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Sample records for thermal habitat quality

  1. A physiological approach to quantifying thermal habitat quality for redband rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri) in the south Fork John Day River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhaus, J.W.; Heppell, S.A.; Li, H.; Mesa, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    We examined tissue-specific levels of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and whole body lipid levels in juvenile redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri) from the South Fork of the John Day River (SFJD), Oregon, with the goal of determining if these measures could be used as physiological indicators of thermal habitat quality for juvenile redband trout. Our objectives were to determine the hsp70 induction temperature in liver, fin, and white muscle tissue and characterize the relation between whole body lipids and hsp70 for fish in the SFJD. We found significant increases in hsp70 levels between 19 and 22??C in fin, liver, and white muscle tissue. Maximum hsp70 levels in liver, fin, and white muscle tissue occurred when mean weekly maximum temperatures (MWMT) exceeded 20-22??C. In general, the estimated hsp70 induction temperature for fin and white muscle tissue was higher than liver tissue. Whole body lipid levels began to decrease when MWMT exceeded 20. 4??C. There was a significant interaction between temperature and hsp70 in fin and white muscle tissue, but not liver tissue. Collectively, these results suggest that increased hsp70 levels in juvenile redband trout are symptomatic of thermal stress, and that energy storage capacity decreases with this stress. The possible decrease in growth potential and fitness for thermally stressed individuals emphasizes the physiological justification for thermal management criteria in salmon-bearing streams. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

  2. Habitat quality, water quality and otter distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Mason

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent decades the otter (Lutra lutra has declined over much of Europe. Good habitat has been shown to be essential to otters. Specific elements of cover have been identified in some studies but the minimum cover requirements to support otter populations are not known. These are likely to vary in relation to other factors, such as disturbance. Habitat destruction has been severe in many areas of Europe. Water quantity is important to otters, especially where low flows destroy the food base, namely fish. However the minimum food requirements to support populations are not known. The main cause of the decline in otter populations is almost certainly bioaccumulating pollutants, especially PCBs. These are likely to be inhibiting recolonization in many areas. In Britain, catchment distribution of otters within regions is negatively correlated to mean PCB levels in otter spraints, and these are indicative of tissue levels. PCBs have been found in all samples studied. Current EC statutory monitoring is inadequate to protect otter populations from bioaccumulating contaminants. Standards are presented here for otter protection. More fundamental research is required to refine our understanding of the requirements of the otter. Riassunto Qualità ambientale, qualità dell'acqua e distribuzione della lontra - Negli ultimi decenni la lontra (Lutra lutra è diminuita su buona parte del suo areale europeo, dove particolarmente pesante è stata la distruzione di ambienti favorevoli. Habitat qualitativamente idonei sono essenziali per la sopravvivenza della specie. In alcuni studi, specifici parametri di copertura vegetale dei corpi idrici sono stati ritenuti importanti per la specie, ma quale sia il valore minimo di copertura riparia in grado di supportare una popolazione resta sconosciuto. I parametri di copertura variano probabilmente in relazione ad altri fattori, quali, ad

  3. Mapping Thermal Habitat of Ectotherms Based on Behavioral Thermoregulation in a Controlled Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, T.; Skidmore, A.; Liu, Y.

    2012-07-01

    Thermal environment is especially important to ectotherm because a lot of physiological functions rely on the body temperature such as thermoregulation. The so-called behavioural thermoregulation function made use of the heterogeneity of the thermal properties within an individual's habitat to sustain the animal's physiological processes. This function links the spatial utilization and distribution of individual ectotherm with the thermal properties of habitat (thermal habitat). In this study we modelled the relationship between the two by a spatial explicit model that simulates the movements of a lizard in a controlled environment. The model incorporates a lizard's transient body temperatures with a cellular automaton algorithm as a way to link the physiology knowledge of the animal with the spatial utilization of its microhabitat. On a larger spatial scale, 'thermal roughness' of the habitat was defined and used to predict the habitat occupancy of the target species. The results showed the habitat occupancy can be modelled by the cellular automaton based algorithm at a smaller scale, and can be modelled by the thermal roughness index at a larger scale.

  4. Seasonal and interannual effects of hypoxia on fish habitat quality in central Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Kristin K.; Beletsky, Dmitry; DePinto, Joseph; Ludsin, Stuart A.; Roberts, James J.; Rucinski, Daniel K.; Scavia, Donald; Schwab, David J.; Höök, Tomas O.

    2011-01-01

    1. Hypoxia occurs seasonally in many stratified coastal marine and freshwater ecosystems when bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are depleted below 2–3 mg O2 L-1. 2. We evaluated the effects of hypoxia on fish habitat quality in the central basin of Lake Erie from 1987 to 2005, using bioenergetic growth rate potential (GRP) as a proxy for habitat quality. We compared the effect of hypoxia on habitat quality of (i) rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax mordax Mitchill (young-of-year, YOY, and adult), a cold-water planktivore, (ii) emerald shiner, Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque (adult), a warm-water planktivore, (iii) yellow perch, Perca flavescens Mitchill (YOY and adult), a cool-water benthopelagic omnivore and (iv) round goby Neogobius melanostomus Pallas (adult) a eurythermal benthivore. Annual thermal and DO profiles were generated from 1D thermal and DO hydrodynamics models developed for Lake Erie’s central basin. 3. Hypoxia occurred annually, typically from mid-July to mid-October, which spatially and temporally overlaps with otherwise high benthic habitat quality. Hypoxia reduced the habitat quality across fish species and life stages, but the magnitude of the reduction varied both among and within species because of the differences in tolerance to low DO levels and warm-water temperatures. 4. Across years, trends in habitat quality mirrored trends in phosphorus concentration and water column oxygen demand in central Lake Erie. The per cent reduction in habitat quality owing to hypoxia was greatest for adult rainbow smelt and round goby (mean: -35%), followed by adult emerald shiner (mean: -12%), YOY rainbow smelt (mean: -10%) and YOY and adult yellow perch (mean: -8.5%). 5. Our results highlight the importance of differential spatiotemporally interactive effects of DO and temperature on relative fish habitat quality and quantity. These effects have the potential to influence the performance of individual fish species as well as population dynamics

  5. Habitat connectivity as a metric for aquatic microhabitat quality: Application to Chinook salmon spawning habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan Carnie; Daniele Tonina; Jim McKean; Daniel Isaak

    2016-01-01

    Quality of fish habitat at the scale of a single fish, at the metre resolution, which we defined here as microhabitat, has been primarily evaluated on short reaches, and their results have been extended through long river segments with methods that do not account for connectivity, a measure of the spatial distribution of habitat patches. However, recent...

  6. Genomics meets applied ecology : Characterizing habitat quality for sloths in a tropical agro-ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fountain, Emily D; Kang, Jung Koo; Tempel, Douglas J; Palsbøll, Per J; Pauli, Jonathan N; Peery, M Zachariah

    Understanding how habitat quality in heterogeneous landscapes governs the distribution and fitness of individuals is a fundamental aspect of ecology. While mean individual fitness is generally considered a key to assessing habitat quality, a comprehensive understanding of habitat quality in

  7. Predicting micro thermal habitat of lizards in a dynamic thermal environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fei, T.; Skidmore, A.K.; Venus, V.; Wang, T.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Bian, B.M.; Liu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding behavioural thermoregulation and its consequences is a central topic in ecology. In this study, a spatial explicit model was developed to simulate the movement and thermal habitat use of lizards in a controlled environment. The model incorporates a lizard's transient body temperatures

  8. Stress Associated With Habitat Quality And Group Living In Ravens

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Thomas; Selva, Nuria; Cortes-Avizanda, Ainara; Lemus, Jesús Angel; Blanco, Guillermo; Heinrich, Bernd; Pugacewicz, Eugeniuz; Prins, Erik; Donázar, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Many long-lived avian species adopt life strategies that involve a gregarious way of life at juvenile and sub-adult stages and territoriality during adulthood. However, the potential associated costs of these life styles, such as stress, are poorly understood. Likewise the effects of habitat quality on stress are not well understood. We examined the effects of group living, habitat quality, sex, and parasite load on the baseline concentration of faecal stress hormone (corticosterone) metaboli...

  9. Thermal characteristics of wild and captive Micronesian Kingfisher nesting habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Dylan C.; Haig, Susan M.

    2004-01-01

    To provide information for managing the captive population of endangered Guam Micronesian kingfishers (Halcyon cinnamomina cinnamomina), four biologically relevant thermal metrics were compared among captive facilities on the United States mainland and habitats used by wild Micronesian kingfishers on the island of Pohnpei (H. c. reichenbachii), Federated States of Micronesia. Additionally, aviaries where kingfishers laid eggs were compared to those in which birds did not attempt to breed. Compared to aviaries, habitats used by wild Pohnpei kingfishers had 3.2A?C higher daily maximum and minimum temperatures and the proportion of time when temperatures were in the birds' thermoneutral zone was 45% greater. No differences were found in the magnitude of temperature fluctuation in captive and wild environments. In captive environments in which birds bred, daily maximum temperatures were 2.1A?C higher and temperatures were within the thermoneutral zone 25% more often than in the aviaries where the kingfishers did not breed. No differences were found in the magnitude of temperature fluctuation or the daily minimum temperature. Results suggest that the thermal environment has the potential to influence reproduction, and that consideration should be given to increasing temperatures in captive breeding facilities to improve propagation of the endangered Micronesian kingfisher.

  10. Habitat quality influences population distribution, individual space use and functional responses in habitat selection by a large herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørneraas, Kari; Herfindal, Ivar; Solberg, Erling Johan; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; van Moorter, Bram; Rolandsen, Christer Moe

    2012-01-01

    Identifying factors shaping variation in resource selection is central for our understanding of the behaviour and distribution of animals. We examined summer habitat selection and space use by 108 Global Positioning System (GPS)-collared moose in Norway in relation to sex, reproductive status, habitat quality, and availability. Moose selected habitat types based on a combination of forage quality and availability of suitable habitat types. Selection of protective cover was strongest for reproducing females, likely reflecting the need to protect young. Males showed strong selection for habitat types with high quality forage, possibly due to higher energy requirements. Selection for preferred habitat types providing food and cover was a positive function of their availability within home ranges (i.e. not proportional use) indicating functional response in habitat selection. This relationship was not found for unproductive habitat types. Moreover, home ranges with high cover of unproductive habitat types were larger, and smaller home ranges contained higher proportions of the most preferred habitat type. The distribution of moose within the study area was partly related to the distribution of different habitat types. Our study shows how distribution and availability of habitat types providing cover and high-quality food shape ungulate habitat selection and space use.

  11. Habitat quality of the woolly spider monkey (Brachyteles hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Júnior, Wilson Marcelo; Alves Meira-Neto, João Augusto; da Silva Carmo, Flávia Maria; Rodrigues de Melo, Fabiano; Santana Moreira, Leandro; Ferreira Barbosa, Elaine; Dias, Luiz Gustavo; da Silva Peres, Carlos Augusto

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how habitat structure affects the home range use of a group of Brachyteles hypoxanthus in the Brigadeiro State Park, Brazil. It has been reported that most of the annual feeding time of woolly spider monkeys is spent eating leaves, but they prefer fruits when available. We hypothesise that the protein-to-fibre ratio (PF; best descriptor of habitat quality for folivorous primates) is a better descriptor of habitat quality and abundance for these primates than the structural attributes of forests (basal area is the best descriptor of habitat quality for frugivorous primates of Africa and Asia). We evaluated plant community structure, successional status, and PF of leaf samples from the dominant tree populations, both within the core and from a non-core area of the home range of our study group. Forest structure was a combination of stem density and basal area of dominant tree populations. The core area had larger trees, a higher forest basal area, and higher stem density than the non-core area. Mean PF did not differ significantly between these sites, although PF was influenced by differences in tree regeneration guilds. Large-bodied monkeys could be favoured by later successional stages of forests because larger trees and denser stems prevent the need for a higher expenditure of energy for locomotion as a consequence of vertical travel when the crowns of trees are disconnected in early successional forests. Forest structure variables (such as basal area of trees) driven by succession influence woolly spider monkey abundance in a fashion similar to frugivorous monkeys of Asia and Africa, and could explain marked differences in ranging behaviour and home range use by B. hypoxanthus. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Combining catchment and instream modelling to assess physical habitat quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin

    Study objectives After the implementation of EU's Water Framework Directive (WFD) in Denmark ecological impacts from groundwater exploitation on surface waters has to receive additional consideration. Small streams in particular are susceptible to changes in run-off but have only recieved little...... attention in past studies of run-off impact on the quality of stream physical habitats. This study combined catchment and instream models with instream habitat observations to assess the ecological impacts from groundwater exploitation on a small stream. The main objectives of this study was; • to assess...... which factors are controlling the run-off conditions in stream Ledreborg and to what degree • to assess the run-off reference condition of stream Ledreborg where intensive groundwater abstraction has taken place in 67 years using a simple rainfall-run-off-model • to assess how stream run-off affect...

  13. Effects of Changes in Lugu Lake Water Quality on Schizothorax Yunnansis Ecological Habitat Based on HABITAT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Mynnet, Arthur

    Schizothorax Yunnansis is an unique fish species only existing in Lugu Lake, which is located in the southwestern China. The simulation and research on Schizothorax Yunnansis habitat environment have a vital significance to protect this rare fish. With the development of the tourism industry, there bring more pressure on the environmental protection. The living environment of Schizothorax Yunnansis is destroyed seriously because the water quality is suffering the sustaining pollution of domestic sewage from the peripheral villages. This paper analyzes the relationship between water quality change and Schizothorax Yunnansis ecological habitat and evalutes Schizothorax Yunnansis's ecological habitat impact based on HABITAT model. The results show that when the TP concentration in Lugu Lake does not exceed Schizothorax Yunnansis's survival threshold, Schizothorax Yunnansis can get more nutrients and the suitable habitat area for itself is increased. Conversely, it can lead to TP toxicity in the Schizothorax Yunnansis and even death. Therefore, unsuitable habitat area for Schizothorax Yunnansis is increased. It can be seen from the results that HABITAT model can assist in ecological impact assessment studies by translating results of hydrological, water quality models into effects on the natural environment and human society.

  14. Climate change expands the spatial extent and duration of preferred thermal habitat for lake Superior fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Cline

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to alter species distributions and habitat suitability across the globe. Understanding these shifting distributions is critical for adaptive resource management. The role of temperature in fish habitat and energetics is well established and can be used to evaluate climate change effects on habitat distributions and food web interactions. Lake Superior water temperatures are rising rapidly in response to climate change and this is likely influencing species distributions and interactions. We use a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model that captures temperature changes in Lake Superior over the last 3 decades to investigate shifts in habitat size and duration of preferred temperatures for four different fishes. We evaluated habitat changes in two native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush ecotypes, siscowet and lean lake trout, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and walleye (Sander vitreus. Between 1979 and 2006, days with available preferred thermal habitat increased at a mean rate of 6, 7, and 5 days per decade for lean lake trout, Chinook salmon, and walleye, respectively. Siscowet lake trout lost 3 days per decade. Consequently, preferred habitat spatial extents increased at a rate of 579, 495 and 419 km(2 per year for the lean lake trout, Chinook salmon, and walleye while siscowet lost 161 km(2 per year during the modeled period. Habitat increases could lead to increased growth and production for three of the four fishes. Consequently, greater habitat overlap may intensify interguild competition and food web interactions. Loss of cold-water habitat for siscowet, having the coldest thermal preference, could forecast potential changes from continued warming. Additionally, continued warming may render more suitable conditions for some invasive species.

  15. Thermal biology mediates responses of amphibians and reptiles to habitat modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, A Justin; Watling, James I; Thompson, Michelle E; Brusch, George A; Catenazzi, Alessandro; Whitfield, Steven M; Kurz, David J; Suárez-Mayorga, Ángela; Aponte-Gutiérrez, Andrés; Donnelly, Maureen A; Todd, Brian D

    2018-03-01

    Human activities often replace native forests with warmer, modified habitats that represent novel thermal environments for biodiversity. Reducing biodiversity loss hinges upon identifying which species are most sensitive to the environmental conditions that result from habitat modification. Drawing on case studies and a meta-analysis, we examined whether observed and modelled thermal traits, including heat tolerances, variation in body temperatures, and evaporative water loss, explained variation in sensitivity of ectotherms to habitat modification. Low heat tolerances of lizards and amphibians and high evaporative water loss of amphibians were associated with increased sensitivity to habitat modification, often explaining more variation than non-thermal traits. Heat tolerances alone explained 24-66% (mean = 38%) of the variation in species responses, and these trends were largely consistent across geographic locations and spatial scales. As habitat modification alters local microclimates, the thermal biology of species will likely play a key role in the reassembly of terrestrial communities. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Wildfire may increase habitat quality for spring Chinook salmon in the Wenatchee River subbasin, WA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Reeves, Gordon H.; Hessburg, Paul F.; McNyset, Kris M.; Benda, Lee E.

    2016-01-01

    Pacific Northwest salmonids are adapted to natural disturbance regimes that create dynamic habitat patterns over space and through time. However, human land use, particularly long-term fire suppression, has altered the intensity and frequency of wildfire in forested upland and riparian areas. To examine the potential impacts of wildfire on aquatic systems, we developed stream-reach-scale models of freshwater habitat for three life stages (adult, egg/fry, and juvenile) of spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Wenatchee River subbasin, Washington. We used variables representing pre- and post-fire habitat conditions and employed novel techniques to capture changes in in-stream fine sediment, wood, and water temperature. Watershed-scale comparisons of high-quality habitat for each life stage of spring Chinook salmon habitat suggested that there are smaller quantities of high-quality juvenile overwinter habitat as compared to habitat for other life stages. We found that wildfire has the potential to increase quality of adult and overwintering juvenile habitat through increased delivery of wood, while decreasing the quality of egg and fry habitat due to the introduction of fine sediments. Model results showed the largest effect of fire on habitat quality associated with the juvenile life stage, resulting in increases in high-quality habitat in all watersheds. Due to the limited availability of pre-fire high-quality juvenile habitat, and increased habitat quality for this life stage post-fire, occurrence of characteristic wildfires would likely create a positive effect on spring Chinook salmon habitat in the Wenatchee River subbasin. We also compared pre- and post-fire model results of freshwater habitat for each life stage, and for the geometric mean of habitat quality across all life stages, using current compared to the historic distribution of spring Chinook salmon. We found that spring Chinook salmon are currently distributed in stream channels in

  17. Chinook salmon use of spawning patches: relative roles of habitat quality, size, and connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, Daniel J; Thurow, Russell F; Rieman, Bruce E; Dunham, Jason B

    2007-03-01

    Declines in many native fish populations have led to reassessments of management goals and shifted priorities from consumptive uses to species preservation. As management has shifted, relevant environmental characteristics have evolved from traditional metrics that described local habitat quality to characterizations of habitat size and connectivity. Despite the implications this shift has for how habitats may be prioritized for conservation, it has been rare to assess the relative importance of these habitat components. We used an information-theoretic approach to select the best models from sets of logistic regressions that linked habitat quality, size, and connectivity to the occurrence of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) nests. Spawning distributions were censused annually from 1995 to 2004, and data were complemented with field measurements that described habitat quality in 43 suitable spawning patches across a stream network that drained 1150 km2 in central Idaho. Results indicated that the most plausible models were dominated by measures of habitat size and connectivity, whereas habitat quality was of minor importance. Connectivity was the strongest predictor of nest occurrence, but connectivity interacted with habitat size, which became relatively more important when populations were reduced. Comparison of observed nest distributions to null model predictions confirmed that the habitat size association was driven by a biological mechanism when populations were small, but this association may have been an area-related sampling artifact at higher abundances. The implications for habitat management are that the size and connectivity of existing habitat networks should be maintained whenever possible. In situations where habitat restoration is occurring, expansion of existing areas or creation of new habitats in key areas that increase connectivity may be beneficial. Information about habitat size and connectivity also could be used to strategically

  18. Chinook salmon use of spawning patches: Relative roles of habitat quality, size, and connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, D.J.; Thurow, R.F.; Rieman, B.E.; Dunham, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    Declines in many native fish populations have led to reassessments of management goals and shifted priorities from consumptive uses to species preservation. As management has shifted, relevant environmental characteristics have evolved from traditional metrics that described local habitat quality to characterizations of habitat size and connectivity. Despite the implications this shift has for how habitats may be prioritized for conservation, it has been rare to assess the relative importance of these habitat components. We used an information-theoretic approach to select the best models from sets of logistic regressions that linked habitat quality, size, and connectivity to the occurrence of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) nests. Spawning distributions were censused annually from 1995 to 2004, and data were complemented with field measurements that described habitat quality in 43 suitable spawning patches across a stream network that drained 1150 km 2 in central Idaho. Results indicated that the most plausible models were dominated by measures of habitat size and connectivity, whereas habitat quality was of minor importance. Connectivity was the strongest predictor of nest occurrence, but connectivity interacted with habitat size, which became relatively more important when populations were reduced. Comparison of observed nest distributions to null model predictions confirmed that the habitat size association was driven by a biological mechanism when populations were small, but this association may have been an area-related sampling artifact at higher abundances. The implications for habitat management are that the size and connectivity of existing habitat networks should be maintained whenever possible. In situations where habitat restoration is occurring, expansion of existing areas or creation of new habitats in key areas that increase connectivity may be beneficial. Information about habitat size and connectivity also could be used to strategically

  19. Prioritizing tropical habitats for long-distance migratory songbirds: an assessment of habitat quality at a stopover site in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Bayly

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance migratory birds are declining globally and migration has been identified as the primary source of mortality in this group. Despite this, our lack of knowledge of habitat use and quality at stopovers, i.e., sites where the energy for migration is accumulated, remains a barrier to designing appropriate conservation measures, especially in tropical regions. There is therefore an urgent need to assess stopover habitat quality and concurrently identify efficient and cost-effective methods for doing so. Given that fuel deposition rates directly influence stopover duration, departure fuel load, and subsequent speed of migration, they are expected to provide a direct measure of habitat quality and have the advantage of being measurable through body-mass changes. Here, we examined seven potential indicators of quality, including body-mass change, for two ecologically distinct Neotropical migratory landbirds on stopover in shade-coffee plantations and tropical humid premontane forest during spring migration in Colombia: (1 rate of body-mass change; (2 foraging rate; (3 recapture rate; (4 density; (5 flock size; (6 age and sex ratios; and (7 body-mass distribution. We found higher rates of mass change in premontane forest than in shade-coffee in Tennessee Warbler Oreothlypis peregrina, a difference that was mirrored in higher densities and body masses in forest. In Gray-cheeked Thrush Catharus minimus, a lack of recaptures in shade-coffee and higher densities in forest, also suggested that forest provided superior fueling conditions. For a reliable assessment of habitat quality, we therefore recommend using a suite of indicators, taking into account each species' ecology and methodological considerations. Our results also imply that birds stopping over in lower quality habitats may spend a longer time migrating and require more stopovers, potentially leading to important carryover effects on reproductive fitness. Evaluating habitat quality is

  20. Habitat use, daily activity periods, and thermal ecology of Ameiva ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae) in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eliza M. X. Freire; Jaqueiuto S. Jorge; Leonardo B. Ribeiro; Raul F. D. Sales

    2011-01-01

    We studied the use of spatial, temporal, and thermal resources by the Neotropical lizard Ameiva ameiva during rainy and dry seasons in a caatinga (xerophilous open forests) environment in northeasternBrazil. Lizards used the vegetation habitats and microhabitats in the ground, but never were seen in the rocky habitat. Adults usually used the arboreal-shrubby habitat, whereas juveniles were sighted more often in the shrubby-herbaceous habitat. Ontogenetic differences in spatial use seem to be ...

  1. Fish thermal habitat current use and simulation of thermal habitat availability in lakes of the Argentine Patagonian Andes under climate change scenarios RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigliano, Pablo H; Rechencq, Magalí M; Fernández, María V; Lippolt, Gustavo E; Macchi, Patricio J

    2018-09-15

    Habitat use in relation to the thermal habitat availability and food source as a forcing factor on habitat selection and use of Percichthys trucha (Creole perch), Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), Salmo trutta (brown trout) and Salvelinus fontinalis (brook trout) were determined as well as future potential thermal habitat availability for these species under climate change scenarios Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and 8.5. This study was conducted in three interconnected lakes of Northern Patagonia (Moreno Lake system). Data on fish abundance was obtained through gill netting and hydroacoustics, and thermal profiles and fish thermal habitat suitability index curves were used to identify current species-specific thermal habitat use. Surface air temperatures from the (NEX GDDP) database for RCP scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 were used to model monthly average temperatures of the water column up to the year 2099 for all three lakes, and to determine potential future habitat availability. In addition, data on fish diet were used to determine whether food could act as a forcing factor in current habitat selection. The four species examined do not use all the thermally suitable habitats currently available to them in the three lakes, and higher fish densities are not necessarily constrained to their "fundamental thermal niches" sensu Magnuson et al. (1979), as extensive use is made of less suitable habitats. This is apparently brought about by food availability acting as a major forcing factor in habitat selection and use. Uncertainties related to the multidimensionality inherent to habitat selection and climate change imply that fish resource management in Patagonia will not be feasible through traditional incremental policies and strategic adjustments based on short-term predictions, but will have to become highly opportunistic and adaptive. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Revised Methods for Characterizing Stream Habitat in the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Waite, Ian R.; D'Arconte, Patricia J.; Meador, Michael R.; Maupin, Molly A.; Gurtz, Martin E.

    1998-01-01

    Stream habitat is characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. The goal of stream habitat characterization is to relate habitat to other physical, chemical, and biological factors that describe water-quality conditions. To accomplish this goal, environmental settings are described at sites selected for water-quality assessment. In addition, spatial and temporal patterns in habitat are examined at local, regional, and national scales. This habitat protocol contains updated methods for evaluating habitat in NAWQA Study Units. Revisions are based on lessons learned after 6 years of applying the original NAWQA habitat protocol to NAWQA Study Unit ecological surveys. Similar to the original protocol, these revised methods for evaluating stream habitat are based on a spatially hierarchical framework that incorporates habitat data at basin, segment, reach, and microhabitat scales. This framework provides a basis for national consistency in collection techniques while allowing flexibility in habitat assessment within individual Study Units. Procedures are described for collecting habitat data at basin and segment scales; these procedures include use of geographic information system data bases, topographic maps, and aerial photographs. Data collected at the reach scale include channel, bank, and riparian characteristics.

  3. Serengeti real estate: density vs. fitness-based indicators of lion habitat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosser, Anna; Fryxell, John M; Eberly, Lynn; Packer, Craig

    2009-10-01

    Habitat quality is typically inferred by assuming a direct relationship between consumer density and resource abundance, although it has been suggested that consumer fitness may be a more accurate measure of habitat quality. We examined density vs. fitness-based measures of habitat quality for lions in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. A 40-year average of female reproductive success (yearling cubs per female) was best explained by proximity to river confluences, whereas patterns of productivity (yearling cubs per km(2)) and adult female density (individuals per km(2)) were associated with more general measures of habitat quality and areas of shelter in poor habitat. This suggests that density may not accurately distinguish between high-quality 'source' areas and low-quality sites that merely provide refuges for effectively non-reproductive individuals. Our results indicate that density may be a misleading indicator of real estate value, particularly for populations that do not conform to an ideal free distribution.

  4. Thermal niche predicts tolerance to habitat conversion in tropical amphibians and reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishkoff, Luke O; Hadly, Elizabeth A; Daily, Gretchen C

    2015-11-01

    Habitat conversion is a major driver of the biodiversity crisis, yet why some species undergo local extinction while others thrive under novel conditions remains unclear. We suggest that focusing on species' niches, rather than traits, may provide the predictive power needed to forecast biodiversity change. We first examine two Neotropical frog congeners with drastically different affinities to deforestation and document how thermal niche explains deforestation tolerance. The more deforestation-tolerant species is associated with warmer macroclimates across Costa Rica, and warmer microclimates within landscapes. Further, in laboratory experiments, the more deforestation-tolerant species has critical thermal limits, and a jumping performance optimum, shifted ~2 °C warmer than those of the more forest-affiliated species, corresponding to the ~3 °C difference in daytime maximum temperature that these species experience between habitats. Crucially, neither species strictly specializes on either habitat - instead habitat use is governed by regional environmental temperature. Both species track temperature along an elevational gradient, and shift their habitat use from cooler forest at lower elevations to warmer deforested pastures upslope. To generalize these conclusions, we expand our analysis to the entire mid-elevational herpetological community of southern Costa Rica. We assess the climatological affinities of 33 amphibian and reptile species, showing that across both taxonomic classes, thermal niche predicts presence in deforested habitat as well as or better than many commonly used traits. These data suggest that warm-adapted species carry a significant survival advantage amidst the synergistic impacts of land-use conversion and climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Habitat hydraulic models - a tool for Danish stream quality assessment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin

    and hydromorphological and chemical characteristics has to be enlightened (EUROPA, 2005). This study links catchment hydrology, stream discharge and physical habitat in a small Danish stream, the stream Ledreborg, and discusses the utility of habitat hydraulic models in relation to the present criteria and methods used......).  Hydromorphological conditions in the stream are measured through field study, using a habitat mapping approach and modelled using a habitat hydraulic model (RHYHABSIM). Using RHYHABSIM and both "site-specific" and general HSI's, Weighted Usable Area (WUA) for the trout population at different discharges is assessed...... and differences between simulated WUA using "site-specific" and general habitat preferences are discussed. In RHYHABSIM it is possible to use two different approaches to investigate the hydromorphological conditions in a river, the habitat mapping approach used in this project and the representative reach...

  6. Spatial, temporal, and density-dependent components of habitat quality for a desert owl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D Flesch

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in resources is a fundamental driver of habitat quality but the realized value of resources at any point in space may depend on the effects of conspecifics and stochastic factors, such as weather, which vary through time. We evaluated the relative and combined effects of habitat resources, weather, and conspecifics on habitat quality for ferruginous pygmy-owls (Glaucidium brasilianum in the Sonoran Desert of northwest Mexico by monitoring reproductive output and conspecific abundance over 10 years in and around 107 territory patches. Variation in reproductive output was much greater across space than time, and although habitat resources explained a much greater proportion of that variation (0.70 than weather (0.17 or conspecifics (0.13, evidence for interactions among each of these components of the environment was strong. Relative to habitat that was persistently low in quality, high-quality habitat buffered the negative effects of conspecifics and amplified the benefits of favorable weather, but did not buffer the disadvantages of harsh weather. Moreover, the positive effects of favorable weather at low conspecific densities were offset by intraspecific competition at high densities. Although realized habitat quality declined with increasing conspecific density suggesting interference mechanisms associated with an Ideal Free Distribution, broad spatial heterogeneity in habitat quality persisted. Factors linked to food resources had positive effects on reproductive output but only where nest cavities were sufficiently abundant to mitigate the negative effects of heterospecific enemies. Annual precipitation and brooding-season temperature had strong multiplicative effects on reproductive output, which declined at increasing rates as drought and temperature increased, reflecting conditions predicted to become more frequent with climate change. Because the collective environment influences habitat quality in complex ways

  7. Habitat quality mediates personality through differences in social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrad, Benjamin A; Griffen, Blaine D

    2017-06-01

    Assessing the stability of animal personalities has become a major goal of behavioral ecologists. Most personality studies have utilized solitary individuals, but little is known on the extent that individuals retain their personality across ecologically relevant group settings. We conducted a field survey which determined that mud crabs, Panopeus herbstii, remain scattered as isolated individuals on degraded oyster reefs while high quality reefs can sustain high crab densities (>10 m -2 ). We examined the impact of these differences in social context on personality by quantifying the boldness of the same individual crabs when in isolation and in natural cohorts. Crabs were also exposed to either a treatment of predator cues or a control of no cue throughout the experiment to assess the strength of this behavioral reaction norm. Crabs were significantly bolder when in groups than as solitary individuals with predator cue treatments exhibiting severally reduced crab activity levels in comparison to corresponding treatments with no predator cues. Behavioral plasticity depended on the individual and was strongest in the presence of predator cues. While bold crabs largely maintained their personality in isolation and group settings, shy crabs would become substantially bolder when among conspecifics. These results imply that the shifts in crab boldness were a response to changes in perceived predation risk, and provide a mechanism for explaining variation in behavioral plasticity. Such findings suggest that habitat degradation may produce subpopulations with different behavioral patterns because of differing social interactions between individual animals.

  8. Genomics meets applied ecology: Characterizing habitat quality for sloths in a tropical agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Emily D; Kang, Jung Koo; Tempel, Douglas J; Palsbøll, Per J; Pauli, Jonathan N; Zachariah Peery, M

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how habitat quality in heterogeneous landscapes governs the distribution and fitness of individuals is a fundamental aspect of ecology. While mean individual fitness is generally considered a key to assessing habitat quality, a comprehensive understanding of habitat quality in heterogeneous landscapes requires estimates of dispersal rates among habitat types. The increasing accessibility of genomic approaches, combined with field-based demographic methods, provides novel opportunities for incorporating dispersal estimation into assessments of habitat quality. In this study, we integrated genomic kinship approaches with field-based estimates of fitness components and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) procedures to estimate habitat-specific dispersal rates and characterize habitat quality in two-toed sloths (Choloepus hoffmanni) occurring in a Costa Rican agricultural ecosystem. Field-based observations indicated that birth and survival rates were similar in a sparsely shaded cacao farm and adjacent cattle pasture-forest mosaic. Sloth density was threefold higher in pasture compared with cacao, whereas home range size and overlap were greater in cacao compared with pasture. Dispersal rates were similar between the two habitats, as estimated using ABC procedures applied to the spatial distribution of pairs of related individuals identified using 3,431 single nucleotide polymorphism and 11 microsatellite locus genotypes. Our results indicate that crops produced under a sparse overstorey can, in some cases, constitute lower-quality habitat than pasture-forest mosaics for sloths, perhaps because of differences in food resources or predator communities. Finally, our study demonstrates that integrating field-based demographic approaches with genomic methods can provide a powerful means for characterizing habitat quality for animal populations occurring in heterogeneous landscapes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Apparent foraging success reflects habitat quality in an irruptive species, the Black-backed Woodpecker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher T. Rota; Mark A. Rumble; Chad P. Lehman; Dylan C. Kesler; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2015-01-01

    Dramatic fluctuations in food resources are a key feature of many habitats, and many species have evolved a movement strategy to exploit food resources that are unpredictable in space and time. The availability of food resources may be a particularly strong determinant of habitat quality for irruptive bird species. We studied the apparent foraging success of Black-...

  10. Effects of habitat size and quality on equilibrium density and extinction time of Sorex araneus populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, C.; Roos, de A.M.

    1998-01-01

    1. The effects of changes in habitat size and quality on the expected population density and the expected time to extinction of Sorex araneus are studied by means of mathematical models that incorporate demographic stochasticity. 2. Habitat size is characterized by the number of territories, while

  11. Pressure adaptation is linked to thermal adaptation in salt-saturated marine habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, María; Stogios, Peter J; Lafraya, Álvaro; Tchigvintsev, Anatoli; Flick, Robert; Bargiela, Rafael; Chernikova, Tatyana N; Reva, Oleg N; Hai, Tran; Leggewie, Christian C; Katzke, Nadine; La Cono, Violetta; Matesanz, Ruth; Jebbar, Mohamed; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Yakimov, Michail M; Yakunin, Alexander F; Golyshin, Peter N; Golyshina, Olga V; Savchenko, Alexei; Ferrer, Manuel

    2015-02-01

    The present study provides a deeper view of protein functionality as a function of temperature, salt and pressure in deep-sea habitats. A set of eight different enzymes from five distinct deep-sea (3040-4908 m depth), moderately warm (14.0-16.5°C) biotopes, characterized by a wide range of salinities (39-348 practical salinity units), were investigated for this purpose. An enzyme from a 'superficial' marine hydrothermal habitat (65°C) was isolated and characterized for comparative purposes. We report here the first experimental evidence suggesting that in salt-saturated deep-sea habitats, the adaptation to high pressure is linked to high thermal resistance (P value = 0.0036). Salinity might therefore increase the temperature window for enzyme activity, and possibly microbial growth, in deep-sea habitats. As an example, Lake Medee, the largest hypersaline deep-sea anoxic lake of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, where the water temperature is never higher than 16°C, was shown to contain halopiezophilic-like enzymes that are most active at 70°C and with denaturing temperatures of 71.4°C. The determination of the crystal structures of five proteins revealed unknown molecular mechanisms involved in protein adaptation to poly-extremes as well as distinct active site architectures and substrate preferences relative to other structurally characterized enzymes. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Routine road maintenance water quality and habitat guide : best management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Since June 9, 1999 the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) has implemented the Routine Road Maintenance: Water Quality and Habitat Guide Best Management Practices (the Guide), and is considered the cornerstone of the ODOT'd Office of Maintenan...

  13. Brook trout use of thermal refugia and foraging habitat influenced by brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Snook, Erin; Massie, Danielle L.

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in eastern North America is often limited by temperature and introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta), the relative importance of which is poorly understood but critical for conservation and restoration planning. We evaluated effects of brown trout on brook trout behavior and habitat use in experimental streams across increasing temperatures (14–23 °C) with simulated groundwater upwelling zones providing thermal refugia (6–9 °C below ambient temperatures). Allopatric and sympatric trout populations increased their use of upwelling zones as ambient temperatures increased, demonstrating the importance of groundwater as thermal refugia in warming streams. Allopatric brook trout showed greater movement rates and more even spatial distributions within streams than sympatric brook trout, suggesting interference competition by brown trout for access to forage habitats located outside thermal refugia. Our results indicate that removal of introduced brown trout may facilitate native brook trout expansion and population viability in downstream reaches depending in part on the spatial configuration of groundwater upwelling zones.

  14. HABSEED: a Simple Spatially Explicit Meta-Populations Model Using Remote Sensing Derived Habitat Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heumann, B. W.; Guichard, F.; Seaquist, J. W.

    2005-05-01

    The HABSEED model uses remote sensing derived NPP as a surrogate for habitat quality as the driving mechanism for population growth and local seed dispersal. The model has been applied to the Sahel region of Africa. Results show that the functional response of plants to habitat quality alters population distribution. Plants more tolerant of medium quality habitat have greater distributions to the North while plants requiring only the best habitat are limited to the South. For all functional response types, increased seed production results in diminishing returns. Functional response types have been related to life history tradeoffs and r-K strategies based on the results. Results are compared to remote sensing derived vegetation land cover.

  15. Simulation of hydrodynamics, water quality, and lake sturgeon habitat volumes in Lake St. Croix, Wisconsin and Minnesota, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Ziegeweid, Jeffrey R.; Elliott, Sarah M.; Magdalene, Suzanne

    2018-01-05

    Lake St. Croix is a naturally impounded, riverine lake that makes up the last 40 kilometers of the St. Croix River. Substantial land-use changes during the past 150 years, including increased agriculture and urban development, have reduced Lake St. Croix water-quality and increased nutrient loads delivered to Lake St. Croix. A recent (2012–13) total maximum daily load phosphorus-reduction plan set the goal to reduce total phosphorus loads to Lake St. Croix by 20 percent by 2020 and reduce Lake St. Croix algal bloom frequencies. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, developed a two-dimensional, carbon-based, laterally averaged, hydrodynamic and water-quality model, CE–QUAL–W2, that addresses the interaction between nutrient cycling, primary production, and trophic dynamics to predict responses in the distribution of water temperature, oxygen, and chlorophyll a. Distribution is evaluated in the context of habitat for lake sturgeon, including a combination of temperature and dissolved oxygen conditions termed oxy-thermal habitat.The Lake St. Croix CE–QUAL–W2 model successfully reproduced temperature and dissolved oxygen in the lake longitudinally (from upstream to downstream), vertically, and temporally over the seasons. The simulated water temperature profiles closely matched the measured water temperature profiles throughout the year, including the prediction of thermocline transition depths (often within 1 meter), the absolute temperature of the thermocline transitions (often within 1.0 degree Celsius), and profiles without a strong thermocline transition. Simulated dissolved oxygen profiles matched the trajectories of the measured dissolved oxygen concentrations at multiple depths over time, and the simulated concentrations matched the depth and slope of the measured concentrations.Additionally, trends in the measured water-quality data were captured by the model simulation, gaining some potential insights into the

  16. Thermal dependence of sprint performance in the lizard Psammodromus algirus along a 2200-meter elevational gradient: Cold-habitat lizards do not perform better at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Camacho, Francisco Javier; Rubiño-Hispán, María Virtudes; Reguera, Senda; Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio

    2015-08-01

    Sprint speed has a capital relevance in most animals' fitness, mainly for fleeing from predators. Sprint performance is maximal within a certain range of body temperatures in ectotherms, whose thermal upkeep relies on exogenous thermal sources. Ectotherms can respond to diverse thermal environments either by shifting their thermal preferences or maintaining them through different adaptive mechanisms. Here, we tested whether maximum sprint speed of a lizard that shows conservative thermal ecology along a 2200-meter elevational gradient differs with body temperature in lizards from different elevations. Lizards ran faster at optimum than at suboptimum body temperature. Notably, high-elevation lizards were not faster than mid- and low-elevation lizards at suboptimum body temperature, despite their low-quality thermal environment. This result suggests that both preferred body temperature and thermal dependence of speed performance are co-adapted along the elevational gradient. High-elevation lizards display a number of thermoregulatory strategies that allow them to achieve high optimum body temperatures in a low thermal-quality habitat and thus maximize speed performance. As for reproductive condition, we did not find any effect of it on sprint speed, or any significant interaction with elevation or body temperature. However, strikingly, gravid females were significantly slower than males and non-gravid females at suboptimum temperature, but performed similarly well at optimal temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Metapopulation responses to patch connectivity and quality are masked by successional habitat dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jenny A; Moilanen, Atte; Thomas, Chris D

    2009-06-01

    Many species have to track changes in the spatial distribution of suitable habitat from generation to generation. Understanding the dynamics of such species will likely require spatially explicit models, and patch-based metapopulation models are potentially appropriate. However, relatively little attention has been paid to developing metapopulation models that include habitat dynamics, and very little to testing the predictions of these models. We tested three predictions from theory about the differences between dynamic habitat metapopulations and their static counterparts using long-term survey data from two metapopulations of the butterfly Plebejus argus. As predicted, we showed first that the metapopulation inhabiting dynamic habitat had a lower level of habitat occupancy, which could not be accounted for by other differences between the metapopulations. Secondly, we found that patch occupancy did not significantly increase with increasing patch connectivity in dynamic habitat, whereas there was a strong positive connectivity-occupancy relationship in static habitat. Thirdly, we found no significant relationship between patch occupancy and patch quality in dynamic habitat, whereas there was a strong, positive quality-occupancy relationship in static habitat. Modeling confirmed that the differences in mean patch occupancy and connectivity-occupancy slope could arise without changing the species' metapopulation parameters-importantly, without changing the dependence of colonization upon connectivity. We found that, for a range of landscape scenarios, successional simulations always produced a lower connectivity-occupancy slope than comparable simulations with static patches, whether compared like-for-like or controlling for mean occupancy. We conclude that landscape-scale studies may often underestimate the importance of connectivity for species occurrence and persistence because habitat turnover can obscure the connectivity-occupancy relationship in commonly

  18. Estimating thermal regimes of bull trout and assessing the potential effects of climate warming on critical habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leslie A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Marshall, Lucy A.; McGlynn, Brian L.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the vulnerability of aquatic species and habitats under climate change is critical for conservation and management of freshwater systems. Climate warming is predicted to increase water temperatures in freshwater ecosystems worldwide, yet few studies have developed spatially explicit modelling tools for understanding the potential impacts. We parameterized a nonspatial model, a spatial flow-routed model, and a spatial hierarchical model to predict August stream temperatures (22-m resolution) throughout the Flathead River Basin, USA and Canada. Model comparisons showed that the spatial models performed significantly better than the nonspatial model, explaining the spatial autocorrelation found between sites. The spatial hierarchical model explained 82% of the variation in summer mean (August) stream temperatures and was used to estimate thermal regimes for threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) habitats, one of the most thermally sensitive coldwater species in western North America. The model estimated summer thermal regimes of spawning and rearing habitats at <13 C° and foraging, migrating, and overwintering habitats at <14 C°. To illustrate the useful application of such a model, we simulated climate warming scenarios to quantify potential loss of critical habitats under forecasted climatic conditions. As air and water temperatures continue to increase, our model simulations show that lower portions of the Flathead River Basin drainage (foraging, migrating, and overwintering habitat) may become thermally unsuitable and headwater streams (spawning and rearing) may become isolated because of increasing thermal fragmentation during summer. Model results can be used to focus conservation and management efforts on populations of concern, by identifying critical habitats and assessing thermal changes at a local scale.

  19. Constructing Ecological Networks Based on Habitat Quality Assessment: A Case Study of Changzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Ma, Lei; Liu, Jiaxun; Zhuang, Zhuzhou; Huang, Qiuhao; Li, Manchun

    2017-01-01

    Fragmentation and reduced continuity of habitat patches threaten the environment and biodiversity. Recently, ecological networks are increasingly attracting the attention of researchers as they provide fundamental frameworks for environmental protection. This study suggests a set of procedures to construct an ecological network. First, we proposed a method to construct a landscape resistance surface based on the assessment of habitat quality. Second, to analyze the effect of the resistance surface on corridor simulations, we used three methods to construct resistance surfaces: (1) the method proposed in this paper, (2) the entropy coefficient method, and (3) the expert scoring method. Then, we integrated habitat patches and resistance surfaces to identify potential corridors using graph theory. These procedures were tested in Changzhou, China. Comparing the outputs of using different resistance surfaces demonstrated that: (1) different landscape resistance surfaces contribute to how corridors are identified, but only slightly affect the assessment of the importance of habitat patches and potential corridors; (2) the resistance surface, which is constructed based on habitat quality, is more applicable to corridor simulations; and (3) the assessment of the importance of habitat patches is fundamental for ecological network optimization in the conservation of critical habitat patches and corridors. PMID:28393879

  20. Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering rusty blackbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Hamel, Paul B; Hofmann, Gerhard; Zenzal, Theodore J; Pellegrini, Anne; Malpass, Jennifer; Garfinkel, Megan; Schiff, Nathan; Greenberg, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes.

  1. Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering rusty blackbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mettke-Hofmann

    Full Text Available Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes.

  2. Hydrologic and water-quality rehabilitation of environments for suitable fish habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C. S.; Yang, S. T.; Xiang, H.; Liu, C. M.; Zhang, H. T.; Yang, Z. L.; Zhang, Y.; Sun, Y.; Mitrovic, S. M.; Yu, Q.; Lim, R. P.

    2015-11-01

    Aquatic ecological rehabilitation is attracting increasing public and research attention, but without knowledge of the responses of aquatic species to their habitats the success of habitat restoration is uncertain. Thus efficient study of species response to habitat, through which to prioritize the habitat factors influencing aquatic ecosystems, is highly important. However many current models have too high requirement for assemblage information and have great bias in results due to consideration of only the species' attribute of presence/absence, abundance or biomass, thus hindering the wider utility of these models. This paper, using fish as a case, presents a framework for identification of high-priority habitat factors based on the responses of aquatic species to their habitats, using presence/absence, abundance and biomass data. This framework consists of four newly developed sub-models aiming to determine weightings for the evaluation of species' contributions to their communities, to quantitatively calculate an integrated habitat suitability index for multi-species based on habitat factors, to assess the suitable probability of habitat factors and to assess the rehabilitation priority of habitat factors. The framework closely links hydrologic, physical and chemical habitat factors to fish assemblage attributes drawn from monitoring datasets on hydrology, water quality and fish assemblages at a total of 144 sites, where 5084 fish were sampled and tested. Breakpoint identification techniques based on curvature in cumulated dominance along with a newly developed weighting calculation model based on theory of mass systems were used to help identify the dominant fish, based on which the presence and abundance of multiple fish were normalized to estimate the integrated habitat suitability index along gradients of various factors, based on their variation with principal habitat factors. Then, the appropriate probability of every principal habitat factor was

  3. Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor) in the southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Brett G; Roemer, Gary W; McRae, Brad H; Rundall, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate the dispersal

  4. Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor in the southwestern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett G Dickson

    Full Text Available The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate

  5. Quality aspects of thermal coal marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunstone, D.

    1998-01-01

    Australia's thermal coal industry is under increasing competition. A successful marketing strategy must distinguish the product from that of Australian competitors, leaving the buyer in no doubt as to its value. The marketing of thermal coal is a very different experience and encompasses an interesting commercial and technical mix. The technical merits of a coal may be effectively used to prepare the way for a sale. However, once the technical hurdle is passed (i.e. the coal is classified as acceptable), the three factors which influence the sale are price, price and price. The other aspect of marketing is that marketing, especially technical market support, must realize that the buyer often has no experience in using the coals purchased. This is particularly true with thermal coals. Virtually no thought is given as to how the coal performs or how much is used. Consequently, it is not uncommon for cheap, low quality coals to be purchased, even though it is not the choice that will result in the lowest power generation cost when all other factors are taken into consideration. The author has developed a model which allows to differentiate between coals for a range of properties relative to the use of the coal, so that a coal company can calculate the break-even price in term of cost per kWh of electricity generated and enable a more valid cost comparison between coals to be made

  6. Bust economics: foragers choose high quality habitats in lean times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonny S. Bleicher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In environments where food resources are spatially variable and temporarily impoverished, consumers that encounter habitat patches with different food density should focus their foraging initially where food density is highest before they move to patches where food density is lower. Increasing missed opportunity costs should drive individuals progressively to patches with lower food density as resources in the initially high food density patches deplete. To test these expectations, we assessed the foraging decisions of two species of dasyurid marsupials (dunnarts: Sminthopsis hirtipes and S. youngsoni during a deep drought, or bust period, in the Simpson Desert of central Australia. Dunnarts were allowed access to three patches containing different food densities using an interview chamber experiment. Both species exhibited clear preference for the high density over the lower food density patches as measured in total harvested resources. Similarly, when measuring the proportion of resources harvested within the patches, we observed a marginal preference for patches with initially high densities. Models analyzing behavioral choices at the population level found no differences in behavior between the two species, but models analyzing choices at the individual level uncovered some variation. We conclude that dunnarts can distinguish between habitat patches with different densities of food and preferentially exploit the most valuable. As our observations were made during bust conditions, experiments should be repeated during boom times to assess the foraging economics of dunnarts when environmental resources are high.

  7. [Study on morphology, quality and germination characteristics of Acanthopanax trifoliatus seeds under different habitats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Juan

    2014-05-01

    To preliminary explore the difference of the morphological, quality and germinal characteristics of Acanthopanax trifoliatus seeds under different habitats. Collect the wild seeds from different habitats in West Mountain, and then observe their external appearances and internal structure, and test the thousand seeds weight,water content and seed vigor. What's more, the influence to germination rates of the seeds from different temperatures and light intensities in artificial bioclimatic chamber was studied. Orthogonal test in experimental plots was carried out to screen the different sowing dates, matrix types and soil depths which may influence germination rate. The external appearances and quality characteristics of wild seeds from three habitats were different. Seeds could germinate in the both light and dark, the germination rate of the habitat II was as high as 70.5% at the optimum temperature 20 degrees C in artificial bioclimatic chamber. The optimal combination A1, B1, C1 was screened out through orthogonal test, namely, the germination rate would be the highest when the seeds sowed in autumn covering with 2 cm depth of matrix type which component of the ratio of soil, sand and organic fertilizer was 6: 3: 1. There was significant difference in the morphology and germination rate of the three habitats seeds. The habitat II seeds were the optimal choice when culture seedling. The influences of different temperatures on germination rate were different, and the dried seeds should sow in current autumn, better than the next spring.

  8. A guide to calculating habitat-quality metrics to inform conservation of highly mobile species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieri, Joanna A.; Sample, Christine; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Earl, Julia E.; Erickson, Richard A.; Federico, Paula; Flockhart, D. T. Tyler; Nicol, Sam; Semmens, Darius J.; Skraber, T.; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady J.

    2018-01-01

    Many metrics exist for quantifying the relative value of habitats and pathways used by highly mobile species. Properly selecting and applying such metrics requires substantial background in mathematics and understanding the relevant management arena. To address this multidimensional challenge, we demonstrate and compare three measurements of habitat quality: graph-, occupancy-, and demographic-based metrics. Each metric provides insights into system dynamics, at the expense of increasing amounts and complexity of data and models. Our descriptions and comparisons of diverse habitat-quality metrics provide means for practitioners to overcome the modeling challenges associated with management or conservation of such highly mobile species. Whereas previous guidance for applying habitat-quality metrics has been scattered in diversified tracks of literature, we have brought this information together into an approachable format including accessible descriptions and a modeling case study for a typical example that conservation professionals can adapt for their own decision contexts and focal populations.Considerations for Resource ManagersManagement objectives, proposed actions, data availability and quality, and model assumptions are all relevant considerations when applying and interpreting habitat-quality metrics.Graph-based metrics answer questions related to habitat centrality and connectivity, are suitable for populations with any movement pattern, quantify basic spatial and temporal patterns of occupancy and movement, and require the least data.Occupancy-based metrics answer questions about likelihood of persistence or colonization, are suitable for populations that undergo localized extinctions, quantify spatial and temporal patterns of occupancy and movement, and require a moderate amount of data.Demographic-based metrics answer questions about relative or absolute population size, are suitable for populations with any movement pattern, quantify demographic

  9. Adaptive radiation along a thermal gradient: preliminary results of habitat use and respiration rate divergence among whitefish morphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Kalevi Kahilainen

    Full Text Available Adaptive radiation is considered an important mechanism for the development of new species, but very little is known about the role of thermal adaptation during this process. Such adaptation should be especially important in poikilothermic animals that are often subjected to pronounced seasonal temperature variation that directly affects metabolic function. We conducted a preliminary study of individual lifetime thermal habitat use and respiration rates of four whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L. morphs (two pelagic, one littoral and one profundal using stable carbon and oxygen isotope values of otolith carbonate. These morphs, two of which utilized pelagic habitats, one littoral and one profundal recently diverged via adaptive radiation to exploit different major niches in a deep and thermally stratified subarctic lake. We found evidence that the morphs used different thermal niches. The profundal morph had the most distinct thermal niche and consistently occupied the coldest thermal habitat of the lake, whereas differences were less pronounced among the shallow water pelagic and littoral morphs. Our results indicated ontogenetic shifts in thermal niches: juveniles of all whitefish morphs inhabited warmer ambient temperatures than adults. According to sampling of the otolith nucleus, hatching temperatures were higher for benthic compared to pelagic morphs. Estimated respiration rate was the lowest for benthivorous profundal morph, contrasting with the higher values estimated for the other morphs that inhabited shallower and warmer water. These preliminary results suggest that physiological adaptation to different thermal habitats shown by the sympatric morphs may play a significant role in maintaining or strengthening niche segregation and divergence in life-history traits, potentially contributing to reproductive isolation and incipient speciation.

  10. Effects of natural-channel-design restoration on habitat quality in Catskill Mountain streams, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Mulvihill, Christiane; Vian, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Stream restoration has received much attention in recent years, yet there has been little effort to evaluate its impacts on physical habitat, stability, and biota. A popular but controversial stream restoration approach is natural channel design (NCD), which cannot be adequately evaluated without a long-term, independent assessment of its effects on stream habitat. Six reaches of five Catskill Mountain streams in southeastern New York were restored during 2000–2003 following NCD techniques to decrease bed and bank degradation, decrease sediment loads, and improve water quality. Habitat surveys were conducted during summer low flows from 2001 to 2007. The effects of the NCD projects on stream condition were assessed via a before–after–control–impact study design to quantify the net changes in stream and bank habitat variables relative to those in unaltered control reaches. Analysis of variance tests of three different measures of bank stability show that on average stream stability increased at treatment sites for 2–5 years after restoration. Mean channel depth, thalweg depth, and the pool–riffle ratio generally increased, whereas mean channel width, percent streambank coverage by trees, and shade decreased. Habitat suitability indices for local salmonid species increased at four of six reaches after restoration. The changes in channel dimensions rendered them generally more characteristic of stabler stream forms in the given valley settings. Although these studies were done relatively soon after project completion, our findings demonstrate that habitat conditions can be improved in degraded Catskill Mountain streams through NCD restoration.

  11. Stream habitat or water quality - what influences stronger fish and macrozoobenthos biodiversity?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, Z.; Jurajda, Pavel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2001), s. 305-311 ISSN 1642-3593. [Ecohydrology as a tool for restoration of physically degraded fish habitats. Warsaw, 11.06.2001-13.06.2001] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : stream ecology * water quality * fish communities Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardel, F.; Wuyts, K.; Babanezhad, M.; Vitharana, U.W.A.; Wuytack, T.; Potters, G.; Samson, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

  13. Evaluation of habitat quality for selected wildlife species associated with back channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James T.; Zadnik, Andrew K.; Wood, Petra Bohall; Bledsoe, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    The islands and associated back channels on the Ohio River, USA, are believed to provide critical habitat features for several wildlife species. However, few studies have quantitatively evaluated habitat quality in these areas. Our main objective was to evaluate the habitat quality of back and main channel areas for several species using habitat suitability index (HSI) models. To test the effectiveness of these models, we attempted to relate HSI scores and the variables measured for each model with measures of relative abundance for the model species. The mean belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon) HSI was greater on the main than back channel. However, the model failed to predict kingfisher abundance. The mean reproduction component of the great blue heron (Ardea herodias) HSI, total common muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) HSI, winter cover component of the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) HSI, and brood-rearing component of the wood duck (Aix sponsa) HSI were all greater on the back than main channel, and were positively related with the relative abundance of each species. We found that island back channels provide characteristics not found elsewhere on the Ohio River and warrant conservation as important riparian wildlife habitat. The effectiveness of using HSI models to predict species abundance on the river was mixed. Modifications to several of the models are needed to improve their use on the Ohio River and, likely, other large rivers.

  14. Thermal conditions in selected urban and semi-natural habitats, important for the forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Marek; Nadolski, Jerzy

    2018-06-01

    A long-term study on thermal conditions in selected urban and semi-natural habitats, where human corpses are likely to be found, was conducted in the city of Lodz (Central Poland). Thermal data were collected during two years at nine sites and compared with corresponding data from the nearest permanent meteorological station at Lodz Airport (ICAO code: EPLL). The conditions closest to those at the meteorological station prevailed in the deciduous forest, coefficient of determination R 2 for those sets of data was above 0.96. The open field was characterized by high daily amplitudes, especially during spring, while the site in the allotment gardens was characterized by relatively high winter temperatures. The conditions prevailing in all closed space sites were very diverse and only slightly similar to the external ones. The most distinct site was an unheated basement in a tenement house, where temperature was almost always above 0°C and daily amplitudes were negligible. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing Thermally Stressful Events in a Rhode Island Coldwater Fish Habitat Using the SWAT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Chambers

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It has become increasingly important to recognize historical water quality trends so that the future impacts of climate change may be better understood. Climate studies have suggested that inland stream temperatures and average streamflow will increase over the next century in New England, thereby putting aquatic species sustained by coldwater habitats at risk. In this study we evaluated two different approaches for modeling historical streamflow and stream temperature in a Rhode Island, USA, watershed with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, using (i original SWAT and (ii SWAT plus a hydroclimatological model component that considers both hydrological inputs and air temperature. Based on daily calibration results with six years of measured streamflow and four years of stream temperature data, we examined occurrences of stressful conditions for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis using the hydroclimatological model. SWAT with the hydroclimatological component improved modestly during calibration (NSE of 0.93, R2 of 0.95 compared to the original SWAT (NSE of 0.83, R2 of 0.93. Between 1980–2009, the number of stressful events, a moment in time where high or low flows occur simultaneously with stream temperatures exceeding 21 °C, increased by 55% and average streamflow increased by 60%. This study supports using the hydroclimatological SWAT component and provides an example method for assessing stressful conditions in southern New England’s coldwater habitats.

  16. Quality and satisfaction of thermal comfort in Dutch offices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Henk Willem; Mobach, Mark P.; Balslev Nielsen, S.; Jensen, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This field study analyses the quality of the actual thermal comfort and indoor air quality in Dutch office buildings. A linear regression analysis was used to determine how much these variables and demographic variables influenced the perceived thermal comfort of office workers. Approach:

  17. Habitat use, daily activity periods, and thermal ecology of Ameiva ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza M. X. Freire

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the use of spatial, temporal, and thermal resources by the Neotropical lizard Ameiva ameiva during rainy and dry seasons in a caatinga (xerophilous open forests environment in northeasternBrazil. Lizards used the vegetation habitats and microhabitats in the ground, but never were seen in the rocky habitat. Adults usually used the arboreal-shrubby habitat, whereas juveniles were sighted more often in the shrubby-herbaceous habitat. Ontogenetic differences in spatial use seem to be linked to different thermal needs between age groups owing to differences in body size. Body temperatures were significantly higher in juveniles than in adults. Most teiid species have elevated body temperatures, usually above 37oC, and are active during the hottest times of day, as was observed for A. ameiva in this study. Seasonality influenced habitat use and daily activity periods of adults, but not body temperatures. We verified annual fluctuations in adult abundance, with a decline of active lizards in the dry season; this phenomenon may be related to aestivation and/or increased mortality rate during the driest months.

  18. Florida seagrass habitat evaluation: A comparative survey for chemical quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael A. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Gulf Ecology Division, 1 Sabine Island Drive, Gulf Breeze, FL 32561 (United States)]. E-mail: lewis.michael@epa.gov; Dantin, Darrin D. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Gulf Ecology Division, 1 Sabine Island Drive, Gulf Breeze, FL 32561 (United States); Chancy, Cynthia A. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Gulf Ecology Division, 1 Sabine Island Drive, Gulf Breeze, FL 32561 (United States); Abel, Kathryn C. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL 32514 (United States); Lewis, Christopher G. [Department of Water and Soil Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32103 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Contaminant concentrations were determined for media associated with 13 Florida seagrass beds. Concentrations of 10 trace metals were more commonly detected in surface water, sediment and two seagrass species than PAHs, pesticides and PCBs. Concentrations of copper and arsenic in surface water exceeded Florida aquatic life criteria more frequently than other trace elements. Total organic carbon, mercury, chromium, zinc, total chlordane, total PAHs, total PCBs, DDD and DDE were significantly greater in seagrass-rooted sediments than adjacent non-vegetated sediments. Total DDT, DDD, DDE, total chlordane, arsenic, copper and nickel exceeded proposed sediment quality guidelines at six of 13 grass beds. Pesticides, PAHs, and PCBs were below detection in seagrass tissues. Mercury, cadmium, nickel, lead and silver were detected in 50% or more of the tissues for Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass) and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). Spatial, interspecific and tissue differences were usually an order of magnitude or less. - Some anthropogenic contaminants were prevalent in seagrass and their rooted sediments but the biological significance is unknown.

  19. Assessment of River Habitat Quality in the Hai River Basin, Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuekui Ding

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We applied a river habitat quality (RHQ assessment method to the Hai River Basin (HRB; an important economic centre in China; to obtain baseline information for water quality improvement; river rehabilitation; and watershed management. The results of the assessment showed that the river habitat in the HRB is seriously degraded. Specifically; 42.41% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 3.31 × 104 km; were designated poor and bad. Habitat in the plain areas is seriously deteriorated; and nearly 50% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 1.65 × 104 km; had either poor or bad habitats. River habitat degradation was attributable to the limited width of the riparian zone (≤5 m; lower coverage of riparian vegetation (≤40%; artificial land use patterns (public and industrial land; frequent occurrence of farming on the river banks and high volumes of solid waste (nearly 10 m3; single flow channels; and rare aquatic plants (≤1 category. At the regional scale; intensive artificial land use types caused by urbanization had a significant impact on the RHQ in the HRB. RHQ was significantly and negatively correlated with farmland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01 and urban land (r = 0.998; p < 0.05; and was significantly and positively correlated with grassland and woodland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01. Intensive artificial land use; created through urbanization processes; has led to a loss of the riparian zone and its native vegetation; and has disrupted the lateral connectivity of the rivers. The degradation of the already essentially black rivers is exacerbated by poor longitudinal connectivity (index of connectivity is 2.08–16.56; caused by reservoirs and sluices. For river habitat rehabilitation to be successful; land use patterns need to be changed and reservoirs and sluices will have to be regulated.

  20. Lakefront Property Owners' Willingness to Accept Easements for Conservation of Water Quality and Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohner, Joel K.; Lupi, Frank; Taylor, William W.

    2018-03-01

    Lakes provide valuable ecosystem services such as food, drinking water, and recreation, but shoreline development can degrade riparian habitats and lake ecosystems. Easement contracts for specific property rights can encourage conservation practices for enhanced water quality, fish habitat, and wildlife habitat, yet little is known about the easement market. We surveyed inland lake shoreline property owners in Michigan to assess supply of two conservation easements (in riparian and in littoral zones) and identified property and property owner characteristics influencing potential enrollment. Respondents were significantly less likely to enroll in littoral easements if they indicated there was social pressure for manicured lawns and more likely to enroll if they had more formal education, shoreline frontage, naturally occurring riparian plants, ecological knowledge, or if the lake shoreline was more developed. Enrollment in easements in the riparian zone was significantly less likely if property owners indicated social pressure for manicured lawns, but more likely if they had more formal education, naturally occurring riparian plants, or shoreline frontage. When payments were low (conservation outcomes for water quality and habitat.

  1. Modeling population dynamics of solitary bees in relation to habitat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ulbrich

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available To understand associations between habitat, individual behaviour, and population development of solitary bees we developed an individual-based model. This model is based on field observations of Osmia rufa (L (Apoideae: Megachilidae and describes population dynamics of solitary bees. Model rules are focused on maternal investment, in particular on the female’s individual decisions about sex and size of progeny. In the present paper, we address the effect of habitat quality on population size and sex ratio. We examine how food availability and the risk of parasitism influence long-term population development. It can be shown how population properties result from individual maternal investment which is described as a functional response to fluctuations of environmental conditions. We found that habitat quality can be expressed in terms of cell construction time. This interface factor influences the rate of open cell parasitism as the risk for a brood cell to be parasitized is positively correlated with the time of its construction. Under conditions of scarce food and under resulting long provision times even low parasitism rates lead to a high extinction risk of the population, whereas in rich habitats probabilities of extinction are low even for high rates of parasitism. For a given level of food and parasitism there is an optimum time for cell construction which minimizes the extinction risk of the population. Model results demonstrate that under fluctuating environmental conditions, decreasing habitat quality leads to a decrease in population size but also to rapid shifts in sex ratio.

  2. Terrestrial mammal fauna and habitat in environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatake, Hatsuho; Nashimoto, Makoto; Chiba, Shinji [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab

    2000-04-01

    We analyzed the geological distribution of mammals, relationships between ecological distribution of mammals and land use, and vegetation type in the 49 environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations in the coastal area of Japan. Seven orders and 17 families of 66 terrestrial mammal species including subspecies were listed from the reports. This is about 40% of the total species of terrestrial mammals observed in Japan. Mammals were divided into 3 groups: distributed in the nationwide, in limited districts, and in limited area. The geological distributions of Insectivora, Rodentia, Chiroptera and naturalized mammals, of which have not been well known, were arranged in a topographic map at the scale of 1:50,000 in this survey. The characteristics of power station sites were classified into 4 categories as follows: Industrial site, Industrial-agricultural mixed site, Industrial-agricultural-forest mixed site, and forest site. The relationships between site categories and species compositions were analyzed. The listed species were fifteen species in the industrial site, however, there were thirty six species in the forest site. The mammal species were classified into six groups by vegetation types of habitat; forest-dwelling, grassland-dwelling, farmland and orchard-dwelling, wide-dwelling except residential area, wide-dwelling mammals including residential area, and residential area-dwelling mammals. (author)

  3. Terrestrial mammal fauna and habitat in environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatake, Hatsuho; Nashimoto, Makoto; Chiba, Shinji

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed the geological distribution of mammals, relationships between ecological distribution of mammals and land use, and vegetation type in the 49 environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations in the coastal area of Japan. Seven orders and 17 families of 66 terrestrial mammal species including subspecies were listed from the reports. This is about 40% of the total species of terrestrial mammals observed in Japan. Mammals were divided into 3 groups: distributed in the nationwide, in limited districts, and in limited area. The geological distributions of Insectivora, Rodentia, Chiroptera and naturalized mammals, of which have not been well known, were arranged in a topographic map at the scale of 1:50,000 in this survey. The characteristics of power station sites were classified into 4 categories as follows: Industrial site, Industrial-agricultural mixed site, Industrial-agricultural-forest mixed site, and forest site. The relationships between site categories and species compositions were analyzed. The listed species were fifteen species in the industrial site, however, there were thirty six species in the forest site. The mammal species were classified into six groups by vegetation types of habitat; forest-dwelling, grassland-dwelling, farmland and orchard-dwelling, wide-dwelling except residential area, wide-dwelling mammals including residential area, and residential area-dwelling mammals. (author)

  4. Compensatory immigration depends on adjacent population size and habitat quality but not on landscape connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, Katrine; Kramer, Donald L

    2012-11-01

    1. Populations experiencing localized mortality can recover in the short term by net movement of individuals from adjacent areas, a process called compensatory immigration or spillover. Little is known about the factors influencing the magnitude of compensatory immigration or its impact on source populations. Such information is important for understanding metapopulation dynamics, the use of protected areas for conservation, management of exploited populations and pest control. 2. Using two small, territorial damselfish species (Stegastes diencaeus and S. adustus) in their naturally fragmented habitat, we quantified compensatory immigration in response to localized mortality, assessed its impact on adjacent source populations and examined the importance of potential immigrants, habitat quality and landscape connectivity as limiting factors. On seven experimental sites, we repeatedly removed 15% of the initial population size until none remained and immigration ceased. 3. Immigrants replaced 16-72% of original residents in S. diencaeus and 0-69% in S. adustus. The proportion of the source population that immigrated into depleted areas varied from 9% to 61% in S. diencaeus and from 3% to 21% in S. adustus. In S. diencaeus, compensatory immigration was strongly affected by habitat quality, to a lesser extent by the abundance of potential immigrants and not by landscape connectivity. In S. adustus, immigration was strongly affected by the density of potential migrants and not by habitat quality and landscape connectivity. On two control sites, immigration in the absence of creation of vacancies was extremely rare. 4. Immigration occurred in response to localized mortality and was therefore compensatory. It was highly variable, sometimes producing substantial impacts on both depleted and source populations. The magnitude of compensatory immigration was influenced primarily by the availability of immigrants and by the potential improvement in territory quality that they

  5. Habitat quality assessment of two wetland treatment systems in Mississippi: A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, L.S.

    1992-12-01

    The use of wetland treatment systems (WTS), or constructed wetlands, for treating municipal wastewater is increasing in the United States, but little is known about the ability of these systems to duplicate or sustain wetland functions. The pilot study was designed to examine methods and the usefulness of various wetland indicators for assessing the wildlife habitat quality in six WTS sites throughout the United States. The report focusses on two Mississippi sites, one located near Collins, and one near Ocean Springs.

  6. The role of beaver in shaping steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) habitat complexity and thermal refugia in a central Oregon stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolati, F.; Wheaton, J. M.; Neilson, B. T.; Bouwes, N.; Pollock, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The incised and degraded habitat of Bridge Creek, tributary to the John Day River in central Oregon, is thought to be limiting the local population of ESA-listed steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Restoration efforts for this watershed are aimed to improve their habitat through reconnecting the channel with portions of its former floodplain (now terraces) to increase stream habitat complexity and the extent of riparian vegetation. This is being done via the installation of over a hundred beaver dam support (BDS) structures that are designed to either mimic beaver dams or support existing beaver dams. The overall objective of this study is to determine if the BDS structures have had an effect on stream channel habitat complexity and thermal refugia in selected sections of Bridge Creek. Analysis of stream temperature data in restoration treatment and control areas will show the effects of beaver dams on stream temperature. Analysis of aerial imagery and high resolution topographic data will exhibit how the number and types of geomorphic units have changed after the construction of beaver dams. Combined, the results of this research are aimed to increase our understanding of how beaver dams impact fish habitat and stream temperature.

  7. Thermal food processing: new technologies and quality issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Da-Wen

    2012-01-01

    .... The editor of Thermal Food Processing: New Technologies and Quality Issues presents a comprehensive reference through authors that assist in meeting this challenge by explaining the latest developments and analyzing the latest trends...

  8. Invasion by non-native brook trout in Panther Creek, Idaho: Roles of habitat quality, biotic resistance, and connectivity to source habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph R. Benjamin; Jason B. Dunham; Matthew R. Dare

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical models and empirical evidence suggest that the invasion of nonnative species in freshwaters is facilitated through the interaction of three factors: habitat quality, biotic resistance, and connectivity. We measured variables that represented each factor to determine which were associated with the occurrence of nonnative brook trout Salvelinus...

  9. How Do Landscape Structure, Management and Habitat Quality Drive the Colonization of Habitat Patches by the Dryad Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae) in Fragmented Grassland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalarus, Konrad; Nowicki, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Most studies dealing with species distribution patterns on fragmented landscapes focus on the characteristics of habitat patches that influence local occurrence and abundance, but they tend to neglect the question of what drives colonization of previously unoccupied patches. In a study of the dryad butterfly, we combined classical approaches derived from metapopulation theory and landscape ecology to investigate the factors driving colonization from a recent refugium. In three consecutive transect surveys, we recorded the presence and numbers of imagos in 27 patches of xerothermic grassland and 26 patches of wet meadow. Among the predictors affecting the occurrence and abundance of the dryad, we considered environmental variables reflecting (i) habitat patch quality (e.g., goldenrod cover, shrub density, vegetation height); (ii) factors associated with habitat spatial structure (patch size, patch isolation and fragmentation); and (iii) features of patch surroundings (100-m buffers around patches) that potentially pose barriers or provide corridors. Patch colonization by the dryad was strongly limited by the distance from the species refugium in the region; there was a slight positive effect of shrub density in this respect. Butterfly abundance increased in smaller and more fragmented habitat patches; it was negatively impacted by invasive goldenrod cover, and positively influenced by the density of watercourses in patch surroundings. Nectar plant availability was positively related to species abundance in xerothermic grassland, while in wet meadow the effect was the reverse. We conclude that dryad colonization of our study area is very recent, since the most important factor limiting colonization was distance from the refugium, while the habitat quality of target patches had less relevance. In order to preserve the species, conservation managers should focus on enhancing the quality of large patches and should also direct their efforts on smaller and more

  10. How Do Landscape Structure, Management and Habitat Quality Drive the Colonization of Habitat Patches by the Dryad Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae in Fragmented Grassland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Kalarus

    Full Text Available Most studies dealing with species distribution patterns on fragmented landscapes focus on the characteristics of habitat patches that influence local occurrence and abundance, but they tend to neglect the question of what drives colonization of previously unoccupied patches. In a study of the dryad butterfly, we combined classical approaches derived from metapopulation theory and landscape ecology to investigate the factors driving colonization from a recent refugium. In three consecutive transect surveys, we recorded the presence and numbers of imagos in 27 patches of xerothermic grassland and 26 patches of wet meadow. Among the predictors affecting the occurrence and abundance of the dryad, we considered environmental variables reflecting (i habitat patch quality (e.g., goldenrod cover, shrub density, vegetation height; (ii factors associated with habitat spatial structure (patch size, patch isolation and fragmentation; and (iii features of patch surroundings (100-m buffers around patches that potentially pose barriers or provide corridors. Patch colonization by the dryad was strongly limited by the distance from the species refugium in the region; there was a slight positive effect of shrub density in this respect. Butterfly abundance increased in smaller and more fragmented habitat patches; it was negatively impacted by invasive goldenrod cover, and positively influenced by the density of watercourses in patch surroundings. Nectar plant availability was positively related to species abundance in xerothermic grassland, while in wet meadow the effect was the reverse. We conclude that dryad colonization of our study area is very recent, since the most important factor limiting colonization was distance from the refugium, while the habitat quality of target patches had less relevance. In order to preserve the species, conservation managers should focus on enhancing the quality of large patches and should also direct their efforts on smaller and

  11. Restored agricultural wetlands in Central Iowa: habitat quality and amphibian response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Rebecca A.; Pierce, Clay; Smalling, Kelly L.; Klaver, Robert W.; Vandever, Mark W.; Battaglin, William A.; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are declining throughout the United States and worldwide due, partly, to habitat loss. Conservation practices on the landscape restore wetlands to denitrify tile drainage effluent and restore ecosystem services. Understanding how water quality, hydroperiod, predation, and disease affect amphibians in restored wetlands is central to maintaining healthy amphibian populations in the region. We examined the quality of amphibian habitat in restored wetlands relative to reference wetlands by comparing species richness, developmental stress, and adult leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) survival probabilities to a suite of environmental metrics. Although measured habitat variables differed between restored and reference wetlands, differences appeared to have sub-lethal rather than lethal effects on resident amphibian populations. There were few differences in amphibian species richness and no difference in estimated survival probabilities between wetland types. Restored wetlands had more nitrate and alkaline pH, longer hydroperiods, and were deeper, whereas reference wetlands had more amphibian chytrid fungus zoospores in water samples and resident amphibians exhibited increased developmental stress. Restored and reference wetlands are both important components of the landscape in central Iowa and maintaining a complex of fish-free wetlands with a variety of hydroperiods will likely contribute to the persistence of amphibians in this landscape.

  12. Estuarine habitat quality reflects urbanization at large spatial scales in South Carolina's coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dolah, Robert F; Riekerk, George H M; Bergquist, Derk C; Felber, Jordan; Chestnut, David E; Holland, A Fredrick

    2008-02-01

    Land cover patterns were evaluated in 29 estuarine watersheds of South Carolina to determine relationships between urban/suburban development and estuarine habitat quality. Principal components analysis and Pearson product moment correlation analyses were used to examine the relationships between ten land cover categories and selected measures of nutrient or bacterial enrichment in the water column and contaminant enrichment in sediments. These analyses indicated strong relationships between land cover categories representing upland development and a composite measure of 24 inorganic and organic contaminants using the Effect Range Median-Quotient (ERM-Q). Similar relationships also were observed for the summed concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, and metals. Data obtained from tidal creeks generally showed stronger correlations between urban/suburban land use and pesticides and metals compared to data obtained from larger open water habitats. Correlations between PAH concentrations and the urban/suburban land cover categories were similar between creek and open water habitats. PCB concentrations generally showed very little relationship to any of the land cover categories. Measures of nutrient enrichment, which included total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), nitrate-nitrite, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, and total organic carbon, were generally not significantly correlated with any land cover categories, whereas fecal coliform bacteria were significantly and positively correlated with the urban/suburban land cover categories and negatively correlated with the non-urban land cover categories. Fecal coliform correlations were stronger using data from the open water sites than from the tidal creek sites. Both ERM-Q and fecal coliform concentrations were much greater and more pervasive in watersheds with relatively high (>50%) urban/suburban cover compared to watersheds with low (urban/suburban cover. These

  13. Does coastal lagoon habitat quality affect fish growth rate and their recruitment? Insights from fishing and acoustic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehmer, P.; Laugier, T.; Kantoussan, J.; Galgani, F.; Mouillot, D.

    2013-07-01

    Ensuring the sustainability of fish resources necessitates understanding their interaction with coastal habitats, which is becoming ever more challenging in the context of ever increasing anthropogenic pressures. The ability of coastal lagoons, exposed to major sources of disturbance, to provide resources and suitable habitats for growth and survival of juvenile fish is especially important. We analysed three lagoons with different ecological statuses and habitat quality on the basis of their eutrophication and ecotoxicity (Trix test) levels. Fish abundances were sampled using fishing and horizontal beaming acoustic surveys with the same protocols in the same year. The relative abundance of Anguilla anguilla, Dicentrarchus labrax or the Mugilidae group was not an indicator of habitat quality, whereas Atherina boyeri and Sparus aurata appeared to be more sensitive to habitat quality. Fish abundance was higher in the two lagoons with high eutrophication and ecotoxicity levels than in the less impacted lagoon, while fish sizes were significantly higher in the two most severely impacted lagoons. This leads us to suggest low habitat quality may increase fish growth rate (by the mean of a cascading effect), but may reduce lagoon juvenile abundance by increasing larval mortality. Such a hypothesis needs to be further validated using greater investigations which take into account more influences on fish growth and recruitment in such variable environments under complex multi-stressor conditions.

  14. Assessing habitat quality of farm-dwelling house sparrows in different agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Post, Maria; Borgström, Pernilla; Smith, Henrik G; Olsson, Ola

    2012-04-01

    Having historically been abundant throughout Europe, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) has in recent decades suffered severe population declines in many urban and rural areas. The decline in rural environments is believed to be caused by agricultural intensification, which has resulted in landscape simplification. We used giving-up densities (GUDs) of house sparrows feeding in artificial food patches placed in farmlands of southern Sweden to determine habitat quality during the breeding season at two different spatial scales: the landscape and the patch scale. At the landscape scale, GUDs were lower on farms in homogeneous landscapes dominated by crop production compared to more heterogeneous landscapes with mixed farming or animal husbandry. At the patch level, feeding patches with a higher predation risk (caused by fitting a wall to the patch to obstruct vigilance) had higher GUDs. In addition, GUDs were positively related to population size, which strongly implies that GUDs reflect habitat quality. However, the increase followed different patterns in homogeneous and heterogeneous landscapes, indicating differing population limiting mechanisms in these two environments. We found no effect of the interaction between patch type and landscape type, suggesting that predation risk was similar in both landscape types. Thus, our study suggests that simplified landscapes constitute a poorer feeding environment for house sparrows during breeding, that the population-regulating mechanisms in the landscapes differ, but that predation risk is the same across the landscape types.

  15. Predicting the effects of proposed Mississippi River diversions on oyster habitat quality; application of an oyster habitat suitability index model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soniat, Thomas M.; Conzelmann, Craig P.; Byrd, Jason D.; Roszell, Dustin P.; Bridevaux, Joshua L.; Suir, Kevin J.; Colley, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decelerate the rate of coastal erosion and wetland loss, and protect human communities, the state of Louisiana developed its Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast. The master plan proposes a combination of restoration efforts including shoreline protection, marsh creation, sediment diversions, and ridge, barrier island, and hydrological restoration. Coastal restoration projects, particularly the large-scale diversions of fresh water from the Mississippi River, needed to supply sediment to an eroding coast potentially impact oyster populations and oyster habitat. An oyster habitat suitability index model is presented that evaluates the effects of a proposed sediment and freshwater diversion into Lower Breton Sound. Voluminous freshwater, needed to suspend and broadly distribute river sediment, will push optimal salinities for oysters seaward and beyond many of the existing reefs. Implementation and operation of the Lower Breton Sound diversion structure as proposed would render about 6,173 ha of hard bottom immediately east of the Mississippi River unsuitable for the sustained cultivation of oysters. If historical harvests are to be maintained in this region, a massive and unprecedented effort to relocate private leases and restore oyster bottoms would be required. Habitat suitability index model results indicate that the appropriate location for such efforts are to the east and north of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet.

  16. The relative importance of food biomass and quality for patch and habitat choice in Brent Geese Branta bernicla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, D; Drent, RH; Rubinigg, M; Stahl, J

    2005-01-01

    We studied the relative importance of food biomass and food quality for habitat preference in Brent Geese Branta bernicla by expefimentally manipulating forage parameters. Levels of biomass and ford quality (nitrogen content) were independently enhanced in plots of 2 x 6 m by temporary exclusion

  17. Assessing the link between coastal urbanization and the quality of nekton habitat in mangrove tidal tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Justin M.; Bell, Susan S.; McIvor, Carole C.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the potential influence of coastal development on habitat quality for estuarine nekton, we characterized body condition and reproduction for common nekton from tidal tributaries classified as undeveloped, industrial, urban or man-made (i.e., mosquito-control ditches). We then evaluated these metrics of nekton performance, along with several abundance-based metrics and community structure from a companion paper (Krebs et al. 2013) to determine which metrics best reflected variation in land-use and in-stream habitat among tributaries. Body condition was not significantly different among undeveloped, industrial, and man-made tidal tributaries for six of nine taxa; however, three of those taxa were in significantly better condition in urban compared to undeveloped tributaries. Palaemonetes shrimp were the only taxon in significantly poorer condition in urban tributaries. For Poecilia latipinna, there was no difference in body condition (length–weight) between undeveloped and urban tributaries, but energetic condition was significantly better in urban tributaries. Reproductive output was reduced for both P. latipinna (i.e., fecundity) and grass shrimp (i.e., very low densities, few ovigerous females) in urban tributaries; however a tradeoff between fecundity and offspring size confounded meaningful interpretation of reproduction among land-use classes for P. latipinna. Reproductive allotment by P. latipinna did not differ significantly among land-use classes. Canonical correspondence analysis differentiated urban and non-urban tributaries based on greater impervious surface, less natural mangrove shoreline, higher frequency of hypoxia and lower, more variable salinities in urban tributaries. These characteristics explained 36 % of the variation in nekton performance, including high densities of poeciliid fishes, greater energetic condition of sailfin mollies, and low densities of several common nekton and economically important taxa from urban tributaries

  18. The rapid cold hardening response of Collembola is influenced by thermal variability of the habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Loeschcke, Volker; Pertoldi, Cino

    2009-01-01

    of their habitat. Population differences matched the daily fluctuations in temperature (CV) recorded at the site of collection as well as the day-to-day predictability (autocorrelation). The role of phylogenetic inertia was tested using sequence data from the cytochromec oxidase I (COI) gene and no signal...

  19. Perceptual-Semantic Congruency Facilitates Semantic Discrimination of Thermal Qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhen Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to sense temperature is vital to our life. It signals the environmental condition, reflects the physiological conditions of our own body, and generates feelings of pleasantness or unpleasantness. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated implicit associations between physical temperature and social/emotional concepts, suggesting the processing of temperature may even influence cognition. In this work, we examined the effect of physical warmth and coldness on semantic cognition. Participants performed speeded target categorization for thermal descriptors in the form of semantic words or illustrative figures representing the thermal qualities “warm” or “cold” while physical thermal stimulation was presented. We compared the average reaction time (RT for the congruent and incongruent conditions managed by response key assignments. In the congruent condition, the response key for the symbol associated with warmth (coldness was assigned to the hand with warm (cold thermal stimulation, and in the incongruent condition the key assignment was reversed. Our results demonstrate that the average RT in the congruent condition was faster than in the incongruent one for both forms of thermal descriptors, suggesting that the experience of physical temperature facilitates the internal processing of the meaning of thermal quality.

  20. [Quality evaluation and antioxidant activity research of Schisandra chinensis from various habitats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhi-Fu; Hu, Gao-Sheng; Li, Na; Fan, Xing; Jia, Jing-Ming

    2012-12-01

    To determine the contents of lignans, crude polysaccharides (CP) and total phenolic compounds (TPC) of Schisandra chinensis from various habitats in Liaoning province and evaluate their quality and free radical scavenging (FRS) activity. Contents of schisandrol, deoxyschizandrin and schisandrin B were determined by RP-HPLC. Contents of TPC, CP and FRS activity were determined by Folin-Cicalteu's, phenol-sulfuric acid and DPPH x method, respectively. Sample from Liaoyang city had the highest contents of lignans (21.75 mg/g); Sample from Shenbei New district of Shenyang city had the highest contents of CP (88.72 mg/g); Sample from Guanmenshan district of Benxi city had the highest contents of TPC and FRS activity (26.06 mg/g and 86.3%, respectively). Linear regression analysis results showed that contents of TPC had higher correlation coefficient with FRS activity than that of lignans. Their linear regression equations were Y = 1.3677X + 46.97, R2 = 0.6869 and Y = 2.5916X + 57.927, R2 = 0.1747 for TPC and lignans with FRS activity, respectively. The contents of lignans, CP and TPC are significantly different from samples collected from various habitats in Liaoning province. The main antioxidative substances are TPC, and lignans have no significant correlation with FRS activity.

  1. Habitat quality affects stress responses and survival in a bird wintering under extremely low ambient temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cīrule, Dina; Krama, Tatjana; Krams, Ronalds; Elferts, Didzis; Kaasik, Ants; Rantala, Markus J.; Mierauskas, Pranas; Luoto, Severi; Krams, Indrikis A.

    2017-12-01

    Animals normally respond to stressful environmental stimuli by releasing glucocorticoid hormones. We investigated whether baseline corticosterone (CORT), handling-induced corticosterone concentration(s), and body condition indices of members of willow tit ( Poecile montanus) groups differed while wintering in old growth forests and managed young forests in mild weather conditions and during cold spells. Willow tits spend the winter season in non-kin groups in which dominant individuals typically claim their priority to access resources, while subordinate individuals may experience greater levels of stress and higher mortality, especially during cold spells. We captured birds to measure baseline CORT and levels of handling-induced CORT secretion after 20 min of capture. Willow tits in the young forests had higher baseline CORT and a smaller increase in CORT in response to capture than individuals in the old forests. Baseline CORT was higher in females and juvenile birds compared to adult males, whereas handling-induced CORT secretion did not differ between birds of different ages. During cold spells, baseline CORT of willow tits increased and handling-induced CORT secretion decreased, especially in birds in young forests. Willow tits' survival was higher in the old forests, with dominant individuals surviving better than subordinates. Our results show that changes in CORT secretion reflect responses to habitat quality and climate harshness, indicating young managed coniferous forests as a suboptimal habitat for the willow tit.

  2. Putting density back into the habitat-quality equation: case study of an open-nesting forest bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérot, Aurore; Villard, Marc-André

    2009-12-01

    Ecological traps and other cases of apparently maladaptive habitat selection cast doubt on the relevance of density as an indicator of habitat quality. Nevertheless, the prevalence of these phenomena remains poorly known, and density may still reflect habitat quality in most systems. We examined the relationship between density and two other parameters of habitat quality in an open-nesting passerine species: the Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla). We hypothesized that the average individual bird makes a good decision when selecting its breeding territory and that territory spacing reflects site productivity or predation risk. Therefore, we predicted that density would be positively correlated with productivity (number of young fledged per unit area). Because individual performance is sensitive to events partly determined by chance, such as nest predation, we further predicted density would be weakly correlated or uncorrelated with the proportion of territories fledging young. We collected data in 23 study sites (25 ha each), 16 of which were located in untreated mature northern hardwood forest and seven in stands partially harvested (treated) 1-7 years prior to the survey. Density explained most of the variability in productivity (R(2)= 0.73), and there was no apparent decoupling between density and productivity in treated plots. In contrast, there was no significant relationship between density and the proportion of territories fledging >or=1 young over the entire breeding season. These results suggest that density reflects habitat quality at the plot scale in this study system. To our knowledge this is one of the few studies testing the value of territory density as an indicator of habitat quality in an open-nesting bird species on the basis of a relatively large number of sizeable study plots.

  3. Marine ecological habitat: A case study on projected thermal power plant around Dharamtar creek, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kulkarni, V.A.; Naidu, V.S.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Estuaries and tidal creeks, harboring mangroves particularly, face tremendous anthropogenic pressures. Expansion of mega cities and the thermal power plants are generally proposed in the vicinity of estuaries and creek, due to the feasibility...

  4. Indoor Air Quality and Thermal Comfort in School Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents results to thermal comfort and environment quality questions in 21 school building rooms. Results show that about 80% of the occupants expressed satisfaction with their thermal comfort in only 11% of the buildings surveyed. Air quality scores were somewhat higher, with 26% of buildings having 80% or occupant satisfaction. With respect to thermal comfort and air quality performance goals set out by standards, most buildings appear to be falling far short. Occupant surveys offer a means to systematically measure this performance, and also to provide diagnostic information for building designers and operators. The odours from building materials as well as human odours were studied by field measurement. The odour intensity and indoor air acceptability were assessed by a sensory panel. The concentrations of total volatile organic compounds and carbon dioxide were measured. The odours from occupancy and building materials were studied under different air change rate. The case study of indoor air acceptability concerning to indoor odours and its effect on perceived air quality are also presented in this paper.

  5. Influence of habitat quality, population size, patch size, and connectivity on patch-occupancy dynamics of the middle spotted woodpecker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Hugo; Ciudad, Carlos

    2012-04-01

    Despite extensive research on the effects of habitat fragmentation, the ecological mechanisms underlying colonization and extinction processes are poorly known, but knowledge of these mechanisms is essential to understanding the distribution and persistence of populations in fragmented habitats. We examined these mechanisms through multiseason occupancy models that elucidated patch-occupancy dynamics of Middle Spotted Woodpeckers (Dendrocopos medius) in northwestern Spain. The number of occupied patches was relatively stable from 2000 to 2010 (15-24% of 101 patches occupied every year) because extinction was balanced by recolonization. Larger and higher quality patches (i.e., higher density of oaks >37 cm dbh [diameter at breast height]) were more likely to be occupied. Habitat quality (i.e., density of large oaks) explained more variation in patch colonization and extinction than did patch size and connectivity, which were both weakly associated with probabilities of turnover. Patches of higher quality were more likely to be colonized than patches of lower quality. Populations in high-quality patches were less likely to become extinct. In addition, extinction in a patch was strongly associated with local population size but not with patch size, which means the latter may not be a good surrogate of population size in assessments of extinction probability. Our results suggest that habitat quality may be a primary driver of patch-occupancy dynamics and may increase the accuracy of models of population survival. We encourage comparisons of competing models that assess occupancy, colonization, and extinction probabilities in a single analytical framework (e.g., dynamic occupancy models) so as to shed light on the association of habitat quality and patch geometry with colonization and extinction processes in different settings and species. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Invasion by nonnative brook trout in Panther Creek, Idaho: Roles of local habitat quality, biotic resistance, and connectivity to source habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Dunham, Jason B.; Dare, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical models and empirical evidence suggest that the invasion of nonnative species in freshwaters is facilitated through the interaction of three factors: habitat quality, biotic resistance, and connectivity. We measured variables that represented each factor to determine which were associated with the occurrence of nonnative brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in Panther Creek, a tributary to the Salmon River, Idaho. Habitat variables included measures of summer and winter temperature, instream cover, and channel size. The abundance of native rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss within sampled sites was used as a measure of biotic resistance. We also considered the connectivity of sample sites to unconfined valley bottoms, which were considered habitats that may serve as sources for the spread of established populations of brook trout. We analyzed the occurrence of small (<150‐mm [fork length]) and large (≥150‐mm) brook trout separately, assuming that the former represents an established invasion while accounting for the higher potential mobility of the latter. The occurrence of small brook trout was strongly associated with the proximity of sites to large, unconstrained valley bottoms, providing evidence that such habitats may serve as sources for the spread of brook trout invasion. Within sites, winter degree‐days and maximum summer temperature were positively associated with the occurrence of small brook trout. The occurrence of large brook trout was not related to any of the variables considered, perhaps due to the difficulty of linking site‐specific habitat factors to larger and more mobile individuals. The abundance of rainbow trout was not conclusively associated with the occurrence of either small or large brook trout, providing little support for the role of biotic resistance. Overall, our results suggest that source connectivity and local habitat characteristics, but not biotic resistance, influence the establishment and spread of

  7. THERMAL COMPOSITE COATINGS IMPROVING QUALITY OF TECHNICAL MEANS OF TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej POSMYK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the thermal properties of composite insulating material designed for producing of technical means of transport. This material can be coated on most of engineering materials. The matrix of this material is an acrylic resin ant non porous ceramic microspheres made of alumina are the reinforcing phase. Thanks to that into the spheres almost vacuum (0,13 Pa dominants and a big amount of spheres pro thickness unit is it possible to achieve low thermal conductivity. Usage of these coatings for producing of cooling cabins on vehicles let us to reduce of fuel for maintain of given temperature. Usage of these coatings in planes flying on high altitudes (temperature up to -60 allows to reduce of fuel consumption for heating. It has an important influence on transport quality and quality costs.

  8. Invasion by nonnative brook trout in Panther Creek, Idaho: Roles of habitat quality, connectivity, and biotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph R. Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest the invasion of nonnative freshwater species is facilitated through the interaction of three factors: biotic resistance, habitat quality, and connectivity. We measured variables that represented each component to determine which were associated with small (150 mm) brook trout occurrence in Panther Creek, a tributary...

  9. Remote-sensing based approach to forecast habitat quality under climate change scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M Requena-Mullor

    Full Text Available As climate change is expected to have a significant impact on species distributions, there is an urgent challenge to provide reliable information to guide conservation biodiversity policies. In addressing this challenge, we propose a remote sensing-based approach to forecast the future habitat quality for European badger, a species not abundant and at risk of local extinction in the arid environments of southeastern Spain, by incorporating environmental variables related with the ecosystem functioning and correlated with climate and land use. Using ensemble prediction methods, we designed global spatial distribution models for the distribution range of badger using presence-only data and climate variables. Then, we constructed regional models for an arid region in the southeast Spain using EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index derived variables and weighting the pseudo-absences with the global model projections applied to this region. Finally, we forecast the badger potential spatial distribution in the time period 2071-2099 based on IPCC scenarios incorporating the uncertainty derived from the predicted values of EVI-derived variables. By including remotely sensed descriptors of the temporal dynamics and spatial patterns of ecosystem functioning into spatial distribution models, results suggest that future forecast is less favorable for European badgers than not including them. In addition, change in spatial pattern of habitat suitability may become higher than when forecasts are based just on climate variables. Since the validity of future forecast only based on climate variables is currently questioned, conservation policies supported by such information could have a biased vision and overestimate or underestimate the potential changes in species distribution derived from climate change. The incorporation of ecosystem functional attributes derived from remote sensing in the modeling of future forecast may contribute to the improvement of the

  10. Habitat quality of a subarctic nursery ground for 0-group plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Vânia; Campos, Joana; Skreslet, Stig; van der Veer, Henk W.

    2010-07-01

    Habitat quality of a subarctic nursery ground in northern Norway for 0-group plaice Pleuronectes platessa was investigated by following settlement, mortality and growth during 2005 and 2006. Newly settled individuals were first observed in the end of May to early June and settlement lasted until mid-July. Densities peaked in early July and were comparable to those reported in temperate nursery grounds. Mortality estimates after settlement differed between 0.062 d -1 in 2005 and 0.025 d -1 in 2006. Potential predators appeared to be rather similar as those reported in other areas: the brown shrimp Crangoncrangon, the shore crab Carcinus maenas and demersal fish species (gadoids). Population mean growth indicated linear growth until August leveling-off afterwards. 0-group plaice reached a lower mean size (5-6 cm) at the end of the growing season than in temperate areas probably due to later settlement timing in combination with lower summer-autumn water temperatures. The comparison of observed growth rates with predictions of maximum growth models indicated a similar pattern as observed in temperate nursery grounds: Growth appeared to be maximal except for the period after summer. Whether or not this was related to changes in food quality throughout the season, to interspecies competition or to emigration remains to be elucidated.

  11. Thermoregulatory strategies in an aquatic ectotherm from thermally-constrained habitats: an evaluation of current approaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piasečná, Karin; Pončová, A.; Tejedo, M.; Gvoždík, Lumír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 52, August (2015), s. 97-107 ISSN 0306-4565 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2170; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-07140S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Amphibians * Preferred body temperatures * Thermal constraints * Thermoconformity * Thermoregulatory indices Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.621, year: 2015

  12. Sand quarry wetlands provide high-quality habitat for native amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sievers

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic disturbances to habitats influence the fitness of individual animals, the abundance of their populations, and the composition of their communities. Wetlands in particular are frequently degraded and destroyed, impacting the animals that inhabit these important ecosystems. The creation of wetlands during and following sand extraction processes is inevitable, and thus, sand quarries have the potential to support aquatic animals. To determine how amphibians utilise these wetlands, I conducted nocturnal call surveys at wetlands within the Kables Sands quarry, New South Wales, Australia, and within surrounding reference wetlands, and quantified levels of developmental instability (DI as a proxy for fitness. Whilst quarry and reference wetlands were largely similar in terms of environmental characteristics, quarry wetlands consistently harboured more amphibian species and individuals. Using unsigned asymmetry as a measure of DI, frogs from the quarry sites exhibited significantly lower levels of DI compared to reference wetlands, indicating that quarry wetlands may be comparatively higher quality. Levels of DI within quarry wetlands also compared favourably to data from healthy frog populations extracted from the literature. Further enhancing the suitability of quarry wetlands would require minimal effort, with potentially significant increases in local and regional biodiversity. Documenting species presence and quantifying individual fitness by measuring limb lengths is an economically and logistically feasible method to assess the health of quarry wetlands. Overall, the methods outlined here provide a powerful, yet simple, tool to assess the overall health and suitability of quarry wetlands that could be easily adopted at quarries throughout the world.

  13. Rapid assessment of historic, current and future habitat quality for biodiversity around UK Natura 2000 sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogiatzakis, I.N.; Stirpe, M.T.; Rickebusch, S.; Metzger, M.J.; Xu, G.; Rounsevell, M.D.A.; Bommarco, R.; Potts, S.G.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in landscape composition and structure may impact the conservation and management of protected areas. Species that depend on specific habitats are at risk of extinction when these habitats are degraded or lost. Designing robust methods to evaluate landscape composition will assist decision-

  14. First records of Rhicnoda natatrix and Rhicnoda rugosa (Blattodea: Blaberidae from Nepal and India (Maharashtra with notes on habitat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nesemann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two species of cockroaches were collected from aquatic habitats of undisturbed natural forest streams in Nepal and India (Maharashtra: Rhicnoda natatrix and Rhicnoda rugosa. Nymphs and adults are depicted and field observations of microhabitat and behavior described. Taxa lists of accompanying macroinvertebrate fauna are given, and water quality class is calculated using three biotic scoring systems. R. natatrix is a true aquatic species with amphibious lifestyle in the eulittoral of springs (Crenon and streams (Rhithron of excellent and good water quality classes I and II. R. rugosa is a predominantly terrestrial species that also colonizes the banks of water bodies and appears in between aquatic fauna. These species cannot be classified using the traditional habitat system.

  15. Chemical Quality of Water in Anopheles stephensi Habitats and its susceptibility to different insecticides in South Eastern of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davari, B.; Vatandoost, H.

    2009-01-01

    Using of insecticides depends on the knowledge of the susceptibility levels of malaria vectors to these chemical. In this study, the chemical quality of water in the larval breeding habitats and the susceptibility levels of Anopheles stephensi to DDT 4% dieldrin 0.4% permethrin 0.75, cyfluthrin 0.15 deltamethrin 0.05% and lambdacyhalothrin 0.05% were investigated according to WHO method in south eastern of Iran. (Author)

  16. Integrated assessment of river health based on the conditions of water quality,aquatic life and physical habitat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Wei; ZHANG Nan; ZHANG Yuan; ZHENG Binghui

    2009-01-01

    The health conditions of Liao River were assessed using 25 sampling sites in April 2005, with water quality index, biotic index and physical habitat quality index.Based on the method of cluster analysis (CA) for water quality indices, it reveals that heavily polluted sites of Liao River are located at estuary and mainstream.The aquatic species surveyed were attached algae and benthic invertebrates.The result shows that the diversity and biomass of attached algae and benthic index of biotic integrity (B-IBI) are degrading as the chemical and physical quality of water bodies deteriorating.Physiochemical parameters, BOD5, CODCr, TN, TP, NH3-N, DO, petroleum hydrocarbon and conductivity, were statistically analyzed with principal component analysis and correlation analysis.The statistical results were incorporated into the integrated assessing water quality index, combining fecal coliform count, attached algae diversity, B-IBI and physical habitat quality score, a comprehensive integrated assessing system of river ecological health was established.Based on the systimetic assesment, the assessed sites are categorized into 9 "healthy" and "sub-healthy" sites and 8 "sub-sick" and "sick" sites.

  17. Water-quality models to assess algal community dynamics, water quality, and fish habitat suitability for two agricultural land-use dominated lakes in Minnesota, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Ziegeweid, Jeffrey R.

    2017-07-20

    Fish habitat can degrade in many lakes due to summer blue-green algal blooms. Predictive models are needed to better manage and mitigate loss of fish habitat due to these changes. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, developed predictive water-quality models for two agricultural land-use dominated lakes in Minnesota—Madison Lake and Pearl Lake, which are part of Minnesota’s sentinel lakes monitoring program—to assess algal community dynamics, water quality, and fish habitat suitability of these two lakes under recent (2014) meteorological conditions. The interaction of basin processes to these two lakes, through the delivery of nutrient loads, were simulated using CE-QUAL-W2, a carbon-based, laterally averaged, two-dimensional water-quality model that predicts distribution of temperature and oxygen from interactions between nutrient cycling, primary production, and trophic dynamics.The CE-QUAL-W2 models successfully predicted water temperature and dissolved oxygen on the basis of the two metrics of mean absolute error and root mean square error. For Madison Lake, the mean absolute error and root mean square error were 0.53 and 0.68 degree Celsius, respectively, for the vertical temperature profile comparisons; for Pearl Lake, the mean absolute error and root mean square error were 0.71 and 0.95 degree Celsius, respectively, for the vertical temperature profile comparisons. Temperature and dissolved oxygen were key metrics for calibration targets. These calibrated lake models also simulated algal community dynamics and water quality. The model simulations presented potential explanations for persistently large total phosphorus concentrations in Madison Lake, key differences in nutrient concentrations between these lakes, and summer blue-green algal bloom persistence.Fish habitat suitability simulations for cool-water and warm-water fish indicated that, in general, both lakes contained a large

  18. Local and regional effects of reopening a tidal inlet on estuarine water quality, seagrass habitat, and fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbrandt, Eric C.; Bartleson, Richard D.; Coen, Loren D.; Rybak, Olexandr; Thompson, Mark A.; DeAngelo, Jacquelyn A.; Stevens, Philip W.

    2012-06-01

    Blind Pass is an inlet that separates Sanibel and Captiva Islands in southwest Florida but has historically closed and opened by both anthropogenic and natural processes. In July 2010, a dredging project to open the small inlet between the two barrier islands was completed. The objective of this study was to use and supplement ongoing estuary-monitoring programs to examine the responses of water quality, seagrass habitat metrics, and fish assemblages both in the immediate vicinity of the inlet and at broader scales (up to 40 km2). As far as we are aware, there are no previous studies with this intensity of sampling, both before and after an inlet opening. Significant increases in salinity and turbidity were observed inside Blind Pass, with significant decreases in CDOM and chlorophyll a, however, the effects were not far-reaching and limited to less than 1.7 km from the inlet within Pine Island Sound. Seagrass habitat metrics were expected to respond rapidly after the inlet was opened given the reduced light attenuation. However, there were no changes in shoot densities, species composition, and epiphytic algae within the approximately one-year duration of the study. The reopening of the pass did not substantially change fish assemblage structure, except for those from deeper habitats. Although immediate increases in the abundances of estuarine-dependent species were predicted in shallow habitats post opening, this did not occur. In conclusion, the effects of reopening a relatively small ocean inlet on water quality were apparent in the immediate vicinity of the inlet (within 1.7 km), but far-reaching effects on water quality, seagrass metrics, and fish assemblages were not immediately apparent in this well-flushed estuary. If subtle changes in tidal exchange and circulation affect productivity of seagrasses or its fish assemblages at broad scales, it may take several years to reach a steady state.

  19. Process-based quality for thermal spray via feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykhuizen, R. C.; Neiser, R. A.

    2006-09-01

    Quality control of a thermal spray system manufacturing process is difficult due to the many input variables that need to be controlled. Great care must be taken to ensure that the process remains constant to obtain a consistent quality of the parts. Control is greatly complicated by the fact that measurement of particle velocities and temperatures is a noisy stochastic process. This article illustrates the application of quality control concepts to a wire flame spray process. A central feature of the real-time control system is an automatic feedback control scheme that provides fine adjustments to ensure that uncontrolled variations are accommodated. It is shown how the control vectors can be constructed from simple process maps to independently control particle velocity and temperature. This control scheme is shown to perform well in a real production environment. We also demonstrate that slight variations in the feed wire curvature can greatly influence the process. Finally, the geometry of the spray system and sensor must remain constant for the best reproducibility.

  20. Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.

    1983-11-01

    Ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristics may affect the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system development in any hydrologic region. This study sought to determine the relationship between ground-water quality parameters and the regional potential for ATES system development. Information was collected from available literature to identify chemical and physical mechanisms that could adversely affect an ATES system. Appropriate beneficiation techniques to counter these potential geochemical and lithologic problems were also identified through the literature search. Regional hydrology summaries and other sources were used in reviewing aquifers of 19 drainage regions in the US to determine generic geochemical characteristics for analysis. Numerical modeling techniques were used to perform geochemical analyses of water quality from 67 selected aquifers. Candidate water resources regions were then identified for exploration and development of ATES. This study identified six principal mechanisms by which ATES reservoir permeability may be impaired: (1) particulate plugging, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) liquid-solid reactions, (4) formation disaggregation, (5) oxidation reactions, and (6) biological activity. Specific proven countermeasures to reduce or eliminate these effects were found. Of the hydrologic regions reviewed, 10 were identified as having the characteristics necessary for ATES development: (1) Mid-Atlantic, (2) South-Atlantic Gulf, (3) Ohio, (4) Upper Mississippi, (5) Lower Mississippi, (6) Souris-Red-Rainy, (7) Missouri Basin, (8) Arkansas-White-Red, (9) Texas-Gulf, and (10) California.

  1. Thermal food processing: new technologies and quality issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Da-Wen

    2012-01-01

    .... Part I, Modeling of Thermal Food Processes, discusses the thermal physical properties of foods, recent developments in heat and mass transfer, innovative modeling techniques including artificial...

  2. Indicators of streamflow alteration, habitat fragmentation, impervious cover, and water quality for Massachusetts stream basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskel, Peter K.; Brandt, Sara L.; DeSimone, Leslie A.; Ostiguy, Lance J.; Archfield, Stacey A.

    2010-01-01

    Massachusetts streams and stream basins have been subjected to a wide variety of human alterations since colonial times. These alterations include water withdrawals, treated wastewater discharges, construction of onsite septic systems and dams, forest clearing, and urbanization—all of which have the potential to affect streamflow regimes, water quality, and habitat integrity for fish and other aquatic biota. Indicators were developed to characterize these types of potential alteration for subbasins and groundwater contributing areas in Massachusetts. The potential alteration of streamflow by the combined effects of withdrawals and discharges was assessed under two water-use scenarios. Water-use scenario 1 incorporated publicly reported groundwater withdrawals and discharges, direct withdrawals from and discharges to streams, and estimated domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges. Surface-water-reservoir withdrawals were excluded from this scenario. Water-use scenario 2 incorporated all the types of withdrawal and discharge included in scenario 1 as well as withdrawals from surface-water reservoirs—all on a long-term, mean annual basis. All withdrawal and discharge data were previously reported to the State for the 2000–2004 period, except domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges, which were estimated for this study. The majority of the state’s subbasins and groundwater contributing areas were estimated to have relatively minor (less than 10 percent) alteration of streamflow under water-use scenario 1 (seasonally varying water use; no surface-water-reservoir withdrawals). However, about 12 percent of subbasins and groundwater contributing areas were estimated to have extensive alteration of streamflows (greater than 40 percent) in August; most of these basins were concentrated in the outer metropolitan Boston region. Potential surcharging of streamflow in August was most commonly indicated for main-stem river subbasins, although

  3. Integrating spatially explicit indices of abundance and habitat quality: an applied example for greater sage-grouse management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S; Casazza, Michael L; Ricca, Mark A; Brussee, Brianne E; Blomberg, Erik J; Gustafson, K Benjamin; Overton, Cory T; Davis, Dawn M; Niell, Lara E; Espinosa, Shawn P; Gardner, Scott C; Delehanty, David J

    2016-02-01

    Predictive species distributional models are a cornerstone of wildlife conservation planning. Constructing such models requires robust underpinning science that integrates formerly disparate data types to achieve effective species management.Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus , hereafter 'sage-grouse' populations are declining throughout sagebrush-steppe ecosystems in North America, particularly within the Great Basin, which heightens the need for novel management tools that maximize the use of available information.Herein, we improve upon existing species distribution models by combining information about sage-grouse habitat quality, distribution and abundance from multiple data sources. To measure habitat, we created spatially explicit maps depicting habitat selection indices (HSI) informed by >35 500 independent telemetry locations from >1600 sage-grouse collected over 15 years across much of the Great Basin. These indices were derived from models that accounted for selection at different spatial scales and seasons. A region-wide HSI was calculated using the HSI surfaces modelled for 12 independent subregions and then demarcated into distinct habitat quality classes.We also employed a novel index to describe landscape patterns of sage-grouse abundance and space use (AUI). The AUI is a probabilistic composite of the following: (i) breeding density patterns based on the spatial configuration of breeding leks and associated trends in male attendance; and (ii) year-round patterns of space use indexed by the decreasing probability of use with increasing distance to leks. The continuous AUI surface was then reclassified into two classes representing high and low/no use and abundance. Synthesis and application s. Using the example of sage-grouse, we demonstrate how the joint application of indices of habitat selection, abundance and space use derived from multiple data sources yields a composite map that can guide effective allocation of management

  4. Integrating spatially explicit indices of abundance and habitat quality: an applied example for greater sage-grouse management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Ricca, Mark A.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Blomberg, Erik J.; Gustafson, K. Benjamin; Overton, Cory T.; Davis, Dawn M.; Niell, Lara E.; Espinosa, Shawn P.; Gardner, Scott C.; Delehanty, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Predictive species distributional models are a cornerstone of wildlife conservation planning. Constructing such models requires robust underpinning science that integrates formerly disparate data types to achieve effective species management. Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter “sage-grouse” populations are declining throughout sagebrush-steppe ecosystems in North America, particularly within the Great Basin, which heightens the need for novel management tools that maximize use of available information. Herein, we improve upon existing species distribution models by combining information about sage-grouse habitat quality, distribution, and abundance from multiple data sources. To measure habitat, we created spatially explicit maps depicting habitat selection indices (HSI) informed by > 35 500 independent telemetry locations from > 1600 sage-grouse collected over 15 years across much of the Great Basin. These indices were derived from models that accounted for selection at different spatial scales and seasons. A region-wide HSI was calculated using the HSI surfaces modelled for 12 independent subregions and then demarcated into distinct habitat quality classes. We also employed a novel index to describe landscape patterns of sage-grouse abundance and space use (AUI). The AUI is a probabilistic composite of: (i) breeding density patterns based on the spatial configuration of breeding leks and associated trends in male attendance; and (ii) year-round patterns of space use indexed by the decreasing probability of use with increasing distance to leks. The continuous AUI surface was then reclassified into two classes representing high and low/no use and abundance. Synthesis and applications. Using the example of sage-grouse, we demonstrate how the joint application of indices of habitat selection, abundance, and space use derived from multiple data sources yields a composite map that can guide effective allocation of management intensity across

  5. Foraging habitat quality constrains effectiveness of artificial nest-site provisioning in reversing population declines in a colonial cavity nester.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Catry

    Full Text Available Among birds, breeding numbers are mainly limited by two resources of major importance: food supply and nest-site availability. Here, we investigated how differences in land-use and nest-site availability affected the foraging behaviour, breeding success and population trends of the colonial cavity-dependent lesser kestrel Falco naumanni inhabiting two protected areas. Both areas were provided with artificial nests to increase nest-site availability. The first area is a pseudo-steppe characterized by traditional extensive cereal cultivation, whereas the second area is a previous agricultural zone now abandoned or replaced by forested areas. In both areas, lesser kestrels selected extensive agricultural habitats, such as fallows and cereal fields, and avoided scrubland and forests. In the second area, tracked birds from one colony travelled significantly farther distances (6.2 km ± 1.7 vs. 1.8 km ± 0.4 and 1.9 km ± 0.6 and had significant larger foraging-ranges (144 km(2 vs. 18.8 and 14.8 km(2 when compared to the birds of two colonies in the extensive agricultural area. Longer foraging trips were reflected in lower chick feeding rates, lower fledging success and reduced chick fitness. Availability and occupation of artificial nests was high in both areas but population followed opposite trends, with a positive increment recorded exclusively in the first area with a large proportion of agricultural areas. Progressive habitat loss around the studied colony in the second area (suitable habitat decreased from 32% in 1990 to only 7% in 2002 is likely the main driver of the recorded population decline and suggests that the effectiveness of bird species conservation based on nest-site provisioning is highly constrained by habitat quality in the surrounding areas. Therefore, the conservation of cavity-dependent species may be enhanced firstly by finding the best areas of remaining habitat and secondly by increasing the carrying capacity of high-quality

  6. Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) involves injection and withdrawal of temperature-conditioned water into and from a permeable water-bearing formation. The groundwater quality and associated geological characteristics were assessed as they may affect the feasibility of ATES system development in any hydrologic region. Seven physical and chemical mechanisms may decrease system efficiency: particulate plugging, chemical precipitation, clay mineral dispersion, piping corrosion, aquifer disaggregation, mineral oxidation, and the proliferation of biota. Factors affecting groundwater quality are pressure, temperature, pH, ion exchange, evaporation/transpiration, and commingling with diverse waters. Modeling with the MINTEQ code showed three potential reactions: precipitation of calcium carbonate at raised temperatures; solution of silica at raised temperature followed by precipitation at reduced temperatures; and oxidation/precipitation of iron compounds. Low concentrations of solutes are generally favorable for ATES. Near-surface waters in high precipitation regions are low in salinity. Groundwater recharged from fresh surface waters also has reduced salinity. Rocks least likely to react with groundwater are siliceous sandstones, regoliths, and metamorphic rocks. On the basis of known aquifer hydrology, ten US water resource regions are candidates for selected exploration and development, all characterized by extensive silica-rich aquifers

  7. Wildfire may increase habitat quality for spring Chinook salmon in the Wenatchee River subbasin, WA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca L. Flitcroft; Jeffrey A. Falke; Gordon H. Reeves; Paul F. Hessburg; Kris M. McNyset; Lee E. Benda

    2016-01-01

    Pacific Northwest salmonids are adapted to natural disturbance regimes that create dynamic habitat patterns over space and through time. However, human land use, particularly long-term fire suppression, has altered the intensity and frequency of wildfire in forested upland and riparian areas. To examine the potential impacts of wildfire on aquatic systems, we developed...

  8. Optimizing wildlife habitat quality and oak regeneration in bottomland hardwoods using midstory control and partial harvests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek K. Alkire; Andrew W. Ezell; Andrew B. Self

    2011-01-01

    Bottomland hardwoods can provide both wildlife habitat and timber. However, past high-grading practices limit future income potential and have resulted in undesirable species composition in many areas. Thus, prevalence of desirable oak species should be increased. Our study will attempt to determine the proper harvest level for bottomland hardwoods which will optimize...

  9. Role of oaks in fisher habitat quality in the Sierra Nevada mountains at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Thompson; Kathryn Purcell; Rebecca Green; Richard. Sweitzer

    2015-01-01

    Fishers (Pekania pennanti) occur in ponderosa pine, mixed conifer, and mixed hardwood conifer habitats in the southern Sierra Nevada at elevations from approximately 1400 to 2300 m. They are a candidate species for listing under both the Federal and California Endangered Species Acts. Since 2007, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (...

  10. Predicted effects of future climate warming on thermal habitat suitability for Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, Rafinesque, 1817) in rivers in Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John D.; Stewart, Jana S.

    2015-01-01

    The Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, Rafinesque, 1817) may be threatened by future climate warming. The purpose of this study was to identify river reaches in Wisconsin, USA, where they might be vulnerable to warming water temperatures. In Wisconsin, A. fulvescens is known from 2291 km of large-river habitat that has been fragmented into 48 discrete river-lake networks isolated by impassable dams. Although the exact temperature tolerances are uncertain, water temperatures above 28–30°C are potentially less suitable for this coolwater species. Predictions from 13 downscaled global climate models were input to a lotic water temperature model to estimate amounts of potential thermally less-suitable habitat at present and for 2046–2065. Currently, 341 km (14.9%) of the known habitat are estimated to regularly exceed 28°C for an entire day, but only 6 km (0.3%) to exceed 30°C. In 2046–2065, 685–2164 km (29.9–94.5%) are projected to exceed 28°C and 33–1056 km (1.4–46.1%) to exceed 30°C. Most river-lake networks have cooler segments, large tributaries, or lakes that might provide temporary escape from potentially less suitable temperatures, but 12 short networks in the Lower Fox and Middle Wisconsin rivers totaling 93.6 km are projected to have no potential thermal refugia. One possible adaptation to climate change could be to provide fish passage or translocation so that riverine Lake Sturgeon might have access to more thermally suitable habitats.

  11. Potential interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality and adjacent land cover in amphibian habitats in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, William A.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Anderson, Chauncey; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Chestnut, Tara E.; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality, and adjacent land cover, we collected samples of water, sediment, and frog tissue from 21 sites in 7 States in the United States (US) representing a variety of amphibian habitats. All samples were analyzed for > 90 pesticides and pesticide degradates, and water and frogs were screened for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) using molecular methods. Pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected frequently in frog breeding habitats (water and sediment) as well as in frog tissue. Fungicides occurred more frequently in water, sediment, and tissue than was expected based upon their limited use relative to herbicides or insecticides. Pesticide occurrence in water or sediment was not a strong predictor of occurrence in tissue, but pesticide concentrations in tissue were correlated positively to agricultural and urban land, and negatively to forested land in 2-km buffers around the sites. Bd was detected in water at 45% of sites, and on 34% of swabbed frogs. Bd detections in water were not associated with differences in land use around sites, but sites with detections had colder water. Frogs that tested positive for Bd were associated with sites that had higher total fungicide concentrations in water and sediment, but lower insecticide concentrations in sediments relative to frogs that were Bd negative. Bd concentrations on frog swabs were positively correlated to dissolved organic carbon, and total nitrogen and phosphorus, and negatively correlated to pH and water temperature.Data were collected from a range of locations and amphibian habitats and represent some of the first field-collected information aimed at understanding the interactions between pesticides, land use, and amphibian disease. These interactions are of particular interest to conservation efforts as many amphibians live in altered habitats and may depend on wetlands embedded in these landscapes to

  12. Potential interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality and adjacent land cover in amphibian habitats in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, W A; Smalling, K L; Anderson, C; Calhoun, D; Chestnut, T; Muths, E

    2016-10-01

    To investigate interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality, and adjacent land cover, we collected samples of water, sediment, and frog tissue from 21 sites in 7 States in the United States (US) representing a variety of amphibian habitats. All samples were analyzed for >90 pesticides and pesticide degradates, and water and frogs were screened for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) using molecular methods. Pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected frequently in frog breeding habitats (water and sediment) as well as in frog tissue. Fungicides occurred more frequently in water, sediment, and tissue than was expected based upon their limited use relative to herbicides or insecticides. Pesticide occurrence in water or sediment was not a strong predictor of occurrence in tissue, but pesticide concentrations in tissue were correlated positively to agricultural and urban land, and negatively to forested land in 2-km buffers around the sites. Bd was detected in water at 45% of sites, and on 34% of swabbed frogs. Bd detections in water were not associated with differences in land use around sites, but sites with detections had colder water. Frogs that tested positive for Bd were associated with sites that had higher total fungicide concentrations in water and sediment, but lower insecticide concentrations in sediments relative to frogs that were Bd negative. Bd concentrations on frog swabs were positively correlated to dissolved organic carbon, and total nitrogen and phosphorus, and negatively correlated to pH and water temperature. Data were collected from a range of locations and amphibian habitats and represent some of the first field-collected information aimed at understanding the interactions between pesticides, land use, and amphibian disease. These interactions are of particular interest to conservation efforts as many amphibians live in altered habitats and may depend on wetlands embedded in these landscapes to survive

  13. Habitat Quality and Anadromous Fish Production on the Warm Springs Reservation. Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, Mark A.

    1995-06-01

    The number of anadromous fish returning to the Columbia River and its tributaries has declined sharply in recent years. Changes in their freshwater, estuarine, and ocean environments and harvest have all contributed to declining runs of anadromous fish. Restoration of aquatic resources is of paramount importance to the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs (CTWS) Reservation of Oregon. Watersheds on the Warm Springs Reservation provide spawning and rearing habitat for several indigenous species of resident and anadromous fish. These streams are the only ones in the Deschutes River basin that still sustain runs of wild spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus, tshawytscha. Historically, reservation streams supplied over 169 km of anadromous fish habitat. Because of changes in flows, there are now only 128 km of habitat that can be used on the reservation. In 1981, the CTWS began a long-range, 3-phase study of existing and potential fish resources on the reservation. The project, consistent with the Northwest Power Planning Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program, was designed to increase the natural production of anadromous salmonids on the reservation.

  14. Habitat quality and anadromous fish production on the Warm Springs Reservation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, M.A.

    1995-06-01

    The number of anadromous fish returning to the Columbia River and its tributaries has declined sharply in recent years. Changes in their freshwater, estuarine, and ocean environments and harvest have all contributed to declining runs of anadromous fish. Restoration of aquatic resources is of paramount importance to the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs (CTWS) Reservation of Oregon. Watersheds on the Warm Springs Reservation provide spawning and rearing habitat for several indigenous species of resident and anadromous fish. These streams are the only ones in the Deschutes River basin that still sustain runs of wild spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus, tshawytscha. Historically, reservation streams supplied over 169 km of anadromous fish habitat. Because of changes in flows, there are now only 128 km of habitat that can be used on the reservation. In 1981, the CTWS began a long-range, 3-phase study of existing and potential fish resources on the reservation. The project, consistent with the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, was designed to increase the natural production of anadromous salmonids on the reservation

  15. Evaluation the impact of habitat quality on the soil fauna in Jajarm region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Rassam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of land use, crop type and crop management on soil fauna were investigated with survey of four habitats in Jajarm. The habitats included rangelands, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. fields and low-input and high-input of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. fields, each with four sample units. In each sample unit, the macrofauna collected with pitfall traps, sorted and counted in terms of family. The analysis of data conducted using of contrast analysis, analysis of similarities and principal component analysis (PCA. In rangelands the taxonomic richness, Simpson diversity index and abundance of macrofauna families tremendously were lower than agricultural habitats. These were attributed to low of plant diversity and pressure of livestock grazing. In alfalfa fields, increased abundance of beneficial macrofauna than wheat fields due to use not of chemical inputs, low disturbance and perennial of alfalfa. The crop management dad not has any significant impact on soil macrofauna. However, soil important macrofauna showed great tendency to occupancy in low-input wheat fields.

  16. Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring and Habitat Assessment in theSan Luis National Wildlife Refuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Burns, Josephine R.; Stromayer, Karl A.K.; Jordan, Brandon M.; Ennis, Mike J.; Woolington,Dennis W.

    2005-08-28

    The project report describes a two year experiment to control wetland drainage to the San Joaquin River of California from the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge using a decision support system for real-time water quality management. This system required the installation and operation of one inlet and three drainage flow and water quality monitoring stations which allowed a simple mass balance model to be developed of the seasonally managed wetlands in the study area. Remote sensing methods were developed to document long-term trends in wetland moist soil vegetation and soil salinity in response to management options such as delaying the initiation of seasonal wetland drainage. These environmental management tools provide wetland managers with some of the tools necessary to improve salinity conditions in the San Joaquin River and improve compliance with State mandated salinity objectives without inflicting long-term harm on the wild fowl habitat resource.

  17. Effects of competition on great and blue tit reproduction: intensity and importance in relation to habitat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhondt, André A

    2010-01-01

    increases with habitat quality but is limited by territorial behaviour. As a result competition for food is reduced in high quality habitats resulting in a reduction of competition intensity in high quality sites in which birds breed at high densities. 8. It can be predicted that in studies of territorial species density dependent effects on reproduction are more likely to be detected in low quality sites explaining in part differences in results between studies.

  18. Integrated Ecological River Health Assessments, Based on Water Chemistry, Physical Habitat Quality and Biological Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yoon Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated integrative river ecosystem health using stressor-based models of physical habitat health, chemical water health, and biological health of fish and identified multiple-stressor indicators influencing the ecosystem health. Integrated health responses (IHRs, based on star-plot approach, were calculated from qualitative habitat evaluation index (QHEI, nutrient pollution index (NPI, and index of biological integrity (IBI in four different longitudinal regions (Groups I–IV. For the calculations of IHRs values, multi-metric QHEI, NPI, and IBI models were developed and their criteria for the diagnosis of the health were determined. The longitudinal patterns of the river were analyzed by a self-organizing map (SOM model and the key major stressors in the river were identified by principal component analysis (PCA. Our model scores of integrated health responses (IHRs suggested that mid-stream and downstream regions were impaired, and the key stressors were closely associated with nutrient enrichment (N and P and organic matter pollutions from domestic wastewater disposal plants and urban sewage. This modeling approach of IHRs may be used as an effective tool for evaluations of integrative ecological river health..

  19. Living in Heterogeneous Woodlands - Are Habitat Continuity or Quality Drivers of Genetic Variability in a Flightless Ground Beetle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Marcus

    Full Text Available Although genetic diversity is one of the key components of biodiversity, its drivers are still not fully understood. While it is known that genetic diversity is affected both by environmental parameters as well as habitat history, these factors are not often tested together. Therefore, we analyzed 14 microsatellite loci in Abax parallelepipedus, a flightless, forest dwelling ground beetle, from 88 plots in two study regions in Germany. We modeled the effects of historical and environmental variables on allelic richness, and found for one of the regions, the Schorfheide-Chorin, a significant effect of the depth of the litter layer, which is a main component of habitat quality, and of the sampling effort, which serves as an inverse proxy for local population size. For the other region, the Schwäbische Alb, none of the potential drivers showed a significant effect on allelic richness. We conclude that the genetic diversity in our study species is being driven by current local population sizes via environmental variables and not by historical processes in the studied regions. This is also supported by lack of genetic differentiation between local populations sampled from ancient and from recent woodlands. We suggest that the potential effects of former fragmentation and recolonization processes have been mitigated by the large and stable local populations of Abax parallelepipedus in combination with the proximity of the ancient and recent woodlands in the studied landscapes.

  20. Changes in biological communities of the Fountain Creek Basin, Colorado, 2003–2016, in relation to antecedent streamflow, water quality, and habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James J.; Bruce, James F.; Zuellig, Robert E.

    2018-01-08

    The analysis described in this report is part of a longterm project monitoring the biological communities, habitat, and water quality of the Fountain Creek Basin. Biology, habitat, and water-quality data have been collected at 10 sites since 2003. These data include annual samples of aquatic invertebrate communities, fish communities, water quality, and quantitative riverine habitat. This report examines trends in biological communities from 2003 to 2016 and explores relationships between biological communities and abiotic variables (antecedent streamflow, physical habitat, and water quality). Six biological metrics (three invertebrate and three fish) and four individual fish species were used to examine trends in these data and how streamflow, habitat, and (or) water quality may explain these trends. The analysis of 79 trends shows that the majority of significant trends decreased over the trend period. Overall, 19 trends before adjustments for streamflow in the fish (12) and invertebrate (7) metrics were all decreasing except for the metric Invertebrate Species Richness at the most upstream site in Monument Creek. Seven of these trends were explained by streamflow and four trends were revealed that were originally masked by variability in antecedent streamflow. Only two sites (Jimmy Camp Creek at Fountain, CO and Fountain Creek near Pinon, CO) had no trends in the fish or invertebrate metrics. Ten of the streamflow-adjusted trends were explained by habitat, one was explained by water quality, and five were not explained by any of the variables that were tested. Overall, from 2003 to 2016, all the fish metric trends were decreasing with an average decline of 40 percent, and invertebrate metrics decreased on average by 9.5 percent. A potential peak streamflow threshold was identified above which there is severely limited production of age-0 flathead chub (Platygobio gracilis).

  1. Quality control of thermal spray coatings in diesel engines; Qualitaetskontrolle an thermisch gespritzten Beschichtungen in Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carstensen, Jesper Vejloe [MAN Diesel and Turbo, Copenhagen (Denmark). Material Technology and Research Dept.; Lindegren, Maria [Struers A/S, Ballerup (Denmark). Application Dept.

    2013-06-01

    Thermal spraying is a method, which is suitable for coating of large components. The coatings can e.g. improve the wear, friction and/or corrosion properties of components so that they can withstand the increased loads. The quality of the coatings is essential to ensure reliable operation of the components. However, quality control of thermally sprayed coatings is indeed nontrivial and sample preparation is a key issue. This paper shows examples of thermal spray coated components in large diesel engines and provides insight into the methods used in preparing samples for quality control. (orig.)

  2. Steelhead Critical Habitat, Coast - NOAA [ds122

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer depicts areas designated for Steelhead Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the Coastal California Steelhead ESUs (evolutionarily...

  3. Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring and Habitat Assessment in the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Burns, Josephine R.; Stromayer, Karl A.K.; Jordan, Brandon M.; Ennis, Mike J.; Woolington, Dennis W.

    2005-01-01

    The project report describes a two year experiment to control wetland drainage to the San Joaquin River of California from the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge using a decision support system for real-time water quality management. This system required the installation and operation of one inlet and three drainage flow and water quality monitoring stations which allowed a simnple mass balance model to be developed of the seasonally managed wetlands in the study area. Remote sensing meth...

  4. Comparison of habitat quality and diet of Colobus vellerosus in forest fragments in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sarah N P; Saj, Tania L; Sicotte, Pascale

    2006-10-01

    The forest fragments surrounding the Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary (BFMS) in central Ghana shelter small populations of Colobus vellerosus. Little is known about these populations or the ability of the fragments to support them, despite the fact that these fragments represent potentially important habitat for the colobus in this region. We compared the diet of three groups of C. vellerosus in the fragments to two groups in BFMS. We also examined the differences in plant species composition and food abundance among fragments. The study took place from June to November 2003. Dietary data were collected using scan sampling. Plant species composition and food abundance were evaluated using tree plots and large tree surveys. As in BFMS groups, leaves constituted the highest proportion of the diet of fragment groups, yet the colobus in fragments fed on more lianas than did those in BFMS. Over 50% of all species observed eaten by colobus in the fragments were not consumed in BFMS groups during the same season. Food abundance was similar between fragments and BFMS, although species composition differed. There was no relationship between the density of colobus and the density of food trees or percentage of food species, suggesting that other factors may be influencing the number of colobus present. This study highlights the broad dietary range of C. vellerosus, which may be a factor allowing its survival in these fragments.

  5. Future changes in Yuan River ecohydrology: Individual and cumulative impacts of climates change and cascade hydropower development on runoff and aquatic habitat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; Liu, Zhehua; Lei, Xiaohui; Lin, Rongjie; Fang, Guohua; Tan, Qiaofeng; Wang, Chao; Tian, Yu; Quan, Jin

    2018-08-15

    The eco-hydrological system in southwestern China is undergoing great changes in recent decades owing to climate change and extensive cascading hydropower exploitation. With a growing recognition that multiple drivers often interact in complex and nonadditive ways, the purpose of this study is to predict the potential future changes in streamflow and fish habitat quality in the Yuan River and quantify the individual and cumulative effect of cascade damming and climate change. The bias corrected and spatial downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) General Circulation Model (GCM) projections are employed to drive the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model and to simulate and predict runoff responses under diverse scenarios. Physical habitat simulation model is established to quantify the relationship between river hydrology and fish habitat, and the relative change rate is used to assess the individual and combined effects of cascade damming and climate change. Mean annual temperature, precipitation and runoff in 2015-2100 show an increasing trend compared with that in 1951-2010, with a particularly pronounced difference between dry and wet years. The ecological habitat quality is improved under cascade hydropower development since that ecological requirement has been incorporated in the reservoir operation policy. As for middle reach, the runoff change from January to August is determined mainly by damming, and climate change influence becomes more pronounced in dry seasons from September to December. Cascade development has an effect on runoff of lower reach only in dry seasons due to the limited regulation capacity of reservoirs, and climate changes have an effect on runoff in wet seasons. Climate changes have a less significant effect on fish habitat quality in middle reach than damming, but a more significant effect in lower reach. In addition, the effect of climate changes on fish habitat quality in lower reach is high

  6. A management-oriented framework for selecting metrics used to assess habitat- and path-specific quality in spatially structured populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Sam; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Diffendorfer, James E.; Mattsson, Brady; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Semmens, Darius J.; Laura Lopez-Hoffman,; Norris, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Mobile species with complex spatial dynamics can be difficult to manage because their population distributions vary across space and time, and because the consequences of managing particular habitats are uncertain when evaluated at the level of the entire population. Metrics to assess the importance of habitats and pathways connecting habitats in a network are necessary to guide a variety of management decisions. Given the many metrics developed for spatially structured models, it can be challenging to select the most appropriate one for a particular decision. To guide the management of spatially structured populations, we define three classes of metrics describing habitat and pathway quality based on their data requirements (graph-based, occupancy-based, and demographic-based metrics) and synopsize the ecological literature relating to these classes. Applying the first steps of a formal decision-making approach (problem framing, objectives, and management actions), we assess the utility of metrics for particular types of management decisions. Our framework can help managers with problem framing, choosing metrics of habitat and pathway quality, and to elucidate the data needs for a particular metric. Our goal is to help managers to narrow the range of suitable metrics for a management project, and aid in decision-making to make the best use of limited resources.

  7. Local body cooling to improve sleep quality and thermal comfort in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, L; Qian, X L; Lian, Z W; Lin, Y B

    2018-01-01

    The effects of local body cooling on thermal comfort and sleep quality in a hot environment were investigated in an experiment with 16 male subjects. Sleep quality was evaluated subjectively, using questionnaires completed in the morning, and objectively, by analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals that were continuously monitored during the sleeping period. Compared with no cooling, the largest improvement in thermal comfort and sleep quality was observed when the back and head (neck) were both cooled at a room temperature of 32°C. Back cooling alone also improved thermal comfort and sleep quality, although the effects were less than when cooling both back and head (neck). Mean sleep efficiency was improved from 84.6% in the no cooling condition to 95.3% and 92.8%, respectively, in these conditions, indicating good sleep quality. Head (neck) cooling alone slightly improved thermal comfort and subjective sleep quality and increased Stage N3 sleep, but did not otherwise improve sleep quality. The results show that local cooling applied to large body sections (back and head) could effectively maintain good sleep and improve thermal comfort in a hot environment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Faecal nitrogen: a potential indicator of red and roe deer diet quality in forest habitats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamler, Jiří; Homolka, Miloslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, 1-2 (2005), s. 89-98 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/99/D053; GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS6093003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : free-living ungulates * faecal indicators * diet quality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.585, year: 2005 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/54/1-2/89-98.pdf

  9. Using a Zonal Model To Assess the Effect of a Heated Floor on Thermal Comfort Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukhris, Yosr; Gharbi, Leila; Ghrab-Morcos, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    People s perceptions of indoor air quality and thermal comfort are affected by air speed and temperature. We have extended the three-dimensional zonal model, ZAER, to be able to predict the temperature fields and the air distributions between and within rooms in the case of natural convection. This paper presents an application of the new zonal model dealing with the influence of a heated floor of one room upon the winter thermal comfort of an unconditioned Tunisian dwelling. Coupling ZAER with a thermal comfort model allows the assessment of the thermal quality of the dwelling through the prediction of a comfort indicator. The obtained results show that a heated floor can be a useful component to improve thermal comfort in the Tunisian context, even in another room

  10. Spatial structure and nest demography reveal the influence of competition, parasitism and habitat quality on slavemaking ants and their hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Inon; Fischer-Blass, Birgit; Foitzik, Susanne

    2011-03-28

    Natural communities are structured by intra-guild competition, predation or parasitism and the abiotic environment. We studied the relative importance of these factors in two host-social parasite ecosystems in three ant communities in Europe (Bavaria) and North America (New York, West Virginia). We tested how these factors affect colony demography, life-history and the spatial pattern of colonies, using a large sample size of more than 1000 colonies. The strength of competition was measured by the distance to the nearest competitor. Distance to the closest social parasite colony was used as a measure of parasitism risk. Nest sites (i.e., sticks or acorns) are limited in these forest ecosystems and we therefore included nest site quality as an abiotic factor in the analysis. In contrast to previous studies based on local densities, we focus here on the positioning and spatial patterns and we use models to compare our predictions to random expectations. Colony demography was universally affected by the size of the nest site with larger and more productive colonies residing in larger nest sites of higher quality. Distance to the nearest competitor negatively influenced host demography and brood production in the Bavarian community, pointing to an important role of competition, while social parasitism was less influential in this community. The New York community was characterized by the highest habitat variability, and productive colonies were clustered in sites of higher quality. Colonies were clumped on finer spatial scales, when we considered only the nearest neighbors, but more regularly distributed on coarser scales. The analysis of spatial positioning within plots often produced different results compared to those based on colony densities. For example, while host and slavemaker densities are often positively correlated, slavemakers do not nest closer to potential host colonies than expected by random. The three communities are differently affected by biotic and

  11. Spatial structure and nest demography reveal the influence of competition, parasitism and habitat quality on slavemaking ants and their hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer-Blass Birgit

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural communities are structured by intra-guild competition, predation or parasitism and the abiotic environment. We studied the relative importance of these factors in two host-social parasite ecosystems in three ant communities in Europe (Bavaria and North America (New York, West Virginia. We tested how these factors affect colony demography, life-history and the spatial pattern of colonies, using a large sample size of more than 1000 colonies. The strength of competition was measured by the distance to the nearest competitor. Distance to the closest social parasite colony was used as a measure of parasitism risk. Nest sites (i.e., sticks or acorns are limited in these forest ecosystems and we therefore included nest site quality as an abiotic factor in the analysis. In contrast to previous studies based on local densities, we focus here on the positioning and spatial patterns and we use models to compare our predictions to random expectations. Results Colony demography was universally affected by the size of the nest site with larger and more productive colonies residing in larger nest sites of higher quality. Distance to the nearest competitor negatively influenced host demography and brood production in the Bavarian community, pointing to an important role of competition, while social parasitism was less influential in this community. The New York community was characterized by the highest habitat variability, and productive colonies were clustered in sites of higher quality. Colonies were clumped on finer spatial scales, when we considered only the nearest neighbors, but more regularly distributed on coarser scales. The analysis of spatial positioning within plots often produced different results compared to those based on colony densities. For example, while host and slavemaker densities are often positively correlated, slavemakers do not nest closer to potential host colonies than expected by random. Conclusions The

  12. Evaluation of thermal effects on the beam quality of disk laser with unstable resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayganmanesh, Mahdi; Beirami, Reza

    2017-01-01

    In this paper thermal effects of the disk active medium and associated effects on the beam quality of laser are investigated. Using Collins integral and iterative method, transverse mode of an unstable resonator including a Yb:YAG active medium in disk geometry is calculated. After that the beam quality of the laser is calculated based on the generalized beam characterization method. Thermal lensing of the disk is calculated based on the OPD (Optical Path Difference) concept. Five factors influencing the OPD including temperature gradient, disk thermal expansion, photo-elastic effect, electronic lens and disk deformation are considered in our calculations. The calculations show that the effect of disk deformation factor on the quality of laser beam in the resonator is strong. However the total effect of all the thermal factors on the internal beam quality is fewer. Also it is shown that thermal effects degrade the output power, beam profile and beam quality of the output laser beam severely. As well the magnitude of each of affecting factors is evaluated distinctly.

  13. BIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF THE WHITECLAWED CRAYFISH HABITAT BASED ON MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES: USEFULNESS FOR ITS CONSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRANDJEAN F.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the macroinvertebrates of three brooks harbouring the white-clawed crayfish was conducted in Haute-Vienne department (France. Its aim was to increase our understanding of these ecosystems to help the conservation of A. pallipes. These brooks run through pastoral areas with well-developed riparian vegetation, which offers an important shade. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and conductivity fell within the ranges found for this species. A total of 34, 31, 29 taxa and 1 502, 1 364, 2 707 individuals of macrobenthos were collected in Holme, Besque and Bellecombe streams, respectively. Results showed good to very good water quality with IBGN scores ranging from 15 (Bellecombe to 17 (Holme and Besque, reflecting a limited impact of the anthropogenic disturbances. Taxa diversity were high for Holme and Besque with Shannon index around 3.2, translating a great heterogeneity of habitat and an equilibrated faunal community. Bellecombe showed a limited diversity with Shannon index of 1.42, resulting from the presence of numberous Chironomidae. This brook suffers probably weak organic pollution which could be related to the low water flow observed during the sampling. The similarity test according to Jaccard index showed high percentage of common taxa among ETP (Ephemeroptera-Trichoptera-Plecoptera between all sites. The high similarity of benthic macroinvertebrate communities could be an useful criteria to identify brooks for restocking purpose.

  14. Effects of roads on habitat quality for bears in the southern Appalachians: A long-term study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Hogland, M. J.; Mitchell, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that gravel roads, not paved roads, had the largest negative effect on habitat quality for a population of American black bears (Ursus americanus) that lived in a protected area, where vehicle collision was a relatively minimal source of mortality. We also evaluated whether road use by bears differed by sex or age and whether annual variation in hard mast productivity affected the way bears used areas near roads. In addition, we tested previous findings regarding the spatial extent to which roads affected bear behavior negatively. Using summer and fall home ranges for 118 black bears living in the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary in western North Carolina during 1981-2001, we estimated both home-range-scale (2nd-order) and within-home-range-scale (3rd-order) selection for areas within 250, 500, 800, and 1,600 m of paved and gravel roads. All bears avoided areas near gravel roads more than they avoided areas near paved roads during summer and fall for 2nd-order selection and during summer for 3rd-order selection. During fall, only adult females avoided areas near gravel roads more than they avoided areas near paved roads for 3rd-order selection. We found a positive relationship between use of roads by adults and annual variability in hard mast productivity. Overall, bears avoided areas within 800 m of gravel roads. Future research should determine whether avoidance of gravel roads by bears affects bear survival. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

  15. Quality assurance of PTS thermal hydraulic calculations at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Pu, J.; Jo, J.; Saha, P.

    1983-01-01

    Rapid cooling of the reactor pressure vessel at high pressure has a potential of challenging the vessel integrity. This phenomenon is called overcooling or Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has selected three plants representing three types of PWRs in use for detailed PTS study. Oconee-1 (B and W), Calvert Cliffs (C.E.), and H.B. Robinson (Westinghouse). The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has been requested by NRC to review and compare the input decks developed at LANL and INEL, and to compare and explain the differences between the common calculations performed at these two laboratories. However, for the transients that will be computed by only one laboratory, a consistency check will be performed. So far only Oconee-1 calculations have been reviewed at BNL, and the results are presented here

  16. Heat transfer in fish: are short excursions between habitats a thermoregulatory behaviour to exploit resources in an unfavourable thermal environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pépino, Marc; Goyer, Katerine; Magnan, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Temperature is the primary environmental factor affecting physiological processes in ectotherms. Heat-transfer models describe how the fish's internal temperature responds to a fluctuating thermal environment. Specifically, the rate coefficient (k), defined as the instantaneous rate of change in body temperature in relation to the difference between ambient and body temperature, summarizes the combined effects of direct thermal conduction through body mass, passive convection (intracellular and intercellular fluids) and forced convective heat transfer (cardiovascular system). The k-coefficient is widely used in fish ecology to understand how body temperature responds to changes in water temperature. The main objective of this study was to estimate the k-coefficient of brook charr equipped with internal temperature-sensitive transmitters in controlled laboratory experiments. Fish were first transferred from acclimation tanks (10°C) to tanks at 14, 19 or 23°C (warming experiments) and were then returned to the acclimation tanks (10°C; cooling experiments), thus producing six step changes in ambient temperature. We used non-linear mixed models to estimate the k-coefficient. Model comparisons indicated that the model incorporating the k-coefficient as a function of absolute temperature difference (dT: 4, 9 and 13°C) best described body temperature change. By simulating body temperature in a heterogeneous thermal environment, we provide theoretical predictions of maximum excursion duration between feeding and resting areas. Our simulations suggest that short (i.e. behaviour adopted by cold freshwater fish species to sustain body temperature below a critical temperature threshold, enabling them to exploit resources in an unfavourable thermal environment. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Measuring Habitat Quality for Deep-Sea Corals and Sponges to Add Conservation Value to Telepresence-Enabled Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etnoyer, P. J.; Hourigan, T. F.; Reser, B.; Monaco, M.

    2016-02-01

    The growing fleet of telepresence-enabled research vessels equipped with deep-sea imaging technology provides a new opportunity to catalyze and coordinate research efforts among ships. This development is particularly useful for studying the distribution and diversity of deep-sea corals, which occur worldwide from 50 to 8600 m depth. Marine managers around the world seek to conserve these habitats, but require a clear consensus on what types of information are most important and most relevant for marine conservation. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) seeks to develop a reproducible, non-invasive set of ROV methods designed to measure conservation value, or habitat quality, for deep-sea corals and sponges. New tools and methods will be proposed to inform ocean resource management, as well as facilitate research, outreach, and education. A new database schema will be presented, building upon the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) and efforts of submersible and ROV teams over the years. Visual information about corals and sponges has proven paramount, particularly high-quality images with standard attributes for marine geology and marine biology, including scientific names, colony size, health, abundance, and density. Improved habitat suitability models can be developed from these data if presence and absence are measured. Recent efforts to incorporate physical sampling into telepresence protocols further increase the value of such information. It is possible for systematic observations with small file sizes to be distributed as geo-referenced, time-stamped still images with environmental variables for water chemistry and a standardized habitat classification. The technique is common among researchers, but a distributed network for this information is still in its infancy. One goal of this presentation is to make progress towards a more integrated network of these measured observations of habitat quality to better facilitate

  18. Application of thermal analysis in quality assurance of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raje, N.; Ghonge, D.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2010-01-01

    Uranium finds its application as nuclear fuel and has stringent specifications regarding the presence of certain impurities. Magnesium diuranate (yellow cake) is the intermediate product in the hydrometallurgy of uranium. It is prepared by leaching of uranium ore using dilute sulphuric acid and subsequent ion-exchange separation of trace impurities from the leach solution followed by magnesium diuranate precipitation using magnesia. Determination of U, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Si, Al, Cd, Cr, Cu,Co, V, Mo, B, Cd, REEs, Th, chloride, sulphate and phosphate is required in yellow cake to examine whether their levels are in permissible limits. Currently, due to the processing of low-grade ores, higher levels of impurities are being encountered in the leach solution that affect the properties of magnesium diuranate (MDU). In order to meet the fuel specifications, quality assurance of MDU is essential

  19. Surface and groundwater drought evaluation with respect to aquatic habitat quality in the upper Nitra River Basin in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendekova, M.; Fendek, M.; Macura, V.; Kralova, J.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrological drought is being broadly studied within last decades in many countries. It is because of increasing frequency of drought periods occurrence also in mild climate conditions, leading to unexpected and undesired consequences for environment and various spheres of the state economy. Drought affects water availability for plants, animals and human society. Natural conditions of drought occurrence are often combined with human activities strengthening drought consequences. Lack of water in the nature, connected to meteorological and hydrological drought occurrence, increases at the same time needs for surface and groundwater in many types of human activities (agriculture, industrial production, electric power generation…). Drought can be identified within the low flow phase of the flow regime. Flow regime is considered for one of the most important conditions influencing quality of the river ecosystems. Occurrence of meteorological, surface and groundwater droughts was analyzed for the upper part of the Nitra River catchment in Slovakia. Drought occurrence was studied in two gauging profiles on the Nitra River - in Klacno and Nedozery, both representing the headwater profiles. The threshold level method was used for groundwater drought analysis. Base flow values were separated from the discharge hydrograms using the HydroOffice 2010 statistical program package. The influence of surface water drought on groundwater level was analyzed. Habitat suitability curves derived according to IFIM methodology were constructed for different fish species at Nedozery profile. The influence of different low flow values from 600 to 150 L/s on fish amount, size and species variability was studied. In the end, the minimum flow, bellow which unfavourable life conditions occur, was estimated. The results showed the necessity of taking into account the ecological parameters when estimating the ecological status of surface water bodies. Such an approach is fully compatible with

  20. Surface Habitat Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2009-01-01

    the 1) surface habitat concept definition, 2) inflatable surface habitat development, and 3) autonomous habitat operations, and 4) cross-cutting / systems engineering. In subsequent years, the SHS-FIG will solicit a call for innovations and technologies that will support the development of these four development areas. The other development areas will be assessed yearly and identified on the SHS-FIG s Strategic Development Roadmap. Initial investment projects that are funded by the Constellation Program Office (CxPO), LSSPO, or the Exploration Technology Development Projects (ETDP) will also be included on the Roadmap. For example, in one or two years from now, the autonomous habitat operations and testbed would collaborations with the Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) and Automation for Operations ETDP projects, which will give the surface habitat projects an integrated habitat autonomy testbed to test software and systems. The SHS-FIG scope is to provide focused direction for multiple innovations, technologies and subsystems that are needed to support humans at a remote planetary surface habitat during the concept development, design definition, and integration phases of that project. Subsystems include: habitability, lightweight structures, power management, communications, autonomy, deployment, outfitting, life support, wireless connectivity, lighting, thermal and more.

  1. Application of thermal sterilization regimes simulation for improvement of canned foods quality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolyanov A.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of comparison of optimization methods of thermal sterilization temperature-time regimes have been described. It has been shown that due to simulation the final canned foods’ quality factors are significantly improved, sterilization process time is decreased and energy consumption is reduced without sacrificing actual final lethality value

  2. The International Standards for Solar Thermal Collectors and Components as a Medium of Quality Assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkishriwi, Nouri; Schorn, Christian A.; Theis, Danjana

    2014-01-01

    Within this publication a detailed overview about the national and international solal't1lel1nai standards is made. The various tests are described and a cross reference list for comparing the different standards is given. Moreover a certification model is presented and the advantage of third party assessment is carried out. The requirement for a solar thermal test laboratory to conduct independent third party assessment by means of an ISO/IEC17065 accreditation is given. Finally the concept of a quality system for solar thermal markets is explained and major advantages are outlined. Solar thermal systems and their components are described in various national and international standards. In Europe the standard EN12975 defines the regulations and requirements for solar thermal collectors. The standard EN12976 is established for the evaluation of factory made solar thermal systems. The EN12977 is the state of the art standard for the evaluation of custom build systems. Nowadays in Libya the standard ISO9806 for solar collectors and the standard ISO9459 for domestic water heating systems define the regulations and requirements for solar thermal collectors and systems. In the meanwhile, empowered Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Certification Body is under construction. This body is working now to set the minimum requirements of the testing facilities of solar thermal systems. The international standard for collector testing is the ISO9806 and the standard ISO9459 Part 2, 4, 5 for domestic water heating systems. Within the year 2013 a revision of the ISO9806 will be published and, for the first time, a consistent harmonized standard for the main solar thermal markets will be set in force. Besides the various standards for solar thermal products a meaningful element for the quality assurance and the customer protection is third party certification. Third party certification involves an independent assessment, declaring that specified requirements

  3. A Controlled Agitation Process for Improving Quality of Canned Green Beans during Agitation Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anika; Pratap Singh, Anubhav; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2016-06-01

    This work introduces the concept of a controlled agitation thermal process to reduce quality damage in liquid-particulate products during agitation thermal processing. Reciprocating agitation thermal processing (RA-TP) was used as the agitation thermal process. In order to reduce the impact of agitation, a new concept of "stopping agitations after sufficient development of cold-spot temperature" was proposed. Green beans were processed in No. 2 (307×409) cans filled with liquids of various consistency (0% to 2% CMC) at various frequencies (1 to 3 Hz) of RA-TP using a full-factorial design and heat penetration results were collected. Corresponding operator's process time to impart a 10-min process lethality (Fo ) and agitation time (AT) were calculated using heat penetration results. Accordingly, products were processed again by stopping agitations as per 3 agitation regimes, namely; full time agitation, equilibration time agitation, and partial time agitation. Processed products were photographed and tested for visual quality, color, texture, breakage of green beans, turbidity, and percentage of insoluble solids in can liquid. Results showed that stopping agitations after sufficient development of cold-spot temperatures is an effective way of reducing product damages caused by agitation (for example, breakage of beans and its leaching into liquid). Agitations till one-log temperature difference gave best color, texture and visual product quality for low-viscosity liquid-particulate mixture and extended agitations till equilibration time was best for high-viscosity products. Thus, it was shown that a controlled agitation thermal process is more effective in obtaining high product quality as compared to a regular agitation thermal process. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Thermoregulation of fish and turtles in thermally stressed habitats. Annual progress report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spotila, J.R.

    1978-06-01

    Morphometric and heating and cooling studies on over 100 largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, have provided the data needed to refine the time-dependent body temperature model for fish. The model can now track the changes in body temperature of a bass if its weight and water temperature are known. The model is most sensitive to body diameter, body wall thickness, and tissue conductivity. Doubling tissue conductivity is equivalent to decreasing body diameter by a factor or two. Turtles, Chrysemys scripta, living in the heated portion of a cooling reservoir facultatively exploit the warmed water (ΔT = 4 to 10 0 C) as an auxiliary heat source for behavioral thermoregulation. Turtles in the heated arm of PAR pond have a smaller home range (200 m) than turtles in an ambient portion of the reservoir (507 m). The ability of animals to thermoregulate at a high constant body temperature depends upon the constraints imposed on them by their body size and physical characteristics and those of their environment. The net heat production required to maintain a specific body temperature changes as the size of an ectotherm increases. Operative environmental temperature is an appropriate measure of environmental heat loading and can be used as a predictor of turtle behavior. This concept may become very valuable in quantifying the effect of thermal effluents on turtle and fish behavior

  5. Influence of Roughness on Quality Molybdenum Deposit Layer by Thermal Spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Bujna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we deal with the impact of roughness on the quality of molybdenum layer. Insufficient cleaning may result in a poor quality of the sprayed layer. Our aim is to analyze the influence of surface roughness on the quality of molybdenum layer thickness applied by thermal spraying. Thermal spraying influence several physical and chemical properties of the coating surface. The most important ones include: hardness, density, porosity, corrosion resistance and adhesion. This technology of surface treatment of material is often used for its high degree of hardness. Hardness and erosion resistance are the parameters that need to be achieved particularly in working conditions where there is excessive depreciation of a component.

  6. Effects of thermal treatment and sonication on quality attributes of Chokanan mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhirasegaram, Vicknesha; Razali, Zuliana; Somasundram, Chandran

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasonic treatment is an emerging food processing technology that has growing interest among health-conscious consumers. Freshly squeezed Chokanan mango juice was thermally treated (at 90 °C for 30 and 60s) and sonicated (for 15, 30 and 60 min at 25 °C, 40 kHz frequency, 130 W) to compare the effect on microbial inactivation, physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and other quality parameters. After sonication and thermal treatment, no significant changes occurred in pH, total soluble solids and titratable acidity. Sonication for 15 and 30 min showed significant improvement in selected quality parameters except color and ascorbic acid content, when compared to freshly squeezed juice (control). A significant increase in extractability of carotenoids (4-9%) and polyphenols (30-35%) was observed for juice subjected to ultrasonic treatment for 15 and 30 min, when compared to the control. In addition, enhancement of radical scavenging activity and reducing power was observed in all sonicated juice samples regardless of treatment time. Thermal and ultrasonic treatment exhibited significant reduction in microbial count of the juice. The results obtained support the use of sonication to improve the quality of Chokanan mango juice along with safety standard as an alternative to thermal treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Soil loss risk and habitat quality in streams of a meso-scale river basin Risco de perda de solo e qualidade do habitat numa bacia hidrográfica de meso-escala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Marco da Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil loss expectation and possible relationships among soil erosion, riparian vegetation and water quality were studied in the São José dos Dourados River basin, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Through Geographic Information System (GIS resources and technology, Soil Loss Expectation (SLE data obtained using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE model were analyzed. For the whole catchment area and for the 30 m buffer strips of the streams of 22 randomly selected catchments, the predominant land use and habitat quality were studied. Owing mainly to the high soil erodibility, the river basin is highly susceptible to erosive processes. Habitat quality analyses revealed that the superficial water from the catchments is not chemically impacted but suffers physical damage. A high chemical purity is observed since there are no urban areas along the catchments. The water is physically poor because of high rates of sediment delivery and the almost nonexistence of riparian vegetation.Expectativa de perda de solo e possíveis relações entre erosão, vegetação ripária e qualidade da água foram estudados na bacia do rio São José dos Dourados (SP. Através de recursos de geoprocessamento e da Equação Universal de Perda de Solos, os dados sobre expectativa de perda de solo foram levantados. Para a área de drenagem total e a faixa tampão dos corpos d'água de 22 sub-bacias aleatoriamente selecionadas, analisou-se a cobertura do solo predominante e qualidade do habitat. Devido principalmente à alta erodibilidade do solo, a área estudada é altamente suscetível ao processo erosivo. As análises de qualidade da água revelaram que as águas superficiais das sub-bacias estão quimicamente não impactadas, mas fisicamente degradadas. A alta pureza química deve-se, possivelmente, à ausência de áreas urbanizadas ao longo das sub-bacias e as alterações nas características físicas são, possivelmente, decorrentes das altas taxas de transfer

  8. Habitat pollution and thermal regime modify molecular stress responses to elevated temperature in freshwater mussels (Anodonta anatina: Unionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falfushynska, H.; Gnatyshyna, L.; Yurchak, I.; Ivanina, A.; Stoliar, O.; Sokolova, I.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated temperature and pollution are common stressors in freshwater ecosystems. We study cellular stress response to acute warming in Anodonta anatina (Unionidae) from sites with different thermal regimes and pollution levels: a pristine area and an agriculturally polluted site with normal temperature regimes (F and A, respectively) and a polluted site with elevated temperature (N) from the cooling pond of an electrical power plant. Animals were exposed to different temperatures for 14 days and stress response markers were measured in gills, digestive gland and hemocytes. Mussels from site N and A had elevated background levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity indicating higher reliance on anaerobic metabolism for ATP production and/or redox maintenance. Exposure to 25 °C and 30 °C induced oxidative stress (indicated by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation products) in digestive gland and gills of mussels from A and F sites, while in mussels from N sites elevated oxidative stress was only apparent at 30 °C. Temperature-induced changes in levels of antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, metallothioneins and glutathione) were tissue- and population-specific. Acute warming led to destabilization of lysosomal membranes and increased frequencies of nuclear lesions in mussels from F and A sites but not in their counterparts from N site. Elevated temperature led to an increase in the frequency of micronuclei in hemocytes in mussels from F and A sites at 25 °C and 30 °C and in mussels from N site at 30 °C. The mussels from N site also demonstrated better survival at elevated temperature (30 °C) than their counterparts from the F and A sites. Taken together, these data indicate that long-term acclimation and/or adaptation of A. anatina to elevated temperatures result in increased thermotolerance and alleviate stress response to moderate temperature rise. In contrast, extreme warming (30 °C) is harmful to mussels from all populations indicating limit to this induced

  9. Habitat pollution and thermal regime modify molecular stress responses to elevated temperature in freshwater mussels (Anodonta anatina: Unionidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falfushynska, H.; Gnatyshyna, L.; Yurchak, I. [Research Laboratory of Comparative Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ternopil National Pedagogical University, Kryvonosa Str 2, 46027 Ternopil (Ukraine); Ivanina, A. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Stoliar, O. [Research Laboratory of Comparative Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ternopil National Pedagogical University, Kryvonosa Str 2, 46027 Ternopil (Ukraine); Sokolova, I., E-mail: isokolov@uncc.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Elevated temperature and pollution are common stressors in freshwater ecosystems. We study cellular stress response to acute warming in Anodonta anatina (Unionidae) from sites with different thermal regimes and pollution levels: a pristine area and an agriculturally polluted site with normal temperature regimes (F and A, respectively) and a polluted site with elevated temperature (N) from the cooling pond of an electrical power plant. Animals were exposed to different temperatures for 14 days and stress response markers were measured in gills, digestive gland and hemocytes. Mussels from site N and A had elevated background levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity indicating higher reliance on anaerobic metabolism for ATP production and/or redox maintenance. Exposure to 25 °C and 30 °C induced oxidative stress (indicated by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation products) in digestive gland and gills of mussels from A and F sites, while in mussels from N sites elevated oxidative stress was only apparent at 30 °C. Temperature-induced changes in levels of antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, metallothioneins and glutathione) were tissue- and population-specific. Acute warming led to destabilization of lysosomal membranes and increased frequencies of nuclear lesions in mussels from F and A sites but not in their counterparts from N site. Elevated temperature led to an increase in the frequency of micronuclei in hemocytes in mussels from F and A sites at 25 °C and 30 °C and in mussels from N site at 30 °C. The mussels from N site also demonstrated better survival at elevated temperature (30 °C) than their counterparts from the F and A sites. Taken together, these data indicate that long-term acclimation and/or adaptation of A. anatina to elevated temperatures result in increased thermotolerance and alleviate stress response to moderate temperature rise. In contrast, extreme warming (30 °C) is harmful to mussels from all populations indicating limit to this induced

  10. Perceived air quality, thermal comfort, and SBS symptoms at low air temperature and increased radiant temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Reimann, Gregers Peter; Foldbjerg, P.

    2002-01-01

    source present at the low temperature. To maintain overall thermal neutrality, the low air temperature was partly compensated for by individually controlled radiant heating, and partly by allowing subjects to modify clothing insulation. A reduction of the air temperature from 23 deg.C to 18 deg.......C suggested an improvement of the perceived air quality, while no systematic effect on symptom intensity was observed. The overall indoor environment was evaluated equally acceptable at both temperatures due to local thermal discomfort at the low air temperature....

  11. Site-specific flight speeds of nonbreeding Pacific dunlins as a measure of the quality of a foraging habitat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reurink, Florian; Hentze, Nathan; Rourke, Jay; Ydenberg, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated how foraging behavior such as prey choice varies with factors such as prey size or density. Models of such relationships can be applied "in reverse" to translate easily observed foraging behaviors into assays of habitat attributes that cannot (easily) be measured

  12. The relationship between thermal comfort and light intensity with sleep quality and eye tiredness in shift work nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmoon, Hiva; Dehghan, Habibollah; Akbari, Jafar; Souri, Shiva

    2013-01-01

    Environmental conditions such as lighting and thermal comfort are influencing factors on sleep quality and visual tiredness. The purpose of this study was the determination of the relationship between thermal comfort and light intensity with the sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift nurses. This cross-sectional research was conducted on 82 shift-work personnel of 18 nursing workstations in Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital, Iran, in 2012. Heat stress monitoring (WBGT) and photometer (Hagner Model) were used for measuring the thermal conditions and illumination intensity, respectively. To measure the sleep quality, visual tiredness, and thermal comfort, Pittsburg sleep quality index, eye fatigue questionnaire, and thermal comfort questionnaire were used, respectively. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, and Pearson correlation. Correlation between thermal comfort which was perceived from the self-reporting of people with eye tiredness was -0.38 (P = 0.002). Pearson correlation between thermal comfort and sleep quality showed a positive and direct relationship (r = 0.241, P = 0.33) but the correlation between thermal comfort, which was perceived from the self-reporting of shift nurses, and WBGT index was a weak relationship (r = 0.019). Based on the obtained findings, it can be concluded that a defect in environmental conditions such as thermal conditions and light intensity and also lack of appropriate managerial plan for night shift-work nurses are destructive and negative factors for the physical and mental health of this group of practitioners.

  13. Measurement of Indoor Air Quality by Means of a Breathing Thermal Manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    When a person is located in a contaminant field with significant gradients the contaminant distribution is modified locally due to the entrainment and transport of room air in the human convective boundary layer as well as due to the effect of the person acting as an obstacle to the flow field, etc....... The local modification of the concentration distribution may affect the personal exposure significantly and, thus, the indoor air quality actually experienced. In this paper measurements of indoor air quality by means of a Breathing Thermal Manikin (BTM) are presented....

  14. Characterizing Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Thermal Environment and Air Quality in Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, J. Y.; Sun, C. H.; Jiang, J. A.; Wen, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    The urban heat island effect (UHI) caused by the regional-to-global environmental changes, dramatic urbanization, and shifting in land-use compositions has becoming an important environmental issue in recent years. In the past century, the coverage of urban area in Taipei Basin has dramatically increasing by ten folds. The strengthen of UHI effect significantly enhances the frequency of warm-night effect, and strongly influences the thermal environment of the residents in the Greater Taipei Metropolitan. In addition, the urban expansions due to dramatic increasing in urban populations and traffic loading significantly impacts the air quality and causes health issue in Taipei. In this study, the main objective is to quantify and characterize the temporal and spatial distributions of thermal environmental and air quality in the Greater Taipei Metropolitan Area by using monitoring data from Central Weather Bureau, Environmental Protection Administration. In addition, in this study, we conduct the analysis on the distribution of physiological equivalent temperature in the micro scale in the metropolitan area by using the observation data and quantitative simulation to investigate how the thermal environment is influenced under different conditions. Furthermore, we establish a real-time mobile monitoring system by using wireless sensor network to investigate the correlation between the thermal environment, air quality and other environmental factors, and propose to develop the early warning system for heat stress and air quality in the metropolitan area. The results from this study can be integrated into the management and planning system, and provide sufficient and important background information for the development of smart city in the metropolitan area in the future.

  15. Three nights leg thermal therapy could improve sleep quality in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatari, Hiroyuki; Nishizaka, Mari K; Miyazono, Mami; Ando, Shin-Ichi; Inoue, Shujiro; Takemoto, Masao; Sakamoto, Takafumi; Goto, Daisuke; Furumoto, Tomoo; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Rahmawati, Anita; Chishaki, Hiroaki; Ohkusa, Tomoko; Magota, Chie; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Chishaki, Akiko

    2018-02-01

    Sleep quality is often impaired in patients with chronic heart failure (HF), which may worsen their quality of life and even prognosis. Leg thermal therapy (LTT), topical leg warming, has been shown to improve endothelial function, oxidative stress, and cardiac function in patients with HF. However, its short-term influence to sleep quality has not been evaluated in HF patients. Eighteen of 23 patients with stable HF received LTT (15 min of warming at 45 °C and 30 min of insulation) at bedtime for 3 consecutive nights and 5 patients served as control. Subjective sleep quality was evaluated by St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire, Oguri-Shirakawa-Azumi Sleep Inventory, and Epworth sleepiness scale, and also objectively evaluated by polysomnography. LTT significantly improved subjective sleep quality indicated by depth of sleep (p quality (p improve subjective and objective sleep quality in patients with HF. LTT can be a complimentary therapy to improve sleep quality in these patients.

  16. Experimental investigation of thermal comfort and air quality in an automobile cabin during the cooling period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, M.; Akyol, S.M. [Uludag University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Bursa (Turkey)

    2012-08-15

    The air quality and thermal comfort strongly influenced by the heat and mass transfer take place together in an automobile cabin. In this study, it is aimed to investigate and assess the effects of air intake settings (recirculation and fresh air) on the thermal comfort, air quality satisfaction and energy usage during the cooling period of an automobile cabin. For this purpose, measurements (temperature, air velocity, CO{sub 2}) were performed at various locations inside the cabin. Furthermore, whole body and local responses of the human subjects were noted while skin temperatures were measured. A mathematical model was arranged in order to estimate CO{sub 2} concentration and energy usage inside the vehicle cabin and verified with experimental data. It is shown that CO{sub 2} level inside of the cabin can be greater than the threshold value recommended for the driving safety if two and more occupants exist in the car. It is also shown that an advanced climate control system may satisfy the requirements for the air quality and thermal comfort as well as to reduce the energy usage for the cooling of a vehicle cabin. (orig.)

  17. Experimental investigation of thermal comfort and air quality in an automobile cabin during the cooling period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, M.; Akyol, S. M.

    2012-08-01

    The air quality and thermal comfort strongly influenced by the heat and mass transfer take place together in an automobile cabin. In this study, it is aimed to investigate and assess the effects of air intake settings (recirculation and fresh air) on the thermal comfort, air quality satisfaction and energy usage during the cooling period of an automobile cabin. For this purpose, measurements (temperature, air velocity, CO2) were performed at various locations inside the cabin. Furthermore, whole body and local responses of the human subjects were noted while skin temperatures were measured. A mathematical model was arranged in order to estimate CO2 concentration and energy usage inside the vehicle cabin and verified with experimental data. It is shown that CO2 level inside of the cabin can be greater than the threshold value recommended for the driving safety if two and more occupants exist in the car. It is also shown that an advanced climate control system may satisfy the requirements for the air quality and thermal comfort as well as to reduce the energy usage for the cooling of a vehicle cabin.

  18. Vacant habitats in the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S

    2011-02-01

    The search for life on other planets usually makes the assumption that where there is a habitat, it will contain life. On the present-day Earth, uninhabited habitats (or vacant habitats) are rare, but might occur, for example, in subsurface oils or impact craters that have been thermally sterilized in the past. Beyond Earth, vacant habitats might similarly exist on inhabited planets or on uninhabited planets, for example on a habitable planet where life never originated. The hypothesis that vacant habitats are abundant in the Universe is testable by studying other planets. In this review, I discuss how the study of vacant habitats might ultimately inform an understanding of how life has influenced geochemical conditions on Earth. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of water chemistry, habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrates at selected stream-quality monitoring sites in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2004-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and habitat data have been collected from a network of sites in Chester County, Pa., from 1970 to 2003 to assess stream quality. Forty sites in 6 major stream basins were sampled between 1998 and 2000. Biological data were used to determine levels of impairment in the benthic-macroinvertebrate community in Chester County streams and relate the impairment, in conjunction with chemical and habitat data, to overall stream quality. Biological data consisted of benthic-macroinvertebrate samples that were collected annually in the fall. Water-chemistry samples were collected and instream habitat was assessed in support of the biological sampling.Most sites in the network were designated as nonimpacted or slightly impacted by human activities or extreme climatic conditions on the basis of biological-metric analysis of benthic-macroinvertebrate data. Impacted sites were affected by factors, such as nutrient enrichment, erosion and sedimentation, point discharges, and droughts and floods. Streams in the Schuylkill River, Delaware River, and East Branch Brandywine Creek Basins in Chester County generally had low nutrient concentrations, except in areas affected by wastewater-treatment discharges, and stream habitat that was affected by erosion. Streams in the West Branch Brandywine, Christina, Big Elk, and Octoraro Creek Basins in Chester County generally had elevated nutrient concentrations and streambottom habitat that was affected by sediment deposition.Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from French Creek, Pigeon Creek (Schuylkill River Basin), and East Branch Brandywine Creek at Glenmoore consistently indicate good stream conditions and were the best conditions measured in the network. Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from Trout Creek (site 61), West Branch Red Clay Creek (site 55) (Christina River Basin), and Valley Creek near Atglen (site 34) (Octoraro Creek Basin) indicated fair to poor stream conditions and

  20. Managing multiple diffuse pressures on water quality and ecological habitat: Spatially targeting effective mitigation actions at the landscape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Hannah; Reaney, Sim

    2015-04-01

    Catchment systems provide multiple benefits for society, including: land for agriculture, climate regulation and recreational space. Yet, these systems also have undesirable externalities, such as flooding, and the benefits they create can be compromised through societal use. For example, agriculture, forestry and urban land use practices can increase the export of fine sediment and faecal indicator organisms (FIO) delivered to river systems. These diffuse landscape pressures are coupled with pressures on the in stream temperature environment from projected climate change. Such pressures can have detrimental impacts on water quality and ecological habitat and consequently the benefits they provide for society. These diffuse and in-stream pressures can be reduced through actions at the landscape scale but are commonly tackled individually. Any intervention may have benefits for other pressures and hence the challenge is to consider all of the different pressures simultaneously to find solutions with high levels of cross-pressure benefits. This research presents (1) a simple but spatially distributed model to predict the pattern of multiple pressures at the landscape scale, and (2) a method for spatially targeting the optimum location for riparian woodland planting as mitigation action against these pressures. The model follows a minimal information requirement approach along the lines of SCIMAP (www.scimap.org.uk). This approach defines the critical source areas of fine sediment diffuse pollution, rapid overland flow and FIOs, based on the analysis of the pattern of the pressure in the landscape and the connectivity from source areas to rivers. River temperature was modeled using a simple energy balance equation; focusing on temperature of inflowing and outflowing water across a catchment. The model has been calibrated using a long term observed temperature record. The modelling outcomes enabled the identification of the severity of each pressure in relative rather

  1. Fish distribution and abundance in mediterranean streams:the role of habitat quality, spatial context, and movement patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Daniel Filipe Carvalho Miranda, 1977-

    2012-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Ecologia), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 Patterns of fish distribution and abundance in streams are currently thought of as a product of multi-scale factors. Local habitats, spatial relationships and movement are increasingly emerging as drivers of population and assemblage dynamics, though the way in which these factors may interplay remains poorly addressed, particularly in temporary streams. This dissertation addressed the role of mu...

  2. Chinook Critical Habitat, Coast - NOAA [ds124

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer depicts areas designated for Chinook Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the California Coastal Evolutionary Significant Unit (ESU -...

  3. Assessing thermal comfort and energy efficiency in buildings by statistical quality control for autocorrelated data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbeito, Inés; Zaragoza, Sonia; Tarrío-Saavedra, Javier; Naya, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Intelligent web platform development for energy efficiency management in buildings. • Controlling and supervising thermal comfort and energy consumption in buildings. • Statistical quality control procedure to deal with autocorrelated data. • Open source alternative using R software. - Abstract: In this paper, a case study of performing a reliable statistical procedure to evaluate the quality of HVAC systems in buildings using data retrieved from an ad hoc big data web energy platform is presented. The proposed methodology based on statistical quality control (SQC) is used to analyze the real state of thermal comfort and energy efficiency of the offices of the company FRIDAMA (Spain) in a reliable way. Non-conformities or alarms, and the actual assignable causes of these out of control states are detected. The capability to meet specification requirements is also analyzed. Tools and packages implemented in the open-source R software are employed to apply the different procedures. First, this study proposes to fit ARIMA time series models to CTQ variables. Then, the application of Shewhart and EWMA control charts to the time series residuals is proposed to control and monitor thermal comfort and energy consumption in buildings. Once thermal comfort and consumption variability are estimated, the implementation of capability indexes for autocorrelated variables is proposed to calculate the degree to which standards specifications are met. According with case study results, the proposed methodology has detected real anomalies in HVAC installation, helping to detect assignable causes and to make appropriate decisions. One of the goals is to perform and describe step by step this statistical procedure in order to be replicated by practitioners in a better way.

  4. Air quality assessment in the vicinity of nuclear and thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaramasundaram, K.; Vijay Bhaskar, B.; Muthusubramanian, P.; Rajan, M.P.; Hegde, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    The status and ranking of any country, in the context of globalisation, is decided by its economic progress, which is directly linked into power generation. The power is generated by many routes and the nuclear and thermal routes are noteworthy among them. As the power production and its associated activities may cause qualitative deterioration, it is essential to study the impact of power production on atmospheric environment. In this connection, a comparative study has been carried out to assess the air quality with special reference to criteria pollutants in the vicinity of nuclear and thermal power stations. In the present investigation, the air samples are collected on weekly basis and the pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and respirable particulate matter (RPM) are estimated by adopting standard procedures set by United States-Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) and Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). As the micro meteorological parameters influence on the status of air quality, simultaneous measurements of these parameters are also carried, out during sampling. It is studied that estimated concentrations of all criteria pollutants in the vicinity of these power stations are within the permissible limits set by CPCB. On the basis of the generated database pertaining to the concentrations of criteria air pollutants in the vicinity of nuclear and thermal power stations, it is concluded that nuclear power production may be considered as a viable option in terms of environmental protection in our country. (author)

  5. Improving indoor air quality and thermal comfort in office building by using combination filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabrein, H.; Yusof, M. Z. M.; Hariri, A.; Leman, A. M.; Afandi, A.

    2017-09-01

    Poor indoor air quality and thermal comfort condition in the workspace affected the occupants’ health and work productivity, especially when adapting the recirculation of air in heating ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. The recirculation of air was implemented in this study by mixing the circulated returned indoor air with the outdoor fresh air. The aims of this study are to assess the indoor thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) in the office buildings, equipped with combination filters. The air filtration technique consisting minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) filter and activated carbon fiber (ACF) filter, located before the fan coil units. The findings of the study show that the technique of mixing recirculation air with the fresh air through the combination filters met the recommended thermal comfort condition in the workspace. Furthermore, the result of the post-occupancy evaluation (POE) and the environmental measurements comply with the ASHRAE 55 standard. In addition, the level of CO2 concentration continued to decrease during the period of the measurement.

  6. Green Pea and Garlic Puree Model Food Development for Thermal Pasteurization Process Quality Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Ellen R; Tang, Juming; Sablani, Shyam S; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Liu, Fang

    2017-07-01

    Development and selection of model foods is a critical part of microwave thermal process development, simulation validation, and optimization. Previously developed model foods for pasteurization process evaluation utilized Maillard reaction products as the time-temperature integrators, which resulted in similar temperature sensitivity among the models. The aim of this research was to develop additional model foods based on different time-temperature integrators, determine their dielectric properties and color change kinetics, and validate the optimal model food in hot water and microwave-assisted pasteurization processes. Color, quantified using a * value, was selected as the time-temperature indicator for green pea and garlic puree model foods. Results showed 915 MHz microwaves had a greater penetration depth into the green pea model food than the garlic. a * value reaction rates for the green pea model were approximately 4 times slower than in the garlic model food; slower reaction rates were preferred for the application of model food in this study, that is quality evaluation for a target process of 90 °C for 10 min at the cold spot. Pasteurization validation used the green pea model food and results showed that there were quantifiable differences between the color of the unheated control, hot water pasteurization, and microwave-assisted thermal pasteurization system. Both model foods developed in this research could be utilized for quality assessment and optimization of various thermal pasteurization processes. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Habitat quality assessment for the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra on the river Jajrood, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohallah Mirzaei

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is little information about the status and ecology of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra in Iran. We assessed the habitat suitability for otters of the River Jajrood, Tehran province, measuring, or visually estimating, 12 environmental parameters along 16 600 m long river stretches (sampling sites. The downstream stretches of the river were found to be more suitable for otters with respect to the upper part of its course. Although the assessments of habitat suitability for the otter may be affected by several limits, the current distribution of the species on the river agrees with the results of this study. The preservation of the otter in Tehran province should involve the restoration of the ecosystem of the River Jajrood in order to improve the length of suitable river stretches.
    Riassunto Stima dell’idoneità ambientale per la lontra (Lutra lutra del fiume Jajrood, Iran. Le informazioni relative alla lontra (Lutra lutra in Iran sono scarse. L’idoneità ambientale per la specie del fiume Jajrood, provincia di Tehran, è stata valutata, misurando o stimando 12 parametri ambientali lungo 16 stazioni di campionamento, coincidenti con tratti di fiume della lunghezza di 600 m. I tratti più a valle sono risultati più idonei rispetto al corso superiore del fiume. Malgrado i numerosi limiti del metodo di stima dell’idoneità ambientale adottato, i risultati sono in accordo con l’attuale distribuzione della lontra lungo il fiume Jajrood. La conservazione della lontra nella provincia di Tehran dovrebbe prevedere miglioramenti ambientali volti a incrementare lo sviluppo lineare degli habitat idonei lungo il fiume Jajrood.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4447

  8. [Thermal comfort and indoor air quality in some of the italian state police workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Francesco; Rulli, Giuseppina

    2017-12-01

    Little can be found in the literature about thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) in law enforcement workplaces. This study, based on environmental surveys carried out by the Centro Sanitario Polifunzionale of Milan (Italian State Police Health Service Department), aims to assess the thermal comfort and IAQ in some of the Italian State Police workplaces. Measurements were performed in some indoor workplaces such as offices, archives, laboratories and guard-houses in various regions (Lombardia, Emilia Romagna, Liguria, Veneto, Trentino Alto-Adige) of Northern Italy. The PMV/PPD model developed by Fangar for the evaluation of the thermal comfort was used. We measured both CO2 concentration and relative humidity indoor levels for the evaluation of IAQ. We used Chi square and t Student tests to study both prevalence of thermal discomfort and low IAQ, and their differences between summer and winter. For the purposes of the present study we carried out 488 measurements in 36 buildings (260 in winter and 228 in summer). Our results showed that thermal comfort was reached in 95% and 68% of environmental measurements (in winter and summer, respectively). In summer, we measured different types of thermal discomfort. As regard to IAQ, CO2 exceeded the threshold limit value (1000 ppm) in 39% (winter) and 9% (summer) of our measurements. Chi-square test showed a statistically significant difference between summer and winter for all outcomes considered. Indeed, thermal comfort was better in winter than summer (X2 = 61.0795), while IAQ was found to be better in the summer than winter considering both the CO2 1000 ppm and 1200 ppm threshold values (X2 = 56.9004 and X2 = 8.8845 respectively). Prevalence of low relative humidity in winter was higher than in summer (X2 = 124.7764). Even though this study did not report any situation of risk to Italian police officers health and safety, it has highlighted some potential issues in some of the examined workplaces, concerning

  9. The Relationship between Thermal Comfort and Light Intensity with Sleep Quality and Eye Tiredness in Shift Work Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Azmoon, Hiva; Dehghan, Habibollah; Akbari, Jafar; Souri, Shiva

    2013-01-01

    Environmental conditions such as lighting and thermal comfort are influencing factors on sleep quality and visual tiredness. The purpose of this study was the determination of the relationship between thermal comfort and light intensity with the sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift nurses. Method. This cross-sectional research was conducted on 82 shift-work personnel of 18 nursing workstations in Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital, Iran, in 2012. Heat stress monitoring (WBGT) and photometer (Hagner ...

  10. The effects of state anxiety and thermal comfort on sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift work nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan, Habibollah; Azmoon, Hiva; Souri, Shiva; Akbari, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Psychological problems as state anxiety (SA) in the work environment has negative effect on the employees life especially shift work nurses, i.e. negative effect on mental and physical health (sleep quality, eye fatigue and comfort thermal). The purpose of this study was determination of effects of state anxiety and thermal comfort on sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift work nurses. Methods: This cross-sectional research conducted on 82 shift-work personnel of 18 nursing workstations of Is...

  11. Thermal environment and air quality in office with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    The thermal environment and air quality conditions provided with combined system of chilled ceiling and personalized ventilation (PV) were studied in a simulated office room for two occupants. The proposed system was compared with total volume HVAC solutions used today, namely mixing ventilation...... and chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether PV can be the only ventilation system in the rooms equipped with chilled ceiling. The room air temperature was 26°C in cases with traditional systems and 28°C when PV was used. PV supplied air...... with the temperature of 25°C. PV improved thermal conditions and was up to nearly 10 times more efficient in delivering clean air at workstations than mixing ventilation systems, which resulted in strong protection of occupants from the cross-infection. In the room space outside workstations no substantial differences...

  12. Assessing Habitat Quality of Forest-Corridors through NDVI Analysis in Dry Tropical Forests of South India: Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramesha Mallegowda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most wildlife habitats and migratory routes are extremely threatened due to increasing demands on forestland and forest resources by burgeoning human population. Corridor landscape in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve (BRT is one among them, subjected to various anthropogenic pressures. Human habitation, intensive farming, coffee plantations, ill-planned infrastructure developments and rapid spreading of invasive plant species Lantana camara, pose a serious threat to wildlife habitat and their migration. Aim of this work is to create detailed NDVI based land change maps and to use them to identify time-series trends in greening and browning in forest corridors in the study area and to identify the drivers that are influencing the observed changes. Over the four decades in BRT, NDVI increased in the core area of the forest and reduced in the fringe areas. The change analysis between 1973 and 2014 shows significant changes; browning due to anthropogenic activities as well as natural processes and greening due to Lantana spread. This indicates that the change processes are complex, involving multiple driving factors, such as socio-economic changes, high population growth, historical forest management practices and policies. Our study suggests that the use of updated and accurate change detection maps will be useful in taking appropriate site specific action-oriented conservation decisions to restore and manage the degraded critical wildlife corridors in human-dominated landscape.

  13. Local shifts in floral biotic interactions in habitat edges and their effect on quantity and quality of plant offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenu, Giuseppe; Bernardo, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Spatial shifts in insect fauna due to ecological heterogeneity can severely constrain plant reproduction. Nonetheless, data showing effects of insect visit patterns and intensity of mutualistic and/or antagonistic plant–insect interactions on plant reproduction over structured ecological gradients remain scarce. We investigated how changes in flower-visitor abundance, identity and behaviour over a forest-open habitat gradient affect plant biotic interactions, and quantitative and qualitative fitness in the edge-specialist Dianthus balbisii. Composition and behaviour of the insects visiting flowers of D. balbisii strongly varied over the study gradient, influencing strength and patterns of plant biotic interactions (i.e. herbivory and pollination likelihood). Seed set comparison in free- and manually pollinated flowers suggested spatial variations in the extent of quantitative pollen limitation, which appeared more pronounced at the gradient extremes. Such variations were congruent to patterns of flower visit and plant biotic interactions. The analyses on seed and seedling viability evidenced that spatial variation in amount and type of pollinators, and frequency of herbivory affected qualitative fitness of D. balbisii by influencing selfing and outcrossing rates. Our work emphasizes the role of plant biotic interactions as a fine-scale mediator of plant fitness in ecotones, highlighting that optimal plant reproduction can take place into a restricted interval of the ecological gradients occurring at forest edges. Reducing the habitat complexity typical of such transition contexts can threat edge-adapted plants. PMID:28775831

  14. Effects of bubbling operations on a thermally stratified reservoir: implications for water quality amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, R L; Bonansea, M; Cosavella, A; Monarde, F; Ferreyra, M; Bresciano, J

    2012-01-01

    Artificial thermal mixing of the water column is a common method of addressing water quality problems with the most popular method of destratification being the bubble curtain. The air or oxygen distribution along submerged multiport diffusers is based on similar basic principles as those of outfall disposal systems. Moreover, the disposal of sequestered greenhouse gases into the ocean, as recently proposed by several researchers to mitigate the global warming problem, requires analogous design criteria. In this paper, the influence of a bubble-plume is evaluated using full-scale temperature and water quality data collected in San Roque Reservoir, Argentina. A composite system consisting of seven separated diffusers connected to four 500 kPa compressors was installed at this reservoir by the end of 2008. The original purpose of this air bubble system was to reduce the stratification, so that the water body may completely mix under natural phenomena and remain well oxygenated throughout the year. By using a combination of the field measurements and modelling, this work demonstrates that thermal mixing by means of compressed air may improve water quality; however, if improperly sized or operated, such mixing can also cause deterioration. Any disruption in aeration during the destratification process, for example, may result in a reduction of oxygen levels due to the higher hypolimnetic temperatures. Further, the use of artificial destratification appears to have insignificant influence on reducing evaporation rates in relatively shallow impoundments such as San Roque reservoir.

  15. The effects of state anxiety and thermal comfort on sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift work nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Habibollah; Azmoon, Hiva; Souri, Shiva; Akbari, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Psychological problems as state anxiety (SA) in the work environment has negative effect on the employees life especially shift work nurses, i.e. negative effect on mental and physical health (sleep quality, eye fatigue and comfort thermal). The purpose of this study was determination of effects of state anxiety and thermal comfort on sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift work nurses. This cross-sectional research conducted on 82 shift-work personnel of 18 nursing workstations of Isfahan hospitals in 2012. To measure the SA, sleep quality, visual fatigue and thermal comfort, Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory, Pittsburg sleep quality index, eye fatigue questionnaire and thermal comfort questionnaire were used respectively. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, student test and correlation analysis. Correlation between SA and sleep quality was -0.664(P thermal comfort was -0.276(P = 0.016) and between SA and eye fatigue was 0.57 (P thermal conditions and reduce state anxiety level can be reduce eye fatigue and increase the sleep quality in shift work nurses.

  16. The relative effects of habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation on population extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most prominent conservation concerns are typically habitat loss and habitat fragmentation. The role of habitat degradation has received comparatively little attention. But research has shown that the quality of habitat patches can significantly influence wildlife population d...

  17. Modeling the Effects of Land Use on the Quality of Water, Air, Noise, and Habitat for a Five-County Region in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia H. Dale

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A computer simulation model, the Regional Simulator (RSim, was constructed to project how land-use changes affect the quality of water, air, noise, and habitat of species of special concern. RSim was designed to simulate these environmental impacts for five counties in Georgia that surround and include Fort Benning. The model combines existing data and modeling approaches to simulate the effects of land-cover changes on: nutrient export by hydrological unit; peak 8-h average ozone concentrations; noise caused by small arms and blasts; and habitat changes for the rare Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis and gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus. The model also includes submodules for urban growth, new urbanization influenced by existing roads, nonurban land cover transitions, and a new military training area under development at Fort Benning. The model was run under scenarios of business as usual (BAU and greatly increased urban growth for the region. The projections show that the effects of high urban growth will likely differ from those of BAU for noise and nitrogen and phosphorus loadings to surface water, but not for peak airborne ozone concentrations, at least in the absence of associated increases in industry and transportation use or technology changes. In both scenarios, no effects of urban growth are anticipated for existing populations of the federally endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker. In contrast, habitat for gopher tortoise in the five-county region is projected to decline by 5 and 40% in the BAU and high urban growth scenarios, respectively. RSim is designed to assess the relative environmental impacts of planned activities both inside and outside military installations and to address concerns related to encroachment and transboundary influences.

  18. Thermal pasteurization of ready-to-eat foods and vegetables: Critical factors for process design and effects on quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jing; Tang, Juming; Barrett, Diane M; Sablani, Shyam S; Anderson, Nathan; Powers, Joseph R

    2017-09-22

    Increasing consumer desire for high quality ready-to-eat foods makes thermal pasteurization important to both food producers and researchers. To be in compliance with the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), food companies seek regulatory and scientific guidelines to ensure that their products are safe. Clearly understanding the regulations for chilled or frozen foods is of fundamental importance to the design of thermal pasteurization processes for vegetables that meet food safety requirements. This article provides an overview of the current regulations and guidelines for pasteurization in the U.S. and in Europe for control of bacterial pathogens. Poorly understood viral pathogens, in terms of their survival in thermal treatments, are an increasing concern for both food safety regulators and scientists. New data on heat resistance of viruses in different foods are summarized. Food quality attributes are sensitive to thermal degradation. A review of thermal kinetics of inactivation of quality-related enzymes in vegetables and the effects of thermal pasteurization on vegetable quality is presented. The review also discusses shelf-life of thermally pasteurized vegetables.

  19. Concept Paper for Real-Time Temperature and Water QualityManagement for San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2004-12-20

    The San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration Program (SJRRP) has recognized the potential importance of real-time monitoring and management to the success of the San Joaquin River (SJR) restoration endeavor. The first step to realizing making real-time management a reality on the middle San Joaquin River between Friant Dam and the Merced River will be the installation and operation of a network of permanent telemetered gauging stations that will allow optimization of reservoir releases made specifically for fish water temperature management. Given the limited reservoir storage volume available to the SJJRP, this functionality will allow the development of an adaptive management program, similar in concept to the VAMP though with different objectives. The virtue of this approach is that as management of the middle SJR becomes more routine, additional sensors can be added to the sensor network, initially deployed, to continue to improve conditions for anadromous fish.

  20. Living in sympatry: The effect of habitat partitioning on the thermoregulation of three Mediterranean lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagonas, Kostas; Kapsalas, Grigoris; Valakos, Efstratios; Pafilis, Panayiotis

    2017-04-01

    The ability for effective, accurate and precise thermoregulation is of paramount importance for ectotherms. Sympatric lizards often partition their niche and select different microhabitats. These microhabitats, however, usually differ in their thermal conditions and lizards have to adapt their thermoregulation behavior accordingly. Here, we evaluated the impact of habitat partitioning on the thermal biology of three syntopic, congeneric lacertids (Podarcis peloponnesiacus, P. tauricus and P. muralis) from central Peloponnese, Greece. We assessed thermoregulation effectiveness (E) using the three standard thermal parameters: body (T b ), operative (T e ) and preferred (T pref ) temperatures. We hypothesized that the microhabitats used by each species would differ in thermal quality. We also predicted that all species would effectively thermoregulate, as they inhabit a thermally challenging mountain habitat. As expected, the partition of the habitat had an effect on the thermoregulation of lizards since microhabitats had different thermal qualities. All three species were effective and accurate thermoregulators but one of them achieved smaller E values as a result of the lower T b in the field. This discrepancy could be attributed to the cooler (but more benign) thermal microhabitats that this species occupies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study on the Thermal Effects and Air Quality Improvement of Green Roof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Luo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat island phenomenon and air quality deterioration issues are two major problems that have occurred during the process of urbanization, especially in developing countries. A number of measures have been proposed, among which roof greening is considered as a promising one due to its outstanding performance in thermal effects as well as air quality improvement. A self-maintenance system, termed the Green Roof Manager (GRM, which comprises the irrigation and shadowing subsystems, is proposed in this paper, focusing on the automatic and reliable operation of the roof greening system rather than exploiting new plant species. A three month long experiment was set up, resulting in the observation that a 14.7% of, on average, temperature reduction can be achieved in summer after deploying the GRM system. During a 24-hour monitoring experiment the PM2.5 concentrations above the GRM was reduced by up to 14.1% over the bare roof.

  2. Quality control for total evaporation technique by surface/thermal ionization mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Seikou; Inoue, Sinichi; Yamaguchi, Katsuyuki; Tsutaki, Yasuhiro

    2007-01-01

    For the measurement of uranium and plutonium isotopic composition, the surface/thermal ionization mass spectrometry is widely used at the both nuclear facilities and safeguards verification laboratories. The progress of instrument specification makes higher sensitivity. The total evaporation technique is one of the latest measurement techniques by using this progress, in which all of uranium or plutonium on the filament would be evaporated by increasing the filament current. The accuracy and precision of this technique is normally checked by using the certified isotope reference materials measurement. But the fluctuation of ion beam is very different by each filament, depending on the chemical form of evaporation. So, it should be considered how to check the measurement quality of unknown samples which has no certified values. This presentation is focused on the monitoring of ion yields and pattern of isotope ratio fluctuation to attain the traceability between reference material and unknown sample as quality control approach of total evaporation technique. (author)

  3. Power Quality Problems Mitigation using Dynamic Voltage Restorer in Egypt Thermal Research Reactor (ETRR-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandil, T.; Ayad, N.M.; Abdel Haleam, A.; Mahmoud, M.

    2013-01-01

    Egypt thermal research reactor (ETRR-2) was subjected to several Power Quality Problems such as voltage sags/swells, harmonics distortion, and short interruption. ETRR-2 encompasses a wide range of loads which are very sensitive to voltage variations and this leads to several unplanned shutdowns of the reactor due to trigger of the Reactor Protection System (RPS). The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) has recently been introduced to protect sensitive loads from voltage sags and other voltage disturbances. It is considered as one of the most efficient and effective solution. Its appeal includes smaller size and fast dynamic response to the disturbance. This paper describes a proposal of a DVR to improve power quality in ETRR-2 electrical distribution systems . The control of the compensation voltage is based on d-q-o algorithm. Simulation is carried out by Matlab/Simulink to verify the performance of the proposed method

  4. The effects of two free-floating plants (Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes on the burrow morphology and water quality characteristics of pond loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinqing Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Loach exhibit conspicuous drilling behaviors in the mud of shallow waters, yet their burrow morphology and the factors affecting this behavior have received little attention. We characterized the burrow morphology and water quality of the pond loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus in three scenarios: in tanks without plants, tanks with the free-floating plant water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes, and tanks with water lettuce Pistia stratiotes. Water hyacinth effectively removed water TN, COD, NO3-N and NH4-N, and water lettuce removed water TP and NH4-N. Water hyacinth and water lettuce markedly reduced water turbidity and DO, increased TOC and EC. Water hyacinth purified water more effectively than water lettuce, providing a suitable habitat for loach feeding, living and burrowing. The burrow structures were V-shaped, Y-shaped, inverted L-shaped, or complicated dendritic networks composed of multiple V shapes. The hyacinth treatment was characterized by the greatest burrow volume, length, depth, and structural complexity, but the opening size was reduced by dense root mat coverage. Burrows in the water lettuce treatment were characterized by intermediate volume, length, branches and sinuosity, but they had the largest opening and pit size. The control treatment had a flat bottom with the smallest, shortest burrows. This study indicates that free-floating plants improve habitat suitability and change burrow morphology and may be used to improve loach breeding methods.

  5. The Relationship between Thermal Comfort and Light Intensity with Sleep Quality and Eye Tiredness in Shift Work Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmoon, Hiva; Dehghan, Habibollah; Akbari, Jafar; Souri, Shiva

    2013-01-01

    Environmental conditions such as lighting and thermal comfort are influencing factors on sleep quality and visual tiredness. The purpose of this study was the determination of the relationship between thermal comfort and light intensity with the sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift nurses. Method. This cross-sectional research was conducted on 82 shift-work personnel of 18 nursing workstations in Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital, Iran, in 2012. Heat stress monitoring (WBGT) and photometer (Hagner Model) were used for measuring the thermal conditions and illumination intensity, respectively. To measure the sleep quality, visual tiredness, and thermal comfort, Pittsburg sleep quality index, eye fatigue questionnaire, and thermal comfort questionnaire were used, respectively. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, and Pearson correlation. Results. Correlation between thermal comfort which was perceived from the self-reporting of people with eye tiredness was −0.38 (P = 0.002). Pearson correlation between thermal comfort and sleep quality showed a positive and direct relationship (r = 0.241, P = 0.33) but the correlation between thermal comfort, which was perceived from the self-reporting of shift nurses, and WBGT index was a weak relationship (r = 0.019). Conclusion. Based on the obtained findings, it can be concluded that a defect in environmental conditions such as thermal conditions and light intensity and also lack of appropriate managerial plan for night shift-work nurses are destructive and negative factors for the physical and mental health of this group of practitioners. PMID:23476674

  6. The Relationship between Thermal Comfort and Light Intensity with Sleep Quality and Eye Tiredness in Shift Work Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiva Azmoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions such as lighting and thermal comfort are influencing factors on sleep quality and visual tiredness. The purpose of this study was the determination of the relationship between thermal comfort and light intensity with the sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift nurses. Method. This cross-sectional research was conducted on 82 shift-work personnel of 18 nursing workstations in Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital, Iran, in 2012. Heat stress monitoring (WBGT and photometer (Hagner Model were used for measuring the thermal conditions and illumination intensity, respectively. To measure the sleep quality, visual tiredness, and thermal comfort, Pittsburg sleep quality index, eye fatigue questionnaire, and thermal comfort questionnaire were used, respectively. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, and Pearson correlation. Results. Correlation between thermal comfort which was perceived from the self-reporting of people with eye tiredness was −0.38 (P=0.002. Pearson correlation between thermal comfort and sleep quality showed a positive and direct relationship (r=0.241, P=0.33 but the correlation between thermal comfort, which was perceived from the self-reporting of shift nurses, and WBGT index was a weak relationship (r=0.019. Conclusion. Based on the obtained findings, it can be concluded that a defect in environmental conditions such as thermal conditions and light intensity and also lack of appropriate managerial plan for night shift-work nurses are destructive and negative factors for the physical and mental health of this group of practitioners.

  7. Habitat selection and quality for multiple cohorts of young-of-the-year bluefish ( Pomatomus saltatrix): Comparisons between estuarine and ocean beaches in southern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David L.; Nichols, Ryan S.; Able, Kenneth W.

    2007-07-01

    In this study, seasonal and annual variability in the use of estuarine and ocean beaches by young-of-the-year bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, was evaluated by indices of abundance in coastal areas of southern New Jersey (1998-2000). Biological and physical factors measured at specific sites were correlated with bluefish abundance to determine the mechanisms underlying habitat selection. In addition, integrative and discrete indicators of bluefish growth were used to examine spatio-temporal dynamics in habitat quality and its effect on habitat selection by multiple cohorts of bluefish. Intra-annual recruitment to coastal areas of southern New Jersey was episodic, and resulted from the ingress of spring-spawned bluefish (hatch-date ˜April) to estuarine beaches in late May to early June, followed by the recruitment of summer-spawned fish (hatch-date ˜early July) to ocean beaches from July to October. Bluefish utilized estuarine and ocean beaches in a facultative manner that was responsive to dynamics in prey composition and temperature conditions. The recruitment and residency of bluefish in the estuary (1998-1999) and ocean beaches (1998), for example, was coincidental with the presence of the Atlantic silverside Menidia menidia and bay anchovy Anchoa mitchilli, the principal prey species for bluefish occupying these respective habitat-types. Bluefish abundance in the estuary (2000) and ocean beaches (1999-2000) was also correlated with water temperature, with the greatest catches of juveniles coinciding with their optimal growth temperature (24 °C). Bluefish growth, estimated as the slope of age-length relationships and daily specific growth rates, equaled 1.27-2.63 mm fork length (FL) d -1 and 3.8-8.7% body length increase d -1, respectively. The growth of sagittal otoliths was also used as a proxy for changes in bluefish size during and shortly before their time of capture. Accordingly, otolith growth rates of summer-spawned bluefish were greater at ocean

  8. High-quality GaN nanowires grown on Si and porous silicon by thermal evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekari, L., E-mail: lsg09_phy089@student.usm.my [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Ramizy, A.; Omar, K.; Hassan, H. Abu; Hassan, Z. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new kind of substrate (porous silicon) was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also this research introduces an easy and safe method to grow high quality GaN NWs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is a new growth process to decrease the cost, complexity of growth of GaN NWs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is a controllable method to synthesize GaN NWs by thermal evaporation. - Abstract: Nanowires (NWs) of GaN thin films were prepared on as-grown Si (1 1 1) and porous silicon (PS) substrates using thermal evaporation method. The film growth produced high-quality wurtzite GaN NWs. The size, morphology, and nanostructures of the crystals were investigated through scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The NWs grown on porous silicon were thinner, longer and denser compared with those on as-grown Si. The energy band gap of the NWs grown on PS was larger than that of NWs on as-grown Si. This is due to the greater quantum confinement effects of the crystalline structure of the NWs grown on PS.

  9. Air quality overview assessment of thermal power generation in Vancouver, BC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caton, R.B.; Brotherston, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    B.C. Hydro is preparing a 25 year utilization plan for Burrard Thermal Generating Plant, a 900 MW natural gas fired steam boiler facility near Vancouver. Historical emissions from the plant and ambient air quality in the region were reviewed to place plant operations in context of the technological modifications which have been made over the past 10 years. Environmental effects criteria and regulatory developments which may constrain planning were reviewed and evaluated. Unit emission rates at Burrard have been reduced by 40% since 1989, by extensive combustion modifications, to ca 40 ng/J of NOx. Nevertheless, anticipated regulatory requirements of emissions reductions nationally and in the Vancouver region will necessitate further reductions, or equivalent strategies, over the next ten years. The findings of the Burrard Thermal air quality review are summarized, including historical emissions in the Lower Mainland, transport and transformation of oxidants and acidic deposition, human health impacts, and vegetation impacts. The difficulties that arise in evaluating the imapct of an isolated source of NOx in an urban area are discussed. 30 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Analysis of thermal comfort and indoor air quality in a mechanically ventilated theatre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavgic, M.; Mumovic, D.; Young, A. [The Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, England (United Kingdom); Stevanovic, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences - Vinca, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (RS)

    2008-07-01

    Theatres are the most complex of all auditorium structures environmentally. They usually have high heat loads, which are of a transient nature as audiences come and go, and from lighting which changes from scene to scene, and they generally have full or nearly full occupancy. Theatres also need to perform well acoustically, both for the spoken word and for music, and as sound amplification is less used than in other auditoria, background noise control is critically important. All these factors place constraints on the ventilation design, and if this is poor, it can lead to the deterioration of indoor air quality and thermal comfort. To analyse the level of indoor air quality and thermal comfort in a typical medium-sized mechanically ventilated theatre, and to identify where improvements could typically be made, a comprehensive post-occupancy evaluation study was carried out on a theatre in Belgrade. The evaluation, based on the results of monitoring (temperature, relative humidity, CO{sub 2}, air speed and heat flux) and modelling (CFD), as well as the assessment of comfort and health as perceived by occupants, has shown that for most of the monitored period the environmental parameters were within the standard limits of thermal comfort and IAQ. However, two important issues were identified, which should be borne in mind by theatre designers in the future. First, the calculated ventilation rates showed that the theatre was over-ventilated, which will have serious consequences for its energy consumption, and secondly, the displacement ventilation arrangement employed led to higher than expected complaints of cold discomfort, probably due to cold draughts around the occupants' feet. (author)

  11. Habitat preference of Roan Antelope (Hippotragus equinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Habitat Preference, Roan Antelope, Seasons. INTRODUCTION. Habitat quality and quantity have been identified as the primary limiting factors that influence animal population dynamics. (Jansen et al., 2001). Habitat influences the presence, abundance, distribution, movement and behavior of game animals.

  12. Effect of processing conditions on quality of green beans subjected to reciprocating agitation thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anika; Singh, Anubhav Pratap; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2015-12-01

    The effect of reciprocating agitation thermal processing (RA-TP) on quality of canned beans was evaluated in a lab-scale reciprocating retort. Green beans were selected due to their soft texture and sensitive color. Green beans (2.5cm length×0.8cm diameter) were filled into 307×409 cans with carboxylmethylcellulose (0-2%) solutions and processed at different temperatures (110-130°C) and reciprocation frequency (1-3Hz) for predetermined heating times to achieve a process lethality (F o ) of 10min. Products processed at higher temperatures and higher reciprocation frequencies resulted in better retention of chlorophyll and antioxidant activity. However, high reciprocation frequency also resulted in texture losses, with higher breakage of beans, increased turbidity and higher leaching. There was total loss of product quality at the highest agitation speed, especially with low viscosity covering solutions. Results suggest that reciprocating agitation frequency needs to be adequately moderated to get the best quality. For getting best quality, particularly for canned liquid particulate foods with soft particulates and those susceptible to high impact agitation, a gentle reciprocating motion (~1Hz) would be a good compromise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Habitat degradation and loss as key drivers of regional population extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habitat quality is a fundamental driver of species distributions and population outcomes but is often difficult to measure. Further, habitat quality can be abstract, multi-faceted and challenging to compare alongside measures of habitat amount and fragmentation. Consequently, hab...

  14. Fast Batch Production of High-Quality Graphene Films in a Sealed Thermal Molecular Movement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianbao; Hu, Junxiong; Li, Qi; Wang, Rubing; Li, Weiwei; Guo, Yufen; Zhu, Yongbo; Liu, Fengkui; Ullah, Zaka; Dong, Guocai; Zeng, Zhongming; Liu, Liwei

    2017-07-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of high-quality graphene has emerged as the most promising technique in terms of its integrated manufacturing. However, there lacks a controllable growth method for producing high-quality and a large-quantity graphene films, simultaneously, at a fast growth rate, regardless of roll-to-roll (R2R) or batch-to-batch (B2B) methods. Here, a stationary-atmospheric-pressure CVD (SAPCVD) system based on thermal molecular movement, which enables fast B2B growth of continuous and uniform graphene films on tens of stacked Cu(111) foils, with a growth rate of 1.5 µm s -1 , is demonstrated. The monolayer graphene of batch production is found to nucleate from arrays of well-aligned domains, and the films possess few defects and exhibit high carrier mobility up to 6944 cm 2 V -1 s -1 at room temperature. The results indicate that the SAPCVD system combined with single-domain Cu(111) substrates makes it possible to realize fast batch-growth of high-quality graphene films, which opens up enormous opportunities to use this unique 2D material for industrial device applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Quality comparison of elephant apple juices after high-pressure processing and thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Prakash Kumar; Rayaguru, Kalpana; Radha Krishnan, Kesavan

    2017-03-01

    In the present work, the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) on the quality parameters (pH, °Brix, total acidity, viscosity, colour, antioxidant activity, total phenols, total flavonoids, microbial flora, and sensory analysis) of elephant apple (Dillenia indica) juice was investigated. The juice samples were analysed periodically (0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days) during 60 days of storage period and results were compared with thermally processed as well as with untreated (fresh juice) samples. Slight variations had been observed in the quality parameters like pH, °Brix and total acidity. Other parameters like colour values, antioxidant activity, total phenols and total flavonoids were varied significantly (P apple juice was established as 60 days at 4 °C. This study showed that application of HPP effectively maintained quality attributes and extended shelf life of the elephant apple juice. It may be suggested that application of HPP could be considered for commercial application during storage and marketing. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Emerging technology to measure habitat quality and behavior of grouse: Examples from studies of greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Sorensen Forbey; Gail L. Patricelli; Donna M. Delparte; Alan H. Krakauer; Peter J. Olsoy; Marcella R. Fremgen; Jordan D. Nobler; Lucas P. Spaete; Lisa A. Shipley; Janet L. Rachlow; Amy K. Dirksen; Anna Perry; Bryce A. Richardson; Nancy F. Glenn

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of threats, both natural (e.g. fires, drought) and anthropogenic (e.g. agriculture, infrastructure development), are likely to affect both availability and quality of plants that grouse rely on for cover and food. As such, there is an increasing need to monitor plants and their use by grouse over space and time to better predict how changes in...

  17. Riparian buffer design guidelines for water quality and wildlife habitat functions on agricultural landscapes in the Intermountain West: Appendix C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Buffler

    2008-01-01

    Currently, there is no scientific literature examining appropriate riparian buffer widths for water quality for streams on private agriculturally dominated lands in arid regions of the Intermountain West. The initial step in this research effort was a review of buffer research as documented in the literature in other physiographic regions of the United States. Research...

  18. Desk-study on habitat quality for the European Sturgeon in the Dutch Rhine and southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, H.V.; Teal, L.R.; Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Griffioen, A.B.; Houben, B.; Breve, N.W.P.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most endangered fish species worldwide is the European sturgeon Acipenser sturio. The River Rhine was home to an important sturgeon population that went locally extinct in the first half of the 20th century. In recent decades, many improvements of the ecological quality of the Rhine have

  19. Providing better thermal and air quality conditions in school classrooms would be cost-effective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David Peter

    2013-01-01

    codes stipulate that they should be. This is sometimes because financial resources for the maintenance and upgrade of school buildings are inadequate, but it is also because schools are increasingly allowing classroom temperatures to drift above the recommended range of 20–22 °C in warm weather......This paper is an overall summary of research by the authors on how classroom conditions affect the performance of schoolwork by children, motivated by the fact that the thermal and air quality conditions in school classrooms are now almost universally worse than the relevant standards and building...... and allowing outdoor air supply rates to remain so low that carbon dioxide (CO2) levels during school hours exceed 1000 ppm for long periods, in order to conserve energy. The research that is summarized in this paper shows that the indoor environmental consequences of either of these investment-free but ill...

  20. Quantity, Quality, and Availability of Waste Heat from United States Thermal Power Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2015-07-21

    Secondary application of unconverted heat produced during electric power generation has the potential to improve the life-cycle fuel efficiency of the electric power industry and the sectors it serves. This work quantifies the residual heat (also known as waste heat) generated by U.S. thermal power plants and assesses the intermittency and transport issues that must be considered when planning to utilize this heat. Combining Energy Information Administration plant-level data with literature-reported process efficiency data, we develop estimates of the unconverted heat flux from individual U.S. thermal power plants in 2012. Together these power plants discharged an estimated 18.9 billion GJ(th) of residual heat in 2012, 4% of which was discharged at temperatures greater than 90 °C. We also characterize the temperature, spatial distribution, and temporal availability of this residual heat at the plant level and model the implications for the technical and economic feasibility of its end use. Increased implementation of flue gas desulfurization technologies at coal-fired facilities and the higher quality heat generated in the exhaust of natural gas fuel cycles are expected to increase the availability of residual heat generated by 10.6% in 2040.

  1. Environmental quality rehabilitation relating to the cessation of a thermal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauna, Gheorghe; Budulan, Pompiliu; Pavel, Adina Mariana

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the environmental requirements as a result of the IANCA Thermal Plant running on coal, taking out of operation and turning it to better account by selling or dismantling it. Thus, in agreement with the Environmental Protection Law No. 137/29.12.1995- modified and republished on 17.02.2000//Article 15 specifies that when the investment changes its owner or destination or the activities generating an impact on the environment cease to exist, it is mandatory that the former owner develop an environmental study, with a view to establishing the requirements obligations relating to environmental quality restoration in the area the respective activity had an impact on. In the paper will be presented the following issues: environmental obligations resulting from the objective putting out of operation. Legislative specifications; specific works and environmental protection measures: installation, equipment, sub assemblies, spare parts turning to better account; general conditions (prerequisites) for waste management,, categories of waste resulting from the IANCA Thermal Plant dismantling. Its storage and turning to better account. (Author)

  2. Thermal and non-thermal preservation techniques of tiger nuts' beverage "horchata de chufa". Implications for food safety, nutritional and quality properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselló-Soto, Elena; Poojary, Mahesha M; Barba, Francisco J; Koubaa, Mohamed; Lorenzo, Jose M; Mañes, Jordi; Moltó, Juan Carlos

    2018-03-01

    "Horchata de chufa" is a traditional Spanish beverage produced from tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus L.). Due to its richness in nutritional compounds, it is highly perishable and its conservation by pasteurization and/or adding preservatives is required. Although efficient, conventional thermal treatment for pasteurization induces changes in the nutritional and sensory properties. Replacing conventional pasteurization by non-thermal technologies such as pulsed electric fields, ultraviolet, and high pressure, combined with moderate temperatures (preservation of the most thermo-sensitive molecules. Accordingly, this review deals with the description of the most relevant non-thermal technologies applied to preserve "horchata" beverage in order to extend the shelf life and inactivate pathogenic microorganisms as well as to preserve the nutritional and quality properties of this food beverage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Harvesting interacts with climate change to affect future habitat quality of a focal species in eastern Canada's boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Junior A; Boulanger, Yan; Cyr, Dominic; Taylor, Anthony R; Price, David T; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues

    2018-01-01

    Many studies project future bird ranges by relying on correlative species distribution models. Such models do not usually represent important processes explicitly related to climate change and harvesting, which limits their potential for predicting and understanding the future of boreal bird assemblages at the landscape scale. In this study, we attempted to assess the cumulative and specific impacts of both harvesting and climate-induced changes on wildfires and stand-level processes (e.g., reproduction, growth) in the boreal forest of eastern Canada. The projected changes in these landscape- and stand-scale processes (referred to as "drivers of change") were then assessed for their impacts on future habitats and potential productivity of black-backed woodpecker (BBWO; Picoides arcticus), a focal species representative of deadwood and old-growth biodiversity in eastern Canada. Forest attributes were simulated using a forest landscape model, LANDIS-II, and were used to infer future landscape suitability to BBWO under three anthropogenic climate forcing scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5), compared to the historical baseline. We found climate change is likely to be detrimental for BBWO, with up to 92% decline in potential productivity under the worst-case climate forcing scenario (RCP 8.5). However, large declines were also projected under baseline climate, underlining the importance of harvest in determining future BBWO productivity. Present-day harvesting practices were the single most important cause of declining areas of old-growth coniferous forest, and hence appeared as the single most important driver of future BBWO productivity, regardless of the climate scenario. Climate-induced increases in fire activity would further promote young, deciduous stands at the expense of old-growth coniferous stands. This suggests that the biodiversity associated with deadwood and old-growth boreal forests may be greatly altered by the cumulative impacts of natural and

  4. Harvesting interacts with climate change to affect future habitat quality of a focal species in eastern Canada's boreal forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior A Tremblay

    Full Text Available Many studies project future bird ranges by relying on correlative species distribution models. Such models do not usually represent important processes explicitly related to climate change and harvesting, which limits their potential for predicting and understanding the future of boreal bird assemblages at the landscape scale. In this study, we attempted to assess the cumulative and specific impacts of both harvesting and climate-induced changes on wildfires and stand-level processes (e.g., reproduction, growth in the boreal forest of eastern Canada. The projected changes in these landscape- and stand-scale processes (referred to as "drivers of change" were then assessed for their impacts on future habitats and potential productivity of black-backed woodpecker (BBWO; Picoides arcticus, a focal species representative of deadwood and old-growth biodiversity in eastern Canada. Forest attributes were simulated using a forest landscape model, LANDIS-II, and were used to infer future landscape suitability to BBWO under three anthropogenic climate forcing scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, compared to the historical baseline. We found climate change is likely to be detrimental for BBWO, with up to 92% decline in potential productivity under the worst-case climate forcing scenario (RCP 8.5. However, large declines were also projected under baseline climate, underlining the importance of harvest in determining future BBWO productivity. Present-day harvesting practices were the single most important cause of declining areas of old-growth coniferous forest, and hence appeared as the single most important driver of future BBWO productivity, regardless of the climate scenario. Climate-induced increases in fire activity would further promote young, deciduous stands at the expense of old-growth coniferous stands. This suggests that the biodiversity associated with deadwood and old-growth boreal forests may be greatly altered by the cumulative impacts of

  5. Evaluating the accotink creek restoration project for improving water quality, in-stream habitat, and bank stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, S.D.; Selvakumar, A.; Hyer, K.; O'Connor, T.

    2007-01-01

    Increased urbanization results in a larger percentage of connected impervious areas and can contribute large quantities of stormwater runoff and significant quantities of debris and pollutants (e.g., litter, oils, microorganisms, sediments, nutrients, organic matter, and heavy metals) to receiving waters. To improve water quality in urban and suburban areas, watershed managers often incorporate best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the quantity of runoff as well as to minimize pollutants and other stressors contained in stormwater runoff. It is well known that land-use practices directly impact urban streams. Stream flows in urbanized watersheds increase in magnitude as a function of impervious area and can result in degradation of the natural stream channel morphology affecting the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the stream. Stream bank erosion, which also increases with increased stream flows, can lead to bank instability, property loss, infrastructure damage, and increased sediment loading to the stream. Increased sediment loads may lead to water quality degradation downstream and have negative impacts on fish, benthic invertebrates, and other aquatic life. Accotink Creek is in the greater Chesapeake Bay and Potomac watersheds, which have strict sediment criteria. The USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) and USGS (United States Geological Survey) are investigating the effectiveness of stream restoration techniques as a BMP to decrease sediment load and improve bank stability, biological integrity, and in-stream water quality in an impaired urban watershed in Fairfax, Virginia. This multi-year project continuously monitors turbidity, specific conductance, pH, and water temperature, as well as biological and chemical water quality parameters. In addition, physical parameters (e.g., pebble counts, longitudinal and cross sectional stream surveys) were measured to assess geomorphic changes associated with the restoration. Data

  6. Using ecotechnology to address water quality and wetland habitat loss problems in the Mississippi basin: a hierarchical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John W; Yañéz Arancibia, Alejandro; Mitsch, William J; Lara-Dominguez, Ana Laura; Day, Jason N; Ko, Jae-Young; Lane, Robert; Lindsey, Joel; Lomeli, David Zarate

    2003-12-01

    Human activities are affecting the environment at continental and global scales. An example of this is the Mississippi basin where there has been a large scale loss of wetlands and water quality deterioration over the past century. Wetland and riparian ecosystems have been isolated from rivers and streams. Wetland loss is due both to drainage and reclamation, mainly for agriculture, and to isolation from the river by levees, as in the Mississippi delta. There has been a decline in water quality due to increasing use of fertilizers, enhanced drainage and the loss of wetlands for cleaning water. Water quality has deteriorated throughout the basin and high nitrogen in the Mississippi river is causing a large area of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi delta. Since the causes of these problems are distributed over the basin, the solution also needs to be distributed over the basin. Ecotechnology and ecological engineering offer the only ecologically sound and cost-effective method of solving these problems. Wetlands to promote nitrogen removal, mainly through denitrification but also through burial and plant uptake, offer a sound ecotechnological solution. At the level of the Mississippi basin, changes in farming practices and use of wetlands for nitrogen assimilation can reduce nitrogen levels in the River. There are additional benefits of restoration of wetland and riverine ecosystems, flood control, reduction in public health threats, and enhanced wildlife and fisheries. At the local drainage basin level, the use of river diversions in the Mississippi delta can address both problems of coastal land loss and water quality deterioration. Nitrate levels in diverted river water are rapidly reduced as water flows through coastal watersheds. At the local level, wetlands are being used to treat municipal wastewater. This is a cost-effective method, which results in improved water quality, enhanced wetland productivity and increased accretion. The

  7. Effects of land use, stream habitat, and water quality on biological communities of wadeable streams in the Illinois River Basin of Arkansas, 2011 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, James C.; Justus, B.G.; Meredith, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    The Illinois River Basin includes an area of diverse land use in northwestern Arkansas. Land-use data collected in 2006 indicate that most of the land in the basin is agricultural. The agricultural land is used primarily for production of poultry and cattle. Eighteen sites were selected from the list of candidate sites based on drainage area, land use, presence or absence of an upstream wastewater-treatment plant, water quality, and other information gathered during the reconnaissance. An important consideration in the process was to select sites along gradients of forest to urban land use and forest to agricultural land use. Water-quality samples were collected for analysis of nutrients, and a multiparameter field meter was used to measure water temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Streamflow was measured immediately following the water-quality sampling. Macroalgae coverage was estimated and periphyton, macroinvertebrate, and fish communities were sampled at each site. Stream habitat also was assessed. Many types of land-use, water-quality, and habitat factors affected one or more aspects of the biological communities. Several macroinvertebrate and fish metrics changed in response to changes in percent forest; sites that would be considered most disturbed, based on these metrics, are sites with the highest percentages of urban land use in their associated basins. The presence of large mats of macroalgae was one of the most noticeable biological characteristics in several streams within the Illinois River Basin. The highest macroalgae percent cover values were recorded at four sites downstream from wastewater-treatment plants. Macroalgae percent cover was strongly correlated only with bed substrate size, canopy closure, and specific conductance. Periphyton metrics were most often and most strongly correlated with riparian shading, specific conductance, substrate turbidity, percent agriculture, poultry house density, and unpaved road density

  8. The effect of thermal treatment on the quality changes of Antartic krill meal during the manufacturing process: High processing temperatures decrease product quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Bruheim, Inge; Ale, Marcel Tutor

    2015-01-01

    The quality of krill products is influenced by their manufacturing process and could be evaluated by their degradation products from lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions. The main objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate the effect of thermal treatment on these two reacti...

  9. Effect of Thermal Treatments on Quality and Aroma of Watermelon Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubin Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermal treatments on the quality and aroma of watermelon juice was evaluated. Watermelon juice was pasteurized via ultrahigh temperature (UHT, pasteurized at 135°C for 2 s, low temperature long time (LTLT, pasteurized at 60°C for 30 min, and high temperature short time (HTST, pasteurized at 100°C for 5 min, respectively. UHT and LTLT reduced the total flora count and maintained the color of the pasteurized juice, while the HTST led to a significant color difference. A total of 27, 21, 22, and 21 volatiles were identified in the unpasteurized juice, UHT, LTLT, and HTST, respectively. The typical watermelon aroma, including (3Z-3-nonen-1-ol, (E-2-nonen-1-ol, 1-nonanal, (2E-2-nonenal, and (E,Z-2,6-nonadienal, was abundant in the LTLT. Consequently, the aroma of the LTLT was similar to that of unpasteurized juice. Moreover, the shelf life of the LTLT reached 101 and 14 days at 4 and 25°C, respectively. Hence, the LTLT was the best way to maintain the quality and aroma of watermelon juice.

  10. Quality and microbial safety evaluation of new isotonic beverages upon thermal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Huertas, Juan-Pablo; Moreno, Diego A; Periago, Paula M; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, it was evaluated how two different thermal treatments (Mild and Severe) may affect the anthocyanin content, antioxidant capacity (ABTS(+), DPPH, and FRAP), quality (CIELAB colour parameters), and microbiological safety of a new isotonic drink made of lemon and maqui berry over a commercial storage simulation using a shelf life of 56days at two preservation temperature (7°C and 37°C). Both heat treatments did not affect drastically the anthocyanins content and their percentage of retention. The antioxidant capacity, probably because of the short time, was also not affected. The CIELAB colour parameters were affected by the heat, although the isotonic drinks remained with attractive red colour during shelf life. From a microbiological point of view, the Mild heat treatment with storage at 7°C is the ideal for the preservation of microbial growth, being useful for keeping the quality and safety of beverages in commercial life. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Thermal conditions and perceived air quality in an air-conditioned auditorium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polednik, Bernard; Guz, Łukasz; Skwarczyński, Mariusz; Dudzińska, Marzenna R.

    2016-07-01

    The study reports measurements of indoor air temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH), perceived air quality (PAQ) and CO2, fine aerosol particle number (PN) and mass (PM1) concentrations in an air conditioned auditorium. The measurements of these air physical parameters have been carried out in the unoccupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off (AC off mode) and in the unoccupied and occupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off during the night and switched on during the day (AC on/off mode). The average indoor air thermal parameters, CO2 concentration and the PAQ value (in decipols) were elevated, while average PM1 concentration was lower in the AC on/off mode. A statistically significant (p PAQ values and CO2 concentrations (r = 0.66 and r = 0.59, respectively) in that AC mode. A significant negative correlation has been observed between T and PN and PM1 concentrations (r = -0.38 and r = -0.49, respectively). In the AC off mode the above relations between T and the particle concentrations were not that unequivocal. These findings may be of importance as they indicate that in certain AC operation modes the indoor air quality deteriorates along with the variation of the indoor air microclimate and room occupation. This, in turn, may adversely affect the comfort and productivity of the users of air conditioned premises.

  12. Thermoregulation and temperature relations of alligators and other large ectotherms inhabiting thermally stressed habitats. Annual progress report, 1 July 1976--30 September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spotila, J.R.

    1977-06-01

    Progress is reported on studies of the biophysical and thermal relationships between large ectotherms and their aquatic environment. Data are reported from laboratory and field studies on alligators, turtles, and fish. Mathematical models of the effect of body size and physical characteristics on temperature regulation of ectotherms and of thermal stress in aquatic organisms were developed. Results are included of field studies on the physiological and behavioral adjustments of turtles in response to changes in water temperature produced by thermal effluents in PAR Pond at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

  13. Plant Habitat (PH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  14. Impact of the surface quality on the thermal shock performance of beryllium armor tiles for first wall applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spilker, B., E-mail: b.spilker@fz-juelich.de; Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Wirtz, M.

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Different surface qualities of S-65 beryllium are tested under high heat flux conditions. • After 1000 thermal shocks, the loaded area exhibits a crucial destruction. • Stress accelerated grain boundary oxidation/dynamic embrittlement effects are linked to the thermal shock performance of beryllium. • Thermally induced cracks form between 1 and 10 pulses and grow wider and deeper between 10 and 100 pulses. • Thermally induced cracks form and propagate independently from surface grooves and the surface quality. - Abstract: Beryllium will be applied as first wall armor material in ITER. The armor has to sustain high steady state and transient power fluxes. For transient events like edge localized modes, these transient power fluxes rise up to 1.0 GW m{sup −2} with a duration of 0.5–0.75 ms in the divertor region and a significant fraction of this power flux is deposited on the first wall as well. In the present work, the reference beryllium grade for the ITER first wall application S-65 was prepared with various surface conditions and subjected to transient power fluxes (thermal shocks) with ITER relevant loading parameters. After 1000 thermal shocks, a crucial destruction of the entire loaded area was observed and linked to the stress accelerated grain boundary oxidation (SAGBO)/dynamic embrittlement (DE) effect. Furthermore, the study revealed that the majority of the thermally induced cracks formed between 1 and 10 pulses and then grew wider and deeper with increasing pulse number. The surface quality did not influence the cracking behavior of beryllium in any detectable way. However, the polished surface demonstrated the highest resistance against the observed crucial destruction mechanism.

  15. Protocols for collection of streamflow, water-quality, streambed-sediment, periphyton, macroinvertebrate, fish, and habitat data to describe stream quality for the Hydrobiological Monitoring Program, Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery Program, city of Wichita, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Poulton, Barry C.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    The city of Wichita, Kansas uses the Equus Beds aquifer, one of two sources, for municipal water supply. To meet future water needs, plans for artificial recharge of the aquifer have been implemented in several phases. Phase I of the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) Program began with injection of water from the Little Arkansas River into the aquifer for storage and subsequent recovery in 2006. Construction of a river intake structure and surface-water treatment plant began as implementation of Phase II of the Equus Beds ASR Program in 2010. An important aspect of the ASR Program is the monitoring of water quality and the effects of recharge activities on stream conditions. Physical, chemical, and biological data provide the basis for an integrated assessment of stream quality. This report describes protocols for collecting streamflow, water-quality, streambed-sediment, periphyton, macroinvertebrate, fish, and habitat data as part of the city of Wichita's hydrobiological monitoring program (HBMP). Following consistent and reliable methods for data collection and processing is imperative for the long-term success of the monitoring program.

  16. Effect of thermal treatment on the quality of cloudy apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapfenbauer, Gottfried; Kinner, Mathias; Gössinger, Manfred; Schönlechner, Regine; Berghofer, Emmerich

    2006-07-26

    Apple juice from eight different varieties of apples was heated at high-temperature (60-90 degrees C) and short-time (20-100 s) (HTST) combinations. To determine the effect of heating conditions on enzymatic browning and cloud stability in apple juices, the activity of polyphenol oxidase and pectinesterase was analyzed and correlated with the thermal treatment conditions and the quality of the juice. Additional investigations included the measurement of pH value, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, color, and turbidity after 3 and 6 months. The results showed that HTST treatment at 80 degrees C already inactivated polyphenol oxidase, whereas pectinesterase activity was reduced to half and could even at 90 degrees C not be inactivated completely. In fact, highest residual pectinesterase activity was found at 60 degrees C. Heating at 70 degrees C caused stable pectinesterase activity and even a slight increase for 50 and 100 s heating times. Turbidity and lightness increased after HTST treatment. In particular, differences in cloud stability between the varieties were measured. HTST parameters did not correlate with the residual cloud stability after 6 months. The sensory evaluation revealed that only a few combinations were distinguishable. The best stability of cloud and color in relation to heat impact was achieved by HTST treatment between 70 degrees C/100 s and 80 degrees C/20 s.

  17. Chinook Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds125

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer depicts areas designated for Chinook Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the Central Valley Spring-run Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  18. Chinook Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds125

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This layer depicts areas designated for Chinook Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the Central Valley Spring-run Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  19. Steelhead Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds123

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This layer depicts areas designated for Steelhead Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the California Central Valley Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  20. The Habitat Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Consists of activities which address the causes of habitat destruction and the effects of habitat loss on animals and plants. Identifies habitat loss as the major reason for the endangerment and extinction of plant and animal species. (ML)

  1. Continuation of studies on thermoregulation of fish and turtles in thermally stressed habitats. Annual progress report, 1 October 1979-30 September 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spotila, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    Fundamental and realized climate spaces were calculated for the turtle Chrysemys scripta. These allow predictions about the effect of microclimate and thermal effluents on the behavior of these animals to be made. A conceptual model to define the biophysical-behavioral thermoregulatory mechanisms employed by this turtle is being finalized. Operative environmental temperature (T/sub e/) is a good predictor of the basking behavior of turtles. T/sub e/ is positively related to visible and thermal radiation and air temperature. Turtles generally do not bask until T/sub e/ exceeds 28 0 C, thus implicating thermoregulation as a major factor in determining the basking behavior of C. scripta. Water temperature was very important in determining the distribution of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, in a South Carolina reservoir receiving thermal effluent from a nuclear reactor. Bass were restricted in movement by lethal water temperatures, selecting temperatures close to 30 0 C and avoiding temperatures above 31 0 C. Under normal, unheated conditions, bass dispersed throughout the reservoir. During reactor operation, hot water at temperatures lethal to fish (approx. 55 0 C), forced bass to retreat to refuges in two coves and a deep spring. Distribution of bass varied seasonally. Multichannel radio transmitters were surgically implanted in free ranging fish, permitting the telemetry of temperatures from five parts of the body and from surrounding water. In general, body temperatures followed water temperatures closely, but rapidly changing temperatures produced lags between body temperatures and water of as much as 3.5 0 C

  2. A Cartographic Tool for Managing African Swine Fever in Eurasia: Mapping Wild Boar Distribution Based on the Quality of Available Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, J; Iglesias, I; Muñoz, M J; de la Torre, A

    2017-12-01

    The current African swine fever (ASF) epidemic in Eurasia represents a risk for the swine industry with devastating socio-economic and political consequences. Wild boar appears to be a key factor in maintaining the disease in endemic areas (mainly the Russian Federation) and spreading the disease across borders, including within the European Union. To help predict and interpret the dynamics of ASF infection, we developed a standardized distribution map based on global land cover vegetation (GLOBCOVER) that quantifies the quality of available habitats (QAH) for wild boar across Eurasia as an indirect index for quantifying numbers of wild boar. QAHs were estimated using a seven-level scale based on expert opinion and found to correlate closely with georeferenced presence of wild boar (n = 22 362): the highest wild boar densities (74.47%) were found in areas at the two highest QAH levels, while the lowest densities (5.66%) were found in areas at the lowest QAH levels. Mapping notifications from 2007 to 2016 onto the QAH map showed that in endemic areas, 60% of ASF notifications occurred in domestic pigs, mostly in agricultural landscapes (QAHs 1.75 and 1) containing low-biosecurity domestic pig farms. In the EU, in contrast, 95% of ASF notifications occurred in wild boar, within natural landscapes (QAH 2). These results suggest that the QAH map can be a useful epi-tool for defining risk scenarios and identifying potential travel corridors for ASF. This tool will help inform resource allocation decisions and improve prevention, control and surveillance of ASF and potentially of other diseases affecting swine and wild boar in Eurasia. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Effects of thermal discomfort in an office on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms, physiological responses and human performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan, Li; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David Peter

    2011-01-01

    The effects of thermal discomfort on health and human performance were investigated in an office, in an attempt to elucidate the physiological mechanisms involved. Twelve subjects (six men and six women) performed neurobehavioral tests and tasks typical of office work while thermally neutral (at 22......, and were less willing to exert effort. Task performance decreased when the subjects felt warm. Their heart rate, respiratory ventilation, and end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide increased significantly, and their arterial oxygen saturation decreased. Tear film quality was found to be significantly...... reduced at the higher temperature when they felt warm. No effects were observed on salivary biomarkers (alpha-amylase and cortisol). The present results imply that the negative effects on health and performance that occur when people feel thermally warm at raised temperatures are caused by physiological...

  4. Hydrogen and Carbon Black Production from Thermal Decomposition of Sub-Quality Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Javadi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is computational investigation of the hydrogen and carbon black production through thermal decomposition of waste gases containing CH4 and H2S, without requiring a H2S separation process. The chemical reaction model, which involves solid carbon, sulfur compounds and precursor species for the formation of carbon black, is based on an assumed Probability Density Function (PDF parameterized by the mean and variance of mixture fraction and β-PDF shape. The effects of feedstock mass flow rate and reactor temperature on hydrogen, carbon black, S2, SO2, COS and CS2 formation are investigated. The results show that the major factor influencing CH4 and H2S conversions is reactor temperature. For temperatures higher than 1100° K, the reactor CH4 conversion reaches 100%, whilst H2S conversion increases in temperatures higher than 1300° K. The results reveal that at any temperature, H2S conversion is less than that of CH4. The results also show that in the production of carbon black from sub-quality natural gas, the formation of carbon monoxide, which is occurring in parallel, play a very significant role. For lower values of feedstock flow rate, CH4 mostly burns to CO and consequently, the production of carbon black is low. The results show that the yield of hydrogen increases with increasing feedstock mass flow rate until the yield reaches a maximum value, and then drops with further increase in the feedstock mass flow rate.

  5. Discovery and Description of Giant Submarine Smectite Cones on the Seafloor in Eyjafjordur, Northern Iceland, and a Novel Thermal Microbial Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteinsson, Viggó Thór; Kristjánsson, Jakob K.; Kristmannsdóttir, Hrefna; Dahlkvist, Maria; Sæmundsson, Kristján; Hannington, Mark; Pétursdóttir, Sólveig K.; Geptner, Alfred; Stoffers, Peter

    2001-01-01

    With the submersible JAGO and by scuba diving we discovered three remarkable geothermal cones, rising 33, 25, and 45 m from the seafloor at a depth of 65 m in Eyjafjordur, northern Iceland. The greatest geothermal activity was on the highest cone, which discharged up to 50 liters of freshwater per s at 72°C and pH 10.0. The cones were built up from precipitated smectite, formed by mixing of the hot SiO2-rich geothermal fluid with the cold Mg-rich seawater. By connecting a rubber hose to one outflow, about 240 liters of pure geothermal fluids was concentrated through a 0.2-μm-pore-size filter. Among 50 thermophilic isolates, we found members of Bacillus and Thermonema and a new unidentified low-G+C gram-positive member of the Bacteria as well as one member of the Archaea, Desulfurococcus mobilis. Analysis of small-subunit rRNA genes PCR amplified and cloned directly from environmental DNA showed that 41 out of 45 Bacteria sequences belonged to members of the Aquificales, whereas all of the 10 Archaea sequences belonged to the Korarchaeota. The physiological characteristics of isolates from different parts of the cones indicate a completely freshwater habitat, supporting the possibility of subterranean transmittance of terrestrial organisms. PMID:11157250

  6. Continuation of studies on thermoregulation of fish and turtles in thermally stressed habitats. Summary progress report, 1 October 1977-30 September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spotila, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    Biophysical-behavioral-ecological models have been completed to explain the behavioral thermoregulation of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and turtles (Chrysemys scripta). Steady state and time dependent mathematical models accurately predict the body temperatures of largemouth bass. Field experiments using multichannel radio transmitters have provided temperatures of several body compartments of free ranging bass in their natural habitat. Initial studies have been completed to describe the behavioral thermoregulation of bass in a reactor cooling reservoir. Energy budgets, fundamental climate spaces, and realized climate spaces have been completed for the turtle, C. scripta. We have described the behavioral thermoregulation of C. scripta in Par Pond, S.C. and have measured its movements, home ranges and population levels in heated and unheated arms of the reservoir. Operative environmental temperature is a good predictor of the basking behavior of this turtle. A new synthesis explained the evolution of thermoregulatory strategies among animals. Laboratory experiments clarified the effects of movement, diving and temperature on the blood flow of alligators. Other experiments defined the role of boundary layers in controlling the evaporation of water from the surfaces of turtles and alligators in still and moving air. Nutritional status may be an important factor affecting the thermoregulatory behavior of turtles.

  7. Thermal comfort and indoor air quality in rooms with integrated personalized ventilation and under-floor air distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ruixin; Sekhar ., S. C.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive study comprising physical measurements and human subject experiments was conducted to explore the potential for improving occupants' thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) using a personalized ventilation (PV) system combined with an under-floor air distribution(UFAD) system....... The integrated PV-UFAD system, when operated at relatively high temperature of the air supplied from the UFAD system, provided comfortable cooling of the facial region, improved inhaled air quality, and decreased the risk of "cold feet," which is often reported in rooms with UFAD alone. This article explores...... and a secondary AHU for 100% recirculated air that is supplied through UFAD outlets. Velocity and temperature distribution in the chamber were measured. A breathing thermal manikin was used to measure the heat loss from 26 body segments and to determine the equivalent temperature. The responses of 30 human...

  8. Analyzing the effects of thermal comfort and indoor air quality in design studios and classrooms on student performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjbar, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (M.S.): Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2017 Includes bibliographical references (leaves 101-106). The present study aims to evaluate the effects of the different ventilation modes on thermal comfort and indoor air quality in design studios and classrooms. It also investigates its associations with student performance. For this purpose, experimenta...

  9. Neutron thermalization in quality control of asphalts content in mixtures for paving. Adaptation of nuclear densimeters for this purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo R, T.; Montanez M, P.O.

    1995-01-01

    This paper shows how the neutron source of the nuclear densimeters, used for measure the humidity, can be used for measuring and making the quality control of the asphalt percentage in mixtures used for street paving. The measures are based in the neutronic thermalization processes, because the hydrogen is the main part of chemical composition of the asphalts. A calibration method for the equipment is presented. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Continuation of studies on thermoregulation of fish and turtles in thermally stressed habitats. Annual progress report, 1 October 1979-30 September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spotila, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    Fundamental and realized climate spaces were calculated for the turtle Chrysemys scripta. These allow predictions about the effect of microclimate and thermal effluents on the behavior of these animals to be made. A conceptual model to define the biophysical-behavioral thermoregulatory mechanisms employed by this turtle is being finalized. Operative environmental temperature (T/sub e/) is a good predictor of the basking behavior of turtles. T/sub e/ is positively related to visible and thermal radiation and air temperature. Turtles generally do not bask until T/sub e/ exceeds 28/sup 0/C, thus implicating thermoregulation as a major factor in determining the basking behavior of C. scripta. Water temperature was very important in determining the distribution of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, in a South Carolina reservoir receiving thermal effluent from a nuclear reactor. Bass were restricted in movement by lethal water temperatures, selecting temperatures close to 30/sup 0/C and avoiding temperatures above 31/sup 0/C. Under normal, unheated conditions, bass dispersed throughout the reservoir. During reactor operation, hot water at temperatures lethal to fish (approx. 55/sup 0/C), forced bass to retreat to refuges in two coves and a deep spring. Distribution of bass varied seasonally. Multichannel radio transmitters were surgically implanted in free ranging fish, permitting the telemetry of temperatures from five parts of the body and from surrounding water. In general, body temperatures followed water temperatures closely, but rapidly changing temperatures produced lags between body temperatures and water of as much as 3.5/sup 0/C. (ERB)

  11. Effect of reciprocating agitation thermal processing (RA-TP) on quality of canned tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap Singh, Anubhav; Singh, Anika; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2017-06-01

    Reciprocating agitation thermal processing (RA-TP) is a recent innovation in the field of canning for obtaining high-quality canned food. The objective of this study was to compare RA-TP processing with conventional non-agitated (still) processing with respect to the impact on quality (color, antioxidant capacity, total phenols, carotenoid and lycopene contents) of canned tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) puree. Owing to a 63-81% reduction in process times as compared with still processing, tomato puree with a brighter red color (closer to fresh) was obtained during RA-TP. At 3 Hz reciprocation frequency, the loss of antioxidant, lycopene and carotenoid contents could be reduced to 34, 8 and 8% respectively as compared with 96, 41 and 52% respectively during still processing. In fact, the phenolic content for RA-TP at 3 Hz was 5% higher than in fresh puree. Quality retention generally increased with an increase in frequency, although the differences were less significant at higher reciprocation frequencies (between 2 and 3 Hz). Research findings indicate that RA-TP can be effective to obtain thermally processed foods with high-quality attribute retention. It can also be concluded that a very high reciprocation frequency (>3 Hz) is not necessarily needed and significant quality improvement can be obtained at lower frequencies (∼2 Hz). © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Changes in Acylglycerols composition, quality characteristics and in vivo effects of dietary pumpkin seed oil upon thermal oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Alam; Ahmad, Sultan

    2017-07-01

    This study was aimed to determine the acylglycerols composition, quality characteristics and protective role of dietary pumpkin seed oil in rabbits. Pumpkin seed oil was thermally oxidized and analyzed for quality characteristics and acylglycerols composition using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Oxidized and un-oxidized oil samples were fed to the rabbits in different doses for two weeks. The changes in the serum biochemistry, hematology, and liver histology were studied. The levels of quality parameters such peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), total phenolic contents (TPC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) and conjugated trienes (CT) significantly increased with thermal treatment. HPLC analyses revealed ten individual triacylglycerols (TAGs), total di-acylglycerols (DAGs), mono-acylglycerols (MAGs), and total oxidized TAGs. Trilinolein (LLL), 1-oleoyl-2,3-dilinolinoyl glycerol (OLL), triolein (OOO) and 1,2-distearoyl-3-palmitoyl glycerol (SSP) were present in higher amounts and decreased with thermal treatment. Animal's studies showed that oxidized oils decreased the whole body weight, which was ameliorated by the co-administration of un-oxidized oils. The levels of serum biochemical parameters were improved by co-administration of pumpkin seed oils. There were no significant effects of both oxidized and un-oxidized pumpkin seed oil on the hematological and histological parameters of rabbits. In conclusion, nutritionally important triacylglycerols were present in pumpkin seed oil with protective role against the toxicity of its corresponding oxidized oils.

  13. Changes in Acylglycerols Composition, Quality Characteristics and In vivo Effects of Dietary Pumpkin Seed Oil upon Thermal Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Zeb

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the acylglycerols composition, quality characteristics, and protective role of dietary pumpkin seed oil (PSO in rabbits. PSO was thermally oxidized and analyzed for quality characteristics and acylglycerols composition using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD. Oxidized and un-oxidized oil samples were fed to the rabbits in different doses for 2 weeks. The changes in the serum biochemistry, hematology, and liver histology were studied. The levels of quality parameters such peroxide value (PV, anisidine value (AV, total phenolic contents (TPC, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, conjugated dienes (CD and conjugated trienes (CT significantly increased with thermal treatment. HPLC analyses revealed 10 individual triacylglycerols (TAGs, total di-acylglycerols (DAGs, mono-acylglycerols (MAGs, and total oxidized TAGs. Trilinolein (LLL, 1-oleoyl-2,3-dilinolinoyl glycerol (OLL, triolein (OOO and 1,2-distearoyl-3-palmitoyl glycerol (SSP were present in higher amounts and decreased with thermal treatment. Animal's studies showed that oxidized oils decreased the whole body weight, which was ameliorated by the co-administration of un-oxidized oils. The levels of serum biochemical parameters were improved by co-administration of pumpkin seed oils. There were no significant effects of both oxidized and un-oxidized PSO on the hematological and histological parameters of rabbits. In conclusion, nutritionally important triacylglycerols were present in PSO with protective role against the toxicity of its corresponding oxidized oils.

  14. Oak woodlands as wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Tietje; K. Purcell; S. Drill

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides local planners and policymakers with information on the diversity and abundance of oak woodland wildlife, wildlife habitat needs, and how local planning activities can influence wildlife abundance and diversity. Federal and state laws, particularly the federal and California Endangered Species Act and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA...

  15. Continuation of studies on thermoregulation of fish and turtles in thermally stressed habitats. Annual progress report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spotila, J.R.

    1979-06-01

    A time dependent mathematical model accurately predicts heart, brain, and gut temperatures of largemouth bass. Body diameter, insulation thickness, and tissue thermal conductivity are controlling variables in the transfer of heat between a fish and water. Fish metabolic rate and water velocity across fish surfaces do not appreciably affect heat transfer rates. Multichannel temperature transmitters telemeter body temperatures of free swimming bass in Pond C on the Savannah River Plant while the behavior of those fish and other bass is recorded by an observer. Field studies of the home ranges and movements of turtles in Par Pond on the Savannah River Plant are completed. We have recorded the movements of 30 individuals fitted with radio transmitters. Distinct differences are apparent in the behavior of turtles in areas affected by heated effluents as compared to those in control areas. Calculations and theoretical analysis of the transient energy exchange of turtles are continuing. Laboratory experiments using /sup 133/Xe indicate that blood flow in the muscles and skin of alligators increases 2 to 6 fold during movement. Relative variation is similar in magnitude to that seen in human muscle. Evaporative water loss from alligators decreases as body size increases. The ratios of respiratory to cutaneous water loss are 1.80 at 5/sup 0/C, 1.18 at 25/sup 0/C and 0.85 at 35/sup 0/C. Boundary layer resistances to evaporative water loss are 6 fold less than predicted by calculations of aerodynamic boundary layers. Body size is a primary factor in determining the thermoregulatory strategy that is to be used by a given animal.Operative environmental temperatures (T/sub e/) are as high as 60/sup 0/C for a turtle basking on a log in the sun. In a rainstorm T/sub e/ drops to 18/sup 0/C. Experiments to measure T/sub e/ for turtles in normal and thermally affected areas are now continuing on the Savannah River Plant. (ERB)

  16. Assessing the Effects of Water Right Purchases on Stream Temperatures and Fish Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, L.; Null, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Warm stream temperature and low flow conditions are limiting factors for native trout species in Nevada's Walker River. Water rights purchases are being considered to increase instream flow and improve habitat conditions. However, the effect of water rights purchases on stream temperatures and fish habitat have yet to be assessed. Manipulating flow conditions affect stream temperatures by altering water depth, velocity, and thermal mass. This study uses the River Modeling System (RMSv4), an hourly, physically-based hydrodynamic and water quality model, to estimate flows and stream temperatures in the Walker River. The model is developed for two wet years (2010-2011). Study results highlight reaches with cold-water habitat that is suitable for native trout species. Previous research on the Walker River has evaluated instream flow changes with water rights purchases. This study incorporates stream temperatures as a proxy for trout habitat, and thus explicitly incorporates water quality and fish habitat into decision-making regarding water rights purchases. Walker River

  17. Enrichment and genome sequence of the group I.1a ammonia-oxidizing Archaeon "Ca. Nitrosotenuis uzonensis" representing a clade globally distributed in thermal habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V Lebedeva

    Full Text Available The discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA of the phylum Thaumarchaeota and the high abundance of archaeal ammonia monooxygenase subunit A encoding gene sequences in many environments have extended our perception of nitrifying microbial communities. Moreover, AOA are the only aerobic ammonia oxidizers known to be active in geothermal environments. Molecular data indicate that in many globally distributed terrestrial high-temperature habits a thaumarchaeotal lineage within the Nitrosopumilus cluster (also called "marine" group I.1a thrives, but these microbes have neither been isolated from these systems nor functionally characterized in situ yet. In this study, we report on the enrichment and genomic characterization of a representative of this lineage from a thermal spring in Kamchatka. This thaumarchaeote, provisionally classified as "Candidatus Nitrosotenuis uzonensis", is a moderately thermophilic, non-halophilic, chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer. The nearly complete genome sequence (assembled into a single scaffold of this AOA confirmed the presence of the typical thaumarchaeotal pathways for ammonia oxidation and carbon fixation, and indicated its ability to produce coenzyme F420 and to chemotactically react to its environment. Interestingly, like members of the genus Nitrosoarchaeum, "Candidatus N. uzonensis" also possesses a putative artubulin-encoding gene. Genome comparisons to related AOA with available genome sequences confirmed that the newly cultured AOA has an average nucleotide identity far below the species threshold and revealed a substantial degree of genomic plasticity with unique genomic regions in "Ca. N. uzonensis", which potentially include genetic determinants of ecological niche differentiation.

  18. Enrichment and genome sequence of the group I.1a ammonia-oxidizing Archaeon "Ca. Nitrosotenuis uzonensis" representing a clade globally distributed in thermal habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Elena V; Hatzenpichler, Roland; Pelletier, Eric; Schuster, Nathalie; Hauzmayer, Sandra; Bulaev, Aleksandr; Grigor'eva, Nadezhda V; Galushko, Alexander; Schmid, Markus; Palatinszky, Marton; Le Paslier, Denis; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) of the phylum Thaumarchaeota and the high abundance of archaeal ammonia monooxygenase subunit A encoding gene sequences in many environments have extended our perception of nitrifying microbial communities. Moreover, AOA are the only aerobic ammonia oxidizers known to be active in geothermal environments. Molecular data indicate that in many globally distributed terrestrial high-temperature habits a thaumarchaeotal lineage within the Nitrosopumilus cluster (also called "marine" group I.1a) thrives, but these microbes have neither been isolated from these systems nor functionally characterized in situ yet. In this study, we report on the enrichment and genomic characterization of a representative of this lineage from a thermal spring in Kamchatka. This thaumarchaeote, provisionally classified as "Candidatus Nitrosotenuis uzonensis", is a moderately thermophilic, non-halophilic, chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer. The nearly complete genome sequence (assembled into a single scaffold) of this AOA confirmed the presence of the typical thaumarchaeotal pathways for ammonia oxidation and carbon fixation, and indicated its ability to produce coenzyme F420 and to chemotactically react to its environment. Interestingly, like members of the genus Nitrosoarchaeum, "Candidatus N. uzonensis" also possesses a putative artubulin-encoding gene. Genome comparisons to related AOA with available genome sequences confirmed that the newly cultured AOA has an average nucleotide identity far below the species threshold and revealed a substantial degree of genomic plasticity with unique genomic regions in "Ca. N. uzonensis", which potentially include genetic determinants of ecological niche differentiation.

  19. Thermoregulation and temperature relations of alligators and other large ectotherms inhabiting thermally stressed habitats. Annual progress report, July 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spotila, J.R.

    1976-03-01

    The effects of radiation and convection on the equilibrium body temperatures of alligators have been determined. Gaping has been shown to be an effective thermoregulatory device for retarding heat gain in the heads of these animals. Initial time dependent experiments have been completed and ketamine hydrochloride has been shown to be an effective anesthetic for alligators. Evaporative water loss rates have been measured as a function of size, temperature and wind speed for the turtle Chrysemys scripta. Convection coefficients have been determined and climate spaces are being formulated. Field studies are under way at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Convection coefficients for largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides change as a function of temperature and water speed. Steady state heat energy budgets have been computed for this fish. The effects of arsenic and temperature on the temperature tolerance of larval muskellunge, Esox masquinongy, have been determined. The thermal tolerances of several species of minnows have also been measured. The role of the skin in the control of evaporation from amphibians and reptiles has been assessed. During the past year one article has been published, two are in press, one is in review, and eight are in preparation. Five masters theses will be completed by July 1976.

  20. Thermoregulation and temperature relations of alligators and other large ectotherms inhabiting thermally stressed habitats. Progress report, 1 October 1974--30 September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spotila, J.R.

    1977-06-01

    Significant progress has been made in determining the mechanisms by which large ectotherms adjust to thermal stress in their natural environment. The effect of mouth gaping on head temperatures and the role of radiation, conduction and convection on body temperatures of alligators have been determined. The utility of energy budget modeling as a method for studying the thermoregulatory mechanisms of animals has been demonstrated. Steady state and time dependent models of body temperature have been tested. Convection coefficients and evaporative water loss rates have been measured for the turtle, Chysemys scripta. Climate space diagrams have been formulated and are being tested. Behavioral thermoregulation of turtles has been studied in PAR pond on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, S.C. Steady state energy budget equations have been computed for largemouth bass. Experimental heat transfer coefficients indicate that most heat transfer is through the body wall and not via the gills. A time dependent model is being tested. It predicts the body temperature of a fish in a heterothermal environment. Theoretical calculations have been made of the effects of body size, color, and metabolism on the temperature regulation of ectotherms

  1. Thermoregulation and temperature relations of alligators and other large ectotherms inhabiting thermally stressed habitats. Annual progress report, July 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spotila, J.R.

    1976-03-01

    The effects of radiation and convection on the equilibrium body temperatures of alligators have been determined. Gaping has been shown to be an effective thermoregulatory device for retarding heat gain in the heads of these animals. Initial time dependent experiments have been completed and ketamine hydrochloride has been shown to be an effective anesthetic for alligators. Evaporative water loss rates have been measured as a function of size, temperature and wind speed for the turtle Chrysemys scripta. Convection coefficients have been determined and climate spaces are being formulated. Field studies are under way at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Convection coefficients for largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides change as a function of temperature and water speed. Steady state heat energy budgets have been computed for this fish. The effects of arsenic and temperature on the temperature tolerance of larval muskellunge, Esox masquinongy, have been determined. The thermal tolerances of several species of minnows have also been measured. The role of the skin in the control of evaporation from amphibians and reptiles has been assessed. During the past year one article has been published, two are in press, one is in review, and eight are in preparation. Five masters theses will be completed by July 1976

  2. A NEW HABITAT CLASSIFICATION AND MANUAL FOR STANDARDIZED HABITAT MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KUN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the documentation of natural heritage with scientific methods but for conservation practice – like mapping of actual vegetation – becomes more and more important. For this purpose mapping guides containing only the names and descriptions of vegetation types are not sufficient. Instead, new, mapping-oriented vegetation classification systems and handbooks are needed. There are different standardised systems fitted to the characteristics of a region already published and used successfully for surveying large territories. However, detailed documentation of the aims and steps of their elaboration is still missing. Here we present a habitat-classification method developed specifically for mapping and the steps of its development. Habitat categories and descriptions reflect site conditions, physiognomy and species composition as well. However, for species composition much lower role was given deliberately than in the phytosociological systems. Recognition and mapping of vegetation types in the field is highly supported by a definition, list of subtypes and list of ‘types not belonging to this habitat category’. Our system is two-dimensional: the first dimension is habitat type, the other is naturalness based habitat quality. The development of the system was conducted in two steps, over 200 mappers already tested it over 7000 field days in different projects.

  3. Seat headrest-incorporated personalized ventilation: Thermal comfort and inhaled air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Ivanova, T.; Stefanova, G.

    2012-01-01

    inhaled by the manikin was measured and used to assess the clean air supply efficiency of the SHPV. The response of 35 subjects was collected to examine thermal comfort with the SHPV. The subjects participated in 3 experiments at personalized air temperature and room air temperature of 22/20 °C, 23/23 °C......The performance of personalized ventilation with seat headrest-mounted air supply terminal devices (ATD), named seat headrest personalized ventilation (SHPV), was studied. Physical measurements using a breathing thermal manikin were taken to identify its ability to provide clean air to inhalation...... depending on design, shape, size and positioning of the ATD, flow rate and temperature of personalized air, room temperature, clothing thermal insulation of the manikin, etc. Tracer gas was mixed with the room air. The air supplied by the SHPV was free of tracer gas. Tracer gas concentration in the air...

  4. High quality aluminide and thermal barrier coatings deposition for new and service exposed parts by CVD techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedraza, F.; Tuohy, C.; Whelan, L.; Kennedy, A.D. [SIFCO Turbine Components, Carrigtwohill, Cork (Ireland)

    2004-07-01

    In this work, the performance of CVD aluminide coatings is compared to that of coatings deposited by the classical pack cementation technique using standard SIFCO procedures. The CVD coatings always seem to behave better upon exposure to isothermal and cyclic oxidation conditions. This is explained by a longer term stability of CVD coatings, with higher Al amounts in the diffusion zone and less refractory element precipitation in the additive layer. The qualities of Pt/Al coatings by out-of-pack and CVD are also compared as a previous step for further thermal barrier coating deposition. As an example, YSZ thermal barrier coatings are deposited by MO-CVD on Pt/Al CVD bond coats rendering adherent and thick coatings around the surface of turbine blades. This process under development does not require complex manipulation of the component to be coated. (orig.)

  5. Use of local convective and radiant cooling at warm environment: effect on thermal comfort and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Duszyk, Marcin; Krejcirikova, Barbora

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four local cooling devices (convective, radiant and combined) on thermal comfort and perceived air quality reported by 24 subjects at 28 ˚C and 50% RH was studied. The devices studied were: (1) desk cooling fan, (2) personalized ventilation providing clean air, (3) two radiant panels...... and (4) two radiant panels with one panel equipped with small fans. A reference condition without cooling was tested as well. The response of the subjects to the exposed conditions was collected by computerized questionnaires. The cooling devices significantly (pthermal comfort...... compared to without cooling. The acceptability of the thermal environment was similar for all cooling devices. The acceptability of air movement and PAQ increased when the local cooling methods were used. The best results were achieved with personalized ventilation and cooling fan. The improvement in PAQ...

  6. Thermal comfort, perceived air quality, and cognitive performance when personally controlled air movement is used by tropically acclimatized persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, S; Yang, B; Donner, Y; Chang, V W-C; Nazaroff, W W

    2017-05-01

    In a warm and humid climate, increasing the temperature set point offers considerable energy benefits with low first costs. Elevated air movement generated by a personally controlled fan can compensate for the negative effects caused by an increased temperature set point. Fifty-six tropically acclimatized persons in common Singaporean office attire (0.7 clo) were exposed for 90 minutes to each of five conditions: 23, 26, and 29°C and in the latter two cases with and without occupant-controlled air movement. Relative humidity was maintained at 60%. We tested thermal comfort, perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms, and cognitive performance. We found that thermal comfort, perceived air quality, and sick building syndrome symptoms are equal or better at 26°C and 29°C than at the common set point of 23°C if a personally controlled fan is available for use. The best cognitive performance (as indicated by task speed) was obtained at 26°C; at 29°C, the availability of an occupant-controlled fan partially mitigated the negative effect of the elevated temperature. The typical Singaporean indoor air temperature set point of 23°C yielded the lowest cognitive performance. An elevated set point in air-conditioned buildings augmented with personally controlled fans might yield benefits for reduced energy use and improved indoor environmental quality in tropical climates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Geomorphology and Sustainable Subsistence Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. C.; Kruger, L. E.

    2016-02-01

    Climatic, tectonic, and human-related impacts are changing the distribution of shoreline habitats and associated species used as food resources. There is a need to summarize current and future shoreline geomorphic - biotic relationships and better understand potential impacts to native customary and traditional gathering patterns. By strategically integrating Native knowledge and observations, we create an inclusive vulnerability assessment strategy resulting in a win-win opportunity for resource users and research scientists alike. We merged the NOAA ShoreZone database with results from over sixty student intern discussions in six southeast Alaska Native communities. Changes in shore width and unit length were derived using near shore bathymetry depths and available isostatic rebound, tectonic movement, and rates of sea level rise. Physical attributes including slope, substrate, and exposure were associated with presence and abundance of specific species. Student interns, selected by Tribes and Tribal associations, conducted resource-based discussions with community members to summarize species use, characteristics of species habitat, transportation used to access collection areas, and potential threats to habitats. Geomorphic trends and community observations were summarized to assess potential threats within a spatial context. Given current measured rates of uplift and sea level rise, 2.4 to 0 m of uplift along with 0.20 m of sea level rise is expected in the next 100 years. Coastlines of southeast Alaska will be subject to both drowning (primarily to the south) and emergence (primarily to the north). We predict decreases in estuary and sediment-dominated shoreline length and an increase in rocky habitats. These geomorphic changes, combined with resident's concerns, highlight six major interrelated coastal vulnerabilities including: (1) reduction of clam and clam habitat quantity and quality, (2) reduction in chiton quality and quantity, (3) harmful expansion of

  8. Measurement and prediction of indoor air quality using a breathing thermal manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikov, A; Kaczmarczyk, J

    2007-02-01

    The analyses performed in this paper reveal that a breathing thermal manikin with realistic simulation of respiration including breathing cycle, pulmonary ventilation rate, frequency and breathing mode, gas concentration, humidity and temperature of exhaled air and human body shape and surface temperature is sensitive enough to perform reliable measurement of characteristics of air as inhaled by occupants. The temperature, humidity, and pollution concentration in the inhaled air can be measured accurately with a thermal manikin without breathing simulation if they are measured at the upper lip at a distance of measured inhaled air parameters. Proper simulation of breathing, especially of exhalation, is needed for studying the transport of exhaled air between occupants. A method for predicting air acceptability based on inhaled air parameters and known exposure-response relationships established in experiments with human subjects is suggested. Recommendations for optimal simulation of human breathing by means of a breathing thermal manikin when studying pollution concentration, temperature and humidity of the inhaled air as well as the transport of exhaled air (which may carry infectious agents) between occupants are outlined. In order to compare results obtained with breathing thermal manikins, their nose and mouth geometry should be standardized.

  9. Natural selection on thermal preference, critical thermal maxima and locomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Anthony L; Miles, Donald B

    2017-08-16

    Climate change is resulting in a radical transformation of the thermal quality of habitats across the globe. Whereas species have altered their distributions to cope with changing environments, the evidence for adaptation in response to rising temperatures is limited. However, to determine the potential of adaptation in response to thermal variation, we need estimates of the magnitude and direction of natural selection on traits that are assumed to increase persistence in warmer environments. Most inferences regarding physiological adaptation are based on interspecific analyses, and those of selection on thermal traits are scarce. Here, we estimate natural selection on major thermal traits used to assess the vulnerability of ectothermic organisms to altered thermal niches. We detected significant directional selection favouring lizards with higher thermal preferences and faster sprint performance at their optimal temperature. Our analyses also revealed correlational selection between thermal preference and critical thermal maxima, where individuals that preferred warmer body temperatures with cooler critical thermal maxima were favoured by selection. Recent published estimates of heritability for thermal traits suggest that, in concert with the strong selective pressures we demonstrate here, evolutionary adaptation may promote long-term persistence of ectotherms in altered thermal environments. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Migratory Waterfowl Habitat Selection in Relation to Aquatic Vegetation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dick, Gary

    2004-01-01

    This technical note describes studies of environmental conditions and habitat quality of replicated pond ecosystems dominated by populations of exotic plants or mixed communities of native aquatic plants...

  11. Effect of thermal lens on beam quality and mode matching in LD pumped Er-Yb-codoped phosphate glass microchip laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Shujing; Song Feng; Cai Hong; Li Teng; Tian Bin; Wu Zhaohui; Tian Jianguo [Photonics Center, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Technique and Fabrication for Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics Materials (Ministry of Education), Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2008-02-07

    The theoretical values of the thermal focal length and laser beam waist are derived from the theoretical model and transformation theory, respectively. The values of thermal focal length, laser beam waist and the far field divergence angle were experimentally measured in a laser diode (LD) pumped erbium-ytterbium(Er-Yb)-codoped phosphate microchip glass laser. As an extension of thermal effect studies, we investigate the role of thermal lens on beam quality and the mode matching between the pump and the laser, which affects laser efficiency in TEM{sub 00} operation. The study shows that the experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  12. The effects of season and sand mining activities on thermal regime and water quality in a large shallow tropical lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharip, Zati; Zaki, Ahmad Taqiyuddin Ahmad

    2014-08-01

    Thermal structure and water quality in a large and shallow lake in Malaysia were studied between January 2012 and June 2013 in order to understand variations in relation to water level fluctuations and in-stream mining activities. Environmental variables, namely temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, chlorophyll-A and transparency, were measured using a multi-parameter probe and a Secchi disk. Measurements of environmental variables were performed at 0.1 m intervals from the surface to the bottom of the lake during the dry and wet seasons. High water level and strong solar radiation increased temperature stratification. River discharges during the wet season, and unsustainable sand mining activities led to an increased turbidity exceeding 100 NTU, and reduced transparency, which changed the temperature variation and subsequently altered the water quality pattern.

  13. High-Quality Large-Magnification Polymer Lens from Needle Moving Technique and Thermal Assisted Moldless Fabrication Process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratthasart Amarit

    Full Text Available The need of mobile microscope is escalating as well as the demand of high quality optical components in low price. We report here a novel needle moving technique to fabricate milli-size lens together with thermal assist moldless method. Our proposed protocol is able to create a high tensile strength structure of the lens and its base which is beneficial for exploiting in convertinga smart phone to be a digital microscope. We observe that no bubble trapped in a lens when this technique is performed which can overcome a challenge problem found in a typical dropping technique. We demonstrate the symmetry, smoothness and micron-scale resolution of the fabricated structure. This proposed technique is promising to serve as high quality control mass production without any expensive equipment required.

  14. Experimental Study Abour How the Thermal Plume Affects the Air Quality a Person Breathes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés; Nielsen, Peter V.; Ruiz de Adana, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    of this research is to increase the knowledge of how the thermal plume generated by a person affects the PME and therefore the concentration of contaminants in the inhalation area. An experimental study in a displacement ventilation room was carried out. Experiments were developed in a full scale test chamber 4.......10 m (length), 3.2 m (width), 2.7 m (height). The incoming air is distributed through a wall-mounted displacement diffuser. A breathing thermal manikin exhaling through the mouth and inhaling through the nose was used. A tracer gas, N2O, was used to simulate the gaseous substances, which might...... be considered as biological contaminants, exhaled by the manikin. The manikin was operated in three different heat fluxes with a value of: 0W, 94 W and 120 W. During the experiments six concentration probes were situated in the room. Three concentration tubes were fixed on the surface of the manikin at three...

  15. Measurement and prediction of indoor air quality using a breathing thermal manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2007-01-01

    temperature is sensitive enough to perform reliable measurement of characteristics of air as inhaled by occupants. The temperature, humidity, and pollution concentration in the inhaled air can be measured accurately with a thermal manikin without breathing simulation if they are measured at the upper lip...... at a distance of measured inhaled air parameters. Proper simulation of breathing, especially of exhalation, is needed for studying the transport of exhaled air between occupants. A method......The analyses performed in this paper reveal that a breathing thermal manikin with realistic simulation of respiration including breathing cycle, pulmonary ventilation rate, frequency and breathing mode, gas concentration, humidity and temperature of exhaled air and human body shape and surface...

  16. Analysis of the irradiation and thermal treatment combined effect in the quality of mangoes for exportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, Marcel Wilke

    2009-01-01

    In this research the effect of the hydrothermal treatment and irradiation as a combined method of food conservation and disinfestation was studied, searching to optimize the impact over the final product desired characteristics. Tommy Atkins mangoes from Brazil were submitted to a combined treatment: thermal treatment (46 deg C, 70 min and 52 deg C, 5 min) and gamma irradiation treatment (doses 0,3 and 0,75 kGy). The fruits were stored at 11 deg C during 14 days and kept at an environmental condition for more 12 days, where their physical chemical and sensorial properties were evaluated. As predicted by Oliveira (1998) the combined method of irradiation and thermal treatment showed better results then the individual methods in increasing the shelf-life. (author)

  17. Experimental Investigation of Quality of Lensless Ghost Imaging with Pseudo-Thermal Light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Shen; Yan-Feng, Bai; Tao, Qin; Shen-Sheng, Han

    2008-01-01

    Factors influencing the quality of lensless ghost imaging are investigated. According to the experimental results, we find that the imaging quality is determined by the number of independent sub light sources on the imaging plane of the reference arm. A qualitative picture based on advanced wave optics is presented to explain the physics behind the experimental phenomena. The present results will be helpful to provide a basis for improving the quality of ghost imaging systems in future works. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  18. Comparing effects of washing, thermal treatments and gamma irradiation on quality of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag Zaied, S.E.A.; Aziz, N.H.; Ali, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Samples of 5 selected spices, black pepper (Piper nigrum), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and anise (Pimpinella anisum) seeds, and turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes, obtained from the local market, were washed with pure tap water then dried at room temperature, subjected to a thermal treatment at 70 degrees C for 15 minutes or exposed to a gamma radiation source (5.0 or 10 kGy). The treatments were evaluated using microbiological and chemical studies

  19. Coastal Critical Habitat Designations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Endangered Species Act (ESA) requires the Federal government to designate critical habitat, areas of habitat essential to the species' conservation, for ESA...

  20. California Condor Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These Data identify (in general) the areas where critical habitat for the California Condor occur. Critical habitat for the species consists of the following 10...

  1. Indicators: Physical Habitat Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical habitat complexity measures the amount and variety of all types of cove at the water’s edge in lakes. In general, dense and varied shoreline habitat is able to support more diverse communities of aquatic life.

  2. Improving the temperature predictions of subsurface thermal models by using high-quality input data. Part 1: Uncertainty analysis of the thermal-conductivity parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Sven; Balling, Niels

    2016-01-01

    The subsurface temperature field and the geothermal conditions in sedimentary basins are frequently examined by using numerical thermal models. For those models, detailed knowledge of rock thermal properties are paramount for a reliable parameterization of layer properties and boundary conditions...

  3. Camera pose refinement by matching uncertain 3D building models with thermal infrared image sequences for high quality texture extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaszczuk, Dorota; Stilla, Uwe

    2017-10-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) images are often used to picture damaged and weak spots in the insulation of the building hull, which is widely used in thermal inspections of buildings. Such inspection in large-scale areas can be carried out by combining TIR imagery and 3D building models. This combination can be achieved via texture mapping. Automation of texture mapping avoids time consuming imaging and manually analyzing each face independently. It also provides a spatial reference for façade structures extracted in the thermal textures. In order to capture all faces, including the roofs, façades, and façades in the inner courtyard, an oblique looking camera mounted on a flying platform is used. Direct geo-referencing is usually not sufficient for precise texture extraction. In addition, 3D building models have also uncertain geometry. In this paper, therefore, methodology for co-registration of uncertain 3D building models with airborne oblique view images is presented. For this purpose, a line-based model-to-image matching is developed, in which the uncertainties of the 3D building model, as well as of the image features are considered. Matched linear features are used for the refinement of the exterior orientation parameters of the camera in order to ensure optimal co-registration. Moreover, this study investigates whether line tracking through the image sequence supports the matching. The accuracy of the extraction and the quality of the textures are assessed. For this purpose, appropriate quality measures are developed. The tests showed good results on co-registration, particularly in cases where tracking between the neighboring frames had been applied.

  4. Warming impact on energy use of HVAC system in buildings of different thermal qualities and in different climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharseh, Mohamad; Altorkmany, Lobna; Al-Khawaj, Mohammed; Hassani, Ferri

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Improving TQBE reduces heating load, while it might increase cooling load. • Warming impact on energy use of HVAC varies from one climate to another. • Warming impact on energy use of HVAC depends on building’s thermal quality. • In mild climate, warming does not have a significant impact on energy use of HVAC. - Abstract: In order to combat climate change, energy use in the building must be further reduced. Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in residential buildings account for considerable fraction of global energy consumption. The potential contribution the domestic sector can make in reducing energy consumption is recognized worldwide. The driving energy of HVACs depends on the thermal quality of the building envelope (TQBE) and outside temperature. Definitely, building regulations are changing with the time toward reduce the thermal loads of buildings. However, most of the existing residential buildings were built to lower TQBE. For instant, 72% of residential dwellings in the 15-EU were built before 1972. To investigate the impact of warming on driving energy of HVACs of a residential building a computer model was developed. Three climate categories/cities were considered, i.e. Stockholm (cold), Istanbul (mild), and Doha (hot). In each city, two buildings were modeled: one was assumed to be built according to the current local buildings regulations (standard TQBE), while the anther was built to lower TQBE. The simulations were run for present and future (in 2050) outdoor designing conditions. The calculations show that the impact of the warming on annual driving energy of HVACs (reduction or increase) depends very much on the climate category and on the TQBE. Based on the climate and TQBE, the change in annual HVACs energy varies from −7.4% (in cold climate) to 12.7% (in hot climate). In mild climate, it was shown that the warming does not have significant impact on annual HVACs energy. Improving the TQBE can

  5. Fish habitat mitigation measures for hydrotechnical projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhail, G.D.; MacMillan, D.B.; Katopodis, C.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the identification and mitigation of environmental impacts of hydrotechnical projects, particularly on fish and fish habitats, have become a major component of project planning and design. Potential impacts to fish and fish habitat may include increased fish mortality, decreased species diversity, and loss or decreases in fish production due to loss of habitat or alteration of its suitability. These impacts arise from flooding of riverine habitat, alteration of flow quantity and distribution, changes in morphology, and alteration of water quality, including suspended sediments, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and mercury. The results of a study for the Canadian Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans Central and Arctic Region, examining fish habitat mitigation techniques for their applicability to hydrotechnical projects in Canada are summarized. The requirements for achievement and verification of the no net loss policy for a project are discussed. 10 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Thermal Testing and Quality Assurance of BGA LCC & QFN Electronic Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuper, Cameron Mathias [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-10

    The purpose of this project is to experimentally validate the thermal fatigue life of solder interconnects for a variety of surface mount electronic packages. Over the years, there has been a significant amount of research and analysis in the fracture of solder joints on printed circuit boards. Solder is important in the mechanical and electronic functionality of the component. It is important throughout the life of the product that the solder remains crack and fracture free. The specific type of solder used in this experiment is a 63Sn37Pb eutectic alloy. Each package was surrounded conformal coating or underfill material.

  7. Stream fish, water and habitat quality in a pasture dominated basin, southeastern Brazil Ictiofauna de riachos, qualidade da água e do hábitat em uma bacia hidrográfica dominada por pastagens, Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Casatti

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A fish survey in 35 stream reaches (from 1st to 3rd order with physicochemical and habitat assessment in the São José dos Dourados system, southeastern Brazil, was conducted. Most of the basin land cover (77.4% is used for pasture. From the sampled stream reaches, 24 were of good physicochemical quality, 10 of fair quality, and only one of poor quality. A habitat assessment showed that 10 stream reaches were considered fair, 22 were poor, and 3 were very poor. Fifty species were collected and their abundances showed strong correlation with habitat descriptors. In addition to the correlation between fish abundance and habitat, some species also showed optimal distribution related to the degree of physical habitat conservation. Streams located in this region experience organic pollution, but the most important aspect is the decline of the instream physical habitat condition, especially in first order streams, which negatively affects coarse substrates and water column dependent fish species. Effluent control, riparian vegetation restoration programs, siltation control and adequate sustainable soil use are practices which could mitigate such impacts.A ictiofauna de 35 trechos de riachos (de 1ª a 3ª ordem no sistema do Rio São José dos Dourados, Sudeste do Brasil, foi estudada juntamente com a avaliação físico-química e física do hábitat. Na região estudada, 77,4% do solo é utilizado para pastagens. Quanto à avaliação físico-química da água, 24 trechos foram classificados como bons, 10 como regulares e um como pobre; quanto à avaliação física do hábitat, 10 foram considerados regulares, 22 como pobres e 3 como muito pobres. Cinqüenta espécies foram coletadas e suas abundâncias apresentaram forte correlação com descritores do hábitat. Em adição a esta correlação, observou-se que algumas espécies também demonstraram sua distribuição ótima coincidente com o grau de conservação do hábitat físico. Os riachos

  8. Quality Assurance for Thermal Hydraulic Analysis Code, TASS/SMR-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Kim, Soo Hyoung; Chung, Young Jong; Kim, Hyeon Soo

    2012-01-01

    Safety analysis for a System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART), a computer code called TASS/SMR-S has been developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). To guarantee the quality of the software, a series of software Quality Assurance (QA) procedures has been developed for the TASS/SMR-S code. These procedures are described herein, from the requirement phase to the Verification and Validation (V and V) phase, and representative results of the TASS/SMR-S QA are presented

  9. Growth and condition of juvenile sole (Solea solea L. as indicators of habitat quality in coastal and estuarine nurseries in the Bay of Biscay with a focus on sites exposed to Erika oil spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Gilliers

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Indicators of growth and condition were used to compare the habitat quality of nurseries of juvenile sole (Solea solea L. in the Bay of Biscay, based on one survey in 2000. The four biological indicators are poorly correlated with each other, suggesting that no single measure may give an adequate description of fish health and of its habitat’s quality. Growth indicators showed significant differences between northern and southern areas. Juveniles from the two southernmost nurseries, the Gironde estuary and the Pertuis Antioche, displayed significant lower otolith increment widths and mean sizes. These differences were inversely related to water temperature and unrelated to genetic or age differences, and are unlikely to be due to limiting trophic conditions in the nurseries. Hence, they may be considered in terms of differences in habitat quality and potential anthropogenic impacts. Condition indices do not show this north-south pattern but highlight low condition values in the Pertuis Antioche. Short-term and fluctuating biochemical indicators such as RNA/DNA ratios appeared to be unreliable over a long-term study, while morphometric indices seemed to be relevant, complementary indicators as they integrate the whole juvenile life-history of sole in the nurseries. The growth and condition indices of juveniles in September 2000 from nursery grounds exposed to the Erika oil spill in December 1999 were relatively high. These results lead us to suggest that there was no obvious impact of this event on the health of juvenile sole and on the quality of the exposed nursery grounds a few months after the event.

  10. Pathway for high-quality reclaim by thermal treatment of sulfur-vulcanized SBR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2011-01-01

    De-vulcanization of SBR (Styrene Butadiene Rubber) is a challenge, as the broken polymer chains tend to re-arrange. This influences the properties of the reclaimed and re-vulcanized rubber, and reduces the quality of the recycled material. Within this study, the breakdown of sulfur-cured SBR in a

  11. Thermal biology of eastern box turtles in a longleaf pine system managed with prescribed fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, John H; Wild, Kristoffer H; Hall, Carlisha A

    2017-10-01

    Fire can influence the microclimate of forest habitats by removing understory vegetation and surface debris. Temperature is often higher in recently burned forests owing to increased light penetration through the open understory. Because physiological processes are sensitive to temperature in ectotherms, we expected fire-maintained forests to improve the suitability of the thermal environment for turtles, and for turtles to seasonally associate with the most thermally-optimal habitats. Using a laboratory thermal gradient, we determined the thermal preference range (T set ) of eastern box turtles, Terrapene carolina, to be 27-31°C. Physical models simulating the body temperatures experienced by turtles in the field revealed that surface environments in a fire-maintained longleaf pine forest were 3°C warmer than adjacent unburned mixed hardwood/pine forests, but the fire-maintained forest was never of superior thermal quality owing to wider T e fluctuations above T set and exposure to extreme and potentially lethal temperatures. Radiotracked turtles using fire-managed longleaf pine forests maintained shell temperatures (T s ) approximately 2°C above those at a nearby unburned forest, but we observed only moderate seasonal changes in habitat use which were inconsistent with thermoregulatory behavior. We conclude that turtles were not responding strongly to the thermal heterogeneity generated by fire in our system, and that other aspects of the environment are likely more important in shaping habitat associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Riverine habitat dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    The physical habitat template is a fundamental influence on riverine ecosystem structure and function. Habitat dynamics refers to the variation in habitat through space and time as the result of varying discharge and varying geomorphology. Habitat dynamics can be assessed at spatial scales ranging from the grain (the smallest resolution at which an organism relates to its environment) to the extent (the broadest resolution inclusive of all space occupied during its life cycle). In addition to a potentially broad range of spatial scales, assessments of habitat dynamics may include dynamics of both occupied and nonoccupied habitat patches because of process interactions among patches. Temporal aspects of riverine habitat dynamics can be categorized into hydrodynamics and morphodynamics. Hydrodynamics refers to habitat variation that results from changes in discharge in the absence of significant change of channel morphology and at generally low sediment-transport rates. Hydrodynamic assessments are useful in cases of relatively high flow exceedance (percent of time a flow is equaled or exceeded) or high critical shear stress, conditions that are applicable in many studies of instream flows. Morphodynamics refers to habitat variation resulting from changes to substrate conditions or channel/floodplain morphology. Morphodynamic assessments are necessary when channel and floodplain boundary conditions have been significantly changed, generally by relatively rare flood events or in rivers with low critical shear stress. Morphodynamic habitat variation can be particularly important as disturbance mechanisms that mediate population growth or for providing conditions needed for reproduction, such as channel-migration events that erode cutbanks and provide new pointbar surfaces for germination of riparian trees. Understanding of habitat dynamics is increasing in importance as societal goals shift toward restoration of riverine ecosystems. Effective investment in restoration

  13. Predicting the Air Quality, Thermal Comfort and Draught Risk for a Virtual Classroom with Desk-Type Personalized Ventilation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusébio Z. E. Conceição

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the prediction of indoor air quality (IAQ, thermal comfort (TC and draught risk (DR for a virtual classroom with desk-type personalized ventilation system (PVS. This numerical study considers a coupling of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD, human thermal comfort (HTC and building thermal behavior (BTB numerical models. The following indexes are used: the predicted percentage of dissatisfied people (PPD index is used for the evaluation of the TC level; the carbon dioxide (CO2 concentration in the breathing zone is used for the calculation of IAQ; and the DR level around the occupants is used for the evaluation of the discomfort due to draught. The air distribution index (ADI, based in the TC level, the IAQ level, the effectiveness for heat removal and the effectiveness for contaminant removal, is used for evaluating the performance of the personalized air distribution system. The numerical simulation is made for a virtual classroom with six desks. Each desk is equipped with one PVS with two air terminal devices located overhead and two air terminal devices located below the desktop. In one numerical simulation six occupants are used, while in another simulation twelve occupants are considered. For each numerical simulation an air supply temperature of 20 °C and 24 °C is applied. The results obtained show that the ADI value is higher for twelve persons than for six persons in the classroom and it is higher for an inlet air temperature of 20 °C than for an inlet air temperature of 24 °C. In future works, more combinations of upper and lower air terminal devices located around the body area and more combinations of occupants located in the desks will be analyzed.

  14. Economically attractive route for the preparation of high quality magnetic nanoparticles by the thermal decomposition of iron(III) acetylacetonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberger, Fernando B; Couto, Ricardo A; Kiyohara, Pedro K; Machado, Giovanna; Masunaga, Sueli H; Jardim, Renato F; Rossi, Liane M

    2017-03-17

    The thermal decomposition (TD) methods are among the most successful in obtaining magnetic nanoparticles with a high degree of control of size and narrow particle size distribution. Here we investigated the TD of iron(III) acetylacetonate in the presence of oleic acid, oleylamine, and a series of alcohols in order to disclose their role and also investigate economically attractive alternatives for the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles without compromising their size and shape control. We have found that some affordable and reasonably less priced alcohols, such as 1,2-octanediol and cyclohexanol, may replace the commonly used and expensive 1,2-hexadecanediol, providing an economically attractive route for the synthesis of high quality magnetic nanoparticles. The relative cost for the preparation of Fe 3 O 4 NPs is reduced to only 21% and 9% of the original cost when using 1,2-octanediol and cyclohexanol, respectively.

  15. Ten questions concerning thermal and indoor air quality effects on the performance of office work and schoolwork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David Peter

    2017-01-01

    to deteriorate. Labour costs in buildings exceed energy costs by two orders of magnitude, and as even the thermal and air quality conditions that the majority of building occupants currently accept can be shown to reduce performance by 5e10% for adults and by 15e30% for children, we cannot afford to allow them...... of energy and would in most cases have only marginal effects on health or subjective comfort. The question that then arises is whether occupant performance would be negatively affected and if so, by how much. This information is required for cost-benefit analyses. The answers in this paper are based...... will be greatly exceeded by the costs incurred due to decreased performance. Reducing emissions by allowing indoor environmental conditions to deteriorate would thus be so expensive that it would justify greatly increased investment in more efficient use of energy in buildings in which conditions are not allowed...

  16. Pulverizing processes affect the chemical quality and thermal property of black, white, and green pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Zheng, Jie; Liu, Pengzhan; Zeng, Fankui

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the effects of different pulverizing methods on the chemical attributes and thermal properties of black, white and green pepper were evaluated. Cryogenic grinding minimally damaged the lipid, moisture, crude protein, starch, non-volatile ether extract, piperine, essential oil and the typical pepper essential oil compounds of the spices. The pulverizing methods and storage significantly affected the compositions of the fatty acid in the peppers, except for palmitic acid and lignoceric acid. The amino acid contents and the thermo-gravimetric analysis curve were hardly influenced by the grinding techniques. The use of cryogenic grinding to prepare pepper ensured the highest quality of pepper products. Regardless of grinding technique, the values of moisture, piperine, unsaturated fatty acids, essential oil, monoterpenes, and the absolute concentrations of typical pepper essential oil constituents (except caryophyllene oxide) decreased, whereas the amino acid, lipid, protein, starch, and non-volatile ether extract content as well as the thermal properties were insignificantly changed after storage at 4 °C for 6 months.

  17. Biopolymer/gold nanoparticles composite plasmonic thermal history indicator to monitor quality and safety of perishable bioproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Cheng; Lu, Lin; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2017-06-15

    Quality and safety of perishable products such as foods, pharmaceutics, and biologicals is a constant concern. We have developed a plasmonic thermal history indicator (THI) taking advantage of the localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesized in situ in alginate, a natural polysaccharide. The color of the THIs becomes more intense with increased storage temperature and/or duration, with the color changing from grey to red with time of exposure at high temperature (40°C). The results suggest that decreasing viscosity with increasing number of AuNPs being synthesized in the system, along with aggregation of newly synthesized AuNPs onto larger ones and their settling are potentially responsible for the distinct color change observed. The use of alginate in the THIs also facilitates fabricating them as solid hydrogel matrices by adding divalent calcium ions. This alginate-AuNPs THI system is tunable by altering its composition to suit different time-temperature monitoring scenarios and the color-change reaction is irreversible. The THI provides a convenient, reliable, safe, and inexpensive means for tracking the thermal history of perishable products without the need for a read-out device. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrated System of Thermal/Dimensional Analysis for Quality Control of Metallic Melt and Ductile Iron Casting Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Stelian; Chisamera, Mihai; Riposan, Iulian; Neacsu, Loredana; Cojocaru, Ana Maria; Stan, Iuliana

    2018-03-01

    The main objective of the present work is to introduce a specific experimental instrument and technique for simultaneously evaluating cooling curves and expansion or contraction of cast metals during solidification. Contraction/expansion analysis illustrates the solidification parameters progression, according to the molten cast iron characteristics, which are dependent on the melting procedure and applied metallurgical treatments, mold media rigidity and thermal behavior [heat transfer parameters]. The first part of the paper summarizes the performance of this two-mold device. Its function is illustrated by representative shrinkage tendency results in ductile cast iron as affected by mold rigidity (green sand and furan resin sand molds) and inoculant type (FeSi-based alloys), published in part previously. The second part of the paper illustrates an application of this equipment adapted for commercial foundry use. It conducts thermal analysis and volume change measurements in a single ceramic cup so that mold media as well as solidification conditions are constants, with cast iron quality as the variable. Experiments compared gray and ductile cast iron solidification patterns. Gray iron castings are characterized by higher undercooling at the beginning and at the end of solidification and lower graphitic expansion. Typically, ductile cast iron exhibits higher graphitic, initial expansion, conducive for shrinkage formation in soft molds.

  19. Habitat use by domestic reindeer in relation to food quality and disturbance - need for research? (In Swedish with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Skarpe

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Competition for land in the mountains can be foreseen to increase in the near future. This development will result in trade offs and prioritization between the different demands for land. For reindeer husbandry it is essential to motivate the need for control over good grazing land for different seasons and situations, not only by preventing direct exploitation of such land, but also to minimize disturbance by traffic and people in the vicinity. It will therefore be important to demonstrate in quantitative terms 1 what habitat types and areas that are essential for the reindeer in different seasons and situations and for different activities (grazing, resting, protection for insects etc, and 2 how different forms and intensities of disturbance affect the reindeer. We plan a project with these aims and will primarily work with the summer grazing situation. For many years we have run a similar project related to sheep grazing in the vicinity of Hessdalen, and we have developed methods and techniques that to a large extent are applicable to reindeer. We will discuss methods and results from the sheep study, how they can apply to reindeer, and provide the quantitative information needed. We use modern, high resolution GPS telemetry with very high spatial resolution (95% within ca 6.4 m, and frequent recording, e.g., every five minutes during some periods. This provides knowledge not only of the movements by the animals in the landscape, but also on their activities and will be related to vegetation maps with the same accuracy as the telemetry data (from aerial photographs, offering higher resolution than available satellite data. Results show that sheep use only a very small portion of the available rangeland, and that selectivity varies with season and weather conditions. Almost certainly the situation is similar with reindeer, although the two species have rather different grazing pattern, with reindeer being much more mobile than sheep. We plan

  20. Quality characteristics and thermal behavior of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.) oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.L.F.; Chisté, R.C.; Polachini, T.C.; Sardella, L.A.C.Z.; Aranha, C.P.M.; Ribeiro, A.P.B.; Nicoletti, V.R.

    2017-01-01

    This work reports a complete characterization of buriti oil. Physicochemical properties were determined according to AOCS methodologies and thermophysical properties were measured using a controlled stress rheometer and a digital electronic density meter. β-carotene and tocopherol contents were obtained using HPLC systems. Fatty acids and acylglycerol classes were determined using GC and HPSEC systems, respectively, while triacylglycerol composition was estimated using the software PrOleos. Thermal behavior (crystallization and melting) was analyzed using a DSC. The results attested high levels of total carotenoids with β-carotene as the major one; total tocopherols contained α- and β-tocopherols which accounted for 91% of the total; and monounsaturated fatty acids were mainly represented by oleic acid. The results showed close agreement between density and viscosity of buriti and olive oils. The crystallization and melting peaks occurred at -43.06 °C and -2.73 °C, respectively. These properties enable Buriti oil to be recommended as an excellent alternative for enriching foods with bioactive compounds. [es

  1. Quality characteristics and thermal behavior of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L. oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L.F. Freitas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a complete characterization of buriti oil. Physicochemical properties were determined according to AOCS methodologies and thermophysical properties were measured using a controlled stress rheometer and a digital electronic density meter. β-carotene and tocopherol contents were obtained using HPLC systems. Fatty acids and acylglycerol classes were determined using GC and HPSEC systems, respectively, while triacylglycerol composition was estimated using the software PrOleos. Thermal behavior (crystallization and melting was analyzed using a DSC. The results attested high levels of total carotenoids with β-carotene as the major one; total tocopherols contained α- and β-tocopherols which accounted for 91% of the total; and monounsaturated fatty acids were mainly represented by oleic acid. The results showed close agreement between density and viscosity of buriti and olive oils. The crystallization and melting peaks occurred at -43.06 °C and -2.73 °C, respectively. These properties enable Buriti oil to be recommended as an excellent alternative for enriching foods with bioactive compounds.

  2. Defining geo-habitats for groundwater ecosystem assessments: an example from England and Wales (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitowitz, Damiano C.; Maurice, Louise; Lewis, Melinda; Bloomfield, John P.; Reiss, Julia; Robertson, Anne L.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater ecosystems comprising micro-organisms and metazoans provide an important contribution to global biodiversity. Their complexity depends on geology, which determines the physical habitat available, and the chemical conditions within it. Despite this, methods of classifying groundwater habitats using geological data are not well established and researchers have called for higher resolution habitat frameworks. A novel habitat typology for England and Wales (UK) is proposed, which distinguishes 11 geological habitats (geo-habitats) on hydrogeological principles and maps their distribution. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical data are used to determine the characteristics of each geo-habitat, and demonstrate their differences. Using these abiotic parameters, a new method to determine abiotic habitat quality is then developed. The geo-habitats had significantly different characteristics, validating the classification system. All geo-habitats were highly heterogeneous, containing both high quality habitat patches that are likely to be suitable for fauna, and areas of low quality that may limit faunal distributions. Karstic and porous habitats generally were higher quality than fractured habitats. Overall, 70% of England and Wales are covered by lower quality fractured habitats, with only 13% covered by higher quality habitats. The main areas of high quality habitats occur in central England as north-south trending belts, possibly facilitating dispersal along this axis. They are separated by low quality geo-habitats that may prevent east-west dispersal of fauna. In south-west England and Wales suitable geo-habitats occur as small isolated patches. Overall, this paper provides a new national-scale typology that is adaptable for studies in other geographic areas.

  3. Environmental predictors of shrubby cinquefoil (Dasiphora fruticosa) habitat and quality as host for Maine’s endangered Clayton’s copper butterfly (Lycaena dorcas claytoni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahovzal, Sarah A.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Rhymer, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Population size of habitat-specialized butterflies is limited in part by host plant distribution and abundance. Effective conservation for host-specialist species requires knowledge of host-plant habitat conditions and relationships with the specialist species. Clayton’s copper butterfly (Lycaena dorcas claytoni) is a Maine state-endangered species that relies exclusively on shrubby cinquefoil (Dasiphora fruticosa) as its host. Dasiphora fruticosa occurs in 28 wetlands in Maine, ten of which are occupied by L. d. claytoni. Little is known about environmental conditions that support large, persistent stands of D. fruticosa in Maine. We evaluated the environment (hydrology, pore water and peat nutrients) associated with D. fruticosa distribution, age, and condition in Maine wetlands supporting robust stands of D. fruticosa to compare with L. d. claytoni occurrence. Although dominant water source in D. fruticosa—containing wetlands included both groundwater discharge and surface-flow, D. fruticosa coverage was greater in wetlands with consistent growing season water levels that dropped into or below the root zone by late season, and its distributions within wetlands reflected pore water hydrogen ion and conductivity gradients. Flooding magnitude and duration were greatest during the L.d. claytoni larval feeding period, whereas, mean depth to water table and upwelling increased and were most variable following the L. d. claytoni egg-laying period that precedes D. fruticosa senescence. Oldest sampled shrubs were 37 years, and older shrubs were larger and slower-growing. Encounter rates of L. d. claytoni were greater in wetlands with larger D. fruticosa plants of intermediate age and greater bloom density. Wetland management that combines conditions associated with D. fruticosa abundance (e.g., non-forested, seasonally consistent water levels with high conductivity) and L. d. claytoni occurrence (e.g., drawdown below the root zone following egg-laying, abundant

  4. A test of the substitution-habitat hypothesis in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro; Galán, Pedro

    2017-12-08

    Most examples that support the substitution-habitat hypothesis (human-made habitats act as substitutes of original habitat) deal with birds and mammals. We tested this hypothesis in 14 amphibians by using percentage occupancy as a proxy of habitat quality (i.e., higher occupancy percentages indicate higher quality). We classified water body types as original habitat (no or little human influence) depending on anatomical, behavioral, or physiological adaptations of each amphibian species. Ten species had relatively high probabilities (0.16-0.28) of occurrence in original habitat, moderate probability of occurrence in substitution habitats (0.11-0.14), and low probability of occurrence in refuge habitats (0.05-0.08). Thus, the substitution-habitat hypothesis only partially applies to amphibians because the low occupancy of refuges could be due to the negligible human persecution of this group (indicating good conservation status). However, low occupancy of refuges could also be due to low tolerance of refuge conditions, which could have led to selective extinction or colonization problems due to poor dispersal capabilities. That original habitats had the highest probabilities of occupancy suggests amphibians have a good conservation status in the region. They also appeared highly adaptable to anthropogenic substitution habitats. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Effect of high-pressure processing and thermal pasteurization on overall quality parameters of white grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Hsuan; Wu, Sz-Jie; Chen, Bang-Yuan; Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Wang, Chung-Yi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial levels, physicochemical and antioxidant properties and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities as well as to conduct a sensory analysis of white grape juice treated with high-pressure processing (HPP) and thermal pasteurization (TP), over a period of 20 days of refrigerated storage. HPP treatment of 600 MPa and TP significantly reduced aerobic bacteria, coliform and yeast/mold counts. At day 20 of storage, HPP-600 juice displayed no significant differences compared with fresh juice in terms of physicochemical properties such as titratable acidity, pH and soluble solids, and retained less than 50% PPO and POD activities. Although significant differences were observed in the color, antioxidant contents and antioxidant capacity of HPP-treated juice, the extent of these differences was substantially lower than that in TP-treated juice, indicating that HPP treatment can better retain the quality of grape juice. Sensory testing showed no significant difference between HPP-treated juice and fresh juice, while TP reduced the acceptance of grape juice. This study shows that HPP treatment maintained the overall quality parameters of white grape juice, thus effectively extending the shelf life during refrigerated storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Stratification of habitats for identifying habitat selection by Merriam's turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1992-01-01

    Habitat selection patterns of Merriam’s Turkeys were compared in hierarchical analyses of three levels of habitat stratification. Habitat descriptions in first-level analyses were based on dominant species of vegetation. Habitat descriptions in second-level analyses were based on dominant species of vegetation and overstory canopy cover. Habitat descriptions in third-...

  7. Global patterns of fragmentation and connectivity of mammalian carnivore habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Kevin R; Burdett, Christopher L; Theobald, David M; Rondinini, Carlo; Boitani, Luigi

    2011-09-27

    Although mammalian carnivores are vulnerable to habitat fragmentation and require landscape connectivity, their global patterns of fragmentation and connectivity have not been examined. We use recently developed high-resolution habitat suitability models to conduct comparative analyses and to identify global hotspots of fragmentation and connectivity for the world's terrestrial carnivores. Species with less fragmentation (i.e. more interior high-quality habitat) had larger geographical ranges, a greater proportion of habitat within their range, greater habitat connectivity and a lower risk of extinction. Species with higher connectivity (i.e. less habitat isolation) also had a greater proportion of high-quality habitat, but had smaller, not larger, ranges, probably reflecting shorter distances between habitat patches for species with restricted distributions; such species were also more threatened, as would be expected given the negative relationship between range size and extinction risk. Fragmentation and connectivity did not differ among Carnivora families, and body mass was associated with connectivity but not fragmentation. On average, only 54.3 per cent of a species' geographical range comprised high-quality habitat, and more troubling, only 5.2 per cent of the range comprised such habitat within protected areas. Identification of global hotspots of fragmentation and connectivity will help guide strategic priorities for carnivore conservation.

  8. Determinants of habitat selection by hatchling Australian freshwater crocodiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchira Somaweera

    Full Text Available Animals almost always use habitats non-randomly, but the costs and benefits of using specific habitat types remain unknown for many types of organisms. In a large lake in northwestern Australia (Lake Argyle, most hatchling (<12-month-old freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni are found in floating vegetation mats or grassy banks rather than the more widely available open banks. Mean body sizes of young crocodiles did not differ among the three habitat types. We tested four potential explanations for non-random habitat selection: proximity to nesting sites, thermal conditions, food availability, and exposure to predation. The three alternative habitat types did not differ in proximity to nesting sites, or in thermal conditions. Habitats with higher food availability harboured more hatchlings, and feeding rates (obtained by stomach-flushing of recently-captured crocodiles were highest in such areas. Predation risk may also differ among habitats: we were twice as likely to capture a crocodile after seeing it in open-bank sites than in the other two habitat types. Thus, habitat selection of hatchling crocodiles in this system may be driven both by prey availability and by predation risk.

  9. Determinants of Habitat Selection by Hatchling Australian Freshwater Crocodiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somaweera, Ruchira; Webb, Jonathan K.; Shine, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Animals almost always use habitats non-randomly, but the costs and benefits of using specific habitat types remain unknown for many types of organisms. In a large lake in northwestern Australia (Lake Argyle), most hatchling (banks rather than the more widely available open banks. Mean body sizes of young crocodiles did not differ among the three habitat types. We tested four potential explanations for non-random habitat selection: proximity to nesting sites, thermal conditions, food availability, and exposure to predation. The three alternative habitat types did not differ in proximity to nesting sites, or in thermal conditions. Habitats with higher food availability harboured more hatchlings, and feeding rates (obtained by stomach-flushing of recently-captured crocodiles) were highest in such areas. Predation risk may also differ among habitats: we were twice as likely to capture a crocodile after seeing it in open-bank sites than in the other two habitat types. Thus, habitat selection of hatchling crocodiles in this system may be driven both by prey availability and by predation risk. PMID:22163308

  10. Systematic review of the influence of foraging habitat on red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Garabedian; Christopher E. Moorman; M. Nils Peterson; John C. Kilgo

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between foraging habitat and reproductive success provide compelling evidence of the contribution of specific vegetative features to foraging habitat quality, a potentially limiting factor for many animal populations. For example, foraging habitat quality likely will gain importance in the recovery of the threatened red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides...

  11. Extensive feedwater quality control and monitoring concept for preventing chemistry-related failures of boiler tubes in a subcritical thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidojkovic, Sonja; Onjia, Antonije; Matovic, Branko; Grahovac, Nebojsa; Maksimovic, Vesna; Nastasovic, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Prevention and minimizing corrosion processes on steam generating equipment is highly important in the thermal power industry. The maintenance of feedwater quality at a level corresponding to the standards of technological designing, followed by timely respond to the fluctuation of measured parameters, has a decisive role in corrosion prevention. In this study, the comprehensive chemical control of feedwater quality in 210 MW Thermal Power Plant (TPP) was carried out in order to evaluate its potentiality to assure reliable function of the boiler and discover possible irregularity that might be responsible for frequent boiler tube failures. Sensitive on-line and off-line analytical instruments were used for measuring key and diagnostic parameters considered to be crucial for boiler safety and performances. Obtained results provided evidences for exceeded levels of oxygen, silica, sodium, chloride, sulfate, copper, and conductivity what distinctly demonstrated necessity of feedwater control improvement. Consequently, more effective feedwater quality monitoring concept was recommended. In this paper, the explanation of presumable root causes of corrosive contaminants was given including basic directions for their maintenance in proscribed limits. -- Highlights: • Feedwater quality monitoring practice in a thermal power plant has been evaluated. • The more efficient feedwater quality control have been applied. • Analysis of feedwater quality parameters has been performed. • Exceeded levels of corrosive contaminants were found. • Recommendations for their maintenance at proscribed values were given

  12. Wildlife Habitat Evaluation Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Edward L., Jr.; Benson, Delwin E.

    The National 4-H Wildlife Invitational is a competitive event to teach youth about the fundamentals of wildlife management. Youth learn that management for wildlife means management of wildlife habitat and providing for the needs of wildlife. This handbook provides information about wildlife habitat management concepts in both urban and rural…

  13. Wildlife habitat considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helen Y. Smith

    2000-01-01

    Fire, insects, disease, harvesting, and precommercial thinning all create mosaics on Northern Rocky Mountain landscapes. These mosaics are important for faunal habitat. Consequently, changes such as created openings or an increase in heavily stocked areas affect the water, cover, and food of forest habitats. The “no action” alternative in ecosystem management of low...

  14. Critical Habitat :: NOAA Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    occupied by the species at the time of listing, if they contain physical or biological features essential essential for conservation. Critical Habitat Maps NOTE: The critical habitat maps provided here are for Data Leatherback Turtle (U.S. West Coast) » Biological Report » Economic Report 2012 77 FR 4170 Go to

  15. Understanding Existing Salmonid Habitat Availability and Connectivity to Improve River Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, J.; Yager, E.; Tonina, D.; Benjankar, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    In the Pacific Northwest river restoration is common for salmon conservation. Mangers need methods to help target restoration to problem areas in rivers to create habitat that meets a species' needs. Hydraulic models and habitat suitability curves provide basic information on habitat availability and overall quality, but these analyses need to be expanded to address habitat quality based on the accessibility of habitats required for multiple life stages. Scientists are starting to use connectivity measurements to understand the longitudinal proximity of habitat patches, which can be used to address the habitat variability of a reach. By evaluating the availability and quality of habitat and calculating the connectivity between complementary habitats, such as spawning and rearing habitats, we aim to identify areas that should be targeted for restoration. To meet these goals, we assessed Chinook salmon habitat on the Lemhi River in Idaho. The depth and velocity outputs from a 2D hydraulic model are used in conjunction with locally created habitat suitability curves to evaluate the availability and quality of habitat for multiple Chinook salmon life stages. To assess the variability of the habitat, connectivity between habitat patches necessary for different life stages is calculated with a proximity index. A spatial representation of existing habitat quality and connectivity between complimentary habitats can be linked to river morphology by the evaluation of local geomorphic characteristics, including sinuosity and channel units. The understanding of the current habitat availability for multiple life stage needs, the connectivity between these habitat patches, and their relationship with channel morphology can help managers better identify restoration needs and direct their limited resources.

  16. Long-term habitat changes in a protected area: Implications for herpetofauna habitat management and restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Chantel E; Chow-Fraser, Gillian; Chow-Fraser, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Point Pelee National Park, located at the southern-most tip of Canada's mainland, historically supported a large number of herpetofauna species; however, despite nearly a century of protection, six snake and five amphibian species have disappeared, and remaining species-at-risk populations are thought to be in decline. We hypothesized that long-term changes in availability and distribution of critical habitat types may have contributed to the disappearance of herpetofauna. To track habitat changes we used aerial image data spanning 85 years (1931-2015) and manually digitized and classified image data using a standardized framework. Change-detection analyses were used to evaluate the relative importance of proportionate loss and fragmentation of 17 habitat types. Marsh habitat diversity and aquatic connectivity has declined since 1931. The marsh matrix transitioned from a graminoid and forb shallow marsh interspersed with water to a cattail dominated marsh, altering critical breeding, foraging, and overwintering habitat. Reduced diversity of marsh habitats appears to be linked to the expansion of invasive Phragmites australis, which invaded prior to 2000. Loss of open habitats such as savanna and meadow has reduced availability of high quality thermoregulation habitat for reptiles. Restoration of the northwestern region and tip of Point Pelee National Park to a mixed landscape of shallow wetlands (cattail, graminoid, forb, open water) and eradication of dense Phragmites stands should improve habitat diversity. Our results suggest that long-term landscape changes resulting from habitat succession and invasive species can negatively affect habitat suitability for herpetofauna and protection of land alone does not necessarily equate to protection of sensitive herpetofauna.

  17. Long-term habitat changes in a protected area: Implications for herpetofauna habitat management and restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantel E Markle

    Full Text Available Point Pelee National Park, located at the southern-most tip of Canada's mainland, historically supported a large number of herpetofauna species; however, despite nearly a century of protection, six snake and five amphibian species have disappeared, and remaining species-at-risk populations are thought to be in decline. We hypothesized that long-term changes in availability and distribution of critical habitat types may have contributed to the disappearance of herpetofauna. To track habitat changes we used aerial image data spanning 85 years (1931-2015 and manually digitized and classified image data using a standardized framework. Change-detection analyses were used to evaluate the relative importance of proportionate loss and fragmentation of 17 habitat types. Marsh habitat diversity and aquatic connectivity has declined since 1931. The marsh matrix transitioned from a graminoid and forb shallow marsh interspersed with water to a cattail dominated marsh, altering critical breeding, foraging, and overwintering habitat. Reduced diversity of marsh habitats appears to be linked to the expansion of invasive Phragmites australis, which invaded prior to 2000. Loss of open habitats such as savanna and meadow has reduced availability of high quality thermoregulation habitat for reptiles. Restoration of the northwestern region and tip of Point Pelee National Park to a mixed landscape of shallow wetlands (cattail, graminoid, forb, open water and eradication of dense Phragmites stands should improve habitat diversity. Our results suggest that long-term landscape changes resulting from habitat succession and invasive species can negatively affect habitat suitability for herpetofauna and protection of land alone does not necessarily equate to protection of sensitive herpetofauna.

  18. Probing Growth-Induced Anisotropic Thermal Transport in High-Quality CVD Diamond Membranes by Multifrequency and Multiple-Spot-Size Time-Domain Thermoreflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhe; Bougher, Thomas; Bai, Tingyu; Wang, Steven Y; Li, Chao; Yates, Luke; Foley, Brian M; Goorsky, Mark; Cola, Baratunde A; Faili, Firooz; Graham, Samuel

    2018-02-07

    The maximum output power of GaN-based high-electron mobility transistors is limited by high channel temperature induced by localized self-heating, which degrades device performance and reliability. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond is an attractive candidate to aid in the extraction of this heat and in minimizing the peak operating temperatures of high-power electronics. Owing to its inhomogeneous structure, the thermal conductivity of CVD diamond varies along the growth direction and can differ between the in-plane and out-of-plane directions, resulting in a complex three-dimensional (3D) distribution. Depending on the thickness of the diamond and size of the electronic device, this 3D distribution may impact the effectiveness of CVD diamond in device thermal management. In this work, time-domain thermoreflectance is used to measure the anisotropic thermal conductivity of an 11.8 μm-thick high-quality CVD diamond membrane from its nucleation side. Starting with a spot-size diameter larger than the thickness of the membrane, measurements are made at various modulation frequencies from 1.2 to 11.6 MHz to tune the heat penetration depth and sample the variation in thermal conductivity. We then analyze the data by creating a model with the membrane divided into ten sublayers and assume isotropic thermal conductivity in each sublayer. From this, we observe a two-dimensional gradient of the depth-dependent thermal conductivity for this membrane. The local thermal conductivity goes beyond 1000 W/(m K) when the distance from the nucleation interface only reaches 3 μm. Additionally, by measuring the same region with a smaller spot size at multiple frequencies, the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities are extracted. Through this use of multiple spot sizes and modulation frequencies, the 3D anisotropic thermal conductivity of CVD diamond membrane is experimentally obtained by fitting the experimental data to a thermal model. This work provides an improved

  19. Habitat Blocks and Wildlife Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Habitat blocks are areas of contiguous forest and other natural habitats that are unfragmented by roads, development, or agriculture. Vermonts habitat blocks are...

  20. Global patterns of fragmentation and connectivity of mammalian carnivore habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Crooks, Kevin R.; Burdett, Christopher L.; Theobald, David M.; Rondinini, Carlo; Boitani, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Although mammalian carnivores are vulnerable to habitat fragmentation and require landscape connectivity, their global patterns of fragmentation and connectivity have not been examined. We use recently developed high-resolution habitat suitability models to conduct comparative analyses and to identify global hotspots of fragmentation and connectivity for the world's terrestrial carnivores. Species with less fragmentation (i.e. more interior high-quality habitat) had larger geographical ranges...

  1. Linking Changes in Management and Riparian Physical Functionality to Water Quality and Aquatic Habitat: A Case Study of Maggie Creek, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    The total maximum daily load (TMDL) process is ineffective and inappropriate for improving stream water quality in the rural areas of the northern Great Basin, and likely in many areas throughout the country. Important pollutants (e.g., sediment and nutrients) come from the stre...

  2. Harvesting interacts with climate change to affect future habitat quality of a focal species in eastern Canada’s boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Yan; Cyr, Dominic; Taylor, Anthony R.; Price, David T.; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues

    2018-01-01

    Many studies project future bird ranges by relying on correlative species distribution models. Such models do not usually represent important processes explicitly related to climate change and harvesting, which limits their potential for predicting and understanding the future of boreal bird assemblages at the landscape scale. In this study, we attempted to assess the cumulative and specific impacts of both harvesting and climate-induced changes on wildfires and stand-level processes (e.g., reproduction, growth) in the boreal forest of eastern Canada. The projected changes in these landscape- and stand-scale processes (referred to as “drivers of change”) were then assessed for their impacts on future habitats and potential productivity of black-backed woodpecker (BBWO; Picoides arcticus), a focal species representative of deadwood and old-growth biodiversity in eastern Canada. Forest attributes were simulated using a forest landscape model, LANDIS-II, and were used to infer future landscape suitability to BBWO under three anthropogenic climate forcing scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5), compared to the historical baseline. We found climate change is likely to be detrimental for BBWO, with up to 92% decline in potential productivity under the worst-case climate forcing scenario (RCP 8.5). However, large declines were also projected under baseline climate, underlining the importance of harvest in determining future BBWO productivity. Present-day harvesting practices were the single most important cause of declining areas of old-growth coniferous forest, and hence appeared as the single most important driver of future BBWO productivity, regardless of the climate scenario. Climate-induced increases in fire activity would further promote young, deciduous stands at the expense of old-growth coniferous stands. This suggests that the biodiversity associated with deadwood and old-growth boreal forests may be greatly altered by the cumulative impacts of natural and

  3. Pelagic habitat: exploring the concept of good environmental status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickey-Collas, Mark; McQuatters-Gollop, Abigail; Bresnan, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    Marine environmental legislation is increasingly expressing a need to consider the quality of pelagic habitats. This paper uses the European Union marine strategy framework to explore the concept of good environmental status (GES) of pelagic habitat with the aim to build a wider understanding of ...

  4. Modelling the negative effects of landscape fragmentation on habitat selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.

    2015-01-01

    Landscape fragmentation constrains movement of animals between habitat patches. Fragmentation may, therefore, limit the possibilities to explore and select the best habitat patches, and some animals may have to cope with low-quality patches due to these movement constraints. If so, these individuals

  5. Designated Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Critical habitats include those areas documented as currently supporting self-sustaining populations of any threatened or endangered species of wildlife as well as...

  6. VT Wildlife Linkage Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Wildlife Linkage Habitat Analysis uses landscape scale data to identify or predict the location of potentially significant wildlife linkage...

  7. Deep Space Habitat Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deep Space Habitat was closed out at the end of Fiscal Year 2013 (September 30, 2013). Results and select content have been incorporated into the new Exploration...

  8. Smalltooth Sawfish Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinatat) as designated by 74 FR 45353, September 2, 2009, Rules and Regulations.

  9. Right Whale Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Right Whale as designated by Federal Register Vol. 59, No. 28805, May 19, 1993, Rules and Regulations.

  10. Johnsons Seagrass Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Johnson's Seagrass as designated by Federal Register Vol. 65, No. 66, Wednesday, April 5, 2000, Rules and Regulations.

  11. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  12. Habitat Mapping Camera (HABCAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset entails imagery collected using the HabCam towed underwater vehicle and annotated data on objects or habitats in the images and notes on image...

  13. Short-term effects of air quality and thermal stress on non-accidental morbidity—a multivariate meta-analysis comparing indices to single measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokys, Hanna Leona; Junk, Jürgen; Krein, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Air quality and thermal stress lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Studies on morbidity and the combined impact of air pollution and thermal stress are still rare. To analyse the correlations between air quality, thermal stress and morbidity, we used a two-stage meta-analysis approach, consisting of a Poisson regression model combined with distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) and a meta-analysis investigating whether latitude or the number of inhabitants significantly influence the correlations. We used air pollution, meteorological and hospital admission data from 28 administrative districts along a north-south gradient in western Germany from 2001 to 2011. We compared the performance of the single measure particulate matter (PM10) and air temperature to air quality indices (MPI and CAQI) and the biometeorological index UTCI. Based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC), it can be shown that using air quality indices instead of single measures increases the model strength. However, using the UTCI in the model does not give additional information compared to mean air temperature. Interaction between the 3-day average of air quality (max PM10, max CAQI and max MPI) and meteorology (mean air temperature and mean UTCI) did not improve the models. Using the mean air temperature, we found immediate effects of heat stress (RR 1.0013, 95% CI: 0.9983-1.0043) and by 3 days delayed effects of cold stress (RR: 1.0184, 95% CI: 1.0117-1.0252). The results for air quality differ between both air quality indices and PM10. CAQI and MPI show a delayed impact on morbidity with a maximum RR after 2 days (MPI 1.0058, 95% CI: 1.0013-1.0102; CAQI 1.0068, 95% CI: 1.0030-1.0107). Latitude was identified as a significant meta-variable, whereas the number of inhabitants was not significant in the model.

  14. Short-term effects of air quality and thermal stress on non-accidental morbidity-a multivariate meta-analysis comparing indices to single measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokys, Hanna Leona; Junk, Jürgen; Krein, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Air quality and thermal stress lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Studies on morbidity and the combined impact of air pollution and thermal stress are still rare. To analyse the correlations between air quality, thermal stress and morbidity, we used a two-stage meta-analysis approach, consisting of a Poisson regression model combined with distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) and a meta-analysis investigating whether latitude or the number of inhabitants significantly influence the correlations. We used air pollution, meteorological and hospital admission data from 28 administrative districts along a north-south gradient in western Germany from 2001 to 2011. We compared the performance of the single measure particulate matter (PM10) and air temperature to air quality indices (MPI and CAQI) and the biometeorological index UTCI. Based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC), it can be shown that using air quality indices instead of single measures increases the model strength. However, using the UTCI in the model does not give additional information compared to mean air temperature. Interaction between the 3-day average of air quality (max PM10, max CAQI and max MPI) and meteorology (mean air temperature and mean UTCI) did not improve the models. Using the mean air temperature, we found immediate effects of heat stress (RR 1.0013, 95% CI: 0.9983-1.0043) and by 3 days delayed effects of cold stress (RR: 1.0184, 95% CI: 1.0117-1.0252). The results for air quality differ between both air quality indices and PM10. CAQI and MPI show a delayed impact on morbidity with a maximum RR after 2 days (MPI 1.0058, 95% CI: 1.0013-1.0102; CAQI 1.0068, 95% CI: 1.0030-1.0107). Latitude was identified as a significant meta-variable, whereas the number of inhabitants was not significant in the model.

  15. The effect of thermal de-phasing on the beam quality of a high-power single-pass second harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat Hashemi, Somayeh; Ghavami Sabouri, Saeed; Khorsandi, Alireza

    2018-04-01

    We present a theoretical model in order to study the effect of a thermally loaded crystal on the quality of a second-harmonic (SH) beam generated in a high-power pumping regime. The model is provided based on using a particular structure of oven considered for MgO:PPsLT nonlinear crystal to compensate for the thermal de-phasing effect that as the pumping power reaches up to 50 W degrades the conversion efficiency and beam quality of the interacting beams. Hereupon, the quality of fundamental beam is involved in the modeling to investigate the final effect on the beam quality of generated SH beam. Beam quality evaluation is subsequently simulated using Hermite-Gaussian modal decomposition approach for a range of fundamental beam qualities varied from 1 to 3 and for different levels of input powers. To provide a meaningful comparison numerical simulation is correlated with real data deduced from a high-power SH generation (SHG) experimental device. It is found that when using the open-top oven scheme and fixing the fundamental M 2-factor at nearly 1, for a range of input powers changing from 15 to 30 W, the M 2-factor of SHG beam is degraded from 9% to 24%, respectively, confirming very good consistency with the reported experimental results.

  16. Assessment of air quality benefits from the national pollution control policy of thermal power plants in China: A numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanshan; Pan, Libo; Li, Yunting; Zhang, Dawei; Ma, Jin; Sun, Feng; Xu, Wenshuai; Wang, Xingrun

    2015-04-01

    In 2010, an emission inventory of air pollutants in China was created using the Chinese Bulletin of the Environment, the INTEX-B program, the First National Pollution Source Census, the National Generator Set Manual, and domestic and international research studies. Two emission scenarios, the standard failed emission scenario (S1) and the standard successful emission scenario (S2), were constructed based upon the Instructions for the Preparation of Emission Standards for Air Pollutants from Thermal Power Plants (second draft). The Fifth-Generation NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5) and the U.S. EPA Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model were applied to China to study the air quality benefits from Emission Standards for Air Pollutants from Thermal Power Plants GB13223-2011. The performance of MM5 and CMAQ was evaluated with meteorological data from Global Surface Data from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) and the daily Air Pollution Index (API) reported by Chinese local governments. The results showed that the implementation of the new standards could reduce the concentration of air pollutants and acid deposition in China by varying degrees. The new standards could reduce NO2 pollution in China. By 2020, for the scenario S2, the area with an NO2 concentration higher than the second-level emission standard, and the average NO2 concentration in 31 selected provinces would be reduced by 55.2% and 24.3%, respectively. The new standards could further reduce the concentration of declining SO2 in China. By 2020, for S2, the area with an SO2 concentration higher than the second-level emission standard and the average SO2 concentration in the 31 selected provinces would be reduced by 40.0% and 31.6%, respectively. The new standards could also reduce PM2.5 pollution in China. By 2020, for S2, the area with a PM2.5 concentration higher than the second-level emission standard and the average concentration of PM2.5 in the 31 selected provinces would be

  17. Pressure-dependent synthesis of high-quality few-layer graphene by plasma-enhanced arc discharge and their thermal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Dubey, Pawan Kumar; Kumar, Pradip; Tiwari, Radhey Shyam; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a simple and cost-effective method to produce high-quality few-layer graphene (FLG) sheets (∼4 layers) have been achieved by the direct current arc discharge under argon atmosphere, using pure graphite rods as the electrodes. Ar was used as a buffer gas with pure graphite rods as anode and cathode electrodes. We explored the suitable conditions for producing FLG by changing the Ar gas pressure inside the arcing chamber. This method has several advantages over the previous methods to produce graphene for research applications. No toxic and hazardous intercalant was used for producing FLG in this process. The optimum Ar pressure was 500 Torr, for producing minimum number of FLG and this also shows the good thermal stability. The FLG product so obtained has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and electron microscopy, Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thermal stabilities of FLG were determined by thermal gravimetric analysis

  18. Napa River Sediment TMDL Implementation and Habitat Enhancement Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Napa River Sediment TMDL Implementation and Habitat Enhancement Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  19. The distribution, abundance, and habitat preference of lovebirds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-04-30

    Apr 30, 2014 ... Key words: Abundance, micro-habitat, preference, riparian, vegetation .... human interference and more food resources availability. In the month of May, June .... force birds to feed on areas of less quality because survival rate ...

  20. Weaver Bottoms Wildlife Habitat Restoration: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Mary M; Damberg, Carol

    1994-01-01

    .... Backwater areas of the Upper Mississippi River provide important feeding and resting areas for migratory waterfowl, and habitat quality deterioration of these highly productive marshes has been a cause of great concern...

  1. Enhanced Gender Recognition System Using an Improved Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG Feature from Quality Assessment of Visible Light and Thermal Images of the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dat Tien Nguyen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With higher demand from users, surveillance systems are currently being designed to provide more information about the observed scene, such as the appearance of objects, types of objects, and other information extracted from detected objects. Although the recognition of gender of an observed human can be easily performed using human perception, it remains a difficult task when using computer vision system images. In this paper, we propose a new human gender recognition method that can be applied to surveillance systems based on quality assessment of human areas in visible light and thermal camera images. Our research is novel in the following two ways: First, we utilize the combination of visible light and thermal images of the human body for a recognition task based on quality assessment. We propose a quality measurement method to assess the quality of image regions so as to remove the effects of background regions in the recognition system. Second, by combining the features extracted using the histogram of oriented gradient (HOG method and the measured qualities of image regions, we form a new image features, called the weighted HOG (wHOG, which is used for efficient gender recognition. Experimental results show that our method produces more accurate estimation results than the state-of-the-art recognition method that uses human body images.

  2. Enhanced Gender Recognition System Using an Improved Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) Feature from Quality Assessment of Visible Light and Thermal Images of the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-07-21

    With higher demand from users, surveillance systems are currently being designed to provide more information about the observed scene, such as the appearance of objects, types of objects, and other information extracted from detected objects. Although the recognition of gender of an observed human can be easily performed using human perception, it remains a difficult task when using computer vision system images. In this paper, we propose a new human gender recognition method that can be applied to surveillance systems based on quality assessment of human areas in visible light and thermal camera images. Our research is novel in the following two ways: First, we utilize the combination of visible light and thermal images of the human body for a recognition task based on quality assessment. We propose a quality measurement method to assess the quality of image regions so as to remove the effects of background regions in the recognition system. Second, by combining the features extracted using the histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) method and the measured qualities of image regions, we form a new image features, called the weighted HOG (wHOG), which is used for efficient gender recognition. Experimental results show that our method produces more accurate estimation results than the state-of-the-art recognition method that uses human body images.

  3. Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, N.; Jeffries, J.; Mach, J.; Robson, M.; Pajot, D.; Harrigan, J.; Lebsack, T.; Mullen, D.; Rat, F.; Theys, P.

    1993-01-01

    What is quality? How do you achieve it? How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs

  4. Habitat degradation may affect niche segregation patterns in lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrin, N.; Chani, J. M.; Echevarria, A. L.; Bucher, E. H.

    2013-08-01

    Lizards partition resources in three main niche dimensions: time, space and food. Activity time and microhabitat use are strongly influenced by thermal environment, and may differ between species according to thermal requirements and tolerance. As thermal characteristics are influenced by habitat structure, microhabitat use and activity of lizards can change in disturbed habitats. We compared activity and microhabitat use of two abundant lizard species of the Semi-arid Chaco of Argentina between a restored and a highly degraded Chaco forest, to determine how habitat degradation affects lizard segregation in time and space, hypothesizing that as activity and microhabitat use of lizards are related to habitat structure, activity and microhabitat use of individual species can be altered in degraded habitats, thus changing segregation patterns between them. Activity changed from an overlapped pattern in a restored forest to a segregated pattern in a degraded forest. A similar trend was observed for microhabitat use, although to a less extent. No correlation was found between air temperature and lizard activity, but lizard activity varied along the day and among sites. Contrary to what was believed, activity patterns of neotropical diurnal lizards are not fixed, but affected by multiple factors related to habitat structure and possibly to interspecific interactions. Changes in activity patterns and microhabitat use in degraded forests may have important implications when analyzing the effects of climate change on lizard species, due to synergistic effects.

  5. Evaluating anthropogenic risk of grassland and forest habitat degradation using land-cover data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt Riitters; James Wickham; Timothy Wade

    2009-01-01

    The effects of landscape context on habitat quality are receiving increased attention in conservation biology. The objective of this research is to demonstrate a landscape-level approach to mapping and evaluating the anthropogenic risks of grassland and forest habitat degradation by examining habitat context as defined by intensive anthropogenic land uses at multiple...

  6. Influence of habitat degradation on fish replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, M. I.; Moore, J. A. Y.; Munday, P. L.

    2010-09-01

    Temperature-induced coral bleaching is a major threat to the biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems. While reductions in species diversity and abundance of fish communities have been documented following coral bleaching, the mechanisms that underlie these changes are poorly understood. The present study examined the impacts of coral bleaching on the early life-history processes of coral reef fishes. Daily monitoring of fish settlement patterns found that ten times as many fish settled to healthy coral than sub-lethally bleached coral. Species diversity of settling fishes was least on bleached coral and greatest on dead coral, with healthy coral having intermediate levels of diversity. Laboratory experiments using light-trap caught juveniles showed that different damselfish species chose among healthy, bleached and dead coral habitats using different combinations of visual and olfactory cues. The live coral specialist, Pomacentrus moluccensis, preferred live coral and avoided bleached and dead coral, using mostly visual cues to inform their habitat choice. The habitat generalist, Pomacentrus amboinensis, also preferred live coral and avoided bleached and dead coral but selected these habitats using both visual and olfactory cues. Trials with another habitat generalist, Dischistodus sp., suggested that vision played a significant role. A 20 days field experiment that manipulated densities of P. moluccensis on healthy and bleached coral heads found an influence of fish density on juvenile weight and growth, but no significant influence of habitat quality. These results suggests that coral bleaching will affect settlement patterns and species distributions by influencing the visual and olfactory cues that reef fish larvae use to make settlement choices. Furthermore, increased fish density within the remaining healthy coral habitats could play an important role in influencing population dynamics.

  7. An index of reservoir habitat impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.; Hunt, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish habitat impairment resulting from natural and anthropogenic watershed and in-lake processes has in many cases reduced the ability of reservoirs to sustain native fish assemblages and fisheries quality. Rehabilitation of impaired reservoirs is hindered by the lack of a method suitable for scoring impairment status. To address this limitation, an index of reservoir habitat impairment (IRHI) was developed by merging 14 metrics descriptive of common impairment sources, with each metric scored from 0 (no impairment) to 5 (high impairment) by fisheries scientists with local knowledge. With a plausible range of 5 to 25, distribution of the IRHI scores ranged from 5 to 23 over 482 randomly selected reservoirs dispersed throughout the USA. The IRHI reflected five impairment factors including siltation, structural habitat, eutrophication, water regime, and aquatic plants. The factors were weakly related to key reservoir characteristics including reservoir area, depth, age, and usetype, suggesting that common reservoir descriptors are poor predictors of fish habitat impairment. The IRHI is rapid and inexpensive to calculate, provides an easily understood measure of the overall habitat impairment, allows comparison of reservoirs and therefore prioritization of restoration activities, and may be used to track restoration progress. The major limitation of the IRHI is its reliance on unstandardized professional judgment rather than standardized empirical measurements. ?? 2010 US Government.

  8. A Habitat-Based Approach to Management of Tallgrass Prairies at the Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schroeder, Richard

    1999-01-01

    .... and improving overall floristic quality. Selection of appropriate management strategies followed by monitoring and evaluation of habitat conditions will allow for adaptive management and appropriate modifications over time.

  9. Thermal ecological study on the water quality and biological impact assessment in the vicinity of Madras Atomic Power Station, Kalpakkam, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahul Hameed, P.; Syed Mohamed, H.E.; Krishnamoorthy, R.

    2007-01-01

    Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam uses seawater as tertiary coolant at the rate of 35m3/sec employing a once through type of circuit. The discharged water travels as a canal and mixes with seawater at the mixing zone. The present study investigated the impact of the discharged thermal effluent on the physical chemical and biological quality of the receiving seawater body. Measurements of ΔT between Intake and Outfall ranged from 6.1 to 9.8 deg C and between Intake and Mixing zone from 3.2 to 6.0 deg C. These values are well within the legal limits. The thermal plume is shore attached and extended up to 300 m from the shore and registered a ΔT of 3-4 deg C. No measurable Change in the physical and chemical parameters of seawater (DO, Salinity NO 3 , NO 2 , NH 3 , PO 4 and SiO 3 ) in relation to thermal discharges was observed. However, these parameters fluctuated with seasonal changes. The shore attached thermal plume adversely affected the density and distribution of macro benthic animals. The benthos are absent in the mixing zone and their density decreased about 500 m on either side of the mixing zone. The natural shift in the mixing zone provides opportunities for the recolonization of macro benthos. The thermal tolerance study revealed that the experimental fish species Mugil cephalus and Alepeus djidapa did not show any mortality or loss of equilibrium at Δ5 degC (33 degC) and Δ T 7 degC (35 degC) and the maximum ΔT recorded at the impact area is 6 degC. The gradual increase in temperature as found in the plume favors the fishes to escape the acute thermal exposures. (author)

  10. Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) movement in relation to water temperature, season, and habitat features in Arrowrock Reservoir, Idaho, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Terry R.; Schultz, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    detected in early June, suggesting that fish used little, if any, summertime habitat within the reservoir. Water-quality profile measurements indicated that temperature could limit bull trout use of the reservoir during warm, summer months that coincide with decreased water volume. Thermal refuge during this study appeared to be limited based on scarcity of water that was 15°C and cooler. From the first week of August through the latter part of September, little if any suitable habitat remained for bull trout, with most temperatures exceeding 15°C at all locations where water quality profiles were measured.

  11. Habitat-specific population growth of a farmland bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Arlt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To assess population persistence of species living in heterogeneous landscapes, the effects of habitat on reproduction and survival have to be investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a matrix population model to estimate habitat-specific population growth rates for a population of northern wheatears Oenanthe oenanthe breeding in farmland consisting of a mosaic of distinct habitat (land use types. Based on extensive long-term data on reproduction and survival, habitats characterised by tall field layers (spring- and autumn-sown crop fields, ungrazed grasslands displayed negative stochastic population growth rates (log lambda(s: -0.332, -0.429, -0.168, respectively, that were markedly lower than growth rates of habitats characterised by permanently short field layers (pastures grazed by cattle or horses, and farmyards, log lambda(s: -0.056, +0.081, -0.059. Although habitats differed with respect to reproductive performance, differences in habitat-specific population growth were largely due to differences in adult and first-year survival rates, as shown by a life table response experiment (LTRE. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that estimation of survival rates is important for realistic assessments of habitat quality. Results also indicate that grazed grasslands and farmyards may act as source habitats, whereas crop fields and ungrazed grasslands with tall field layers may act as sink habitats. We suggest that the strong decline of northern wheatears in Swedish farmland may be linked to the corresponding observed loss of high quality breeding habitat, i.e. grazed semi-natural grasslands.

  12. Saproxylic Hemiptera Habitat Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Robert L. Blinn; Gene. Kritsky

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the habitat requirements of organisms associated with dead wood is important in order to conserve them in managed forests. Unfortunately, many of the less diverse saproxylic taxa, including Hemiptera, remain largely unstudied. An effort to rear insects from dead wood taken from two forest types (an upland pine-dominated and a bottomland mixed hardwood),...

  13. Influences of thermal deformation of cavity mirrors induced by high energy DF laser to beam quality under the simulated real physical circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shaoyong; Zhang, Shiqiang; He, Minbo; Zhang, Zheng; Guan, Xiaowei

    2017-05-01

    The positive-branch confocal unstable resonator with inhomogeneous gain medium was studied for the normal used high energy DF laser system. The fast changing process of the resonator's eigenmodes was coupled with the slow changing process of the thermal deformation of cavity mirrors. Influences of the thermal deformation of cavity mirrors to the outcoupled beam quality and transmission loss of high frequency components of high energy laser were computed. The simulations are done through programs compiled by MATLAB and GLAD software and the method of combination of finite elements and Fox-li iteration algorithm was used. Effects of thermal distortion, misaligned of cavity mirrors and inhomogeneous distribution of gain medium were introduced to simulate the real physical circumstances of laser cavity. The wavefront distribution and beam quality (including RMS of wavefront, power in the bucket, Strehl ratio, diffraction limit β, position of the beam spot center, spot size and intensity distribution in far-field ) of the distorted outcoupled beam were studied. The conclusions of the simulation agree with the experimental results. This work would supply references of wavefront correction range to the adaptive optics system of interior alleyway.

  14. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Beaver Lake, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On August 14, 2003, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in November 2002. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 232.26 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 136.58 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetland habitat provides 20.02 HUs for bald eagle, black-caped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub wetland habitat provides 7.67 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Grassland meadow provides 22.69 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Emergent wetlands provide 35.04 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Open water provided 10.26 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. The objective of using HEP at the Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  15. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Gamblin Lake, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On August 12, 2003, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Gamblin Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in December 2002. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Gamblin Lake Project provides a total of 273.28 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 127.92 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetland habitat provides 21.06 HUs for bald eagle, black-caped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Wet meadow provides 78.05 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Emergent wetland habitat provides 46.25 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. The objective of using HEP at the Gamblin Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  16. HYDROGEOLOGICAL INFLUENCE OF THE RAUTOVAC STREAM BASIN UPON THE QUALITY OF THE NIŠKA BANJA THERMAL WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Minić

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The thermal water sources in Niska Banja, Glavno vrelo and Suva banja,consist of three water components each, namelv, the thermal component, the coldpermanent component and the cold occasional torrent-karst component. The thermalcomponent genesis springs from atmospheric precipitation slowly infiltrated into theterrain through cracks and a porous ground. It is the regulator of the thermal springs'water temperature. An occasional karst-torrent water component is caused by a highdegree of karstification of the Koritnik and many days of atmospheric precipitation orsnow melting. This water components causes occasional cold refreshing just as itmakes the thermal springs muddy.The paper explores short-term and long-term changes of the temperatureregime of the thermal springs in Niska Banja as a function of the undertakenhydro construction repair works (1955-1956 as well as of the effect of forty years ofself-restoration of the herbal covering in the Koritnik river basin.The research results show two important changes, namely, first, a considerableimprovement of the phenomenon of an occasional drastic refreshing and of thethermal waters' getting muddy and, second, a permanent many-year increase of thewater temperature.

  17. Physical habitat simulation system reference manual: version II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhous, Robert T.; Updike, Marlys A.; Schneider, Diane M.

    1989-01-01

    There are four major components of a stream system that determine the productivity of the fishery (Karr and Dudley 1978). These are: (1) flow regime, (2) physical habitat structure (channel form, substrate distribution, and riparian vegetation), (3) water quality (including temperature), and (4) energy inputs from the watershed (sediments, nutrients, and organic matter). The complex interaction of these components determines the primary production, secondary production, and fish population of the stream reach. The basic components and interactions needed to simulate fish populations as a function of management alternatives are illustrated in Figure I.1. The assessment process utilizes a hierarchical and modular approach combined with computer simulation techniques. The modular components represent the "building blocks" for the simulation. The quality of the physical habitat is a function of flow and, therefore, varies in quality and quantity over the range of the flow regime. The conceptual framework of the Incremental Methodology and guidelines for its application are described in "A Guide to Stream Habitat Analysis Using the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology" (Bovee 1982). Simulation of physical habitat is accomplished using the physical structure of the stream and streamflow. The modification of physical habitat by temperature and water quality is analyzed separately from physical habitat simulation. Temperature in a stream varies with the seasons, local meteorological conditions, stream network configuration, and the flow regime; thus, the temperature influences on habitat must be analysed on a stream system basis. Water quality under natural conditions is strongly influenced by climate and the geological materials, with the result that there is considerable natural variation in water quality. When we add the activities of man, the possible range of water quality possibilities becomes rather large. Consequently, water quality must also be analysed on a

  18. NEPR Benthic Habitat Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This benthic habitat map was created from a semi-automated habitat mapping process, using a combination of bathymetry, satellite imagery, aerial imagery and...

  19. NORTHWOODS Wildlife Habitat Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Janine M. Benyus; Richard R. Buech

    1992-01-01

    Wildlife habitat data from seven Great Lakes National Forests were combined into a wildlife-habitat matrix named NORTHWOODS. Several electronic file formats of NORTHWOODS data base and documentation are available on floppy disks for microcomputers.

  20. Thermal adaptation in North American cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Allen F; Heath, James E; Heath, Maxine S; Phillips, Polly K

    2017-10-01

    We determine and summarize the thermal responses for 118 species and subspecies of North American cicadas representing more than 50 years of fieldwork and experimentation. We investigate the role that habitat and behavior have on the thermal adaptation of the North American cicadas. There are general patterns of increasing thermal responses in warmer floristic provinces and increasing maximum potential temperature within a habitat. Altitude shows an inverse relationship with thermal responses. Comparison of thermal responses of species emerging early or late in the season within the same habitat show increases in the thermal responses along with the increasing environmental temperatures late in the summer. However, behavior, specifically the use of endothermy as a thermoregulatory strategy, can influence the values determined in a particular habitat. Subspecies generally do not differ in their thermal tolerances and thermal tolerances are consistent within a species over distances of more than 7600km. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sound solutions for habitat monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary M. Rowland; Lowell H. Suring; Christina D. Vojta

    2015-01-01

    For agencies and organizations to effectively manage wildlife, knowledge about the status and trend of wildlife habitat is critical. Traditional wildlife monitoring, however, has focused on populations rather than habitat, because ultimately population status drives long-term species viability. Still, habitat loss has contributed to the decline of nearly all at-risk...

  2. Impact of short-term climate variation and hydrology change on thermal structure and water quality of a canyon-shaped, stratified reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Xing; Huang, Ting-Lin; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Hai-Han; Ju, Tuo

    2015-12-01

    Climate variation can have obvious effects on hydrologic conditions, which in turn can have direct consequences for the thermal regime and quality of water for human use. In this research, weekly surveys were conducted from 2011 to 2013 to investigate how changes of climate and hydrology affect the thermal regime and water quality at the Heihe Reservoir. Our results show that the hydrology change during the flooding season can both increase the oxygen concentration and accelerate the consumption of dissolved oxygen. Continuous heavy rainfall events occurred in September 2011 caused the mixing of the entire reservoir, which led to an increase in dissolved oxygen at the bottom until the next year. Significant turbid density flow was observed following the extreme rainfall events in 2012 which leading to a rapid increase in turbidity at the bottom (up to 3000 NTU). Though the dissolved oxygen at the bottom increased from 0 to 9.02 mg/L after the rainfall event, it became anoxic within 20 days due to the increase of water oxygen demand caused by the suspended matter brought by the storm runoff. The release of compounds from the sediments was more serious during the anaerobic period after the rainfall events and the concentration of total iron, total phosphorus, and total manganese at the bottom reached 1.778, 0.102, and 0.125 mg/L. The improved water-lifting aerators kept on running after the storm runoff occurred in 2013 to avoid the deterioration of water quality during anaerobic conditions and ensured the good water quality during the mixing period. Our results suggest preventive and remediation actions that are necessary to improve water quality and status.

  3. Behavioural cues surpass habitat factors in explaining prebreeding resource selection by a migratory diving duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Shawn T.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Cutting, Kyle A.; Parker, Michael W.; Yee, Julie L.

    2014-01-01

    Prebreeding habitat selection in birds can often be explained in part by habitat characteristics. However, females may also select habitats on the basis of fidelity to areas of previous reproductive success or use by conspecifics. The relative influences of sociobehavioural attributes versus habitat characteristics in habitat selection has been primarily investigated in songbirds, while less is known about how these factors affect habitat selection processes in migratory waterfowl. Animal resource selection models often exhibit much unexplained variation; spatial patterns driven by social and behavioural characteristics may account for some of this. We radiomarked female lesser scaup, Aythya affinis, in the southwestern extent of their breeding range to explore hypotheses regarding relative roles of habitat quality, site fidelity and conspecific density in prebreeding habitat selection. We used linear mixed-effects models to relate intensity of use within female home ranges to habitat features, distance to areas of reproductive success during the previous breeding season and conspecific density. Home range habitats included shallow water (≤118 cm), moderate to high densities of flooded emergent vegetation/open water edge and open water areas with submerged aquatic vegetation. Compared with habitat features, conspecific female density and proximity to successful nesting habitats from the previous breeding season had greater influences on habitat use within home ranges. Fidelity and conspecific attraction are behavioural characteristics in some waterfowl species that may exert a greater influence than habitat features in influencing prebreeding space use and habitat selection within home ranges, particularly where quality habitat is abundant. These processes may be of critical importance to a better understanding of habitat selection in breeding birds.

  4. Habitat Use Database - Groundfish Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Habitat Use Database (HUD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Habitat Use Database (HUD) was specifically designed to address the need for habitat-use analyses in support of groundfish EFH, HAPCs, and fishing and nonfishing...

  5. Remote Sensing of Urban Thermal Landscape Characteristics and Their Affects on Local and Regional Meteorology and Air Quality: An Overview of NASA EOS-IDS Project Atlanta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    As an entity, the city is a manifestation of human "management" of the land. The act of city-building, however, drastically alters the biophysical environment, which ultimately, impacts local and regional land-atmosphere energy exchange processes. Because of the complexity of both the urban landscape and the attendant energy fluxes that result from urbanization, remote sensing offers the only real way to synoptically quantify these processes. One of the more important land-atmosphere fluxes that occurs over cities relates to the way that thermal energy is partitioned across the heterogeneous urban landscape. The individual land cover and surface material types that comprise the city, such as pavements and buildings, each have their own thermal energy regimes. As the collective urban landscape, the individual thermal energy responses from specific surfaces come together to form the urban heat island phenomena, which prevails as a dome of elevated air temperatures over cities. Although the urban heat island has been known to exist for well over 150 years, it is not understood how differences in thermal energy responses for land covers across the city interact to produce this phenomenon, or how the variability in thermal energy responses from different surface types drive its development. Additionally, it can be hypothesized that as cities grow in size through time, so do their urban heat islands. The interrelationships between urban sprawl and the respective growth of the urban heat island, however, have not been investigated. Moreover, little is known of the consequential effects of urban growth, land cover change, and the urban heat island as they impact local and regional meteorology and air quality.

  6. The micro-habitat methodology. Application protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaton, C; Valentin, S; Souchon, Y

    1995-06-01

    A strong need has been felt for guidelines to help various entities in applying the micro-habitat methodology, particularly in impact studies on hydroelectric installations. CEMAGREF and Electricite de France have developed separately two protocols with five major steps: reconnaissance of the river, selection of representative units to be studied in greater depth, morpho-dynamic measurements at one or more rates of discharge and hydraulic modeling, coupling of hydraulic and biological models, calculation of habitat-quality scores for fish, analysis of results. The two approaches give very comparable results and are essentially differentiated by the hydraulic model used. CEMAGREF uses a one-dimensional model requiring measurements at only one discharge rate. Electricite de France uses a simplified model based on measurements at several rates of discharge. This approach is possible when discharge can be controlled in the study area during data acquisition, as is generally the case downstream of hydroelectric installations. The micro-habitat methodology is now a fully operational tool with which to study changes in fish habitat quality in relation to varying discharge. It provides an element of assessment pertinent to the choice of instreaming flow to be maintained downstream of a hydroelectric installation; this information is essential when the flow characteristics (velocity, depth) and the nature of the river bed are the preponderant factors governing habitat suitability for trout or salmon. The ultimate decision must nonetheless take into account any other potentially limiting factors for the biocenoses on the one hand, and the target water use objectives on the other. In many cases, compromises must be found among different uses, different species and different stages in the fish development cycle. (Abstract Truncated)

  7. Thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the indoor environmental quality due to its effects on well-being, people's performance and building energy requirements. Its attainment is not an easy task requiring advanced design and operation of building and HVAC systems, taking...... into account all parameters involved. Even though thermal comfort fundamentals are consolidated topics for more than forty years, often designers seem to ignore or apply them in a wrong way. Design input values from standards are often considered as universal values rather than recommended values to be used...... under specific conditions. At operation level, only few variables are taken into account with unpredictable effects on the assessment of comfort indices. In this paper, the main criteria for the design and assessment of thermal comfort are discussed in order to help building and HVAC systems designers...

  8. GIS habitat analysis for lesser prairie-chickens in southeastern New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville Paul

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We conducted Geographic Information System (GIS habitat analyses for lesser prairie-chicken (LPCH, Tympanuchus pallidicinctus conservation planning. The 876,799 ha study area included most of the occupied habitat for the LPCH in New Mexico. The objectives were to identify and quantify: 1. suitable LPCH habitat in New Mexico, 2. conversion of native habitats, 3. potential for habitat restoration, and 4. unsuitable habitat available for oil and gas activities. Results We found 16% of suitable habitat (6% of the study area distributed in 13 patches of at least 3,200 ha and 11% of suitable habitat (4% of the study area distributed in four patches over 7,238 ha. The area converted from native vegetation types comprised 17% of the study area. Ninety-five percent of agricultural conversion occurred on private lands in the northeastern corner of the study area. Most known herbicide-related conversions (82% occurred in rangelands in the western part of the study area, on lands managed primarily by the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM. We identified 88,190 ha (10% of the study area of habitats with reasonable restoration potential. Sixty-two percent of the primary population area (PPA contained occupied, suitable, or potentially suitable habitat, leaving 38% that could be considered for oil and gas development. Conclusion Although suitable LPCH habitat appears at first glance to be abundant in southeastern New Mexico, only a fraction of apparently suitable vegetation types constitute quality habitat. However, we identified habitat patches that could be restored through mesquite control or shin-oak reintroduction. The analysis also identified areas of unsuitable habitat with low restoration potential that could be targeted for oil and gas exploration, in lieu of occupied, high-quality habitats. Used in combination with GIS analysis and current LPCH population data, the habitat map represents a powerful conservation and management tool.

  9. GIS habitat analysis for lesser prairie-chickens in southeastern New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kristine; Neville, Teri B; Neville, Paul

    2006-12-04

    We conducted Geographic Information System (GIS) habitat analyses for lesser prairie-chicken (LPCH, Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) conservation planning. The 876,799 ha study area included most of the occupied habitat for the LPCH in New Mexico. The objectives were to identify and quantify: 1. suitable LPCH habitat in New Mexico, 2. conversion of native habitats, 3. potential for habitat restoration, and 4. unsuitable habitat available for oil and gas activities. We found 16% of suitable habitat (6% of the study area) distributed in 13 patches of at least 3,200 ha and 11% of suitable habitat (4% of the study area) distributed in four patches over 7,238 ha. The area converted from native vegetation types comprised 17% of the study area. Ninety-five percent of agricultural conversion occurred on private lands in the northeastern corner of the study area. Most known herbicide-related conversions (82%) occurred in rangelands in the western part of the study area, on lands managed primarily by the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). We identified 88,190 ha (10% of the study area) of habitats with reasonable restoration potential. Sixty-two percent of the primary population area (PPA) contained occupied, suitable, or potentially suitable habitat, leaving 38% that could be considered for oil and gas development. Although suitable LPCH habitat appears at first glance to be abundant in southeastern New Mexico, only a fraction of apparently suitable vegetation types constitute quality habitat. However, we identified habitat patches that could be restored through mesquite control or shin-oak reintroduction. The analysis also identified areas of unsuitable habitat with low restoration potential that could be targeted for oil and gas exploration, in lieu of occupied, high-quality habitats. Used in combination with GIS analysis and current LPCH population data, the habitat map represents a powerful conservation and management tool.

  10. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume I, Oregon, Supplement C, White River Habitat Inventory, 1983 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, David

    1984-04-01

    More than 130 miles of stream fish habitat was inventoried and evaluated on the Mt. Hood National Forest during the first year of this multi-year project. First year tasks included field inventory and evaluation of habitat conditions on the White River and tributary streams thought to have the highest potential for supporting anadromous fish populations. All streams inventoried were located on the Mt. Hood National Forest. The surveyed area appears to contain most of the high quality anadromous fish habitat in the drainage. Habitat conditions appear suitable for steelhead, coho, and chinook salmon, and possibly sockeye. One hundred and twenty-four miles of potential anadromous fish habitat were identifed in the survey. Currently, 32 miles of this habitat would be readily accessible to anadromous fish. An additional 72 miles of habitat could be accessed with only minor passage improvement work. About 20 miles of habitat, however, will require major investment to provide fish passage. Three large lakes (Boulder, 14 acres; Badger, 45 acres; Clear, 550 acres) appear to be well-suited for rearing anadromous fish, although passage enhancement would be needed before self-sustaining runs could be established in any of the lakes.

  11. Comparative study of pulsed electric field and thermal processing of apple juice with particular consideration of juice quality and enzyme deactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Susanne; Schmid, Sandra; Jäger, Henry; Ludwig, Michael; Dietrich, Helmut; Toepfl, Stefan; Knorr, Dietrich; Neidhart, Sybille; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2008-06-25

    As an alternative to thermal pasteurization, pulsed electric fields (PEF) were applied to apple juices on laboratory and pilot plant scale, investigating the effects on juice quality. PEF application still falls under the EU Novel Food Regulation. Consequently, extensive investigation of quality parameters is a prerequisite to prove substantial equivalence of juices resulting from the novel process and conventional production, respectively. Juice composition was not affected by PEF treatment. However, browning of the juices provided evidence of residual enzyme activities. On laboratory scale, complete deactivation of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was achieved when PEF treatment and preheating of the juices to 60 degrees C were combined. Under these conditions, a synergistic effect of heat and PEF was observed. On pilot plant scale, maximum PPO deactivation of 48% was achieved when the juices were preheated to 40 degrees C and PEF-treated at 30 kV/cm (100 kJ/kg). Thus, minimally processed juices resulted from PEF processing, when applied without additional conventional thermal preservation. Since this product type was characterized by residual native enzyme activities and nondetectable levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, also when preheating up to 40 degrees C was included, it ranged between fresh and pasteurized juices regarding consumers' expectation of freshness and shelf life. Consistent with comparable iron contents among all juice samples, no electrode corrosion was observed under the PEF conditions applied.

  12. 78 FR 52363 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Diamond...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... causes of diamond darter habitat loss. Water quality degradation and siltation also played key roles. See... quantitatively define specific water quality standards required by the diamond darter. These organizations noted... conductivity poses to the diamond [[Page 52368

  13. Quality stability and sensory attributes of apple juice processed by thermosonication, pulsed electric field and thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Alifdalino; Farid, Mohammed; Silva, Filipa Vm

    2017-04-01

    Worldwide, apple juice is the second most popular juice, after orange juice. It is susceptible to enzymatic browning spoilage by polyphenoloxidase, an endogenous enzyme. In this study, Royal Gala apple juice was treated by thermosonication (TS: 1.3 W/mL, 58 ℃, 10 min), pulsed electric field (PEF: 24.8 kV/cm, 60 pulses, 169 µs treatment time, 53.8 ℃) and heat (75 ℃, 20 min) and stored at 3.0 ℃ and 20.0 ℃ for 30 days. A sensory analysis was carried out after processing. The polyphenoloxidase activity, antioxidant activity and total color difference of the apple juice were determined before and after processing and during storage. The sensory analysis revealed that thermosonication and pulsed electric field juices tasted differently from the thermally treated juice. Apart from the pulsed electric field apple juice stored at room temperature, the processed juice was stable during storage, since the pH and soluble solids remained constant and fermentation was not observed. Polyphenoloxidase did not reactivate during storage. Along storage, the juices' antioxidant activity decreased and total color difference increased (up to 6.8). While the antioxidant activity increased from 86 to 103% with thermosonication and was retained after pulsed electric field, thermal processing reduced it to 67%. The processing increased the total color difference slightly. No differences in the total color difference of the juices processed by the three methods were registered after storage. Thermosonication and pulsed electric field could possibly be a better alternative to thermal preservation of apple juice, but refrigerated storage is recommended for pulsed electric field apple juice.

  14. The microbial temperature sensitivity to warming is controlled by thermal adaptation and is independent of C-quality across a pan-continental survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Eva; Rousk, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    Climate models predict that warming will result in an increased loss of soil organic matter (SOM). However, field experiments suggest that although warming results in an immediate increase in SOM turnover, the effect diminishes over time. Although the use and subsequent turnover of SOM is dominated by the soil microbial community, the underlying physiology underpinning warming responses are not considered in current climate models. It has been suggested that a reduction in the perceived quality of SOM to the microbial community, and changes in the microbial thermal adaptation, could be important feed-backs to soil warming. Thus, studies distinguishing between temperature relationships and how substrate quality influences microbial decomposition are a priority. We examined microbial communities and temperature sensitivities along a natural climate gradient including 56 independent samples from across Europe. The gradient included mean annual temperatures (MAT) from ca -4 to 18 ˚ C, along with wide spans of environmental factors known to influence microbial communities, such as pH (4.0 to 8.8), nutrients (C/N from 7 to 50), SOM (from 4 to 94%), and plant communities, etc. The extensive ranges of environmental conditions resulted in wide ranges of substrate quality, indexed as microbial respiration per unit SOM, from 5-150 μg CO2g-1 SOM g-1 h-1. We hypothesised microbial communities to (1) be adapted to the temperature of their climate, leading to warm adapted bacterial communities that were more temperature sensitive (higher Q10s) at higher MAT; (2) have temperature sensitivities affected by the quality of SOM, with higher Q10s for lower quality SOM. To determine the microbial use of SOM and its dependence on temperature, we characterized microbial temperature dependences of bacterial growth (leu inc), fungal growth (ac-in-erg) and soil respiration in all 56 sites. Temperature dependences were determined using brief (ca. 1-2 h at 25˚ C) laboratory incubation

  15. Diversification, evolution and sub-functionalization of 70kDa heat-shock proteins in two sister species of antarctic krill: differences in thermal habitats, responses and implications under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascella, Kévin; Jollivet, Didier; Papot, Claire; Léger, Nelly; Corre, Erwan; Ravaux, Juliette; Clark, Melody S; Toullec, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    A comparative thermal tolerance study was undertaken on two sister species of Euphausiids (Antarctic krills) Euphausia superba and Euphausia crystallorophias. Both are essential components of the Southern Ocean ecosystem, but occupy distinct environmental geographical locations with slightly different temperature regimes. They therefore provide a useful model system for the investigation of adaptations to thermal tolerance. Initial CTmax studies showed that E. superba was slightly more thermotolerant than E. crystallorophias. Five Hsp70 mRNAs were characterized from the RNAseq data of both species and subsequent expression kinetics studies revealed notable differences in induction of each of the 5 orthologues between the two species, with E. crystallorophias reacting more rapidly than E. superba. Furthermore, analyses conducted to estimate the evolutionary rates and selection strengths acting on each gene tended to support the hypothesis that diversifying selection has contributed to the diversification of this gene family, and led to the selective relaxation on the inducible C form with its possible loss of function in the two krill species. The sensitivity of the epipelagic species E. crystallorophias to temperature variations and/or its adaptation to cold is enhanced when compared with its sister species, E. superba. These results indicate that ice krill could be the first of the two species to be impacted by the warming of coastal waters of the Austral ocean in the coming years due to climate change.

  16. Microhabitat features influencing habitat use by Florida black bears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L. Karelus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding fine-scale habitat needs of species and the factors influencing heterogeneous use of habitat within home range would help identify limiting resources and inform habitat management practices. This information is especially important for large mammals living in fragmented habitats where resources may be scarcer and more patchily distributed than in contiguous habitats. Using bihourly Global Position System (GPS location data collected from 10 individuals during 2011–2014, we investigated microhabitat features of areas within home ranges that received high vs. low intensity of use by Florida black bears (Ursus americanus floridanus in north-central, Florida. We identified areas receiving high and low levels of use by bears based on their utilization distributions estimated with the dynamic Brownian bridge movement model, and performed vegetation sampling at bear locations within high- and low-use areas. Using univariate analyses and generalized linear mixed models, we found that (1 canopy cover, visual obstruction, and hardwood density were important in defining high-use sites; (2 the probability of high use was positively associated with principal components that represented habitat closer to creeks and with high canopy and shrub cover and higher hardwood densities, likely characteristic of forested wetlands; and (3 the probability of high use was, to a lesser extent, associated with principal components that represented habitat with high canopy cover, high pine density, and low visual obstruction and hardwood density; likely representing sand pine and pine plantations. Our results indicate that the high bear-use sites were in forested wetlands, where cover and food resources for bears are likely to occur in higher abundance. Habitat management plans whereby bears are a focal species should aim to increase the availability and quality of forested wetlands. Keywords: Habitat selection, Heterogeneous habitat use, Forest management

  17. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Carey Creek, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    In August 2002, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Carey Creek property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in December 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Carey Creek Project provides a total of 172.95 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 4.91 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetlands provide 52.68 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub wetlands provide 2.82 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler and white-tailed deer. Wet meadow and grassland meadow provide 98.13 HUs for mallard and Canada goose. Emergent wetlands provide 11.53 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Open water provides 2.88 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. The objective of using HEP at the Carey Creek Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  18. Influence of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage on groundwater quality: A review illustrated by seven case studies from Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Possemiers

    2014-11-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The results of the analysis of the hydrochemical data confirm that the small temperature differences (ΔT ≤ 10 at which the ATES systems are operating do not influence the concentrations of the main chemical constituents. Mixing of shallow with deeper groundwater during ATES operation, on the other hand, can alter groundwater quality. The results of this study, however, suggest that the groundwater quality changes are rather small, so that there is no immediate risk for the drinking water supply. However, the installation of ATES systems in the vicinity of public drinking water supply well fields should be handled with care, especially in phreatic aquifers.

  19. Habitat segregation in fish assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Ibbotson, A.T.

    1990-01-01

    The segregation of habitats of fish assemblages found in the chalk streams and rivers within the Wessex, South West and Southern Water Authority boundaries in southern England have been examined. Habitat segregation is the most frequent type of resource partitioning in natural communities. The habitat of individual fish species will be defined in order to determine the following: (1) the requirements of each species in terms of depth, current velocity, substrate, cover etc.; (2) identify the ...

  20. Impact of thermal loading and other water quality parameters on the epizootiology of red-sore disease in centrarchids. Progress report, December 1, 1977--November 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, G.W.; Hazen, T.C.

    1978-07-01

    The implications from these studies are varied, sometimes clear and sometimes less so, for many of the results have raised new and even more critical questions. Thus, our data clearly show that Aeromonas hydrophila is the etiological agent for red-sore disease. Furthermore, they suggest that the effects of temperature are twofold, first in increasing the density of the pathogen in the water column and then in affecting the physiology of the host organism to such an extent as to increase the probability of acquiring the pathogen. On the other hand, organic loading, suggested by other investigators as being important in red-sore disease, was not identified as being significant in the present study. However, if organic loading, or any of its consequences, can be shown to induce stress, then it may be as important in other systems as temperature is in Par Pond. Thus it is quite conceivable that it (organic loading), or some other water quality parameter, may create conditions conducive to increasing densities of A. hydrophila while simultaneously producing water quality characteristics which would lead to stress in fish, and then to increasing the probability of fish acquiring red-sore disease. An enigmatic observation (see Hazen, 1978, for details) is that A. hydrophila has been recovered from a variety of habitats throughout the U.S., yet red-sore disease is known to occur only in the southeast. This peculiar distribution pattern raises several important questions regarding the epizootiology of red-sore, not the least of which is the possibility of there existing differentially virulent strains of A. hydrophila and/or more or less susceptible populations of potential hosts in various parts of the country. Other significant questions are related to the variability in amplitude of red-sore disease from one year to the next among bass in Par Pond, the mode of entry of the pathogen into largemouth bass, and the basic, cellular mechanisms of stress in largemouth bass.

  1. Impact of thermal loading and other water quality parameters on the epizootiology of red-sore disease in centrarchids. Progress report, December 1, 1977--November 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, G.W.; Hazen, T.C.

    1978-07-01

    The implications from these studies are varied, sometimes clear and sometimes less so, for many of the results have raised new and even more critical questions. Thus, our data clearly show that Aeromonas hydrophila is the etiological agent for red-sore disease. Furthermore, they suggest that the effects of temperature are twofold, first in increasing the density of the pathogen in the water column and then in affecting the physiology of the host organism to such an extent as to increase the probability of acquiring the pathogen. On the other hand, organic loading, suggested by other investigators as being important in red-sore disease, was not identified as being significant in the present study. However, if organic loading, or any of its consequences, can be shown to induce stress, then it may be as important in other systems as temperature is in Par Pond. Thus it is quite conceivable that it (organic loading), or some other water quality parameter, may create conditions conducive to increasing densities of A. hydrophila while simultaneously producing water quality characteristics which would lead to stress in fish, and then to increasing the probability of fish acquiring red-sore disease. An enigmatic observation (see Hazen, 1978, for details) is that A. hydrophila has been recovered from a variety of habitats throughout the U.S., yet red-sore disease is known to occur only in the southeast. This peculiar distribution pattern raises several important questions regarding the epizootiology of red-sore, not the least of which is the possibility of there existing differentially virulent strains of A. hydrophila and/or more or less susceptible populations of potential hosts in various parts of the country. Other significant questions are related to the variability in amplitude of red-sore disease from one year to the next among bass in Par Pond, the mode of entry of the pathogen into largemouth bass, and the basic, cellular mechanisms of stress in largemouth bass

  2. Influence of thermal treatment on the stability of phenolic compounds and the microbiological quality of sucrose solution following osmotic dehydration of highbush blueberry fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucner, Anna; Papiewska, Agnieszka; Klewicki, Robert; Sójka, Michał; Klewicka, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Osmotic dehydration is a process of the partial removal of water which is based on immersion of material having cellular structure in a hypertonic solution. Osmotic dehydration is used as a pretreatment for the dehydration of foods before they are subjected to further processing such as freezing, freeze drying, vacuum drying. Management of spent syrup is one of the most important problems related to osmotic dewatering. Osmotic solutions are heavily polluted with of carbohydrates, remains of the dehydrated material and microorganisms. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of thermal treatment on the content of phenolic compounds and the microbiological quality of sucrose solution used in 15 cycles of osmotic dehydration of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits. The tested material was 65.0 ±0.5°Brix sucrose solution used for 15 cycles of osmotic dehydration of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). Osmotic dehydration was conducted at 40°C for 120 min using fruits previously subjected to enzymatic pretreatment. The thermal treatment of sucrose solution was conducted at 70, 80, 90, 100 and 115°C for 20, 40 and 60 s. The sucrose solution was analysed in terms of total polyphenols, particular polyphenols using high performance liquid chromatography and microbiological analysis was subjected. Thermal treatment at 70-115°C for 20 s caused degradation of 8.5% to 12.7% of polyphenols, while as much as 23.1% of polyphenols were degraded at 115°C after 60 s. The present paper proposes heating parameters that are optimal from the point of view of phenolic compound retention and microbiological quality: thermal treatment of syrup at 100°C for 40 s. Under these conditions, total polyphenols retention was 94.5%, while the retention of individual phenolic compounds varied from 89.2% to 37.2%, and that of flavan-3-ols amounted to 89.5%. The studied manner of syrup treatment eliminated the problem of syrup contamination with yeasts and molds

  3. Eelgrass habitat near Liberty Bay: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinicola, Richard S.; Takesue, Renee K.

    2015-01-01

    Seagrasses are a widespread type of marine flowering plants that grow in nearshore intertidal and subtidal zones. Seagrass beds are ecologically important because they affect physical, biological, and chemical characteristics of nearshore habitat, and they are sensitive to changes in coastal water quality (Stevenson and others, 1993; Koch, 2001; Martinez-Crego and others, 2008). Zostera marina, commonly known as eelgrass, is protected by a no-net-loss policy in Washington State where it may be used as spawning habitat by herring, a key prey species for salmon, seabirds, and marine mammals (Bargmann, 1998). Eelgrass forms broad meadows in shallow embayments or narrow fringes on open shorelines (Berry and others, 2003). Anthropogenic activities that increase turbidity, nutrient loading, and physical disturbance at the coast can result in dramatic seagrass decline (Ralph and others, 2006).

  4. Habitat Heterogeneity Variably Influences Habitat Selection by Wild Herbivores in a Semi-Arid Tropical Savanna Ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor K Muposhi

    Full Text Available An understanding of the habitat selection patterns by wild herbivores is critical for adaptive management, particularly towards ecosystem management and wildlife conservation in semi arid savanna ecosystems. We tested the following predictions: (i surface water availability, habitat quality and human presence have a strong influence on the spatial distribution of wild herbivores in the dry season, (ii habitat suitability for large herbivores would be higher compared to medium-sized herbivores in the dry season, and (iii spatial extent of suitable habitats for wild herbivores will be different between years, i.e., 2006 and 2010, in Matetsi Safari Area, Zimbabwe. MaxEnt modeling was done to determine the habitat suitability of large herbivores and medium-sized herbivores. MaxEnt modeling of habitat suitability for large herbivores using the environmental variables was successful for the selected species in 2006 and 2010, except for elephant (Loxodonta africana for the year 2010. Overall, large herbivores probability of occurrence was mostly influenced by distance from rivers. Distance from roads influenced much of the variability in the probability of occurrence of medium-sized herbivores. The overall predicted area for large and medium-sized herbivores was not different. Large herbivores may not necessarily utilize larger habitat patches over medium-sized herbivores due to the habitat homogenizing effect of water provisioning. Effect of surface water availability, proximity to riverine ecosystems and roads on habitat suitability of large and medium-sized herbivores in the dry season was highly variable thus could change from one year to another. We recommend adaptive management initiatives aimed at ensuring dynamic water supply in protected areas through temporal closure and or opening of water points to promote heterogeneity of wildlife habitats.

  5. European red list of habitats. Part 1: Marine habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbay, S.; Sanders, N.; Haynes, T.; Janssen, J.A.M.; Rodwell, J.R.; Nieto, A.; Garcia Criado, M.; Beal, S.; Borg, J.

    2016-01-01

    The European Red List of Habitats provides an overview of the risk
    of collapse (degree of endangerment) of marine, terrestrial and
    freshwater habitats in the European Union (EU28) and adjacent
    regions (EU28+), based on a consistent set of categories and
    criteria, and detailed data

  6. A fast transfer-free synthesis of high-quality monolayer graphene on insulating substrates by a simple rapid thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zefei; Guo, Yanqing; Guo, Yuzheng; Huang, Rui; Xu, Shuigang; Song, Jie; Lu, Huanhuan; Lin, Zhenxu; Han, Yu; Li, Hongliang; Han, Tianyi; Lin, Jiangxiazi; Wu, Yingying; Long, Gen; Cai, Yuan; Cheng, Chun; Su, Dangsheng; Robertson, John; Wang, Ning

    2016-02-07

    The transfer-free synthesis of high-quality, large-area graphene on a given dielectric substrate, which is highly desirable for device applications, remains a significant challenge. In this paper, we report on a simple rapid thermal treatment (RTT) method for the fast and direct growth of high-quality, large-scale monolayer graphene on a SiO2/Si substrate from solid carbon sources. The stack structure of a solid carbon layer/copper film/SiO2 is adopted in the RTT process. The inserted copper film does not only act as an active catalyst for the carbon precursor but also serves as a "filter" that prevents premature carbon dissolution, and thus, contributes to graphene growth on SiO2/Si. The produced graphene exhibits a high carrier mobility of up to 3000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room temperature and standard half-integer quantum oscillations. Our work provides a promising simple transfer-free approach using solid carbon sources to obtain high-quality graphene for practical applications.

  7. Transient habitats limit development time for periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karban, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) mature in 13 or 17 years, the longest development times for any non-diapausing insects. Selection may favor prolonged development since nymphs experience little mortality and individuals taking 17 years have been shown to have greater fecundity than those taking 13 years. Why don't periodical cicadas take even longer to develop? Nymphs feed on root xylem fluid and move little. Ovipositing females prefer fast-growing trees at forest edges. I hypothesized that (1) adults emerging at edges would be heavier than those from forest interiors and (2) habitat changes could limit development time. I collected newly eclosed females that had neither fed as adults nor moved from their site of development. For M. septendecim, females from edges were 4.9% heavier than those from the interior. I assumed that emergence density indicated habitat quality and measured density at eight sites in 1979, 1996, and 2013. Over three generations, variation in densities was great; densities at two sites crashed, and at one site they exploded to 579/m2 Habitat transience may limit development time because only adults can reassess habitats and reposition offspring. In conclusion, cicadas are affected by habitat characteristics, habitats change over 17 years, and cicadas may emerge, mate, and redistribute their offspring to track habitat dynamics.

  8. Selection of nest-site habitat by interior least terns in relation to sandbar construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark H.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Federally endangered interior least terns (Sternula antillarum) nest on bare or sparsely vegetated sandbars on midcontinent river systems. Loss of nesting habitat has been implicated as a cause of population declines, and managing these habitats is a major initiative in population recovery. One such initiative involves construction of mid-channel sandbars on the Missouri River, where natural sandbar habitat has declined in quantity and quality since the late 1990s. We evaluated nest-site habitat selection by least terns on constructed and natural sandbars by comparing vegetation, substrate, and debris variables at nest sites (n = 798) and random points (n = 1,113) in bare or sparsely vegetated habitats. Our logistic regression models revealed that a broader suite of habitat features was important in nest-site selection on constructed than on natural sandbars. Odds ratios for habitat variables indicated that avoidance of habitat features was the dominant nest-site selection process on both sandbar types, with nesting terns being attracted to nest-site habitat features (gravel and debris) and avoiding vegetation only on constructed sandbars, and avoiding silt and leaf litter on both sandbar types. Despite the seemingly uniform nature of these habitats, our results suggest that a complex suite of habitat features influences nest-site choice by least terns. However, nest-site selection in this social, colonially nesting species may be influenced by other factors, including spatial arrangement of bare sand habitat, proximity to other least terns, and prior habitat occupancy by piping plovers (Charadrius melodus). We found that nest-site selection was sensitive to subtle variation in habitat features, suggesting that rigor in maintaining habitat condition will be necessary in managing sandbars for the benefit of least terns. Further, management strategies that reduce habitat features that are avoided by least terns may be the most beneficial to nesting least terns.

  9. Studies of the quality of the intraosseous dental implant bed and of thermal effects in implant pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.

    2000-01-01

    Dental implants may offer solutions to problems of tooth loss and removable dentures, avoiding the blighting of sound teeth in conventional bridgework. However, there may be severe problems due to deficient and poor quality host bone, particularly in the maxillary sinus region. The success of particulate irradiated mineralised cancellous allograft (IMCA) in generating new bone in the sinus was analysed using the trephine bone cores removed to create an implant bed. Bone cores were embedded and examined using 3D fluorescence fight microscopy and scanning electron microscopy in the backscattered electron (BSE) mode to study the quantity and the quality [degree of mineralisation] of bone in implant sites. In all graft cases, new bone as immature (woven) or mature (lamellar) bone formed on the surfaces of the allograft. The bone volume fraction was found to be significantly greater within 5 mm height of the host sinus floor. In an extended study, control sinuses grafted with IMCA soaked in saline showed no significant difference to the test side treated with the patient's own serum. IMCA was shown to retain much of its original topographical and morphological characteristics. Biopsy core specimens from other (non-sinus) sites in both maxilla and mandible were treated similarly. The highest mineral density distributions were observed in the mandible, with the lowest in the residual posterior maxilla beneath the sinus floor. A novel quantitative bone quality scale is proposed to include three parameters of bone quality: mineralisation density, bone volume fraction and connectivity. Clinical use of Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) confirmed positive blood flow in grafts, sinus membrane, and oral tissues. A model of heat conduction in dental implants, predicted oral heat to be a possible factor in implant pathology. The effect of temperature on avian osteoclastic resorption in vitro was studied using a volumetric pit assay. Osteoclastic function measured as volumes and depths

  10. Our cosmic habitat

    CERN Document Server

    Rees, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Our universe seems strangely 'biophilic,' or hospitable to life. Is this providence or coincidence? According to Martin Rees, the answer depends on the answer to another question, the one posed by Einstein's famous remark: 'What interests me most is whether God could have made the world differently.' This highly engaging book centres on the fascinating consequences of the answer being 'yes'. Rees explores the notion that our universe is just part of a vast 'multiverse,' or ensemble of universes, in which most of the other universes are lifeless. What we call the laws of nature would then be local by laws, imposed in the aftermath of our own Big Bang. In this scenario, our cosmic habitat would be a special, possibly unique universe where the prevailing laws of physics allowed life to emerge.

  11. Submarine canyons as coral and sponge habitat on the eastern Bering Sea slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Miller

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Submarine canyons have been shown to positively influence pelagic and benthic biodiversity and ecosystem function. In the eastern Bering Sea, several immense canyons lie under the highly productive “green belt” along the continental slope. Two of these, Pribilof and Zhemchug canyons, are the focus of current conservation interest. We used a maximum entropy modeling approach to evaluate the importance of these two canyons, as well as canyons in general, as habitat for gorgonian (alcyonacean corals, pennatulacean corals, and sponges, in an area comprising most of the eastern Bering Sea slope and outer shelf. These invertebrates create physical structure that is a preferred habitat for many mobile species, including commercially important fish and invertebrates. We show that Pribilof canyon is a hotspot of structure-forming invertebrate habitat, containing over 50% of estimated high-quality gorgonian habitat and 45% of sponge habitat, despite making up only 1.7% of the total study area. The amount of quality habitat for gorgonians and sponges varied in other canyons, but canyons overall contained more high-quality habitat for structure-forming invertebrates compared to other slope areas. Bottom trawling effort was not well correlated with habitat quality for structure-forming invertebrates, and bottom-contact fishing effort in general, including longlining and trawling, was not particularly concentrated in the canyons examined. These results suggest that if conserving gorgonian coral habitat is a management goal, canyons, particularly Pribilof Canyon, may be a prime location to do this without excessive impact on fisheries.

  12. Moderator/collimator for a proton/deuteron linac to produce a high-intensity, high-quality thermal neutron beam for neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; Imel, G.R.; McMichael, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    Reactor based high resolution neutron radiography facilities are able to deliver a well-collimated (L/D ≥100) thermal flux of 10 6 n/cm 2 ·sec to an image plane. This is well in excess of that achievable with the present accelerator based systems such as sealed tube D-T sources, Van der Graaff's, small cyclotrons, or low duty factor linacs. However, continuous wave linacs can accelerate tens of milliamperes of protons to 2.5 to 4 MeV. The MCNP code has been used to analyze target/moderator configurations that could be used with Argonne's Continuous Wave Linac (ACWL). These analyses have shown that ACWL could be modified to generate a neutron beam that has a high intensity and is of high quality

  13. Effects of thermal and enzymatic treatments and harvesting time on the microbial quality and chemical composition of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nykter, M.; Kymalainen, H.R.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of pectinase enzyme treatment followed by thermal treatments (steam explosion and dry heating) on the microbial quality and chemical composition of hemp fibres. Before these treatments, the fibres were separated manually from the stems...... materials. Dry heating had no effect on mould and bacterial counts at temperatures below 120 degrees C and durations less than 60 min. The chemical composition was affected by the enzymatic treatment due to extraction and degradation of water-soluble components, pectin and ash. Thus the cellulose content...... increased by 6% w/w to 67-70% w/w. Steam explosion of the untreated hemp fibres increased the cellulose content to 74% w/w, whereas steam explosion of enzymatically treated hemp increased the cellulose content to 78% w/w. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Dry anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and cattle manure: Impact of total solids, substrate ratio and thermal pre treatment on methane yield and quality of biomanure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arelli, Vijayalakshmi; Begum, Sameena; Anupoju, Gangagni Rao; Kuruti, Kranti; S, Shailaja

    2018-04-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the impact of TS concentration, substrate mixing ratio (co digestion) and thermal pretreatment on biogas production, methane yield, VS reduction (%) and quality of biomanure through dry anaerobic digestion (DAD) of food waste (FW) and cattle manure (CM). Results divulged that the optimum methane yield and biomanure of 0.18 and 0.21 m 3 CH 4 /(kg VS reduced) and 3.15 and 2.8 kg/kg waste was obtained from FW at TS of 25% and 30% at an HRT of 41 and 31 days respectively whereas it was 0.32 and 0.43 m 3 CH 4 /(kg VS reduced) and 2.2 and 1.15 kg/kg waste from pretreated FW at an HRT of 16 and 20 days correspondingly. Improvement of methane from 62 to 81% was obtained due to thermal pretreatment. The highest nutrient recovery in terms of N, P, K was found to be 5.14, 2.6 and 3.2 respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study on thermal comfort, air quality and energy savings using bioenergy via gasification/combustion for space heating of a broiler house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Zanatta, Fabio Luiz; Tinoco, Ilda de Fatima F.; Martin, Samuel [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: jadir@ufv.br; Scholz, Volkhard [Leibniz Institut fuer Agrartechnik- ATB, Potsdam (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The annual production of chicken meat is increasing throughout the world and Brazil is the world leader regarding exportation, a prediction indicates about 2.7 millions tons to be exported in 2007. A key to this performance is the low production costs, however, the costs of space heating necessary during the first 3 weeks of the chick's life and is increasing significantly. For this reason, it is always necessary to search for most efficient systems for this purpose. In addition to that, the use of bioenergy is gaining importance since it is renewable and ecologically correct. A close coupled gasification/combustion system, using eucalyptus firewood (Eucalyptus grandis and/or Eucalyptus urophylla) as fuel, was tested with the objective of providing thermal comfort for the birds during their first 3 weeks after birth. An experiment was set up for this purpose in an industrial scale production facility. The results indicated that the gasification/combustion system is viable for space heating for chicks, does not alters significantly the air quality, regarding CO, CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} concentration inside poultry house, provides the best thermal comfort as compared to indirect fired furnaces and accounts for a 35% energy savings, leading to lower production costs. (author)

  16. Clay Animals and Their Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Creating clay animals and their habitats with second-grade students has long been one of the author's favorite classroom activities. Students love working with clay and they also enjoy drawing animal homes. In this article, the author describes how the students created a diorama instead of drawing their clay animal's habitat. This gave students…

  17. Habitat modeling for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot

    2006-01-01

    Habitat models address only 1 component of biodiversity but can be useful in addressing and managing single or multiple species and ecosystem functions, for projecting disturbance regimes, and in supporting decisions. I review categories and examples of habitat models, their utility for biodiversity conservation, and their roles in making conservation decisions. I...

  18. Habitat specialization through germination cueing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ten Brink, Dirk-Jan; Hendriksma, Harmen; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the adaptive association between seed germination ecology and specialization to either forest or open habitats across a range of evolutionary lineages of seed plants, in order to test the hypotheses that (1) species' specialization to open vs. shaded habitats is consistently...

  19. Food technology in space habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.

    1979-01-01

    The research required to develop a system that will provide for acceptable, nutritious, and safe diets for man during extended space missions is discussed. The development of a food technology system for space habitats capable of converting raw materials produced in the space habitats into acceptable food is examined.

  20. Adaptive breeding habitat selection: Is it for the birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, Anna D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The question of why animals choose particular habitats has important implications for understanding behavioral evolution and distribution of organisms in the wild and for delineating between habitats of different quality for conservation and management. Habitats chosen by animals can influence fitness outcomes via the costs (e.g., predation risk) and benefits (e.g., food availability) of habitat use. Habitat preferences should therefore be under selection to favor those that confer fitness advantages (Clark and Shutler 1999). Indeed, prevailing theory suggests that the habitat preferences of animals should be adaptive, such that fitness is higher in preferred habitats (Hildén 1965, Southwood 1977, Martin 1998). However, studies have often identified apparent mismatches between observed habitat preferences and fitness outcomes across a wide variety of taxa (Valladares and Lawton 1991, Mayhew 1997, Kolbe and Janzen 2002, Arlt and Pärt 2007, Mägi et al. 2009). Certainly, one limitation of studies may be that assessment of “fitness” is typically constrained to fitness surrogates such as nest success rather than lifetime reproductive success or classic Fisherian fitness (Endler 1986). Nevertheless, important habitat choices such as nest sites influence the probability that temporarily sedentary, dependent young are discovered by enemies such as predators and parasites. We therefore expect, on average, to see congruence between evolved habitat preferences and relevant components of fitness (e.g., nest success). Here, we (1) review the prevalence of apparent mismatches between avian breeding-habitat preferences and fitness outcomes using nest-site selection as a focus; (2) describe several potential mechanisms for such mismatches, including anthropogenic, methodological, and ecological–evolutionary; and (3) suggest a framework for understanding the contexts in which habitat preferences represent adaptive decisions, with a primary focus on ecological information

  1. Intercohort density dependence drives brown trout habitat selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón, Daniel; Nicola, Graciela G.; Parra, Irene; Elvira, Benigno; Almodóvar, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Habitat selection can be viewed as an emergent property of the quality and availability of habitat but also of the number of individuals and the way they compete for its use. Consequently, habitat selection can change across years due to fluctuating resources or to changes in population numbers. However, habitat selection predictive models often do not account for ecological dynamics, especially density dependent processes. In stage-structured population, the strength of density dependent interactions between individuals of different age classes can exert a profound influence on population trajectories and evolutionary processes. In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of fluctuating densities of both older and younger competing life stages on the habitat selection patterns (described as univariate and multivariate resource selection functions) of young-of-the-year, juvenile and adult brown trout Salmo trutta. We observed all age classes were selective in habitat choice but changed their selection patterns across years consistently with variations in the densities of older but not of younger age classes. Trout of an age increased selectivity for positions highly selected by older individuals when their density decreased, but this pattern did not hold when the density of younger age classes varied. It suggests that younger individuals are dominated by older ones but can expand their range of selected habitats when density of competitors decreases, while older trout do not seem to consider the density of younger individuals when distributing themselves even though they can negatively affect their final performance. Since these results may entail critical implications for conservation and management practices based on habitat selection models, further research should involve a wider range of river typologies and/or longer time frames to fully understand the patterns of and the mechanisms underlying the operation of density dependence on brown trout habitat

  2. Variation in the thermal ecology of an endemic iguana from Mexico reduces its vulnerability to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Ceballos, Sara; Castañeda, Gamaliel; Rioja-Paradela, Tamara; Carrillo-Reyes, Arturo; Bastiaans, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    The persistence of reptile populations in a specific location is influenced by individuals' capacity to regulate their body temperatures, among other factors. Anthropogenic climate change may pose a risk to the survival of ectothermic animals due to their dependence on external heat sources to thermoregulate. In this study, we calculated indices of thermal habitat quality, thermoregulatory precision, and thermoregulatory effectiveness for the endemic spiny-tailed iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana. We evaluated these indices and the thermoregulatory behavior of the iguanas in the four types of vegetation that provide the most favorable conditions for thermoregulation. We also performed our experiments during both the wet and dry seasons to capture the full range of thermal conditions available to C. oaxacana over the course of a year. Finally, we evaluated the potential niche for the iguana in the years 2020, 2050, and 2080. Thermoregulation depends on both seasonal and environmental factors in this species. We found that thermoregulation effectiveness in both wet and dry seasons depends not only on the thermal conditions of the immediate environment, but also on the cover vegetation and habitat structure available across the range of habitats the species uses. Thus, heterogeneous habitats with dispersed vegetation may be most suitable for this species' thermoregulatory strategy. Likewise, niche modeling results suggested that suitable habitat for our study species may continue to be available for the next few decades, despite global warming tendencies, as long as cover vegetation remains unaltered. Our results suggest that thermoregulation is a complex process that cannot be generalized for all ectothermic species inhabiting a given region. We also found that temperature changes are not the only factor one must consider when estimating the risk of species loss. To understand the necessary thermal conditions and extinction risk for any ectothermic species, it is necessary

  3. Changes imposed by pyrolysis, thermal gasification and incineration on composition and phosphorus fertilizer quality of municipal sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Sárossy, Zsuzsa; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Fertilizer quality of ash and char from incineration, gasification and pyrolysis of a single municipal sewage sludge sample were investigated by comparing composition and phosphorus (P) plant availability. A process for post oxidation of gasification ash and pyrolysis char was developed and the o......Fertilizer quality of ash and char from incineration, gasification and pyrolysis of a single municipal sewage sludge sample were investigated by comparing composition and phosphorus (P) plant availability. A process for post oxidation of gasification ash and pyrolysis char was developed...... and the oxidized materials were investigated as well. Sequential extraction with full elemental balances of the extracted pools as well as scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to investigate the mechanisms driving the observed differences in composition and P plant...... processes and 10–15% in pyrolysis whereas no reduction was observed in incineration processes. The influence on other heavy metals was less pronounced. The plant availability of P in the substrates varied from almost zero to almost 100% of the plant availability of P in the untreated sludge. Post-oxidized...

  4. The relationship between young brown trout density and water quality in tributary streams to lakes in three acidic watersheds; Effekter av vannkvalitet og habitat paa tettheten av aureunger i tilloepsbekker til innsjoeer i tre forsuringsomraader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesthagen, Trygve; Larsen, Bjoern M.; Berger, Hans M.; Forseth, Torbjoern

    1998-09-01

    This publication examines the relationship between young brown trout densities in lake tributaries, and water chemistry and habitat variables. The study was carried out during the autumn in three acidic, freshwater river systems in western and southwestern Norway. The variability in brown trout density in the three watersheds in relation to varying concentrations of calcium and inorganic Al, were investigated. Water chemistry variables seem to limit the density. 38 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Habitats and Species Covered by the EEC Habitats Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, S.; Søgaard, B.; Ejrnæs, R.

    of Conservation (SAC's), Natura 2000. The designations are based upon the presence of 60 of the natural habitat types listed in Annex I of the Directive and approx. 44 of the species listed in Annex II which occur within the territory of Denmark and for the conservation of which the Community has a special...... and the Danish county authorities have initiated a co-operative programme to provide and compile the data necessary to assess the conservation status of the natural habitat types and species concerned. The purpose of this report is to present the conservation status of the habitats and species in Denmark...

  6. Wetland Plants of Great Salt Lake, A Guide to Identification, Communities, & Bird Habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Downard, Rebekah; Frank, Maureen; Perkins, Jennifer; Kettenring, Karin; Larese-Casanova, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Wetland Plants of Great Salt Lake: a guide to identification, communities, & bird habitat is a wetland plant identification guide, resulting from collaborative research efforts about Great Salt Lake (GSL) wetland conditions and bird habitat. Dr. Rebekah Downard collected dissertation field data from GSL wetlands during 2012–2015, the majority of which informed this work. Dr. Maureen Frank contributed her guide to GSL wetland vegetation and how to manage native plants as high-quality habitat f...

  7. Management of conservation reserve program grasslands to meet wildlife habitat objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandever, Mark W.; Allen, Arthur W.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies document environmental and social benefits of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). This report offers a synopsis of findings regarding effects of establishing CRP conservation practices on the quality and distribution of wildlife habitat in agricultural landscapes. On individual farms, year-round provision of wildlife habitat by the CRP may appear relatively insignificant. However, considered from multi-farm to National scales, such improvements in habitat and wildlife response have proven to be extensive and profound.

  8. INDIVIDUAL BASED MODELLING APPROACH TO THERMAL ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diadromous fish populations in the Pacific Northwest face challenges along their migratory routes from declining habitat quality, harvest, and barriers to longitudinal connectivity. Changes in river temperature regimes are producing an additional challenge for upstream migrating adult salmon and steelhead, species that are sensitive to absolute and cumulative thermal exposure. Adult salmon populations have been shown to utilize cold water patches along migration routes when mainstem river temperatures exceed thermal optimums. We are employing an individual based model (IBM) to explore the costs and benefits of spatially-distributed cold water refugia for adult migrating salmon. Our model, developed in the HexSim platform, is built around a mechanistic behavioral decision tree that drives individual interactions with their spatially explicit simulated environment. Population-scale responses to dynamic thermal regimes, coupled with other stressors such as disease and harvest, become emergent properties of the spatial IBM. Other model outputs include arrival times, species-specific survival rates, body energetic content, and reproductive fitness levels. Here, we discuss the challenges associated with parameterizing an individual based model of salmon and steelhead in a section of the Columbia River. Many rivers and streams in the Pacific Northwest are currently listed as impaired under the Clean Water Act as a result of high summer water temperatures. Adverse effec

  9. Desert tortoise use of burned habitat in the Eastern Mojave desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Karla K.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; DeFalco, Lesley; Scoles, Sara; Modlin, Andrew T.; Medica, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Wildfires burned 24,254 ha of critical habitat designated for the recovery of the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in southern Nevada during 2005. The proliferation of non-native annual grasses has increased wildfire frequency and extent in recent decades and continues to accelerate the conversion of tortoise habitat across the Mojave Desert. Immediate changes to vegetation are expected to reduce quality of critical habitat, yet whether tortoises will use burned and recovering habitat differently from intact unburned habitat is unknown. We compared movement patterns, home-range size, behavior, microhabitat use, reproduction, and survival for adult desert tortoises located in, and adjacent to, burned habitat to understand how tortoises respond to recovering burned habitat. Approximately 45% of home ranges in the post-fire environment contained burned habitat, and numerous observations (n = 12,223) corroborated tortoise use of both habitat types (52% unburned, 48% burned). Tortoises moved progressively deeper into burned habitat during the first 5 years following the fire, frequently foraging in burned habitats that had abundant annual plants, and returning to adjacent unburned habitat for cover provided by intact perennial vegetation. However, by years 6 and 7, the live cover of the short-lived herbaceous perennial desert globemallow (Sphaeralcea ambigua) that typically re-colonizes burned areas declined, resulting in a contraction of tortoise movements from the burned areas. Health and egg production were similar between burned and unburned areas indicating that tortoises were able to acquire necessary resources using both areas. This study documents that adult Mojave desert tortoises continue to use habitat burned once by wildfire. Thus, continued management of this burned habitat may contribute toward the recovery of the species in the face of many sources of habitat loss.

  10. Building habitats on the Moon engineering approaches to lunar settlements

    CERN Document Server

    Benaroya, Haym

    2018-01-01

    Designing a habitat for the lunar surface? You will need to know more than structural engineering. There are the effects of meteoroids, radiation, and low gravity. Then there are the psychological and psychosocial aspects of living in close quarters, in a dangerous environment, far away from home. All these must be considered when the habitat is sized, materials specified, and structure designed. This book provides an overview of various concepts for lunar habitats and structural designs and characterizes the lunar environment - the technical and the nontechnical. The designs take into consideration psychological comfort, structural strength against seismic and thermal activity, as well as internal pressurization and 1/6 g. Also discussed are micrometeoroid modeling, risk and redundancy as well as probability and reliability, with an introduction to analytical tools that can be useful in modeling uncertainties.

  11. Changes imposed by pyrolysis, thermal gasification and incineration on composition and phosphorus fertilizer quality of municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Sárossy, Zsuzsa; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik B; Frandsen, Flemming J; Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie

    2017-08-01

    Fertilizer quality of ash and char from incineration, gasification and pyrolysis of a single municipal sewage sludge sample were investigated by comparing composition and phosphorus (P) plant availability. A process for post oxidation of gasification ash and pyrolysis char was developed and the oxidized materials were investigated as well. Sequential extraction with full elemental balances of the extracted pools as well as scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to investigate the mechanisms driving the observed differences in composition and P plant availability in a short-term soil incubation study. The compositional changes related mainly to differences in the proximate composition as well as to the release of especially nitrogen, sulfur, cadmium and to some extent, phosphorus (P). The cadmium load per unit of P was reduced with 75-85% in gasification processes and 10-15% in pyrolysis whereas no reduction was observed in incineration processes. The influence on other heavy metals was less pronounced. The plant availability of P in the substrates varied from almost zero to almost 100% of the plant availability of P in the untreated sludge. Post-oxidized slow pyrolysis char was found to be the substrate with the highest P fertilizer value while ash from commercial fluid bed sludge incineration had the lowest P fertilizer quality. The high P fertilizer value in the best substrate is suggested to be a function of several different mechanisms including structural surface changes and improvements in the association of P to especially magnesium, calcium and aluminum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : West Beaver Lake, 2004-2005 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On September 7, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the West Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in September 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The West Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 103.08 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 7.17 HUs for mallard and muskrat. Conifer forest habitat provides 95.91 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the West Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  13. Riparian Habitat - Product of 2 riparian habitat workshops

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — In two riparian habitat workshops held between 2001 and 2002, scientists and managers identified the need for determining the scope of a consistent and acceptable...

  14. Connecting the fragmented habitat of endangered mammals in the landscape of Riau–Jambi–Sumatera Barat (RIMBA, central Sumatra, Indonesia (connecting the fragmented habitat due to road development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barano Siswa Sulistyawan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The trend of wildlife habitat fragmentation worldwide continues as a result of anthropogenic activities on development of a linear infrastructure and land use changes, which is often implemented as part of spatial planning policies. In this paper we expand upon an existing approach to design wildlife corridors through habitat quality assessment. We used models of Habitat Quality of Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST and Corridor Design tools. The habitat quality model of InVEST provides a rapid approach to assess status and change of biodiversity, and can contribute to enhanced corridor design of fragmented wildlife habitat. We conducted an assessment of habitat quality of the RIMBA corridor landscape, which is part of Riau, Jambi and West Sumatra provinces of central Sumatra Island. The result of the habitat quality model was used as the main input to evaluate habitat connectivity and assess the target segment of roads that cross the modelled corridor. We found 20 wildland blocks, the total area of the corridor modelled including wildland blocks was calculated as about 0.77 million hectares. We have obtained accurate quantitative measurement of the length of roads crossing the corridor, with a total of 417.78 km (artery 10.31 km; collector 19.52 km; and local 1987.9 km roads. This method can be replicated as an approach in valuing the quality of habitat as part of the implementation of the presidential decree of Sumatra Island Spatial Planning. This may also be applied to the spatial planning of other major islands in Indonesia and elsewhere.

  15. Antecedent thermal injury worsens split-thickness skin graft quality: A clinically relevant porcine model of full-thickness burn, excision and grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Anders H; Rose, Lloyd F; Fletcher, John L; Wu, Jesse C; Leung, Kai P; Chan, Rodney K

    2017-02-01

    Current standard of care for full-thickness burn is excision followed by autologous split-thickness skin graft placement. Skin grafts are also frequently used to cover surgical wounds not amenable to linear closure. While all grafts have potential to contract, clinical observation suggests that antecedent thermal injury worsens contraction and impairs functional and aesthetic outcomes. This study evaluates the impact of antecedent full-thickness burn on split-thickness skin graft scar outcomes and the potential mediating factors. Full-thickness contact burns (100°C, 30s) were created on the backs of anesthetized female Yorkshire Pigs. After seven days, burn eschar was tangentially excised and covered with 12/1000th inch (300μm) split-thickness skin graft. For comparison, unburned wounds were created by sharp excision to fat before graft application. From 7 to 120days post-grafting, planimetric measurements, digital imaging and biopsies for histology, immunohistochemistry and gene expression were obtained. At 120days post-grafting, the Observer Scar Assessment Scale, colorimetry, contour analysis and optical graft height assessments were performed. Twenty-nine porcine wounds were analyzed. All measured metrics of clinical skin quality were significantly worse (pskin graft quality, likely by multiple mechanisms including burn-related inflammation, microscopically inadequate excision, and dysregulation of tissue remodeling. A valid, reliable, clinically relevant model of full-thickness burn, excision and skin replacement therapy has been demonstrated. Future research to enhance quality of skin replacement therapies should be directed toward modulation of inflammation and assessments for complete excision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Architecture and life support systems for a rotating space habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Gaurav

    habitat. In order to ensure Thermal control of the habitat, multiple radiators on the exterior and a thermal shield on the inner circumference of the habitat are proposed. Food production on-board the habitat is proposed to be facilitated through vertical farming systems. These multi-storey farming systems are known to be more efficient in terms of area and sustainable than conventional farms. Agriculture on-board these farms are proposed to be facilitated through hydroponics and enriched regolith. Apart from food production, these farms can cater to fish farming as means of food, animal and insect breeding. In order to ensure waste treatment of organic matter, a biogas plant is proposed in the habitat which can be used to generate electrical or mechanical power .An optimum atmospheric pressure of 51.1Kpa is proposed for the habitat comprising of Oxygen and Helium. Recreational facilities although not directly related to life support systems, play a very important role in optimum liveability of inhabitants. Open spaces, sports facilities, micro gravity swimming pools, orbital hotels are proposed as modes of recreation to ensure long term sustainability for the inhabitants.

  17. Enhancing and restoring habitat for the desert tortoise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Scott R.; Berry, Kristin H.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat has changed unfavorably during the past 150 y for the desert tortoise Gopherus agassizii, a federally threatened species with declining populations in the Mojave Desert and western Sonoran Desert. To support recovery efforts, we synthesized published information on relationships of desert tortoises with three habitat features (cover sites, forage, and soil) and candidate management practices for improving these features for tortoises. In addition to their role in soil health and facilitating recruitment of annual forage plants, shrubs are used by desert tortoises for cover and as sites for burrows. Outplanting greenhouse-grown seedlings, protected from herbivory, has successfully restored (>50% survival) a variety of shrubs on disturbed desert soils. Additionally, salvaging and reapplying topsoil using effective techniques is among the more ecologically beneficial ways to initiate plant recovery after severe disturbance. Through differences in biochemical composition and digestibility, some plant species provide better-quality forage than others. Desert tortoises selectively forage on particular annual and herbaceous perennial species (e.g., legumes), and forage selection shifts during the year as different plants grow or mature. Nonnative grasses provide low-quality forage and contribute fuel to spreading wildfires, which damage or kill shrubs that tortoises use for cover. Maintaining a diverse “menu” of native annual forbs and decreasing nonnative grasses are priorities for restoring most desert tortoise habitats. Reducing herbivory by nonnative animals, carefully timing herbicide applications, and strategically augmenting annual forage plants via seeding show promise for improving tortoise forage quality. Roads, another disturbance, negatively affect habitat in numerous ways (e.g., compacting soil, altering hydrology). Techniques such as recontouring road berms to reestablish drainage patterns, vertical mulching (“planting” dead plant material

  18. River habitat assessment for ecological restoration of Wei River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Wang, Shuo; Li, Xiaoping; Wu, Ting; Li, Li; Chen, Jia

    2018-04-11

    As an important composition component of river ecosystems, river habitats must undergo quality assessment to potentially provide scientific basis for river ecological restoration. Substrate composition, habitat complexity, bank erosion degree, river meandering degree, human activity intensity, vegetation buffer width, water quality, and water condition were determined as indicators for river habitat assessment. The comprehensive habitat quality index (CHQI) was established for the Wei River Basin. In addition, the indicator values were determined on the basis of a field investigation at 12 national hydrological stations distributed across the Wei, Jing, and Beiluo Rivers. The analytic hierarchy process was used to determine the indicator weights and thus distinguish the relative importance of the assessment indicator system. Results indicated that the average CHQIs for the Wei, Jing, and Beiluo Rivers were 0.417, 0.508, and 0.304, respectively. The river habitat quality for the three rivers was well. As for the whole river basin, the river habitat quality for 25% of the cross section was very well, the other 25% was well, and the 50% remaining was in critical state. The river habitat quality of the Jing River was better than that of the Wei and Beiluo Rivers.

  19. Phylogenetic and Functional Analysis of Metagenome Sequence from High-Temperature Archaeal Habitats Demonstrate Linkages between Metabolic Potential and Geochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inskeep, William P; Jay, Zackary J; Herrgard, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal habitats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) provide an unparalleled opportunity to understand the environmental factors that control the distribution of archaea in thermal habitats. Here we describe, analyze, and synthesize metagenomic and geochemical data collected from seven high-tem...

  20. The effect of thermal processing on protein quality and free amino acid profile of Terminalia catappa (Indian Almond) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu, O B; Ogundeko, T O; Ogunrinola, O O; Saibu, G M; Elemo, B O

    2015-07-01

    The study examined the effect of various processing methods- boiling, drying and roasting- on the in vitro and in vivo protein digestibility and free amino acid profiles of Terminalia catappa seed. Moisture and crude protein of the various samples were determined. In vitro protein digestibility was determined after pepsin digestion. For the in vivo experiment, defatted T. catappa based diet was fed to 3 weeks old Wistar rats for 4 weeks and compared with animals maintained on casein based and nitrogen- free diets. The biological value (BV), net protein utilisation (NPU) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of the diets were determined. Free amino acid composition was carried out using thin layer chromatography. Moisture was highest in the boiled T. catappa seed (8.30 ± 0.00 %). The raw, roasted and dried seeds had 5.55 ± 0.07, 3.88 ± 0.22 and 3.75 ± 0.07 % respectively. Crude protein was 19.19, 18.89, 17.62 and 16.36 % in the dried, roasted, boiled and raw seeds respectively. Roasted T. catappa seed had the highest in vitro protein digestibility with 37.52 %, while the dried, boiled and raw samples had digestibility values of 27.57, 27.07 and 24.45 % respectively. All nine essential amino acids were present in T. catappa in high concentrations except methionine and tryptophan. Glutamate was present in the highest concentration. Also, free amino acids were higher in the processed seeds compared to the raw seed. Animals fed T. catappa diet compared favourably with the casein group, thus indicating that the protein is of good quality.

  1. Linking population viability, habitat suitability, and landscape simulation models for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Larson; Frank R., III Thompson; Joshua J. Millspaugh; William D. Dijak; Stephen R. Shifley

    2004-01-01

    Methods for habitat modeling based on landscape simulations and population viability modeling based on habitat quality are well developed, but no published study of which we are aware has effectively joined them in a single, comprehensive analysis. We demonstrate the application of a population viability model for ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus)...

  2. Forest fire impact on bird habitat in a mixed oak-pine forest in Puebla, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura P. Ponce-Calderón Ponce-Calderón; Dante A. Rodríguez-Trejo; Beatriz C. Aguilar-Váldez; Elvia. López-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    To assess the impact of different-severity wildfires on bird habitat, habitat quality was determined by analyzing the degree of richness association, abundance and diversity of bird species and vegetation structure (richness, abundance, diversity and coverage). These attributes were quantified with four sampling sites for birds and five for quadrant-centered points...

  3. Using expert opinion to evaluate a habitat effectiveness model for elk in western Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard S. Holthausen; Michael J. Wisdom; John Pierce; Daniel K. Edwards; Mary M. Rowland

    1994-01-01

    We used expert opinion to evaluate the predictive reliability of a habitat effectiveness model for elk in western Oregon and Washington. Twenty-five experts in elk ecology were asked to rate habitat quality for 16 example landscapes. Rankings and ratings of 21 experts were significantly correlated with model output. Expert opinion and model predictions differed for 4...

  4. Explaining spatial variability in stream habitats using both natural and management-influenced landscape predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.J. Anlauf; D.W. Jensen; K.M. Burnett; E.A. Steel; K. Christiansen; J.C. Firman; B.E. Feist; D.P. Larsen

    2011-01-01

    1. The distribution and composition of in-stream habitats are reflections of landscape scale geomorphic and climatic controls. Correspondingly, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are largely adapted to and constrained by the quality and complexity of those in-stream habitat conditions. The degree to which lands have been fragmented and managed can...

  5. Riparian Habitat - San Joaquin River

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The immediate focus of this study is to identify, describe and map the extent and diversity of riparian habitats found along the main stem of the San Joaquin River,...

  6. Tidal Creek Sentinel Habitat Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecological Research, Assessment and Prediction's Tidal Creeks: Sentinel Habitat Database was developed to support the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  7. Deep Space Habitat Concept Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookout, Paul S.; Smitherman, David

    2015-01-01

    This project will develop, integrate, test, and evaluate Habitation Systems that will be utilized as technology testbeds and will advance NASA's understanding of alternative deep space mission architectures, requirements, and operations concepts. Rapid prototyping and existing hardware will be utilized to develop full-scale habitat demonstrators. FY 2014 focused on the development of a large volume Space Launch System (SLS) class habitat (Skylab Gen 2) based on the SLS hydrogen tank components. Similar to the original Skylab, a tank section of the SLS rocket can be outfitted with a deep space habitat configuration and launched as a payload on an SLS rocket. This concept can be used to support extended stay at the Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit to support the Asteroid Retrieval Mission and provide a habitat suitable for human missions to Mars.

  8. Leatherback Sea Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for leatherback turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 44, No. 17711, March 23, 1979, Rules and Regulations....

  9. Hawksbill Sea Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for hawksbill turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations....

  10. Endangered Species Act Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Critical habitat (CH) is designated for the survival and recovery of species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Critical...

  11. Building Habitats on the Moon: Engineering Approaches to Lunar Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaroya, H.

    This book provides an overview of various concepts for lunar habitats and structural designs and characterizes the lunar environment - the technical and the nontechnical. The designs take into consideration psychological comfort, structural strength against seismic and thermal activity, as well as internal pressurization and 1/6 g. Also discussed are micrometeoroid modelling, risk and redundancy as well as probability and reliability, with an introduction to analytical tools that can be useful in modelling uncertainties.

  12. Maladaptive habitat selection of a migratory passerine bird in a human-modified landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck A Hollander

    Full Text Available In human-altered environments, organisms may preferentially settle in poor-quality habitats where fitness returns are lower relative to available higher-quality habitats. Such ecological trapping is due to a mismatch between the cues used during habitat selection and the habitat quality. Maladaptive settlement decisions may occur when organisms are time-constrained and have to rapidly evaluate habitat quality based on incomplete knowledge of the resources and conditions that will be available later in the season. During a three-year study, we examined settlement decision-making in the long-distance migratory, open-habitat bird, the Red-backed shrike (Lanius collurio, as a response to recent land-use changes. In Northwest Europe, the shrikes typically breed in open areas under a management regime of extensive farming. In recent decades, Spruce forests have been increasingly managed with large-size cutblocks in even-aged plantations, thereby producing early-successional vegetation areas that are also colonised by the species. Farmland and open areas in forests create mosaics of two different types of habitats that are now occupied by the shrikes. We examined redundant measures of habitat preference (order of settlement after migration and distribution of dominant individuals and several reproductive performance parameters in both habitat types to investigate whether habitat preference is in line with habitat quality. Territorial males exhibited a clear preference for the recently created open areas in forests with higher-quality males settling in this habitat type earlier. Reproductive performance was, however, higher in farmland, with higher nest success, offspring quantity, and quality compared to open areas in forests. The results showed strong among-year consistency and we can therefore exclude a transient situation. This study demonstrates a case of maladaptive habitat selection in a farmland bird expanding its breeding range to human

  13. Scale-specific correlations between habitat heterogeneity and soil fauna diversity along a landscape structure gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbergen, Adam J; Watt, Allan D; Mitchell, Ruth; Truscott, Anne-Marie; Palmer, Stephen C F; Ivits, Eva; Eggleton, Paul; Jones, T Hefin; Sousa, José Paulo

    2007-09-01

    Habitat heterogeneity contributes to the maintenance of diversity, but the extent that landscape-scale rather than local-scale heterogeneity influences the diversity of soil invertebrates-species with small range sizes-is less clear. Using a Scottish habitat heterogeneity gradient we correlated Collembola and lumbricid worm species richness and abundance with different elements (forest cover, habitat richness and patchiness) and qualities (plant species richness, soil variables) of habitat heterogeneity, at landscape (1 km(2)) and local (up to 200 m(2)) scales. Soil fauna assemblages showed considerable turnover in species composition along this habitat heterogeneity gradient. Soil fauna species richness and turnover was greatest in landscapes that were a mosaic of habitats. Soil fauna diversity was hump-shaped along a gradient of forest cover, peaking where there was a mixture of forest and open habitats in the landscape. Landscape-scale habitat richness was positively correlated with lumbricid diversity, while Collembola and lumbricid abundances were negatively and positively related to landscape spatial patchiness. Furthermore, soil fauna diversity was positively correlated with plant diversity, which in turn peaked in the sites that were a mosaic of forest and open habitat patches. There was less evidence that local-scale habitat variables (habitat richness, tree cover, plant species richness, litter cover, soil pH, depth of organic horizon) affected soil fauna diversity: Collembola diversity was independent of all these measures, while lumbricid diversity positively and negatively correlated with vascular plant species richness and tree canopy density. Landscape-scale habitat heterogeneity affects soil diversity regardless of taxon, while the influence of habitat heterogeneity at local scales is dependent on taxon identity, and hence ecological traits, e.g. body size. Landscape-scale habitat heterogeneity by providing different niches and refuges, together

  14. Innovative study methods for the Mediterranean coralligenous habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Zapata-Ramírez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Coralligenous habitats are of special interest in the Mediterranean Sea because they represent one of the most important biodiversity ‘hot-spots’ and are considered of great relevance for fisheries activities in the region. Despite their importance, however, there are missing consensual methodologies for their monitoring and, despite some attempts, no environmental or ecological quality indices have been established yet. This situation could be related to the difficulties associated with their exploration and their spatial heterogeneity. These habitats are in urgent need of efficient standard monitoring and management protocols programmes to develop an effective network for their conservation. Here we reviewed the available methodologies and robotics tools used to evaluate and monitor benthic habitats, highlighting the importance of defining rapid cost-effective sampling and analyses approaches and architectures for future monitoring of changes in coralligenous habitats based on current technological developments. We identified still images acquisitions as the most effective data gathering system. Stereo photogrammetry, photomosaic elaboration and three-dimensional (3D modelling may largely improve the data analysis and therefore the quality status assessment of the coralligenous habitats. The advantage and efficiency of different approaches and methods, and whether they should be applied and standardised for further monitoring activities, were discussed.

  15. The areal extent of brown shrimp habitat suitability in Mobile Bay, Alabama, USA: Targeting vegetated habitat restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.M.; Nestlerode, J.A.; Harwell, L.C.; Bourgeois, P.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of wetlands and shallow water habitats significantly influences Gulf of Mexico (GOM) penaeid shrimp fishery productivity. However, the GOM region has the highest rate of wetland loss in the USA. Protection and management of these vital GOM habitats are critical to sustainable shrimp fisheries. Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) are a major component of GOM fisheries. We present an approach for estimating the areal extent of suitable habitat for post-larval and juvenile brown shrimp in Mobile Bay, Alabama, using an existing habitat suitability index model for the northern GOM calculated from probabilistic survey of water quality and sediment data, land cover data, and submerged aquatic vegetation coverages. This estuarine scale approach is intended to support targeted protection and restoration of these habitats. These analyses indicate that approximately 60% of the area of Mobile Bay is categorized as suitable to near optimal for post-larval and juvenile shrimp and 38% of the area is marginally to minimally suitable. We identify potential units within Mobile Bay for targeted restoration to improve habitat suitability. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  16. Assessing the role of conspecific attraction in habitat restoration for Henslow's sparrows in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jennifer A.; Koford, Rolf R.; Otis, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of conspecific individuals may provide important cues about habitat quality for territorial songbirds. We tested the ability of a conspecific song playback system to attract Henslow’s sparrows to previously unoccupied restored habitat. We successfully attracted Heslow’s sparrows to 3 of 7 treatment plots using conspecific song playbacks and we found no Henslow’s sparrows in control plots. The addition of social cues using playback systems in restored grassland habitats may aid conservation efforts of Henslow’s sparrows to available habitat.

  17. New England wildlife: management forested habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Mariko Yamasaki; William B. Leak; John W. Lanier

    1992-01-01

    Presents silvicultural treatments for six major cover-type groups in New England to produce stand conditions that provide habitat opportunities for a wide range of wildlife species. Includes matrices for species occurrence and utilization by forested and nonforested habitats, habitat breadth and size class, and structural habitat features for the 338 wildlife species...

  18. Different in the dark: The effect of habitat characteristics on community composition and beta diversity in bromeliad microfauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Busse

    Full Text Available The mechanisms which structure communities have been the focus of a large body of research. Here, we address the question if habitat characteristics describing habitat quality may drive changes in community composition and beta diversity of bromeliad-inhabiting microfauna. In our system, changes in canopy cover along an environmental gradient may affect resource availability, disturbance in form of daily water temperature fluctuations and predation, and thus may lead to changes in community structure of bromeliad microfauna through differences in habitat quality along this gradient. Indeed, we observed distinct changes in microfauna community composition along the environmental gradient explained by changes in the extent of daily water temperature fluctuations. We found beta diversity to be higher under low habitat quality (low canopy cover than under high habitat quality (high canopy cover, which could potentially be explained by a higher relative importance of stochastic processes under low habitat quality. We also partitioned beta diversity into turnover and nestedness components and we found a nested pattern of beta diversity along the environmental gradient, with communities from the lower-quality habitat being nested subsets of communities from the higher-quality habitat. However, this pattern resulted from an increase in microfauna alpha diversity with an increase in habitat quality. By providing insights into microfauna-environment relationships our results contribute to the mechanistic understanding of community dynamics in small freshwater bodies. Here, we highlight the importance of habitat characteristics representing habitat quality in structuring communities, and suggest that this information may help to improve conservation practices of small freshwater ecosystems.

  19. Different in the dark: The effect of habitat characteristics on community composition and beta diversity in bromeliad microfauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiqueira, Pablo A. P.; Neutzling, Alexandre S.; Wolf, Anna M.; Romero, Gustavo Q.; Petermann, Jana S.

    2018-01-01

    The mechanisms which structure communities have been the focus of a large body of research. Here, we address the question if habitat characteristics describing habitat quality may drive changes in community composition and beta diversity of bromeliad-inhabiting microfauna. In our system, changes in canopy cover along an environmental gradient may affect resource availability, disturbance in form of daily water temperature fluctuations and predation, and thus may lead to changes in community structure of bromeliad microfauna through differences in habitat quality along this gradient. Indeed, we observed distinct changes in microfauna community composition along the environmental gradient explained by changes in the extent of daily water temperature fluctuations. We found beta diversity to be higher under low habitat quality (low canopy cover) than under high habitat quality (high canopy cover), which could potentially be explained by a higher relative importance of stochastic processes under low habitat quality. We also partitioned beta diversity into turnover and nestedness components and we found a nested pattern of beta diversity along the environmental gradient, with communities from the lower-quality habitat being nested subsets of communities from the higher-quality habitat. However, this pattern resulted from an increase in microfauna alpha diversity with an increase in habitat quality. By providing insights into microfauna-environment relationships our results contribute to the mechanistic understanding of community dynamics in small freshwater bodies. Here, we highlight the importance of habitat characteristics representing habitat quality in structuring communities, and suggest that this information may help to improve conservation practices of small freshwater ecosystems. PMID:29401522

  20. Innate Host Habitat Preference in the Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata: Functional Significance and Modifications through Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F Segura

    Full Text Available Parasitoids searching for polyphagous herbivores can find their hosts in a variety of habitats. Under this scenario, chemical cues from the host habitat (not related to the host represent poor indicators of host location. Hence, it is unlikely that naïve females show a strong response to host habitat cues, which would become important only if the parasitoids learn to associate such cues to the host presence. This concept does not consider that habitats can vary in profitability or host nutritional quality, which according to the optimal foraging theory and the preference-performance hypothesis (respectively could shape the way in which parasitoids make use of chemical cues from the host habitat. We assessed innate preference in the fruit fly parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata among chemical cues from four host habitats (apple, fig, orange and peach using a Y-tube olfactometer. Contrary to what was predicted, we found a hierarchic pattern of preference. The parasitism rate realized on these fruit species and the weight of the host correlates positively, to some extent, with the preference pattern, whereas preference did not correlate with survival and fecundity of the progeny. As expected for a parasitoid foraging for generalist hosts, habitat preference changed markedly depending on their previous experience and the abundance of hosts. These findings suggest that the pattern of preference for host habitats is attributable to differences in encounter rate and host quality. Host habitat preference seems to be, however, quite plastic and easily modified according to the information obtained during foraging.

  1. Winter habitat predictions of a key Southern Ocean predator, the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Benjamin; Hindell, Mark; Bester, Marthan; De Bruyn, P. J. Nico; Trathan, Phil; Goebel, Michael; Lea, Mary-Anne

    2017-06-01

    Quantification of the physical and biological environmental factors that influence the spatial distribution of higher trophic species is central to inform management and develop ecosystem models, particularly in light of ocean changes. We used tracking data from 184 female Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) to develop habitat models for three breeding colonies for the poorly studied Southern Ocean winter period. Models were used to identify and predict the broadly important winter foraging habitat and to elucidate the environmental factors influencing these areas. Model predictions closely matched observations and several core areas of foraging habitat were identified for each colony, with notable areas of inter-colony overlap suggesting shared productive foraging grounds. Seals displayed clear choice of foraging habitat, travelling through areas of presumably poorer quality to access habitats that likely offer an energetic advantage in terms of prey intake. The relationships between environmental predictors and foraging habitat varied between colonies, with the principal predictors being wind speed, sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, bathymetry and distance to the colony. The availability of core foraging areas was not consistent throughout the winter period. The habitat models developed in this study not only reveal the core foraging habitats of Antarctic fur seals from multiple colonies, but can facilitate the hindcasting of historical foraging habitats as well as novel predictions of important habitat for other major colonies currently lacking information of the at-sea distribution of this major Southern Ocean consumer.

  2. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Calispell Creek Project, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 13, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Calispell Creek property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in February 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Calispell Creek Project provides a total of 138.17 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 5.16 HUs for mallard and muskrat. Grassland provides 132.02 HUs for mallard and Canada goose. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 0.99 HUs for yellow warbler and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Calispell Creek Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  3. Diet composition of age-0 fishes in created habitats of the Lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Trevor A.; Long, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Channelization of the Missouri River has greatly reduced the availability of shallow water habitats used by many larval and juvenile fishes and contributed to imperilment of floodplain-dependent biota. Creation of small side channels, or chutes, is being used to restore shallow water habitat and reverse negative environmental effects associated with channelization. In the summer of 2012, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers collected early life stages of fishes from constructed chutes and nearby unrestored shallow habitats at six sites on the Missouri River between Rulo, Nebraska and St. Louis, Missouri. We compared the diets of two abundant species of fishes to test the hypothesis that created shallow chutes provided better foraging habitat for early life stages than nearby unrestored shallow habitats. Graphical analysis of feeding patterns of freshwater drum indicated specialization on chironomid larvae, which were consumed in greater numbers in unrestored mainstem reaches compared to chutes. Hiodon spp. were more generalist feeders with no differences in prey use between habitat types. Significantly greater numbers of individuals with empty stomachs were observed in chute shallow-water habitats, indicating poor foraging habitat. For these two species, constructed chute shallow-water habitat does not appear to provide the hypothesized benefits of higher quality foraging habitat.

  4. Effects of thermal and enzymatic treatments and harvesting time on the microbial quality and chemical composition of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nykter, Minna; Kymaelaeinen, Hanna-Riitta; Sjoeberg, Anna-Maija [Department of Agrotechnology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 28, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Thygesen, Anders [Biosystems Department, Risoe National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Lilholt, Hans [Materials Research Department, Risoe National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Koponen, Hilkka [Department of Applied Biology, Section of Plant Pathology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-05-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of pectinase enzyme treatment followed by thermal treatments (steam explosion and dry heating) on the microbial quality and chemical composition of hemp fibres. Before these treatments, the fibres were separated manually from the stems harvested after stand retting in the field before frost, after early frost or in the following spring. The enzymatic treatment of hemp promoted growth of moulds on the fibres (500-fold increase in colony-forming units (cfu)), whereas steam explosion reduced the amount of moulds to a relatively constant level of 10{sup 2} cfu/g dw. The amount of bacteria was not markedly affected by enzymatic treatment but was reduced tenfold after steam explosion. Steam explosion is thereby a potentially good process for the production of hemp fibres with low fungal contamination, which can be of importance in insulation materials. Dry heating had no effect on mould and bacterial counts at temperatures below 120 C and durations less than 60 min. The chemical composition was affected by the enzymatic treatment due to extraction and degradation of water-soluble components, pectin and ash. Thus the cellulose content increased by 6% w/w to 67-70% w/w. Steam explosion of the untreated hemp fibres increased the cellulose content to 74% w/w, whereas steam explosion of enzymatically treated hemp increased the cellulose content to 78% w/w. (author)

  5. Thermal comfort and indoor air quality in the lecture room with 4-way cassette air-conditioner and mixing ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Kwang-Chul; Jang, Jae-Soo; Oh, Myung-Do

    2007-01-01

    We performed the experimental and the numerical studies on thermal comfort (TC) and indoor air quality (IAQ) in the lecture room with cooling loads when the operating conditions are changed. Predicted mean vote (PMV) value and CO 2 concentration of the lecture room were measured and compared to the numerical results. Both of them showed a reasonable agreement with each other and then we applied the numerical model to analyze TC and IAQ for a couple of different operating conditions. From the results we found that the increment of the discharge angle of 4-way cassette air-conditioner makes uniformity of TC worse, but rarely affects IAQ. It turned out that TC and IAQ are hardly affected by the variation of the discharge airflow. Finally TC was merely affected by the increment of the ventilation rate, but when the ventilation rate is more than 800m 3 /h, the average CO 2 concentration can be satisfied with the standard limits of Japanese in our case studies. (author)

  6. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Wildlife Habitat: 17 Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides brief descriptions of 17 wetland treatment systems from across the country that are providing significant water quality benefits while demonstrating additional benefits such as wildlife habitat.

  8. 75 FR 35751 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Tumbling Creek...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... lands requiring a Federal permit (such as a permit from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers under section... habitat. Actions that would significantly alter water chemistry or water quality (for example, changes to...

  9. Poultry rearing on perforated plastic floors and the effect on air quality, growth performance, and carcass injuries-Experiment 1: Thermal Comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Arantes de Souza, Lilian Francisco; Sant'Anna, Aline Cristina; Bahiense, Raphael Nogueira; Macari, Marcos; Furlan, Renato Luis

    2017-09-01

    The present study investigated the use of perforated plastic floors in the rearing of male and female poultry under thermal comfort conditions. The study was conducted in 2 climate chambers, in one was conventional poultry litter (wood shavings) and in the other was a perforated plastic floor. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with the factors wood shavings and plastic floor. In each chamber, the animals were divided into 16 experimental pens (8 with males and 8 with females) with a density of 12 birds/m2. The poultry rearing effect was evaluated in terms of air quality (% concentration of ammonia [NH3] and carbon dioxide [CO2]); broiler performance, e.g., weight gain (kg), feed intake (kg), feed conversion, carcass yield and parts (%), meat production (kg/m2), and viability (% of live birds at d 42); scores of hygiene and mobility; and injuries in the chest, hocks, and footpads. Treatments affected air quality, with higher concentrations of NH3 on d 42 (25 ppm vs. 2 ppm) and CO2 (1,400 ppm vs. 1,000 ppm) for wood shavings than for perforated plastic floor, respectively. Males showed a better performance (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion) than females on d 42 in both floor types (wood shavings and plastic floor). Males reared on wood shavings showed a higher meet production (35.992 kg/m2) than females (32.257 kg/m2). On the plastic floor, males showed a better viability (100%) than females (94.05%), as well better meet production for males (38.55 kg·m-2) than females (31.64 kg/m2). There was no incidence of breast lesions in any of the studied systems. The birds reared on the plastic floor had better hygiene scores and lower hock injury rates than birds reared in the wood shavings chambers. The results of the present study show that the use of perforated plastic floors in chicken farming is an efficient method, which promotes a better-quality environment, superior production rates, and reduced incidence of injuries.

  10. Trapping Triatominae in Silvatic Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noireau François

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale trials of a trapping system designed to collect silvatic Triatominae are reported. Live-baited adhesive traps were tested in various ecosystems and different triatomine habitats (arboreal and terrestrial. The trials were always successful, with a rate of positive habitats generally over 20% and reaching 48.4% for palm trees of the Amazon basin. Eleven species of Triatominae belonging to the three genera of public health importance (Triatoma, Rhodnius and Panstrongylus were captured. This trapping system provides an effective way to detect the presence of triatomines in terrestrial and arboreal silvatic habitats and represents a promising tool for ecological studies. Various lines of research are contemplated to improve the performance of this trapping system.

  11. Loss and modification of habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemckert, Francis; Hecnar, Stephen; Pilliod, David S.; Wilkinson, John W.; Heatwole, Harold

    2012-01-01

    Amphibians live in a wide variety of habitats around the world, many of which have been modified or destroyed by human activities. Most species have unique life history characteristics adapted to specific climates, habitats (e.g., lentic, lotic, terrestrial, arboreal, fossorial, amphibious), and local conditions that provide suitable areas for reproduction, development and growth, shelter from environmental extremes, and predation, as well as connectivity to other populations or habitats. Although some species are entirely aquatic or terrestrial, most amphibians, as their name implies, lead a dual life and require a mosaic of habitats in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. With over 6 billion people on Earth, most species are now persisting in habitats that have been directly or indirectly influenced by human activities. Some species have disappeared where their habitats have been completely destroyed, reduced, or rendered unsuitable. Habitat loss and degradation are widely considered by most researchers as the most important causes of amphibian population decline globally (Barinaga 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991; Alford and Richards 1999). In this chapter, a background on the diverse habitat requirements of amphibians is provided, followed by a discussion of the effects of urbanization, agriculture, livestock grazing, timber production and harvesting, fire and hazardous fuel management, and roads on amphibians and their habitats. Also briefly discussed is the influence on amphibian habitats of natural disturbances, such as extreme weather events and climate change, given the potential for human activities to impact climate in the longer term. For amphibians in general, microhabitats are of greater importance than for other vertebrates. As ectotherms with a skin that is permeable to water and with naked gelatinous eggs, amphibians are physiologically constrained to be active during environmental conditions that provide appropriate body temperatures and adequate

  12. Multiscale habitat suitability index models for priority landbirds in the Central Hardwoods and West Gulf Coastal Plain/Ouachitas Bird Conservation Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Tirpak; D. Todd Jones-Farrand; Frank R., III Thompson; Daniel J. Twedt; William B., III Uihlein

    2009-01-01

    Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models were developed to assess habitat quality for 40 priority bird species in the Central Hardwoods and West Gulf Coastal Plain/Ouachitas Bird Conservation Regions. The models incorporated both site and landscape environmental variables from one of six nationally consistent datasets. Potential habitat was first defined from unique...

  13. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: manmade habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward Thomas; Ira David Luman; Ralph. Anderson

    1979-01-01

    Manmade structures on rangelands provide specialized habitats for some species. These habitats and how they function as specialized habitat features are examined in this publication. The relationships of the wildlife of the Great Basin to such structures are detailed.

  14. Assessing habitat connectivity for ground-dwelling animals in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaker, S; Moretti, M; Boesch, R; Ghazoul, J; Obrist, M K; Bontadina, F

    To ensure viable species populations in fragmented landscapes, individuals must be able to move between suitable habitat patches. Despite the increased interest in biodiversity assessment in urban environments, the ecological relevance of habitat connectivity in highly fragmented landscapes remains largely unknown. The first step to understanding the role of habitat connectivity in urban ecology is the challenging task of assessing connectivity in the complex patchwork of contrasting habitats that is found in cities. We developed a data-based framework, minimizing the use of subjective assumptions, to assess habitat connectivity that consists of the following sequential steps: (1) identification of habitat preference based on empirical habitat-use data; (2) derivation of habitat resistance surfaces evaluating various transformation functions; (3) modeling of different connectivity maps with electrical circuit theory (Circuitscape), a method considering all possible pathways across the landscape simultaneously; and (4) identification of the best connectivity map with information-theoretic model selection. We applied this analytical framework to assess habitat connectivity for the European hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus, a model species for ground-dwelling animals, in the city of Zurich, Switzerland, using GPS track points from 40 individuals. The best model revealed spatially explicit connectivity “pinch points,” as well as multiple habitat connections. Cross-validation indicated the general validity of the selected connectivity model. The results show that both habitat connectivity and habitat quality affect the movement of urban hedgehogs (relative importance of the two variables was 19.2% and 80.8%, respectively), and are thus both relevant for predicting urban animal movements. Our study demonstrates that even in the complex habitat patchwork of cities, habitat connectivity plays a major role for ground-dwelling animal movement. Data-based habitat connectivity

  15. Transferability of habitat suitability criteria for fishes in warmwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Mary C.; Bowen, Z.H.; Crance, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    We developed habitat suitability criteria and tested their transferability for nine fishes inhabiting unregulated Piedmont and Coastal Plain streams in Alabama. Cr iteria for optimal habitat were defined as ranges of depth, velocity, substrate type and cover type for which a species' suitability index (proportional abundance divided by proportional habitat availability, scaled from 0 to 1) equalled or exceeded 0.4. We evaluated the transferability of criteria between study sites by testing the null hypothesis that species occurrence in a sample was independent of whether or not the sample was taken in optimal habitat. We also tested criteria transference to a large, flow-regulated river sampled during low flow periods. Depth, velocity and most substrate criteria developed for the bronze darter Percina palmaris successfully transferred between unregulated streams and to the flow-regulated river samples. All criteria developed for a pair of closely related, allopatric darter species, Etheostoma chuckwachattee and E. jordani, transferred sucessfully when applied between species (in the unregulated sites) and to the regulated river samples. In contrast, criteria for the Alabama shiner Cyprinella callistia failed nearly all tests of transferability. Criteria for E. stigmaeum, P. nigrofasciata, an undescribed Percina species, and a pair of related, allopatric Cyprinella species transferred inconsistently. The species with good criteria transference had high suitability indices for shallow depths, fast current velocities and coarse substrates, characteristic of riffle species. We suggest that microhabitat criteria for riffle fishes are more likely to provide a transferable measure of habitat quality than criteria for fishes that, although restricted to fluvial habitats, commonly occupy a variety of pool and riffle habitats.

  16. Predicting Fish Growth Potential and Identifying Water Quality Constraints: A Spatially-Explicit Bioenergetics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra; Baker, Matthew; Dahle, Samuel K.

    2011-10-01

    Anthropogenic impairment of water bodies represents a global environmental concern, yet few attempts have successfully linked fish performance to thermal habitat suitability and fewer have distinguished co-varying water quality constraints. We interfaced fish bioenergetics, field measurements, and Thermal Remote Imaging to generate a spatially-explicit, high-resolution surface of fish growth potential, and next employed a structured hypothesis to detect relationships among measures of fish performance and co-varying water quality constraints. Our thermal surface of fish performance captured the amount and spatial-temporal arrangement of thermally-suitable habitat for three focal species in an extremely heterogeneous reservoir, but interpretation of this pattern was initially confounded by seasonal covariation of water residence time and water quality. Subsequent path analysis revealed that in terms of seasonal patterns in growth potential, catfish and walleye responded to temperature, positively and negatively, respectively; crappie and walleye responded to eutrophy (negatively). At the high eutrophy levels observed in this system, some desired fishes appear to suffer from excessive cultural eutrophication within the context of elevated temperatures whereas others appear to be largely unaffected or even enhanced. Our overall findings do not lead to the conclusion that this system is degraded by pollution; however, they do highlight the need to use a sensitive focal species in the process of determining allowable nutrient loading and as integrators of habitat suitability across multiple spatial and temporal scales. We provide an integrated approach useful for quantifying fish growth potential and identifying water quality constraints on fish performance at spatial scales appropriate for whole-system management.

  17. Habitat classification modelling with incomplete data: Pushing the habitat envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoebe L. Zarnetske; Thomas C. Edwards; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2007-01-01

    Habitat classification models (HCMs) are invaluable tools for species conservation, land-use planning, reserve design, and metapopulation assessments, particularly at broad spatial scales. However, species occurrence data are often lacking and typically limited to presence points at broad scales. This lack of absence data precludes the use of many statistical...

  18. Evaluation of the quality, thermal maturity and distribution of potential source rocks in the Danish part of the Norwegian–Danish Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen, Lars

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality, thermal maturity and distribution of potential source rocks within the Palaeozoic–Mesozoic succession of the Danish part of the Norwegian–Danish Basin have been evaluated on the basis of screening data from over 4000 samples from the pre-Upper Cretaceous succession in 33 wells. The Lower Palaeozoic in the basin is overmature and the Upper Cretaceous – Cenozoic strata have no petroleum generation potential, but the Toarcian marine shales of the Lower Jurassic Fjerritslev Formation (F-III, F-IV members and the uppermost Jurassic – lowermost Cretaceous shales of the Frederikshavn Formation may qualify as potential source rocks in parts of the basin. Neither of these potential source rocks has a basinwide distribution; the present occurrence of the Lower Jurassic shales was primarily determined by regional early Middle Jurassic uplift and erosion. The generation potential of these source rocks is highly variable. The F-III and F-IV members show significant lateral changes in generation capacity, the best-developed source rocks occurring in the basin centre. The combined F-III andF-IV members in the Haldager-1, Kvols-1 and Rønde-1 wells contain ‘net source-rock’ thicknesses (cumulative thickness of intervals with Hydrogen Index (HI >200 mg HC/g TOC of 40 m, 83 m, and 92 m, respectively, displaying average HI values of 294, 369 and 404 mg HC/g TOC. The Mors-1 well contains 123 m of ‘net source rock’ with an average HI of 221 mg HC/g TOC. Parts of the Frederikshavn Formation possess a petroleum generation potential in the Hyllebjerg-1, Skagen-2, Voldum-1 and Terne-1 wells, the latter well containing a c.160 m thick highly oil-prone interval with an average HI of 478 mg HC/g TOC and maximum HI values >500 mg HC/g TOC. The source-rock evaluation suggests that a Mesozoic petroleum system is the most likely in the study area. Two primary plays are possible: (1 the Upper Triassic – lowermost Jurassic Gassum play, and (2the

  19. The problems in the formation of the habitat of fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarkov S. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Habitat as a combination of political, economic, social and environmental conditions of human activity plays an important role in raising productivity and efficiency of the national economy. On the basis of actual data the essence of problems of formation and management of the fishery complex habitat has been revealed. The authors consider the working conditions of the crews of fishing vessels as an important component of habitat, the influence of climatic conditions and inadequate social infrastructure on turnover of out-migration from the northern regions, the low level of training that generally has a negative impact on results of the fishing industry activity. The state government fishery development programme does not contain measures to shape habitats: improving the quality of life of fishermen and their families, promoting social and environmental infrastructure. On the basis of researches some practical recommendations allowing solve the problems in formation and development of the fishery habitat have been proposed. There are the following recommendations: improving the working conditions of the crews of fishing vessels, economically advantageous working conditions for shipowners, efforts to combat poaching, training of highly qualified personnel, the development of programme of staff motivation and its interest in the work on the internal market, the development of social programmes for the protection of seafarers and their families. For successful implementation of all measures to increase the competitiveness of fisheries of Russia on the international market it is necessary to improve the quality and effectiveness of the system of fisheries complex management, including its socio-ecological-economic habitat

  20. Thermal Diffusivity Measurements in Edible Oils using Transient Thermal Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, R. Carbajal.; Pérez, J. L. Jiménez.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Martín-Martínez, E. San.

    2006-11-01

    Time resolved thermal lens (TL) spectrometry is applied to the study of the thermal diffusivity of edible oils such as olive, and refined and thermally treated avocado oils. A two laser mismatched-mode experimental configuration was used, with a He Ne laser as a probe beam and an Ar+ laser as the excitation one. The characteristic time constant of the transient thermal lens was obtained by fitting the experimental data to the theoretical expression for a transient thermal lens. The results showed that virgin olive oil has a higher thermal diffusivity than for refined and thermally treated avocado oils. This measured thermal property may contribute to a better understanding of the quality of edible oils, which is very important in the food industry. The thermal diffusivity results for virgin olive oil, obtained from this technique, agree with those reported in the literature.

  1. Ecosystem process interactions between central Chilean habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Root-Bernstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding ecosystem processes is vital for developing dynamic adaptive management of human-dominated landscapes. We focus on conservation and management of the central Chilean silvopastoral savanna habitat called “espinal”, which often occurs near matorral, a shrub habitat. Although matorral, espinal and native sclerophyllous forest are linked successionally, they are not jointly managed and conserved. Management goals in “espinal” include increasing woody cover, particularly of the dominant tree Acacia caven, improving herbaceous forage quality, and increasing soil fertility. We asked whether adjacent matorral areas contribute to espinal ecosystem processes related to the three main espinal management goals. We examined input and outcome ecosystem processes related to these goals in matorral and espinal with and without shrub understory. We found that matorral had the largest sets of inputs to ecosystem processes, and espinal with shrub understory had the largest sets of outcomes. Moreover, we found that these outcomes were broadly in the directions preferred by management goals. This supports our prediction that matorral acts as an ecosystem process bank for espinal. We recommend that management plans for landscape resilience consider espinal and matorral as a single landscape cover class that should be maintained as a dynamic mosaic. Joint management of espinal and matorral could create new management and policy opportunities.

  2. Resource distributions among habitats determine solitary bee offspring production in a mosaic landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Neal M; Kremen, Claire

    2007-04-01

    Within mosaic landscapes, many organisms depend on attributes of the environment that operate over scales ranging from a single habitat patch to the entire landscape. One such attribute is resource distribution. Organisms' reliance on resources from within a local patch vs. those found among habitats throughout the landscape will depend on local habitat quality, patch quality, and landscape composition. The ability of individuals to move among complementary habitat types to obtain various resources may be a critical mechanism underlying the dynamics of animal populations and ultimately the level of biodiversity at different spatial scales. We examined the effects that local habitat type and landscape composition had on offspring production and survival of the solitary bee Osmia lignaria in an agri-natural landscape in California (U.S.A.). Female bees were placed on farms that did not use pesticides (organic farms), on farms that did use pesticides (conventional farms), or in seminatural riparian habitats. We identified pollens collected by bees nesting in different habitat types and matched these to pollens of flowering plants from throughout the landscape. These data enabled us to determine the importance of different plant species and habitat types in providing food for offspring, and how this importance changed with landscape and local nesting-site characteristics. We found that increasing isolation from natural habitat significantly decreased offspring production and survival for bees nesting at conventional farms, had weaker effects on bees in patches of seminatural habitat, and had little impact on those at organic farm sites. Pollen sampled from nests showed that females nesting in both farm and seminatural habitats relied on pollen from principally native plant species growing in seminatural habitat. Thus connectivity among habitats was critical for offspring production. Females nesting on organic farms were buffered to isolation effects by switching to

  3. Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) telemetry and associated habitat data collected in a geodatabase from the upper Boise River, southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Shephard, Zachary M.; Benjamin, Joseph R.; Vidergar, Dmitri T.; Prisciandaro, Anthony F.

    2017-03-23

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act, are among the more thermally sensitive of coldwater species in North America. The Boise River upstream of Arrowrock Dam in southwestern Idaho (including Arrowrock Reservoir) provides habitat for one of the southernmost populations of bull trout. The presence of the species in Arrowrock Reservoir poses implications for dam and reservoir operations. From 2011 to 2014, the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Geological Survey collected fish telemetry data to improve understanding of bull trout distribution and movement in Arrowrock Reservoir and in the upper Boise River tributaries. The U.S. Geological Survey compiled the telemetry (fish location) data, along with reservoir elevation, river discharge, precipitation, and water-quality data in a geodatabase. The geodatabase includes metadata compliant with Federal Geographic Data Committee content standards. The Bureau of Reclamation plans to incorporate the data in a decision‑support tool for reservoir management.

  4. Instream Physical Habitat Modelling Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, John; Boegh, Eva; Krogsgaard, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is providing member state water resource managers with significant challenges in relation to meeting the deadline for 'Good Ecological Status' by 2015. Overall, instream physical habitat modelling approaches have advantages and disadvanta......The introduction of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is providing member state water resource managers with significant challenges in relation to meeting the deadline for 'Good Ecological Status' by 2015. Overall, instream physical habitat modelling approaches have advantages...... suit their situations. This paper analyses the potential of different methods available for water managers to assess hydrological and geomorphological impacts on the habitats of stream biota, as requested by the WFD. The review considers both conventional and new advanced research-based instream...... physical habitat models. In parametric and non-parametric regression models, model assumptions are often not satisfied and the models are difficult to transfer to other regions. Research-based methods such as the artificial neural networks and individual-based modelling have promising potential as water...

  5. Habitats: staging life and art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of habitat. It is a bounded chunk of space/time that isdesigned to accommodate a delimited set of activities. It accommodates the activities by in-cludingphysical artefacts that can be used in the activities and signs that offer activity-relevantinformation. The hab...

  6. Habitat factors influencing the distribution of Cymbopogon validus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habitat factors influencing the distribution of Cymbopogon validus in Mkambati Game Reserve, Transkei. ... disturbance; game reserve; grassland; grasslands; habitat conditions; habitat factors; mkambati game ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Priest River Project, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Priest River property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Priest River Project provides a total of 140.73 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 60.05 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Grassland meadow habitat provides 7.39 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 71.13 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Open water habitat provides 2.16 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. The objective of using HEP at the Priest River Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  8. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; North Eaton Lake, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-11-01

    On July 6, 2005, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the North Eaton Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in November 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The North Eaton Lake Project provides a total of 235.05 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Open water habitat provides 9.38 HUs for Canada goose, mallard and muskrat. Emergent wetland habitat provides 11.36 HUs for Canada goose, mallard and muskrat. Forested wetland provides 10.97 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard and white-tailed deer. Conifer forest habitat provides 203.34 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the North Eaton Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  9. The Effects of Habitat Type and Volcanic Eruptions on the Breeding Demography of Icelandic Whimbrels Numenius phaeopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrínardóttir, Borgný; Alves, José A; Sigurjónsdóttir, Hrefna; Hersteinsson, Páll; Gunnarsson, Tómas G

    2015-01-01

    Distinct preference of species for habitats is most often driven by long term differences in demographic rates between habitats. Estimating variation in those rates is key for developing successful conservation strategies. Stochastic events can interact with underlying variation in habitat quality in regulating demography but the opportunities to explore such interactions are rare. Whimbrels in Iceland show a strong preference for sparsely vegetated riverplains. Such habitats in Iceland face various threats, e.g., climate change, river regulation and spread of alien plant species. In this study we compared demographic parameters of breeding Whimbrels between riverplains and other habitats before, during and after volcanic eruption events to estimate the importance of the habitats for the species and the effect of ash deposit on breeding success. We found that an estimated minimum of 23% of the Icelandic population of Whimbrels and c. 10% of the world population of the species breed in riverplain habitats in Iceland. Whimbrels bred consistently at much higher densities in riverplain habitats than in other habitats and riverplains also had higher densities of pairs with fledglings although the proportion of successful breeders was similar between habitats. Predation by livestock may have had a considerable negative effect on breeding success on our study sites. Breeding was negatively affected by the volcanic activity, probably through the effects of ash on the invertebrate food supply, with breeding success being gradually worse closer to the eruption. Breeding success was equally affected by volcanism across habitats which differed in underlying habitat quality. This study gives an example of how populations can be regulated by factors which operate at different spatial scales, such as local variation in habitat quality and stochastic events which impact larger areas.

  10. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - NCWAP [ds158

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Stream Habitat - NCWAP - Reach Summary [ds158] shapefile contains in-stream habitat survey data summarized to the stream reach level. It is a derivative of the...

  11. A Conceptual Approach to Recreation Habitat Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamilton, H. R

    1996-01-01

    .... The Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) is a commonly used technique for assessing human impacts on the vigor of wildlife species, and serves as the model for the Recreation Habitat Analysis Method (RHAM...

  12. Beaked Whale Habitat Characterization and Prediction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ward, Jessica A; Mitchell, Glenn H; Farak, Amy M; Keane, Ellen P

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize known beaked whale habitat and create a predictive beaked whale habitat model of the Gulf of Mexico and east coast of the United States using available...

  13. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  14. Mechanisms Affecting Population Density in Fragmented Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Tischendorf

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a factorial simulation experiment to analyze the relative importance of movement pattern, boundary-crossing probability, and mortality in habitat and matrix on population density, and its dependency on habitat fragmentation, as well as inter-patch distance. We also examined how the initial response of a species to a fragmentation event may affect our observations of population density in post-fragmentation experiments. We found that the boundary-crossing probability from habitat to matrix, which partly determines the emigration rate, is the most important determinant for population density within habitat patches. The probability of crossing a boundary from matrix to habitat had a weaker, but positive, effect on population density. Movement behavior in habitat had a stronger effect on population density than movement behavior in matrix. Habitat fragmentation and inter-patch distance may have a positive or negative effect on population density. The direction of both effects depends on two factors. First, when the boundary-crossing probability from habitat to matrix is high, population density may decline with increasing habitat fragmentation. Conversely, for species with a high matrix-to-habitat boundary-crossing probability, population density may increase with increasing habitat fragmentation. Second, the initial distribution of individuals across the landscape: we found that habitat fragmentation and inter-patch distance were positively correlated with population density when individuals were distributed across matrix and habitat at the beginning of our simulation experiments. The direction of these relationships changed to negative when individuals were initially distributed across habitat only. Our findings imply that the speed of the initial response of organisms to habitat fragmentation events may determine the direction of observed relationships between habitat fragmentation and population density. The time scale of post

  15. 3.10. Habitat restoration and creation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    1.12.1 Terrestrial habitat Based on the collated evidence, what is the current assessment of the effectiveness of interventions for terrestrial habitat restoration and creation? Beneficial ● Replant vegetation Likely to be beneficial ● Clear vegetation● Create artificial hibernacula or aestivation sites● Create refuges● Restore habitat connectivity Unknown effectiveness (limited evidence) ● Change mowing regime No evidence found (no assessment) ● Create habitat connectivity Beneficial Repla...

  16. A technical guide for monitoring wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.M. Rowland; C.D. Vojta

    2013-01-01

    Information about status and trend of wildlife habitat is important for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service to accomplish its mission and meet its legal requirements. As the steward of 193 million acres (ac) of Federal land, the Forest Service needs to evaluate the status of wildlife habitat and how it compares with desired conditions. Habitat monitoring...

  17. Creating complex habitats for restoration and reconciliation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loke, L.H.L.; Ladle, R.J.; Bouma, T.J.; Todd, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Simplification of natural habitats has become a major conservation challenge and there is a growing consensus that incorporating and enhancing habitat complexity is likely to be critical for future restoration efforts. Habitat complexity is often ascribed an important role in controlling species

  18. 50 CFR 17.94 - Critical habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... habitats. (a) The areas listed in § 17.95 (fish and wildlife) and § 17.96 (plants) and referred to in the... physical constituent elements within the defined area of Critical Habitat that are essential to the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitats. 17.94 Section 17.94...

  19. 75 FR 34975 - Notice of Estuary Habitat Restoration Council's Intent to Revise its Estuary Habitat Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Estuary Habitat Restoration Council's Intent to Revise its Estuary Habitat Restoration Strategy; Request... interagency Estuary Habitat Restoration Council, is providing notice of the Council's intent to revise the ''Estuary Habitat Restoration Strategy'' and requesting public comments to guide its revision. DATES...

  20. Macrofaunal communities associated with chemosynthetic habitats from the U.S. Atlantic margin: A comparison among depth and habitat types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Jill R.; Robertson, Craig M.; Brooke, Sandra; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocarbon seeps support distinct benthic communities capable of tolerating extreme environmental conditions and utilizing reduced chemical compounds for nutrition. In recent years, several locations of methane seepage have been mapped along the U.S. Atlantic continental slope. In 2012 and 2013, two newly discovered seeps were investigated in this region: a shallow site near Baltimore Canyon (BCS, 366–412 m) and a deep site near Norfolk Canyon (NCS, 1467–1602 m), with both sites containing extensive chemosynthetic mussel bed and microbial mat habitats. Sediment push cores, suction samples, and Ekman box cores were collected to quantify the abundance, diversity, and community structure of benthic macrofauna (>300 μm) in mussel beds, mats, and slope habitats at both sites. Community data from the deep site were also assessed in relation to the associated sediment environment (organic carbon and nitrogen, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, grain size, and depth). Infaunal assemblages and densities differed both between depths and among habitat types. Macrofaunal densities in microbial mats were four times greater than those present in mussel beds and slope sediments and were dominated by the annelid families Dorvilleidae, Capitellidae, and Tubificidae, while mussel habitats had higher proportions of crustaceans. Diversity was lower in BCS microbial mat habitats, but higher in mussel and slope sediments compared to NCS habitats. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed specific sediment properties as important for distinguishing the macrofaunal communities, including larger grain sizes present within NCS microbial mat habitats and depleted stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) in sediments present at mussel beds. These results suggest that habitat differences in the quality and source of organic matter are driving the observed patterns in the infaunal assemblages, including high β diversity and high variability in the macrofaunal community composition. This

  1. Evaluation of nekton use and habitat characteristics of restored Louisiana marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, C.S.B.; Peyre, M.K.G.L.; Nyman, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Marsh terracing and coconut fiber mats are two wetland restoration techniques implemented at Sabine National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana, USA. Using nekton as an indicator of habitat quality, nekton community assemblages were compared between terraced, coconut-matted, unmanaged marsh (restoration goal), and open water (pre-restoration) habitats. Using a throw trap and a 3 m ?? 2 m straight seine, 192 nekton samples were collected over four dates in 2001 and 2002 at all habitats. Nekton abundance was similar at unmanaged marsh (restoration goal), coconut mat, and terrace edge, and significantly higher than at open water (pre-restoration) sites (P Coconut-matted habitat and unmanaged marsh edges had significantly higher numbers of benthic dependent species than terrace edges (P coconut-matted sites. Future restoration projects may evaluate the combined use of coconut mats with terracing projects in order to enhance habitat for benthic dependent nekton.

  2. Subsurface microbial habitats on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, P. J.; Mckay, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    We developed scenarios for shallow and deep subsurface cryptic niches for microbial life on Mars. Such habitats could have considerably prolonged the persistence of life on Mars as surface conditions became increasingly inhospitable. The scenarios rely on geothermal hot spots existing below the near or deep subsurface of Mars. Recent advances in the comparatively new field of deep subsurface microbiology have revealed previously unsuspected rich aerobic and anaerobic microbal communities far below the surface of the Earth. Such habitats, protected from the grim surface conditions on Mars, could receive warmth from below and maintain water in its liquid state. In addition, geothermally or volcanically reduced gases percolating from below through a microbiologically active zone could provide the reducing power needed for a closed or semi-closed microbial ecosystem to thrive.

  3. An approach of habitat degradation assessment for characterization on coastal habitat conservation tendency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xi-Yin; Lei, Kun; Meng, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Coastal zones are population and economy highly intensity regions all over the world, and coastal habitat supports the sustainable development of human society. The accurate assessment of coastal habitat degradation is the essential prerequisite for coastal zone protection. In this study, an integrated framework of coastal habitat degradation assessment including landuse classification, habitat classifying and zoning, evaluation criterion of coastal habitat degradation and coastal habitat degradation index has been established for better regional coastal habitat assessment. Through establishment of detailed three-class landuse classification, the fine landscape change is revealed, the evaluation criterion of coastal habitat degradation through internal comparison based on the results of habitat classifying and zoning could indicate the levels of habitat degradation and distinguish the intensity of human disturbances in different habitat subareas under the same habitat classification. Finally, the results of coastal habitat degradation assessment could be achieved through coastal habitat degradation index (CHI). A case study of the framework is carried out in the Circum-Bohai-Sea-Coast, China, and the main results show the following: (1) The accuracy of all land use classes are above 90%, which indicates a satisfactory accuracy for the classification map. (2) The Circum-Bohai-Sea-Coast is divided into 3 kinds of habitats and 5 subareas. (3) In the five subareas of the Circum-Bohai-Sea-Coast, the levels of coastal habitat degradation own significant difference. The whole Circum-Bohai-Sea-Coast generally is in a worse state according to area weighting of each habitat subarea. This assessment framework of coastal habitat degradation would characterize the landuse change trend, realize better coastal habitat degradation assessment, reveal the habitat conservation tendency and distinguish intensity of human disturbances. Furthermore, it would support for accurate coastal

  4. Modelling Fish Habitat Suitability in the Eastern English Channel. Application to community habitat level

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Sandrine; Carpentier, Andre; Loots, Christophe; Koubbi, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    Valuable marine habitats and living resources can be found in the Eastern English Channel and in 2003, a Franco-British Interreg IIIA project, ‘Eastern Channel Habitat Atlas for Marine Resource Management’ (CHARM), was initiated to support decision-making for management of essential fish habitats. Fish habitat corresponds to geographic areas within which ranges of environmental factors define the presence of a particular species. Habitat Suitability index (HSI) modelling was used to relate fi...

  5. Systematic review of the influence of foraging habitat on red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, James E. [North Carolina State University

    2014-04-01

    Relationships between foraging habitat and reproductive success provide compelling evidence of the contribution of specific vegetative features to foraging habitat quality, a potentially limiting factor for many animal populations. For example, foraging habitat quality likely will gain importance in the recovery of the threatened red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis (RCW) in the USA as immediate nesting constraints are mitigated. Several researchers have characterized resource selection by foraging RCWs, but emerging research linking reproductive success (e.g. clutch size, nestling and fledgling production, and group size) and foraging habitat features has yet to be synthesized. Therefore, we reviewed peer-refereed scientific literature and technical resources (e.g. books, symposia proceedings, and technical reports) that examined RCW foraging ecology, foraging habitat, or demography to evaluate evidence for effects of the key foraging habitat features described in the species’ recovery plan on group reproductive success. Fitness-based habitat models suggest foraging habitat with low to intermediate pine Pinus spp. densities, presence of large and old pines, minimal midstory development, and herbaceous groundcover support more productive RCW groups. However, the relationships between some foraging habitat features and RCW reproductive success are not well supported by empirical data. In addition, few regression models account for > 30% of variation in reproductive success, and unstandardized multiple and simple linear regression coefficient estimates typically range from -0.100 to 0.100, suggesting ancillary variables and perhaps indirect mechanisms influence reproductive success. These findings suggest additional research is needed to address uncertainty in relationships between foraging habitat features and RCW reproductive success and in the mechanisms underlying those relationships.

  6. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; West Beaver Lake Project, Technical Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On September 7, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the West Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in September 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The West Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 82.69 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 8.80 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Conifer forest habitat provides 70.33 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Open water provides 3.30 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. The objective of using HEP at the West Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  7. Thermal comfort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is influenced by environmental parameters as well as other influences including asymmetric heating and cooling conditions. Additionally, some aspects of thermal comfort may be exploited so as to enable a building to operate within a...

  8. Multiple-scale roost habitat comparisons of female Merriam's wild turkeys in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Thompson; Mark A. Rumble; Lester D. Flake; Chad P. Lehman

    2009-01-01

    Because quantity and quality of roosting habitat can affect Merriam's Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) distribution, we described habitat characteristics of Merriam's turkey roost sites in the southern Black Hills of South Dakota. Varying proportions of Merriam's turkeys in the southern Black Hills depended on supplemental feed from livestock...

  9. Determining effects of an all weather logging road on winter woodland caribou habitat use in south-eastern Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug W. Schindler

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The Owl Lake boreal woodland caribou population is the most southerly population in Manitoba. It is provincially ranked as a High Conservation Concern Population. Forestry operations exist in the area and there are plans for further forest harvest and renewal. The Happy Lake logging road is the only main access through the Owl Lake winter range. This logging road is currently closed to the public and access is limited to forestry operations during specific times of the year. An integrated forestry/caribou management strategy for the area provides for the maintenance of minimum areas of functional habitat. Habitat quality along the road was compared to habitat quality in the winter core use areas, within the winter range and outside the winter range. To evaluate the extent of functional habitat near the road, we conducted animal location and movement analysis using GPS data collected from January 2002 to March 2006. Habitat quality in the winter range, core use areas and along the road were assessed and found to be similar. Analysis of caribou locations and movement illustrate less use of high quality habitat adjacent to the Happy Lake Road. Loss of functional habitat is suggested to occur within 1 kilometre of the road. This potential loss of functional habitat should be incorporated into integrated forestry and caribou conservation strategies. Road management is recommended to minimize the potential sensory disturbance and associated impacts of all weather access on boreal woodland caribou.

  10. Spatially explicit measures of production of young alewives in Lake Michigan: Linkage between essential fish habitat and recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Tomas O.; Rutherford, Edward S.; Brines, Shannon J.; Mason, Doran M.; Schwab, David J.; McCormick, Michael; Desorcie, Timothy J.

    2003-01-01

    The identification and protection of essential habitats for early life stages of fishes are necessary to sustain fish stocks. Essential fish habitat for early life stages may be defined as areas where fish densities, growth, survival, or production rates are relatively high. To identify critical habitats for young-of-year (YOY) alewives (Alosa pseud oharengus) in Lake Michigan, we integrated bioenergetics models with GIS (Geographic Information Systems) to generate spatially explicit estimates of potential population production (an index of habitat quality). These estimates were based upon YOY alewife bioenergetic growth rate potential and their salmonine predators’ consumptive demand. We compared estimates of potential population production to YOY alewife yield (an index of habitat importance). Our analysis suggested that during 1994–1995, YOY alewife habitat quality and yield varied widely throughout Lake Michigan. Spatial patterns of alewife yield were not significantly correlated to habitat quality. Various mechanisms (e.g., predator migrations, lake circulation patterns, alternative strategies) may preclude YOY alewives from concentrating in areas of high habitat quality in Lake Michigan.

  11. Response of chironomid species (Diptera, Chironomidae to water temperature: effects on species distribution in specific habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Marziali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The response of 443 chironomid species to water temperature was analyzed, with the aim of defining their thermal optimum, tolerance limits and thermal habitat. The database included 4442 samples mainly from Italian river catchments collected from the 1950s up to date. Thermal preferences were calculated separately for larval and pupal specimens and for different habitats: high altitude and lowland lakes in the Alpine ecoregion; lowland lakes in the Mediterranean ecoregion; heavily modified water bodies; kryal, krenal, rhithral and potamal in running waters. Optimum response was calculated as mean water temperature, weighted by species abundances; tolerance as weighted standard deviation; skewness and kurtosis as 3rd and 4th moment statistics. The responses were fitted to normal uni- or plurimodal Gaussian models. Cold stenothermal species showed: i unimodal response, ii tolerance for a narrow temperature range, iii optima closed to their minimum temperature values, iv leptokurtic response. Thermophilous species showed: i optima at different temperature values, ii wider tolerance, iii optima near their maximum temperature values, iv platikurtic response, often fitting a plurimodal model. As expected, lower optima values and narrower tolerance were obtained for kryal and krenal, than for rhithral, potamal and lakes. Thermal response curves were produced for each species and were discussed according to species distribution (i.e. altitudinal range in running water and water depth in lakes, voltinism and phylogeny. Thermal optimum and tolerance limits and the definition of the thermal habitat of species can help predicting the impact of global warming on freshwater ecosystems.

  12. Tamarix as habitat for birds: Implications for riparian restoration in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogge, M.K.; Sferra, S.J.; Paxton, E.H.

    2008-01-01

    Exotic vegetation has become a major habitat component in many ecosystems around the world, sometimes dramatically changing the vegetation community structure and composition. In the southwestern United States, riparian ecosystems are undergoing major changes in part due to the establishment and spread of the exotic Tamarix (saltcedar, tamarisk). There are concerns about the suitability of Tamarix as habitat for birds. Although Tamarix habitats tend to support fewer species and individuals than native habitats, Arizona Breeding Bird Atlas data and Birds of North America accounts show that 49 species use Tamarix as breeding habitat. Importantly, the relative use of Tamarix and its quality as habitat vary substantially by geographic location and bird species. Few studies have examined how breeding in Tamarix actually affects bird survivorship and productivity; recent research on Southwestern Willow Flycatchers has found no negative effects from breeding in Tamarix habitats. Therefore, the ecological benefits and costs of Tamarix control are difficult to predict and are likely to be species specific and site specific. Given the likelihood that high-quality native riparian vegetation will not develop at all Tamarix control sites, restoration projects that remove Tamarix but do not assure replacement by high-quality native habitat have the potential to reduce the net riparian habitat value for some local or regional bird populations. Therefore, an assessment of potential negative impacts is important in deciding if exotic control should be conducted. In addition, measurable project objectives, appropriate control and restoration techniques, and robust monitoring are all critical to effective restoration planning and execution. ?? 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  13. Habitat selection and post-release movement of reintroduced brown treecreeper individuals in restored temperate woodland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A Bennett

    Full Text Available It is essential to choose suitable habitat when reintroducing a species into its former range. Habitat quality may influence an individual's dispersal decisions and also ultimately where they choose to settle. We examined whether variation in habitat quality (quantified by the level of ground vegetation cover and the installation of nest boxes influenced the movement, habitat choice and survival of a reintroduced bird species. We experimentally reintroduced seven social groups (43 individuals of the brown treecreeper (Climacteris picumnus into two nature reserves in south-eastern Australia. We radio-tracked 18 brown treecreepers from release in November 2009 until February 2010. We observed extensive movements by individuals irrespective of the release environment or an individual's gender. This indicated that individuals were capable of dispersing and actively selecting optimum habitat. This may alleviate pressure on wildlife planners to accurately select the most optimum release sites, so long as the species' requirements are met. There was significant variation in movement between social groups, suggesting that social factors may be a more important influence on movement than habitat characteristics. We found a significant effect of ground vegetation cover on the likelihood of settlement by social groups, with high rates of settlement and survival in dry forests, rather than woodland (where the species typically resides, which has implications for the success of woodland restoration. However, overall the effects of variation in habitat quality were not as strong as we had expected, and resulted in some unpredicted effects such as low survival and settlement in woodland areas with medium levels of ground vegetation cover. The extensive movement by individuals and unforeseen effects of habitat characteristics make it difficult to predict the outcome of reintroductions, the movement behaviour and habitat selection of reintroduced individuals

  14. Spatiotemporal patterns and habitat associations of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) invading salmon-rearing habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J.; Olden, Julian D.; Torgersen, Christian E.

    2012-01-01

    km (2009 and 2010, respectively) as stream temperatures seasonally warmed, but subyearling Chinook salmon were also found farther upstream during this time.4. Our multiscale analysis suggests that bass were selecting habitat based on antecedent thermal history at a broad scale, and if satisfactory temperature conditions were met, mesoscale habitat features (i.e. channel-unit type and depth) played an additional role in determining bass abundance. The upstream extent of bass in the late summer corresponded to a high-gradient geomorphic discontinuity in the NFJDR, which probably hindered further upstream movements of bass. The habitat determinants and upstream extent of bass were largely consistent across years, despite marked differences in the magnitude and timing of spring peak flows prior to bass spawning.5. The overriding influence of water temperature on smallmouth bass distribution suggests that managers may be able limit future upstream range expansions of bass into salmon-rearing habitat by concentrating on restoration activities that mitigate climate- or land-use-related stream warming. These management activities could be prioritised to capitalise on survival bottlenecks in the life history of bass and spatially focused on landscape knick points such as high-gradient discontinuities to discourage further upstream movements of bass.

  15. Evaluating the Effect of Green Infrastructure Stormwater Best Management Practices on New England Stream Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA is evaluating the effectiveness of green infrastructure (GI) stormwater best management practices (BMPs) on stream habitat at the small watershed (< HUC12) scale in New England. Predictive models for thermal regime and substrate characteristics (substrate size, % em...

  16. Towards a Caribou Habitat Management Strategy for Northwestern Ontario: Running the Gauntlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald D. Racey

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A management strategy for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou habitat is being developed in northwestern Ontario. This strategy is based upon a set of draft Timber Management Guidelines for the Provision of Woodland Caribou Habitat. These guidelines recommend maintaining a sustainable supply of winter habitat within large tracts of old forest, protecting calving areas and minimizing human disturbance. Due to the large temporal and spatial scale of caribou habitat management, an ecosystem-based approach is recommended. Public response to the strategy shows a strong dichotomy between environmental and utilitarian values among all the major stakeholder groups. The major issues raised by the public include security of industrial wood supply, quality of the knowledge base, level of awareness of caribou, economic impacts on remote communities, concern about environmental impacts and silvicultural know-how. The government is responding to these concerns as the strategy evolves. Current emphasis is placed on increasing awareness of the public, training resource managers in caribou biology, management and habitat planning, implementing interim habitat management prescriptions and studying the potential impact on wood supply. The final direction for a northwestern Ontario strategy to conserve woodland caribou habitat has yet to be decided, although a commitment has been made to strive for the conservation of woodland caribou populations and their habitat.

  17. Movement is the glue connecting home ranges and habitat selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Moorter, Bram; Rolandsen, Christer M; Basille, Mathieu; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Animal space use has been studied by focusing either on geographic (e.g. home ranges, species' distribution) or on environmental (e.g. habitat use and selection) space. However, all patterns of space use emerge from individual movements, which are the primary means by which animals change their environment. Individuals increase their use of a given area by adjusting two key movement components: the duration of their visit and/or the frequency of revisits. Thus, in spatially heterogeneous environments, animals exploit known, high-quality resource areas by increasing their residence time (RT) in and/or decreasing their time to return (TtoR) to these areas. We expected that spatial variation in these two movement properties should lead to observed patterns of space use in both geographic and environmental spaces. We derived a set of nine predictions linking spatial distribution of movement properties to emerging space-use patterns. We predicted that, at a given scale, high variation in RT and TtoR among habitats leads to strong habitat selection and that long RT and short TtoR result in a small home range size. We tested these predictions using moose (Alces alces) GPS tracking data. We first modelled the relationship between landscape characteristics and movement properties. Then, we investigated how the spatial distribution of predicted movement properties (i.e. spatial autocorrelation, mean, and variance of RT and TtoR) influences home range size and hierarchical habitat selection. In landscapes with high spatial autocorrelation of RT and TtoR, a high variation in both RT and TtoR occurred in home ranges. As expected, home range location was highly selective in such landscapes (i.e. second-order habitat selection); RT was higher and TtoR lower within the selected home range than outside, and moose home ranges were small. Within home ranges, a higher variation in both RT and TtoR was associated with higher selectivity among habitat types (i.e. third-order habitat

  18. Estimating the per-capita contribution of habitats and pathways in a migratory network: A modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Runge, Michael C.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Erickson, Richard A.; Federico, Paula; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Fryxell, John; Norris, D. Ryan; Sample, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Every year, migratory species undertake seasonal movements along different pathways between discrete regions and habitats. The ability to assess the relative demographic contributions of these different habitats and pathways to the species’ overall population dynamics is critical for understanding the ecology of migratory species, and also has practical applications for management and conservation. Metrics for assessing habitat contributions have been well-developed for metapopulations, but an equivalent metric is not currently available for migratory populations. Here, we develop a framework for estimating the demographic contributions of the discrete habitats and pathways used by migratory species throughout the annual cycle by estimating the per capita contribution of cohorts using these locations. Our framework accounts for seasonal movements between multiple breeding and non-breeding habitats and for both resident and migratory cohorts. We illustrate our framework using a hypothetical migratory network of four habitats, which allows us to better understand how variations in habitat quality affect per capita contributions. Results indicate that per capita contributions for any habitat or pathway are dependent on habitat-specific survival probabilities in all other areas used as part of the migratory circuit, and that contribution metrics are spatially linked (e.g. reduced survival in one habitat also decreases the contribution metric for other habitats). Our framework expands existing theory on the dynamics of spatiotemporally structured populations by developing a generalized approach to estimate the habitat- and pathway-specific contributions of species migrating between multiple breeding and multiple non-breeding habitats for a range of life histories or migratory strategies. Most importantly, it provides a means of prioritizing conservation efforts towards those migratory pathways and habitats that are most critical for the population viability of

  19. Duck Valley Habitat Enhancement and Protection, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, Guy; Pero, Vincent (Shoshone-Paiute Nation, Duck Valley Indian Reservation, Owyhee, NV)

    2000-01-01

    The Duck Valley Indian Reservations' Habitat Enhancement project is an ongoing project designed to enhance and protect the critical riparian areas, natural springs, and native fish spawning areas on the Reservation. The project was begun in 1997 with the hiring of a fisheries biologist and the creation of a new department for the Tribes. The project's goals are to protect and enhance the springs, Owyhee River, its tributaries, and to develop a database that can be used by other fisheries professionals which includes information on water quality and fish composition, health, abundance, and genetic makeup. One habitat portion of the project is a focus on protection the numerous springs that provide clean, cool water to the Owyhee River. This will be accomplished through enclosure fences of the spring heads and water troughs to provide clean cool drinking water for wildlife and livestock. Another habitat portion of the project involves protecting headwater areas of streams with native fish populations. This is accomplished through enclosure fencing and riparian plantings on any eroded or degraded banks in the enclosure area. Finally, we monitor and evaluate the areas protected and enhanced. This is accomplished through biological sampling for temperature, Oxygen, sedimentation, and measurements of water depth, bank height and undercut, and width of stream. With the habitat and biological indices we will be able to evaluate how well protective measures are doing, and where to focus future efforts.

  20. A modern landscape ecology of Black-tailed Godwits: habitat selection in southwest Friesland, The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Groen, N.M.; Kentie, R.; de Goeij, P.; Verheijen, B.; Hooijmeijer, J.C.E.W.; Piersma, T.

    2012-01-01

    For a long time, agricultural areas had considerable ornithological value, an ecological richness which in The Netherlands was epitomised by the term 'meadow birds'. However, over the last half century, agricultural intensification has negatively affected the quality of meadow bird habitats. Here we provide a quantitative characterization of agricultural habitats and their use by Black-tailed Godwits Limosa I. limosa in the south-western part of the province of Friesland, The Netherlands, in ...

  1. Thermal modelling using discrete vasculature for thermal therapy: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, H. Petra; Gellermann, Johanna; van den Berg, Cornelis A. T.; Stauffer, Paul R.; Hand, Jeffrey W.; Crezee, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Reliable temperature information during clinical hyperthermia and thermal ablation is essential for adequate treatment control, but conventional temperature measurements do not provide 3D temperature information. Treatment planning is a very useful tool to improve treatment quality, and substantial

  2. Habitat-effectiveness index for elk on Blue Mountain Winter Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Ward Thomas; Donavin A. Leckenby; Mark Henjum; Richard J. Pedersen; Larry D. Bryant

    1988-01-01

    An elk-habitat evaluation procedure for winter ranges in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon and Washington is described. The index is based on an interaction of size and spacing of cover and forage areas, roads open to traffic per unit of area, cover quality, and quantity and quality of forage.

  3. The effects of aquifer thermal energy storage on groundwater quality and the consequences for drinking water production: A case study from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonte, M.; van der Berg, G.; Stuijfzand, P.J.; Boukes, H.

    2011-01-01

    We used data from an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system located 570 m from a public water supply well field in the south of the Netherlands to investigate the relation between production of renewable energy with an ATES system and the production of drinking water. The data show that the

  4. Supplementary feeding with thermally treated cereals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) pond farming and its effects on water quality, nutrient budget and zooplankton and zoobenthos assemblages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváč, D.; Anton-Pardo, M.; Másílko, J.; Hartman, P.; Regenda, J.; Vejsada, P.; Baxa, M.; Pechar, L.; Valentová, O.; Všetičková, Lucie; Drozd, B.; Adámek, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2016), s. 1681-1697 ISSN 0967-6120 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Common carp * Nutrient budget * Supplementary feeding * Thermally treated cereals Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.095, year: 2016

  5. Comparing equivalent thermal, high pressure and pulsed electric field processes for mild pasteurization of orange juice: Part II: Impact on specific chemical and biochemical quality parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, L.; Plancken, van der I.; Grauwet, T.; Timmermans, R.A.H.; Mastwijk, H.C.; Matser, A.M.; Hendrickx, M.E.; Loey, van A.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of thermal, high pressure (HP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing for mild pasteurization of orange juice was compared on a fair basis, using processing conditions leading to an equivalent degree of microbial inactivation. Examining the effect on specific chemical and biochemical

  6. Relevance of multiple spatial scales in habitat models: A case study with amphibians and grasshoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmoos, Michael; Henle, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    Habitat models for animal species are important tools in conservation planning. We assessed the need to consider several scales in a case study for three amphibian and two grasshopper species in the post-mining landscapes near Leipzig (Germany). The two species groups were selected because habitat analyses for grasshoppers are usually conducted on one scale only whereas amphibians are thought to depend on more than one spatial scale. First, we analysed how the preference to single habitat variables changed across nested scales. Most environmental variables were only significant for a habitat model on one or two scales, with the smallest scale being particularly important. On larger scales, other variables became significant, which cannot be recognized on lower scales. Similar preferences across scales occurred in only 13 out of 79 cases and in 3 out of 79 cases the preference and avoidance for the same variable were even reversed among scales. Second, we developed habitat models by using a logistic regression on every scale and for all combinations of scales and analysed how the quality of habitat models changed with the scales considered. To achieve a sufficient accuracy of the habitat models with a minimum number of variables, at least two scales were required for all species except for Bufo viridis, for which a single scale, the microscale, was sufficient. Only for the European tree frog ( Hyla arborea), at least three scales were required. The results indicate that the quality of habitat models increases with the number of surveyed variables and with the number of scales, but costs increase too. Searching for simplifications in multi-scaled habitat models, we suggest that 2 or 3 scales should be a suitable trade-off, when attempting to define a suitable microscale.

  7. Stream network geomorphology mediates predicted vulnerability of anadromous fish habitat to hydrologic change in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Matthew R; Reeves, Gordon H; Christiansen, Kelly R

    2017-02-01

    In rivers supporting Pacific salmon in southeast Alaska, USA, regional trends toward a warmer, wetter climate are predicted to increase mid- and late-21st-century mean annual flood size by 17% and 28%, respectively. Increased flood size could alter stream habitats used by Pacific salmon for reproduction, with negative consequences for the substantial economic, cultural, and ecosystem services these fish provide. We combined field measurements and model simulations to estimate the potential influence of future flood disturbance on geomorphic processes controlling the quality and extent of coho, chum, and pink salmon spawning habitat in over 800 southeast Alaska watersheds. Spawning habitat responses varied widely across watersheds and among salmon species. Little variation among watersheds in potential spawning habitat change was explained by predicted increases in mean annual flood size. Watershed response diversity was mediated primarily by topographic controls on stream channel confinement, reach-scale geomorphic associations with spawning habitat preferences, and complexity in the pace and mode of geomorphic channel responses to altered flood size. Potential spawning habitat loss was highest for coho salmon, which spawn over a wide range of geomorphic settings, including steeper, confined stream reaches that are more susceptible to streambed scour during high flows. We estimated that 9-10% and 13-16% of the spawning habitat for coho salmon could be lost by the 2040s and 2080s, respectively, with losses occurring primarily in confined, higher-gradient streams that provide only moderate-quality habitat. Estimated effects were lower for pink and chum salmon, which primarily spawn in unconfined floodplain streams. Our results illustrate the importance of accounting for valley and reach-scale geomorphic features in watershed assessments of climate vulnerability, especially in topographically complex regions. Failure to consider the geomorphic context of stream

  8. Study and implementation of a thermal acceleration test for the improvement of the quality and reliability of components and systems; Estudo e implementacao de um teste de aceleracao termica para a melhoria da qualidade e confiabilidade de componentes e sistemas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Felippe Carneiro

    1993-09-01

    The objective of this work is to introduce the application of the burn-in test (test of thermal acceleration) in electronic products, using the practical example of this test in a power supply and to do an analysis of the application of this test in a production line showing the advantages and disadvantages of its implementation. For that it is made an abbreviation presentation of the basic concepts of quality and reliability. Starting from these concepts are presented the statistical models used in reliability, that describe the behavior of life of products and components. Besides showing, from the speed chemical reaction model , the influence of the temperature about this reliability.

  9. The effects of wetland habitat structure on Florida apple snail density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, L.B.; Darby, P.C.; Bennetts, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    Wetlands often support a variety of juxtaposed habitat patches (e.g., grass-, shrub- or tree-dominated) differentially suited to support the inhabiting fauna. The proportion of available habitat types has been affected by human activity and consequently has contributed to degrading habitat quality for some species. The Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) has drawn attention as a critical prey item for wetlands wildlife and as an indicator of wetlands restoration success in peninsular Florida, USA. An apparent contradiction has evolved wherein this species appears intolerant of drying events, but these disturbances may be necessary to maintain suitable habitat structure for apple snails. We recently reported that assertions regarding intolerance to dry downs in this species were inaccurate. Here, we compared snail density in habitats with (wet prairie) and without (slough) emergent macrophytes, as well as evaluating the effects of structural attributes within the broad wet prairie habitat type. Snail densities were greater in prairies relative to sloughs (??2=