv coregistration of both the dense 3D point clouds from RGB images and from TIR images using both ICP and an adapted version based on corresponding segmented planes; (v coregistration of both image sets based on point features. The quality is measured by comparing the differences of the back projection of homologous points in both corrected RGB and TIR images.

  2. Characterizing Temporal and Spatial Changes in Land Surface Temperature across the Amazon Basin using Thermal and Infrared Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cak, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Amazon Basin has faced innumerable pressures in recent years, including logging, mining and resource extraction, agricultural expansion, road building, and urbanization. These changes have drastically altered the landscape, transforming a predominantly forested environment into a mosaic of different types of land cover. The resulting fragmentation has caused dramatic and negative impacts on its structure and function, including on biodiversity and the transfer of water and energy to and from soil, vegetation, and the atmosphere (e.g., evapotranspiration). Because evapotranspiration from forested areas, which is affected by factors including temperature and water availability, plays a significant role in water dynamics in the Amazon Basin, measuring land surface temperature (LST) across the region can provide a dynamic assessment of hydrological, vegetation, and land use and land cover changes. It can also help to identify widespread urban development, which often has a higher LST signal relative to surrounding vegetation. Here, we discuss results from work to measure and identify drivers of change in LST across the entire Amazon Basin through analysis of past and current thermal and infrared satellite imagery. We leverage cloud computing resources in new ways to allow for more efficient analysis of imagery over the Amazon Basin across multiple years and multiple sensors. We also assess potential drivers of change in LST using spatial and multivariate statistical analyses with additional data sources of land cover, urban development, and demographics.

  3. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)-Based Models for Predicting the Weld Bead Width and Depth of Penetration from the Infrared Thermal Image of the Weld Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subashini, L.; Vasudevan, M.

    2012-02-01

    Type 316 LN stainless steel is the major structural material used in the construction of nuclear reactors. Activated flux tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) welding has been developed to increase the depth of penetration because the depth of penetration achievable in single-pass TIG welding is limited. Real-time monitoring and control of weld processes is gaining importance because of the requirement of remoter welding process technologies. Hence, it is essential to develop computational methodologies based on an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) or artificial neural network (ANN) for predicting and controlling the depth of penetration and weld bead width during A-TIG welding of type 316 LN stainless steel. In the current work, A-TIG welding experiments have been carried out on 6-mm-thick plates of 316 LN stainless steel by varying the welding current. During welding, infrared (IR) thermal images of the weld pool have been acquired in real time, and the features have been extracted from the IR thermal images of the weld pool. The welding current values, along with the extracted features such as length, width of the hot spot, thermal area determined from the Gaussian fit, and thermal bead width computed from the first derivative curve were used as inputs, whereas the measured depth of penetration and weld bead width were used as output of the respective models. Accurate ANFIS models have been developed for predicting the depth of penetration and the weld bead width during TIG welding of 6-mm-thick 316 LN stainless steel plates. A good correlation between the measured and predicted values of weld bead width and depth of penetration were observed in the developed models. The performance of the ANFIS models are compared with that of the ANN models.

  4. Longwave infrared observation of urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goward, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation is conducted regarding the feasibility to develop improved methods for the identification and analysis of urban landscapes on the basis of a utilization of longwave infrared observations. Attention is given to landscape thermal behavior, urban thermal properties, modeled thermal behavior of pavements and buildings, and observed urban landscape thermal emissions. The differential thermal behavior of buildings, pavements, and natural areas within urban landscapes is found to suggest that integrated multispectral solar radiant reflectance and terrestrial radiant emissions data will significantly increase potentials for analyzing urban landscapes. In particular, daytime satellite observations of the considered type should permit better identification of urban areas and an analysis of the density of buildings and pavements within urban areas. This capability should enhance the utility of satellite remote sensor data in urban applications.

  5. Detecting geothermal anomalies and evaluating LST geothermal component by combining thermal remote sensing time series and land surface model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, Mireia; Vaughan, R. Greg; Ettema, J.; Izquierdo-Verdiguier, E.; Hecker, C. A.; van der Meer, F.D.

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores for the first time the possibilities to use two land surface temperature (LST) time series of different origins (geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellite data and Noah land surface modelling, LSM), to detect geothermal anomalies and extract the geothermal component of LST, the LSTgt. We hypothesize that in geothermal areas the LSM time series will underestimate the LST as compared to the remote sensing data, since the former does not account for the geothermal component in its model.In order to extract LSTgt, two approaches of different nature (physical based and data mining) were developed and tested in an area of about 560 × 560 km2 centered at the Kenyan Rift. Pre-dawn data in the study area during the first 45 days of 2012 were analyzed.The results show consistent spatial and temporal LSTgt patterns between the two approaches, and systematic differences of about 2 K. A geothermal area map from surface studies was used to assess LSTgt inside and outside the geothermal boundaries. Spatial means were found to be higher inside the geothermal limits, as well as the relative frequency of occurrence of high LSTgt. Results further show that areas with strong topography can result in anomalously high LSTgt values (false positives), which suggests the need for a slope and aspect correction in the inputs to achieve realistic results in those areas. The uncertainty analysis indicates that large uncertainties of the input parameters may limit detection of LSTgt anomalies. To validate the approaches, higher spatial resolution images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data over the Olkaria geothermal field were used. An established method to estimate radiant geothermal flux was applied providing values between 9 and 24 W/m2 in the geothermal area, which coincides with the LSTgt flux rates obtained with the proposed approaches.The proposed approaches are a first step in estimating LSTgt

  6. UV-visible, infrared and Raman spectroscopic and thermal studies of tungsten doped lead borate glasses and the effect of ionizing gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kheshen, Amany A.; El-Batal, Fatma H.; Marzouk, Samir Y.

    2008-01-01

    Ultraviolet-visible, infrared and Raman spectroscopy together with thermal properties were measured for undoped and WO 3 - doped (up to 10%) lead borate glasses. Also, the effect of gamma irradiation was followed by UV-visible measurements. The UV visible spectrum of the undoped glass reveals before irradiation intense ultraviolet bands due to the combined effects of trace iron impurities (Fe 3+ ) and Pb 2+ ions which remain unchanged with the addition of WO 3 . Infrared and Raman measurements show characteristic bands due to borate group and the possible sharing of lead-oxygen and tungsten-oxygen groups. The studied glasses show obvious resistance to gamma irradiation. The thermal and density data are correlated with the introduction of highly polarizable and heavy (W 6+ ) ions and to the change in structural arrangement with varying glass composition. (author)

  7. Upgraded airborne scanner for commercial remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sheng-Huei; Rubin, Tod D.

    1994-06-01

    Traditional commercial remote sensing has focused on the geologic market, with primary focus on mineral identification and mapping in the visible through short-wave infrared spectral regions (0.4 to 2.4 microns). Commercial remote sensing users now demand airborne scanning capabilities spanning the entire wavelength range from ultraviolet through thermal infrared (0.3 to 12 microns). This spectral range enables detection, identification, and mapping of objects and liquids on the earth's surface and gases in the air. Applications requiring this range of wavelengths include detection and mapping of oil spills, soil and water contamination, stressed vegetation, and renewable and non-renewable natural resources, and also change detection, natural hazard mitigation, emergency response, agricultural management, and urban planning. GER has designed and built a configurable scanner that acquires high resolution images in 63 selected wave bands in this broad wavelength range.

  8. Nondestructive detection of surface flaws in materials by infrared thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Toshimitsu; Ooka, Norikazu; Eto, Motokuni; Hoshiya, Taiji; Okamoto, Yoshizo

    1999-01-01

    Infrared thermography is one of the useful remote sensing techniques applied to the nondestructive detection of surface flaws in materials. Radiation temperatures of the specimen surface and surrounding walls as well as the difference in them are crucial factors to detect surface flaws from thermal images, and it is essential that these factors be properly evaluated beforehand in order to detect the flaws by infrared thermography. In this study, the radiation temperature of nuclear graphite specimens heated uniformly was measured by infrared thermography to evaluate the radiation characteristics such as emissivity, radiosity coefficient and variation of radiation temperature. The influence of the temperature difference between the test specimen and its surroundings on the limit of detection of pinhole flaws was discussed on the basis of the thermal images of graphite specimen with surface flaws. It was found that the thermal image of a small flaw was c