Sample records for thermal gradients

  1. Thermal gradient analysis of solidifying casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Suchoń


    Full Text Available For description of casting solidification and crystallization process the thermal derivative analysis (TDA is commonly used. Besides the process kinetics considered in TDA method to describe the solidification process, the thermal gradient analysis can be also used for this purpose [1, 2]. In conducted studies analysis of thermal gradient distribution inside the solidifying wedge casting was shown which enabled determination of heat flow intensity on casting section.

  2. Method of thermal derivative gradient analysis (TDGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cholewa


    Full Text Available In this work a concept of thermal analysis was shown, using for crystallization kinetics description the temperature derivatives after time and direction. Method of thermal derivative gradient analysis (TDGA is assigned for alloys and metals investigation as well as cast composites in range of solidification. The construction and operation characteristics were presented for the test stand including processing modules and probes together with thermocouples location. Authors presented examples of results interpretation for AlSi11 alloy castings with diversified wall thickness and at different pouring temperature.

  3. Fracture driven by a Thermal Gradient

    CERN Document Server

    Pla, O


    Motivated by recent experiments by Yuse and Sano (Nature, 362, 329 (1993)), we propose a discrete model of linear springs for studying fracture in thin and elastically isotropic brittle films. The method enables us to draw a map of the stresses in the material. Cracks generated by the model, imposing a moving thermal gradient in the material, can branch or wiggle depending on the driving parameters. The results may be used to compare with other recent theoretical work, or to design future experiments.

  4. High-thermal-gradient Superalloy Crystal Growth (United States)

    Pearson, D. D.; Anton, D. L.; Giamei, A. F.


    Single, (001)-oriented crystals of PWA 1480 were processed in alumina/silica shell molds in a laboratory high gradient furnace. The furnace employs a graphite resistance heated element, a radiation baffle, and a water cooled radiation trap below the baffle. All crystals were grown in vacuum (10 torr) and all heat transfer was radiative. The element is constructed with a variable cross section that is tapered just above the baffle to maximize heat input and therefore thermal gradient. A maximum alloy temperature of 1600 C was used. A thermal gradient of 130 deg C/cm was recorded at 1370 C just above the solidus of the PWA 1480 alloys. Crystal bars with 14.4 and 17.5 mm diameters were grown in alumina/silica shell molds. Each crystal was started from a 1.6 mm pencil seed at a rate of 76 mm/hr and slowly accelerated to a rate of 200 mm/hr under computer control. Volume percent porosity and average pore size were measured as functions of distance in representative bars. Low cycle fatigue behavior and stress rupture properties were determined.

  5. Electron transfer across a thermal gradient. (United States)

    Craven, Galen T; Nitzan, Abraham


    Charge transfer is a fundamental process that underlies a multitude of phenomena in chemistry and biology. Recent advances in observing and manipulating charge and heat transport at the nanoscale, and recently developed techniques for monitoring temperature at high temporal and spatial resolution, imply the need for considering electron transfer across thermal gradients. Here, a theory is developed for the rate of electron transfer and the associated heat transport between donor-acceptor pairs located at sites of different temperatures. To this end, through application of a generalized multidimensional transition state theory, the traditional Arrhenius picture of activation energy as a single point on a free energy surface is replaced with a bithermal property that is derived from statistical weighting over all configurations where the reactant and product states are equienergetic. The flow of energy associated with the electron transfer process is also examined, leading to relations between the rate of heat exchange among the donor and acceptor sites as functions of the temperature difference and the electronic driving bias. In particular, we find that an open electron transfer channel contributes to enhanced heat transport between sites even when they are in electronic equilibrium. The presented results provide a unified theory for charge transport and the associated heat conduction between sites at different temperatures.

  6. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Adam Szybinski


    The Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area is located near the eastern edge of the Sonoma Range and is positioned within the structurally complex Winnemucca fold and thrust belt of north-central Nevada. A series of approximately north-northeast-striking faults related to the Basin and Range tectonics are superimposed on the earlier structures within the project area, and are responsible for the final overall geometry and distribution of the pre-existing structural features on the property. Two of these faults, the Pumpernickel Valley fault and Edna Mountain fault, are range-bounding and display numerous characteristics typical of strike-slip fault systems. These characteristics, when combined with geophysical data from Shore (2005), indicate the presence of a pull-apart basin, formed within the releasing bend of the Pumpernickel Valley – Edna Mountain fault system. A substantial body of evidence exists, in the form of available geothermal, geological and geophysical information, to suggest that the property and the pull-apart basin host a structurally controlled, extensive geothermal field. The most evident manifestations of the geothermal activity in the valley are two areas with hot springs, seepages, and wet ground/vegetation anomalies near the Pumpernickel Valley fault, which indicate that the fault focuses the fluid up-flow. There has not been any geothermal production from the Pumpernickel Valley area, but it was the focus of a limited exploration effort by Magma Power Company. In 1974, the company drilled one exploration/temperature gradient borehole east of the Pumpernickel Valley fault and recorded a thermal gradient of 160oC/km. The 1982 temperature data from five unrelated mineral exploration holes to the north of the Magma well indicated geothermal gradients in a range from 66 to 249oC/km for wells west of the fault, and ~283oC/km in a well next to the fault. In 2005, Nevada Geothermal Power Company drilled four geothermal gradient wells, PVTG-1

  7. Brine migration in salt in a thermal gradient (United States)

    Kang, M.; Lerche, M.; Lesher, C. E.


    Salt deposits have long been considered viable repositories for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. However, brine trapped in salt tends to migrate up thermal gradients, such as can develop around radioactive waste storage containers, potentially promoting corrosion of containment structures. Brine inclusions move up the temperature gradient through the three main steps: 1) the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the inclusion caused by increased salt solubility, 2) ordinary and thermal diffusion of dissolved salt ions within the inclusion, and 3) precipitation of salt at the cold side of the inclusion due to local supersaturation. This process of brine transport through salt under a thermal gradient is generally referred to as thermal migration. Here we investigated thermal migration of brine inclusion in salts for a wide range of mean temperatures (~ 50 °C to ~200 °C) and temperature gradients (~ 10 °C/cm to ~57 °C/cm). With time brine inclusions moving towards the heat source become elongated parallel to the thermal gradient. We quantified the rate of brine migration as a function of mean temperature and thermal gradient using time-lapse optical microscope. X -ray and neutron tomography were used to visualize and quantify 3D spatial distribution of brine inclusion in a salt crystal at different stages of thermal migration. Migration velocities are shown to increase with temperature, temperature gradient and size of inclusion. We find an abrupt increase in migration velocity at certain time steps of thermal migration. Migration velocities of brine inclusions ranged from 0.1 m/year to 30.7 m/year. Empirical equations at different velocity regions for brine inclusions were obtained by fitting exponential equations to the experimental data with high coefficient of determination values (R2> 0.94).The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical migration rates obtained using a previous analytical model.

  8. TIGER: Development of Thermal Gradient Compensation Algorithms and Techniques (United States)

    Hereford, James; Parker, Peter A.; Rhew, Ray D.


    In a wind tunnel facility, the direct measurement of forces and moments induced on the model are performed by a force measurement balance. The measurement balance is a precision-machined device that has strain gages at strategic locations to measure the strain (i.e., deformations) due to applied forces and moments. The strain gages convert the strain (and hence the applied force) to an electrical voltage that is measured by external instruments. To address the problem of thermal gradients on the force measurement balance NASA-LaRC has initiated a research program called TIGER - Thermally-Induced Gradients Effects Research. The ultimate goals of the TIGER program are to: (a) understand the physics of the thermally-induced strain and its subsequent impact on load measurements and (b) develop a robust thermal gradient compensation technique. This paper will discuss the impact of thermal gradients on force measurement balances, specific aspects of the TIGER program (the design of a special-purpose balance, data acquisition and data analysis challenges), and give an overall summary.

  9. Infrared scanners detect thermal gradients in building walls (United States)

    Kantsios, A. G.


    Presents study on ability of infrared scanner used to detect thermal gradients in outside walls of two homes in Virginia Beach, Virginia under joint effort of Langley Research Center, Virginia Energy Office and Virginia Beach Energy Conservation Pilot Project. Details how study can be used to help minimize energy loss.

  10. Infrared characterization of thermal gradients on disc brakes (United States)

    Panier, Stephane; Dufrenoy, Philippe; Bremond, Pierre


    The heat generated in frictional organs like brakes and clutches induces thermal distortions which may lead to localized contact areas and hot spots developments. Hot spots are high thermal gradients on the rubbing surface. They count among the most dangerous phenomena in frictional organs leading to damage, early failure and unacceptable braking performances such as brake fade or undesirable low frequency vibrations called hot judder. In this paper, an experimental study of hot spots occurrence in railway disc brakes is reported on. The aim of this study was to better classify and to explain the thermal gradients appearance on the surface of the disc. Thermograph measurements with an infrared camera have been carried out on the rubbing surface of brake discs on a full-scale test bench. The infrared system was set to take temperature readings in snap shot mode precisely synchronized with the rotation of the disc. Very short integration time allows reducing drastically haziness of thermal images. Based on thermographs, a classification of hot-spots observed in disc brakes is proposed. A detailed investigation of the most damaging thermal gradients, called macroscopic hot spots (MHS) is given. From these experimental researches, a scenario of hot spots occurrence is suggested step by step. Thanks to infrared measurements at high frequency with high resolution, observations give new highlights on the conditions of hot spots appearance. Comparison of the experimental observations with the theoretical approaches is finally discussed.

  11. Thermal gradients in Southwestern United States and the effect on bridge bearing loads : final report. (United States)


    Thermal gradients became a component of bridge design after soffit cracking in prestressed concrete bridges was attributed to nonlinear temperature distribution through the depth of the bridge. While the effect of thermal gradient on stress distribut...

  12. Unique Crystal Orientation of Poly(ethylene oxide) Thin Films by Crystallization Using a Thermal Gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gbabode, Gabin; Delvaux, Maxime; Schweicher, Guillaume


    thermal gradient technique. Millimeter-size domains with crystallites uniformly, oriented in the direction of the thermal gradient are observed. Futhermore, the crystallites size and :orientation distribution are enhanced (e.g., increases and decreases, respectively) when film thickness is decreased......, to significantly decrease the distribution of crystal orientation obtained after crystallization using the thermal gradient technique....

  13. Convection induced by thermal gradients on thin reaction fronts (United States)

    Ruelas Paredes, David R. A.; Vasquez, Desiderio A.


    We present a thin front model for the propagation of chemical reaction fronts in liquids inside a Hele-Shaw cell or porous media. In this model we take into account density gradients due to thermal and compositional changes across a thin interface. The front separating reacted from unreacted fluids evolves following an eikonal relation between the normal speed and the curvature. We carry out a linear stability analysis of convectionless flat fronts confined in a two-dimensional rectangular domain. We find that all fronts are stable to perturbations of short wavelength, but they become unstable for some wavelengths depending on the values of compositional and thermal gradients. If the effects of these gradients oppose each other, we observe a range of wavelengths that make the flat front unstable. Numerical solutions of the nonlinear model show curved fronts of steady shape with convection propagating faster than flat fronts. Exothermic fronts increase the temperature of the fluid as they propagate through the domain. This increment in temperature decreases with increasing speed.

  14. Thermal singularity and droplet motion in one-component fluids on solid substrates with thermal gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng


    Using a continuum model capable of describing the one-component liquid-gas hydrodynamics down to the contact line scale, we carry out numerical simulation and physical analysis for the droplet motion driven by thermal singularity. For liquid droplets in one-component fluids on heated or cooled substrates, the liquid-gas interface is nearly isothermal. Consequently, a thermal singularity occurs at the contact line and the Marangoni effect due to temperature gradient is suppressed. Through evaporation or condensation in the vicinity of the contact line, the thermal singularity makes the contact angle increase with the increasing substrate temperature. This effect on the contact angle can be used to move the droplets on substrates with thermal gradients. Our numerical results for this kind of droplet motion are explained by a simple fluid dynamical model at the droplet length scale. Since the mechanism for droplet motion is based on the change of contact angle, a separation of length scales is exhibited through a comparison between the droplet motion induced by a wettability gradient and that by a thermal gradient. It is shown that the flow field at the droplet length scale is independent of the statics or dynamics at the contact line scale.

  15. Fire exposed steel columns with a thermal gradient over the cross-section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojeda, O.D.; Maljaars, J.; Abspoel, R.


    Thermal gradients often occur in fire exposed structures. This paper considers thermal gradients over the cross-section of steel columns. By means of finite element simulations, the paper demonstrates that these gradients reduce the fiexural buckling resistance of the columns. This is due to the

  16. Coherent gradient sensing method for measuring thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Ma


    Full Text Available Coherent gradient sensing (CGS method can be used to measure the slope of a reflective surface, and has the merits of full-field, non-contact, and real-time measurement. In this study, the thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating (TBC structures is measured by CGS method. Two kinds of powders were sprayed onto Ni-based alloy using a plasma spraying method to obtain two groups of film–substrate specimens. The specimens were then heated with an oxy-acetylene flame. The resulting thermal mismatch between the film and substrate led to out-of-plane deformation of the specimen. The deformation was measured by the reflective CGS method and the thermal stress field of the structure was obtained through calibration with the help of finite element analysis. Both the experiment and numerical results showed that the thermal stress field of TBC structures can be successfully measured by CGS method.

  17. Finite-element modeling of thermal gradients during non-local thermal spin injection (United States)

    Yang, Zihao; Giles, Brandon; Jamison, John; Myers, Roberto

    A new spin Seebeck experiment has been demonstrated, in which a laser is focused on an electrically isolated Pt absorbing pad on yttrium iron garnet (YIG), thermally generating a spin current in YIG. The spins diffuse laterally and are detected non-locally on a remote Pt detector via the inverse spin Hall effect (VISHEnon - local) . This geometry is expected to remove parasitic thermal transport voltages unrelated to the magnonic spin current that could contaminate VISHEnon - local . To validate this, 3D steady-state heat conduction equations are solved to determine the stray temperature gradient at the Pt detector as a function of distance from the laser heating source. We find that the temperature gradient beneath the Pt detector vanishes when the laser is laterally displaced (along x) by 50 μm. The gradient along the interface normal follows ∇Tz (x) ~e - 1 . 76 x and the gradient parallel to the interface follows ∇Tx (x) ~e - 0 . 08 x . Both gradients decay much faster than the measured VISHEnon - local (x) ~e - 0 . 025 x demonstrating the validity of the non-local geometry in probing laterally diffused spin. This work is supported by ARO-MURI W911NF-14-1-0016.

  18. Product differentiation during continuous-flow thermal gradient PCR. (United States)

    Crews, Niel; Wittwer, Carl; Palais, Robert; Gale, Bruce


    A continuous-flow PCR microfluidic device was developed in which the target DNA product can be detected and identified during its amplification. This in situ characterization potentially eliminates the requirement for further post-PCR analysis. Multiple small targets have been amplified from human genomic DNA, having sizes of 108, 122, and 134 bp. With a DNA dye in the PCR mixture, the amplification and unique melting behavior of each sample is observed from a single fluorescent image. The melting behavior of the amplifying DNA, which depends on its molecular composition, occurs spatially in the thermal gradient PCR device, and can be observed with an optical resolution of 0.1 degrees C pixel(-1). Since many PCR cycles are within the field of view of the CCD camera, melting analysis can be performed at any cycle that contains a significant quantity of amplicon, thereby eliminating the cycle-selection challenges typically associated with continuous-flow PCR microfluidics.

  19. Competition between the Thermal Gradient and the Bimorph Effect in Locally Heated MEMS Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Claus; Mølhave, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders


    We have investigated the influence of thermal gradient effects in inhomogeneously heated MEMS/NEMS. The actuation perturbations caused by thermal gradients have been studied through static optothermal actuation experiments of a bi-material polymer based cantilever and supported by finite element...... modeling. As a result, bidirectional bending has been experimentally observed and interpreted as the competition between bimorph and thermal gradient effects. The competition has illustrated the importance of including the thermal gradient effect in the behavior analysis of bimorph driven MEMS/NEMS devices....

  20. Radiation, Thermal Gradient and Weight: a threefold dilemma for PLATO (United States)

    Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Bruno, Giordano; Piazza, Daniele; Borsa, Francesco; Ghigo, Mauro; Mogulsky, Valery; Bergomi, Maria; Biondi, Federico; Chinellato, Simonetta; Dima, Marco; Farinato, Jacopo; Greggio, Davide; Gullieuszik, Marco; Marafatto, Luca; Viotto, Valentina; Munari, Matteo; Pagano, Isabella; Sicilia, Daniela; Basso, Stefano; Spiga, Daniele; Bandy, Timothy; Brändli, Mathias; Benz, Willy; De Roche, Thierry; Rieder, Martin; Brandeker, Alexis; Klebor, Maximilian; Schweitzer, Mario; Wieser, Matthias; Erikson, Anders; Rauer, Heike


    The project PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars (PLATO) is one of the selected medium class (M class) missions in the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The mean scientific goal of PLATO is the discovery and study of extrasolar planetary systems by means of planetary transits detection. The opto mechanical subsystem of the payload is made of 32 normal telescope optical units (N-TOUs) and 2 fast telescope optical units (FTOUs). The optical configuration of each TOU is an all refractive design based on six properly optimized lenses. In the current baseline, in front of each TOU a Suprasil window is foreseen. The main purposes of the entrance window are to shield the following lenses from possible damaging high energy radiation and to mitigate the thermal gradient that the first optical element will experience during the launch from ground to space environment. In contrast, the presence of the window increases the overall mass by a non-negligible quantity. We describe here the radiation and thermal analysis and their impact on the quality and risks assessment, summarizing the trade-off process with pro and cons on having or dropping the entrance window in the optical train.

  1. Thermal fatigue issues in high-gradient particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Heikkinen, Samuli Tapio; Neupert, Holger


    The CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) is being studied at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) as a possible future high-energy (0.5-5 TeV centre-of-mass) physics facility. The current aim of the CLIC Study Team is to demonstrate the key feasibility issues before 2010. CLIC will be about 33 kilometers long and will be buried 100 meters underground. The main linac of CLIC consists of accelerating structures with the following demanding performance requirements: accelerating gradients of about 150 MV/m, power flows of about 200 MW, 1-2 ìm dimensional tolerances, an optical-quality surface finish and ultimately a low mass production cost. About 80% of CLIC's 33 kilometer length will be filled with main beam accelerating structures, which will require of the order of ten thousand tons of raw material and millions of individual parts. One of the main limiting factors of the main linac accelerating structures is the thermal fatigue due to the pulsed surface heating. The accelerating RFpower pulses heat u...

  2. Thermal characterization of organic matter along a (hypothetical) coalification gradient (United States)

    Cavallo, Ornella; Provenzano, Maria Rosaria; Zaccone, Claudio


    Geochemical transformations of organic carbon (C) in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are important starting points for genesis of peats, brown coals and other coal precursors. The humification process plays a key role in biogeochemical transformations of organic C and, as a result, in the first stages of coal precursors formation. Thermal analysis was used by Schnitzer and other scientists since 1950-1960s, in order to investigate the stability of several organic materials of industrial value including peat and coal. What soil scientists found was the general occurrence of two exothermic peaks (exotherm 1 and 2) due to decomposition and combustion reactions of organic compounds having different thermal stability and, consequently, different degree of humification. Thermogravimetric analysis (TG) was carried out on different samples reproducing a "hypothetical" coalification gradient as follows: peat (IHSS Pahokee peat standard), fulvic acid (FA), a peat humic acid (HA), leonardite (IHSS Gascoyne standard) and charcoal. An aliquot of about 20 mg of each sample was heated in a ceramic crucible from 50 to 850˚ C at 30˚ C min-1, at a gas flow rate of 30 mL min-1 using a PerkinElmer TGA4000 thermobalance. Samples were analysed both under nitrogen and under synthetic air. All analyses were carried out in triplicate and the average coefficient of variation was exothermic mass loss has occurred (TG-T50) was also calculated. Preliminary results obtained from TG analysis under air showed that WL2/WL1 ratio was lower for the FA sample and higher for leonardite and charcoal, following the order FAthermal degradation was obtained, with HF and HA showing a lower WL2/WL1 ratio (HF

  3. Influence of pouring temperature on a thermal gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Suchoń


    Full Text Available In the thesis there are presented results of computer simulation of casting solidification process, characteristics of solidification rate in several points as well as course of gradient change between these points. Based on the obtained results, an influence of initial conditions on temperature gradient during the solidification process was determined.

  4. Evidence of counter-gradient growth in western pond turtles (Actinemys marmorata) across thermal gradients (United States)

    Snover, Melissa; Adams, Michael J.; Ashton, Donald T.; Bettaso, Jamie B.; Welsh, Hartwell H.


    Counter-gradient growth, where growth per unit temperature increases as temperature decreases, can reduce the variation in ectothermic growth rates across environmental gradients. Understanding how ectothermic species respond to changing temperatures is essential to their conservation and management due to human-altered habitats and changing climates.

  5. Surface Tension Gradients Induced by Temperature: The Thermal Marangoni Effect (United States)

    Gugliotti, Marcos; Baptisto, Mauricio S.; Politi, Mario J.


    Surface tensions gradients were generated in a thin liquid film because of the local increase in temperature, for demonstration purposes. This is performed using a simple experiment and allows different alternatives for heat generation to be used.

  6. Divergence of thermal physiological traits in terrestrial breeding frogs along a tropical elevational gradient. (United States)

    von May, Rudolf; Catenazzi, Alessandro; Corl, Ammon; Santa-Cruz, Roy; Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Moritz, Craig


    Critical thermal limits are thought to be correlated with the elevational distribution of species living in tropical montane regions, but with upper limits being relatively invariant compared to lower limits. To test this hypothesis, we examined the variation of thermal physiological traits in a group of terrestrial breeding frogs (Craugastoridae) distributed along a tropical elevational gradient. We measured the critical thermal maximum (CT max; n = 22 species) and critical thermal minimum (CT min; n = 14 species) of frogs captured between the Amazon floodplain (250 m asl) and the high Andes (3,800 m asl). After inferring a multilocus species tree, we conducted a phylogenetically informed test of whether body size, body mass, and elevation contributed to the observed variation in CT max and CT min along the gradient. We also tested whether CT max and CT min exhibit different rates of change given that critical thermal limits (and their plasticity) may have evolved differently in response to different temperature constraints along the gradient. Variation of critical thermal traits was significantly correlated with species' elevational midpoint, their maximum and minimum elevations, as well as the maximum air temperature and the maximum operative temperature as measured across this gradient. Both thermal limits showed substantial variation, but CT min exhibited relatively faster rates of change than CT max, as observed in other taxa. Nonetheless, our findings call for caution in assuming inflexibility of upper thermal limits and underscore the value of collecting additional empirical data on species' thermal physiology across elevational gradients.

  7. Magneto-Seebeck effect in spin-valve with in-plane thermal gradient


    S. Jain; D. D. Lam; A. Bose; H. Sharma; V. R. Palkar; C. V. Tomy; Y. Suzuki; A. A. Tulapurkar


    We present measurements of magneto-Seebeck effect on a spin valve with in-plane thermal gradient. We measured open circuit voltage and short circuit current by applying a temperature gradient across a spin valve stack, where one of the ferromagnetic layers is pinned. We found a clear hysteresis in these two quantities as a function of magnetic field. From these measurements, the magneto-Seebeck effect was found to be same as magneto-resistance effect.

  8. Magneto-Seebeck effect in spin-valve with in-plane thermal gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jain


    Full Text Available We present measurements of magneto-Seebeck effect on a spin valve with in-plane thermal gradient. We measured open circuit voltage and short circuit current by applying a temperature gradient across a spin valve stack, where one of the ferromagnetic layers is pinned. We found a clear hysteresis in these two quantities as a function of magnetic field. From these measurements, the magneto-Seebeck effect was found to be same as magneto-resistance effect.

  9. Detection of thermal gradients through fiber-optic Chirped Fiber Bragg Grating (CFBG): Medical thermal ablation scenario (United States)

    Korganbayev, Sanzhar; Orazayev, Yerzhan; Sovetov, Sultan; Bazyl, Ali; Schena, Emiliano; Massaroni, Carlo; Gassino, Riccardo; Vallan, Alberto; Perrone, Guido; Saccomandi, Paola; Arturo Caponero, Michele; Palumbo, Giovanna; Campopiano, Stefania; Iadicicco, Agostino; Tosi, Daniele


    In this paper, we describe a novel method for spatially distributed temperature measurement with Chirped Fiber Bragg Grating (CFBG) fiber-optic sensors. The proposed method determines the thermal profile in the CFBG region from demodulation of the CFBG optical spectrum. The method is based on an iterative optimization that aims at minimizing the mismatch between the measured CFBG spectrum and a CFBG model based on coupled-mode theory (CMT), perturbed by a temperature gradient. In the demodulation part, we simulate different temperature distribution patterns with Monte-Carlo approach on simulated CFBG spectra. Afterwards, we obtain cost function that minimizes difference between measured and simulated spectra, and results in final temperature profile. Experiments and simulations have been carried out first with a linear gradient, demonstrating a correct operation (error 2.9 °C); then, a setup has been arranged to measure the temperature pattern on a 5-cm long section exposed to medical laser thermal ablation. Overall, the proposed method can operate as a real-time detection technique for thermal gradients over 1.5-5 cm regions, and turns as a key asset for the estimation of thermal gradients at the micro-scale in biomedical applications.

  10. Large concentration changes due to thermal diffusion effects in gas flow microsystems with temperature gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaade, Ulrich; Johannessen, Tue; Jensen, Søren

    Thermal diffusion, or Sorét diffusion, is shown to cause significant concentration changes and transients in gas flow microsystems with temperature gradients. In a silicon microsystem, a temperature gradient of about 100 oC/mm is measured to produce concentration transients of up to 13.......7 % in an argon/helium mixture, when the flow is abruptly changed from a high value to a low value. Finite element simulations of the thermal diffusion in a geometry similar to the experimental setup reproduce the measurements....


    We tested hatchling and yearling Florida red-bellied turtles (Pseudemys nelsoni) in laboratory thermal gradient chambers to determine if they would prefer particular temperatures. Most 1995 hatchlings selected the highest temperature zone of 27degrees C (Test 1) and 30 degrees ...

  12. Ocean thermal gradient as a generator of electricity. OTEC power plant (United States)

    Enrique, Luna-Gomez Victor; Angel, Alatorre-Mendieta Miguel


    The OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) is a power plant that uses the thermal gradient of the sea water between the surface and a depth of about 700 meters. It works by supplying the heat to a steam machine, for evaporation, with sea water from the surface and cold, to condense the steam, with deep sea water. The energy generated by the power plant OTEC can be transferred to the electric power grid, another use is to desalinate seawater. During the twentieth century in some countries experimental power plants to produce electricity or obtaining drinking water they were installed. On the Mexico's coast itself this thermal gradient, as it is located in tropical seas it occurs, so it has possibilities of installing OTEC power plant type. In this paper one type OTEC power plant operation is represented in most of its components.

  13. Dynamical and stationary critical behavior of the Ising ferromagnet in a thermal gradient (United States)

    Muglia, J.; Albano, E. V.


    In this paper we present and discuss results of Monte Carlo numerical simulations of the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet in contact with a heat bath that intrinsically has a thermal gradient. The extremes of the magnet are at temperatures T 1 Onsager critical temperature. In this way one can observe a phase transition between an ordered phase ( T T c ) by means of a single simulation. By starting the simulations with fully disordered initial configurations with magnetization m ≡ 0 corresponding to T = ∞, which are then suddenly annealed to a preset thermal gradient, we study the short-time critical dynamic behavior of the system. Also, by setting a small initial magnetization m = m 0, we study the critical initial increase of the order parameter. Furthermore, by starting the simulations from fully ordered configurations, which correspond to the ground state at T = 0 and are subsequently quenched to a preset gradient, we study the critical relaxation dynamics of the system. Additionally, we perform stationary measurements ( t → ∞) that are discussed in terms of the standard finite-size scaling theory. We conclude that our numerical simulation results of the Ising magnet in a thermal gradient, which are rationalized in terms of both dynamic and standard scaling arguments, are fully consistent with well established results obtained under equilibrium conditions.


    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng


    A continuum hydrodynamic model is presented for one-component liquid-gas flows on nonisothermal solid substrates. Numerical simulations are carried out for evaporative droplets moving on substrates with thermal gradients. For droplets in one-component fluids on heated/cooled substrates, the free liquid-gas interfaces are nearly isothermal. Consequently, a thermal singularity occurs at the contact line while the Marangoni effect due to interfacial temperature variation is suppressed. Through evaporation/condensation near the contact line, the thermal singularity makes the contact angle increase with the increasing substrate temperature. Due to this effect, droplets will move toward the cold end on substrates with thermal gradients. The droplet migration velocity is found to be proportional to the change of substrate temperature across the droplet. It follows that for two droplets of different sizes on a substrate with temperature gradient, the larger droplet moves faster and will catch up with the smaller droplet ahead. As soon as they touch, they coalesce rapidly into an even larger droplet that will move even faster. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  15. Impact of Trapped Flux and Thermal Gradients on the SRF Cavity Quality Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Kugeler, O; Knobloch, J; Aull, S


    The obtained Q0 value of a superconducting niobium cavity is known to depend on various factors like the RRR of the Niobium material, crystallinity, chemical treatment history, the high-pressure rinsing process, or effectiveness of the magnetic shielding. We have observed that spatial thermal gradients over the cavity length during cool-down appear to contribute to a degradation of Q0. Measurements were performed in the Horizontal Bi-Cavity Test Facility (HoBiCaT) at HZB on TESLA type cavities as well as on disc- and rod-shaped niobium samples equipped with thermal, electrical and magnetic diagnostics. Possible explanations for the effect are discussed.

  16. An Update on the Non-Mass-Dependent Isotope Fractionation under Thermal Gradient (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Niles, Paul; Bao, Huiming; Socki, Richard; Liu, Yun


    Mass flow and compositional gradient (elemental and isotope separation) occurs when flu-id(s) or gas(es) in an enclosure is subjected to a thermal gradient, and the phenomenon is named thermal diffusion. Gas phase thermal diffusion has been theoretically and experimentally studied for more than a century, although there has not been a satisfactory theory to date. Nevertheless, for isotopic system, the Chapman-Enskog theory predicts that the mass difference is the only term in the thermal diffusion separation factors that differs one isotope pair to another,with the assumptions that the molecules are spherical and systematic (monoatomic-like structure) and the particle collision is elastic. Our previous report indicates factors may be playing a role because the Non-Mass Dependent (NMD) effect is found for both symmetric and asymmetric, linear and spherical polyatomic molecules over a wide range of temperature (-196C to +237C). The observed NMD phenomenon in the simple thermal-diffusion experiments demands quantitative validation and theoretical explanation. Besides the pressure and temperature dependency illustrated in our previous reports, efforts are made in this study to address issues such as the role of convection or molecular structure and whether it is a transient, non-equilibrium effect only.

  17. Marangoni effects on a thin liquid film coating a sphere with axial or radial thermal gradients (United States)

    Kang, Di; Nadim, Ali; Chugunova, Marina


    We study the time evolution of a thin liquid film coating the outer surface of a sphere in the presence of gravity, surface tension, and thermal gradients. We derive the fourth-order nonlinear partial differential equation that models the thin film dynamics, including Marangoni terms arising from the dependence of surface tension σ on temperature T. We consider two different imposed temperature distributions with axial or radial thermal gradients. We analyze the stability of a uniform coating under small perturbations and carry out numerical simulations in COMSOL for a range of parameter values. In the case of an axial temperature gradient, we find steady states either with uniform film thickness or with the fluid accumulating at the bottom or near the top of the sphere, depending on the total volume of liquid in the film, dictating whether gravity or Marangoni effects dominate. This suggests a potential method for the indirect measurement of d σ /d T by monitoring the thickness profile of the thin film. In the case of a radial temperature gradient, a stability analysis reveals the most unstable non-axisymmetric modes on an initially uniform coating film.

  18. Study of a Liquid Plug-Flow Thermal Cycling Technique Using a Temperature Gradient-Based Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Fuchiwaki


    Full Text Available Easy-to-use thermal cycling for performing rapid and small-volume DNA amplification on a single chip has attracted great interest in the area of rapid field detection of biological agents. For this purpose, as a more practical alternative to conventional continuous flow thermal cycling, liquid plug-flow thermal cycling utilizes a thermal gradient generated in a serpentine rectangular flow microchannel as an actuator. The transit time and flow speed of the plug flow varied drastically in each temperature zone due to the difference in the tension at the interface between temperature gradients. According to thermal distribution analyses in microfluidics, the plug flow allowed for a slow heating process, but a fast cooling process. The thermal cycle of the microfluid was consistent with the recommended temperature gradient for PCR. Indeed, amplification efficiency of the plug flow was superior to continuous flow PCR, and provided an impressive improvement over previously-reported flow microchannel thermal cycling techniques.

  19. Geothermal potential of West-Central New Mexico from geochemical and thermal gradient data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitte, D.; Gambill, D.T.


    To study the low temperature and Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal potential of west-central New Mexico, 46 water samples were collected and geothermal gradient measurements were made in 29 wells. Water chemistry data indicate that all the samples collected are meteoric waters. High temperatures of samples taken from wells between Gallup and Tohatchi indicate these wells may derive water from a warm aquifer below the depth of the wells. The chemistries of the samples farther south on the Zuni Indian reservation suggest these waters are not circulating below 600 m of the surface. Geothermometry calculations support the conclusion that the waters sampled are meteoric. The geothermometry also indicates that the deep reservoir between Gallup and Tohatchi may be greater than 60/sup 0/C. Thermal gradient data indicate an area of high gradient on the Zuni Indian Reservation with a measured maximum of 67/sup 0/C/km between 181 m and 284 m. This high probably is not hydrologically controlled. The maximum gradients in the study area are 76/sup 0/C/km and 138/sup 0/C/km, measured just east of Springerville, Arizona. These gradients are undoubtedly controlled by circulating water, possibly heated by a magmatic source at depth and circulating back to the surface.

  20. Susceptibility to a metal under global warming is shaped by thermal adaptation along a latitudinal gradient. (United States)

    Dinh Van, Khuong; Janssens, Lizanne; Debecker, Sara; De Jonge, Maarten; Lambret, Philippe; Nilsson-Örtman, Viktor; Bervoets, Lieven; Stoks, Robby


    Global warming and contamination represent two major threats to biodiversity that have the potential to interact synergistically. There is the potential for gradual local thermal adaptation and dispersal to higher latitudes to mitigate the susceptibility of organisms to contaminants and global warming at high latitudes. Here, we applied a space-for-time substitution approach to study the thermal dependence of the susceptibility of Ischnura elegans damselfly larvae to zinc in a common garden warming experiment (20 and 24 °C) with replicated populations from three latitudes spanning >1500 km in Europe. We observed a striking latitude-specific effect of temperature on the zinc-induced mortality pattern; local thermal adaptation along the latitudinal gradient made Swedish, but not French, damselfly larvae more susceptible to zinc at 24 °C. Latitude- and temperature-specific differences in zinc susceptibility may be related to the amount of energy available to defend against and repair damage since Swedish larvae showed a much stronger zinc-induced reduction of food intake at 24 °C. The pattern of local thermal adaptation indicates that the predicted temperature increase of 4 °C by 2100 will strongly magnify the impact of a contaminant such as zinc at higher latitudes unless there is thermal evolution and/or migration of lower latitude genotypes. Our results underscore the critical importance of studying the susceptibility to contaminants under realistic warming scenarios taking into account local thermal adaptation across natural temperature gradients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The NTF Inlet Guide Vanes Thermal Gradient Problem and Its Mitigation (United States)

    Venkat, Venki S.; Paryz, Roman W.; Bissett, Owen W.; Kilgore, W.


    The National Transonic Facility (NTF) utilizes Inlet Guide Vanes (IGV) to provide precise, quick response Mach number control for the tunnel. During cryogenic operations, the massive IGV structure can experience large thermal gradients, measured as "Delta T or (Delta)T", between the IGV ring and its support structure called the transfer case. If these temperature gradients are too large, the IGV structure can be stressed beyond its safety limit and cease operation. In recent years, (Delta)T readings exceeding the prescribed safety limits were observed frequently during cryogenic operations, particularly during model access. The tactical operation methods of the tunnel to minimize (Delta)T did not always succeed. One obvious option to remedy this condition is to warm up the IGV structure by disabling the main drive operation, but this "natural" warm up method can takes days in some cases, resulting in productivity loss. This paper documents the thermal gradient problem associated with the IGV structure during cryogenic operation and how the facility has recently achieved an acceptable mitigation which has resulted in improved efficiency of operations.

  2. Calcium-Magnesium-Aluminosilicate (CMAS) Infiltration and Cyclic Degradations of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings in Thermal Gradients (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan; Smialek, Jim; Miller, Robert A.


    In a continuing effort to develop higher temperature capable turbine thermal barrier and environmental barrier coating systems, Calcium-Magnesium-Aluminosilicate (CMAS) resistance of the advanced coating systems needs to be evaluated and improved. This paper highlights some of NASA past high heat flux testing approaches for turbine thermal and environmental barrier coatings assessments in CMAS environments. One of our current emphases has been focused on the thermal barrier - environmental barrier coating composition and testing developments. The effort has included the CMAS infiltrations in high temperature and high heat flux turbine engine like conditions using advanced laser high heat flux rigs, and subsequently degradation studies in laser heat flux thermal gradient cyclic and isothermal furnace cyclic testing conditions. These heat flux CMAS infiltration and related coating durability testing are essential where appropriate CMAS melting, infiltration and coating-substrate temperature exposure temperature controls can be achieved, thus helping quantify the CMAS-coating interaction and degradation mechanisms. The CMAS work is also playing a critical role in advanced coating developments, by developing laboratory coating durability assessment methodologies in simulated turbine engine conditions and helping establish CMAS test standards in laboratory environments.

  3. Evaluating the coefficient of thermal expansion using time periods of minimal thermal gradient for a temperature driven structural health monitoring (United States)

    Reilly, J.; Abdel-Jaber, H.; Yarnold, M.; Glisic, B.


    Structural Health Monitoring aims to characterize the performance of a structure from a combination of recorded sensor data and analytic techniques. Many methods are concerned with quantifying the elastic response of the structure, treating temperature changes as noise in the analysis. While these elastic profiles do demonstrate a portion of structural behavior, thermal loads on a structure can induce comparable strains to elastic loads. Understanding this relationship between the temperature of the structure and the resultant strain and displacement can provide in depth knowledge of the structural condition. A necessary parameter for this form of analysis is the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE). The CTE of a material relates the amount of expansion or contraction a material undergoes per degree change in temperature, and can be determined from temperature-strain relationship given that the thermal strain can be isolated. Many times with concrete, the actual amount of expansion with temperature in situ varies from the given values for the CTE due to thermally generated elastic strain, which complicates evaluation of the CTE. To accurately characterize the relationship between temperature and strain on a structure, the actual thermal behavior of the structure needs to be analyzed. This rate can vary for different parts of a structure, depending on boundary conditions. In a case of unrestrained structures, the strain in the structure should be linearly related to the temperature change. Thermal gradients in a structure can affect this relationship, as they induce curvature and deplanations in the cross section. This paper proposes a method that addresses these challenges in evaluating the CTE.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations for the motion of evaporative droplets driven by thermal gradients along nanochannels

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Congmin


    For a one-component fluid on a solid substrate, a thermal singularity may occur at the contact line where the liquid-vapor interface intersects the solid surface. Physically, the liquid-vapor interface is almost isothermal at the liquid-vapor coexistence temperature in one-component fluids while the solid surface is almost isothermal for solids of high thermal conductivity. Therefore, a temperature discontinuity is formed if the two isothermal interfaces are of different temperatures and intersect at the contact line. This leads to the so-called thermal singularity. The localized hydrodynamics involving evaporation/condensation near the contact line leads to a contact angle depending on the underlying substrate temperature. This dependence has been shown to lead to the motion of liquid droplets on solid substrates with thermal gradients (Xu and Qian 2012 Phys. Rev. E 85 061603). In the present work, we carry out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as numerical experiments to further confirm the predictions made from our previous continuum hydrodynamic modeling and simulations, which are actually semi-quantitatively accurate down to the small length scales in the problem. Using MD simulations, we investigate the motion of evaporative droplets in one-component Lennard-Jones fluids confined in nanochannels with thermal gradients. The droplet is found to migrate in the direction of decreasing temperature of solid walls, with a migration velocity linearly proportional to the temperature gradient. This agrees with the prediction of our continuum model. We then measure the effect of droplet size on the droplet motion. It is found that the droplet mobility is inversely proportional to a dimensionless coefficient associated with the total rate of dissipation due to droplet movement. Our results show that this coefficient is of order unity and increases with the droplet size for the small droplets (∼10 nm) simulated in the present work. These findings are in semi

  5. Co-pumped 130 W monolithic single frequency fiber amplifier with an optically induced thermal gradient (United States)

    Zeringue, Clint; Vergien, Chris; Dajani, Iyad


    We present theoretical and experimental results of a 130 W continuous-wave (CW), single-frequency, 7 m, polarizationmaintaining (PM) Yb:doped fiber (25/400) μm amplifier simultaneously seeded with a combination of broadband and narrow-line signals. Experiments were performed for two thermal configurations and the SBS threshold of the doubly seeded amplifier is compared to the singly seeded case. In the first configuration, the fiber was wrapped around a cold spool held at 12° C to diminish thermally induced shifts in the acoustic resonance of the fiber, which is known to suppress stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). In this case, over 80 W of single-frequency output was obtained demonstrating an enhancement of 3 dB in the SBS threshold compared to the single-tone case whereby the SBS threshold was 40 W. In the second thermal configuration, 6 m of the fiber is wrapped around the same cold spool, but approximately 1 m of the fiber is left to cool in ambient conditions. In this case, an optically induced thermal gradient was formed due to the quantum defect heating associated with power transfer from the pump and broadband seed signals into the single-frequency signal at the output end of the fiber. Over 130 W of single-frequency output was demonstrated yielding an effective increase of ~5 dB in the SBS threshold when compared to the single-tone case.

  6. Thermal stratification patterns in urban ponds and their relationships with vertical nutrient gradients. (United States)

    Song, Keunyea; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A; Buttle, James M; Marsalek, Jiri; Wagner, Nicole D; Pick, Frances R; Frost, Paul C


    Ponds that collect and process stormwater have become a prominent feature of urban landscapes, especially in areas recently converted to residential land use in North America. Given their increasing number and their tight hydrological connection to residential catchments, these small aquatic ecosystems could play an important role in urban biogeochemistry. However, some physicochemical aspects of urban ponds remain poorly studied. Here we assessed the frequency and strength of water column stratification, using measurements of vertical water temperature profiles at high spatial and temporal frequency, in 10 shallow urban stormwater management ponds in southern Ontario, Canada. Many of the ponds were well stratified during much of the summer of 2010 as indicated by relatively high estimates of thermal resistance to mixing (RTRM) indices. Patterns of stratification reflected local weather conditions but also varied among ponds depending on their morphometric characteristics such as maximum water depth and surface area to perimeter ratio. We found greater vertical nutrient gradients and more phosphorus accumulation in bottom waters in ponds with strong and persistent stratification, which likely results from limited particle resuspension and more dissolved phosphorus (P) release from sediments. However, subsequent mixing events in the fall diminished vertical P gradients and possibly accelerated internal loading from the sediment-water interface. Our results demonstrate that stormwater ponds can experience unexpectedly long and strong thermal stratification despite their small size and shallow water depth. Strong thermal stratification and episodic mixing in ponds likely alter the quantity and timing of internal nutrient loading, and hence affect water quality and aquatic communities in downstream receiving waters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermally Induced Ultra High Cycle Fatigue of Copper Alloys of the High Gradient Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Heikkinen, Samuli; Wuensch, Walter


    In order to keep the overall length of the compact linear collider (CLIC), currently being studied at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), within reasonable limits, i.e. less than 50 km, an accelerating gradient above 100 MV/m is required. This imposes considerable demands on the materials of the accelerating structures. The internal surfaces of these core components of a linear accelerator are exposed to pulsed radio frequency (RF) currents resulting in cyclic thermal stresses expected to cause surface damage by fatigue. The designed lifetime of CLIC is 20 years, which results in a number of thermal stress cycles of the order of 2.33•1010. Since no fatigue data existed in the literature for CLIC parameter space, a set of three complementary experiments were initiated: ultra high cycle mechanical fatigue by ultrasound, low cycle fatigue by pulsed laser irradiation and low cycle thermal fatigue by high power microwaves, each test representing a subset of the original problem. High conductiv...

  8. Towards improved knowledge of geology and global thermal regime from Swarm satellites magnetic gradient observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravat, Dhananjay; Olsen, Nils; Sabaka, Terence

    Anomaly Map compilation (ca. 2002), the original compilation corrected with satellite-altitude data sets, and Swarm constellation gradient corrected fields over the U.S. Using this U.S. study as a test, we examine the possibility of improving the spectral coverage in many regions of the world where...... and fidelity of the magnetic field downward continued to the Earth’s surface translate into improvements in the interpretation of anomalies for recognition of geologic variability and tectonic processes (e.g., recognizing details of geologic provinces, anomalous seafloor spreading patterns, etc., that can help...... on the interpretation, particularly the derived Curie depths and the thermal variation of the lithosphere. We examine the inaccuracies in anomalies and also their resulting interpretation using the U.S. aeromagnetic data where a full spectrum magnetic anomaly coverage is available (Ravat et al., 2009, USGS open files...

  9. Response of wetland herbaceous communities to gradients of light and substrate following disturbance by thermal pollution (United States)

    Dunn, Christopher P.; Scott, Michael L.


    The influence of thermal disturbance and site characteristics on distribution of herbs was studied in portions of a 3020 ha wetland in the southeastern USA. Presence-absence of 52 species in 130 0.25 m2 plots was determined from four sites with different disturbance histories and from an undisturbed site. Data from the four disturbed sites were ordinated by detrended correspondence analysis. Differences in species composition among sites (coarse scale) were associated with water depth, light, and substrate type. Within a site (at a fine scale), correlation of environmental variables with ordination scores at a chronically disturbed site was weakly correlated with light (r=0.50). At two sites with episodic disturbance, species composition correlated significantly and positively with substrate and water depth. At a recovering site, vegetation patterns were moderately correlated with water depth (r=−0.52). Species richness was correlated with substrate type along the disturbance gradient. Our results are consistent the intermediate disturbance hypothesis and the subsidy-stress gradient concept.

  10. Influence of natural thermal gradients on whole animal rates of protein synthesis in marine gammarid amphipods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel P S Rastrick

    Full Text Available Although temperature is known to have an important effect on protein synthesis rates and growth in aquatic ectotherms held in the laboratory, little is known about the effects of thermal gradients on natural populations in the field. To address this issue we determined whole-animal fractional rates of protein synthesis (ks in four dominant species of gammarid amphipods with different distributions along the coasts of Western Europe from arctic to temperate latitudes. Up to three populations of each species were collected in the summer and ks measured within 48 h. Summer ks values were relatively high in the temperate species, Gammarus locusta, from Portugal (48°N and Wales (53°N and were maintained across latitudes by the conservation of translational efficiency. In sharp contrast, summer ks remained remarkably low in the boreal/temperate species G. duebeni from Wales, Scotland (58°N and Tromsø (70°N, probably as a temporary energy saving strategy to ensure survival in rapidly fluctuating environments of the high intertidal. Values for ks increased in acclimated G. duebeni from Scotland and Tromsø showing a lack of compensation with latitude. In the subarctic/boreal species, G. oceanicus, summer ks remained unchanged in Scotland and Tromsø but fell significantly in Svalbard (79°N at 5°C, despite a slight increase in RNA content. At 79°N, mean ks was 4.5 times higher in the circumpolar species G. setosus than in G. oceanicus due to a doubling in RNA content. The relationship between whole-animal protein synthesis rates and natural thermal gradients is complex, varies between species and appears to be associated with local temperatures and their variability, as well as changes in other environmental factors.

  11. Potential Use of a Salt Gradient Solar Pond to Store Thermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vinícius Silva Veras


    Full Text Available Demand for energy sources that allow a sustainable development has stimulated studies on the acquisition of alternative energy, renewable and clean such as hydro, wind, biomass and solar energies. Therefore, the objective in this work was to evaluate the potential of a Salt Gradient Solar Pond (SGSP in order to obtain thermal energy from solar energy. A pilot solar pond with 1,76 m² of surface area and 1 m³ of volume was set up in Itapetinga, Bahia, and temperatures in upper and lower convective layers were monitored between August 20 and November 3, 2008. It was found that the temperature difference between the layers increased from 2°C to 13.2°C, with a medium value of 5.7°C for the period. Considering a 30% efficiency for utilization of stored energy, it would be possible increase by 10°C the temperature of 50 L of chilled milk in a dairy industry, thus demonstrating its potential. In the end of Spring or Summer the temperature difference would be superior. Results demonstrate the potential use of solar ponds by industries and farms in our country, as a renewable and non-polluting alternative, being able to store thermal energy from solar energy.

  12. A Block Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient-type Iterative Solver for Linear Systems in Thermal Reservoir Simulation (United States)

    Betté, Srinivas; Diaz, Julio C.; Jines, William R.; Steihaug, Trond


    A preconditioned residual-norm-reducing iterative solver is described. Based on a truncated form of the generalized-conjugate-gradient method for nonsymmetric systems of linear equations, the iterative scheme is very effective for linear systems generated in reservoir simulation of thermal oil recovery processes. As a consequence of employing an adaptive implicit finite-difference scheme to solve the model equations, the number of variables per cell-block varies dynamically over the grid. The data structure allows for 5- and 9-point operators in the areal model, 5-point in the cross-sectional model, and 7- and 11-point operators in the three-dimensional model. Block-diagonal-scaling of the linear system, done prior to iteration, is found to have a significant effect on the rate of convergence. Block-incomplete-LU-decomposition (BILU) and block-symmetric-Gauss-Seidel (BSGS) methods, which result in no fill-in, are used as preconditioning procedures. A full factorization is done on the well terms, and the cells are ordered in a manner which minimizes the fill-in in the well-column due to this factorization. The convergence criterion for the linear (inner) iteration is linked to that of the nonlinear (Newton) iteration, thereby enhancing the efficiency of the computation. The algorithm, with both BILU and BSGS preconditioners, is evaluated in the context of a variety of thermal simulation problems. The solver is robust and can be used with little or no user intervention.

  13. Chemical interaction between a simulated nuclear waste glass and different backfill materials under a thermal gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poinssot, C. [CEA-Saclay-DCC/DESD/SESD/Laboratory for Migration and Solid Geochemistry, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Toulhoat, P.; Goffe, B. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Laboratory for Geology, URA-1316 du CNRS 24, rue Lhomand, 75231 Paris (France)


    The initial stage of a HLW disposal will be dominated by a strong thermal gradient that will exist between the hot canister and the 'cold' geological medium. In the case of hot wastes (MOX, direct disposal of used spent fuel, short interim storage), nuclear glass can begin to dissolve in groundwater and to interact with other materials in the presence of a thermal gradient. Moreover, it has already been demonstrated that thermal gradients strongly influence the hydrothermal corrosion of nuclear glass by creating large elemental segregation and subsequent mass transport processes. The aim of this article is to experimentally test whether the presence of a simulated engineered clay barrier affects these mass transport processes. In parallel, experiments were performed with different clays of various Si/Al ratios (smectite, kaolinite and allophane) as Si and Al are often invoked as possible rate limiting species for nuclear glass aging. A simulated nuclear glass was disposed between two layers of various clays, enclosed in a sealed gold tube filled with deionised water. The gold tube was put in a cold-seal vessel and submitted to a thermal field under high temperatures (300-200C, 140 bars, 100 days). High temperatures were used in order to enhance transformation kinetics as mass transport is supposed to be independent of the temperature. At the end of the experiments, the newly formed phases along the tube as well as the mineralogical transformations of the reactants were studied by integrated in-situ analyses (SEM, TEM, EDS and XRD). Precise descriptions of the mineralogical transformations are presented. The major result is a systematic re-crystallization of the initial clay under the influence of the leached elements from the glass (in particular Si and alkalies). The nuclear glass aging is strongly affected by the composition of the surrounding clay and consumes Al from the clay. The aluminous-rich medium seems to limit the glass corrosion and the

  14. Composition Distribution, Damping and Thermal Properties of the Thickness-Continuous Gradient Epoxy/Polyurethane Interpenetrating Polymer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Lv


    Full Text Available A thickness gradient interpenetrating polymer network (IPN was easily created that takes advantage of the relatively poor compatibility and curing rates discrepancy between epoxy (EP and polyurethane (PU. Ultraviolet absorption spectrum (UV-Vis, thermogravimetric (TG, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Dynamic thermomechanical analysis (DMA, Atomic force microscope (AFM and water contact angle were adopted to characterize this IPN structure. We found that the absorption in visible light region, glass-transition temperatures (Tg, thermal decomposition temperatures (Td and Derjaguin–Muller–Toporov (DMT modulus were increasing along with the gradient direction from bottom side to top side of the IPN. While the absorption in ultraviolet region and adhesion force were decreasing along with the gradient direction from bottom side to top side of the IPN. DMA analysis demonstrates that this continuous gradient IPN has a good balance between the damping temperature range and the loss factor which is suitable for using as a self-supporting damping structure.


    In laboratory test, young Chelydra serpentina and Trachemys scripta altered their distribution in the presence of a temperature gradient. Selection of temperatures in the gradient for hatchlings and yearlings showed that body temperature (Tbs) of C. serpentina were lower tha...

  16. Effect of thermal gradients on the electromigration lifetime in power electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Van Hieu; Salm, Cora; Krabbenborg, B.H.; Krabbenborg, B.; Weide-Zaage, K.; Bisschop, J.; Mouthaan, A.J.; Kuper, F.G.


    The combined effects of electromigration and thermomigration are studied. Significantly shorter electromigration lifetimes are observed in the presence of a temperature gradient. This cannot be explained by thermomigration only, but is attributed to the effect of temperature gradient on

  17. Technical Note: Characterization of a static thermal-gradient CCN counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Frank


    Full Text Available The static (parallel-plate thermal-gradient diffusion chamber (SDC was one of the first instruments designed to measure cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations as a function of supersaturation. It has probably also been the most widely used type of CCN counter. This paper describes the detailed experimental characterization of a SDC CCN counter, including calibration with respect to supersaturation and particle number concentration. In addition, we investigated the proposed effect of lowered supersaturation because of water vapor depletion with increasing particle concentration. The results obtained give a better understanding why and in which way it is necessary to calibrate the SDC CCN counter. The calibration method is described in detail and can, in parts, be used for calibrations also for other types of CCN counters.

    We conclude the following: 1 it is important to experimentally calibrate SDC CCN counters with respect to supersaturation, and not only base the supersaturation on the theoretical description of the instrument; 2 the number concentration calibration needs to be performed as a function of supersaturation, also for SDC CCN counter using the photographic technique; and 3 we observed no evidence that water vapor depletion lowered the supersaturation.

  18. Technical and economic feasibility of a Thermal Gradient Utilization Cycle (TGUC) power plant (United States)

    Raiji, A. M.; Renfroe, D. A.; Lalk, T. R.

    Power is generated by exploiting the natural atmospheric temperature gradient. A low grade energy source is used to vaporize a fluid which rises in a pipe to a higher elevation where it is condensed. The cycle is completed by passing the condensed liquid through a turbine as it returns to the lower elevation. A digital computer model was developed and used to simulate the operation of the cycle and to conduct a parameteric study. Life cycle cost analysis and energy analyses were conducted for the specific case of a TGUC using the ambient air at the lower elevation as an energy source. Although the cycle has a low thermal efficiency and is site specific, it is technically feasible. Variations in mass flow rate of the working fluid and elevation were found to affect the cycle power output to a large extent. The investment cost of a hypothetical 10 megawatt TGUC power plant was determined to be $3,080 per kilowatt, with life cycle busbar costs of electricity ranging from 47 to 55 Mills per kilowatt hour depending on the method of financing.

  19. Anomalous ion thermal transport in hot ion plasmas by the ion temperature gradient mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies); Coppi, B. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Research Lab. of Electronics)


    Experiments show that the observed radial profiles of the ion thermal conductivity {chi}{sub i} have the opposite shapes with those obtained from the ion temperature gradient mode ({eta}{sub i} mode) turbulence model by the traditional mixing length estimate. In this work, this radial profile problem is reconsidered with an electromagnetic study of the linear stability of the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode and a new rule for choosing the mixing length. It is first shown that the electromagnetic effect gives a significant stabilizing effect on the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode, and that the observed reduction of {chi}{sub i}(r) in the core region can be explained by this electromagnetic effect. Secondly, in view of earlier numerical simulations showing the transfer of fluctuation energy to larger scales that those for the fastest growth rate, as well as fluctuation measurements indicating longer radial correlation lengths, a new mixing length formula is proposed to explain the radial increase of the {chi}{sub i}. It is shown the new formula fits well the observed {chi}{sub i}(r) profiles in two TFTR supershot discharges and also gives the scaling law in the current and the magnetic field which agrees better with experiment than the conventional formula.

  20. Anomalous ion thermal transport in hot ion plasmas by the ion temperature gradient mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Coppi, B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Research Lab. of Electronics


    Experiments show that the observed radial profiles of the ion thermal conductivity {chi}{sub i} have the opposite shapes with those obtained from the ion temperature gradient mode ({eta}{sub i} mode) turbulence model by the traditional mixing length estimate. In this work, this radial profile problem is reconsidered with an electromagnetic study of the linear stability of the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode and a new rule for choosing the mixing length. It is first shown that the electromagnetic effect gives a significant stabilizing effect on the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode, and that the observed reduction of {chi}{sub i}(r) in the core region can be explained by this electromagnetic effect. Secondly, in view of earlier numerical simulations showing the transfer of fluctuation energy to larger scales that those for the fastest growth rate, as well as fluctuation measurements indicating longer radial correlation lengths, a new mixing length formula is proposed to explain the radial increase of the {chi}{sub i}. It is shown the new formula fits well the observed {chi}{sub i}(r) profiles in two TFTR supershot discharges and also gives the scaling law in the current and the magnetic field which agrees better with experiment than the conventional formula.

  1. A high-pressure thermal gradient block for investigating microbial activity in multiple deep-sea samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallmeyer, J.; Ferdelman, TG; Jansen, KH


    Details about the construction and use of a high-pressure thermal gradient block for the simultaneous incubation of multiple samples are presented. Most parts used are moderately priced off-the-shelf components that easily obtainable. In order to keep the pressure independent of thermal expansion...... of the sample vessels, a back-pressure system with a constant leak rate was installed. Pressure is applied through high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) pumps that run in constant pressure mode with variable flow rate, thereby regulating any pressure fluctuations. The device allows incubations along a wide...

  2. Effect of gold nanoparticles on thermal gradient generation and thermotaxis of E. coli cells in microfluidic device. (United States)

    Murugesan, Nithya; Panda, Tapobrata; Das, Sarit K


    Bacteria responds to changing chemical and thermal environment by moving towards or away from a particular location. In this report, we looked into thermal gradient generation and response of E. coli DH5α cells to thermal gradient in the presence and in the absence of spherical gold nanoparticles (size: 15 to 22 nm) in a static microfluidic environment using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) made microfluidic device. A PDMS-agarose based microfluidic device for generating thermal gradient has been developed and the thermal gradient generation in the device has been validated with the numerical simulation. Our studies revealed that the presence of gold nanoparticles, AuNPs (0.649 μg/mL) has no effect on the thermal gradient generation. The E. coli DH5α cells have been treated with AuNPs of two different concentrations (0.649 μg/mL and 0.008 μg/mL). The thermotaxis behavior of cells in the presence of AuNPs has been studied and compared to the thermotaxis of E.coli DH5α cells in the absence of AuNPs. In case of thermotaxis, in the absence of the AuNPs, the E. coli DH5α cells showed better thermotaxis towards lower temperature range, whereas in the presence of AuNPs (0.649 μg/mL and 0.008 μg/mL) thermotaxis of the E. coli DH5α cells has been inhibited. The results show that the spherical AuNPs intervenes in the themotaxis of E. coli DH5α cells and inhibits the cell migration. The reason for the failure in thermotaxis response mechanism may be due to decreased F-type ATP synthase activity and collapse of membrane potential by AuNPs, which, in turn, leads to decreased ATP levels. This has been hypothesized since both thermotaxis and chemotaxis follows the same response mechanism for migration in which ATP plays critical role.

  3. Variation in thermal sensitivity and thermal tolerances in an invasive species across a climatic gradient: lessons from the land snail Cornu aspersum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia

    Full Text Available The ability of organisms to perform at different temperatures could be described by a continuous nonlinear reaction norm (i.e., thermal performance curve, TPC, in which the phenotypic trait value varies as a function of temperature. Almost any shift in the parameters of this performance curve could highlight the direct effect of temperature on organism fitness, providing a powerful framework for testing thermal adaptation hypotheses. Inter-and intraspecific differences in this performance curve are also reflected in thermal tolerances limits (e.g., critical and lethal limits, influencing the biogeographic patterns of species' distribution. Within this context, here we investigated the intraspecific variation in thermal sensitivities and thermal tolerances in three populations of the invasive snail Cornu aspersum across a geographical gradient, characterized by different climatic conditions. Thus, we examined population differentiation in the TPCs, thermal-coma recovery times, expression of heat-shock proteins and standard metabolic rate (i.e., energetic costs of physiological differentiation. We tested two competing hypotheses regarding thermal adaptation (the "hotter is better" and the generalist-specialist trade-offs. Our results show that the differences in thermal sensitivity among populations of C. aspersum follow a latitudinal pattern, which is likely the result of a combination of thermodynamic constraints ("hotter is better" and thermal adaptations to their local environments (generalist-specialist trade-offs. This finding is also consistent with some thermal tolerance indices such as the Heat-Shock Protein Response and the recovery time from chill-coma. However, mixed responses in the evaluated traits suggest that thermal adaptation in this species is not complete, as we were not able to detect any differences in neither energetic costs of physiological differentiation among populations, nor in the heat-coma recovery.

  4. Thermal vibration analysis of nanoplates based on the higher-order nonlocal strain gradient theory by an analytical approach (United States)

    Nematollahi, Mohammad Sadegh; Mohammadi, Hossein; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali


    In this paper, a new formulation for analyzing free vibration of thin rectangular nanoplates under different thermal conditions is obtained based on the higher-order nonlocal strain gradient theory. Governing equations and non-classical boundary conditions of the nanoplate are derived by using the variational approach. The exact solution is obtained as a function of higher-order and lower-order nonlocal parameters, strain gradient length scale and temperature difference using Navier solution procedure. The influences of small-scale parameters on the vibrational behavior of the nanoplate are investigated for various thermal conditions. High and low temperature conditions are considered to study the effects of changes in temperature and small-scale parameters. It has been shown that increasing the nonlocal parameters decrease the natural frequency of the nanoplate, while increasing the strain gradient length scale will increase it. Also, the natural frequency of the nanoplate will increase by increasing the temperature difference in low temperature conditions, but it will decrease by increasing the temperature difference in high temperature conditions. Non-uniform behaviors are reported for some cases and softening effect and hardening effect are studied. To validate the solutions, the results are compared with previous researches.

  5. Concentration gradient P3OT/PCBM photovoltaic devices fabricated by thermal interdiffusion of separately spin-cast organic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, M.; Gopal, A.; Heflin, J.R. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Davis, R.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)


    A series of organic photovoltaic devices consisting of concentration gradients of poly (3-octylthiophene) (P3OT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were fabricated by thermally-induced interdiffusion of consecutively spin-cast layers of P3OT and PCBM from solvents of chloroform and pyridine, respectively. The device performance was evaluated as a function of the layer thicknesses, interdiffusion temperature, and interdiffusion time. A maximum power conversion efficiency of 1.0% under AM1.5G simulated solar spectrum was obtained for 70 nm P3OT thickness, 45 nm PCBM thickness, and interdiffusion at 150 C for 20 min. Auger spectroscopy depth profiling measurements indicated that the optimal devices consist of concentration gradients of P3OT and PCBM extending across the entire film in opposite directions. (author)

  6. Geothermal Resource/Reservoir Investigations Based on Heat Flow and Thermal Gradient Data for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. D. Blackwell; K. W. Wisian; M. C. Richards; J. L. Steele


    Several activities related to geothermal resources in the western United States are described in this report. A database of geothermal site-specific thermal gradient and heat flow results from individual exploration wells in the western US has been assembled. Extensive temperature gradient and heat flow exploration data from the active exploration of the 1970's and 1980's were collected, compiled, and synthesized, emphasizing previously unavailable company data. Examples of the use and applications of the database are described. The database and results are available on the world wide web. In this report numerical models are used to establish basic qualitative relationships between structure, heat input, and permeability distribution, and the resulting geothermal system. A series of steady state, two-dimensional numerical models evaluate the effect of permeability and structural variations on an idealized, generic Basin and Range geothermal system and the results are described.

  7. Thermal tolerance in the Andean toad Rhinella spinulosa (Anura: Bufonidae) at three sites located along a latitudinal gradient in Chile. (United States)

    Riquelme, Nicza Alveal; Díaz-Páez, Helen; Ortiz, Juan Carlos


    Rhinella spinulosa is one of the anuran species with the greatest presence in Chile. This species mainly inhabits mountain habitats and is distributed latitudinally along the western slope of the Andes Range. These habitats undergo great temperature fluctuations, exerting pressure on the amphibian. To identify the physiological strategies and thermal behavior of this species, we analyzed the temperature variables CTmin, CTmax, TTR, τheat, and τcool in individuals of three sites from a latitudinal gradient (22°S to 37°S). The amphibians were acclimated to 10°C and 20°C and fed ad libitum. The results indicate that the species has a high thermal tolerance range, with a mean of 38.14±1.34°C, a critical thermal maxima of 34.6-41.4°C, and a critical thermal minima of 2.6-0.8°C, classifying the species as eurythermic. Furthermore, there were significant differences in CTmáx and TTR only in the northern site. The differences in thermal time constants between sites are due to the effects of size and body mass. For example, those from the central site had larger size and greater thermal inertia; therefore, they warmed and cooled in a slower manner. The wide thermal limits determined in R. spinulosa confirm that it is a thermo-generalist species, a characteristic that allows the species to survive in adverse microclimatic conditions. The level of plasticity in critical temperatures seems ecologically relevant and supports the acclimatization of thermal limits as an important factor for ectothermic animals to adapt to climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of the temperature accuracy between smart phone based and high-end thermal cameras using a temperature gradient phantom (United States)

    Klaessens, John H.; van der Veen, Albert; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.


    Recently, low cost smart phone based thermal cameras are being considered to be used in a clinical setting for monitoring physiological temperature responses such as: body temperature change, local inflammations, perfusion changes or (burn) wound healing. These thermal cameras contain uncooled micro-bolometers with an internal calibration check and have a temperature resolution of 0.1 degree. For clinical applications a fast quality measurement before use is required (absolute temperature check) and quality control (stability, repeatability, absolute temperature, absolute temperature differences) should be performed regularly. Therefore, a calibrated temperature phantom has been developed based on thermistor heating on both ends of a black coated metal strip to create a controllable temperature gradient from room temperature 26 °C up to 100 °C. The absolute temperatures on the strip are determined with software controlled 5 PT-1000 sensors using lookup tables. In this study 3 FLIR-ONE cameras and one high end camera were checked with this temperature phantom. The results show a relative good agreement between both low-cost and high-end camera's and the phantom temperature gradient, with temperature differences of 1 degree up to 6 degrees between the camera's and the phantom. The measurements were repeated as to absolute temperature and temperature stability over the sensor area. Both low-cost and high-end thermal cameras measured relative temperature changes with high accuracy and absolute temperatures with constant deviations. Low-cost smart phone based thermal cameras can be a good alternative to high-end thermal cameras for routine clinical measurements, appropriate to the research question, providing regular calibration checks for quality control.

  9. A new thermal gradient ice nucleation diffusion chamber instrument: design, development and first results using Saharan mineral dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. McQuaid


    Full Text Available A new Thermal Gradient ice nucleation Diffusion Chamber (TGDC capable of investigating ice nucleation efficiency of atmospherically important aerosols, termed Ice Nuclei (IN, has been designed, constructed and validated. The TGDC can produce a range of supersaturations with respect to ice (SSi over the temperature range of −10 to −34°C for sufficiently long time needed to observe the ice nucleation by the particles. The novel aspect of this new TGDC is that the chamber is run in static mode with aerosol particles supported on a Teflon substrate, which can be raised and lowered in a controlled way through the SSi profile within the chamber, and nucleation events are directly observed using digital photography. The TGDC consists of two ice coated plates to which a thermal gradient is applied to produce the range of SSi. The design of the TGDC gives the ability to understand time-related ice nucleation event information and to perform experiments at different temperatures and SSi conditions for different IN without changing the thermal gradient within the TGDC. The temperature and SSi conditions of the experimental system are validated by observing (NH42SO4 deliquescence and the results are in good agreement with the literature data. First results are presented of the onset ice nucleation for mineral dust sampled from the Saharan Desert, including images of nucleation and statistical distributions of onset ice nucleation SSi as a function of temperature. This paper illustrates how useful this new TGDC is for process level studies of ice nucleation and more experimental investigations are needed to better quantify the role of ice formation in the atmosphere.

  10. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, D.R.


    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed.

  11. Mass Dependency of Isotope Fractionation of Gases Under Thermal Gradient and Its Possible Implications for Planetary Atmosphere Escaping Process (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Niles, Paul; Bao, Huiming; Socki, Richard


    Physical processes that unmix elements/isotopes of gas molecules involve phase changes, diffusion (chemical or thermal), effusion and gravitational settling. Some of those play significant roles for the evolution of chemical and isotopic compositions of gases in planetary bodies which lead to better understanding of surface paleoclimatic conditions, e.g. gas bubbles in Antarctic ice, and planetary evolution, e.g. the solar-wind erosion induced gas escaping from exosphere on terrestrial planets.. A mass dependent relationship is always expected for the kinetic isotope fractionations during these simple physical processes, according to the kinetic theory of gases by Chapman, Enskog and others [3-5]. For O-bearing (O16, -O17, -O18) molecules the alpha O-17/ alpha O-18 is expected at 0.5 to 0.515, and for S-bearing (S32,-S33. -S34, -S36) molecules, the alpha S-33/ alpha S-34 is expected at 0.5 to 0.508, where alpha is the isotope fractionation factor associated with unmixing processes. Thus, one isotope pair is generally proxied to yield all the information for the physical history of the gases. However, we recently] reported the violation of mass law for isotope fractionation among isotope pairs of multiple isotope system during gas diffusion or convection under thermal gradient (Thermal Gradient Induced Non-Mass Dependent effect, TGI-NMD). The mechanism(s) that is responsible to such striking observation remains unanswered. In our past studies, we investigated polyatomic molecules, O2 and SF6, and we suggested that nuclear spin effect could be responsible to the observed NMD effect in a way of changing diffusion coefficients of certain molecules, owing to the fact of negligible delta S-36 anomaly for SF6.. On the other hand, our results also showed that for both diffusion and convection under thermal gradient, this NMD effect is increased by lower gas pressure, bigger temperature gradient and lower average temperature, which indicate that the nuclear spin effect may

  12. Layout-Driven Post-Placement Techniques for Temperature Reduction and Thermal Gradient Minimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Calimera, Andrea; Macii, Alberto


    With the continuing scaling of CMOS technology, on-chip temperature and thermal-induced variations have become a major design concern. To effectively limit the high temperature in a chip equipped with a cost-effective cooling system, thermal specific approaches, besides low power techniques...

  13. Morphological instability of a confined polymer film in a thermal gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaffer, E; Harkema, S; Roerdink, M; Blossey, R; Steiner, U


    We report the experimental observation of a morphological instability of a confined polymer-air double layer sandwiched between two plates set to different temperatures. The homogeneous temperature gradient across the double layer causes the breakup of the polymer film into columns or stripes

  14. Method and apparatus for producing a carbon based foam article having a desired thermal-conductivity gradient (United States)

    Klett, James W [Knoxville, TN; Cameron, Christopher Stan [Sanford, NC


    A carbon based foam article is made by heating the surface of a carbon foam block to a temperature above its graphitizing temperature, which is the temperature sufficient to graphitize the carbon foam. In one embodiment, the surface is heated with infrared pulses until heat is transferred from the surface into the core of the foam article such that the graphitizing temperature penetrates into the core to a desired depth below the surface. The graphitizing temperature is maintained for a time sufficient to substantially entirely graphitize the portion of the foam article from the surface to the desired depth below the surface. Thus, the foam article is an integral monolithic material that has a desired conductivity gradient with a relatively high thermal conductivity in the portion of the core that was graphitized and a relatively low thermal conductivity in the remaining portion of the foam article.

  15. Thermal transport in a 2D stressed nanostructure with mass gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Barreto


    Full Text Available Inspired by some recent molecular dynamics (MD simulations and experiments on suspended graphene nanoribbons, we study a simplified model where the atoms are disposed in a rectangular lattice coupled by nearest neighbor interactions which are quadratic in the interatomic distance. The system has a mechanical strain, and the border atoms are coupled to Langevin thermal baths. Atom masses vary linearly in the longitudinal direction, modeling an isotope or doping distribution. This asymmetry and tension modify thermal properties. Although the atomic interaction is quadratic, the potential is anharmonic in the coordinates. By direct MD simulations and solving Fokker-Planck equations at low temperatures, we can better understand the role of anharmonicities in thermal rectification. We observe an increasing thermal current with an increasing applied mechanical tension. The temperatures and thermal currents vary along the transverse direction. This effect can be useful to establish which parts of the system are more sensitive to thermal damage. We also study thermal rectification as a function of strain and system size. Received: 20 Novembre 2014, Accepted: 17 April 2015; Edited by: C. A. Condat, G. J. Sibona; DOI: Cite as: R Barreto, M F Carusela, A Mancardo Viotti, A G Monastra, Papers in Physics 7, 070008 (2015

  16. Functionally gradient materials for thermal barrier coatings in advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; Barmak, K.; Chan, H.M. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)] [and others


    New designs for advanced gas turbine engines for power production are required to have higher operating temperatures in order to increase efficiency. However, elevated temperatures will increase the magnitude and severity of environmental degradation of critical turbine components (e.g. combustor parts, turbine blades, etc{hor_ellipsis}). To offset this problem, the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has become popular by allowing an increase in maximum inlet temperatures for an operating engine. Although thermal barrier technology is over thirty years old, the principle failure mechanism is the spallation of the ceramic coating at or near the ceramic/bond coat interface. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a coating that combines the thermal barrier qualities of the ceramic layer and the corrosion protection by the metallic bond coat without the detrimental effects associated with the localization of the ceramic/metal interface to a single plane.

  17. Mapping surface flow in low gradient areas with thermal remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christian; Petersen, Rasmus Jes; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    Thermal infrared (TIR) imagery has long been used for mapping groundwater-surface water interactions and mainly for locating areas of groundwater seepage in lakes and shorelines (Rundquist et al. 1985, Banks et al. 1996). In this study, we used the method for locating discharge from tile drains i...

  18. Optimal Allocation of Thermal-Electric Decoupling Systems Based on the National Economy by an Improved Conjugate Gradient Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Rong


    Full Text Available Aiming to relieve the large amount of wind power curtailment during the heating period in the North China region, a thermal-electric decoupling (TED approach is proposed to both bring down the constraint of forced power output of combined heat and power plants and increase the electric load level during valley load times that assist the power grid in consuming more wind power. The operating principles of the thermal-electric decoupling approach is described, the mathematical model of its profits is developed, the constraint conditions of its operation are listed, also, an improved parallel conjugate gradient is utilized to bypass the saddle problem and accelerate the optimal speed. Numerical simulations are implemented and reveal an optimal allocation of TED which with a rated power of 280 MW and 185 MWh heat storage capacity are possible. This allocation of TED could bring approximately 16.9 billion Yuan of economic profit and consume more than 80% of the surplus wind energy which would be curtailed without the participation of TED. The results in this article verify the effectiveness of this method that could provide a referential guidance for thermal-electric decoupling system allocation in practice.

  19. Thermal studies of a high gradient quadrupole magnet cooled with pressurized, stagnant superfluid

    CERN Document Server

    Chiesa, L; Kerby, J S; Lamm, M J; Novitski, I; Orris, D; Ozelis, J P; Peterson, Thomas J; Tartaglia, M; Zlobin, A V


    A 2-m long superconducting model of an LHC Interaction Region quadrupole magnet was wound with stabrite coated cable. The resulting low interstrand resistance and high AC losses presented the opportunity to measure magnet quench performance in superfluid as a function of helium temperature and heat deposition in the coil. Our motivation was to duplicate the high radiation heat loads predicted for the inner triplet quadrupoles at LHC and study the coil cooling conditions in the magnet. At the Magnet Test Facility in Fermilab's Technical Division, the magnet quench performance was tested as a function of bulk helium temperature and current ramp rate near the planned high luminosity interaction region field gradient of 205 T/m. AC loss measurements provided a correlation between current ramp rate and heat deposition in the coil. Analysis indicates that the results are consistent with there being little participation of superfluid helium in the small channels inside the inner layer in the heat removal from the co...

  20. The stability of weakly collisional plasmas with thermal and composition gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, M.E.; Chakraborty, S.


    temperature and composition. This allows us to discuss for the first time the dynamics of weakly collisional environments where heat conduction, momentum transport, and ion-diffusion are anisotropic with respect to the direction of the magnetic field. We show that depending on the relative signs...... the magnetic field configurations that arise as a natural consequence of the HBI, which would be MTI stable in a homogeneous medium, could be alleviated if the mean molecular weight gradient is steep enough, i.e., (¿µ)/µ > (¿T)/T. This study constitutes a first step toward understanding the interaction between...... approximation if heavy elements are able to sediment in the inner region of the galaxy cluster. Motivated by the need to obtain a more complete picture of the dynamical properties of the ICM, we analyze the stability of a weakly collisional, magnetized plane-parallel atmosphere which is stratified in both...

  1. Nearshore thermal gradients of the Colorado River near the Little Colorado River confluence, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2010 (United States)

    Ross, Rob; Grams, Paul E.


    Construction and operation of Glen Canyon Dam has dramatically impacted the flow of the Colorado River through Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons. Extremes in both streamflow and water temperature have been suppressed by controlled releases from the dam. Trapping of sediment in Lake Powell, the reservoir formed by Glen Canyon Dam, has also dramatically reduced the supply of suspended sediment entering the system. These changes have altered the riverine ecosystem and the habitat of native species, including fish such as the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha). Most native fish are adapted to seasonally warm water, and the continuous relatively cold water released by the dam is one of the factors that is believed to limit humpback chub growth and survival. While average mainstem temperatures in the Colorado River are well documented, there is limited understanding of temperatures in the nearshore environments that fish typically occupy. Four nearshore geomorphic unit types were studied between the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers and Lava Canyon in the summer and fall of 2010, for study periods of 10 to 27 days. Five to seven sites were studied during each interval. Persistent thermal gradients greater than the 0.2 °C accuracy of the instruments were not observed in any of the sampled shoreline environments. Temperature gradients between the shoreline and mainstem on the order of 4 °C, believed to be important to the habitat-seeking behavior of native or nonnative fishes, were not detected.

  2. [Gradient elevation of temperature startup experiment of thermophilic ASBR treating thermal-hydrolyzed sewage sludge]. (United States)

    Ouyang, Er-Ming; Wang, Wei; Long, Neng; Li, Huai


    Startup experiment was conducted for thermophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) treating thermal-hydrolyzed sewage sludge using the strategy of the step-wise temperature increment: 35 degrees C-->40 degrees C-->47 degrees C-->53 degrees C. The results showed that the first step-increase (from 35 degrees C to 40 degrees C) and final step-increase (from 47 degrees C to 53 degrees C) had only a slight effect on the digestion process. The second step-increase (from 40 degrees C to 47 degrees C) resulted in a severe disturbance: the biogas production, methane content, CODeffluent and microorganism all have strong disturbance. At the steady stage of thermophilic ASBR treating thermal-hydrolyzed sewage sludge, the average daily gas production, methane content, specific methane production (CH4/CODinfluent), TCOD removal rate and SCOD removal rate were 2.038 L/d, 72.0%, 188.8 mL/g, 63.8%, 83.3% respectively. The results of SEM and DGGE indicated that the dominant species are obviously different at early stage and steady stage.

  3. Foliar Temperature Gradients as Drivers of Budburst in Douglas-fir: New Applications of Thermal Infrared Imagery (United States)

    Miller, R.; Lintz, H. E.; Thomas, C. K.; Salino-Hugg, M. J.; Niemeier, J. J.; Kruger, A.


    Budburst, the initiation of annual growth in plants, is sensitive to climate and is used to monitor physiological responses to climate change. Accurately forecasting budburst response to these changes demands an understanding of the drivers of budburst. Current research and predictive models focus on population or landscape-level drivers, yet fundamental questions regarding drivers of budburst diversity within an individual tree remain unanswered. We hypothesize that foliar temperature, an important physiological property, may be a dominant driver of differences in the timing of budburst within a single tree. Studying these differences facilitates development of high throughput phenotyping technology used to improve predictive budburst models. We present spatial and temporal variation in foliar temperature as a function of physical drivers culminating in a single-tree budburst model based on foliar temperature. We use a novel remote sensing approach, combined with on-site meteorological measurements, to demonstrate important intra-canopy differences between air and foliar temperature. We mounted a thermal infrared camera within an old-growth canopy at the H.J. Andrews LTER forest and imaged an 8m by 10.6m section of a Douglas-fir crown. Sampling one image per minute, approximately 30,000 thermal infrared images were collected over a one-month period to approximate foliar temperature before, during and after budburst. Using time-lapse photography in the visible spectrum, we documented budburst at fifteen-minute intervals with eight cameras stratified across the thermal infrared camera's field of view. Within the imaged tree's crown, we installed a pyranometer, 2D sonic anemometer and fan-aspirated thermohygrometer and collected 3,000 measurements of net shortwave radiation, wind speed, air temperature and relative humidity. We documented a difference of several days in the timing of budburst across both vertical and horizontal gradients. We also observed clear

  4. A novel high-temperature furnace for combined in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and infrared thermal imaging to investigate the effects of thermal gradients upon the structure of ceramic materials. (United States)

    Robinson, James B; Brown, Leon D; Jervis, Rhodri; Taiwo, Oluwadamilola O; Millichamp, Jason; Mason, Thomas J; Neville, Tobias P; Eastwood, David S; Reinhard, Christina; Lee, Peter D; Brett, Daniel J L; Shearing, Paul R


    A new technique combining in situ X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation and infrared thermal imaging is reported. The technique enables the application, generation and measurement of significant thermal gradients, and furthermore allows the direct spatial correlation of thermal and crystallographic measurements. The design and implementation of a novel furnace enabling the simultaneous thermal and X-ray measurements is described. The technique is expected to have wide applicability in material science and engineering; here it has been applied to the study of solid oxide fuel cells at high temperature.

  5. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate gradient measurements by PADC detectors in LINAC radiotherapy treatments-field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, M. T., E-mail:; Barros, H.; Pino, F.; Sajo-Bohus, L. [Universidad Simón Bolívar, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Sartenejas, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Dávila, J. [Física Médica C. A. and Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)


    LINAC VARIAN 2100 is where energetic electrons produce Bremsstrahlung radiation, with energies above the nucleon binding energy (E≈5.5MeV). This radiation induce (γ,n) and (e,e’n) reactions mainly in the natural tungsten target material (its total photoneutron cross section is about 4000 mb in a energy range from 9-17 MeV). These reactions may occur also in other components of the system (e.g. multi leaf collimator). During radiation treatment the human body may receive an additional dose inside and outside the treated volume produced by the mentioned nuclear reactions. We measured the neutron density at the treatment table using nuclear track detectors (PADC-NTD). These covered by a boron-converter are employed, including a cadmium filter, to determine the ratio between two groups of neutron energy, i.e. thermal and epithermal. The PADC-NTD detectors were exposed to the radiation field at the iso-center during regular operation of the accelerator. Neutron are determined indirectly by the converting reaction {sup 10}B(n,α){sup 7}Li the emerging charged particle leave their kinetic energy in the PADC forming a latent nuclear track, enlarged by chemical etching (6N, NaOH, 70°C). Track density provides information on the neutron density through calibration coefficient (∼1.6 10{sup 4} neutrons /track) obtained by a californium source. We report the estimation of the thermal and epithermal neutron field and its gradient for photoneutrons produced in radiotherapy treatments with 18 MV linear accelerators. It was obsered that photoneutron production have higher rate at the iso-center.

  6. DC Model Cable under Polarity Inversion and Thermal Gradient: Build-Up of Design-Related Space Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Adi


    Full Text Available In the field of energy transport, High-Voltage DC (HVDC technologies are booming at present due to the more flexible power converter solutions along with needs to bring electrical energy from distributed production areas to consumption sites and to strengthen large-scale energy networks. These developments go with challenges in qualifying insulating materials embedded in those systems and in the design of insulations relying on stress distribution. Our purpose in this communication is to illustrate how far the field distribution in DC insulation systems can be anticipated based on conductivity data gathered as a function of temperature and electric field. Transient currents and conductivity estimates as a function of temperature and field were recorded on miniaturized HVDC power cables with construction of 1.5 mm thick crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE insulation. Outputs of the conductivity model are compared to measured field distributions using space charge measurements techniques. It is shown that some features of the field distribution on model cables put under thermal gradient can be anticipated based on conductivity data. However, space charge build-up can induce substantial electric field strengthening when materials are not well controlled.

  7. Mechanical behavior of flexible pavements undergoing thermal gradients - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i3.10848

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielli Vassoler


    Full Text Available The proper structural understanding of a pavement should consider, according to the pavement mechanics, the aspects related to the traffic load, the environment and material properties. When asphaltic materials are used, the stress/strain relationships and the dependencies of load-time and temperature are key parameters for understanding flexible pavement performance. In this study, we employed the finite elements method to calculate stress/strain in flexible pavements structures considering temperature variation. The input data includes material stiffness, which is function of temperature and changes with position and time. The pavement temperature is obtained through the heat transfer differential equation, applying the Laplace transform and its numerical inversion. The finite elements grid was generated by the software ANSYS® and imported by the software MATLAB®. In order to determine the stiffness of the first layer (asphalt concrete we used the average of four nodes, depending on the each node temperature. The result evidences the importance of thermal gradients for the pavement analysis, both for the fatigue cracking and the accumulation of plastic deformations. The use of unique modulus for asphalt concrete layer generates results far from reality.

  8. A temperature gradient may support mother-infant thermal identification and communication in the breast crawl from birth to breastfeeding. (United States)

    Zanardo, Vincenzo; Volpe, Francesca; de Luca, Federico; Straface, Gianluca


    The human female's nipple-areolar complex (NAC) is the point of arrival of a natural progression from birth to breastfeeding, linked to functional, chemical and biophysical cues that promote the breast crawl soon after birth. We investigated the thermal gradient generated by the lips of the neonate and warmth of the NAC, which may drive the infant directly to the nipple. We prospectively studied 41 full-term singleton infants and their mothers at the Policlinico Abano Terme, Italy, between January 1, 2015, and February 28, 2015. NAC and breast quadrant temperatures were assessed 6 ± 2 hours prepartum and one and two days postpartum, together with the neonates' lip temperature. The temperature of the neonates' lips was significantly lower than the forehead temperature on days one and two postpartum (delta = -1.24°C, p breast crawl and in the natural progression of the continuum from birth to breastfeeding. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Across-arc patterns in mafic-magma chemistry controlled by thermal and chemical gradients at the slab interface (United States)

    Mather, Tamsin; Watt, Sebastian; Pyle, David; Naranjo, Jose


    A range of recent studies demonstrate systematic across-arc variations in the volatile and trace element contents of primary arc magmas. Most of these studies used olivine-hosted melt inclusions to bypass upper crustal modifications, and thereby estimate the chemical composition of parental magmas in equilibrium with the mantle. The patterns preserved in these melts can be used to investigate variation in the volatile-rich flux that enters the core of the mantle wedge, and which is sourced from the subducting plate. Similarly, the implied variability in the composition of this flux provides information about fluid and melt transport through the mantle wedge, and of the mineral breakdown processes occurring within the downgoing slab. Here, we report on results from a detailed study of olivine-hosted melt inclusions sampled from a set of scoria cones in southern Chile. These samples include some highly primitive rocks from Apagado, with picritic composition and containing unzoned highly-forsteritic olivine (Fo88). Such rocks are extremely rare in continental arcs. The Chilean rocks display a variation in their water, CO2, and trace element content that suggests that the primary-melt chemistry reflects the pattern of element release at the subducting slab interface. This down-slab chemical gradient is consistent with predictions from modelling, geothermometry and experiments. The flux feeding the arc magmas becomes progressively less water-rich and increasingly dominated by hydrous melts over a distance of a few kilometres. We suggest that this change marks the onset of significant water-fluxed melting of sediment at the downgoing slab-surface. The short length scale of the across-arc chemical patterns in southern Chile is perhaps surprising. The fact that such changes are preserved within our sampled rocks suggests that there is limited across-arc mixing and focussing of fluids or melts as they ascend through the mantle wedge. Our results suggest that slab

  10. Thermal response experiments of {SiC}/{C} and {TiC}/{C} functionally gradient materials as plasma facing materials for fusion application (United States)

    Araki, M.; Sasaki, M.; Kim, S.; Suzuki, S.; Nakamura, K.; Akiba, M.


    To evaluate the applicability of a functionally gradient technique for the fabrication of the armor tile or the interface of the divertor plate element for next fusion machines such as ITER/FER, {SiC}/{C} and {TiC}/{C} functionally gradient materials (FGMs) were prepared and tested using an electron and ion beams test facilities. FGM layer with a thickness of 1.0 mm was produced by CVD process on fine grain graphite. Their thermal resistivities were evaluated under a condition for surface heat fluxes up to 70 MW/m 2 for durations up to several seconds. As the results, we confirmed that FGMs are clearly better than non-FGMs from a view point of the reduction of thermal stress. Both FGM layers on the graphite bulk material could withstand a temperature difference as high as 1500 K without cracking or melting, leading us to conceive a promising prospect for the application of the divertor plate.

  11. Linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating response to thermal gradient: from bench tests to the real-time assessment during in vivo laser ablations of biological tissue (United States)

    Saccomandi, Paola; Varalda, Ambra; Gassino, Riccardo; Tosi, Daniele; Massaroni, Carlo; Caponero, Michele A.; Pop, Raoul; Korganbayev, Sanzhar; Perrone, Guido; Diana, Michele; Vallan, Alberto; Costamagna, Guido; Marescaux, Jacques; Schena, Emiliano


    The response of a fiber optic sensor [linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating (LCFBG)] to a linear thermal gradient applied on its sensing length (i.e., 1.5 cm) has been investigated. After these bench tests, we assessed their feasibility for temperature monitoring during thermal tumor treatment. In particular, we performed experiments during ex vivo laser ablation (LA) in pig liver and in vivo thermal ablation in animal models (pigs). We investigated the following: (i) the relationship between the full width at half maximum of the LCFBG spectrum and the temperature difference among the extremities of the LCFBG and (ii) the relationship between the mean spectrum wavelength and the mean temperature acting on the LCFBG sensing area. These relationships showed a linear trend during both bench tests and LA in animal models. Thermal sensitivity was significant although different values were found with regards to bench tests and animal experiments. The linear trend and significant sensitivity allow hypothesizing a future use of this kind of sensor to monitor both temperature gradient and mean temperature within a tissue undergoing thermal treatment.

  12. Effect of Thermal Gradients Created by Electromagnetic Fields on Cell-Membrane Electroporation Probed by Molecular-Dynamics Simulations (United States)

    Song, J.; Garner, A. L.; Joshi, R. P.


    The use of nanosecond-duration-pulsed voltages with high-intensity electric fields (˜100 kV /cm ) is a promising development with many biomedical applications. Electroporation occurs in this regime, and has been attributed to the high fields. However, here we focus on temperature gradients. Our numerical simulations based on molecular dynamics predict the formation of nanopores and water nanowires, but only in the presence of a temperature gradient. Our results suggest a far greater role of temperature gradients in enhancing biophysical responses, including possible neural stimulation by infrared lasers.

  13. Groundwater Flow and Thermal Modeling to Support a Preferred Conceptual Model for the Large Hydraulic Gradient North of Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGraw, D.; Oberlander, P.


    The purpose of this study is to report on the results of a preliminary modeling framework to investigate the causes of the large hydraulic gradient north of Yucca Mountain. This study builds on the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model (referenced herein as the Site-scale model (Zyvoloski, 2004a), which is a three-dimensional saturated zone model of the Yucca Mountain area. Groundwater flow was simulated under natural conditions. The model framework and grid design describe the geologic layering and the calibration parameters describe the hydrogeology. The Site-scale model is calibrated to hydraulic heads, fluid temperature, and groundwater flowpaths. One area of interest in the Site-scale model represents the large hydraulic gradient north of Yucca Mountain. Nearby water levels suggest over 200 meters of hydraulic head difference in less than 1,000 meters horizontal distance. Given the geologic conceptual models defined by various hydrogeologic reports (Faunt, 2000, 2001; Zyvoloski, 2004b), no definitive explanation has been found for the cause of the large hydraulic gradient. Luckey et al. (1996) presents several possible explanations for the large hydraulic gradient as provided below: The gradient is simply the result of flow through the upper volcanic confining unit, which is nearly 300 meters thick near the large gradient. The gradient represents a semi-perched system in which flow in the upper and lower aquifers is predominantly horizontal, whereas flow in the upper confining unit would be predominantly vertical. The gradient represents a drain down a buried fault from the volcanic aquifers to the lower Carbonate Aquifer. The gradient represents a spillway in which a fault marks the effective northern limit of the lower volcanic aquifer. The large gradient results from the presence at depth of the Eleana Formation, a part of the Paleozoic upper confining unit, which overlies the lower Carbonate Aquifer in much of the Death Valley region. The

  14. Thermal and Chemical Gradients Along the Slab Interface Control Across-Arc Patterns in Compositions of Primitive Arc Magmas (United States)

    Mather, T. A.; Pyle, D. M.; Watt, S. F.; Naranjo, J. A.


    Several studies of primitive mafic arc rocks have shown systematic across-arc variations in the volatile and trace element contents of primary arc magmas. Most of these studies used olivine-hosted melt inclusions in mafic scoria that had been transported rapidly to the surface from depth. These inclusions bypass upper crustal modifications, and constrain the chemical composition of parental magmas in equilibrium with the mantle. The patterns preserved in these melts can be used to explore spatial variation in the volatile-rich flux that enters the mantle wedge, sourced from the subducting plate. Variability in the composition of this flux provides information about fluid and melt transport through the mantle wedge, and of the mineral breakdown or melting processes occurring within the downgoing slab. We analysed olivine-hosted melt inclusions from scoria cones in southern Chile (40 - 42 S), including picrites with unzoned Mg-rich olivine (Fo88) from volcan Apagado. Samples show systematic variations in water, CO2, and trace element content that suggests that the primary-melt chemistry reflects the pattern of element release at the subducting slab interface. This down-slab chemical gradient is consistent with predictions from modelling and experiments. Down-slab, the flux feeding the arc magmas becomes progressively water-poor over a distance of a few km. We suggest that this change marks the onset of significant water-fluxed melting of sediment at the downgoing slab-surface. The short length scale of the across-arc chemical patterns in southern Chile is surprising. The fact that such changes are preserved within our sampled rocks suggests that there is limited across-arc mixing and focussing of fluids or melts as they ascend through the mantle wedge. Our results suggest that slab-surface inputs exert a first-order control on arc-magma chemistry. The chemical patterns that we observe are replicated in other arcs (e.g. Kamchatka, Izu-Bonin), despite the plate

  15. Arc-jet test and analysis of Orbiter TPS inter-tile heating in high pressure gradient flow. [Thermal Protection System (United States)

    Rochelle, W. C.; Battley, H. H.; Hale, W. M.; Gallegos, J. J.; Kimbrough, B. S.


    During entry of the Space Shuttle Orbiter, the convective heating within inter-tile gaps of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) material produces elevated tile sidewall temperatures in regions of high surface pressure gradient. Arc-jet tests have been conducted recently to obtain a measure of the gap heating down the TPS tile sidewalls at test conditions representative of Orbiter flight environments. The object of this paper is to present the gap heating correlations that were developed from a thermal analysis for 3-D curved and flat TPS tile segments. Predictions of gap sidewall temperature were obtained within 30 F of test data on both Wing Glove and Double Wedge models. Derived heating ratios were obtained for a range of test conditions (pressure, pressure gradient, enthalpy, boundary layer thickness, gap width, surface temperature, etc.). The results of the study, which showed that heating ratios varied with the pressure gradient times the square root of the surface pressure, are being used to provide an assessment of gap filler requirements on Orbiter forward fuselage/chine and wing glove regions.

  16. Self-Adaptive Gradient-Based Thresholding Method for Coal Fire Detection Using ASTER Thermal Infrared Data, Part I: Methodology and Decadal Change Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Du


    Full Text Available Coal fires that are induced by natural spontaneous combustion or result from human activities occurring on the surface and in underground coal seams destroy coal resources and cause serious environmental degradation. Thermal infrared image data, which directly measure surface temperature, can be an important tool to map coal fires over large areas. As the first of two parts introducing our coal fire detection method, this paper proposes a self-adaptive threshold-based approach for coal fire detection using ASTER thermal infrared data: the self-adaptive gradient-based thresholding method (SAGBT. This method is based on an assumption that the attenuation of temperature along the coal fire’s boundaries generates considerable numbers of spots with extremely high gradient values. The SAGBT method applied mathematical morphology thinning to skeletonize the potential high gradient buffers into the extremely high gradient lines, which provides a self-adaptive mechanism to generate thresholds according to the thermal spatial patterns of the images. The final threshold was defined as an average temperature value reading from the high temperature buffers (segmented by 1.0 σ from the mean and along a sequence of extremely high gradient lines (thinned from the potential high gradient buffers and segmented within the lower bounds, ranging from 0.5 σ to 1.5 σ and with an upper bound of 3.2 σ, where σ is the standard deviation, marking the coal fire areas. The SAGBT method used the basic outer boundary of the coal-bearing strata to simply exclude false alarms. The intermediate thresholds reduced the coupling with the temperature and converged by changing the potential high gradient buffers. This simple approach can be economical and accurate in identifying coal fire areas. In addition, it allows for the identification of thresholds using multiple ASTER TIR scenes in a consistent and uniform manner, and supports long-term coal fire change analyses using

  17. Numerical evaluation of the coefficients of thermal expansion of fibers in composite materials using a lamina-scale cost function with quasi-analytical gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hyuk [Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Charpentier, Jean Baptiste [École Nationale Supérieur des Mines de Saint-Étienne, Saint-Étienne (France); Sohn, Dong Woo [Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    In this work, the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) of fibers in composite materials that contain microstructures are numerically evaluated using a lamina-scale cost function with quasi-analytical gradients. To consider the effects of fiber arrangements and local defects, such as interface debonding and voids, a variety of representative volume elements are modeled with a number of finite element meshes. Then, the CTEs of fibers are evaluated by minimizing a lamina-scale cost function that represents the difference between the measured CTEs and the computed CTEs by means of a computational homogenization scheme for the composite lamina. The descent direction of the cost function is obtained using quasi-analytical gradients that take partial derivatives from prediction models, such as the Schapery model and Hashin model defined in an explicit manner, which accelerates the minimization procedure. To verify the performance of the proposed scheme in terms of accuracy and efficiency, the CTEs of constituents calculated using the proposed scheme in a unidirectional composite lamina are compared with experimental values reported in the literature. Furthermore, the convergence behavior of the proposed scheme with quasi-analytical gradients is also investigated and compared with other minimization methods.

  18. A rapid fabrication of C/C composites by a thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration method with vaporized kerosene as a precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jiping [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)]. E-mail:; Qian Junmin [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Qiao Guanjun [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Jin Zhihao [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)


    A thermal gradient, atmospheric pressure chemical vapor infiltration method with simultaneous vaporized kerosene as a precursor for rapid fabrication of C/C composites was studied. By this method, carbon felts (bulk density {approx}0.2 g cm{sup -3}) were densified to C/C composites with density of 1.67 and 1.71 g cm{sup -3} when prepared at 1050 and 1150 deg. C for 6 h, respectively. X-ray diffraction result indicates that the composites have a strong ability to graphitize and the higher deposition temperature leads to the increased graphitization degree. Polarized light microscope and scanning electron microscope images reveal that fibers of the composites prepared for 6 h are surrounded by ring-shaped pyrocarbon matrix with a thickness of {approx}20 {mu}m, and that the matrix is delaminated to 4-6 layer-like regions. The deposition process is analyzed by dividing the reactor into four regions associated with specific functions and the reasons for the rapid fabrication are proposed as the short convection and diffusion path for the precursor and the existing of thermal gradient across the preform.

  19. Thermal Investigation in the Cappadocia Region, Central Anatolia-Turkey, Analyzing Curie Point Depth, Geothermal Gradient, and Heat-Flow Maps from the Aeromagnetic Data (United States)

    Bilim, Funda; Kosaroglu, Sinan; Aydemir, Attila; Buyuksarac, Aydin


    In this study, curie point depth (CPD), heat flow, geothermal gradient, and radiogenic heat production maps of the Cappadocian region in central Anatolia are presented to reveal the thermal structure from the aeromagnetic data. The large, circular pattern in these maps matches with previously determined shallow (2 km in average) depression. Estimated CPDs in this depression filled with loose volcano-clastics and ignimbrite sheets of continental Neogene units vary from 7 to 12 km, while the geothermal gradient increases from 50 to 68 °C/km. Heat flows were calculated using two different conductivity coefficients of 2.3 and 2.7 Wm-1 K-1. The radiogenic heat production was also obtained between 0.45 and 0.70 μW m-3 in this area. Heat-flow maps were compared with the previous, regional heat-flow map of Turkey and significant differences were observed. In contrast to linear heat-flow increment through the northeast in the previous map in the literature, produced maps in this study include a large, caldera-like circular depression between Nevsehir, Aksaray, Nigde, and Yesilhisar cities indicating high geothermal gradient and higher heat-flow values. In addition, active deformation is evident with young magmatism in the Neogene and Quaternary times and a large volcanic cover on the surface. Boundaries of volcanic eruption centers and buried large intrusions are surrounded with the maxspots of the horizontal gradients of magnetic anomalies. Analytic signal (AS) map pointing-out exact locations of causative bodies is also presented in this study. Circular region in the combined map of AS and maxspots apparently indicates a possible caldera.

  20. Thermal Investigation in the Cappadocia Region, Central Anatolia-Turkey, Analyzing Curie Point Depth, Geothermal Gradient, and Heat-Flow Maps from the Aeromagnetic Data (United States)

    Bilim, Funda; Kosaroglu, Sinan; Aydemir, Attila; Buyuksarac, Aydin


    In this study, curie point depth (CPD), heat flow, geothermal gradient, and radiogenic heat production maps of the Cappadocian region in central Anatolia are presented to reveal the thermal structure from the aeromagnetic data. The large, circular pattern in these maps matches with previously determined shallow (2 km in average) depression. Estimated CPDs in this depression filled with loose volcano-clastics and ignimbrite sheets of continental Neogene units vary from 7 to 12 km, while the geothermal gradient increases from 50 to 68 °C/km. Heat flows were calculated using two different conductivity coefficients of 2.3 and 2.7 Wm-1 K-1. The radiogenic heat production was also obtained between 0.45 and 0.70 μW m-3 in this area. Heat-flow maps were compared with the previous, regional heat-flow map of Turkey and significant differences were observed. In contrast to linear heat-flow increment through the northeast in the previous map in the literature, produced maps in this study include a large, caldera-like circular depression between Nevsehir, Aksaray, Nigde, and Yesilhisar cities indicating high geothermal gradient and higher heat-flow values. In addition, active deformation is evident with young magmatism in the Neogene and Quaternary times and a large volcanic cover on the surface. Boundaries of volcanic eruption centers and buried large intrusions are surrounded with the maxspots of the horizontal gradients of magnetic anomalies. Analytic signal (AS) map pointing-out exact locations of causative bodies is also presented in this study. Circular region in the combined map of AS and maxspots apparently indicates a possible caldera.

  1. Effect of thermal non-equilibrium, seafloor topography and fluid advection on BSR-derived geothermal gradient

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, R.; Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.; Kumar, B.J.P.; Vishwanath, K.

    ) in the southeastern and southwestern parts of the study area, a couple of closely spaced mounds (M1 and M2) are observed in the southwestern part and are associated with steep seafloor gradient, an elliptical shaped mound (M3) with its major axis extending SW... over the elliptical mound (M3) in the mid slope region. A distinct fault F1 is observed in N-S direction on the western edge of MTD-4. A ridge-like feature (SR1) trending NW-SE is observed as a continuation of outer toe-thrust in the southwestern part...

  2. Possible Patient Early Diagnosis by Ultrasonic Noninvasive Estimation of Thermal Gradients into Tissues Based on Spectral Changes Modeling


    I. Bazan; Ramos, A.; H. Calas; Ramirez, A.; Pintle, R.; Gomez, T. E.; Negreira, C.; F. J. Gallegos; Rosales, A. J.


    To achieve a precise noninvasive temperature estimation, inside patient tissues, would open promising research fields, because its clinic results would provide early-diagnosis tools. In fact, detecting changes of thermal origin in ultrasonic echo spectra could be useful as an early complementary indicator of infections, inflammations, or cancer. But the effective clinic applications to diagnosis of thermometry ultrasonic techniques, proposed previously, require additional research. Before the...

  3. Inducing magnetic anisotropy and optimized microstructure in rapidly solidified Nd-Fe-B based magnets by thermal gradient, magnetic field and hot deformation (United States)

    Zhao, L. Z.; Li, W.; Wu, X. H.; Hussain, M.; Liu, Z. W.; Zhang, G. Q.; Greneche, J. M.


    Direct preparation of Nd-Fe-B alloys by rapid solidification of copper mold casting is a very simple and low cost process for mini-magnets, but these magnets are generally magnetically isotropic. In this work, high coercivity Nd24Co20Fe41B11Al4 rods were produced by injection casting. To induce magnetic anisotropy, temperature gradient, assisted magnetic field, and hot deformation (HD) procedures were employed. As-cast samples showed non-uniform microstructure due to the melt convection. The thermal gradient during solidification led to the formation of radially distributed acicular hard magnetic grains, which gives the magnetic anisotropy. The growth of the oriented grains was confirmed by phase field simulation. A magnetic field up to 1 T applied along the casting direction could not induce significant magnetic anisotropy, but it improved the magnetic properties by reducing the non-uniformity and forming a uniform microstructure. The annealed alloys exhibited high intrinsic coercivity but disappeared anisotropy. HD was demonstrated to be a good approach for inducing magnetic anisotropy and enhanced coercivity by deforming and refining the grains. This work provides an alternative approach for preparing fully dense Nd-rich anisotropic bulk Nd-Fe-B magnets.

  4. 3-D numerical simulation of Yb:YAG active slabs with longitudinal doping gradient for thermal load effects assessment. (United States)

    Ferrara, P; Ciofini, M; Esposito, L; Hostaša, J; Labate, L; Lapucci, A; Pirri, A; Toci, G; Vannini, M; Gizzi, L A


    We present a study of Yb:YAG active media slabs, based on a ceramic layered structure with different doping levels. We developed a procedure allowing 3D numerical analysis of the slab optical properties as a consequence of the thermal load induced by the pump process. The simulations are compared with a set of experimental results in order to validate the procedure. These structured ceramics appear promising in appropriate geometrical configurations, and thus are intended to be applied in the construction of High Energy Diode Pumped Solid State Laser (DPSSL) systems working in high repetition-rate pulsed regimes.

  5. Possible Patient Early Diagnosis by Ultrasonic Noninvasive Estimation of Thermal Gradients into Tissues Based on Spectral Changes Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bazan


    Full Text Available To achieve a precise noninvasive temperature estimation, inside patient tissues, would open promising research fields, because its clinic results would provide early-diagnosis tools. In fact, detecting changes of thermal origin in ultrasonic echo spectra could be useful as an early complementary indicator of infections, inflammations, or cancer. But the effective clinic applications to diagnosis of thermometry ultrasonic techniques, proposed previously, require additional research. Before their implementations with ultrasonic probes and real-time electronic and processing systems, rigorous analyses must be still made over transient echotraces acquired from well-controlled biological and computational phantoms, to improve resolutions and evaluate clinic limitations. It must be based on computing improved signal-processing algorithms emulating tissues responses. Some related parameters in echo-traces reflected by semiregular scattering tissues must be carefully quantified to get a precise processing protocols definition. In this paper, approaches for non-invasive spectral ultrasonic detection are analyzed. Extensions of author's innovations for ultrasonic thermometry are shown and applied to computationally modeled echotraces from scattered biological phantoms, attaining high resolution (better than 0.1°C. Computer methods are provided for viability evaluation of thermal estimation from echoes with distinct noise levels, difficult to be interpreted, and its effectiveness is evaluated as possible diagnosis tool in scattered tissues like liver.

  6. Possible patient early diagnosis by ultrasonic noninvasive estimation of thermal gradients into tissues based on spectral changes modeling. (United States)

    Bazan, I; Ramos, A; Calas, H; Ramirez, A; Pintle, R; Gomez, T E; Negreira, C; Gallegos, F J; Rosales, A J


    To achieve a precise noninvasive temperature estimation, inside patient tissues, would open promising research fields, because its clinic results would provide early-diagnosis tools. In fact, detecting changes of thermal origin in ultrasonic echo spectra could be useful as an early complementary indicator of infections, inflammations, or cancer. But the effective clinic applications to diagnosis of thermometry ultrasonic techniques, proposed previously, require additional research. Before their implementations with ultrasonic probes and real-time electronic and processing systems, rigorous analyses must be still made over transient echotraces acquired from well-controlled biological and computational phantoms, to improve resolutions and evaluate clinic limitations. It must be based on computing improved signal-processing algorithms emulating tissues responses. Some related parameters in echo-traces reflected by semiregular scattering tissues must be carefully quantified to get a precise processing protocols definition. In this paper, approaches for non-invasive spectral ultrasonic detection are analyzed. Extensions of author's innovations for ultrasonic thermometry are shown and applied to computationally modeled echotraces from scattered biological phantoms, attaining high resolution (better than 0.1 °C). Computer methods are provided for viability evaluation of thermal estimation from echoes with distinct noise levels, difficult to be interpreted, and its effectiveness is evaluated as possible diagnosis tool in scattered tissues like liver.

  7. Enhanced Gender Recognition System Using an Improved Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) Feature from Quality Assessment of Visible Light and Thermal Images of the Human Body. (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Park, Kang Ryoung


    With higher demand from users, surveillance systems are currently being designed to provide more information about the observed scene, such as the appearance of objects, types of objects, and other information extracted from detected objects. Although the recognition of gender of an observed human can be easily performed using human perception, it remains a difficult task when using computer vision system images. In this paper, we propose a new human gender recognition method that can be applied to surveillance systems based on quality assessment of human areas in visible light and thermal camera images. Our research is novel in the following two ways: First, we utilize the combination of visible light and thermal images of the human body for a recognition task based on quality assessment. We propose a quality measurement method to assess the quality of image regions so as to remove the effects of background regions in the recognition system. Second, by combining the features extracted using the histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) method and the measured qualities of image regions, we form a new image features, called the weighted HOG (wHOG), which is used for efficient gender recognition. Experimental results show that our method produces more accurate estimation results than the state-of-the-art recognition method that uses human body images.

  8. Enhanced Gender Recognition System Using an Improved Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) Feature from Quality Assessment of Visible Light and Thermal Images of the Human Body (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Park, Kang Ryoung


    With higher demand from users, surveillance systems are currently being designed to provide more information about the observed scene, such as the appearance of objects, types of objects, and other information extracted from detected objects. Although the recognition of gender of an observed human can be easily performed using human perception, it remains a difficult task when using computer vision system images. In this paper, we propose a new human gender recognition method that can be applied to surveillance systems based on quality assessment of human areas in visible light and thermal camera images. Our research is novel in the following two ways: First, we utilize the combination of visible light and thermal images of the human body for a recognition task based on quality assessment. We propose a quality measurement method to assess the quality of image regions so as to remove the effects of background regions in the recognition system. Second, by combining the features extracted using the histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) method and the measured qualities of image regions, we form a new image features, called the weighted HOG (wHOG), which is used for efficient gender recognition. Experimental results show that our method produces more accurate estimation results than the state-of-the-art recognition method that uses human body images. PMID:27455264

  9. Wave propagation in fluid-conveying viscoelastic carbon nanotubes under longitudinal magnetic field with thermal and surface effect via nonlocal strain gradient theory (United States)

    Zhen, Yaxin; Zhou, Lin


    Based on nonlocal strain gradient theory, wave propagation in fluid-conveying viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is studied in this paper. With consideration of thermal effect and surface effect, wave equation is derived for fluid-conveying viscoelastic SWCNTs under longitudinal magnetic field utilizing Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The closed-form expressions are derived for the frequency and phase velocity of the wave motion. The influences of fluid flow velocity, structural damping coefficient, temperature change, magnetic flux and surface effect are discussed in detail. SWCNTs’ viscoelasticity reduces the wave frequency of the system and the influence gets remarkable with the increase of wave number. The fluid in SWCNTs decreases the frequency of wave propagation to a certain extent. The frequency (phase velocity) gets larger due to the existence of surface effect, especially when the diameters of SWCNTs and the wave number decrease. The wave frequency increases with the increase of the longitudinal magnetic field, while decreases with the increase of the temperature change. The results may be helpful for better understanding the potential applications of SWCNTs in nanotechnology.

  10. Correlation of Electrical Resistance to CMC Stress-Strain and Fracture Behavior Under High Heat-Flux Thermal and Stress Gradients (United States)

    Appleby, Matthew; Morscher, Gregory; Zhu, Dongming


    Because SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are under consideration for use as turbine engine hot-section components in extreme environments, it becomes necessary to investigate their performance and damage morphologies under complex loading and environmental conditions. Monitoring of electrical resistance (ER) has been shown as an effective tool for detecting damage accumulation of woven melt-infiltrated SiCSiC CMCs. However, ER change under complicated thermo-mechanical loading is not well understood. In this study a systematic approach is taken to determine the capabilities of ER as a relevant non-destructive evaluation technique for high heat-flux testing, including thermal gradients and localized stress concentrations. Room temperature and high temperature, laser-based tensile tests were conducted in which stress-dependent damage locations were determined using modal acoustic emission (AE) monitoring and compared to full-field strain mapping using digital image correlation (DIC). This information is then compared with the results of in-situ ER monitoring, post-test ER inspection and fractography in order to correlate ER response to convoluted loading conditions and damage evolution.

  11. Avaliação dos índices de conforto térmico, parâmetros fisiológicos e gradiente térmico de ovinos nativos Assessment of thermal comfort indexes, physiological parameters and thermal gradient of native sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyla L. Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de determinar os índices de conforto térmico em instalações para ovinos, analisar os parâmetros fisiológicos e o gradiente térmico de quatro grupos genéticos, na região semiárida paraibana. Foram utilizados 40 animais, dez por grupo genético, que foram: Cariri, Morada Nova, Barriga Negra e Cara Curta, todas fêmeas, alojadas aleatoriamente em quatro apriscos. Os índices ambientais dentro das instalações, principalmente das 11 às 15 h, ficaram acima da zona de conforto térmico para ovinos adultos, com exceção da umidade relativa do ar, que ficou com média diária de 67,5%. A temperatura retal dos animais esteve dentro da faixa normal, sendo o grupo genético Morada Nova o que apresentou menor valor (38,6 ºC. A frequência respiratória dos animais em cada grupo genético ficou acima do valor recomendado, porém o Morada Nova apresentou o menor valor (43,5 mov min-1; em contrapartida, o Cariri e o Barriga Negra apresentaram os maiores valores (48,0 e 47,3 mov min-1, respectivamente. Os animais com pelagem mais escura e de maior porte, como os da raça Cariri, apresentaram maior gradiente térmico entre a temperatura do ar e a temperatura superficial. Os animais apresentaram alto índice de tolerância ao calor, ou seja, bem adaptados ao ambiente tropical, podendo o grupo genético Cariri ser caracterizado como o menos adaptado e o Morada Nova considerado o mais bem adaptado às condições experimentais.The objective of this research was to determine the thermal comfort indexes for sheep raising installations, analyze the physiological parameters and the thermal gradient of four sheep genetic groups in the semi-arid region of the state of Paraiba, Brazil. Forty animals were used, being ten individuals per genetic group; the groups were: 'Cariri', 'Morada Nova', 'Barriga Negra' and 'Cara Curta'. All of them females and randomly housed in four adequate installations. The environmental indexes inside

  12. Examination of Surface Temperature Modification by Open-Top Chambers along Moisture and Latitudinal Gradients in Arctic Alaska Using Thermal Infrared Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan C. Healey


    Full Text Available Passive warming manipulation methodologies, such as open-top chambers (OTCs, are a meaningful approach for interpretation of impacts of climate change on the Arctic tundra biome. The magnitude of OTC warming has been studied extensively, revealing an average plot-level warming of air temperature that ranges between 1 and 3 °C as measured by shielded resistive sensors or thermocouples. Studies have also shown that the amount of OTC warming depends in part on location climate, vegetation, and soil properties. While digital infrared thermometers have been employed in a few comparisons, most of the focus of the effectiveness of OTC warming has been on air or soil temperature rather than tissue or surface temperatures, which directly translate to metabolism. Here we used thermal infrared (TIR photography to quantify tissue and surface temperatures and their spatial variability at a previously unavailable resolution (3–6 mm2. We analyzed plots at three locations that are part of the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX-Arctic Observing Network (AON-ITEX network along both moisture and latitudinal gradients spanning from the High Arctic (Barrow, AK, USA to the Low Arctic (Toolik Lake, AK, USA. Our results show a range of OTC surface warming from 2.65 to 1.27 °C (31%–10% at our three sites. The magnitude of surface warming detected by TIR imagery in this study was comparable to increases in air temperatures previously reported for these sites. However, the thermal images revealed wide ranges of surface temperatures within the OTCs, with some surfaces well above ambient unevenly distributed within the plots under sunny conditions. We note that analyzing radiometric temperature may be an alternative for future studies that examine data acquired at the same time of day from sites that are in close geographic proximity to avoid the requirement of emissivity or atmospheric correction for validation of results. We foresee future studies using TIR

  13. Zircon record of fractionation, hydrous partial melting and thermal gradients at different depths in oceanic crust (ODP Site 735B, South-West Indian Ocean) (United States)

    Pietranik, A.; Storey, C.; Koepke, J.; Lasalle, S.


    Felsic veins (plagiogranites) are distributed throughout the whole oceanic crust section and offer insight into late-magmatic/high temperature hydrothermal processes within the oceanic crust. Despite constituting only 0.5% of the oceanic crust section drilled in IODP Site 735B, they carry a significant budget of incompatible elements, which they redistribute within the crust. Such melts are saturated in accessory minerals, such as zircon, titanite and apatite, and often zircon is the only remaining phase that preserves magmatic composition and records processes of felsic melt formation and evolution. In this study, we analysed zircon from four depths in IODP Site 735B; they come from the oxide gabbro (depth approximately 250 m below sea floor) and plagiogranite (depths c. 500, 860, 940 m below sea floor). All zircons have similar ɛHf composition of c. 15 units indicating an isotopically homogenous source for the mafic magmas forming IODP Site 735B gabbro. Zircons from oxide gabbro are scarce and variable in composition consistent with their crystallization from melts formed by both fractionation of mafic magmas and hydrous remelting of gabbro cumulate. On the other hand, zircon from plagiogranite is abundant and each sample is characterized by compositional trends consistent with crystallization of zircon in an evolving melt. However, the trends are different between the plagiogranite at 500 m bsf and the deeper sections, which are interpreted as the record of plagiogranite formation by two processes: remelting of gabbro cumulate at 500 m bsf and fractionation at deeper sections. Zircon from both oxide gabbro and plagiogranite has δ18O from 3.5 to 6.0‰. Values of δ18O are best explained by redistribution of δ18O in a thermal gradient and not by remelting of hydrothermally altered crust. Tentatively, it is suggested that fractionation could be an older episode contemporaneous with gabbro crystallization and remelting could be a younger one, triggered by

  14. Water/rock interactions and mass transport within a thermal gradient Application to the confinement of high level nuclear waste; Interactions solide/solution et transferts de matiere dans un gradient de temperature. Application au confinement des dechets nucleaires de haute-activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poinssot, Ch. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets]|[Ecole Normale Superieure, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Laboratoire de Geologie


    The initial stage of a high level nuclear waste disposal will be characterised by a large heat release within the near-field environment of the canisters. This heat flux caused by radioactive decay will lead to an increase of temperature and a subsequent thermal gradient between the `hot` canisters and the `cold`geological medium. In addition, this thermal gradient will decrease with time due to the heat decay although it could last hundred years. What will be the consequences of such a thermal field varying both on space and time for the alteration of the different constituents of the near field environment. In particular, what could be the effects on the radionuclides migration in the accidental case of an early breach of a canister during the thermal stage? This study brings significant answers to these questions in the light of a performance assessment study. This work is supported by a triple methodological approach involving experimental studies, modelling calculations and a natural analogues study. This complete work demonstrates that a thermal gradient leads to a large re-distribution of elements within the system: some elements are incorporated in the solid phases of the hot end (Si, Zr, Ca) whereas some others are in those of the cold end (Fe, Al, Zn). The confrontation of the results of very simple experiments with the results of a model built on equilibrium thermodynamics allow us to evidence the probable mechanisms causing this mass transport: out-of-equilibrium thermodiffusion processes coupled to irreversible precipitation. Moreover, the effects of the variation of temperatures with time is studied by the way of a natural system which underwent a similar temperature evolution as a disposal and which was initially rich in uranium: the Jurassic Alpine bauxites. In addition, part of the initial bauxite escaped this temperature transformations due to their incorporation in outer thrusting nappes. They are used as a reference. (author)

  15. Drilling and thermal gradient measurements at US Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California. Final report, October 1, 1983-March 31, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, D.T.; Flynn, T.; Ghusn, G. Jr.


    Seven temperature gradient holes were drilled at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California, as part of a cooperative research and development program, jointly funded by the Navy and Department of Energy. The purpose of this program was to assess geothermal resources at selected Department of Defense installations. Drill site selection was based on geophysical anomalies delineated by combined gravity, ground magnetic and aeromagnetic surveys. Temperature gradients ranged from 1.3/sup 0/C/100 m (1/sup 0/F/100 ft.) in hole No. 1 to 15.3/sup 0/C/100 m (8.3/sup 0/F/100 ft.) in temperature gradient hole No. 6. Large, positive geothermal gradients in temperature gradient holes 5 and 6, combined with respective bottom hole temperatures of 51.6/sup 0/C (125/sup 0/F) and 67/sup 0/C (153/sup 0/F), indicate that an extensive, moderate-temperature geothermal resource is located on the MCAGCC. The geothermal reservoir appears to be situated in old, unconsolidated alluvial material and is structurally bounded on the east by the Mesquite Lake fault and on the west by the Surprise Spring fault. If measured temperature gradients continue to increase at the observed rate, temperatures in excess of 80/sup 0/C (178/sup 0/F) can be expected at a depth of 2000 feet.

  16. Survival and behaviour of juvenile unionid mussels exposed to thermal stress and dewatering in the presence of a sediment temperature gradient (United States)

    Archambault, L.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kwak, Thomas J.


    Freshwater mussels (Unionidae) are a highly imperilled faunal group. One critical threat is thermal sensitivity, because global climate change and other anthropogenic activities contribute to increasing stream temperature and altered hydrologic flow that may be detrimental to freshwater mussels.

  17. Techniques for Mitigating Thermal Fatigue Degradation, Controlling Efficiency, and Extending Lifetime in a ZnO Thermoelectric Using Grain Size Gradient FGMs (United States)

    Cramer, Corson L.; Li, Wenjie; Jin, Zhi-He; Wang, Jue; Ma, Kaka; Holland, Troy B.


    A functionally graded material (FGM) in terms of grain size gradation is fabricated using zinc oxide (ZnO) with spark plasma sintering and an additive manufacturing technique by diffusion bonding layers of material sintered at different temperatures to achieve a thermoelectric generator (TEG) material that can dissipate heat well and retain high energy conversion efficiency for longer-lasting and comparably efficient TEGs. This FGM is compared to a previously made FGM with continuous grain size gradation. Uniform and graded grain size conditions are modeled for thermoelectric output by using thermoelectric properties of the uniform grain size as well as the varying properties seen in the FGMs. The actual thermoelectric output of the samples is measured and compared to the simulations. The grain size has a large effect on the efficiency and efficiency range. The samples are thermally cycled with a fast heating rate to test the thermal stress robustness and degradation, and the resistance at the highest temperature is measured to indicate degradation from thermal stress. The measured efficiency after cycling shows that the FGMs survive longer lifetime than that with uniform small grains.

  18. Numeral analysis for Prandtl number dependency on natural convection in an enclosure having a vertical thermal gradient with a square insulator inside

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Ryong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Il Seouk [School of Mechanical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    The natural convection in a horizontal enclosure heated from the bottom wall, cooled at the top wall, and having a square adiabatic body in the center is studied. Three different Prandtl numbers (0.01, 0.7 and 7) are considered for the investigation of the effect of the Prandtl number on natural convection. Adiabatic boundary conditions are employed for the side walls. A two dimensional solution for unsteady natural convection is obtained, using an accurate and efficient Chebyshev spectral methodology for different Rayleigh numbers varying over the range of 103 to 106. It had been experimentally reported that the heat transfer mode becomes oscillatory when Pr is out of a specific Pr band beyond the critical Ra. In this study, we reproduced this phenomenon numerically. It was found that when Ra=106, only the case for intermediate Pr (=0.7) reached a non-changing steady state and the low and high Pr number cases (Pr=0.01 and 7) showed a periodically oscillatory fashion hydro dynamically and thermally. The variation of time- and surface-averaged Nusselt numbers on the hot and cold walls for different Rayleigh numbers and Prandtl numbers are presented to show the overall heat transfer characteristics in the system. Further, the isotherms and streamline distributions are presented in detail to compare the physics related to their thermal behavior.

  19. Thermal Gradient Data Acquisition System Documentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, Larry D; Robinson, Scott B; Leon, Lisa


    ... that can be recorded in mice. Since acceptable commercial systems are not available, this system was custom-built to acquire data using National Instruments' versatile hardware components and LabVIEW...

  20. Mechanical behavior of flexible pavements undergoing thermal gradients - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i3.10848 Comportamento mecânico de pavimentos flexíveis submetidos a gradientes térmicos - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i3.10848

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pivoto Specht


    Full Text Available The proper structural understanding of a pavement should consider, according to the pavement mechanics, the aspects related to the traffic load, the environment and material properties. When asphaltic materials are used, the stress/strain relationships and the dependencies of load-time and temperature are key parameters for understanding flexible pavement performance. In this study, we employed the finite elements method to calculate stress/strain in flexible pavements structures considering temperature variation. The input data includes material stiffness, which is function of temperature and changes with position and time. The pavement temperature is obtained through the heat transfer differential equation, applying the Laplace transform and its numerical inversion. The finite elements grid was generated by the software ANSYS® and imported by the software MATLAB®. In order to determine the stiffness of the first layer (asphalt concrete we used the average of four nodes, depending on the each node temperature. The result evidences the importance of thermal gradients for the pavement analysis, both for the fatigue cracking and the accumulation of plastic deformations. The use of unique modulus for asphalt concrete layer generates results far from reality.O adequado entendimento estrutural de um pavimento deve considerar, segundo a mecânica dos pavimentos, os aspectos relacionados aos carregamentos, ao meio físico e às propriedades dos materiais constituintes. No caso de materiais asfálticos, as relações entre tensão e deformação e as dependências do tempo de carregamento e da temperatura são fundamentais para o avanço no entendimento do desempenho de pavimentos flexíveis. Neste trabalho foi utilizando o método de elementos finitos para o cálculo das tensões e deformações em pavimentos flexíveis considerando variações de temperatura. Os dados de entrada incluem a rigidez dos materiais, que é função da temperatura, a qual

  1. Superconductors in a temperature gradient

    CERN Document Server

    Huebener, Rudolf Peter


    In the mixed state of a type II superconductor quasiparticles and magnetic flux quanta respond to a temperature gradient by thermal diffusion, in this way generating the Seebeck and Nernst effects, respectively. Our understanding of the Seebeck effect originates from an extension of the two-fluid counterflow concept, originally introduced by Ginzburg, to the situation where vortices (with a normal core) are imbedded in the superconducting phase. This mechanism results in an intimate connection between the Seebeck coefficient and the electric resistivity due to vortex motion. In all thermal diffusion processes it is the transport entropy of the diffusing species that determines the driving force, and the physics of this quantity is illustrated. Our discussion of the experimental side concentrates on the recent work performed with the cuprate superconductors. The characteristic broadening of the resistive transition in the mixed state, found in these materials due to their high anisotropy and the peculiar vorte...

  2. Universal gradient descent


    Gasnikov, Alexander


    In this small book we collect many different and useful facts around gradient descent method. First of all we consider gradient descent with inexact oracle. We build a general model of optimized function that include composite optimization approach, level's methods, proximal methods etc. Then we investigate primal-dual properties of the gradient descent in general model set-up. At the end we generalize method to universal one.

  3. Personal Exposure in a Ventilated Room with Concentration Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper deals with personal exposure in rooms with concentration gradients and persons present. Results from case studies including a breathing thermal manikin in a displacement ventilated room and in a wind channel are presented.......This paper deals with personal exposure in rooms with concentration gradients and persons present. Results from case studies including a breathing thermal manikin in a displacement ventilated room and in a wind channel are presented....

  4. Gradient and vorticity banding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhont, Jan K.G.; Briels, Willem J.


    "Banded structures" of macroscopic dimensions can be induced by simple shear flow in many different types of soft matter systems. Depending on whether these bands extend along the gradient or vorticity direction, the banding transition is referred to as "gradient banding" or "vorticity banding,"

  5. Second gradient poromechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Sciarra, Giulio; Coussy, Olivier


    Second gradient theories have been developed in mechanics for treating different phenomena as capillarity in fluids, plasticity and friction in granular materials or shear band deformations. Here, there is an attempt of formulating a second gradient Biot like model for porous materials. In particular the interest is focused in describing the local dilatant behaviour of a porous material induced by pore opening elastic and capillary interaction phenomena among neighbouring pores and related micro-filtration phenomena by means of a continuum microstructured model. The main idea is to extend the classical macroscopic Biot model by including in the description second gradient effects. This is done by assuming that the surface contribution to the external work rate functional depends on the normal derivative of the velocity or equivalently assuming that the strain work rate functional depends on the porosity and strain gradients. According to classical thermodynamics suitable restrictions for stresses and second g...

  6. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center


    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  7. Preconditioned Stochastic Gradient Descent. (United States)

    Li, Xi-Lin


    Stochastic gradient descent (SGD) still is the workhorse for many practical problems. However, it converges slow, and can be difficult to tune. It is possible to precondition SGD to accelerate its convergence remarkably. But many attempts in this direction either aim at solving specialized problems, or result in significantly more complicated methods than SGD. This paper proposes a new method to adaptively estimate a preconditioner, such that the amplitudes of perturbations of preconditioned stochastic gradient match that of the perturbations of parameters to be optimized in a way comparable to Newton method for deterministic optimization. Unlike the preconditioners based on secant equation fitting as done in deterministic quasi-Newton methods, which assume positive definite Hessian and approximate its inverse, the new preconditioner works equally well for both convex and nonconvex optimizations with exact or noisy gradients. When stochastic gradient is used, it can naturally damp the gradient noise to stabilize SGD. Efficient preconditioner estimation methods are developed, and with reasonable simplifications, they are applicable to large-scale problems. Experimental results demonstrate that equipped with the new preconditioner, without any tuning effort, preconditioned SGD can efficiently solve many challenging problems like the training of a deep neural network or a recurrent neural network requiring extremely long-term memories.

  8. Uniform gradient expansions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giovannini


    Full Text Available Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The effects of thermal gradients on stem add one methodological constraint for estimating sap flow through the Granier method (thermal dissipation probe. The present work studied the effect of natural thermal gradients on estimates of sap flow by using thermal dissipation probe in mango plants. The study was carried by using mango plants of the cultivar Tommy Atkins during two development stages: (a during the initial development phase of plants with leaf area of 0.66, 0.73, 1.78 m2 , planted in 15 and 50 liters pots. The study was carried in a greenhouse environment and in the field. Different thermal shields were used around the stem of plants in pots in order to minimize the effects of thermal natural gradients. The measurements of thermal differences were obtained from an adult plant with high leaf density and small exposition of branches to solar radiation. Sensors placed in stems of adult plant with high leaf density provided smaller thermal gradients compared to those inserted in young plant stems. It is necessary to cover the whole branch with neoprene and a shield (skirt type of aluminum paper above and below the location of probe insertion for exposed branches. The air temperature at 2 m height may be used efficiently to correct thermal gradients. It is indispensable the correction of natural thermal gradients in the stem for adequate estimating sap flow density by the Granier method.

  10. Probabilistic Multileave Gradient Descent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, H.; Schuth, A.; de Rijke, M.; Ferro, N.; Crestani, F.; Moens, M.-F.; Mothe, J.; Silvestri, F.; Di Nunzio, G.M.; Hauff, C.; Silvello, G.


    Online learning to rank methods aim to optimize ranking models based on user interactions. The dueling bandit gradient descent (DBGD) algorithm is able to effectively optimize linear ranking models solely from user interactions. We propose an extension of DBGD, called probabilistic multileave

  11. Use of Ground Penetrating Radar to Study Gradient Media (United States)

    Titov, A.


    Nowadays Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is often used to solve different problems of applied geophysics including the hydrological ones. This work was motivated by detection of weak reflections in the body of water observed during the surveys on the freshwater lakes using GPR. The same reflections were first analyzed by John Bradford in 2007. These reflections can arise from the thermal gradient layer or thermocline due to different dielectric permittivity of cold and warm water. We employed physical and mathematical modeling to identify the properties of such thermoclines. We have constructed a special GPR stand to study the gradient media in our laboratory. The stand consists of a water-filled plastic tank and plastic tubes, which gather the cold water under the warm water. Our stand allows for changing parameters of the gradient layer, such as limits of dielectric permittivity and the thickness of the gradient layer. GPR antenna was placed slightly under the water surface to remove the parasitic reflections. To visualize the thermal distribution, an infrared camera and thermal sensors were used. Analysis of the GPR traces after physical modeling, performed in the MATLAB environment, allows us to locate the weak reflection from the gradient layer. We observed that (i) the change of the gradient boundary values alters the amplitude of the signal, (ii) the arrival time of the impulse reflected from the gradient layer corresponds to the arrival time of the impulse reflected from the top boundary of this layer, and (iii) the shape of the signal reflected from the gradient layer coincides with the shape of the signal reflected from the non-gradient boundary between two bodies. The quantitative properties of thermocline can be determined using amplitude analysis of GPR signals. Finally, the developed methods were successfully applied to real field data.

  12. Thermal plumes in ventilated rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter; Nielsen, Peter V.


    The design of a displacement ventilation system involves determination of the flow rate in the thermal plumes. The flow rate in the plumes and the vertical temperature gradient influence each other, and they are influenced by many factors. This paper shows some descriptions of these effects. Free...... to be the only possible approach to obtain the volume flow in: thermal plumes in ventilated rooms....

  13. Increasing SLEDed Linac Gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Zoltan D


    This note will show how to increase the SLED [1] gradient by varying Q{sub e}, the external Q of the SLED cavity, by increasing its Q{sub 0} and by increasing the compression ratio. If varying the external Q is to be effective, then the copper losses should be small so that Q{sub 0} >> Q{sub e}. Methods of varying Q{sub e} will be indicated but no experimental data will be presented. If we increase the klystron pulse width from 3.5 to 5 {micro}S and increase Q{sub 0} from the present 100000 to 300000, then the gradient increases by 19% and the beam energy increases from 50 to 60 GeV. This note will also discuss SLED operation at 11424 MHz, the NLC frequency. Without Q{sub e} switching, using SLED at 11424 MHz increases the SLAC gradient from 21 MV/m to 34 MV/m, and at the same repetition rate, uses about 1/5 of rf average power. If we also double the compression ratio, we reach 47 MV/m and over 100 GeV beam energy.

  14. Geothermal gradient of Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro State; Gradiente geotermico da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnert, Ricardo J. [PETROBRAS, Campos, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Exploracao


    Study of thermal gradient in subsurface, using drilling wells as measurer to the temperature variation, its implications at oil classification and microorganisms actuation,on the sedimentary basin of Campos (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) are presented. Results obtained, main factors who control temperature distribution within wells, on the basin, temperature anomalies found and the relationship between temperature and oil pattern are also discussed. 10 figs., 9 refs

  15. Temperature gradients assist carbohydrate allocation within trees. (United States)

    Sperling, Or; Silva, Lucas C R; Tixier, Aude; Théroux-Rancourt, Guillaume; Zwieniecki, Maciej A


    Trees experience two distinct environments: thermally-variable air and thermally-buffered soil. This generates intra-tree temperature gradients, which can affect carbon metabolism and water transport. In this study, we investigated whether carbohydrate allocation within trees is assisted by temperature gradients. We studied pistachio (Pistacia integerrima) to determine: (1) temperature-induced variation in xylem sugar concentration in excised branches; (2) changes in carbon allocation in young trees under simulated spring and fall conditions; and (3) seasonal variability of starch levels in mature orchard trees under field conditions. We found that warm branches had less sugar in perfused sap than cold branches due to increasing parenchyma storage. Simulated spring conditions promoted allocation of carbohydrates from cold roots to warm canopy and explained why starch levels surged in canopies of orchard trees during early spring. This driving force of sugar transport is interrupted in fall when canopies are colder than roots and carbohydrate redistribution is compartmentalized. On the basis of these findings, we propose a new mechanistic model of temperature-assisted carbohydrate allocation that links environmental cues and tree phenology. This data-enabled model provides insights into thermal "fine-tuning" of carbohydrate metabolism and a warning that the physiological performance of trees might be impaired by climatic changes.

  16. Microfludic device for creating ionic strength gradients over DNA microarrays for efficient DNA melting studies and assay development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper; Poulsen, Lena; Birgens, Henrik


    is to use a thermal gradient and information from melting curves, for instance to score genotypes. However, application of temperature gradients normally requires complicated equipment, and the size of the arrays that can be investigated is restricted due to heat dissipation. Here we present a simple...... microfluidic device that creates a gradient comprising zones of defined ionic strength over a glass slide, in which each zone corresponds to a subarray. Using this device, we demonstrated that ionic strength gradients function in a similar fashion as corresponding thermal gradients in assay development. More...

  17. Generalized conjugate gradient squared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fokkema, D.R.; Sleijpen, G.L.G. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)


    In order to solve non-symmetric linear systems of equations, the Conjugate Gradient Squared (CGS) is a well-known and widely used iterative method. In practice the method converges fast, often twice as fast as the Bi-Conjugate Gradient method. This is what you may expect, since CGS uses the square of the BiCG polynomial. However, CGS may suffer from its erratic convergence behavior. The method may diverge or the approximate solution may be inaccurate. BiCGSTAB uses the BiCG polynomial and a product of linear factors in an attempt to smoothen the convergence. In many cases, this has proven to be very effective. Unfortunately, the convergence of BiCGSTAB may stall when a linear factor (nearly) degenerates. BiCGstab({ell}) is designed to overcome this degeneration of linear factors. It generalizes BiCGSTAB and uses both the BiCG polynomial and a product of higher order factors. Still, CGS may converge faster than BiCGSTAB or BiCGstab({ell}). So instead of using a product of linear or higher order factors, it may be worthwhile to look for other polynomials. Since the BiCG polynomial is based on a three term recursion, a natural choice would be a polynomial based on another three term recursion. Possibly, a suitable choice of recursion coefficients would result in method that converges faster or as fast as CGS, but less erratic. It turns out that an algorithm for such a method can easily be formulated. One particular choice for the recursion coefficients leads to CGS. Therefore one could call this algorithm generalized CGS. Another choice for the recursion coefficients leads to BiCGSTAB. It is therefore possible to mix linear factors and some polynomial based on a three term recursion. This way one may get the best of both worlds. The authors will report on their findings.

  18. Temperature gradient-induced magnetization reversal of single ferromagnetic nanowires (United States)

    Michel, Ann-Kathrin; Corinna Niemann, Anna; Boehnert, Tim; Martens, Stephan; Montero Moreno, Josep M.; Goerlitz, Detlef; Zierold, Robert; Reith, Heiko; Vega, Victor; Prida, Victor M.; Thomas, Andy; Gooth, Johannes; Nielsch, Kornelius


    In this study, we investigate the temperature- and temperature gradient-dependent magnetization reversal process of individual, single-domain Co39Ni61 and Fe15Ni85 ferromagnetic nanowires via the magneto-optical Kerr effect and magnetoresistance measurements. While the coercive fields (H C) and therefore the magnetic switching fields (H SW) generally decrease under isothermal conditions at elevated base temperatures (T base), temperature gradients (ΔT) along the nanowires lead to an increased switching field of up to 15% for ΔT  = 300 K in Co39Ni61 nanowires. This enhancement is attributed to a stress-induced, magneto-elastic anisotropy term due to an applied temperature gradient along the nanowire that counteracts the thermally assisted magnetization reversal process. Our results demonstrate that a careful distinction between locally elevated temperatures and temperature gradients has to be made in future heat-assisted magnetic recording devices.

  19. Geothermal gradient and heat flow in the state of Rio de Janeiro


    Gomes, Antonio Jorge de Lima; Hamza,Valiya Mannathal


    Results of geothermal studies carried out at 72 localities have been used in evaluation of temperature gradient and heat flow values of the upper crust in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The investigations included temperature logs in boreholes and wells, calculation of geothermal gradients, measurements of thermal conductivity and determination of heat flow density. In addition, estimates of temperature gradients and heat flow were also made for areas of thermo-mineral springs, based on the so-...

  20. The change of temperature gradient in solidification of hypereutectic chromium cast iron casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Studnicki


    Full Text Available In article the analysis of temperature gradient of solidification in section of hypereutectic chromium cast iron model casting was introduced. On this example was presented the method (DTGA – derivative and thermal gradient analysis, which was worked out in Department of Foundry Silesian University of Technology enabling the record of indispensable data to execution of analysis the temperature gradient and its derivative after time on section of model casting. It multichanneled apparatus to registration of data was used Crystaldigraph - PC.

  1. Gradient hydrogel coatings for medical applications (United States)

    Chinnayan Kannan, Pandiyarajan; Genzer, Jan

    Mussel byssus is a typical example for gradient material that demonstrates a continues variation in mechanical property (or modulus), i . e . , soft (proximal) part is connected to mussel, while the stiffer (distal) part facilitates the attachment of mussel to a stone. Mimicking such materials is highly demanding especially in the areas of artificial implants. We developed a simple synthetic route to produce gradient hydrogels that are covalently anchored to the substrate. N-isopropylacrylamide has been copolymerized with 5 mole% of photo-active (methacrylyloxybenzophenone) and/or 5% of thermally-active (styrenesulfonylazide) crosslinkers. The incorporation of photo and/or thermal crosslinkers allows us for a complete control over the network properties in orthogonal directions. A systematic investigation towards the gel kinetics, swelling, crosslink density, elasticity and protein adsorption was performed. Our results instigate that weakly crosslinked (low modulus) gels swell strong in aqueous medium than the densely crosslinked (high modulus) gels. The results of protein adsorption are discussed based on the previously developed model entropic shielding and size exclusion effect.

  2. Gradient Boosting Machines, A Tutorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey eNatekin


    Full Text Available Gradient boosting machines are a family of powerful machine-learning techniques that have shown considerable success in a wide range of practical applications. They are highly customizable to the particular needs of the application, like being learned with respect to different loss functions. This article gives a tutorial introduction into the methodology of gradient boosting methods. A theoretical information is complemented with many descriptive examples and illustrations which cover all the stages of the gradient boosting model design. Considerations on handling the model complexity are discussed. A set of practical examples of gradient boosting applications are presented and comprehensively analyzed.

  3. The temperature gradient on section of casting in process of primary crystallization of chromium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Studnicki


    Full Text Available The methodology of defining in article was introduced the temperature gradient in process of primary crystallization during cooling the casting from chromium cast iron on basis of measurements of thermal field in test DTA-K3. Insert also the preliminary results of investigations of influence temperature gradient on structure of studied wear resistance chromium cast iron.

  4. Carbon Nanotubes as Thermally Induced Water Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oyarzua, Elton; Walther, Jens Honore; Megaridis, Constantine M


    Thermal Brownian motors (TBMs) are nanoscale machines that exploit thermal fluctuations to provide useful work. We introduce a TBM-based nanopump which enables continuous water flow through a carbon nanotube (CNT) by imposing an axial thermal gradient along its surface. We impose spatial asymmetry...... along the CNT by immobilizing certain points on its surface. We study the performance of this molecular motor using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. From the MD trajectories, we compute the net water flow and the induced velocity profiles for various imposed thermal gradients. We find that spatial...

  5. Thermal cloak-concentrator (United States)

    Shen, Xiangying; Li, Ying; Jiang, Chaoran; Ni, Yushan; Huang, Jiping


    For macroscopically manipulating heat flow at will, thermal metamaterials have opened a practical way, which possesses a single function, such as either cloaking or concentrating the flow of heat even though environmental temperature varies. By developing a theory of transformation heat transfer for multiple functions, here we introduce the concept of intelligent thermal metamaterials with a dual function, which is in contrast to the existing thermal metamaterials with single functions. By assembling homogeneous isotropic materials and shape-memory alloys, we experimentally fabricate a kind of intelligent thermal metamaterials, which can automatically change from a cloak (or concentrator) to a concentrator (or cloak) when the environmental temperature changes. This work paves an efficient way for a controllable gradient of heat, and also provides guidance both for arbitrarily manipulating the flow of heat and for efficiently designing similar intelligent metamaterials in other fields.

  6. Strain gradients in epitaxial ferroelectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catalan, G; Noheda, Beatriz; McAneney, J; Sinnamon, LJ; Gregg, JM


    X-ray analysis of ferroelectric thin layers of Ba1/2Sr1/2TiO3 with different thicknesses reveals the presence of strain gradients across the films and allows us to propose a functional form for the internal strain profile. We use this to calculate the influence of strain gradient, through

  7. Computational Strain Gradient Crystal Plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.


    A model for strain gradient crystal visco-plasticity is formulated along the lines proposed by Fleck andWillis (2009) for isotropic plasticity. Size-effects are included in the model due to the addition of gradient terms in both the free energy as well as through a dissipation potential. A finite...

  8. Sobolev gradients and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Neuberger, J W


    A Sobolev gradient of a real-valued functional on a Hilbert space is a gradient of that functional taken relative to an underlying Sobolev norm. This book shows how descent methods using such gradients allow a unified treatment of a wide variety of problems in differential equations. For discrete versions of partial differential equations, corresponding Sobolev gradients are seen to be vastly more efficient than ordinary gradients. In fact, descent methods with these gradients generally scale linearly with the number of grid points, in sharp contrast with the use of ordinary gradients. Aside from the first edition of this work, this is the only known account of Sobolev gradients in book form. Most of the applications in this book have emerged since the first edition was published some twelve years ago. What remains of the first edition has been extensively revised. There are a number of plots of results from calculations and a sample MatLab code is included for a simple problem. Those working through a fair p...

  9. Gradient elution in capillary electrochromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anex, D.; Rakestraw, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Yan, Chao; Dadoo, R.; Zare, R.N. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    In analogy to pressure-driven gradient techniques in high-performance liquid chromatography, a system has been developed for delivering electroosmotically-driven solvent gradients for capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Dynamic gradients with sub-mL/min flow rates are generated by merging two electroosmotic flows that are regulated by computer-controlled voltages. These flows are delivered by two fused-silica capillary arms attached to a T-connector, where they mix and then flow into a capillary column that has been electrokinetically packed with 3-mm reversed-phase particles. The inlet of one capillary arm is placed in a solution reservoir containing one mobile phase and the inlet of the other is placed in a second reservoir containing a second mobile phase. Two independent computer-controlled programmable high-voltage power supplies (0-50 kV)--one providing an increasing ramp and the other providing a decreasing ramp--are used to apply variable high-voltage potentials to the mobile phase reservoirs to regulate the electroosmotic flow in each arm. The ratio of the electroosmotic flow rates between the two arms is changed with time according to the computer-controlled voltages to deliver the required gradient profile to the separation column. Experiments were performed to confirm the composition of the mobile phase during a gradient run and to determine the change of the composition in response to the programmed voltage profile. To demonstrate the performance of electroosmotically-driven gradient elution in CEC, a mixture of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was separated in less than 90 minutes. This gradient technique is expected to be well-suited for generating not only solvent gradients in CEC, but also other types of gradients such as pH- and ionic-strength gradients in capillary electrokinetic separations and analyses.

  10. Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)


    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  11. Calculation of Vertical Temperature Gradients in Heated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overby, H.; Steen-Thøde, Mogens

    This paper deals with a simple model which predicts the vertical temperature gradient in a heated room. The gradient is calculated from a dimensionless temperature profile which is determined by two room air temperatures only, the mean temperature in the occupied zone and the mean temperature...... in the zone above the occupied zone. A model to calculate the two air temperatures has been developed and implemented in Suncode- PC, a thermal analysis programme for residential and small commercial buildings. The dimensionless temperature profile based on measurements in a laboratory test room is presented...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Armijo rule is an inexact line search method to determine step size in some descent method to solve unconstrained local optimization. Modified Armijo was introduced to increase the numerical performance of several descent algorithms that applying this method. The basic difference of Armijo and its modified are in existence of a parameter and estimating the parameter that is updated in every iteration. This article is comparing numerical solution and time of computation of gradient descent and conjugate gradient hybrid Gilbert-Nocedal (CGHGN that applying modified Armijo rule. From program implementation in Matlab 6, it's known that gradient descent was applying modified Armijo more effectively than CGHGN from one side: iteration needed to reach some norm of the gradient  (input by the user. The amount of iteration was representing how long the step size of each algorithm in each iteration. In another side, time of computation has the same conclusion.

  13. The geomagnetic field gradient tensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Olsen, Nils


    of the magnetic gradient tensor and provide explicit expressions of its elements in terms of spherical harmonics. Finally we discuss the benefit of using gradient measurements for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space, in particular the advantage of the various tensor elements for a better determination......We develop the general mathematical basis for space magnetic gradiometry in spherical coordinates. The magnetic gradient tensor is a second rank tensor consisting of 3 × 3 = 9 spatial derivatives. Since the geomagnetic field vector B is always solenoidal (∇ · B = 0) there are only eight independent...

  14. Sobolev gradients and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Neuberger, John William


    A Sobolev gradient of a real-valued functional is a gradient of that functional taken relative to the underlying Sobolev norm. This book shows how descent methods using such gradients allow a unified treatment of a wide variety of problems in differential equations. Equal emphasis is placed on numerical and theoretical matters. Several concrete applications are made to illustrate the method. These applications include (1) Ginzburg-Landau functionals of superconductivity, (2) problems of transonic flow in which type depends locally on nonlinearities, and (3) minimal surface problems. Sobolev gradient constructions rely on a study of orthogonal projections onto graphs of closed densely defined linear transformations from one Hilbert space to another. These developments use work of Weyl, von Neumann and Beurling.

  15. Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xigeng Miao


    Full Text Available Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  16. Thermal Plumes in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The design of a displacement ventilation system involves determination of the flow rate in the thermal plumes. The flow rate in the plumes and the vertical temperature gradient influence each other, and they are influenced by many factors. This paper shows some descriptions of these effects....

  17. The relation between temperature and concentration gradients in superfluid sup 3 He- sup 4 He solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Zadorozhko, A A; Rudavskij, E Y; Chagovets, V K; Sheshin, G A


    The temperature and concentration gradients nabla T and nabla x in a superfluid sup 3 He- sup 4 He mixture with an initial concentration 9,8 % of sup 3 He are measured in a temperature range 70-500 mK. The gradients are produced by a steady thermal flow with heating from below. It is shown that the value of nabla x/nabla T observed in the experiment is in good agreement with the theoretical model derived from the temperature and concentration dependences of osmotic pressure. The experimental data permitted us to obtain a thermal diffusion ratio of the solution responsible for the thermal diffusion coefficient.

  18. Non-uniform temperature gradients and thermal stresses produced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By varying the values of geometric parameters in the provided solutions, they get the solution for various cases like unique or multiple: strip, rectangular, square, elliptic and circular MHSs. Sunar et al (2006) considered a cantilever assembly subjected to heating at its fixed end, which resembles the welding of a sheet metal.

  19. Gradient descent learning in and out of equilibrium. (United States)

    Caticha, N; Araújo de Oliveira, E


    Relations between the off thermal equilibrium dynamical process of on-line learning and the thermally equilibrated off-line learning are studied for potential gradient descent learning. The approach of Opper to study on-line Bayesian algorithms is used for potential based or maximum likelihood learning. We look at the on-line learning algorithm that best approximates the off-line algorithm in the sense of least Kullback-Leibler information loss. The closest on-line algorithm works by updating the weights along the gradient of an effective potential, which is different from the parent off-line potential. A few examples are analyzed and the origin of the potential annealing is discussed.

  20. Relationships between geology and geothermal gradients in Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavnes, S.A.; Steeples, D.W.; Ruscetta, C.A. (ed.)


    Bottom hole temperature values from existing oil and gas wells and thermal logging data from geothermal wells are used to determine the factors responsible for geographic variation in the subsurface temperature distribution in Kansas. Geothermal gradient data range from 25/sup 0/C/km to 55/sup 0/C/km in the upper 300 m. The geologic factors proposed to explain this variation are: (1) topography of the crystalline basement surface; (2) variation in rates of heat production in the crystalline basement; (3) variation in thermal conductivity in the sedimentary section; and (4) possible convection upward and eastward from the Denver-Julesberg Basin. (MJF)

  1. Thermal conductivity of mass-graded graphene flakes


    Cheh, Jigger; Zhao, Hong


    In this letter we study thermal conduction in mass-graded graphene flakes by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that mass-graded graphene flakes reveal no thermal rectification effect in thermal conduction process. The dependence of thermal conductivity upon the heat flux and the mass gradient are studied to confirm the generality of the result.The mechanism leading to the absence of thermal rectification effect is also discussed.

  2. Pattern formation in snow during temperature gradient metamorphism (United States)

    Pinzer, B.; Schneebeli, M.


    Temperature gradient metamorphism causes sublimation and growth of crystals. This process causes a dramatic change in thermal and geometrical properties. Using a time-series of snow evolution, we simulated the evolution of the thermal conductivity parallel and perpendicular to the temperature gradient direction. Thermal conductivity changed within a few days from an isotropic property to a strongly anisotropic property. Surprisingly, these changes are only marginally reflected in the geometrical anisotropy of the full snow microstructure. We also observed that the heat flux in the microstructure is concentrated in a small part of the ice matrix, which causes a high tortuosity. The percentage of the ice matrix involved in high heat fluxes was almost constant over time. However, the connectivity of these heat-conducting ice structures increased. The formation of an anisotropic temperature conductivity could have important consequences in terrain where temperature gradients are not perpendicular to the surface, as in shallow snowpacks over hummocky terrain or in boulder areas, or where the snowpack has a strong surface topography, e.g. due to sastrugi formation.

  3. A theory of gradient analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter C.J.F.


    The theory of gradient analysis is presented in this chapter, in which the heuristic techniques are integrated with regression, calibration, ordination and constrained ordination as distinct, well-defined statistical problems. The various techniques used for each type of problem are classified into

  4. Orderings for conjugate gradient preconditionings (United States)

    Ortega, James M.


    The effect of orderings on the rate of convergence of the conjugate gradient method with SSOR or incomplete Cholesky preconditioning is examined. Some results also are presented that help to explain why red/black ordering gives an inferior rate of convergence.

  5. Compositional gradients in Gramineae genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun; Tao, Lin


    In this study, we describe a property of Gramineae genes, and perhaps all monocot genes, that is not observed in eudicot genes. Along the direction of transcription, beginning at the junction of the 5'-UTR and the coding region, there are gradients in GC content, codon usage, and amino-acid usage...

  6. An assessment of skin temperature gradients in a tropical primate using infrared thermography and subcutaneous implants. (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia L; Scheidel, Caleb; Glander, Kenneth E; Williams, Susan H; Vinyard, Christopher J


    Infrared thermography has become a useful tool to assess surface temperatures of animals for thermoregulatory research. However, surface temperatures are an endpoint along the body's core-shell temperature gradient. Skin and fur are the peripheral tissues most exposed to ambient thermal conditions and are known to serve as thermosensors that initiate thermoregulatory responses. Yet relatively little is known about how surface temperatures of wild mammals measured by infrared thermography relate to subcutaneous temperatures. Moreover, this relationship may differ with the degree that fur covers the body. To assess the relationship between temperatures and temperature gradients in peripheral tissues between furred and bare areas, we collected data from wild mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica. We used infrared thermography to measure surface temperatures of the furred dorsum and bare facial areas of the body, recorded concurrent subcutaneous temperatures in the dorsum, and measured ambient thermal conditions via a weather station. Temperature gradients through cutaneous tissues (subcutaneous-surface temperature) and surface temperature gradients (surface-ambient temperature) were calculated. Our results indicate that there are differences in temperatures and temperature gradients in furred versus bare areas of mantled howlers. Under natural thermal conditions experienced by wild animals, the bare facial areas were warmer than temperatures in the furred dorsum, and cutaneous temperature gradients in the face were more variable than the dorsum, consistent with these bare areas acting as thermal windows. Cutaneous temperature gradients in the dorsum were more closely linked to subcutaneous temperatures, while facial temperature gradients were more heavily influenced by ambient conditions. These findings indicate that despite the insulative properties of fur, for mantled howling monkeys surface temperatures of furred areas still demonstrate a

  7. Salinity Gradients for Sustainable Energy: Primer, Progress, and Prospects. (United States)

    Yip, Ngai Yin; Brogioli, Doriano; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Nijmeijer, Kitty


    Combining two solutions of different composition releases the Gibbs free energy of mixing. By using engineered processes to control the mixing, chemical energy stored in salinity gradients can be harnessed for useful work. In this critical review, we present an overview of the current progress in salinity gradient power generation, discuss the prospects and challenges of the foremost technologies - pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), reverse electrodialysis (RED), and capacitive mixing (CapMix) and provide perspectives on the outlook of salinity gradient power generation. Momentous strides have been made in technical development of salinity gradient technologies and field demonstrations with natural and anthropogenic salinity gradients (for example, seawater-river water and desalination brine-wastewater, respectively), but fouling persists to be a pivotal operational challenge that can significantly ebb away cost-competitiveness. Natural hypersaline sources (e.g., hypersaline lakes and salt domes) can achieve greater concentration difference and, thus, offer opportunities to overcome some of the limitations inherent to seawater-river water. Technological advances needed to fully exploit the larger salinity gradients are identified. While seawater desalination brine is a seemingly attractive high salinity anthropogenic stream that is otherwise wasted, actual feasibility hinges on the appropriate pairing with a suitable low salinity stream. Engineered solutions are foulant-free and can be thermally regenerative for application in low-temperature heat utilization. Alternatively, PRO, RED, and CapMix can be coupled with their analog separation process (reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, and capacitive deionization, respectively) in salinity gradient flow batteries for energy storage in chemical potential of the engineered solutions. Rigorous techno-economic assessments can more clearly identify the prospects of low-grade heat conversion and large-scale energy storage

  8. Thermal Space in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines

    Present research is revolving around the design process and the use of digital applications to support the design process among architects. This work is made in relation to the current discussions about sustainable architecture and the increased focus on energy consumption and the comfort in our...... and understanding of spaces in buildings can change significantly and instead of the creation of frozen geometrical spaces, thermal spaces can be created as it is suggested in meteorological architecture where functions are distributed in relation to temperature gradients. This creates an interesting contrast......-introducing an increased adaptability in the architecture can be a part of re-defining the environmental agenda and re-establish a link between the environment of the site and the environment of the architecture and through that an increased appreciation of the sensuous space here framed in discussions about thermal...

  9. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob


    The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and stro......The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum....... Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural...

  10. Computational strain gradient crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.


    oriented face centered cubic crystals are developed in terms of the crystallographic slip parameters. The effect on geometrically necessary dislocation structures introduced by plastic deformation is investigated as a function of the ratio of void radius to plasticity length scale.......A numerical method for viscous strain gradient crystal plasticity theory is presented, which incorporates both energetic and dissipative gradient effects. The underlying minimum principles are discussed as well as convergence properties of the proposed finite element procedure. Three problems...... of plane crystal plasticity are studied: pure shear of a single crystal between rigid platens as well as plastic deformation around cylindrical voids in hexagonal close packed and face centered cubic crystals. Effective in-plane constitutive slip parameters for plane strain deformation of specifically...

  11. Thermal comfort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L


    Full Text Available wider range of temperature limits, saving energy while still satisfying the majority of building occupants. It is also noted that thermal comfort varies significantly between individuals and it is generally not possible to provide a thermal environment...

  12. Primordial vorticity and gradient expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo


    The evolution equations of the vorticities of the electrons, ions and photons in a pre-decoupling plasma are derived, in a fully inhomogeneous geometry, by combining the general relativistic gradient expansion and the drift approximation within the Adler-Misner-Deser decomposition. The vorticity transfer between the different species is discussed in this novel framework and a set of general conservation laws, connecting the vorticities of the three-component plasma with the magnetic field intensity, is derived. After demonstrating that a source of large-scale vorticity resides in the spatial gradients of the geometry and of the electromagnetic sources, the total vorticity is estimated to lowest order in the spatial gradients and by enforcing the validity of the momentum constraint. By acknowledging the current bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio in the (minimal) tensor extension of the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm the maximal comoving magnetic field induced by the total vorticity turns out to be, at most, of the or...

  13. Are thermal barriers "higher" in deep sea turtle nests?


    Santidri?n Tomillo, Pilar; Fonseca, Luis; Paladino, Frank V.; Spotila, James R.; Oro, Daniel


    Thermal tolerances are affected by the range of temperatures that species encounter in their habitat. Daniel Janzen hypothesized in his "Why mountain passes are higher in the tropics" that temperature gradients were effective barriers to animal movements where climatic uniformity was high. Sea turtles bury their eggs providing some thermal stability that varies with depth. We assessed the relationship between thermal uniformity and thermal tolerance in nests of three species of sea turtles. W...

  14. Electrical and thermal spin accumulation in germanium (United States)

    Jain, A.; Vergnaud, C.; Peiro, J.; Le Breton, J. C.; Prestat, E.; Louahadj, L.; Portemont, C.; Ducruet, C.; Baltz, V.; Marty, A.; Barski, A.; Bayle-Guillemaud, P.; Vila, L.; Attané, J.-P.; Augendre, E.; Jaffrès, H.; George, J.-M.; Jamet, M.


    In this letter, we first show electrical spin injection in the germanium conduction band at room temperature and modulate the spin signal by applying a gate voltage to the channel. The corresponding signal modulation agrees well with the predictions of spin diffusion models. Then, by setting a temperature gradient between germanium and the ferromagnet, we create a thermal spin accumulation in germanium without any charge current. We show that temperature gradients yield larger spin accumulations than electrical spin injection but, due to competing microscopic effects, the thermal spin accumulation remains surprisingly unchanged under the application of a gate voltage.

  15. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity... fresh or salt water may change existing salinity gradients. For example, partial blocking of the...

  16. Gradient remediability in linear distributed parabolic systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is the introduction of a new concept that concerned the analysis of a large class of distributed parabolic systems. It is the general concept of gradient remediability. More precisely, we study with respect to the gradient observation, the existence of an input operator (gradient efficient actuators) ensuring ...

  17. Surface-attached orthogonal gradient hydrogels (United States)

    Chinnayan Kannan, Pandiyarajan; Genzer, Jan

    Gradient materials play a significant role in the creation of artificial implants due to their potential to reduce stress concentration when two or more structures with different mechanical properties are joined together, e . g . , tendon, a fibrous protein that connects the soft and hard muscle tissues in our body. We employ free radical polymerization to synthesize random copolymers containing 90% of N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAAm), 5% photo-active methacrylyloxybenzophenone (MABP) and 5% thermally-active styrenesulfonylazide (SSAz) crosslinkers. The presence of MABP and SSAz facilitates adjusting gel density on a flat support in two orthogonal directions by spatially and independently controlling UV dosage and temperature. The swelling behavior (α) of the gels in water and methanol is examined using a spectroscopic ellipsometry and the degree of swelling depends on the extent of crosslinking that ranges from α = 1-1.2 (highly crosslinked gels) to α = 4-5 (loosely crosslinked gels). We compare the network properties surface-attached gels and un-attached identical counterparts and confirm that the linear swelling ratio of surface-attached networks is higher than that of the corresponding un-attached gels.

  18. Oxygen Gradients in the Microcirculation (United States)

    Pittman, Roland N.


    Early in the last century August Krogh embarked on a series of seminal studies to understand the connection between tissue metabolism and mechanisms by which the cardiovascular system supplied oxygen to meet those needs. Krogh recognized that oxygen was supplied from blood to the tissues by passive diffusion and that the most likely site for oxygen exchange was the capillary network. Studies of tissue oxygen consumption and diffusion coefficient, coupled with anatomical studies of capillarity in various tissues, led him to formulate a model of oxygen diffusion from a single capillary. Fifty years after the publication of this work, new methods were developed which allowed the direct measurement of oxygen in and around microvessels. These direct measurements have confirmed the predictions by Krogh and have led to extensions of his ideas resulting in our current understanding of oxygenation within the microcirculation. Developments during the last 40 years are reviewed, including studies of oxygen gradients in arterioles, capillaries, venules, microvessel wall and surrounding tissue. These measurements were made possible by the development and use of new methods to investigate oxygen in the microcirculation, so mention is made of oxygen microelectrodes, microspectrophotometry of haemoglobin and phosphorescence quenching microscopy. Our understanding of oxygen transport from the perspective of the microcirculation has gone from a consideration of oxygen gradients in capillaries and tissue to the realization that oxygen has the ability to diffuse from any microvessel to another location under the conditions that there exists a large enough PO2 gradient and that the permeability for oxygen along the intervening pathway is sufficient. PMID:21281453

  19. Dai-Kou type conjugate gradient methods with a line search only using gradient. (United States)

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Changhe


    In this paper, the Dai-Kou type conjugate gradient methods are developed to solve the optimality condition of an unconstrained optimization, they only utilize gradient information and have broader application scope. Under suitable conditions, the developed methods are globally convergent. Numerical tests and comparisons with the PRP+ conjugate gradient method only using gradient show that the methods are efficient.

  20. Stringy bounces and gradient instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo


    Bouncing solutions are obtained from a generally covariant action characterized by a potential which is a nonlocal functional of the dilaton field at two separated space-time points. Gradient instabilities are shown to arise in this context but they are argued to be nongeneric. After performing a gauge-invariant and frame-invariant derivation of the evolution equations of the fluctuations, a heuristic criterium for the avoidance of pathological instabilities is proposed and corroborated by a number of explicit examples that turn out to be compatible with a quasi-flat spectrum of curvature inhomogeneities for typical wavelengths larger than the Hubble radius.

  1. Overview of thermal conductivity models of anisotropic thermal insulation materials (United States)

    Skurikhin, A. V.; Kostanovsky, A. V.


    Currently, the most of existing materials and substances under elaboration are anisotropic. It makes certain difficulties in the study of heat transfer process. Thermal conductivity of the materials can be characterized by tensor of the second order. Also, the parallelism between the temperature gradient vector and the density of heat flow vector is violated in anisotropic thermal insulation materials (TIM). One of the most famous TIM is a family of integrated thermal insulation refractory material («ITIRM»). The main component ensuring its properties is the «inflated» vermiculite. Natural mineral vermiculite is ground into powder state, fired by gas burner for dehydration, and its precipitate is then compressed. The key feature of thus treated batch of vermiculite is a package structure. The properties of the material lead to a slow heating of manufactured products due to low absorption and high radiation reflection. The maximum of reflection function is referred to infrared spectral region. A review of current models of heat propagation in anisotropic thermal insulation materials is carried out, as well as analysis of their thermal and optical properties. A theoretical model, which allows to determine the heat conductivity «ITIRM», can be useful in the study of thermal characteristics such as specific heat capacity, temperature conductivity, and others. Materials as «ITIRM» can be used in the metallurgy industry, thermal energy and nuclear power-engineering.

  2. Be-Cu gradient materials through controlled segregation. Basic investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muecklich, F.; Lorinser, M.; Hartmann, S.; Beinstingel, S. [Saarland Univ., Saarbruecken (Germany); Linke, J.; Roedig, M.


    The joining of materials has a fundamental problematic nature: Creating a sharp interface between two different materials causes a more or less extreme jump in the properties at this point. This may result in the failure of the component under mechanical or thermal loads. In some cases there are further difficulties caused by using a third component (e.g. the transformation of Ag-lead into Cd by neutron beams). The solution may be the creating of a functionally gradient material (FGM) Be-Cu. We discuss the advantage of such a FGM and the probabilities of an new procedure for manufacturing 1-dimensional FGMs. (author)

  3. Conjugate gradient heat bath for ill-conditioned actions. (United States)

    Ceriotti, Michele; Bussi, Giovanni; Parrinello, Michele


    We present a method for performing sampling from a Boltzmann distribution of an ill-conditioned quadratic action. This method is based on heat-bath thermalization along a set of conjugate directions, generated via a conjugate-gradient procedure. The resulting scheme outperforms local updates for matrices with very high condition number, since it avoids the slowing down of modes with lower eigenvalue, and has some advantages over the global heat-bath approach, compared to which it is more stable and allows for more freedom in devising case-specific optimizations.

  4. Conjugate gradient heatbath for ill-conditioned actions

    CERN Document Server

    Ceriotti, Michele; Parrinello, Michele


    We present a method for performing sampling from a Boltzmann distribution of an ill-conditioned quadratic action. This method is based on heatbath thermalization along a set of conjugate directions, generated via a conjugate-gradient procedure. The resulting scheme outperforms local updates for matrices with very high condition number, since it avoids the slowing down of modes with lower eigenvalue, and has some advantages over the global heatbath approach, compared to which it is more stable and allows for more freedom in devising case-specific optimizations.

  5. Thermal effects on PLATO point spread function (United States)

    Gullieuszik, Marco; Magrin, Demetrio; Greggio, Davide; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Nascimbeni, Valerio; Bergomi, Maria; Biondi, Federico; Chinellato, Simonetta; Dima, Marco; Farinato, Jacopo; Marafatto, Luca; Viotto, Valentina; Munari, Matteo; Pagano, Isabella; Sicilia, Daniela; Basso, Stefano; Borsa, Francesco; Ghigo, Mauro; Spiga, Daniele; Bandy, Thimoty; Benz, Willy; Brändli, Mathias; Bruno, Giordano; De Roche, Thierry; Piazza, Daniele; Rieder, Martin; Brandeker, Alexis; Klebor, Maximilian; Mogulsky, Valery; Schweitzer, Mario; Wieser, Matthias; Erikson, Anders; Rauer, Heike


    Thermal effects in PLATO are analyzed in terms of uniform temperature variations, longitudinal and lateral temperature gradients. We characterize these effects by evaluating the PSF centroid shifts and the Enclosed Energy variations across the whole FoV. These patterns can then be used to gauge the thermal behavior of each individual telescope in order to improve the local photometric calibration across the PLATO field of view.

  6. Thermal Conductivity and Elastic Modulus Evolution of Thermal Barrier Coatings under High Heat Flux Conditions (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.


    Laser high heat flux test approaches have been established to obtain critical properties of ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) under near-realistic temperature and thermal gradients that may he encountered in advanced engine systems. Thermal conductivity change kinetics of a thin ceramic coating were continuously monitored in real time at various test temperatures. A significant thermal conductivity increase was observed during the laser simulated engine heat flux tests. For a 0.25 mm thick ZrO2-8%Y2O3 coating system, the overall thermal conductivity increased from the initial value of 1.0 W/m-K to 1. 15 W/m-K, 1. 19 W/m-K and 1.5 W/m-K after 30 hour testing at surface temperatures of 990C, 1100C, and 1320C. respectively. Hardness and modulus gradients across a 1.5 mm thick TBC system were also determined as a function of laser testing time using the laser sintering/creep and micro-indentation techniques. The coating Knoop hardness values increased from the initial hardness value of 4 GPa to 5 GPa near the ceramic/bond coat interface, and to 7.5 GPa at the ceramic coating surface after 120 hour testing. The ceramic surface modulus increased from an initial value of about 70 GPa to a final value of 125 GPa. The increase in thermal conductivity and the evolution of significant hardness and modulus gradients in the TBC systems are attributed to sintering-induced micro-porosity gradients under the laser-imposed high thermal gradient conditions. The test techniques provide a viable means for obtaining coating data for use in design, development, stress modeling, and life prediction for various thermal barrier coating applications.

  7. Cryogenic Temperature-Gradient Foam/Substrate Tensile Tester (United States)

    Vailhe, Christophe


    The figure shows a fixture for measuring the tensile strength of the bond between an aluminum substrate and a thermally insulating polymeric foam. The specimen is meant to be representative of insulating foam on an aluminum tank that holds a cryogenic liquid. Prior to the development of this fixture, tensile tests of this type were performed on foam/substrate specimens immersed in cryogenic fluids. Because the specimens were cooled to cryogenic temperatures throughout their thicknesses, they tended to become brittle and to fracture at loads below true bond tensile strengths. The present fixture is equipped to provide a thermal gradient from cryogenic temperature at the foam/substrate interface to room temperature on the opposite foam surface. The fixture includes an upper aluminum block at room temperature and a lower aluminum block cooled to -423 F (approx. -253 C) by use of liquid helium. In preparation for a test, the metal outer surface (the lower surface) of a foam/substrate specimen is bonded to the lower block and the foam outer surface (the upper surface) of the specimen is bonded to the upper block. In comparison with the through-the-thickness cooling of immersion testing, the cryogenic-to-room-temperature thermal gradient that exists during testing on this fixture is a more realistic approximation of the operational thermal condition of sprayed insulating foam on a tank of cryogenic liquid. Hence, tensile tests performed on this fixture provide more accurate indications of operational bond tensile strengths. In addition, the introduction of the present fixture reduces the cost of testing by reducing the amount of cryogenic liquid consumed and the time needed to cool a specimen.

  8. Critical density gradients for small-scale plasma irregularity generation in the E and F regions (United States)

    Makarevich, Roman A.


    Electron density gradients that can make plasma unstable in the ionospheric E and F regions are analyzed. We focus on critical gradient values required for plasma instability to become operational to produce decameter-scale plasma irregularities observed by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) without any nonlinear wave cascade. Analytic expressions are developed for the critical gradients using a recently developed general formalism for arbitrary geometry and with the ion inertia and stabilizing thermal diffusion effects included. It is demonstrated that the problem can be analyzed using a single equation applicable in both the E and F regions that only differs in the sign of the main term related to convection strength. Analytic expressions are obtained, and results are presented for (1) critical gradient strength for arbitrary gradient and propagation directions, (2) range of propagation directions with unstable primary waves, (3) most favorable configuration and minimum critical gradient, and (4) most favorable propagation direction for arbitrary gradient direction. It is shown that the most favorable configuration is achieved for propagation along the differential drift and gradient perpendicular to it and that an unexpected exception is the F region under strong convection when propagation and gradient are both rotated by a certain angle. It is estimated that in the F region, from which most of the SuperDARN backscatter comes, primary decameter waves can be generated for gradient scales as large as 100 km for favorable orientations and strong plasma convection >500 m/s and that much smaller scales of 200-1000 m are required for unfavorable orientations.

  9. The Educational Gradient in Health in China (United States)

    Chen, Qiulin; Eggleston, Karen; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Jiaying; Zhou, Sen


    It has been well established that better educated individuals enjoy better health and longevity. In theory, the educational gradients in health could be flattening if diminishing returns to improved average education levels and the influence of earlier population health interventions outweigh the gradient-steepening effects of new medical and health technologies. This paper documents how the gradients are evolving in China, a rapidly developing country, about which little is known on this topic. Based on recent mortality data and nationally representative health surveys, we find large and, in some cases, steepening educational gradients. We also find that the gradients vary by cohort, gender and region. Further, we find that the gradients can only partially be accounted for by economic factors. These patterns highlight the double disadvantage of those with low education, and suggest the importance of policy interventions that foster both aspects of human capital for them. PMID:29056815

  10. Community and ecosystem responses to elevational gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundqvist, Maja K.; Sanders, Nate; Wardle, David A.


    Community structure and ecosystem processes often vary along elevational gradients. Their responses to elevation are commonly driven by changes in temperature, and many community- and ecosystem-level variables therefore frequently respond similarly to elevation across contrasting gradients. There...... will provide powerful information that can improve predictions of climate change impacts within and across ecosystems.......Community structure and ecosystem processes often vary along elevational gradients. Their responses to elevation are commonly driven by changes in temperature, and many community- and ecosystem-level variables therefore frequently respond similarly to elevation across contrasting gradients...... elevational gradients for understanding community and ecosystem responses to global climate change at much larger spatial and temporal scales than is possible through conventional ecological experiments. However, future studies that integrate elevational gradient approaches with experimental manipulations...

  11. Thermally induced lensing determination from the coefficient of defocus aberration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bell, Teboho


    Full Text Available The effects of a temperature gradient in a laser crystal in an end-pumped configuration in a solid-state laser resonator results in thermally induced aberrations. Of particular interest we measure the thermally induced lens from the coefficient...

  12. Resonant Optical Gradient Force Interaction for Nano-Imaging and-Spectroscopy (United States)


    gradient force off-resonance is below the thermal cantilever noise limit of a room temperature atomic forcemicroscope (AFM), we assess that in the cases of...the cantilever oscillation amplitude equals that induced by thermal noise given by ( ) w = ⎡ ⎣⎢ ⎤ ⎦⎥F k TkB Q 4 , 4min B 1 2 with Boltzmann’s...force is proportional to the local optical electricfield, while the thermal expansion/ absorption is due to resistive heating associatedwith electric

  13. Color and population gradients in globular clusters (United States)

    Djorgovski, S.; Piotto, G.; Mallen-Ornelas, G.


    We present preliminary results from a survey for color and population gradients in globular cluster cores. Color gradients, in the sense of becoming bluer inwards, are always found in post-core-collapse clusters. They seem to be caused by the demise of red giants, and possibly an increased number of blue stragglers. This may be a consequence of stellar interactions during and after the core collapse. No gradients are seen in clusters with King-model morphology.

  14. Ant colony optimization and stochastic gradient descent. (United States)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Dorigo, Marco


    In this article, we study the relationship between the two techniques known as ant colony optimization (ACO) and stochastic gradient descent. More precisely, we show that some empirical ACO algorithms approximate stochastic gradient descent in the space of pheromones, and we propose an implementation of stochastic gradient descent that belongs to the family of ACO algorithms. We then use this insight to explore the mutual contributions of the two techniques.

  15. Testing the limits of gradient sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinal Lakhani


    Full Text Available The ability to detect a chemical gradient is fundamental to many cellular processes. In multicellular organisms gradient sensing plays an important role in many physiological processes such as wound healing and development. Unicellular organisms use gradient sensing to move (chemotaxis or grow (chemotropism towards a favorable environment. Some cells are capable of detecting extremely shallow gradients, even in the presence of significant molecular-level noise. For example, yeast have been reported to detect pheromone gradients as shallow as 0.1 nM/μm. Noise reduction mechanisms, such as time-averaging and the internalization of pheromone molecules, have been proposed to explain how yeast cells filter fluctuations and detect shallow gradients. Here, we use a Particle-Based Reaction-Diffusion model of ligand-receptor dynamics to test the effectiveness of these mechanisms and to determine the limits of gradient sensing. In particular, we develop novel simulation methods for establishing chemical gradients that not only allow us to study gradient sensing under steady-state conditions, but also take into account transient effects as the gradient forms. Based on reported measurements of reaction rates, our results indicate neither time-averaging nor receptor endocytosis significantly improves the cell's accuracy in detecting gradients over time scales associated with the initiation of polarized growth. Additionally, our results demonstrate the physical barrier of the cell membrane sharpens chemical gradients across the cell. While our studies are motivated by the mating response of yeast, we believe our results and simulation methods will find applications in many different contexts.

  16. Longitudinal gradients along a reservoir cascade (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.; Habrat, M.D.; Miyazono, S.


    Reservoirs have traditionally been regarded as spatially independent entities rather than as longitudinal segments of a river system that are connected upstream and downstream to the river and other reservoirs. This view has frustrated advancement in reservoir science by impeding adequate organization of available information and by hindering interchanges with allied disciplines that often consider impounded rivers at the basin scale. We analyzed reservoir morphology, water quality, and fish assemblage data collected in 24 reservoirs of the Tennessee River; we wanted to describe longitudinal changes occurring at the scale of the entire reservoir series (i.e., cascade) and to test the hypothesis that fish communities and environmental factors display predictable gradients like those recognized for unimpounded rivers. We used a data set collected over a 7-year period; over 3 million fish representing 94 species were included in the data set. Characteristics such as reservoir mean depth, relative size of the limnetic zone, water retention time, oxygen stratification, thermal stratification, substrate size, and water level fluctuations increased in upstream reservoirs. Conversely, reservoir area, extent of riverine and littoral zones, access to floodplains and associated wetlands, habitat diversity, and nutrient and sediment inputs increased in downstream reservoirs. Upstream reservoirs included few, largely lacustrine, ubiquitous fish taxa that were characteristic of the lentic upper reaches of the basin. Fish species richness increased in a downstream direction from 12 to 67 species/ reservoir as riverine species became more common. Considering impoundments at a basin scale by viewing them as sections in a river or links in a chain may generate insight that is not always available when the impoundments are viewed as isolated entities. Basin-scale variables are rarely controllable but constrain the expression of processes at smaller scales and can facilitate the

  17. Large format lithium ion pouch cell full thermal characterisation for improved electric vehicle thermal management (United States)

    Grandjean, Thomas; Barai, Anup; Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Guo, Yue; McGordon, Andrew; Marco, James


    It is crucial to maintain temperature homogeneity in lithium ion batteries in order to prevent adverse voltage distributions and differential ageing within the cell. As such, the thermal behaviour of a large-format 20 Ah lithium iron phosphate pouch cell is investigated over a wide range of ambient temperatures and C rates during both charging and discharging. Whilst previous studies have only considered one surface, this article presents experimental results, which characterise both surfaces of the cell exposed to similar thermal media and boundary conditions, allowing for thermal gradients in-plane and perpendicular to the stack to be quantified. Temperature gradients, caused by self-heating, are found to increase with increasing C rate and decreasing temperature to such an extent that 13.4 ± 0.7% capacity can be extracted using a 10C discharge compared to a 0.5C discharge, both at -10 °C ambient temperature. The former condition causes an 18.8 ± 1.1 °C in plane gradient and a 19.7 ± 0.8 °C thermal gradient perpendicular to the stack, which results in large current density distributions and local state of charge differences within the cell. The implications of these thermal and electrical inhomogeneities on ageing and battery pack design for the automotive industry are discussed.

  18. Flow regimes in a shallow rotating cylindrical annulus with temperature gradients imposed on the horizontal boundaries (United States)

    Hathaway, D. H.; Fowlis, W. W.


    Experimental flow regime diagrams are determined for a new rotating cylindrical annulus configuration which permits a measure of control over the internal vertical temperature gradient. The new annulus has radial temperature gradients imposed on plane horizontal thermally conducting endwalls (with the cylindrical sidewalls as insulators) and is considered to be more relevant to atmospheric dynamics studies than the classical cylindrical annulus. Observations have revealed that, in addition to the axisymmetric flow and nonaxisymmetric baroclinic wave flow which occur in the classical annulus, two additional nonaxisymmetric flow types occur in the new annulus: boundary-layer thermal convection and deep thermal convection. Flow regime diagrams for three different values of the imposed vertical temperature difference are presented, and explanations for the flow transitions are offered. The new annulus provides scientific backup for the proposed Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment for Spacelab. The apparatus diagram is included.

  19. Perioperative thermal insulation. (United States)

    Bräuer, Anselm; Perl, Thorsten; English, Michael J M; Quintel, Michael


    Perioperative hypothermia remains a common problem during anesthesia and surgery. Unfortunately, the implementation of new minimally invasive surgical procedures has not lead to a reduction of this problem. Heat losses from the skin can be reduced by thermal insulation to avoid perioperative hypothermia. However, only a small amount of information is available regarding the physical properties of insulating materials used in the Operating Room (OR). Therefore, several materials using validated manikins were tested. Heat loss from the surface of the manikin can be described as:"Q = h . DeltaT . A" where Q = heat flux, h = heat exchange coefficient, DeltaT = temperature gradient between the environment and surface, and A = covered area. Heat flux per unit area and surface temperature were measured with calibrated heat flux transducers. Environmental temperature was measured using a thermoanemometer. The temperature gradient between the surface and environment (DeltaT) was varied and "h" was determined by linear regression analysis as the slope of "DeltaT" versus heat flux per unit area. The reciprocal of the heat exchange coefficient defines the insulation. The insulation values of the materials varied between 0.01 Clo (plastic bag) to 2.79 Clo (2 layers of a hospital duvet). Given the range of insulating materials available for outdoor activities, significant improvement in insulation of patients in the OR is both possible and desirable.

  20. Canonical trivialization of gravitational gradients (United States)

    Niedermaier, Max


    A one-parameter family of canonical transformations is constructed that reduces the Hamiltonian form of the Einstein-Hilbert action to its strong coupling limit where dynamical spatial gradients are absent. The parameter can alternatively be viewed as the overall scale of the spatial metric or as a fractional inverse power of Newton’s constant. The generating function of the canonical transformation is constructed iteratively as a powerseries in the parameter to all orders. The algorithm draws on Lie-Deprit transformation theory and defines a ‘trivialization map’ with several bonus properties: (i) Trivialization of the Hamiltonian constraint implies that of the action while the diffeomorphism constraint is automatically co-transformed. (ii) Only a set of ordinary differential equations needs to be solved to drive the iteration via a homological equation where no gauge fixing is required. (iii) In contrast to (the classical limit of) a Lagrangian trivialization map the algorithm also produces series solutions of the field equations. (iv) In the strong coupling theory temporal gauge variations are abelian, nevertheless the map intertwines with the respective gauge symmetries on the action, the field equations, and their solutions.

  1. The InSight Mars Lander and Its Effect on the Subsurface Thermal Environment (United States)

    Siegler, Matthew A.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Grott, Matthias; Piqueux, Sylvain; Mueller, Nils; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Spohn, Tilman


    The 2018 InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) Mission has the mission goal of providing insitu data for the first measurement of the geothermal heat flow of Mars. The Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3) will take thermal conductivity and thermal gradient measurements to approximately 5 m depth. By necessity, this measurement will be made within a few meters of the lander. This means that thermal perturbations from the lander will modify local surface and subsurface temperature measurements. For HP3's sensitive thermal gradient measurements, this spacecraft influence will be important to model and parameterize. Here we present a basic 3D model of thermal effects of the lander on its surroundings. Though lander perturbations significantly alter subsurface temperatures, a successful thermal gradient measurement will be possible in all thermal conditions by proper (>3 m depth) placement of the heat flow probe.

  2. Regulation of leaf traits in canopy gradients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pons, T.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069365822


    The gradient of leaf traits in a canopy from sunlit upper regions to shaded lower ones is regulated in response to the density of its leaf area. The gradients of environmental factors act as signals for the regulation. The result is improved resource use efficiency for carbon gain at the whole plant

  3. Preconditioning the modified conjugate gradient method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the convergence analysis of the conventional conjugate Gradient method was reviewed. And the convergence analysis of the modified conjugate Gradient method was analysed with our extension on preconditioning the algorithm. Convergence of the algorithm is a function of the condition number of M-1A.

  4. Gradient High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of phenylephrine (PHE) and ibuprofen (IBU) in solid dosage form. Methods: HPLC determination was carried out on an Agilent XDB C-18 column (4.6 x 150mm, 5 μ particle size) with a gradient ...

  5. An Inexpensive Digital Gradient Controller for HPLC. (United States)

    Brady, James E.; Carr, Peter W.


    Use of gradient elution techniques in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is often essential for direct separation of complex mixtures. Since most commercial controllers have features that are of marginal value for instructional purposes, a low-cost controller capable of illustrating essential features of gradient elution was developed.…

  6. Newton's method in the context of gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Neuberger


    Full Text Available This paper gives a common theoretical treatment for gradient and Newton type methods for general classes of problems. First, for Euler-Lagrange equations Newton's method is characterized as an (asymptotically optimal variable steepest descent method. Second, Sobolev gradient type minimization is developed for general problems using a continuous Newton method which takes into account a "boundary condition" operator.

  7. Patterns of macromycete community assemblage along an elevation gradient: options for fungal gradient and metacommunity analyse (United States)

    Marko Gómez-Hernández; Guadalupe Williams-Linera; Roger Guevara; D. Jean Lodge


    Gradient analysis is rarely used in studies of fungal communities. Data on macromycetes from eight sites along an elevation gradient in central Veracruz, Mexico, were used to demonstrate methods for gradient analysis that can be applied to studies of communities of fungi. Selected sites from 100 to 3,500 m altitude represent tropical dry forest, tropical montane cloud...

  8. Evaluation of Erosion Resistance of Advanced Turbine Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Miller, Robert A.; Cuy, Michael D.


    The erosion resistant turbine thermal barrier coating system is critical to aircraft engine performance and durability. By demonstrating advanced turbine material testing capabilities, we will be able to facilitate the critical turbine coating and subcomponent development and help establish advanced erosion-resistant turbine airfoil thermal barrier coatings design tools. The objective of this work is to determine erosion resistance of advanced thermal barrier coating systems under simulated engine erosion and/or thermal gradient environments, validating advanced turbine airfoil thermal barrier coating systems based on nano-tetragonal phase toughening design approaches.

  9. Approximate error conjugation gradient minimization methods (United States)

    Kallman, Jeffrey S


    In one embodiment, a method includes selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In another embodiment, a system includes a processor for executing logic, logic for selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, logic for calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and logic for calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In other embodiments, computer program products, methods, and systems are described capable of using approximate error in constrained conjugate gradient minimization problems.

  10. Dual fuel gradients in uranium silicide plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, B.W. [Babock and Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States)


    Babcock & Wilcox has been able to achieve dual gradient plates with good repeatability in small lots of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} plates. Improvements in homogeneity and other processing parameters and techniques have allowed the development of contoured fuel within the cladding. The most difficult obstacles to overcome have been the ability to evaluate the bidirectional fuel loadings in comparison to the perfect loading model and the different methods of instilling the gradients in the early compact stage. The overriding conclusion is that to control the contour of the fuel, a known relationship between the compact, the frames and final core gradient must exist. Therefore, further development in the creation and control of dual gradients in fuel plates will involve arriving at a plausible gradient requirement and building the correct model between the compact configuration and the final contoured loading requirements.

  11. Protein gradient films of fibroin and gelatine. (United States)

    Claussen, Kai U; Lintz, Eileen S; Giesa, Reiner; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Scheibel, Thomas


    Gradients are a natural design principle in biological systems that are used to diminish stress concentration where materials of differing mechanical properties connect. An interesting example of a natural gradient material is byssus, which anchors mussels to rocks and other hard substrata. Building upon previous work with synthetic polymers and inspired by byssal threads, protein gradient films are cast using glycerine-plasticized gelatine and fibroin exhibiting a highly reproducible and smooth mechanical gradient, which encompasses a large range of modulus from 160 to 550 MPa. The reproducible production of biocompatible gradient films represents a first step towards medical applications. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi


    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  13. Modelling the thermal behaviour of the low-thermal mass liquid chromatography system. (United States)

    Verstraeten, Matthias; Pursch, Matthias; Eckerle, Patric; Luong, Jim; Desmet, Gert


    We report upon the experimental investigation of the heat transfer in low thermal mass LC (LTMLC) systems, used under temperature gradient conditions. The influence of the temperature ramp, the capillary dimensions, the material selection and the chromatographic conditions on the radial temperature gradients formed when applying a temperature ramp were investigated by a numerical model and verified with experimental temperature measurements. It was found that the radial temperature gradients scale linearly with the heating rate, quadratically with the radius of the capillary and inversely to the thermal diffusivity. Because of the thermal radial gradients in the liquid zone inside the capillary lead to radial viscosity and velocity gradients, they form an additional source of dispersion for the solutes. For a temperature ramp of 1 K/s and a strong temperature dependence of the retention of small molecules, the model predicts that narrow-bore columns (i.d. 2.1 mm) can be used. For a temperature ramp of 10 K/s, the maximal inner diameter is of the order of 1 mm before a substantial increase in dispersion occurs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermal preference predicts animal personality in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. (United States)

    Cerqueira, Marco; Rey, Sonia; Silva, Tome; Featherstone, Zoe; Crumlish, Margaret; MacKenzie, Simon


    Environmental temperature gradients provide habitat structure in which fish orientate and individual thermal choice may reflect an essential integrated response to the environment. The use of subtle thermal gradients likely impacts upon specific physiological and behavioural processes reflected as a suite of traits described by animal personality. In this study, we examine the relationship between thermal choice, animal personality and the impact of infection upon this interaction. We predicted that thermal choice in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus reflects distinct personality traits and that under a challenge individuals exhibit differential thermal distribution. Nile tilapia were screened following two different protocols: 1) a suite of individual behavioural tests to screen for personality and 2) thermal choice in a custom-built tank with a thermal gradient (TCH tank) ranging from 21 to 33 °C. A first set of fish were screened for behaviour and then thermal preference, and a second set were tested in the opposite fashion: thermal then behaviour. The final thermal distribution of the fish after 48 h was assessed reflecting final thermal preferendum. Additionally, fish were then challenged using a bacterial Streptococcus iniae model infection to assess the behavioural fever response of proactive and reactive fish. Results showed that individuals with preference for higher temperatures were also classified as proactive with behavioural tests and reactive contemporaries chose significantly lower water temperatures. All groups exhibited behavioural fever recovering personality-specific thermal preferences after 5 days. Our results show that thermal preference can be used as a proxy to assess personality traits in Nile tilapia and it is a central factor to understand the adaptive meaning of animal personality within a population. Importantly, response to infection by expressing behavioural fever overrides personality-related thermal choice. © 2016 The Authors

  15. Ceramic gradient materials for components of internal combustion engines. Keramische Gradientenwerkstoffe fuer Komponenten in Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, W.; Mielke, S. (Kolbenschmidt AG, Neckarsulm (Germany)); Melzer, C. (Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde)


    Formed ceramic bodies with density gradients were attached to the pistons of Diesel engines for passenger cars by diecasting under pressure in order to reinforce the piston heads. With this hybrid design, the ceramic content gradually decreases with increasing distance from the piston head. An assessment of the potentials of this design in off-motor tests shows the technical benefits of this development. The termal fatigue strength could be increased, and the high ceramic content features a heat-insulating effect. The gradient design offers a number of advantages in comparison with conventional approaches to approve the thermal fatigue resistance (hard anodizing, spray-coating of ceramic coatings, solid ceramic inserts). (orig.).

  16. High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage for Spacecraft Solar Thermal Power and Propulsion Systems (United States)


    on the fiberglass dish template failed due to difficulties in controlling extra reactions during chemical spraying . This degraded the clear coat...enough to allow relatively large thermal gradients during the heating process. Pyrolytic BN is favorable material for future crucible designs that

  17. Chemically grafted carbon nanotube surface coverage gradients. (United States)

    Shearer, Cameron J; Ellis, Amanda V; Shapter, Joseph G; Voelcker, Nicolas H


    Two approaches to producing gradients of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on silicon surfaces by chemical grafting are presented here. The first approach involves the use of a porous silicon (pSi) substrate featuring a pore size gradient, which is functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Carboxylated SWCNTs are then immobilized on the topography gradient via carbodiimide coupling. Our results show that as the pSi pore size and porosity increase across the substrate the SWCNT coverage decreases concurrently. In contrast, the second gradient is an amine-functionality gradient produced by means of vapor-phase diffusion of APTES from a reservoir onto a silicon wafer where APTES attachment changes as a function of distance from the APTES reservoir. Carboxylated SWCNTs are then immobilized via carbodiimide coupling to the amine-terminated silicon gradient. Our observations confirm that with decreasing APTES density on the surface the coverage of the attached SWCNTs also decreases. These gradient platforms pave the way for the time-efficient optimization of SWCNT coverage for applications ranging from field emission to water filtration to drug delivery.

  18. Thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor


    Thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the indoor environmental quality due to its effects on well-being, people's performance and building energy requirements. Its attainment is not an easy task requiring advanced design and operation of building and HVAC systems, taking...... under specific conditions. At operation level, only few variables are taken into account with unpredictable effects on the assessment of comfort indices. In this paper, the main criteria for the design and assessment of thermal comfort are discussed in order to help building and HVAC systems designers...... into account all parameters involved. Even though thermal comfort fundamentals are consolidated topics for more than forty years, often designers seem to ignore or apply them in a wrong way. Design input values from standards are often considered as universal values rather than recommended values to be used...

  19. Chemical gradients and chemotropism in yeast. (United States)

    Arkowitz, Robert A


    Chemical gradients of peptide mating pheromones are necessary for directional growth, which is critical for yeast mating. These gradients are generated by cell-type specific secretion or export and specific degradation in receiving cells. Spatial information is sensed by dedicated seven-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors and yeast cells are able to detect extremely small differences in ligand concentration across their approximately 5-microm cell surface. Here, I will discuss our current knowledge of how cells detect and respond to such shallow chemical gradients and in particular what is known about the proteins that are involved in directional growth and the establishment of the polarity axis during yeast mating.

  20. Sound beam manipulation based on temperature gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Feng [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Physics & Electronic Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Quan, Li; Liu, Xiaozhou, E-mail:; Gong, Xiufen [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)


    Previous research with temperature gradients has shown the feasibility of controlling airborne sound propagation. Here, we present a temperature gradients based airborne sound manipulation schemes: a cylindrical acoustic omnidirectional absorber (AOA). The proposed AOA has high absorption performance which can almost completely absorb the incident wave. Geometric acoustics is used to obtain the refractive index distributions with different radii, which is then utilized to deduce the desired temperature gradients. Since resonant units are not applied in the scheme, its working bandwidth is expected to be broadband. The scheme is temperature-tuned and easy to realize, which is of potential interest to fields such as noise control or acoustic cloaking.

  1. Speciation gradients and the distribution of biodiversity. (United States)

    Schluter, Dolph; Pennell, Matthew W


    Global patterns of biodiversity are influenced by spatial and environmental variations in the rate at which new species form. We relate variations in speciation rates to six key patterns of biodiversity worldwide, including the species-area relationship, latitudinal gradients in species and genetic diversity, and between-habitat differences in species richness. Although they sometimes mirror biodiversity patterns, recent rates of speciation, at the tip of the tree of life, are often highest where species richness is low. Speciation gradients therefore shape, but are also shaped by, biodiversity gradients and are often more useful for predicting future patterns of biodiversity than for interpreting the past.

  2. Gradients of cortical hierarchy in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bethlehem


    Full Text Available Autism is a developmental condition associated with altered functional connectivity. We propose to re-frame the functional connectivity alterations in terms of gradients that capture the functional hierarchy of cortical processing from sensory to default-mode network regions. We hypothesized that this hierarchy will be altered in ASD. To test that, we compared the scale of gradients in people with autism and healthy controls. The present results do not support our hypothesis. There are two alternative implications: either the processing hierarchies are preserved in autism or the scale of the gradients does not capture them. In the future we will attempt to settle which alternative is more likely.

  3. Discussion of liquid threshold pressure gradient


    Wang, Xiukun; James J. Sheng


    Some authors believe that a minimum pressure gradient (called threshold pressure gradient (TPG)) is required before a liquid starts to flow in a porous medium. In a tight or shale oil formation, this TPG phenomenon becomes more important, as it is more difficult for a fluid to flow. In this paper, experimental data on TPG published in the literature are carefully reviewed. What we found is that a very low flow velocity corresponding to a very low pressure gradient cannot be measured in the ex...

  4. Scaling thermal effects in radial flow (United States)

    Hudspeth, R. T.; Guenther, R. B.; Roley, K. L.; McDougal, W. G.

    To adequately evaluate the environmental impact of siting nuclear waste repositories in basalt aquicludes, it is essential to know the effects on parameter identification algorithms of thermal gradients that exist in these basaltic aquicludes. Temperatures of approximately 60°C and pressures of approximately 150 atm can be expected at potential repository sites located at depths of approximately 1000 m. The phenomenon of over-recovery has been observed in some pumping tests conducted at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation located in the Pasco Basin adjacent to the Columbia River in the state of Washington, USA. This over-recovery phenomenon may possibly be due to variations in the fluid density caused by thermal gradients. To assess the potential effects of these thermal gradients on indirect parameter identification algorithms, a systematic scaling of the governing field equations is required in order to obtain dimensionless equations based on the principle of similarity. The constitutive relationships for the specific weight of the fluid and for the porosity of the aquiclude are shown to be exponentially dependent on the pressure gradient. The dynamic pressure is converted to the piezometric head and the flow equation for the piezometric head is then scaled in radial coordinates. Order-of-magnitude estimates are made for all variables in unsteady flow for a typical well test in a basaltic aquiclude. Retaining all nonlinear terms, the parametric dependency of the flow equation on the classical dimensionless thermal and hydraulic parameters is demonstrated. These classical parameters include the Batchelor, Fourier, Froude, Grashof, and Reynolds Numbers associated with thermal flows. The flow equation is linearized from order-of-magnitude estimates based on these classical parameters for application in parameter identification algorithms.

  5. Thermal transpiration: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T, Joe Francis [Computational Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Nano Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kozhikode (India); Sathian, Sarith P. [Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)


    Thermal transpiration is a phenomenon where fluid molecules move from the cold end towards the hot end of a channel under the influence of longitudinal temperature gradient alone. Although the phenomenon of thermal transpiration is observed at rarefied gas conditions in macro systems, the phenomenon can occur at atmospheric pressure if the characteristic dimensions of the channel is less than 100 nm. The flow through these nanosized channels is characterized by the free molecular flow regimes and continuum theory is inadequate to describe the flow. Thus a non-continuum method like molecular dynamics (MD) is necessary to study such phenomenon. In the present work, MD simulations were carried out to investigate the occurance of thermal transpiration in copper and platinum nanochannels at atmospheric pressure conditions. The mean pressure of argon gas confined inside the nano channels was maintained around 1 bar. The channel height is maintained at 2nm. The argon atoms interact with each other and with the wall atoms through the Lennard-Jones potential. The wall atoms are modelled using an EAM potential. Further, separate simulations were carried out where a Harmonic potential is used for the atom-atom interaction in the platinum channel. A thermally insulating wall was introduced between the low and high temperature regions and those wall atoms interact with fluid atoms through a repulsive potential. A reduced cut off radius were used to achieve this. Thermal creep is induced by applying a temperature gradient along the channel wall. It was found that flow developed in the direction of the increasing temperature gradient of the wall. An increase in the volumetric flux was observed as the length of the cold and the hot regions of the wall were increased. The effect of temperature gradient and the wall-fluid interaction strength on the flow parameters have been studied to understand the phenomenon better.

  6. Thermal defoliation (United States)

    The negative perception some consumers hold regarding agricultural chemicals has resulted in an increased demand for organic foods and fibers, and in increasing political pressure for the regulation of agricultural production practices. This has revived interest in thermal defoliation of cotton and ...

  7. Holographic thermalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramanian, V.; Bernamonti, A.; de Boer, J.; Copland, N.; Craps, B.; Keski-Vakkuri, E.; Müller, B.; Schäfer, A.; Shigemori, M.; Staessens, W.


    Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we probe the scale-dependence of thermalization in strongly coupled field theories following a quench, via calculations of two-point functions, Wilson loops and entanglement entropy in d=2,3,4. In the saddlepoint approximation these probes are computed in AdS space

  8. Integral Field Spectroscopy Surveys: Oxygen Abundance Gradients (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.


    We present here the recent results on our understanding of oxygen abundance gradients derived using Integral Field Spectroscopic surveys. In particular we analyzed more than 2124 datacubes corresponding to individual objects observed by the CALIFA (˜ 734 objects) and the public data by MaNGA (˜ 1390 objects), deriving the oxygen abundance gradient for each galaxy. We confirm previous results that indicate that the shape of this gradient is very similar for all galaxies with masses above 109.5M⊙, presenting in average a very similar slope of ˜ -0.04 dex within 0.5-2.0 re, with a possible drop in the inner regions (r109.5M⊙) the gradient seems to be flatter than for more massive ones. All these results agree with an inside-out growth of massive galaxies and indicate that low mass ones may still be growing in an outside in phase.

  9. Optimizing sampling approaches along ecological gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiger, Andreas; Irl, Severin D. H.; Steinbauer, Manuel


    1. Natural scientists and especially ecologists use manipulative experiments or field observations along gradients to differentiate patterns driven by processes from those caused by random noise. A well-conceived sampling design is essential for identifying, analysing and reporting underlying...

  10. Program predicts two-phase pressure gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacks, D.C.; Hill, A.D.


    The calculator program discussed, ORK, was designed for the HP-41CV hand-held calculator and uses the Orkiszewski correlation for predicting 2-phase pressure gradients in vertical tubulars. Accurate predictions of pressure gradients in flowing and gas lift wells over a wide range of well conditions can be obtained with this method, which was developed based on data from 148 wells. The correlation is one of the best generalized 2-phase pressure gradient prediction methods developed to date for vertical flow. It is unique in that hold-up is derived from observed physical phenomena, and the pressure gradient is related to the geometrical distribution of the liquid and gas phase (flow regime).

  11. Full Gradient Solution to Adaptive Hybrid Control (United States)

    Bean, Jacob; Schiller, Noah H.; Fuller, Chris


    This paper focuses on the adaptation mechanisms in adaptive hybrid controllers. Most adaptive hybrid controllers update two filters individually according to the filtered reference least mean squares (FxLMS) algorithm. Because this algorithm was derived for feedforward control, it does not take into account the presence of a feedback loop in the gradient calculation. This paper provides a derivation of the proper weight vector gradient for hybrid (or feedback) controllers that takes into account the presence of feedback. In this formulation, a single weight vector is updated rather than two individually. An internal model structure is assumed for the feedback part of the controller. The full gradient is equivalent to that used in the standard FxLMS algorithm with the addition of a recursive term that is a function of the modeling error. Some simulations are provided to highlight the advantages of using the full gradient in the weight vector update rather than the approximation.

  12. Vegetation patterns and environmental gradients in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adomou, A.


    Key words: West Africa, Benin, vegetation patterns, floristic areas, phytogeography, chorology, floristic gradients, climatic factors, water availability, Dahomey Gap, threatened plants, biodiversity, conservation.Understanding plant species distribution patterns and the underlying factors is a

  13. Estimation of tropical forest canopy temperatures, thermal response numbers, and evapotranspiration using an aircraft-based thermal sensor (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Lieberman, Diana; Lieberman, Milton; Hartshorn, Gary S.; Peralta, Rodolfo


    Thermal infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data were collected at a resolution of 5 to 10 m from a tropical rain forest over an elevation gradient from 35 to 2700 m in the Braulio Carrillo National Park in Costa Rica. Flight lines were repeated with a 15 to 30 minute time difference for measurement of forest canopy thermal response over time. Concurrent radiosonde measurements of atmospheric profiles of air temperature and moisture provided inputs to LOWTRAN6 for atmospheric radiance corrections of the TIMS data. Techniques for using calibrated aircraft-based thermal scanner data to examine tropical forest canopy thermal properties are described. Forest canopy temperature changes over time assessed between repeated, duplicated flight lines were combined with estimates of surface radiative energy measurements from towers above the forest canopy to determine temperature spatial variability, calculate Thermal Response Numbers (TRN), and estimate evapotranspiration along the elevation gradient from selected one hectare forest inventory plots.

  14. Steady heat conduction-based thermal conductivity measurement of single walled carbon nanotubes thin film using a micropipette thermal sensor. (United States)

    Shrestha, R; Lee, K M; Chang, W S; Kim, D S; Rhee, G H; Choi, T Y


    In this paper, we describe the thermal conductivity measurement of single-walled carbon nanotubes thin film using a laser point source-based steady state heat conduction method. A high precision micropipette thermal sensor fabricated with a sensing tip size varying from 2 μm to 5 μm and capable of measuring thermal fluctuation with resolution of ±0.01 K was used to measure the temperature gradient across the suspended carbon nanotubes (CNT) film with a thickness of 100 nm. We used a steady heat conduction model to correlate the temperature gradient to the thermal conductivity of the film. We measured the average thermal conductivity of CNT film as 74.3 ± 7.9 W m(-1) K(-1) at room temperature.

  15. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittum, D.H.


    The authors recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. They summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. They take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams.

  16. On fracture in finite strain gradient plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Niordson, Christian Frithiof


    In this work a general framework for damage and fracture assessment including the effect of strain gradients is provided. Both mechanism-based and phenomenological strain gradient plasticity (SGP) theories are implemented numerically using finite deformation theory and crack tip fields are invest...... in the multiple parameter version of the phenomenological SGP theory. Since this also dominates the mechanics of indentation testing, results suggest that length parameters characteristic of mode I fracture should be inferred from nanoindentation....

  17. Microinstabilities in weak density gradient tokamak systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.; Chen, L.


    A prominent characteristic of auxiliary-heated tokamak discharges which exhibit improved (''H-mode type'') confinement properties is that their density profiles tend to be much flatter over most of the plasma radius. Depsite this favorable trend, it is emphasized here that, even in the limit of zero density gradient, low-frequency microinstabilities can persist due to the nonzero temperature gradient.

  18. Minimizing hallucination in Histogram of Oriented Gradients


    Ortiz, Javier; Bak, Slawomir; Koperski, Michał; Brémond, François


    International audience; Histogram of Oriented Gradients is one of the most extensively used image descriptors in computer vision. It has successfully been applied to various vision tasks such as localization, classification and recognition. As it mainly captures gradient strengths in an image, it is sensitive to local variations in illumination and contrast. In the result, a normalization of this descriptor turns out to be essential for good performance [3, 4]. Although different normal-izati...

  19. Thermal Hardware for the Thermal Analyst (United States)

    Steinfeld, David


    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). NCTS 21070-1. Most Thermal analysts do not have a good background into the hardware which thermally controls the spacecraft they design. SINDA and Thermal Desktop models are nice, but knowing how this applies to the actual thermal hardware (heaters, thermostats, thermistors, MLI blanketing, optical coatings, etc...) is just as important. The course will delve into the thermal hardware and their application techniques on actual spacecraft. Knowledge of how thermal hardware is used and applied will make a thermal analyst a better engineer.

  20. Computational analysis of frp composite under different temperature gradient (United States)

    Gunasekar, P.; Manigandan, S.


    Composite material strength depends on the stiffness of fiber and the resin which is used for reinforcement. The strength of the laminate can be increased by applying good manufacturing practices. The strength is directly depending on the property of resin. The property of the any compound subjected to changed when they exposed to the temperature. This paper investigates the strength of laminate when they subjected to different temperature gradient of resin while manufacturing. The resin is preheated before adding hardener with them. These types of laminate reinforced with resin at different levels of temperature 20c, 40c, and 60c. These different temperature resin are used for reinforcement and the specimen tested. The comparative results are made to find how the stiffness of laminate changes with respect to the thermal property of resin. The results are helpful to obtain high strength laminate.

  1. Estimation of gradients in quantum metrology (United States)

    Altenburg, Sanah; Oszmaniec, Michał; Wölk, Sabine; Gühne, Otfried


    We develop a general theory to estimate magnetic field gradients in quantum metrology. We consider a system of N particles distributed on a line whose internal degrees of freedom interact with a magnetic field. Usually gradient estimation is based on precise measurements of the magnetic field at two different locations, performed with two independent groups of particles. This approach, however, is sensitive to fluctuations of the offset field determining the level splitting of the particles and results in collective dephasing. In this work, we use the framework of quantum metrology to assess the maximal accuracy for gradient estimation. For arbitrary positioning of particles, we identify optimal entangled and separable states, allowing the estimation of gradients with maximal accuracy, quantified by the quantum Fisher information. We also analyze the performance of states from the decoherence-free subspace (DFS), which are insensitive to the fluctuations of the magnetic offset field. We find that these states allow us to measure a gradient directly, without the necessity of estimating the magnetic offset field. Moreover, we show that DFS states attain a precision for gradient estimation comparable to the optimal entangled states. Finally, for the above classes of states, we find simple and feasible measurements saturating the quantum Cramér-Rao bound.

  2. 3D Gradient coil design - Toroidal surfaces (United States)

    While, Peter T.; Forbes, Larry K.; Crozier, Stuart


    Gradient coil design typically involves optimisation of current densities or coil windings on familiar cylindrical, planar, spherical or conical surfaces. In this paper, an analytic inverse method is presented for the theoretical design of toroidal transverse gradient coils. This novel geometry is based on previous work involving a 3D current density solution, in which the precise geometry of the gradient coils was obtained as part of the optimisation process. Regularisation is used to solve for the toroidal current densities, whereby the field error is minimised in conjunction with the total power of the coil. The method is applied to the design of unshielded and shielded, whole-body and head coil gradient systems. Preliminary coil windings displaying high gradient homogeneity, low inductance, high efficiency and good force balancing are displayed and discussed. Potential benefits associated with this morphology include self-shielding gradient sets, greater access to cooling mechanisms, a reduction in acoustic noise due to force-balancing, a lessening of patient claustrophobia and greater patient access for clinicians.

  3. Aerodynamic state diagnosing method of aircraft with thermal field usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Kazak


    Full Text Available The method of aerodynamic condition of the aircraft on the thermal fields was developed as a research result. Based on the mathematical and natural experiments, there are identified the regularities of formation of temperature gradients in the boundary layer of air that occurs after damage of external contours; there are detected parameters that affect the behavior of the temperature gradient arising from damage.

  4. Gradient effects on the fracture of inhomogeneous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Terrence Lee [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) have a spatial variation in physical properties that can be tailored to meet the needs of a specific application and/or to minimize internal stresses arising from thermal and elastic mismatch. Modeling these materials as inhomogeneous continua allows assessment of the role of the gradient without requiring detailed knowledge of the microstructure. Motivated by the relative difficulty of obtaining analytical solutions to boundary value problems for FGMs, an accurate finite-element code is developed for obtaining numerical planar and axisymmetric linear thermoelastic solutions. In addition an approximate analytical technique for mapping homogeneous-modulus solutions to those for FGMs is assessed and classes of problems to which it applies accurately are identified. The fracture mechanics analysis of FGMs can be characterized by the classic stress intensities, KI and KII, but there has been scarce progress in understanding the role of the modulus gradient in determining fracture initiation and propagation. To address this question, a statistical fracture model is used to correlate near-tip stresses with brittle fracture initiation behavior. This describes the behavior of a material experiencing fracture initiation away from the crack tip. Widely dispersed zones of fracture initiation sites are expected. Finite-length kinks are analyzed to describe the crack path for continuous crack growth. For kink lengths much shorter than the gradient dimension, a parallel stress term describes the deviation of the kinking angle from that for homogeneous materials. For longer kinks there is a divergence of the kink angle predicted by the maximum energy release rate and the pure opening mode criteria.

  5. Gradient augmented level set method for phase change simulations (United States)

    Anumolu, Lakshman; Trujillo, Mario F.


    A numerical method for the simulation of two-phase flow with phase change based on the Gradient-Augmented-Level-set (GALS) strategy is presented. Sharp capturing of the vaporization process is enabled by: i) identification of the vapor-liquid interface, Γ (t), at the subgrid level, ii) discontinuous treatment of thermal physical properties (except for μ), and iii) enforcement of mass, momentum, and energy jump conditions, where the gradients of the dependent variables are obtained at Γ (t) and are consistent with their analytical expression, i.e. no local averaging is applied. Treatment of the jump in velocity and pressure at Γ (t) is achieved using the Ghost Fluid Method. The solution of the energy equation employs the sub-grid knowledge of Γ (t) to discretize the temperature Laplacian using second-order one-sided differences, i.e. the numerical stencil completely resides within each respective phase. To carefully evaluate the benefits or disadvantages of the GALS approach, the standard level set method is implemented and compared against the GALS predictions. The results show the expected trend that interface identification and transport are predicted noticeably better with GALS over the standard level set. This benefit carries over to the prediction of the Laplacian and temperature gradients in the neighborhood of the interface, which are directly linked to the calculation of the vaporization rate. However, when combining the calculation of interface transport and reinitialization with two-phase momentum and energy, the benefits of GALS are to some extent neutralized, and the causes for this behavior are identified and analyzed. Overall the additional computational costs associated with GALS are almost the same as those using the standard level set technique.

  6. Coral record of southeast Indian Ocean marine heatwaves with intensified Western Pacific temperature gradient (United States)

    Zinke, J.; Hoell, A.; Lough, J. M.; Feng, M.; Kuret, A. J.; Clarke, H.; Ricca, V.; Rankenburg, K.; McCulloch, M. T.


    Increasing intensity of marine heatwaves has caused widespread mass coral bleaching events, threatening the integrity and functional diversity of coral reefs. Here we demonstrate the role of inter-ocean coupling in amplifying thermal stress on reefs in the poorly studied southeast Indian Ocean (SEIO), through a robust 215-year (1795-2010) geochemical coral proxy sea surface temperature (SST) record. We show that marine heatwaves affecting the SEIO are linked to the behaviour of the Western Pacific Warm Pool on decadal to centennial timescales, and are most pronounced when an anomalously strong zonal SST gradient between the western and central Pacific co-occurs with strong La Niña's. This SST gradient forces large-scale changes in heat flux that exacerbate SEIO heatwaves. Better understanding of the zonal SST gradient in the Western Pacific is expected to improve projections of the frequency of extreme SEIO heatwaves and their ecological impacts on the important coral reef ecosystems off Western Australia.

  7. Prediction of Pressure and Temperature Gradients in the Tokamak Plasma Edge (United States)

    Stacey, W. M.


    An extended plasma fluid theory that takes into account kinetic ion orbit loss and electromagnetic forces in the continuity, momentum and energy balances, as well as atomic physics and radiation, has been used to reveal the explicit dependence of the temperature and pressure gradients in the tokamak edge plasma on these various factors. Combining the ion radial momentum balance and the Ohm's Law expression for Er reveals the dependence of the radial ion pressure gradient on VxB forces driven by radial particle fluxes, which depend on ion orbit loss, and other factors. The strong temperature gradients measured in the H-mode edge pedestal could certainly be associated with radiative and atomic physics edge cooling effects and the strong reduction in ion and energy fluxes due to ion orbit loss, as well as to the possible reductions in thermal diffusivities that is usually assumed to be the cause. Work supported by USDOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  8. Theoretical investigation of some thermal effects in turbulence modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathelin, Lionel [LIMSI-CNRS, Orsay (France); Bataille, Francoise [PROMES-CNRS, Perpignan (France); Ye, Zhou [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)


    Fluid compressibility effects arising from thermal rather than dynamical aspects are theoretically investigated in the framework of turbulent flows. The Mach number is considered low and not to induce significant compressibility effects which here occur due to a very high thermal gradient within the flowfield. With the use of the Two-Scale Direct Interaction Approximation approach, essential turbulent correlations are derived in a one-point one-time framework. In the low velocity gradient limit, they are shown to directly depend on the temperature gradient, assumed large. The impact of thermal effects onto the transport equations of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate is also investigated, together with the transport equation for both the density and the internal energy variance.

  9. The Influence Of Temperature Gradient On Stereological Parameters Of Carbide Phase On Cross-Section Of Abrasive Wear Resistant Chromium Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studnicki A.


    Full Text Available In the paper analysis of temperature gradient and parameters of structure on casting cross-section of abrasive wear resistant chromium cast iron at carbon content of 2,5%wt. and chromium 17%wt. with nickel and molybdenum additives are presented. The castings were made with use of special tester ϕ100mm (method of temperature gradient and derivative analysis with temperature recording in many points from thermal centre to surface (to mould of casting. Registered cooling curves were used to describe the temperature gradient on cross-section of analyzed casting. On the basis of determined curves of temperature gradient measurement fields were selected to make the quantitative studies of structure. The results of studies show significant influence of temperature gradient on quantitative parameters of chromium cast iron structure. Moreover was affirmed that exists a critical temperature gradient for which is present rapid change of quantitative parameters of chromium cast iron structure.

  10. Thermal Clothing (United States)


    Gateway Technologies, Inc. is marketing and developing textile insulation technology originally developed by Triangle Research and Development Corporation. The enhanced thermal insulation stems from Small Business Innovation Research contracts from NASA's Johnson Space Center and the U.S. Air Force. The effectiveness of the insulation comes from the microencapsulated phase-change materials originally made to keep astronauts gloved hands warm. The applications for the product range from outer wear, housing insulation, and blankets to protective firefighting gear and scuba diving suits. Gateway has developed and begun marketing thermal regulating products under the trademark, OUTLAST. Products made from OUTLAST are already on the market, including boot and shoe liners, winter headgear, hats and caps for hunting and other outdoor sports, and a variety of men's and women's ski gloves.

  11. Turbulent Thermalization

    CERN Document Server

    Micha, Raphael; Micha, Raphael; Tkachev, Igor I.


    We study, analytically and with lattice simulations, the decay of coherent field oscillations and the subsequent thermalization of the resulting stochastic classical wave-field. The problem of reheating of the Universe after inflation constitutes our prime motivation and application of the results. We identify three different stages of these processes. During the initial stage of ``parametric resonance'', only a small fraction of the initial inflaton energy is transferred to fluctuations in the physically relevant case of sufficiently large couplings. A major fraction is transfered in the prompt regime of driven turbulence. The subsequent long stage of thermalization classifies as free turbulence. During the turbulent stages, the evolution of particle distribution functions is self-similar. We show that wave kinetic theory successfully describes the late stages of our lattice calculation. Our analytical results are general and give estimates of reheating time and temperature in terms of coupling constants and...

  12. Toward automated face detection in thermal and polarimetric thermal imagery (United States)

    Gordon, Christopher; Acosta, Mark; Short, Nathan; Hu, Shuowen; Chan, Alex L.


    Visible spectrum face detection algorithms perform pretty reliably under controlled lighting conditions. However, variations in illumination and application of cosmetics can distort the features used by common face detectors, thereby degrade their detection performance. Thermal and polarimetric thermal facial imaging are relatively invariant to illumination and robust to the application of makeup, due to their measurement of emitted radiation instead of reflected light signals. The objective of this work is to evaluate a government off-the-shelf wavelet based naïve-Bayes face detection algorithm and a commercial off-the-shelf Viola-Jones cascade face detection algorithm on face imagery acquired in different spectral bands. New classifiers were trained using the Viola-Jones cascade object detection framework with preprocessed facial imagery. Preprocessing using Difference of Gaussians (DoG) filtering reduces the modality gap between facial signatures across the different spectral bands, thus enabling more correlated histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) features to be extracted from the preprocessed thermal and visible face images. Since the availability of training data is much more limited in the thermal spectrum than in the visible spectrum, it is not feasible to train a robust multi-modal face detector using thermal imagery alone. A large training dataset was constituted with DoG filtered visible and thermal imagery, which was subsequently used to generate a custom trained Viola-Jones detector. A 40% increase in face detection rate was achieved on a testing dataset, as compared to the performance of a pre-trained/baseline face detector. Insights gained in this research are valuable in the development of more robust multi-modal face detectors.

  13. Thermal feature extraction of servers in a datacenter using thermal image registration (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Ran, Jian; Xie, Ting; Gao, Shan


    Thermal cameras provide fine-grained thermal information that enhances monitoring and enables automatic thermal management in large datacenters. Recent approaches employing mobile robots or thermal camera networks can already identify the physical locations of hot spots. Other distribution information used to optimize datacenter management can also be obtained automatically using pattern recognition technology. However, most of the features extracted from thermal images, such as shape and gradient, may be affected by changes in the position and direction of the thermal camera. This paper presents a method for extracting the thermal features of a hot spot or a server in a container datacenter. First, thermal and visual images are registered based on textural characteristics extracted from images acquired in datacenters. Then, the thermal distribution of each server is standardized. The features of a hot spot or server extracted from the standard distribution can reduce the impact of camera position and direction. The results of experiments show that image registration is efficient for aligning the corresponding visual and thermal images in the datacenter, and the standardization procedure reduces the impacts of camera position and direction on hot spot or server features.

  14. Thermal morphing anisogrid smart space structures: thermal isolation design and linearity evaluation (United States)

    Phoenix, Austin A.


    To meet the requirements for the next generation of space missions, a paradigm shift is required from current structures that are static, heavy and stiff, toward innovative structures that are adaptive, lightweight, versatile, and intelligent. A novel morphing structure, the thermally actuated anisogrid morphing boom, can be used to meet the design requirements by making the primary structure actively adapt to the on-orbit environment. The anisogrid structure is able to achieve high precision morphing control through the intelligent application of thermal gradients. This active primary structure improves structural and thermal stability performance, reduces mass, and enables new mission architectures. This effort attempts to address limits to the author's previous work by incorporating the impact of thermal coupling that was initially neglected. This paper introduces a thermally isolated version of the thermal morphing anisogrid structure in order to address the thermal losses between active members. To evaluate the isolation design the stiffness and thermal conductivity of these isolating interfaces need to be addressed. This paper investigates the performance of the thermal morphing system under a variety of structural and thermal isolation interface properties.

  15. Geothermal gradients map of Hokkaido; Hokkaido no chion kobaizu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akita, F.; Matsunami, T.; Wakahama, H. [Hokkaido Geological Survey, Sapporo (Japan)


    This paper outlines the newly prepared geothermal gradient map (GGM) of Hokkaido which is important for survey on geothermal and hot spring resources. The temperature data of 687 wells were compiled by data collection and field survey. The geothermal gradient was calculated from the ratio of the temperature difference between the bottom (deepest well log) and the ground surface (10degC) to a bottom depth. GGM was prepared using data of 85 wells which show real geothermal temperatures through conductive temperature profiles, or SBHT (static bottom hole temperature) calculation is possible. Geological profiles were classified into three types based on base rocks. The thermal structure of GGM was clearly divided into a high geothermal gradient over 10degC/100m, and a low one within 3degC/100m. The former showed active volcano and high geothermal areas, while the latter showed a volcanic front arc area. This underground temperature structure relates to the formation process of volcanos and the origin of magma, and is also similar to the trend of a crust thermal flow rate. The geothermal gradient increases with a decrease in Curie point depth. 26 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Thermal energy and the origin of life. (United States)

    Muller, Anthonie W J; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk


    Life has evolved on Earth with electromagnetic radiation (light), fermentable organic molecules, and oxidizable chemicals as sources of energy. Biological use of thermal energy has not been observed although heat, and the thermal gradients required to convert it into free energy, are ubiquitous and were even more abundant at the time of the origin of life on Earth. Nevertheless, Earth-organisms sense thermal energy, and in suitable environments may have gained the capability to use it as energy source. It has been proposed that the first organisms obtained their energy by a first protein named pF(1) that worked on a thermal variation of the binding change mechanism of today's ATP sythase enzyme. Organisms using thermosynthesis may still live where light or chemical energy sources are not available. Possible suitable examples are subsurface environments on Earth and in the outer Solar System, in particular the subsurface oceans of the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn.

  17. Co-gradient variation in growth rate and development time of a broadly distributed butterfly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Barton

    Full Text Available Widespread species often show geographic variation in thermally-sensitive traits, providing insight into how species respond to shifts in temperature through time. Such patterns may arise from phenotypic plasticity, genetic adaptation, or their interaction. In some cases, the effects of genotype and temperature may act together to reduce, or to exacerbate, phenotypic variation in fitness-related traits across varying thermal environments. We find evidence for such interactions in life-history traits of Heteronympha merope, a butterfly distributed across a broad latitudinal gradient in south-eastern Australia. We show that body size in this butterfly is negatively related to developmental temperature in the laboratory, in accordance with the temperature-size rule, but not in the field, despite very strong temperature gradients. A common garden experiment on larval thermal responses, spanning the environmental extremes of H. merope's distribution, revealed that butterflies from low latitude (warmer climate populations have relatively fast intrinsic growth and development rates compared to those from cooler climates. These synergistic effects of genotype and temperature across the landscape (co-gradient variation are likely to accentuate phenotypic variation in these traits, and this interaction must be accounted for when predicting how H. merope will respond to temperature change through time. These results highlight the importance of understanding how variation in life-history traits may arise in response to environmental change. Without this knowledge, we may fail to detect whether organisms are tracking environmental change, and if they are, whether it is by plasticity, adaptation or both.

  18. Physiological Limits along an Elevational Gradient in a Radiation of Montane Ground Beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A Slatyer

    Full Text Available A central challenge in ecology and biogeography is to determine the extent to which physiological constraints govern the geographic ranges of species along environmental gradients. This study tests the hypothesis that temperature and desiccation tolerance are associated with the elevational ranges of 12 ground beetle species (genus Nebria occurring on Mt. Rainier, Washington, U.S.A. Species from higher elevations did not have greater cold tolerance limits than lower-elevation species (all species ranged from -3.5 to -4.1°C, despite a steep decline in minimum temperature with elevation. Although heat tolerance limits varied among species (from 32.0 to 37.0°C, this variation was not generally associated with the relative elevational range of a species. Temperature gradients and acute thermal tolerance do not support the hypothesis that physiological constraints drive species turnover with elevation. Measurements of intraspecific variation in thermal tolerance limits were not significant for individuals taken at different elevations on Mt. Rainier, or from other mountains in Washington and Oregon. Desiccation resistance was also not associated with a species' elevational distribution. Our combined results contrast with previously-detected latitudinal gradients in acute physiological limits among insects and suggest that other processes such as chronic thermal stress or biotic interactions might be more important in constraining elevational distributions in this system.

  19. The Role of the Velocity Gradient in Laminar Convective Heat Transfer through a Tube with a Uniform Wall Heat Flux (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Bi; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiao-Xia


    This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of convective heat transfer. For this purpose, the reason why thermal diffusivity should be placed before the Laplacian operator of the heat flux, and the role of the velocity gradient in convective heat transfer are analysed. The background to these analyses is that, when the energy…

  20. Temperature sensitivity and enzymatic mechanisms of soil organic matter decomposition along an altitudinal gradient on Mount Kilimanjaro. (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, Еvgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Khomyakov, Nikita; Myachina, Olga; Kuzyakov, Yakov


    Short-term acceleration of soil organic matter decomposition by increasing temperature conflicts with the thermal adaptation observed in long-term studies. Here we used the altitudinal gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro to demonstrate the mechanisms of thermal adaptation of extra- and intracellular enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose, chitin and phytate and oxidize monomers ((14)C-glucose) in warm- and cold-climate soils. We revealed that no response of decomposition rate to temperature occurs because of a cancelling effect consisting in an increase in half-saturation constants (Km), which counteracts the increase in maximal reaction rates (Vmax with temperature). We used the parameters of enzyme kinetics to predict thresholds of substrate concentration (Scrit) below which decomposition rates will be insensitive to global warming. Increasing values of Scrit, and hence stronger canceling effects with increasing altitude on Mt. Kilimanjaro, explained the thermal adaptation of polymer decomposition. The reduction of the temperature sensitivity of Vmax along the altitudinal gradient contributed to thermal adaptation of both polymer and monomer degradation. Extrapolating the altitudinal gradient to the large-scale latitudinal gradient, these results show that the soils of cold climates with stronger and more frequent temperature variation are less sensitive to global warming than soils adapted to high temperatures.

  1. Surface profile gradient in amorphous Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} semi conductive layers regulates nanoscale electric current stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cefalas, A.C., E-mail: [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece); Kollia, Z.; Spyropoulos-Antonakakis, N.; Gavriil, V. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece); Christofilos, D.; Kourouklis, G. [Physics Division, School of Technology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Semashko, V.V.; Pavlov, V. [Kazan Federal University, Institute of Physics, 18 Kremljovskaja str., Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Sarantopoulou, E. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece); Kazan Federal University, Institute of Physics, 18 Kremljovskaja str., Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: • The work links the surface morphology of amorphous semiconductors with both their electric-thermal properties and current stability at the nanoscale (<1 μm). • Measured high correlation value between surface morphological spatial gradient and conductive electron energy spatial gradient or thermal gradient. • Unidirectional current stability is associated with asymmetric nanodomains along nanosize conductive paths. • Bidirectional current stability is inherent with either long conductive paths or nanosize conductive paths along symmetric nanodomains. • Conclusion: Surface design improves current stability across nanoelectonic junctions. - Abstract: A link between the morphological characteristics and the electric properties of amorphous layers is established by means of atomic, conductive, electrostatic force and thermal scanning microscopy. Using amorphous Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} (a-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) semiconductive layer, it is found that surface profile gradients (morphological gradient), are highly correlated to both the electron energy gradient of trapped electrons in interactive Coulombic sites and the thermal gradient along conductive paths and thus thermal and electric properties are correlated with surface morphology at the nanoscale. Furthermore, morphological and electron energy gradients along opposite conductive paths of electrons intrinsically impose a current stability anisotropy. For either long conductive paths (L > 1 μm) or along symmetric nanodomains, current stability for both positive and negative currents i is demonstrated. On the contrary, for short conductive paths along non-symmetric nanodomains, the set of independent variables (L, i) is spanned by two current stability/intability loci. One locus specifies a stable state for negative currents, while the other locus also describes a stable state for positive currents.

  2. Momentum-weighted conjugate gradient descent algorithm for gradient coil optimization. (United States)

    Lu, Hanbing; Jesmanowicz, Andrzej; Li, Shi-Jiang; Hyde, James S


    MRI gradient coil design is a type of nonlinear constrained optimization. A practical problem in transverse gradient coil design using the conjugate gradient descent (CGD) method is that wire elements move at different rates along orthogonal directions (r, phi, z), and tend to cross, breaking the constraints. A momentum-weighted conjugate gradient descent (MW-CGD) method is presented to overcome this problem. This method takes advantage of the efficiency of the CGD method combined with momentum weighting, which is also an intrinsic property of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, to adjust step sizes along the three orthogonal directions. A water-cooled, 12.8 cm inner diameter, three axis torque-balanced gradient coil for rat imaging was developed based on this method, with an efficiency of 2.13, 2.08, and 4.12 mT.m(-1).A(-1) along X, Y, and Z, respectively. Experimental data demonstrate that this method can improve efficiency by 40% and field uniformity by 27%. This method has also been applied to the design of a gradient coil for the human brain, employing remote current return paths. The benefits of this design include improved gradient field uniformity and efficiency, with a shorter length than gradient coil designs using coaxial return paths. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Nonlinear conjugate gradient methods in micromagnetics (United States)

    Fischbacher, J.; Kovacs, Alexander; Oezelt, Harald; Schrefl, T.; Exl, L.; Fidler, J.; Suess, D.; Sakuma, N.; Yano, M.; Kato, A.; Shoji, T.; Manabe, A.


    Conjugate gradient methods for energy minimization in micromagnetics are compared. The comparison of analytic results with numerical simulation shows that standard conjugate gradient method may fail to produce correct results. A method that restricts the step length in the line search is introduced, in order to avoid this problem. When the step length in the line search is controlled, conjugate gradient techniques are a fast and reliable way to compute the hysteresis properties of permanent magnets. The method is applied to investigate demagnetizing effects in NdFe12 based permanent magnets. The reduction of the coercive field by demagnetizing effects is μ0ΔH = 1.4 T at 450 K.

  4. Gradient Solvent Vapor Annealing of Thin Films (United States)

    Albert, Julie; Bogart, Timothy; Lewis, Ronald; Epps, Thomas


    The development of block copolymer materials for emerging nanotechnologies requires an understanding of how surface energy/chemistry and annealing conditions affect thin film self-assembly. Specifically, in solvent vapor annealing (SVA), the use of solvent mixtures and the manipulation of solvent vapor concentration are promising approaches for obtaining a desired morphology or nanostructure orientation. We designed and fabricated solvent-resistant devices to produce discrete SVA gradients in composition and/or concentration to efficiently explore SVA parameter space. We annealed copolymer films containing poly(styrene), poly(isoprene), and/or poly(methyl methacrylate) blocks, monitored film thicknesses during annealing, and characterized film morphologies with atomic force microscopy. Morphological changes across the gradients such as the transformation from parallel cylinders to spheres with increasing solvent selectivity provided insight into thin film self-assembly, and the gradient device has enabled us to determine transition compositions and/or concentrations.

  5. Conjugate gradient algorithms using multiple recursions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, T.; Manteuffel, T.


    Much is already known about when a conjugate gradient method can be implemented with short recursions for the direction vectors. The work done in 1984 by Faber and Manteuffel gave necessary and sufficient conditions on the iteration matrix A, in order for a conjugate gradient method to be implemented with a single recursion of a certain form. However, this form does not take into account all possible recursions. This became evident when Jagels and Reichel used an algorithm of Gragg for unitary matrices to demonstrate that the class of matrices for which a practical conjugate gradient algorithm exists can be extended to include unitary and shifted unitary matrices. The implementation uses short double recursions for the direction vectors. This motivates the study of multiple recursion algorithms.

  6. Dynamics of gradient formation by intracellular shuttling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M. [Mathematical and Statistical Computing Laboratory, Division of Computational Bioscience, Center for Information Technology, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Shvartsman, Stanislav Y. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)


    A number of important cellular functions rely on the formation of intracellular protein concentration gradients. Experimental studies discovered a number of mechanisms for the formation of such gradients. One of the mechanisms relies on the intracellular shuttling of a protein that interconverts between the two states with different diffusivities, under the action of two enzymes, one of which is localized to the plasma membrane, whereas the second is uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm. Recent work reported an analytical solution for the steady state gradient in this mechanism, obtained in the framework of a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model. Here, we study the dynamics in this model and derive analytical expressions for the Laplace transforms of the time-dependent concentration profiles in terms of elementary transcendental functions. Inverting these transforms numerically, one can obtain time-dependent concentration profiles of the two forms of the protein.

  7. Collective chemotaxis through noisy multicellular gradient sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Varennes, Julien; Mugler, Andrew


    Collective cell migration in response to a chemical cue occurs in many biological processes such as morphogenesis and cancer metastasis. Clusters of migratory cells in these systems are capable of responding to gradients of less than 1% difference in chemical concentration across a cell length. Multicellular systems are extremely sensitive to their environment and while the limits to multicellular sensing are becoming known, how this information leads to coherent migration remains poorly understood. We develop a computational model of multicellular sensing and migration in which groups of cells collectively measure noisy chemical gradients. The output of the sensing process is coupled to individual cells polarization to model migratory behavior. Through the use of numerical simulations, we find that larger clusters of cells detect the gradient direction with higher precision and thus achieve stronger polarization bias, but larger clusters also induce more drag on collective motion. The trade-off between these...

  8. Gradients in Planarian Regeneration and Homeostasis (United States)

    Adell, Teresa; Cebrià, Francesc; Saló, Emili


    Planarian regeneration was one of the first models in which the gradient concept was developed. Morphological studies based on the analysis of the regeneration rates of planarian fragments from different body regions, the generation of heteromorphoses, and experiments of tissue transplantation led T.H. Morgan (1901) and C.M Child (1911) to postulate different kinds of gradients responsible for the regenerative process in these highly plastic animals. However, after a century of research, the role of morphogens in planarian regeneration has yet to be demonstrated. This may change soon, as the sequencing of the planarian genome and the possibility of performing gene functional analysis by RNA interference (RNAi) have led to the isolation of elements of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Wnt, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathways that control patterning and axial polarity during planarian regeneration and homeostasis. Here, we discuss whether the actions of these molecules could be based on morphogenetic gradients. PMID:20182600

  9. Inversion gradients for acoustic VTI wavefield tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Vladimir


    Wavefield tomography can handle complex subsurface geology better than ray-based techniques and, ultimately, provide a higher resolution. Here, we implement forward and adjoint wavefield extrapolation for VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) media using a generalized pseudospectral operator based on a separable approximation for the P-wave dispersion relation. This operator is employed to derive the gradients of the differential semblance optimization (DSO) and modified image-power objective functions. We also obtain the gradient expressions for a data-domain objective function that can more easily incorporate borehole information necessary for stable VTI velocity analysis. These gradients are similar to the ones obtained with a space-time finite-difference (FD) scheme for a system of coupled wave equations but the pseudospectral method is not hampered by the imprint of the shear-wave artifact. Numerical examples also show the potential advantages of the modified image-power objective function in estimating the anellipticity parameter η.

  10. Thermal insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, R.; Asada, Y.; Matsuo, Y.; Mikoda, M.


    A thermal insulator comprises an expanded resin body having embedded therein an evacuated powder insulation portion which consists of fine powder and a container of film-like plastics or a film-like composite of plastics and metal for enclosing the powder. The resin body has been expanded by a Freon gas as a blowing agent. Since a Freon gas has a larger molecular diameter than the constituent gases of air, it is less likely to permeate through the container than air. Thus present invention provides a novel composite insulator which fully utilizes the benefits of vacuum insulation without necessitating a strong and costly material for a vacuum container.

  11. Thermal fatigue due to stratification and thermal shock loading of piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, X.; Herter, K.H. [Materials Testing Inst. (MPA) Univ. of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)


    Most of the fatigue relevant stresses in piping systems are caused by thermal loading. The difference between the density of the fluid caused by the temperature gradient from bottom to top of the pipe cross section combined with low flow rates can result in thermal stratification in the horizontal portions of a piping system. The hot and cold fluid levels of the stratified flow conditions are separated by an interface or mixing layer. On the other hand high flow rates can cause a temperature gradient in pipe longitudinal direction (jump of temperature) and result in a thermal shock loading on the inside pipe surface constant throughout the pipe cross section. These loading conditions impact the secondary stress and the fatigue usage analysis typically performed for piping components by equations in the technical codes. Thermal stratification in piping system causes a circumferentially varying temperature distribution in the pipe wall resulting in local through wall axial stresses and global bending stresses in the piping system. Maximum local thermal stress is found when a thin interface (mixing) layer occurs in the upper or lower parts of the pipe cross section. Maximum global thermal bending stress is found when a thin interface layer occurs in the middle of the pipe cross section. (orig.)

  12. On lower order strain gradient plasticity theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, J. W.


    By way of numerical examples, this paper explores the nature of solutions to a class of strain gradient plasticity theories that employ conventional stresses, equilibrium equations and boundary conditions. Strain gradients come into play in these modified conventional theories only to alter the t...... the tangential moduli governing increments of stress and strain. It is shown that the modification is far from benign from a mathematical standpoint, changing the qualitative character of solutions and leading to a new type of localization that appears to be unphysical....

  13. Spectral Projected Gradient Methods: Review and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto G. Birgin


    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, it has been observed that using the gradient vector as a search direction in large-scale optimization may lead to efficient algorithms. The effectiveness relies on choosing the step lengths according to novel ideas that are related to the spectrum of the underlying local Hessian rather than related to the standard decrease in the objective function. A review of these so-called spectral projected gradient methods for convex constrained optimization is presented. To illustrate the performance of these low-cost schemes, an optimization problem on the set of positive definite matrices is described.

  14. Improving dimensionality reduction with spectral gradient descent. (United States)

    Memisevic, Roland; Hinton, Geoffrey


    We introduce spectral gradient descent, a way of improving iterative dimensionality reduction techniques. The method uses information contained in the leading eigenvalues of a data affinity matrix to modify the steps taken during a gradient-based optimization procedure. We show that the approach is able to speed up the optimization and to help dimensionality reduction methods find better local minima of their objective functions. We also provide an interpretation of our approach in terms of the power method for finding the leading eigenvalues of a symmetric matrix and verify the usefulness of the approach in some simple experiments.

  15. Gradient Elasticity Formulations for Micro/Nanoshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohua Sun


    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on illustrating how to extend the second author’s gradient theory of elasticity to shells. Three formulations are presented based on the implicit gradient elasticity constitutive relation 1 -ld2∇2σij=Cijkl(1-ls2∇2εkl and its two approximations 1+ls2∇2-ld2∇2σij=Cijklεkl and σij=Cijkl(1+ld2∇2-ls2∇2εkl.

  16. On q dependence of thermal transport in tokamaks (United States)

    Hirose, A.; Livingstone, S.; Singh, A. K.


    Analysis based on a gyro-kinetic ballooning stability code predicts that both the ion and electron thermal diffusivities, due to the ion temperature gradient (ITG) and electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes, respectively, increase with the safety factor q almost linearly. In the case of ITG driven ion thermal diffusivity, the q dependence originates from the coupling to the ion acoustic mode, and in the case of the electron thermal diffusivity due to the ETG mode, it emerges from the coupling to the skin size drift mode. In the ETG mode, charge neutrality does not hold for typical tokamak discharges, and mixing length estimates yield a thermal diffusivity large enough to be relevant to experiments.

  17. Thermoregulation in the lizard Psammodromus algirus along a 2200-m elevational gradient in Sierra Nevada (Spain) (United States)

    Zamora-Camacho, Francisco Javier; Reguera, Senda; Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio


    Achieving optimal body temperature maximizes animal fitness. Since ambient temperature may limit ectotherm thermal performance, it can be constrained in too cold or hot environments. In this sense, elevational gradients encompass contrasting thermal environments. In thermally pauperized elevations, ectotherms may either show adaptations or suboptimal body temperatures. Also, reproductive condition may affect thermal needs. Herein, we examined different thermal ecology and physiology capabilities of the lizard Psammodromus algirus along a 2200-m elevational gradient. We measured field (Tb) and laboratory-preferred (Tpref) body temperatures of lizards with different reproductive conditions, as well as ambient (Ta) and copper-model operative temperature (Te), which we used to determine thermal quality of the habitat (de), accuracy (db), and effectiveness of thermoregulation (de-db) indexes. We detected no Tb trend in elevation, while Ta constrained Tb only at high elevations. Moreover, while Ta decreased more than 7 °C with elevation, Tpref dropped only 0.6 °C, although significantly. Notably, low-elevation lizards faced excess temperature (Te > Tpref). Notably, de was best at middle elevations, followed by high elevations, and poorest at low elevations. Nonetheless, regarding microhabitat, high-elevation de was more suitable in sun-exposed microhabitats, which may increase exposition to predators, and at midday, which may limit daily activity. As for gender, db and de-db were better in females than in males. In conclusion, P. algirus seems capable to face a wide thermal range, which probably contributes to its extensive corology and makes it adaptable to climate changes.

  18. An effective thermal circuit model for electro-thermal simulation of SOI analog circuits (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-C.; Zhang, Kun


    A physics-based thermal circuit model is developed for electro-thermal simulation of SOI analog circuits. The circuit model integrates a non-isothermal device thermal circuit with interconnect thermal networks and is validated with high accuracy against finite element simulations in different layout structures. The non-isothermal circuit model is implemented in BSIMSOI to account for self-heating effect (SHE) in a Spice simulator, and applied to electro-thermal simulation of an SOI cascode current mirror constructed using different layouts. Effects of layout design on electric and thermal behaviors are investigated in detail. Influences of BOX thickness are also examined. It has been shown that the proposed non-isothermal approach is able to effectively account for influences of layout design, self-heating, high temperature gradients along the islands, interconnect temperature distributions, thermal coupling, and heat losses via BOX and interconnects, etc., in SOI current mirror structures. The model provides basic concepts and thermal circuits that can be extended to develop an effective model for electro-thermal simulation of SOI analog ICs.

  19. Up-gradient transport in a probabilistic transport model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavnholt, J.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Garcia, O.E.


    The transport of particles or heat against the driving gradient is studied by employing a probabilistic transport model with a characteristic particle step length that depends on the local concentration or heat gradient. When this gradient is larger than a prescribed critical value, the standard....... These results supplement recent works by van Milligen [Phys. Plasmas 11, 3787 (2004)], which applied Levy distributed step sizes in the case of supercritical gradients to obtain the up-gradient transport. (c) 2005 American Institute of Physics....

  20. Thermal remote sensing for reservoir modelling and management


    Martí-Cardona, B.; Arbat-Bofill, M; Prats-Rodríguez, J.; Pipia, L.


    ASTER and Landsat images were used for mapping the water surface temperature in the Sobrón, Mequinenza and Ribarroja reservoirs in the Ebro River, Spain. The spatially continuous information in these maps reveals the impact of the reservoir on the river natural thermal gradient in two different periods of the year. It also evidences the thermal impact intensity and extent of the refrigeration flow discharge from a nuclear power plant located on the river bank. The high spatial resolution i...

  1. Thermal remote sensing for reservoir modelling and management



    ASTER and Landsat images were used for mapping the water surface temperature in the Sobrón, Mequinenza and Ribarroja reservoirs in the Ebro River, Spain. The spatially continuous information in these maps reveals the impact of the reservoir on the river natural thermal gradient in two different periods of the year. It also evidences the thermal impact intensity and extent of the refrigeration flow discharge from a nuclear power plant located on the river bank. The high spatial resolution imag...

  2. Solidification thermal parameters affecting the columnar-to-equiaxed transition


    Siqueira, CA; Cheung, N; Garcia, A


    Experiments were conducted to analyze the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) during the upward unsteady-state directional solidification of Al-Cu and Sn-Pb alloys, under different conditions of superheat and heat-transfer efficiencies at the metal/mold interface. A combined theoretical and experimental approach is developed to quantitatively determine the solidification thermal parameters: transient heat-transfer coefficients, tip growth rates, thermal gradients, and cooling rates. The obs...

  3. Efficient thermal spin injection in metallic nanostructures (United States)

    Nomura, Tatsuya; Ariki, Taisei; Hu, Shaojie; Kimura, Takashi


    Thermal spin injection is a unique and fascinating method for generating spin current. If magnetization can be controlled by thermal spin injection, various advantages will be provided in spintronic devices, through its wireless controllability. However, the generation efficiency of thermal spin injection is believed to be lower than that of electrical spin injection. Here, we explore a suitable ferromagnetic metal for an efficient thermal spin injection, via systematic experiments based on diffusive spin transport under temperature gradients. Since a ferromagnetic metal with strong spin splitting is expected to have a large spin-dependent Seebeck coefficient, a lateral spin valve based on CoFe electrodes has been fabricated. However, the superior thermal spin injection property has not been observed, because the CoFe electrode retained its crystalline signature—where s-like electrons dominate the transport property in the ferromagnet. To suppress the crystalline signature, we adopt a CoFeAl electrode, in which the Al impurity significantly reduces the contribution from s-like electrons. Highly efficient thermal spin injection has been demonstrated using this CoFeAl electrode. Further optimization for thermal spin injection has been demonstrated by adjusting the Co and Fe composition.

  4. Thermal responses of Symbiodinium photosynthetic carbon assimilation (United States)

    Oakley, Clinton A.; Schmidt, Gregory W.; Hopkinson, Brian M.


    The symbiosis between hermatypic corals and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts, genus Symbiodinium, is based on carbon exchange. This symbiosis is disrupted by thermally induced coral bleaching, a stress response in which the coral host expels its algal symbionts as they become physiologically impaired. The disruption of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) supply or the thermal inactivation of Rubisco have been proposed as sites of initial thermal damage that leads to the bleaching response. Symbiodinium possesses a highly unusual Form II ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), which exhibits a lower CO2:O2 specificity and may be more thermally unstable than the Form I Rubiscos of other algae and land plants. Components of the CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM), which supplies inorganic carbon for photosynthesis, may also be temperature sensitive. Here, we examine the ability of four cultured Symbiodinium strains to acquire and fix DIC across a temperature gradient. Surprisingly, the half-saturation constant of photosynthesis with respect to DIC concentration ( K P), an index of CCM function, declined with increasing temperature in three of the four strains, indicating a greater potential for photosynthetic carbon acquisition at elevated temperatures. In the fourth strain, there was no effect of temperature on K P. Finding no evidence for thermal inhibition of the CCM, we conclude that CCM components are not likely to be the primary sites of thermal damage. Reduced photosynthetic quantum yields, a hallmark of thermal bleaching, were observed at low DIC concentrations, leaving open the possibility that reduced inorganic carbon availability is involved in bleaching.

  5. Large Airborne Full Tensor Gradient Data Inversion Based on a Non-Monotone Gradient Method (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Meng, Zhaohai; Li, Fengting


    Following the development of gravity gradiometer instrument technology, the full tensor gravity (FTG) data can be acquired on airborne and marine platforms. Large-scale geophysical data can be obtained using these methods, making such data sets a number of the "big data" category. Therefore, a fast and effective inversion method is developed to solve the large-scale FTG data inversion problem. Many algorithms are available to accelerate the FTG data inversion, such as conjugate gradient method. However, the conventional conjugate gradient method takes a long time to complete data processing. Thus, a fast and effective iterative algorithm is necessary to improve the utilization of FTG data. Generally, inversion processing is formulated by incorporating regularizing constraints, followed by the introduction of a non-monotone gradient-descent method to accelerate the convergence rate of FTG data inversion. Compared with the conventional gradient method, the steepest descent gradient algorithm, and the conjugate gradient algorithm, there are clear advantages of the non-monotone iterative gradient-descent algorithm. Simulated and field FTG data were applied to show the application value of this new fast inversion method.

  6. Weakening of lower tropospheric temperature gradient between ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    e-mail: The study shows that in the scenario of global warming temperature gradient (TG) between Indian landmass and Arabian Sea/Bay of Bengal is significantly decreasing in the lower troposphere with maxima around 850hPa. TG during pre-monsoon (March to May) is ...

  7. Conjugate Gradient Algorithms For Manipulator Simulation (United States)

    Fijany, Amir; Scheid, Robert E.


    Report discusses applicability of conjugate-gradient algorithms to computation of forward dynamics of robotic manipulators. Rapid computation of forward dynamics essential to teleoperation and other advanced robotic applications. Part of continuing effort to find algorithms meeting requirements for increased computational efficiency and speed. Method used for iterative solution of systems of linear equations.

  8. Hydrodynamic Gradient Expansion in Gauge Theory Plasmas,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, M.P.; Janik, R.A.; Witaszczyk, P


    We utilize the fluid-gravity duality to investigate the large order behavior of hydrodynamic gradient expansion of the dynamics of a gauge theory plasma system. This corresponds to the inclusion of dissipative terms and transport coefficients of very high order. Using the dual gravity description,

  9. Gradient lasso for Cox proportional hazards model. (United States)

    Sohn, Insuk; Kim, Jinseog; Jung, Sin-Ho; Park, Changyi


    There has been an increasing interest in expressing a survival phenotype (e.g. time to cancer recurrence or death) or its distribution in terms of a subset of the expression data of a subset of genes. Due to high dimensionality of gene expression data, however, there is a serious problem of collinearity in fitting a prediction model, e.g. Cox's proportional hazards model. To avoid the collinearity problem, several methods based on penalized Cox proportional hazards models have been proposed. However, those methods suffer from severe computational problems, such as slow or even failed convergence, because of high-dimensional matrix inversions required for model fitting. We propose to implement the penalized Cox regression with a lasso penalty via the gradient lasso algorithm that yields faster convergence to the global optimum than do other algorithms. Moreover the gradient lasso algorithm is guaranteed to converge to the optimum under mild regularity conditions. Hence, our gradient lasso algorithm can be a useful tool in developing a prediction model based on high-dimensional covariates including gene expression data. Results from simulation studies showed that the prediction model by gradient lasso recovers the prognostic genes. Also results from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma datasets and Norway/Stanford breast cancer dataset indicate that our method is very competitive compared with popular existing methods by Park and Hastie and Goeman in its computational time, prediction and selectivity. R package glcoxph is available at

  10. Instabilities in power law gradient hardening materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo


    Tension and compression instabilities are investigated for specimens with dimensions in the micron range. A finite strain generalization of a higher order strain gradient plasticity theory is implemented in a finite element scheme capable of modeling power law hardening materials. Effects...

  11. Mass balance gradients and climatic change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.; Hoogendoorn, N.C.


    It is generally assumed that the mass-balance gradient on glaciers is more or less conserved under climatic change. In studies of the dynamic response of glaciers to climatic change, one of the following assumptions is normally made: (i) the mass-balance perturbation is independent of altitude

  12. Lactate uptake against a concentration gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Nielsen, Troels Halfeld; Nielsen, Hans Boye


    The recently published article by Jalloh et al (Jalloh I, Helmy A, Shannon RJ, Gallagher CN, Menon D, Carpenter K, Hutchinson P. Lactate uptake by the injured human brain - evidence from an arterio-venous gradient and cerebral microdialysis study. J Neurotrauma. 2013 Aug 22. [Epub ahead of print...

  13. Density Gradient Columns for Chemical Displays. (United States)

    Guenther, William B.


    Procedures for preparing density gradient columns for chemical displays are presented. They include displays illustrating acid-base reactions, metal ion equilibria, and liquid density. The lifetime of these metastable displays is surprising, some lasting for months in display cabinets. (JN)

  14. GOCE gravitational gradients along the orbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, J.; Fiorot, S.; Fuchs, M.; Gruber, T.; Schrama, E.J.O.; Tscherning, C.; Veicherts, M.; Visser, P.N.A.M.


    GOCE is ESA’s gravity field mission and the first satellite ever that measures gravitational gradients in space, that is, the second spatial derivatives of the Earth’s gravitational potential. The goal is to determine the Earth’s mean gravitational field with unprecedented accuracy at spatial

  15. Proton gradients at the origin of life. (United States)

    Lane, Nick


    Chemiosmotic coupling - the harnessing of electrochemical ion gradients across membranes to drive metabolism - is as universally conserved as the genetic code. As argued previously in these pages, such deep conservation suggests that ion gradients arose early in evolution, and might have played a role in the origin of life. Alkaline hydrothermal vents harbour pH gradients of similar polarity and magnitude to those employed by modern cells, one of many properties that make them attractive models for life's origin. Their congruence with the physiology of anaerobic autotrophs that use the acetyl CoA pathway to fix CO2 gives the alkaline vent model broad appeal to biologists. Recently, however, a paper by Baz Jackson criticized the hypothesis, concluding that natural pH gradients were unlikely to have played any role in the origin of life. Unfortunately, Jackson mainly criticized his own interpretations of the theory, not what the literature says. This counterpoint is intended to set the record straight. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  16. GOCE gravity gradient data for lithospheric modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, J.; Ebbing, J.; Meekes, S.; Fattah, R.A.; Fuchs, M.; Gradmann, S.; Haagmans, R.; Lieb, V.; Schmidt, M.; Dettmering, D.; Bosch, W.


    The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) is the European Space Agency's (ESA)satellite gravity mission to determine the Earth's mean gravity field. GOCE delivers gravity gradients, anew type of satellite data. We study how these data can improve modeling of the Earth's

  17. Gradient computation for VTI acoustic wavefield tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Vladimir


    Wavefield tomography can handle complex subsurface geology better than ray-based techniques and, ultimately, provide a higher resolution. Here, we implement forward and adjoint wavefield extrapolation for VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) media using a pseudospectral operator that employes a separable approximation of the P-wave dispersion relation. This operator is employed to derive the gradients of the differential semblance optimization (DSO) and modified stack-power objective functions. We also obtain the gradient expressions for the data-domain objective function, which can incorporate borehole information necessary for stable VTI velocity analysis. These gradients are compared to the ones obtained with a space-time finite-difference (FD) scheme for a system of coupled wave equations. Whereas the kernels computed with the two wave-equation operators are similar, the pseudospectral method is not hampered by the imprint of the shear-wave artifact. Numerical examples also show that the modified stack-power objective function produces cleaner gradients than the more conventional DSO operator.

  18. Annular beam with segmented phase gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubo Cheng


    Full Text Available An annular beam with a single uniform-intensity ring and multiple segments of phase gradients is proposed in this paper. Different from the conventional superposed vortices, such as the modulated optical vortices and the collinear superposition of multiple orbital angular momentum modes, the designed annular beam has a doughnut intensity distribution whose radius is independent of the phase distribution of the beam in the imaging plane. The phase distribution along the circumference of the doughnut beam can be segmented with different phase gradients. Similar to a vortex beam, the annular beam can also exert torques and rotate a trapped particle owing to the orbital angular momentum of the beam. As the beam possesses different phase gradients, the rotation velocity of the trapped particle can be varied along the circumference. The simulation and experimental results show that an annular beam with three segments of different phase gradients can rotate particles with controlled velocities. The beam has potential applications in optical trapping and optical information processing.

  19. Annular beam with segmented phase gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Shubo; Wu, Liang [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Tao, Shaohua, E-mail: [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Hunan Key Laboratory for Super-microstructure and Ultrafast Process, School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)


    An annular beam with a single uniform-intensity ring and multiple segments of phase gradients is proposed in this paper. Different from the conventional superposed vortices, such as the modulated optical vortices and the collinear superposition of multiple orbital angular momentum modes, the designed annular beam has a doughnut intensity distribution whose radius is independent of the phase distribution of the beam in the imaging plane. The phase distribution along the circumference of the doughnut beam can be segmented with different phase gradients. Similar to a vortex beam, the annular beam can also exert torques and rotate a trapped particle owing to the orbital angular momentum of the beam. As the beam possesses different phase gradients, the rotation velocity of the trapped particle can be varied along the circumference. The simulation and experimental results show that an annular beam with three segments of different phase gradients can rotate particles with controlled velocities. The beam has potential applications in optical trapping and optical information processing.

  20. Tuning Surface Microstructure and Gradient Property of Polymer by Photopolymerizable Polysiloxane-modified Nanogels. (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Liu, JianCheng; Sun, Fang; Stansbury, Jeffrey W


    This paper reports a series of photopolymerizable polysiloxane-modified nanogels for regulating surface microstructure and gradient property of polymers, which were synthesized by solution polymerization under different feed ratios of a methacrylate-modified polysiloxane, urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) and isobornyl methacrylate (IBMA) in the presence of a thiol chain transfer agent. The nanogel structure and composition were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The dispersion of these nanogels in triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) can reduce the onset and magnitude of shrinkage stress during polymerization without compromise to mechanical properties of the resulting polymers. Most importantly, as demonstrated by elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the nanogels exhibit good self-floating ability in the monomer/polymer matrix and the increase of polysiloxane content in the nanogel can enhance the self-floating capability due to the lower surface tension and energy associated with the polysiloxane component. As a result, the polysiloxane-modified nanogels can spontaneously form a concentration gradient that can be locked in upon photopolymerization leading to a well-controlled heterogeneous polymer that presents a gradient change in thermal stability. With the increase of polysiloxane content, the thermal stability of the polymer was improved significantly. Furthermore, the enrichment of the nanogel on the surface resulting from the good self-floating ability can reduce the dispersion surface energy of gradient polymer film and generate a more hydrophobic surface with altered surface microstructure. These photopolymerizable polysiloxane-modified nanogels are demonstrated to have potential broad application in the preparation of gradient

  1. Extracellular Processing of Molecular Gradients by Eukaryotic Cells Can Improve Gradient Detection Accuracy (United States)

    Segota, Igor; Franck, Carl


    Eukaryotic cells sense molecular gradients by measuring spatial concentration variation through the difference in the number of occupied receptors to which molecules can bind. They also secrete enzymes that degrade these molecules, and it is presently not well understood how this affects the local gradient perceived by cells. Numerical and analytical results show that these enzymes can substantially increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the receptor difference and allow cells to respond to a much broader range of molecular concentrations and gradients than they would without these enzymes.

  2. GPS, GNSS, and Ionospheric Density Gradients (United States)

    Kintner, P. M.; O'Hanlon, B.; Humphreys, T. E.


    Ionospheric density and density gradients affect GNSS signals in two ways. They can introduce ranging errors or irregularities that form on the density gradients producing scintillation. Here we focus on the issue of ranging errors. There are two approaches to mitigating ranging errors produced by ionospheric density gradients which can be 20-30 m during major magnetic storms. The first approach is to use a reference receiver(s) to determine the ionospheric contribution to ranging errors. The ranging error is then transmitted to the user for correction within the mobile receiver. This approach is frequently referred to as differential GPS and, when multiple reference receivers are used, the system is referred to as an augmentation system. This approach is vulnerable to ionospheric gradients depending on the reference receiver spacing(s) and latency in applying the correction within the mobile receiver. The second approach is to transmit navigation signals at two frequencies and then use the relative delay between the two signals to both estimate the ranging error and calculate the correct range. Currently the dual frequency technique is used by US military receivers with an encryption key and some civilian receivers which must be stationary and average over times long compared to those required for navigation. However, the technology of space based radio navigation is changing. GPS will soon be a system with three frequencies and multiple codes. Furthermore Europe, Russia, and China are developing independent systems to complement and compete with GPS while India and Japan are developing local systems to enhance GPS performance in their regions. In this talk we address two questions. How do density gradients affect augmentation systems including the social consequences and will the new GPS/GNSS systems with multiple civilian frequencies be able to remove ionospheric errors. The answers are not at all clear.

  3. Temperature Distribution and Thermal Performance of an Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage System (United States)

    Ganguly, Sayantan


    Energy conservation and storage has become very crucial to make use of excess energy during times of future demand. Excess thermal energy can be captured and stored in aquifers and this technique is termed as Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES). Storing seasonal thermal energy in water by injecting it into subsurface and extracting in time of demand is the principle of an ATES system. Using ATES systems leads to energy savings, reduces the dependency on fossil fuels and thus leads to reduction in greenhouse gas emission. This study numerically models an ATES system to store seasonal thermal energy and evaluates the performance of it. A 3D thermo-hydrogeological numerical model for a confined ATES system is presented in this study. The model includes heat transport processes of advection, conduction and heat loss to confining rock media. The model also takes into account regional groundwater flow in the aquifer, geothermal gradient and anisotropy in the aquifer. Results show that thermal injection into the aquifer results in the generation of a thermal-front which grows in size with time. Premature thermal-breakthrough causes thermal interference in the system when the thermal-front reaches the production well and consequences in the fall of system performance and hence should be avoided. This study models the transient temperature distribution in the aquifer for different flow and geological conditions. This may be effectively used in designing an efficient ATES project by ensuring safety from thermal-breakthrough while catering to the energy demand. Based on the model results a safe well spacing is proposed. The thermal energy discharged by the system is determined and strategy to avoid the premature thermal-breakthrough in critical cases is discussed. The present numerical model is applied to simulate an experimental field study which is found to approximate the field results quite well.

  4. Review on thermal insulation performance in various type of concrete (United States)

    Shahedan, Noor Fifinatasha; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Mahmed, Norsuria; Kusbiantoro, Andri; Binhussain, Mohammed; Zailan, Siti Norsaffirah


    Thermal insulation concrete building plays an important role in environment sustainability especially energy saving buildings. Buildings are one of the largest consumers of energy worldwide. Therefore, significant energy saving can be realized by buildings with proper materials, design and operation. Thermal insulation systems are nowadays mostly applied for such building envelopes where the materials of load bearing structure such as concrete do not have a substantial thermal insulation capability. Thermal insulation in concrete are materials or combinations of materials that are used to provide resistance to heat flow, should have low conductivity for building application in order to represence of a temperature gradient, has an important effect on the heat exchange between the building interior and the ambiance. The aim of this paper is to review the thermal properties include thermal conductivity and specific heat on various types of concrete.

  5. Determination of Urban Thermal Characteristics on an Urban/Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explores the potential of multispectral remotely sensed dataset in determining the influence of rural/urban LULC gradient on urban thermal characteristics. A rectangular eleven band Landsat 8 image subset was delineated from the central business district to the rural periphery and classified into most dominant ...

  6. Temperature mapping, thermal diffusivity and subsoil heat flux at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    the day by intense solar radiation than the lay- ers beneath, resulting in temperature gradient between the surface and subsoil on the one hand and surface and air layers near the ground on the other. Within the soil this causes heat flow downward as a thermal wave, the amplitude of which changes with depth. Estimation of ...

  7. Thermal Aware Floorplanning Incorporating Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, AndreasThor; Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto


    Temperature has a negative impact on metal resistance and thus wire delay. In state-of-the-art VLSI circuits, large thermal gradients usually exist due to the uneven distribution of heat sources. The difference in wire temperature can lead to performance mismatch because wires of the same length ...

  8. Behaviour and physiology: the thermal strategy of leatherback turtles. (United States)

    Bostrom, Brian L; Jones, T Todd; Hastings, Mervin; Jones, David R


    Adult leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) exhibit thermal gradients between their bodies and the environment of ≥8°C in sub-polar waters and ≤4°C in the tropics. There has been no direct evidence for thermoregulation in leatherbacks although modelling and morphological studies have given an indication of how thermoregulation may be achieved. We show for the first time that leatherbacks are indeed capable of thermoregulation from studies on juvenile leatherbacks of 16 and 37 kg. In cold water (flipper stroke frequency increased, heat loss through the plastron, carapace and flippers was minimized, and a positive thermal gradient of up to 2.3°C was maintained between body and environment. In warm water (25 - 31°C), turtles were inactive and heat loss through their plastron, carapace and flippers increased. The thermal gradient was minimized (0.5°C). Using a scaling model, we estimate that a 300 kg adult leatherback is able to maintain a maximum thermal gradient of 18.2°C in cold sub-polar waters. In juvenile leatherbacks, heat gain is controlled behaviourally by increasing activity while heat flux is regulated physiologically, presumably by regulation of blood flow distribution. Hence, harnessing physiology and behaviour allows leatherbacks to keep warm while foraging in cold sub-polar waters and to prevent overheating in a tropical environment.

  9. Behaviour and physiology: the thermal strategy of leatherback turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Bostrom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea exhibit thermal gradients between their bodies and the environment of ≥8°C in sub-polar waters and ≤4°C in the tropics. There has been no direct evidence for thermoregulation in leatherbacks although modelling and morphological studies have given an indication of how thermoregulation may be achieved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show for the first time that leatherbacks are indeed capable of thermoregulation from studies on juvenile leatherbacks of 16 and 37 kg. In cold water (< 25°C, flipper stroke frequency increased, heat loss through the plastron, carapace and flippers was minimized, and a positive thermal gradient of up to 2.3°C was maintained between body and environment. In warm water (25 - 31°C, turtles were inactive and heat loss through their plastron, carapace and flippers increased. The thermal gradient was minimized (0.5°C. Using a scaling model, we estimate that a 300 kg adult leatherback is able to maintain a maximum thermal gradient of 18.2°C in cold sub-polar waters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In juvenile leatherbacks, heat gain is controlled behaviourally by increasing activity while heat flux is regulated physiologically, presumably by regulation of blood flow distribution. Hence, harnessing physiology and behaviour allows leatherbacks to keep warm while foraging in cold sub-polar waters and to prevent overheating in a tropical environment.

  10. Efficient Pedestrian Detection at Nighttime Using a Thermal Camera. (United States)

    Baek, Jeonghyun; Hong, Sungjun; Kim, Jisu; Kim, Euntai


    Most of the commercial nighttime pedestrian detection (PD) methods reported previously utilized the histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) or the local binary pattern (LBP) as the feature and the support vector machine (SVM) as the classifier using thermal camera images. In this paper, we propose a new feature called the thermal-position-intensity-histogram of oriented gradient (TPIHOG or T π HOG) and developed a new combination of the T π HOG and the additive kernel SVM (AKSVM) for efficient nighttime pedestrian detection. The proposed T π HOG includes detailed information on gradient location; therefore, it has more distinctive power than the HOG. The AKSVM performs better than the linear SVM in terms of detection performance, while it is much faster than other kernel SVMs. The combined T π HOG-AKSVM showed effective nighttime PD performance with fast computational time. The proposed method was experimentally tested with the KAIST pedestrian dataset and showed better performance compared with other conventional methods.

  11. Dielectric-Lined High-Gradient Accelerator Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield


    Rectangular particle accelerator structures with internal planar dielectric elements have been studied, with a view towards devising structures with lower surface fields for a given accelerating field, as compared with structures without dielectrics. Success with this concept is expected to allow operation at higher accelerating gradients than otherwise on account of reduced breakdown probabilities. The project involves studies of RF breakdown on amorphous dielectrics in test cavities that could enable high-gradient structures to be built for a future multi-TeV collider. The aim is to determine what the limits are for RF fields at the surfaces of selected dielectrics, and the resulting acceleration gradient that could be achieved in a working structure. The dielectric of principal interest in this study is artificial CVD diamond, on account of its advertised high breakdown field ({approx}2 GV/m for dc), low loss tangent, and high thermal conductivity. Experimental studies at mm-wavelengths on materials and structures for achieving high acceleration gradient were based on the availability of the 34.3 GHz third-harmonic magnicon amplifier developed by Omega-P, and installed at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory. Peak power from the magnicon was measured to be about 20 MW in 0.5 {micro}s pulses, with a gain of 54 dB. Experiments for studying RF high-field effects on CVD diamond samples failed to show any evidence after more than 10{sup 5} RF pulses of RF breakdown up to a tangential surface field strength of 153 MV/m; studies at higher fields were not possible due to a degradation in magnicon performance. A rebuild of the tube is underway at this writing. Computed performance for a dielectric-loaded rectangular accelerator structure (DLA) shows highly competitive properties, as compared with an existing all-metal structure. For example, comparisons were made of a DLA structure having two planar CVD diamond elements with a all-metal CERN structure HDS

  12. Compositional gradients surrounding spherulites in obsidian and their relationship to spherulite growth and lava cooling (United States)

    Gardner, James E.; Befus, Kenneth S.; Watkins, James; Hesse, Marc; Miller, Nathan


    Spherical masses of crystal fibers (spherulites) crystalize from rhyolitic melt/glass mainly in response to significant undercooling while lava cools. Spherulite growth should induce compositional gradients in the surrounding glass from expulsion of incompatible constituents and diffusion of those constituents away from the spherulite. Finite-difference numerical modeling of one-dimensional diffusion, in which diffusivities are allowed to vary with temperature, is used to investigate how compositional gradients reflect spherulite growth and lava cooling. Overall, three forms of gradients are identified. Elements that diffuse quickly are expelled from the spherulite but then migrate away too quickly to become enriched at the boundary of the spherulite. Elements that diffuse slowly are trapped within the growing spherulite. Between those endmembers are elements that are not trapped, yet diffuse slow enough that they become enriched at the contact. Their slow diffusion away then elevates their concentrations in the surrounding glass. How enriched those elements are at the spherulite-matrix interface and how far their enrichments extend outwards into the glass reflect how spherulites grow and thermal conditions during growth. Concentrations of H2O, Rb, F, Li, Cl, Na, K, Sr, Cs, Ba, and Be were measured in and around spherulites in obsidian from a 4.7 ± 1 km3 rhyolite lava dome erupted from Tequila volcano, Mexico. Measurable concentration gradients are found for H2O, Rb, and F. Attributes of those gradients and the behaviors of the other elements are in accord with their experimentally constrained diffusivities. Spherulites appear to have grown following radial, rather than volumetric, growth. The observed gradients (and lack of others) are more consistent with growth mainly below the glass transition, which would necessitate the dome cooling at ca. 10-5 to 10-7 °C s-1. Such slow cooling is consistent with the relatively large volume of the dome.

  13. Optimisation of gradient elution with serially-coupled columns. Part I: single linear gradients. (United States)

    Ortiz-Bolsico, C; Torres-Lapasió, J R; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C


    A mixture of compounds often cannot be resolved with a single chromatographic column, but the analysis can be successful using columns of different nature, serially combined through zero-dead volume junctions. In previous work (JCA 1281 (2013) 94), we developed an isocratic approach that optimised simultaneously the mobile phase composition, stationary phase nature and column length. In this work, we take the challenge of implementing optimal linear gradients for serial columns to decrease the analysis time for compounds covering a wide polarity range. For this purpose, five ACE columns of different selectivity (three C18 columns of different characteristics, a cyano and a phenyl column) were combined, aimed to resolve a mixture of 15 sulphonamides using acetonitrile-water gradients. A gradient predictive system, based on numerical integration, was built to simulate chromatograms under linear gradient profiles. Two approaches were compared: the optimisation of the combination of columns pre-selecting the gradient profile, developed by De Beer et al. (Anal. Chem. 82 (2010) 1733), and the optimisation of the gradient program after pre-selecting the column combination using isocratic elution, developed for this work. Several refinements concerning the gradient delays along the solute migration and peak half-width modelling were included to improve the realism of the predictions. Pareto plots (expressed as analysis time versus predicted global resolution) assisted in the selection of the best separation conditions. The massive computation time in the gradient optimisation, once the column combination was optimised, was reduced to ca. 3min by using genetic algorithms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel microfluidic system for the rapid analysis of protein thermal stability. (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Liu, Jia; Xie, Ye Lei; Wang, Yang; Ying, Hong; Wu, Qiong; Huang, Wei; Jenkins, Gareth


    We describe a simple microfluidic device for the rapid analysis of protein thermal stability using a novel imaging method. The change in UV absorption upon thermal denaturation or aggregation of proteins is used to get a spatial image of proteins' folding or aggregation state along a linear temperature gradient.

  15. Role of surface thermal properties of HfB2 nanoparticles on heat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hafnium diboride nanoparticles; multi-walled carbon nanotube; phenolic composites; thermal management. ... heatthroughout the sample, thereby reducing thermal gradients, reducing the intensity of heating at the surface exposed to flame,and insulating the carbonaceous char with the network of HfO 2 /MWCNT/char.

  16. Time-Dependent Thermal Transport Theory. (United States)

    Biele, Robert; D'Agosta, Roberto; Rubio, Angel


    Understanding thermal transport in nanoscale systems presents important challenges to both theory and experiment. In particular, the concept of local temperature at the nanoscale appears difficult to justify. Here, we propose a theoretical approach where we replace the temperature gradient with controllable external blackbody radiations. The theory recovers known physical results, for example, the linear relation between the thermal current and the temperature difference of two blackbodies. Furthermore, our theory is not limited to the linear regime and goes beyond accounting for nonlinear effects and transient phenomena. Since the present theory is general and can be adapted to describe both electron and phonon dynamics, it provides a first step toward a unified formalism for investigating thermal and electronic transport.

  17. Thermal Ablation Modeling for Silicate Materials (United States)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq


    A general thermal ablation model for silicates is proposed. The model includes the mass losses through the balance between evaporation and condensation, and through the moving molten layer driven by surface shear force and pressure gradient. This model can be applied in the ablation simulation of the meteoroid and the glassy ablator for spacecraft Thermal Protection Systems. Time-dependent axisymmetric computations are performed by coupling the fluid dynamics code, Data-Parallel Line Relaxation program, with the material response code, Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal Ablation simulation program, to predict the mass lost rates and shape change. The predicted mass loss rates will be compared with available data for model validation, and parametric studies will also be performed for meteoroid earth entry conditions.

  18. Magnetoelectric Transverse Gradient Sensor with High Detection Sensitivity and Low Gradient Noise. (United States)

    Zhang, Mingji; Or, Siu Wing


    We report, theoretically and experimentally, the realization of a high detection performance in a novel magnetoelectric (ME) transverse gradient sensor based on the large ME effect and the magnetic field gradient (MFG) technique in a pair of magnetically-biased, electrically-shielded, and mechanically-enclosed ME composites having a transverse orientation and an axial separation. The output voltage of the gradient sensor is directly obtained from the transverse MFG-induced difference in ME voltage between the two ME composites and is calibrated against transverse MFGs to give a high detection sensitivity of 0.4-30.6 V/(T/m), a strong common-mode magnetic field noise rejection rate of noise of 0.16-620 nT/m/ Hz in a broad frequency range of 1 Hz-170 kHz under a small baseline of 35 mm. An analysis of experimental gradient noise spectra obtained in a magnetically-unshielded laboratory environment reveals the domination of the pink (1/ f ) noise, dielectric loss noise, and power-frequency noise below 3 kHz, in addition to the circuit noise above 3 kHz, in the gradient sensor. The high detection performance, together with the added merit of passive and direct ME conversion by the large ME effect in the ME composites, makes the gradient sensor suitable for the passive, direct, and broadband detection of transverse MFGs.

  19. Gradient waveform pre-emphasis based on the gradient system transfer function. (United States)

    Stich, Manuel; Wech, Tobias; Slawig, Anne; Ringler, Ralf; Dewdney, Andrew; Greiser, Andreas; Ruyters, Gudrun; Bley, Thorsten A; Köstler, Herbert


    The gradient system transfer function (GSTF) has been used to describe the distorted k-space trajectory for image reconstruction. The purpose of this work was to use the GSTF to determine the pre-emphasis for an undistorted gradient output and intended k-space trajectory. The GSTF of the MR system was determined using only standard MR hardware without special equipment such as field probes or a field camera. The GSTF was used for trajectory prediction in image reconstruction and for a gradient waveform pre-emphasis. As test sequences, a gradient-echo sequence with phase-encoding gradient modulation and a gradient-echo sequence with a spiral read-out trajectory were implemented and subsequently applied on a structural phantom and in vivo head measurements. Image artifacts were successfully suppressed by applying the GSTF-based pre-emphasis. Equivalent results are achieved with images acquired using GSTF-based post-correction of the trajectory as a part of image reconstruction. In contrast, the pre-emphasis approach allows reconstruction using the initially intended trajectory. The artifact suppression shown for two sequences demonstrates that the GSTF can serve for a novel pre-emphasis. A pre-emphasis based on the GSTF information can be applied to any arbitrary sequence type. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  20. Anomalously High Geothermal Gradients in the Buckman Well Field, Santa Fe County, New Mexico (United States)

    Pollack, A.; Munda, R.; Farrell, T. F.; Kelley, S. A.; Frost, J.; Jiracek, G. R.


    Temperature as a function of depth was measured in ten wells in the Santa Fe, NM area as part of the Summer of Applied Geophysics Experience (SAGE) program. Eight of the wells are within 5.5 km of the city's Buckman municipal well field and two wells are at La Tierra, 16.5 km to the SE. Geothermal gradients increase from east to west towards the Buckman area, from 20°C/km at La Tierra to 76°C/km at Buckman. Within the Buckman well field, two wells on its eastern side were determined to have temperature gradients of 32°C/km and 42°C/km. Only 300 m west, the geothermal gradient sharply increases, and measured gradients reach 76 °C/km (well number SF4A), 62°C/km (SF4B), and 68°C/km (SF3A) in three shallow (geothermal anomaly. The short spatial wavelength of the horizontal gradient increase argues for a localized source. The unusually high gradients in three of the wells may be associated with fault-controlled, effective shallow-source, warm water upflow or with lateral flow in a shallow aquifer. On the regional level, the east to west increase in temperature gradients can be explained by deep circulating groundwater flow in the Espanola Basin and upwelling near the Rio Grande. Another possible explanation comes from gravity data gathered by SAGE over several years that shows a local NW-striking structural high in the area that could force localized convective upflow. Regional aeromag maps indicate magnetic lows exactly underneath the anomalous wells. These may be interpreted as buried volcanic plugs beneath the Buckman well field, acting as conduits for upwelling warmer waters. They may also indicate hydrothermally altered rock beneath the surface. A more nontraditional cause of the sharp thermal anomaly is also possible. The geothermal gradient anomaly coincides with the dramatic discovery by InSAR in 1993-2000 of localized ground subsidence due to excessive water well pumping. Sediment deformation as modeled in the upper 1 km could generate a local thermal

  1. Application of high temperature superconductors to high-gradient magnetic separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, M.A.; Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.; Daney, D.E.; Worl, L.W.; Schake, A.R.; Padilla, D.D.


    High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is a powerful technique which can be used to separate widely dispersed contaminants from a host material, This technology can separate magnetic solids from other solids, liquids or gases. As the name implies HGMS uses large magnetic field gradients to separate ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles. HGMS separators usually consist of a high-field solenoid magnet, the bore of which contains a fine-structured, ferromagnetic matrix material. The matrix material locally distorts the magnetic field and creates large field gradients in the vicinity of the matrix elements. These elements then become trapping sites for magnetic particles and are the basis for the magnetic separation. In this paper we discuss the design and construction of a prototype HGMS unit using a magnet made with high temperature superconductors (HTS). The prototype consists of an outer vacuum vessel which contains the HTS solenoid magnet The magnet is surrounded by a thermal radiation shield and multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets. The magnet, thermal shield and current leads all operate in a vacuum and are cooled by a cryocooler. High temperature superconducting current leads are used to reduce the heat leak from the ambient environment to the HTS magnet.

  2. Entanglement-Gradient Routing for Quantum Networks. (United States)

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor


    We define the entanglement-gradient routing scheme for quantum repeater networks. The routing framework fuses the fundamentals of swarm intelligence and quantum Shannon theory. Swarm intelligence provides nature-inspired solutions for problem solving. Motivated by models of social insect behavior, the routing is performed using parallel threads to determine the shortest path via the entanglement gradient coefficient, which describes the feasibility of the entangled links and paths of the network. The routing metrics are derived from the characteristics of entanglement transmission and relevant measures of entanglement distribution in quantum networks. The method allows a moderate complexity decentralized routing in quantum repeater networks. The results can be applied in experimental quantum networking, future quantum Internet, and long-distance quantum communications.

  3. Bioactive Molecule Prediction Using Extreme Gradient Boosting. (United States)

    Babajide Mustapha, Ismail; Saeed, Faisal


    Following the explosive growth in chemical and biological data, the shift from traditional methods of drug discovery to computer-aided means has made data mining and machine learning methods integral parts of today's drug discovery process. In this paper, extreme gradient boosting (Xgboost), which is an ensemble of Classification and Regression Tree (CART) and a variant of the Gradient Boosting Machine, was investigated for the prediction of biological activity based on quantitative description of the compound's molecular structure. Seven datasets, well known in the literature were used in this paper and experimental results show that Xgboost can outperform machine learning algorithms like Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machines (LSVM), Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFN) and Naïve Bayes (NB) for the prediction of biological activities. In addition to its ability to detect minority activity classes in highly imbalanced datasets, it showed remarkable performance on both high and low diversity datasets.

  4. Subduction zones seen by GOCE gravity gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Švarc, Mario; Herceg, Matija; Cammarano, Fabio

    In this study, the GOCE (Gravity field and steady state Ocean Circulation Explorer) gradiometry data were used to study geologic structures and mass variations within the lithosphere in areas of known subduction zones. The advantage of gravity gradiometry over other gravity methods...... is that gradients are extremely sensitive to localized density contrasts within regional geological settings, which makes it ideally suited for detecting subduction zones. Second order gravity gradients of disturbing potential were extracted from global geopotential model, the fifth release GOCE model ‘EGM_TIM_RL05......’. In order to remove the signal which mainly corresponds to the gravity signal of the lower mantle, long wavelength part of the gravity signal was removed up to degree and order 60. Because the areas with notable topography differences coincide with subduction zones, topography correction was also performed...

  5. Sequential pattern formation governed by signaling gradients

    CERN Document Server

    Jörg, David J; Jülicher, Frank


    Rhythmic and sequential segmentation of the embryonic body plan is a vital developmental patterning process in all vertebrate species. However, a theoretical framework capturing the emergence of dynamic patterns of gene expression from the interplay of cell oscillations with tissue elongation and shortening and with signaling gradients, is still missing. Here we show that a set of coupled genetic oscillators in an elongating tissue that is regulated by diffusing and advected signaling molecules can account for segmentation as a self-organized patterning process. This system can form a finite number of segments and the dynamics of segmentation and the total number of segments formed depend strongly on kinetic parameters describing tissue elongation and signaling molecules. The model accounts for existing experimental perturbations to signaling gradients, and makes testable predictions about novel perturbations. The variety of different patterns formed in our model can account for the variability of segmentatio...

  6. Functional evolution of a morphogenetic gradient. (United States)

    Kwan, Chun Wai; Gavin-Smyth, Jackie; Ferguson, Edwin L; Schmidt-Ott, Urs


    Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) pattern the dorsal-ventral axis of bilaterian embryos; however, their roles in the evolution of body plan are largely unknown. We examined their functional evolution in fly embryos. BMP signaling specifies two extraembryonic tissues, the serosa and amnion, in basal-branching flies such as Megaselia abdita, but only one, the amnioserosa, in Drosophila melanogaster. The BMP signaling dynamics are similar in both species until the beginning of gastrulation, when BMP signaling broadens and intensifies at the edge of the germ rudiment in Megaselia, while remaining static in Drosophila. Here we show that the differences in gradient dynamics and tissue specification result from evolutionary changes in the gene regulatory network that controls the activity of a positive feedback circuit on BMP signaling, involving the tumor necrosis factor alpha homolog eiger. These data illustrate an evolutionary mechanism by which spatiotemporal changes in morphogen gradients can guide tissue complexity.

  7. Analytic gradients in electronic structure theory (United States)

    Shroll, Robert Marvin


    The energy gradients for the Hartree Fock ground state, Dirac-Hartree-Fock ground state, singles-only configuration interaction approximation to the first singlet excited state, and a set of restricted singles- only configuration interaction equations are presented. Algebraic approximations will be used in all of these state energy equation derivations. This leads us to a commonality between the various methods which is the need to calculate gradients with respect to basis set expansion coefficients. For the non-relativistic correlated energy states, these coefficient derivatives will be determined using Coupled Perturbed Hartree Fock (CPHF) theory. For the relativistic case, an analogous set of equations are presented which have been called the Coupled Perturbed Dirac-Hartree-Fock (CPDHF) equations.

  8. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.


    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  9. Examining the education gradient in chronic illness


    Chatterji, Pinka; Joo, Heesoo; Lahiri, Kajal


    This study examines the education gradient in three chronic conditions – diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol. In the analysis, we take into account diagnosed as well as undiagnosed cases, and we use methods that account for the possibility that unmeasured factors exist that are correlated with education and drive both the likelihood of having the illness and the propensity to be diagnosed with illness if it exists. Data come from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (...

  10. Conjugate gradient optimization programs for shuttle reentry (United States)

    Powers, W. F.; Jacobson, R. A.; Leonard, D. A.


    Two computer programs for shuttle reentry trajectory optimization are listed and described. Both programs use the conjugate gradient method as the optimization procedure. The Phase 1 Program is developed in cartesian coordinates for a rotating spherical earth, and crossrange, downrange, maximum deceleration, total heating, and terminal speed, altitude, and flight path angle are included in the performance index. The programs make extensive use of subroutines so that they may be easily adapted to other atmospheric trajectory optimization problems.

  11. M-step preconditioned conjugate gradient methods (United States)

    Adams, L.


    Preconditioned conjugate gradient methods for solving sparse symmetric and positive finite systems of linear equations are described. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for when these preconditioners can be used and an analysis of their effectiveness is given. Efficient computer implementations of these methods are discussed and results on the CYBER 203 and the Finite Element Machine under construction at NASA Langley Research Center are included.

  12. Intergenerational and socioeconomic gradients of childhood obesity


    Joan Costa-i-Font; Joan Gil


    Can the rise in obesity among children be attributed to intergenerationally parental influences? How important is a parent’s socioeconomic status in accounting for the emergence of obesity among children? This paper documents evidence of an emerging social gradient of obesity in pre-school children resulting from a combination of income and education effects, as well as less intensive childcare associated with maternal employment, when different forms of intergenerational transmission are con...

  13. Designing optimal nanofocusing with a gradient hyperlens (United States)

    Shen, Lian; Prokopeva, Ludmila J.; Chen, Hongsheng; Kildishev, Alexander V.


    We report the design of a high-throughput gradient hyperbolic lenslet built with real-life materials and capable of focusing a beam into a deep sub-wavelength spot of λ/23. This efficient design is achieved through high-order transformation optics and circular effective-medium theory (CEMT), which are used to engineer the radially varying anisotropic artificial material based on the thin alternating cylindrical metal and dielectric layers. The radial gradient of the effective anisotropic optical constants allows for matching the impedances at the input and output interfaces, drastically improving the throughput of the lenslet. However, it is the use of the zeroth-order CEMT that enables the practical realization of a gradient hyperlens with realistic materials. To illustrate the importance of using the CEMT versus the conventional planar effective-medium theory (PEMT) for cylindrical anisotropic systems, such as our hyperlens, both the CEMT and PEMT are adopted to design gradient hyperlenses with the same materials and order of elemental layers. The CEMT- and PEMT-based designs show similar performance if the number of metal-dielectric binary layers is sufficiently large (9+ pairs) and if the layers are sufficiently thin. However, for the manufacturable lenses with realistic numbers of layers (e.g. five pairs) and thicknesses, the performance of the CEMT design continues to be practical, whereas the PEMT-based design stops working altogether. The accurate design of transformation optics-based layered cylindrical devices enabled by CEMT allow for a new class of robustly manufacturable nanophotonic systems, even with relatively thick layers of real-life materials.

  14. Advanced concepts for high-gradient acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittum, D.H.


    The promise of high-gradient accelerator research is a future for physics beyond the 5-TeV energy scale. Looking beyond what can be engineered today, the authors examine basic research directions for colliders of the future, from mm-waves to lasers, and from solid-state to plasmas, with attention to material damage, beam-dynamics, a workable collision scheme, and energetics.

  15. Velocity Gradient Power Functional for Brownian Dynamics. (United States)

    de Las Heras, Daniel; Schmidt, Matthias


    We present an explicit and simple approximation for the superadiabatic excess (over ideal gas) free power functional, admitting the study of the nonequilibrium dynamics of overdamped Brownian many-body systems. The functional depends on the local velocity gradient and is systematically obtained from treating the microscopic stress distribution as a conjugate field. The resulting superadiabatic forces are beyond dynamical density functional theory and are of a viscous nature. Their high accuracy is demonstrated by comparison to simulation results.

  16. Fundamentals of Thermal Expansion and Thermal Contraction


    Liu, Zi-Kui; Shang, Shun-Li; Wang, Yi


    Thermal expansion is an important property of substances. Its theoretical prediction has been challenging, particularly in cases the volume decreases with temperature, i.e., thermal contraction or negative thermal expansion at high temperatures. In this paper, a new theory recently developed by the authors has been reviewed and further examined in the framework of fundamental thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Its applications to cerium with colossal thermal expansion and Fe3Pt with th...

  17. Self-organization of intracellular gradients during mitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Brian G


    Full Text Available Abstract Gradients are used in a number of biological systems to transmit spatial information over a range of distances. The best studied are morphogen gradients where information is transmitted over many cell lengths. Smaller mitotic gradients reflect the need to organize several distinct events along the length of the mitotic spindle. The intracellular gradients that characterize mitosis are emerging as important regulatory paradigms. Intracellular gradients utilize intrinsic auto-regulatory feedback loops and diffusion to establish stable regions of activity within the mitotic cytosol. We review three recently described intracellular mitotic gradients. The Ran GTP gradient with its elaborate cascade of nuclear transport receptors and cargoes is the best characterized, yet the dynamics underlying the robust gradient of Ran-GTP have received little attention. Gradients of phosphorylation have been observed on Aurora B kinase substrates both before and after anaphase onset. In both instances the phosphorylation gradient appears to result from a soluble gradient of Aurora B kinase activity. Regulatory properties that support gradient formation are highlighted. Intracellular activity gradients that regulate localized mitotic events bare several hallmarks of self-organizing biologic systems that designate spatial information during pattern formation. Intracellular pattern formation represents a new paradigm in mitotic regulation.

  18. Thermal Boundary Layer Effects on Line-of-Sight Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) Gas Concentration Measurements. (United States)

    Qu, Zhechao; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker


    The effects of thermal boundary layers on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) measurement results must be quantified when using the line-of-sight (LOS) TDLAS under conditions with spatial temperature gradient. In this paper, a new methodology based on spectral simulation is presented quantifying the LOS TDLAS measurement deviation under conditions with thermal boundary layers. The effects of different temperature gradients and thermal boundary layer thickness on spectral collisional widths and gas concentration measurements are quantified. A CO 2 TDLAS spectrometer, which has two gas cells to generate the spatial temperature gradients, was employed to validate the simulation results. The measured deviations and LOS averaged collisional widths are in very good agreement with the simulated results for conditions with different temperature gradients. We demonstrate quantification of thermal boundary layers' thickness with proposed method by exploitation of the LOS averaged the collisional width of the path-integrated spectrum.

  19. Noise-based approximation to thermal spin-injection in Fe/GaAs (United States)

    Wagner, T.; Haigh, J. A.; Olejník, K.; Irvine, A. C.; Novák, V.; Wunderlich, J.


    We analyze the prospects for thermal spin-injection from iron into gallium arsenide via the application of electrical noise. By estimating the applied effective temperature-equivalent gradients, we characterize the magnitude of any electrical part of the thermal spin-injection efficiency or the spin-dependent Seebeck effect. The magnitude of the non-local spin signal associated with this effect suggests that temperature differences on the order of ˜100 K would be needed for true thermal spin-injection experiments. The large size of the effective temperature gradients induced by the noise-based method means that even very small thermo-electric effects can be quantified.

  20. Two-dimensional modeling of thermal inversion layers in the middle atmosphere of Mars (United States)

    Theodore, B.; Chassefiere, E.


    There is some evidence that the thermal structure of the martian middle atmosphere may be altered in a significant way by the general circulation motions. Indeed, while it is well known that the circulation in the meridional plane is responsible for the reversal of the latitudinal thermal gradient at the solstice through the adiabatic heating due to sinking motions above the winter pole, here we want to emphasize that a likely by-product effect could be the formation of warm layers, mainly located in the winter hemisphere, and exhibiting an inversion of the vertical thermal gradient.

  1. A theoretical investigation of symmetry-origin unidirectional energy gradient in light-harvesting dendrimers (United States)

    Koda, Shin-ichi


    We theoretically investigate a possibility that the symmetry of the repetitively branched structure of light-harvesting dendrimers creates the energy gradient descending toward inner generations (layers of pigment molecules) of the dendrimers. In the first half of this paper, we define a model system using the Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian that focuses only on the topology of dendrimers and numerically show that excitation energy tends to gather at inner generations of the model system at a thermal equilibrium state. This indicates that an energy gradient is formed in the model system. In the last half, we attribute this result to the symmetry of the model system and propose two symmetry-origin mechanisms creating the energy gradient. The present analysis and proposition are based on the theory of the linear chain (LC) decomposition [S. Koda, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 204112 (2015)], which equivalently transforms the model system into a set of one-dimensional systems on the basis of the symmetry of dendrimers. In the picture of the LC decomposition, we find that energy gradient is formed both in each linear chain and among linear chains, and these two mechanisms explain the numerical results well.

  2. Gradient field microscopy of unstained specimens (United States)

    Kim, Taewoo; Sridharan, Shamira; Popescu, Gabriel


    We present a phase derivative microscopy technique referred to as gradient field microscopy (GFM), which provides the first-order derivatives of the phase associated with an optical field passing through a transparent specimen. GFM utilizes spatial light modulation at the Fourier plane of a bright field microscope to optically obtain the derivatives of the phase and increase the contrast of the final image. The controllable spatial modulation pattern allows us to obtain both one component of the field gradient (derivative along one direction) and the gradient intensity, which offers some advantages over the regular differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. Most importantly, unlike DIC, GFM does not use polarizing optics and, thus, it is applicable to birefringent samples. We demonstrate these features of GFM with studies of static and dynamic biological cells (HeLa cells and red blood cells). We show that GFM is capable of qualitatively providing information about cell membrane fluctuations. Specifically, we captured the disappearance of the bending mode of fluctuations in osmotically swollen red blood cells. PMID:22418558

  3. Air temperature gradient in large industrial hall (United States)

    Karpuk, Michał; Pełech, Aleksander; Przydróżny, Edward; Walaszczyk, Juliusz; Szczęśniak, Sylwia


    In the rooms with dominant sensible heat load, volume airflow depends on many factors incl. pre-established temperature difference between exhaust and supply airflow. As the temperature difference is getting higher, airflow volume drops down, consequently, the cost of AHU is reduced. In high industrial halls with air exhaust grids located under the ceiling additional temperature gradient above working zone should be taken into consideration. In this regard, experimental research of the vertical air temperature gradient in high industrial halls were carried out for the case of mixing ventilation system The paper presents the results of air temperature distribution measurements in high technological hall (mechanically ventilated) under significant sensible heat load conditions. The supply airflow was delivered to the hall with the help of the swirl diffusers while exhaust grids were located under the hall ceiling. Basing on the air temperature distribution measurements performed on the seven pre-established levels, air temperature gradient in the area between 2.0 and 7.0 m above the floor was calculated and analysed.

  4. Nonequilibrium Microscopic Distribution of Thermal Current in Particle Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yukawa, Satoshi


    A nonequilibrium distribution function of microscopic thermal current is studied by a direct numerical simulation in a thermal conducting steady state of particle systems. Two characteristic temperatures of the thermal current are investigated on the basis of the distribution. It is confirmed that the temperature depends on the current direction; Parallel temperature to the heat-flux is higher than antiparallel one. The difference between the parallel temperature and the antiparallel one is proportional to a macroscopic temperature gradient. ©2009 The Physical Society of Japan.

  5. Magnetothermal Convection of Water with the Presence or Absence of a Magnetic Force Acting on the Susceptibility Gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syou Maki

    Full Text Available Heat transfer of magnetothermal convection with the presence or absence of the magnetic force acting on the susceptibility gradient (fsc was examined by three-dimensional numerical computations. Thermal convection of water enclosed in a shallow cylindrical vessel (diameter over vessel height = 6.0 with the Rayleigh-Benard model was adopted as the model, under the conditions of Prandtl number 6.0 and Ra number 7000, respectively. The momentum equations of convection were nondimensionalized, which involved the term of fsc and the term of magnetic force acting on the magnetic field gradient (fb. All the computations resulted in axisymmetric steady rolls. The values of the averaged Nu, the averaged velocity components U, V, and W, and the isothermal distributions and flow patterns were almost completely the same, regardless of the presence or absence of the term of fsc. As a result, we found that the effect of fsc was extremely small, although much previous research emphasized the effect with paramagnetic solutions under an unsteady state. The magnitude of fsc depends not only on magnetic conditions (magnitudes of magnetic susceptibility and magnetic flux density, but also on the thermal properties of the solution (thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and viscosity. Therefore the effect of fb becomes dominant on the magnetothermal convection. Active control over the density gradient with temperature will be required to advance heat transfer with the effect of fsc.

  6. Reflection and transmission of thermo-elastic waves without energy dissipation at the interface of two dipolar gradient elastic solids. (United States)

    Li, Yueqiu; Wei, Peijun


    The reflection and transmission of thermal elastic waves at the interface between two different dipolar gradient elastic solids are studied based on the generalized thermo-elastic theory of Green and Naghdi [(1993). J. Elasticity 31, 189-208] (type II of no energy dissipation). First, some thermodynamic formulas are generalized to a dipolar gradient elastic solid and the function of free energy density is postulated. Second, equations of thermal motion and constitutive relations in a dipolar gradient elasticity are derived. Then the nontraditional interfacial conditions are used to determine the amplitude ratio of the reflection and transmission waves with respect to the incident wave. Some numerical results of the reflection and transmission coefficients in the form of an energy flux ratio are given for different microstructure parameters while thermal parameters are fixed. The numerical results are validated by the consideration of energy conservation. It is found that there are a total of five modes of dispersive waves, namely, coupled MT1 wave, coupled MT2 wave, coupled MT3 wave, SV wave, and one evanescent wave which reduces to the surface waves at an interface, namely, SS wave. The thermal parameters mainly affect the coupled MT2 wave while the microstructure parameters affect not only the coupled waves but also the SS surface waves.

  7. Ocean Modulation of the Thermal Wind (United States)

    Hester, R. E.


    Modification of the sea surface temperature is shown to effect atmospheric circulation in a low resolution atmospheric general circulation model. One hypothesis, not directly tested here, is that a change in oceanic deep mixing processes allows less ocean surface heat to be carried into the depths, and preferentially effects the lower latitudes. Here it is proposed that a specific pattern of excess sea surface heat, similar to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation pattern of sea surface temperature anomalies, is transferred to the atmosphere by radiation and evaporation, and contributes to an increased equator to pole atmospheric temperature gradient. We then apply the theory of the thermal wind, which uses first order dynamics of the global atmosphere to relate horizontal temperature gradients to vertical gradients in the geostrophic winds. Thermal wind theory is used here to predict the changes in atmospheric circulation that result from changes in the latitudinal distribution of sea surface temperature. The predictions are tested by low resolution computer simulations and found to agree within an order of magnitude. We speculate on the role of ocean circulation oscillations in decadal climate variability, and on an energy and dissipation accounting approach to begin to quantify how anthropogenic radiative forcing is effecting natural climate modes of variability.

  8. Technical note: Development of a gradient tube method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical note: Development of a gradient tube method for examining microbial population structures in floating sulphur biofilms. ... parameters within the system. Keywords: gradient tube method, floating biofilms, floating sulphur biofilms, microbial ecology, sulphur biotechnology, acid mine drainage wastewaters ...

  9. Integrated gravity and gravity gradient 3D inversion using the non-linear conjugate gradient (United States)

    Qin, Pengbo; Huang, Danian; Yuan, Yuan; Geng, Meixia; Liu, Jie


    Gravity data, which are critical in mineral, oil, and gas exploration, are obtained from the vertical component of the gravity field, while gravity gradient data are measured from changes in the gravity field in three directions. However, few studies have sought to improve exploration techniques by integrating gravity and gravity gradient data using inversion methods. In this study, we developed a new method to integrate gravity and gravity gradient data in a 3D density inversion using the non-linear conjugate gradient (NLCG) method and the minimum gradient support (MGS) functional to regularize the 3D inverse problem and to obtain a clear and accurate image of the anomalous body. The NLCG algorithm, which is suitable for solving large-scale nonlinear optimization problems and requires no memory storage, was compared to the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) quasi-Newton algorithm and the results indicated that the convergence rate of NLCG is slower, but that the storage requirement and computation time is lower. To counteract the decay in kernel function, we introduced a depth weighting function for anomalous bodies at the same depth, with information about anomalous body depth obtained from well log and seismic exploration data. For anomalous bodies at different depths, we introduced a spatial gradient weighting function to incorporate additional information obtained in the inversion. We concluded that the spatial gradient weighting function enhanced the spatial resolution of the recovered model. Furthermore, our results showed that including multiple components for inversion increased the resolution of the recovered model. We validated our model by applying our inversion method to survey data from Vinton salt dome, Louisiana, USA. The results showed good agreement with known geologic information; thus confirming the accuracy of this approach.

  10. Magnetoelectric Transverse Gradient Sensor with High Detection Sensitivity and Low Gradient Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingji Zhang


    Full Text Available We report, theoretically and experimentally, the realization of a high detection performance in a novel magnetoelectric (ME transverse gradient sensor based on the large ME effect and the magnetic field gradient (MFG technique in a pair of magnetically-biased, electrically-shielded, and mechanically-enclosed ME composites having a transverse orientation and an axial separation. The output voltage of the gradient sensor is directly obtained from the transverse MFG-induced difference in ME voltage between the two ME composites and is calibrated against transverse MFGs to give a high detection sensitivity of 0.4–30.6 V/(T/m, a strong common-mode magnetic field noise rejection rate of <−14.5 dB, a small input-output nonlinearity of <10 ppm, and a low gradient noise of 0.16–620 nT/m/ Hz in a broad frequency range of 1 Hz–170 kHz under a small baseline of 35 mm. An analysis of experimental gradient noise spectra obtained in a magnetically-unshielded laboratory environment reveals the domination of the pink (1/f noise, dielectric loss noise, and power-frequency noise below 3 kHz, in addition to the circuit noise above 3 kHz, in the gradient sensor. The high detection performance, together with the added merit of passive and direct ME conversion by the large ME effect in the ME composites, makes the gradient sensor suitable for the passive, direct, and broadband detection of transverse MFGs.

  11. Comparing species interaction networks along environmental gradients. (United States)

    Pellissier, Loïc; Albouy, Camille; Bascompte, Jordi; Farwig, Nina; Graham, Catherine; Loreau, Michel; Maglianesi, Maria Alejandra; Melián, Carlos J; Pitteloud, Camille; Roslin, Tomas; Rohr, Rudolf; Saavedra, Serguei; Thuiller, Wilfried; Woodward, Guy; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Gravel, Dominique


    Knowledge of species composition and their interactions, in the form of interaction networks, is required to understand processes shaping their distribution over time and space. As such, comparing ecological networks along environmental gradients represents a promising new research avenue to understand the organization of life. Variation in the position and intensity of links within networks along environmental gradients may be driven by turnover in species composition, by variation in species abundances and by abiotic influences on species interactions. While investigating changes in species composition has a long tradition, so far only a limited number of studies have examined changes in species interactions between networks, often with differing approaches. Here, we review studies investigating variation in network structures along environmental gradients, highlighting how methodological decisions about standardization can influence their conclusions. Due to their complexity, variation among ecological networks is frequently studied using properties that summarize the distribution or topology of interactions such as number of links, connectance, or modularity. These properties can either be compared directly or using a procedure of standardization. While measures of network structure can be directly related to changes along environmental gradients, standardization is frequently used to facilitate interpretation of variation in network properties by controlling for some co-variables, or via null models. Null models allow comparing the deviation of empirical networks from random expectations and are expected to provide a more mechanistic understanding of the factors shaping ecological networks when they are coupled with functional traits. As an illustration, we compare approaches to quantify the role of trait matching in driving the structure of plant-hummingbird mutualistic networks, i.e. a direct comparison, standardized by null models and hypothesis

  12. Controllable Soluble Protein Concentration Gradients in Hydrogel Networks**


    Peret, Brian J.; William L Murphy


    Here we report controlled formation of sustained, soluble protein concentration gradients within hydrated polymer networks. The approach involves spatially localizing proteins or biodegradable, protein-loaded microspheres within hydrogels to form a protein-releasing “depot”. Soluble protein concentration gradients are then formed as the released protein diffuses away from the localized source. Control over key gradient parameters, including maximum concentration, gradient magnitude, slope, an...

  13. Tailoring thermal interfaces with nanomaterials (United States)

    Seshadri, Indira

    applications. This thesis further explores the use of external stimuli in the form of magnetic fields to reversibly induce nanoparticle networking and gate heat transport at interfaces, a requirement in many emerging applications. It is demonstrated that magnetic field actuation of ~ 3 - 16 vol. % of magnetite or cobalt-ferrite nanoparticles in a fluid matrix yields ~16 times enhancement of the no field effective thermal conductivity, but only in a gradient magnetic field. Heat transfer modeling shows that the enhancement arises from magnetic field gradient driven bulk convection, rather than the expected nanoparticle network formation.

  14. Salinity Gradient Energy: Current State and New Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Schaetzle


    Full Text Available In this article we give an overview of the state of the art of salinity gradient technologies. We first introduce the concept of salinity gradient energy, before describing the current state of development of the most advanced of these technologies. We conclude with the new trends in the young field of salinity gradient technologies.

  15. Gradient Descent Bit Flipping Algorithms for Decoding LDPC Codes


    Wadayama, Tadashi; Nakamura, Keisuke; Yagita, Masayuki; Funahashi, Yuuki; Usami, Shogo; Takumi, Ichi


    A novel class of bit-flipping (BF) algorithms for decoding low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes is presented. The proposed algorithms, which are called gradient descent bit flipping (GDBF) algorithms, can be regarded as simplified gradient descent algorithms. Based on gradient descent formulation, the proposed algorithms are naturally derived from a simple non-linear objective function.

  16. Exploration geothermal gradient drilling, Platanares, Honduras, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.J.; Laughlin, A.W.; Ruefenacht, H.D.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.; Ramos, N.


    This paper is a review and summary of the core drilling operations component of the Honduras Geothermal Resource Development Project at the Platanares geothermal prospect in Honduras, Central America. Three intermediate depth (428 to 679 m) coreholes are the first continuously cored geothermal exploration boreholes in Honduras. These coring operations are part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) effort funded by the Agency for International Development (AID) and implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) in cooperation with the Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica (ENEE) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). This report emphasizes coring operations with reference to the stratigraphy, thermal gradient, and flow test data of the boreholes. The primary objectives of this coring effort were (1) to obtain quantitative information on the temperature distribution as a function of depth, (2) to recover fluids associated with the geothermal reservoir, (3) to recover 75% or better core from the subsurface rock units, and (4) to drill into the subsurface rock as deeply as possible in order to get information on potential reservoir rocks, fracture density, permeabilities, and alteration histories of the rock units beneath the site. The three exploration coreholes drilled to depths of 650, 428 and 679 m, respectively, encountered several hot water entries. Coring operations and associated testing began in mid-October 1986 and were completed at the end of June 1987.

  17. Modeling of Propagation of Interacting Cracks Under Hydraulic Pressure Gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hai [Idaho National Laboratory; Mattson, Earl Douglas [Idaho National Laboratory; Podgorney, Robert Karl [Idaho National Laboratory


    A robust and reliable numerical model for fracture initiation and propagation, which includes the interactions among propagating fractures and the coupling between deformation, fracturing and fluid flow in fracture apertures and in the permeable rock matrix, would be an important tool for developing a better understanding of fracturing behaviors of crystalline brittle rocks driven by thermal and (or) hydraulic pressure gradients. In this paper, we present a physics-based hydraulic fracturing simulator based on coupling a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) for deformation and fracturing with conjugate lattice network flow model for fluid flow in both fractures and porous matrix. Fracturing is represented explicitly by removing broken bonds from the network to represent microcracks. Initiation of new microfractures and growth and coalescence of the microcracks leads to the formation of macroscopic fractures when external and/or internal loads are applied. The coupled DEM-network flow model reproduces realistic growth pattern of hydraulic fractures. In particular, simulation results of perforated horizontal wellbore clearly demonstrate that elastic interactions among multiple propagating fractures, fluid viscosity, strong coupling between fluid pressure fluctuations within fractures and fracturing, and lower length scale heterogeneities, collectively lead to complicated fracturing patterns.

  18. Assimilation of temperature and hydraulic gradients for quantifying the spatial variability of streambed hydraulics (United States)

    Huang, Xiang; Andrews, Charles B.; Liu, Jie; Yao, Yingying; Liu, Chuankun; Tyler, Scott W.; Selker, John S.; Zheng, Chunmiao


    Understanding the spatial and temporal characteristics of water flux into or out of shallow aquifers is imperative for water resources management and eco-environmental conservation. In this study, the spatial variability in the vertical specific fluxes and hydraulic conductivities in a streambed were evaluated by integrating distributed temperature sensing (DTS) data and vertical hydraulic gradients into an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and smoother (EnKS) and an empirical thermal-mixing model. The formulation of the EnKF/EnKS assimilation scheme is based on a discretized 1D advection-conduction equation of heat transfer in the streambed. We first systematically tested a synthetic case and performed quantitative and statistical analyses to evaluate the performance of the assimilation schemes. Then a real-world case was evaluated to calculate assimilated specific flux. An initial estimate of the spatial distributions of the vertical hydraulic gradients was obtained from an empirical thermal-mixing model under steady-state conditions using a constant vertical hydraulic conductivity. Then, this initial estimate was updated by repeatedly dividing the assimilated specific flux by estimates of the vertical hydraulic gradients to obtain a refined spatial distribution of vertical hydraulic gradients and vertical hydraulic conductivities. Our results indicate that optimal parameters can be derived with fewer iterations but greater simulation effort using the EnKS compared with the EnKF. For the field application in a stream segment of the Heihe River Basin in northwest China, the average vertical hydraulic conductivities in the streambed varied over three orders of magnitude (5 × 10-1 to 5 × 102 m/d). The specific fluxes ranged from near zero (qz fish spawning and other wildlife incubation, regional flow and hyporheic solute transport models in the Heihe River Basin, as well as in other similar hydrologic settings.

  19. Thermal Ignition (United States)

    Boettcher, Philipp Andreas

    Accidental ignition of flammable gases is a critical safety concern in many industrial applications. Particularly in the aviation industry, the main areas of concern on an aircraft are the fuel tank and adjoining regions, where spilled fuel has a high likelihood of creating a flammable mixture. To this end, a fundamental understanding of the ignition phenomenon is necessary in order to develop more accurate test methods and standards as a means of designing safer air vehicles. The focus of this work is thermal ignition, particularly auto-ignition with emphasis on the effect of heating rate, hot surface ignition and flame propagation, and puffing flames. Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels is traditionally separated into slow reaction, cool flame, and ignition regimes based on pressure and temperature. Standard tests, such as the ASTM E659, are used to determine the lowest temperature required to ignite a specific fuel mixed with air at atmospheric pressure. It is expected that the initial pressure and the rate at which the mixture is heated also influences the limiting temperature and the type of combustion. This study investigates the effect of heating rate, between 4 and 15 K/min, and initial pressure, in the range of 25 to 100 kPa, on ignition of n-hexane air mixtures. Mixtures with equivalence ratio ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 were investigated. The problem is also modeled computationally using an extension of Semenov's classical auto-ignition theory with a detailed chemical mechanism. Experiments and simulations both show that in the same reactor either a slow reaction or an ignition event can take place depending on the heating rate. Analysis of the detailed chemistry demonstrates that a mixture which approaches the ignition region slowly undergoes a significant modification of its composition. This change in composition induces a progressive shift of the explosion limit until the mixture is no longer flammable. A mixture that approaches the ignition region

  20. Electrochemical-thermal modeling and microscale phase change for passive internal thermal management of lithium ion batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Thomas F. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Bandhauer, Todd (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Garimella, Srinivas (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA)


    A fully coupled electrochemical and thermal model for lithium-ion batteries is developed to investigate the impact of different thermal management strategies on battery performance. In contrast to previous modeling efforts focused either exclusively on particle electrochemistry on the one hand or overall vehicle simulations on the other, the present work predicts local electrochemical reaction rates using temperature-dependent data on commercially available batteries designed for high rates (C/LiFePO{sub 4}) in a computationally efficient manner. Simulation results show that conventional external cooling systems for these batteries, which have a low composite thermal conductivity ({approx}1 W/m-K), cause either large temperature rises or internal temperature gradients. Thus, a novel, passive internal cooling system that uses heat removal through liquid-vapor phase change is developed. Although there have been prior investigations of phase change at the microscales, fluid flow at the conditions expected here is not well understood. A first-principles based cooling system performance model is developed and validated experimentally, and is integrated into the coupled electrochemical-thermal model for assessment of performance improvement relative to conventional thermal management strategies. The proposed cooling system passively removes heat almost isothermally with negligible thermal resistances between the heat source and cooling fluid. Thus, the minimization of peak temperatures and gradients within batteries allow increased power and energy densities unencumbered by thermal limitations.

  1. Compressive and extensive strain along gradient trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gampert, Markus; Goebbert, Jens Henrik; Schaefer, Philip; Gauding, Michael; Peters, Norbert [Institut fuer Technische Verbrennung, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Aldudak, Fettah; Oberlack, Martin, E-mail: [Fachgebiet fuer Stroemungsdynamik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)


    Based on direct numerical simulations of forced turbulence, shear turbulence, decaying turbulence, a turbulent channel flow as well as a Kolmogorov flow with Taylor based Reynolds numbers Re{sub {lambda}} between 69 and 295, the normalized probability density function of the length distribution P-tilde (l-tilde) of dissipation elements, the conditional mean scalar difference < {Delta}k | l > at the extreme points as well as the scaling of the two-point velocity difference along gradient trajectories < {Delta}u{sub n}> are studied. Using the field of the instantanous turbulent kinetic energy k as a scalar, we find a good agreement between the model equation for P-tilde (l-tilde) as proposed by Wang and Peters (2008) and the results obtained in the different DNS cases. This confirms the independance of the model solution from both, the Reynolds number and the type of turbulent flow, so that it can be considered universally valid. In addition, we show a 2/3 scaling for the mean conditional scalar difference. In the second part of the paper, we examine the scaling of the conditional two-point velocity difference along gradient trajectories. In particular, we compare the linear s/{tau} scaling, where {tau} denotes an integral time scale and s the separation arclength along a gradient trajectory in the inertial range as derived by Wang (2009) with the s {center_dot} a{sub {infinity}} scaling, where a{sub {infinity}} denotes the asymtotic value of the conditional mean strain rate of large dissipation elements.

  2. Damping of toroidal ion temperature gradient modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, H. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)


    The temporal evolution of linear toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes is studied based on a kinetic integral equation including an initial condition. It is shown how to evaluate the analytic continuation of the integral kernel as a function of a complex-valued frequency, which is useful for analytical and numerical calculations of the asymptotic damping behavior of the ITG mode. In the presence of the toroidal {nabla}B-curvature drift, the temporal dependence of the density and potential perturbations consists of normal modes and a continuum mode, which correspond to contributions from poles and from an integral along a branch cut, respectively, of the Laplace-transformed potential function of the complex-valued frequency. The normal modes have exponential time dependence with frequencies and growth rates determined by the dispersion relation while the continuum mode, which has a ballooning structure, shows a power law decay {proportional_to} t{sup -2} in the asymptotic limit, where t is the time variable. Therefore, the continuum mode dominantly describes the long-time asymptotic behavior of the density and potential perturbations for the stable system where all normal modes have negative growth rates. By performing proper analytic continuation for the homogeneous version of the kinetic integral equation, dependences of the normal modes` growth rate, real frequency, and eigenfunction on {eta}{sub i} (the ratio of the ion temperature gradient to the density gradient), k{sub {theta}} (the poloidal wavenumber), s (the magnetic shear parameter), and {theta}{sub k} (the ballooning angle corresponding to the minimum radial wavenumber) are numerically obtained for both stable and unstable cases. (author)

  3. Stochastic stability of measures in gradient systems (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Ji, Min; Liu, Zhenxin; Yi, Yingfei


    Stochastic stability of a compact invariant set of a finite dimensional, dissipative system is studied in our recent work "Concentration and limit behaviors of stationary measures" (Huang et al., 2015) for general white noise perturbations. In particular, it is shown under some Lyapunov conditions that the global attractor of the systems is always stable under general noise perturbations and any strong local attractor in it can be stabilized by a particular family of noise perturbations. Nevertheless, not much is known about the stochastic stability of an invariant measure in such a system. In this paper, we will study the issue of stochastic stability of invariant measures with respect to a finite dimensional, dissipative gradient system with potential function f. As we will show, a special property of such a system is that it is the set of equilibria which is stable under general noise perturbations and the set Sf of global minimal points of f which is stable under additive noise perturbations. For stochastic stability of invariant measures in such a system, we will characterize two cases of f, one corresponding to the case of finite Sf and the other one corresponding to the case when Sf is of positive Lebesgue measure, such that either some combined Dirac measures or the normalized Lebesgue measure on Sf is stable under additive noise perturbations. However, we will show by constructing an example that such measure stability can fail even in the simplest situation, i.e., in 1-dimension there exists a potential function f such that Sf consists of merely two points but no invariant measure of the corresponding gradient system is stable under additive noise perturbations. Crucial roles played by multiplicative and additive noise perturbations to the measure stability of a gradient system will also be discussed. In particular, the nature of instabilities of the normalized Lebesgue measure on Sf under multiplicative noise perturbations will be exhibited by an example.

  4. Smoothed Analysis for the Conjugate Gradient Algorithm (United States)

    Menon, Govind; Trogdon, Thomas


    The purpose of this paper is to establish bounds on the rate of convergence of the conjugate gradient algorithm when the underlying matrix is a random positive definite perturbation of a deterministic positive definite matrix. We estimate all finite moments of a natural halting time when the random perturbation is drawn from the Laguerre unitary ensemble in a critical scaling regime explored in Deift et al. (2016). These estimates are used to analyze the expected iteration count in the framework of smoothed analysis, introduced by Spielman and Teng (2001). The rigorous results are compared with numerical calculations in several cases of interest.

  5. Gradient based filtering of digital elevation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas; Andersen, Rune Carbuhn

    We present a filtering method for digital terrain models (DTMs). The method is based on mathematical morphological filtering within gradient (slope) defined domains. The intention with the filtering procedure is to improbé the cartographic quality of height contours generated from a DTM based...... on draping and optimum interpolation methods. The contours from the unfiltered DTM has shown to become ragged and hard-to-interpret—especially in areas of minor slope. The contours from the filtered DTM are significantly more smooth. They are however not smoothed to an extent where local breaks...

  6. Human impact gradient on mammalian biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Munguía


    Full Text Available Drastic changes have been caused by human influence in natural landscapes, which may exert an intensive effect on species loss. However, species loss from human pressure is not random but depends on a series of environmentally associated factors. Linking species traits to environmental attributes may allow us to detect the ecological impacts of habitat so that meaningful habitat degradation gradients can be identified. The relationships between environmental factors and species traits provide the basis for identifying those biological traits that make species more sensitive to disturbance. These relationships are also helpful to detect the geographic distribution of latent risk to reveal areas where biodiversity is threatened. Here, we identify a “Human Impact Gradient for Biodiversity (HIGB” based on a three-table ordination method (RLQ analysis and fourth-corner analysis to identify key species traits that are associated with environmental gradient. Species distribution and environmental geographic data were gathered nationwide to analyze 68 localities, which represent 27% of Mexico’s surface, including 211 species of mammals. Nine environmental variables (including biophysical, geophysical and land-use impacts were analyzed by using the Geographic Information System. Three types of species’ traits were evaluated: locomotion, trophic habit and body size. We identified a human impact gradient, which was mainly determined by the percentage of the area that was covered by seedlings, the plant richness, the understory coverage percentage and the human settlement index. The most important species traits that are associated with non-human-impacted sites were carnivores, frugivores–herbivores and a body size that was greater than 17.8 kg; 25 species were selected by the decision criteria framework for species that were sensitive to degradation based on ecological function information. Conversely, granivores, fossorial and semifossorial

  7. Gradient-index optics fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez-Reino, Carlos; Bao, Carmen


    Gradient-Index (GRIN) optics provides a comprehensive and thorough treatment on fundamentals and applications of light propagation through inhomogeneous media. The book can be used both as a classroom text for students in physics and engineering and as a reference for specialists. A description of the phenomena, components and technology used in GRIN Optics are presented. The relationship to lenses, waveguides, optical connections, spatial solitons and vision is demonstrated. Applications of GRIN components and hybrid structures for optical connections, optical sensing and Talbot effect are analyzed.

  8. Quasi parton distributions and the gradient flow (United States)

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostas


    We propose a new approach to determining quasi parton distribution functions (PDFs) from lattice quantum chromodynamics. By incorporating the gradient flow, this method guarantees that the lattice quasi PDFs are finite in the continuum limit and evades the thorny, and as yet unresolved, issue of the renormalization of quasi PDFs on the lattice. In the limit that the flow time is much smaller than the length scale set by the nucleon momentum, the moments of the smeared quasi PDF are proportional to those of the lightfront PDF. We use this relation to derive evolution equations for the matching kernel that relates the smeared quasi PDF and the light-front PDF.

  9. Impact of Ozone Gradient on Grapevine Leaves (United States)

    Alebic-Juretic, Ana; Bokan-Vucelic, Itana; Mifka, Boris; Zatezalo, Marija; Zubak, Velimir


    Due to complex orography and air mass circulation, the Rijeka Bay area is characterized by O3 gradient, with concentrations risen with the altitude (1). Therefore AOT40 values were often exceeded and should result in harmful effects on vegetation. Based on previous controlled experiments (2), we examined the possible effect of atmospheric ozone on grape leaves under natural O3 gradient. Grapevine leaves (2-5) were collected from May to September 2016 at two sampling points in the proximity of two AQM stations: Site 1 in the city centre (20m asl) and Site 2 (186m asl) in the suburban settlement. Subsequent to weighing and determination of surface area, the leaves (0,5 g) were extracted in 95% ethanol and analysed on chlorophyl a (Chla), chlorophyl b (Chlb) and carotene (Car) content by UV-VIS spectrometry on 3 wavelengths (664, 649, 470 nm) (3) In summer 2016 O3 gradient was not that pronounced as usual (1), but stil the concentrations differed by approx. 20%, exceeding national AOT40 value at both sites (22.360 and 28.061 μg m-3 h, respectively, at Sites 1 and 2). The concentrations of other pollutants were bellow limit values (LV). The Cha and Chb in a sample leaves collected at the end of May at Site 2 are equal to that with filtered O3 in control experiment (2), i.e. without damage caused by ozone, while the Car content is lower approx. 50% and is kept at the same level. The con-centrations of pigments obtained in July prooved the possible damage by O3, while in subsequent months could speed up natural ageing. This is the first evidence of O3 damage on plants in the Rijeka Bay area, in spite of weaker O3 gradient and lacking visible signs of damage. Preliminary results indicate the need for more frequent sampling, particularly in the period included in AOT40 (May-July). References: 1. Alebić-Juretić A (2012) Int J Remote Sensing, 33(2): 335-345 2. Britvec M, Reichenauer T, Soja G., Ljubešić N, Pećina M (2001) Biologia (Bratislava),56/4: 417-424 3. Sumanata

  10. The educational gradient in coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariansen, Inger; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Igland, Jannicke


    BACKGROUND: Independently of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, cognitive ability may account for some of the excess risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) associated with lower education. We aimed to assess how late adolescence cognitive ability and midlife CVD risk factors are associated...... with the educational gradient in CHD in Norway. METHODS: In a cohort of 57 279 men born during 1949-1959, health survey information was linked to military conscription records of cognitive ability, to national educational data, to hospitalisation records from the Cardiovascular Disease in Norway (CVDNOR) project...

  11. Complex surface concentration gradients by stenciled "electro click chemistry". (United States)

    Hansen, Thomas S; Lind, Johan U; Daugaard, Anders E; Hvilsted, Søren; Andresen, Thomas L; Larsen, Niels B


    Complex one- or two-dimensional concentration gradients of alkynated molecules are produced on azidized conducting polymer substrates by stenciled "electro click chemistry". The latter describes the local electrochemical generation of catalytically active Cu(I) required to complete a "click reaction" between alkynes and azides at room temperature. A stencil on the counter electrode defines the shape and multiplicity of the gradient(s) on the conducting polymer substrate, while the specific reaction conditions control gradient steepness and the maximum concentration deposited. Biologically active ligands including cell binding peptides are patterned in gradients by this method without losing their biological function or the conductivity of the polymer.

  12. The turbulent boundary layer on a porous plate: An experimental study of the heat transfer behavior with adverse pressure gradients (United States)

    Blackwell, B. F.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.


    An experimental investigation of the heat transfer behavior of the near equilibrium transpired turbulent boundary layer with adverse pressure gradient has been carried out. Stanton numbers were measured by an energy balance on electrically heated plates that form the bottom wall of the wind tunnel. Two adverse pressure gradients were studied. Two types of transpiration boundary conditions were investigated. The concept of an equilibrium thermal boundary layer was introduced. It was found that Stanton number as a function of enthalpy thickness Reynolds number is essentially unaffected by adverse pressure gradient with no transpiration. Shear stress, heat flux, and turbulent Prandtl number profiles were computed from mean temperature and velocity profiles. It was concluded that the turbulent Prandtl number is greater than unity in near the wall and decreases continuously to approximately 0.5 at the free stream.

  13. Mathematical model for thermal solar collectors by using magnetohydrodynamic Maxwell nanofluid with slip conditions, thermal radiation and variable thermal conductivity (United States)

    Mahmood, Asif; Aziz, Asim; Jamshed, Wasim; Hussain, Sajid

    Solar energy is the cleanest, renewable and most abundant source of energy available on earth. The main use of solar energy is to heat and cool buildings, heat water and to generate electricity. There are two types of solar energy collection system, the photovoltaic systems and the solar thermal collectors. The efficiency of any solar thermal system depend on the thermophysical properties of the operating fluids and the geometry/length of the system in which fluid is flowing. In the present research a simplified mathematical model for the solar thermal collectors is considered in the form of non-uniform unsteady stretching surface. The flow is induced by a non-uniform stretching of the porous sheet and the uniform magnetic field is applied in the transverse direction to the flow. The non-Newtonian Maxwell fluid model is utilized for the working fluid along with slip boundary conditions. Moreover the high temperature effect of thermal radiation and temperature dependent thermal conductivity are also included in the present model. The mathematical formulation is carried out through a boundary layer approach and the numerical computations are carried out for cu-water and TiO2 -water nanofluids. Results are presented for the velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number and the discussion is concluded on the effect of various governing parameters on the motion, temperature variation, velocity gradient and the rate of heat transfer at the boundary.

  14. Study on Preparation Technologies of Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Ning; Li, Yang; Wang, Hao; Tang, Jie; Wang, Yunshan

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is one of the main key technology for the high-pressure turbine blades which are the main components of the high-performance aerospace engines. It offers protection for underline metallic components from corrosion, oxidation and localized melting by insulating the metal from hot gases in the engine core. The properties and lifetime of TBCs are greatly influenced by the preparation technology, which includes plasma spraying (PS), physical vapor deposition (PVD) and laser re-melting (LM). In this paper, three technologies used to prepare the TBCs are reviewed. Resulting features of coating fabricated by each technology are also discussed such as: the porosity, the thermally grown oxide (TGO), the erosion resistance, the thermal shock and so on. Especially, it is pointed out that the performances of gradient coating and nano-coating are better than the traditional coatings. In addition, it is widely accepted that laser can be applied to re-melt the PS coating and even directly clad the gradient coating. In the future, the traditional preparation technology should be improved continually in order to enhance the coating lifetime, enhance the properties of coating and lower the cost of process. Moreover, the researches on gradient-nano-structured coatings preparation are absent and should be done with emphasis since the nano-structure and gradient structure can both benefit the lifetime and properties of coatings.

  15. From Geochemistry to Biochemistry: Simulating Prebiotic Chemistry Driven by Geochemical Gradients in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents (United States)

    Barge, Laurie


    Planetary water-rock interfaces generate energy in the form of redox, pH, and thermal gradients, and these disequilibria are particularly focused in hydrothermal vent systems where the reducing, heated hydrothermal fluid feeds back into the more oxidizing ocean. Alkaline hydrothermal vents have been proposed as a likely location for the origin of life on the early Earth due to various factors: including the hydrothermal pH / Eh gradients that resemble the ubiquitous electrical / proton gradients in biology, the catalytic hydrothermal precipitates that resemble inorganic catalysts in enzymes, and the presence of electron donors and acceptors in hydrothermal systems (e.g. H2 + CH4 and CO2) that are thought to have been utilized in the earliest metabolisms. Of particular importance for the emergence of metabolism are the mineral "chimneys" that precipitate at the vent fluid / seawater interface. Hydrothermal chimneys are flow-through chemical reactors that form porous and permeable inorganic membranes transecting geochemical gradients; in some ways similar to biological membranes that transect proton / ion gradients and harness these disequilibria to drive metabolism. These emergent chimney structures in the far-from-equilibrium system of the alkaline vent have many properties of interest to the origin of life that can be simulated in the laboratory: for example, they can generate electrical energy and drive redox reactions, and produce catalytic minerals (in particular the metal sulfides and iron oxyhydroxides - "green rust") that can facilitate chemical reactions towards proto-metabolic cycles and biosynthesis. Many of the factors prompting interest in alkaline hydrothermal vents on Earth may also have been present on early Mars, or even presently within icy worlds such as Europa or Enceladus - thus, understanding the disequilibria and resulting prebiotic chemistry in these systems can be of great use in assessing the potential for other environments in the Solar

  16. A refractive index gradient (RING) diagnostic for transient discharges or expansions of vapor or plasmas (United States)

    Cuneo, M. E.; Lockner, T. R.; Tisone, G. S.; Bieg, K. W.; Stinnett, R. W.; Chavez, J. R.

    The use of lasers to measure plasma properties is well known. Common methods include interferometry (density), Schlieren (gradient of density), and shadowgraphy (derivative of gradient). The diagnostic described uses a fast silicon photodiode quadrant detector with a differential amplifier to temporally detect the refraction of a CW laser by transient discharges or expansions of vapor, gas or plasma. The laser beam is refracted by the gradient of the total index of refraction due to neutral and ionized atoms (positive index) and electrons (negative index) in those discharges. The output of the circuit is a voltage proportional to the deflection angle of the laser beam through the discharge. The method is a time-resolved, quantitative, species discriminating (i.e., atoms or electrons) Schlieren technique. The diagnostic is easy to field, sensitive 1.3 + or - 0.1 to 3.3 + or - 0.1 mv/mrad depending on laser power, divergence, moment arm and circuit gain) and fast (rise time = 11 (+ or -) 1 to 24 (+ or -) 1 ns depending on various circuit parameters). Diagnostic theory, and circuit design and performance is discussed. This Refractive INdex Gradient (RING) diagnostic was applied to measurements on several ion sources under development at Sandia for use on intense applied-B ion diodes in the light ion fusion program. Sources studied include different types of flashboards, a thermal evaporation lithium ion source, and a laser produced ion source. To illustrate the utility of this technique, examples of measurements on LEVIS (Laser EVaporation Ion Source), a laser produced active lithium ion source is given. Measured properties include vapor/plasma production thresholds, expansion velocities, some species information, gradient profiles, and estimates of density profiles.

  17. Space charge and steady state current in LDPE samples containing a permittivity/conductivity gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Bambery, K. R.; Fleming, R. J.


    in a homogeneous sample is to establish a temperature gradient across it. The resulting spatial variation in ε is usually small in polymeric insulators, but the variation in σ can be appreciable. Laser induced pressure pulse (LIPP) measurements were made on 1.5 mm thick plaques of ultra pure LDPE equipped...... with vacuum-evaporated aluminium electrodes. Temperature differences up to 27°C were maintained across the samples, which were subjected to DC fields up to 20 kV/mm. Current density was measured as a function of temperature and field. Negligible thermally generated space charge was observed. The charge...

  18. Steering compensation for strong vertical refraction gradients in a long-distance free-space optical communication link over water (United States)

    Suite, M. R.; Moore, C. I.; Burris, H. R., Jr.; Wasiczko, L.; Stell, M. F.; Rabinovich, W. S.; Scharpf, W. J.; Gilbreath, G. C.


    It is important to be able to characterize and compensate for refraction effects in free-space optical laser communication (FSO lasercom). The refractive index depends on various properties of the propagation medium such as temperature, pressure, and moisture, with temperature having the largest affect. Very strong but slow-varying thermal gradients have been observed at the NRL Chesapeake Bay lasercom testbed, which offers a 16 km one-way (32 km round-trip) FSO lasercom link over water. Thermal gradients affect the elevation-pointing angle, and their magnitudes are a function of the time of day and year and also the weather conditions. These vertical refraction errors are corrected by the use of a fiber positioner controlled by a position-sensing detector (PSD). This system is implemented into the receiver at the NRL Chesapeake Bay lasercom testbed. System test results will be presented.

  19. Regularized Multitask Learning for Multidimensional Log-Density Gradient Estimation. (United States)

    Yamane, Ikko; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Masashi


    Log-density gradient estimation is a fundamental statistical problem and possesses various practical applications such as clustering and measuring nongaussianity. A naive two-step approach of first estimating the density and then taking its log gradient is unreliable because an accurate density estimate does not necessarily lead to an accurate log-density gradient estimate. To cope with this problem, a method to directly estimate the log-density gradient without density estimation has been explored and demonstrated to work much better than the two-step method. The objective of this letter is to improve the performance of this direct method in multidimensional cases. Our idea is to regard the problem of log-density gradient estimation in each dimension as a task and apply regularized multitask learning to the direct log-density gradient estimator. We experimentally demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed multitask method in log-density gradient estimation and mode-seeking clustering.

  20. Evaluation of thermal protection structure mechanism of LMR reactor vessels and design improvement for thermal stress reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young Sang; Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Kim, Jong Bum; Kim, Seok Hun; Lee, Jae Han


    LMR reactor vessels operated in high temperature have a severe thermal damage due to the significant temperature gradient in the hot pool free surface regions of reactor vessel. The thermal protection mechanism of LMR reactor vessel should be designed for the structural integrity in high temperature condition. In this study, the thermal protection mechanism of foreign LMR reactor vessels is investigated for the power upgrade of KALIMER and the modified reactor baffle design with a Y-piece type structure is proposed for the reduction of thermal damage for KALIMER reactor vessel. The modified reactor baffle design leads to reduce the thermal damage such as creep-fatigue and ratcheting in the transient operation condition.

  1. Asymmetric Uncertainty Expression for High Gradient Aerodynamics (United States)

    Pinier, Jeremy T


    When the physics of the flow around an aircraft changes very abruptly either in time or space (e.g., flow separation/reattachment, boundary layer transition, unsteadiness, shocks, etc), the measurements that are performed in a simulated environment like a wind tunnel test or a computational simulation will most likely incorrectly predict the exact location of where (or when) the change in physics happens. There are many reasons for this, includ- ing the error introduced by simulating a real system at a smaller scale and at non-ideal conditions, or the error due to turbulence models in a computational simulation. The un- certainty analysis principles that have been developed and are being implemented today do not fully account for uncertainty in the knowledge of the location of abrupt physics changes or sharp gradients, leading to a potentially underestimated uncertainty in those areas. To address this problem, a new asymmetric aerodynamic uncertainty expression containing an extra term to account for a phase-uncertainty, the magnitude of which is emphasized in the high-gradient aerodynamic regions is proposed in this paper. Additionally, based on previous work, a method for dispersing aerodynamic data within asymmetric uncer- tainty bounds in a more realistic way has been developed for use within Monte Carlo-type analyses.

  2. The multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient method (United States)

    Tatebe, Osamu


    A multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient method (MGCG method), which uses the multigrid method as a preconditioner of the PCG method, is proposed. The multigrid method has inherent high parallelism and improves convergence of long wavelength components, which is important in iterative methods. By using this method as a preconditioner of the PCG method, an efficient method with high parallelism and fast convergence is obtained. First, it is considered a necessary condition of the multigrid preconditioner in order to satisfy requirements of a preconditioner of the PCG method. Next numerical experiments show a behavior of the MGCG method and that the MGCG method is superior to both the ICCG method and the multigrid method in point of fast convergence and high parallelism. This fast convergence is understood in terms of the eigenvalue analysis of the preconditioned matrix. From this observation of the multigrid preconditioner, it is realized that the MGCG method converges in very few iterations and the multigrid preconditioner is a desirable preconditioner of the conjugate gradient method.

  3. Adaptive Gradient Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization. (United States)

    Han, Honggui; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Lu; Qiao, Junfei


    An adaptive gradient multiobjective particle swarm optimization (AGMOPSO) algorithm, based on a multiobjective gradient (stocktickerMOG) method and a self-adaptive flight parameters mechanism, is developed to improve the computation performance in this paper. In this AGMOPSO algorithm, the stocktickerMOG method is devised to update the archive to improve the convergence speed and the local exploitation in the evolutionary process. Meanwhile, the self-adaptive flight parameters mechanism, according to the diversity information of the particles, is then established to balance the convergence and diversity of AGMOPSO. Attributed to the stocktickerMOG method and the self-adaptive flight parameters mechanism, this AGMOPSO algorithm not only has faster convergence speed and higher accuracy, but also its solutions have better diversity. Additionally, the convergence is discussed to confirm the prerequisite of any successful application of AGMOPSO. Finally, with regard to the computation performance, the proposed AGMOPSO algorithm is compared with some other multiobjective particle swarm optimization algorithms and two state-of-the-art multiobjective algorithms. The results demonstrate that the proposed AGMOPSO algorithm can find better spread of solutions and have faster convergence to the true Pareto-optimal front.

  4. Intergenerational and socioeconomic gradients of child obesity. (United States)

    Costa-Font, Joan; Gil, Joan


    Can the rise in obesity among children be attributed to the intergenerational transmission of parental influences? Does this trend affect the influence of parent's socioeconomic status on obesity? This paper documents evidence of an emerging social gradient of obesity in pre-school children resulting from a combination of both socio-economic status and less intensive childcare associated with maternal employment, when different forms of intergenerational transmission are controlled for. We also estimate and decompose income related inequalities in child obesity. We take advantage of a uniquely constructed dataset from Spain that contains records form 13,358 individuals for a time period (years 2003-2006) in which a significant spike in the growth of child obesity was observed. Our results suggest robust evidence of both socioeconomic and intergenerational gradients. Results are suggestive of a high income effect in child obesity, alongside evidence that income inequalities have doubled in just three years with a pure income effect accounting for as much as 72-66% of these income inequality estimates, even when intergenerational transmission is accounted for. Although, intergenerational transmission does not appear to be gender specific, when accounted for, mother's labour market participation only explains obesity among boys but not among girls. Hence, it appears income and parental influences are the central determinants of obesity among children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. GradientOptimizer: an open-source graphical environment for calculating optimized gradients in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Moruz, Luminita; Käll, Lukas


    We here present GradientOptimizer, an intuitive, lightweight graphical user interface to design nonlinear gradients for separation of peptides by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The software allows to calculate three types of nonlinear gradients, each of them optimizing a certain retention time distribution of interest. GradientOptimizer is straightforward to use, requires minimum processing of the input files, and is supported under Windows, Linux, and OS X platforms. The software is open-source and can be downloaded under an Apache 2.0 license at © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Experimental and Computational Studies of Temperature Gradient Driven Molecular Transport in Gas Flows through Nano/Micro-Scale Channels


    Han, Yen-Lin; Alexeenko, Alina A; Young, Marcus; Muntz, Eric Phillip


    Studies at the University of Southern California have shown that an unconventional solid-state device, the Knudsen Compressor, can be operated as a micro-scale pump or compressor. The critical components of Knudsen Compressors are gas transport membranes, which can be formed from porous materials or densely packed parallel arrays of channels. An applied temperature gradient across a transport membrane creates a thermal creep pumping action. Experimental and computational techniques that have ...

  7. Dynamic thermal environment and thermal comfort. (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Ouyang, Q; Cao, B; Zhou, X; Yu, J


    Research has shown that a stable thermal environment with tight temperature control cannot bring occupants more thermal comfort. Instead, such an environment will incur higher energy costs and produce greater CO2 emissions. Furthermore, this may lead to the degeneration of occupants' inherent ability to combat thermal stress, thereby weakening thermal adaptability. Measured data from many field investigations have shown that the human body has a higher acceptance to the thermal environment in free-running buildings than to that in air-conditioned buildings with similar average parameters. In naturally ventilated environments, occupants have reported superior thermal comfort votes and much greater thermal comfort temperature ranges compared to air-conditioned environments. This phenomenon is an integral part of the adaptive thermal comfort model. In addition, climate chamber experiments have proven that people prefer natural wind to mechanical wind in warm conditions; in other words, dynamic airflow can provide a superior cooling effect. However, these findings also indicate that significant questions related to thermal comfort remain unanswered. For example, what is the cause of these phenomena? How we can build a comfortable and healthy indoor environment for human beings? This article summarizes a series of research achievements in recent decades, tries to address some of these unanswered questions, and attempts to summarize certain problems for future research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. MHD thermal instabilities in cool inhomogeneous atmospheres (United States)

    Bodo, G.; Ferrari, A.; Massaglia, S.; Rosner, R.


    The formation of a coronal state in a stellar atmosphere is investigated. A numerical code is used to study the effects of atmospheric gradients and finite loop dimension on the scale of unstable perturbations, solving for oscillatory perturbations as eigenfunctions of a boundary value problem. The atmosphere is considered as initially isothermal, with density and pressure having scale heights fixed by the hydrostatic equations. Joule mode instability is found to be an efficient mechanism for current filamentation and subsequent heating in initially cool atmospheres. This instability is mainly effective at the top of magnetic loops and is not suppressed by thermal conduction.

  9. Thermal rectification in nonlinear quantum circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruokola, T.; Ojanen, T.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka


    We present a theoretical study of radiative heat transport in nonlinear solid-state quantum circuits. We give a detailed account of heat rectification effects, i.e., the asymmetry of heat current with respect to a reversal of the thermal gradient, in a system consisting of two reservoirs at finite...... temperatures coupled through a nonlinear resonator. We suggest an experimentally feasible superconducting circuit employing the Josephson nonlinearity to realize a controllable low-temperature heat rectifier with a maximal asymmetry of the order of 10%. We also discover a parameter regime where...

  10. Tracing Thermal Creep Through Granular Media (United States)

    Steinpilz, Tobias; Teiser, Jens; Koester, Marc; Schywek, Mathias; Wurm, Gerhard


    A temperature gradient within a granular medium at low ambient pressure drives a gas flow through the medium by thermal creep. We measured the resulting air flow for a sample of glass beads with particle diameters between 290 μ m and 420 μ m for random close packing. Ambient pressure was varied between 1 Pa and 1000 Pa. The gas flow was quantified by means of tracer particles during parabolic flights. The flow varies systematically with pressure between 0.2 cm/s and 6 cm/s. The measured flow velocities are in quantitative agreement to model calculations that treat the granular medium as a collection of linear capillaries.

  11. Burner liner thermal/structural load modelling (United States)

    Maffeo, R. J.


    A serious problem exists interfacing the output temperatures and temperature gradients from either the heat transfer codes or engine tests with the input to stress analysis codes. A thermal load transfer code was developed and was used in conjunction with a three-dimensional model of a combustor liner for verification. The 3D heat transfer and stress analysis models of combustor liners and turbine blades were used to validate the mapped temperature produced by the transfer module. Verification cases were made for both finite element and finite difference heat transfer codes. A user manual for the code was written and is available.

  12. Infrared thermal models for Saturn's ring (United States)

    Price, M. J.


    Infrared (10 and 20 microns) thermal emission data for Saturn's rings are discussed in terms of simple isothermal radiative transfer models of finite optical thickness. Recent brightness temperature measurements, corresponding to essentially maximum ring tilt, indicate that optical single scattering albedos less than 0.75 are required to provide sufficient heating of the ring material. Reconciliation with analyses of the optical scattering properties of the ring requires the backscattering efficiency to be even higher than for a macroscopic sphere. Historical brightness temperature measurements are used to show that no unique isothermal ring model exists. Instead, a temperature gradient perpendicular to the ring plane appears to be present.

  13. Does allochthony in lakes change across an elevation gradient?. (United States)

    Rose, Kevin C; Williamson, Craig E; Kissman, Carrie E H; Saros, Jasmine E


    Ecosystems are subsidized with inputs of mass and energy from their surroundings. These allochthonous inputs regulate many ecosystem characteristics. In inland waters, terrestrial inputs of organic matter regulate food-web structure, ecosystem metabolism, water clarity, and thermal stratification. Future changes in allochthony may be especially pronounced in high-elevation ecosystems due to increases in vegetation and precipitation associated with climate change. Several techniques exist to characterize the degree of allochthony of organic matter in aquatic systems, including metrics such as ΔH, the net isotopic discrimination between water and particulate organic matter (POM) of deuterium stable isotopes, and the fluorescence index (FI), which characterizes the fluorescence of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Despite the importance of allochthonous organic carbon inputs, little is known about either how allochthony varies across elevation gradients or whether different metrics are similarly related to allochthony. We measured AH, FI, and a suite of related water-quality characteristics in 30 lakes across a montane to alpine elevation gradient (2340 to 3205 m) in the Beartooth Mountains of Montana and Wyoming, USA, to understand how FI and AH varied with elevation, with one another, and with other allochthony-related water-quality characteristics. We hypothesized that allochthony of POM and DOM would decrease at higher elevations, with alpine lakes above treeline being more autochthonous compared with low-elevation lakes below treeline. We observed a significant inverse linear relationship between AH and Fl, with both metrics indicating a decrease in allochthony at higher elevations. Characteristics including the natural log of the ratio of concentrations of dissolved organic carbon to chlorophyll a (ln(DOC: Chl)), the spectral slope ratio between different spectra of two wavebands (SR, ratio of spectra at 275-295 to 350-400 nm), and a ratio of diffuse attenuation

  14. Monte Carlo Study on Carbon-Gradient-Doped Silica Aerogel Insulation. (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Tang, G H


    Silica aerogel is almost transparent for wavelengths below 8 µm where significant energy is transferred by thermal radiation. The radiative heat transfer can be restricted at high temperature if doped with carbon powder in silica aerogel. However, different particle sizes of carbon powder doping have different spectral extinction coefficients and the doped carbon powder will increase the solid conduction of silica aerogel. This paper presents a theoretical method for determining the optimal carbon doping in silica aerogel to minimize the energy transfer. Firstly we determine the optimal particle size by combining the spectral extinction coefficient with blackbody radiation and then evaluate the optimal doping amount between heat conduction and radiation. Secondly we develop the Monte Carlo numerical method to study radiative properties of carbon-gradient-doped silica aerogel to decrease the radiative heat transfer further. The results indicate that the carbon powder is able to block infrared radiation and thus improve the thermal insulating performance of silica aerogel effectively.

  15. Finite element analysis for dental implants subjected to thermal loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Reza Khalili


    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Dental implants have been studied for replacement of missing teeth for many years. Productivity of implants is extremely related to the stability and resistance under applied loads and the minimum stress in jaw bone. The purpose of this study was to study numerically the 3D model of implant under thermal loads.   Materials and Methods: Bone and the ITI implant were modeled in “Solidworks” software. To obtain the exact model, the bone was assumed as a linear orthotropic material. The implant system, including implant, abutment, framework and crown were modeled and located in the bone. After importing the model in Abaqus software, the material properties and boundary conditions and loads were applied and after meshing, the model was analyzed. In this analysis, the loads were applied in two steps. In the first step, the mechanical load was applied as tightening torque to the abutment and the abutment was tightened in the implant with 35 torque. In the second step, the thermal load originated from drinking cold and hot water was applied as thermal flux on the ceramic crown surface in this model.   Results: Thermal analysis results showed that the thermal gradient in the bone was about 5.5 and 4.9 degrees of centigrade in the case of drinking cold and hot water respectively , although the maximum gradient of the whole system was reduced to 14 degrees, which occurred, in the crown by drinking cold water.   Conclusion Thermal stresses were so small and it was because of the low thermal gradient. Maximum stresses occurred in the abutment were due to the tension preloads which were originated from the tightening torque.

  16. Thermal pressure in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell (United States)

    Heinz, Dion L.


    Estimation of the thermal elastic effect is necessary for the calibration of the pressure and temperature conditions during laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments, since above 800K, the standard technique of using ruby florescence to measure pressure fails. Continuum calculations based upon the thermoelastic equations for an elastic medium were used to estimate the thermal pressure resulting from a radially symmetric temperature gradient in an elastic sphere with zero displacement on its surface. This calculation corresponds to the thermal pressure generated in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell sample that is compressed without a pressure medium. This solution must fall between circumstances where the sample is held at constant pressure and where the sample is held at constant volume. It is shown here that the thermal pressure in an elastic medium with a Gaussian temperature gradient is approximately 40-60% of the thermodynamic value of the thermal pressure in a material raised to some constant temperature with the volume constrained to be constant. Even though the thermal pressure correction can be significant in terms of the total pressure that the sample experiences, these calculations indicate that the correction can be estimated to approximately 10%.

  17. Thermal stress analysis of space shuttle orbiter wing skin panel and thermal protection system (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Jenkins, Jerald M.


    Preflight thermal stress analysis of the space shuttle orbiter wing skin panel and the thermal protection system (TPS) was performed. The heated skin panel analyzed was rectangular in shape and contained a small square cool region at its center. The wing skin immediately outside the cool region was found to be close to the state of elastic instability in the chordwise direction based on the conservative temperature distribution. The wing skin was found to be quite stable in the spanwise direction. The potential wing skin thermal instability was not severe enough to tear apart the strain isolation pad (SIP) layer. Also, the preflight thermal stress analysis was performed on the TPS tile under the most severe temperature gradient during the simulated reentry heating. The tensile thermal stress induced in the TPS tile was found to be much lower than the tensile strength of the TPS material. The thermal bending of the TPS tile was not severe enough to cause tearing of the SIP layer.

  18. Adaptive microfluidic gradient generator for quantitative chemotaxis experiments (United States)

    Anielski, Alexander; Pfannes, Eva K. B.; Beta, Carsten


    Chemotactic motion in a chemical gradient is an essential cellular function that controls many processes in the living world. For a better understanding and more detailed modelling of the underlying mechanisms of chemotaxis, quantitative investigations in controlled environments are needed. We developed a setup that allows us to separately address the dependencies of the chemotactic motion on the average background concentration and on the gradient steepness of the chemoattractant. In particular, both the background concentration and the gradient steepness can be kept constant at the position of the cell while it moves along in the gradient direction. This is achieved by generating a well-defined chemoattractant gradient using flow photolysis. In this approach, the chemoattractant is released by a light-induced reaction from a caged precursor in a microfluidic flow chamber upstream of the cell. The flow photolysis approach is combined with an automated real-time cell tracker that determines changes in the cell position and triggers movement of the microscope stage such that the cell motion is compensated and the cell remains at the same position in the gradient profile. The gradient profile can be either determined experimentally using a caged fluorescent dye or may be alternatively determined by numerical solutions of the corresponding physical model. To demonstrate the function of this adaptive microfluidic gradient generator, we compare the chemotactic motion of Dictyostelium discoideum cells in a static gradient and in a gradient that adapts to the position of the moving cell.

  19. Ant functional responses along environmental gradients. (United States)

    Arnan, Xavier; Cerdá, Xim; Retana, Javier


    Understanding species distributions and diversity gradients is a central challenge in ecology and requires prior knowledge of the functional traits mediating species' survival under particular environmental conditions. While the functional ecology of plants has been reasonably well explored, much less is known about that of animals. Ants are among the most diverse, abundant and ecologically significant organisms on earth, and they perform a great variety of ecological functions. In this study, we analyse how the functional species traits present in ant communities vary along broad gradients in climate, productivity and vegetation type in the south-western Mediterranean. To this end, we compiled one of the largest animal databases to date: it contains information on 211 local ant communities (including eight climate variables, productivity, and vegetation type) and 124 ant species, for which 10 functional traits are described. We used traits that characterize different dimensions of the ant functional niche with respect to morphology, life history and behaviour at both individual and colony level. We calculated two complementary functional trait community indices ('trait average' and 'trait dissimilarity') for each trait, and we analysed how they varied along the three different gradients using generalized least squares models that accounted for spatial autocorrelation. Our results show that productivity, vegetation type and, to a lesser extent, each climate variable per se might play an important role in shaping the occurrence of functional species traits in ant communities. Among the climate variables, temperature and precipitation seasonality had a much higher influence on functional responses than their mean values, whose effects were almost lacking. Our results suggest that strong relationships might exist between the abiotic environment and the distribution of functional traits among south-western Mediterranean ant communities. This finding indicates that

  20. cultivadas bajo un gradiente de sombra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco V. Gutiérrez


    Full Text Available Se evaluó el crecimiento de 9 especies de palmas cultivadas bajo un gradiente de sombra producido por mallas de polipropileno negro de 40, 50, 60, 70 y 80% de sombra, más un tratamiento de malla aluminizada de 70%, y uno con plantas a pleno sol. Las especies evaluadas fueron Caryota mitis (cola de pez, Chamaedorea costaricana (pacaya, Chamaedorea tepejilote (tepejilote, Dypsis lutescens (areca, Licuala elegans (licuala, Phoenix roebelenii (fénix, Ptychosperma macarthurii (palma macarthur, Roystonea regia (palma real, y Veitchia merrillii (navideña. Se midió la altura de las plantas, la longitud de las hojas maduras, y el número de hojas cosechadas, durante 5 cosechas por 2 años. En general, la altura de las plantas y la longitud de las hojas fueron menores a 0-40% de sombra, se incrementaron a 50-70%, y decrecieron a 80%. C. mitis, C. tepejilote, L. elegans y P. macarthurii, se comportaron como especies obligadas de sombra y no sobrevivieron a pleno sol. C. costaricana y D. lutescens sobrevivieron a plena exposición solar, y su crecimiento alcanzó valores máximos a 50-60%. P. roebelenii, R. regia, y V. merrillii mostraron un crecimiento reducido a 0-40%, pero éste mejoró bajo los demás niveles de sombra a lo largo del gradiente. En general, 1-2 años es un periodo apropiado para el cultivo de palmas de crecimiento rápido (R. regia, Chamedorea spp., D. lutescens en casas de mallas. Palmas de lento crecimiento (L.elegans pueden permanecer 3-5 años en una casa de sombra. Se discute estrategias para el uso de gradientes de sombra en el tiempo y en el espacio, según la utilidad y los requerimientos de las especies, los requisitos establecidos por el mercado, y el ciclo de producción del material vegetal.

  1. Advanced compositional gradient and compartmentalization analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canas, Jesus A.; Petti, Daniela; Mullins, Oliver [Schlumberger Servicos de Petroleo Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Acquisition of hydrocarbons samples from the reservoir prior to oil or gas production is essential in order to design production strategies and production facilities. In addition, reservoir compartmentalization and hydrocarbon compositional grading magnify the necessity to map fluid properties vertically and laterally in the reservoir prior to production. Formation testers supply a wealth of information to observe and predict the state of fluids in hydrocarbon reservoirs, through detailed pressure and fluid analysis measurements. With the correct understanding of the state of fluids in the reservoirs, reserve calculations and adequate development plans can be prepared. Additionally, flow barriers may then be revealed. This paper describes a new Downhole Fluid Analysis technology (DFA) for improved reservoir management. DFA is a unique process that combines new fluid identification sensors, which allow real time monitoring of a wide range of parameters as GOR, fluid density, viscosity, fluorescence and composition (CH{sub 4}, C2- C5, C6 +, CO{sub 2}), free gas and liquid phases detection, saturation pressure, as well WBM and OBM filtrate differentiation and pH. This process is not limited to light fluid evaluation and we extended to heavy oil (HO) reservoirs analysis successfully. The combination of DFA Fluid Profiling with pressure measurements has shown to be very effective for compartmentalization characterization. The ability of thin barriers to hold off large depletion pressures has been established, as the gradual variation of hydrocarbon quality in biodegraded oils. In addition, heavy oils can show large compositional variation due to variations in source rock charging but without fluid mixing. Our findings indicates that steep gradients are common in gas condensates or volatile oils, and that biodegradation is more common in HO than in other hydrocarbons, which generate fluid gradients and heavy ends tars near the OWC, limiting the aquifer activity and

  2. Lateral and vertical thermal diffusivities in a dense fluidized bed with tubes bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collantes, M.A.; Martin, G.; Le Gal, J.H. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)


    Dense fluidized beds are acknowledge as homogeneous systems from both temperature and composition aspects. However, some situation such as very large units or fluidized beds with tubes bundle lead to thermal gradients within the bed. These thermal gradients are due to solids motion limitation and may have detrimental effects on the process. This paper relates investigations aiming an determining lateral and vertical thermal diffusivities in a dense fluidized bed with an without a tubes bundle. These investigations have been carried out with an experimental setup of significant size (bed size = 0.6 x 1.1 x 1.3) and with small particles (less 500 microns) so as to fill some gaps of the literature. Thermal diffusivities have been deduced from temperature gradients measured between a hot wall and a cold wall in a perpendicular fluidized bed and by applying a conventional 2-D conduction model. Lateral thermal conductivities as well as vertical thermal conductivities increase with the gas velocity and the height of the bed, and when the particle size decreases. Immersing a vertical tube bundle into the fluidized bed leads to a significant reduction of the lateral thermal diffusivity, while there is no effect on the vertical thermal diffusivity. Correlations have been drawn from the experimental results. They would have to be applied for calculation of any system running at gas velocity ranging from 0.05 to 0.3 m/s and with particle size between 50 and 300 microns. (authors). 14 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Functionally gradient (YSZ-20% Al2O3)-SUS422 composites (United States)

    Kuo, D. H.; Chang, C. L.; Chen, K. S.; Yeh, T. Y.; Shiue, R. K.; Wei, M. H.


    Functionally gradient materials (FGMs) were prepared by mixing 5 layers comprised of different ratios of (YSZ-20%Al2O3) and 422 stainless (SUS422) powders, followed by hot pressing for densification. Two design concepts were proposed: One as a FGM with a monotonic change of the CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) for each layer, and is designated as the monotonic mode, and the other was a FGM with a change of CTE that is not monotonic for each layer, and is termed the non-monotonic mode. The FGM with a monotonic CTE mode cracked at the ceramic surface after it was removed from the hot pressing furnace. In contrast, the FGM with a non-monotonic CTE mode survived after hot pressing. Based on ABAQUS simulation results, a non-monotonic change in CTE resulted in a decrease of residual stress on the ceramic side but an increase inside the metal-rich layers of the FGMs. The induced change in the stress distribution inside the FGMs was compromised by the deformation of the metal-rich ingredient (SUS422) in the FGM. Thermal shock tests of FGMs were performed between 25°C and 600°C. The non-monotonic FGM endured up to 100 thermal cycles with only slight bending, and was free of delamination and cracking. The use of composition-adjusted layers to manipulate thermal expansion coefficients of each layer greatly changed the stress contour of the FGM. It is noted that a modified functional-gradient FGM can be fabricated with a hard ceramic surface on one side to resist high temperature, and a ductile metallic surface on the other side to provide toughness.

  4. Ecological divergence of a novel group of Chloroflexus strains along a geothermal gradient. (United States)

    Weltzer, Michael L; Miller, Scott R


    Environmental gradients are expected to promote the diversification and coexistence of ecological specialists adapted to local conditions. Consistent with this view, genera of phototrophic microorganisms in alkaline geothermal systems generally appear to consist of anciently divergent populations which have specialized on different temperature habitats. At White Creek (Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park), however, a novel, 16S rRNA-defined lineage of the filamentous anoxygenic phototroph Chloroflexus (OTU 10, phylum Chloroflexi) occupies a much wider thermal niche than other 16S rRNA-defined groups of phototrophic bacteria. This suggests that Chloroflexus OTU 10 is either an ecological generalist or, alternatively, a group of cryptic thermal specialists which have recently diverged. To distinguish between these alternatives, we first isolated laboratory strains of Chloroflexus OTU 10 from along the White Creek temperature gradient. These strains are identical for partial gene sequences encoding the 16S rRNA and malonyl coenzyme A (CoA) reductase. However, strains isolated from upstream and downstream samples could be distinguished based on sequence variation at pcs, which encodes the propionyl-CoA synthase of the 3-hydroxypropionate pathway of carbon fixation used by the genus Chloroflexus. We next demonstrated that strains have diverged in temperature range for growth. Specifically, we obtained evidence for a positive correlation between thermal niche breadth and temperature optimum, with strains isolated from lower temperatures exhibiting greater thermal specialization than the most thermotolerant strain. The study has implications for our understanding of both the process of niche diversification of microorganisms and how diversity is organized in these hot spring communities.

  5. Analysis on the effect of hypersonic vehicle's optical window on infrared thermal imaging system (United States)

    Dong, Liquan; Han, Ying; Kong, Lingqin; Liu, Ming; Zhao, Yuejin; Zhang, Li; Li, Yanhong; Tian, Yi; Sa, Renna


    According to the aero-thermal effects and aero-thermal radiation effects of the optical window, the thermo-optic effect, the elasto-optical effect and the thermal deformation of the optical window are analyzed using finite element analysis method. Also, the peak value and its location of the point spread function, which is caused by the thermo-optic effect and the dome thermal deformation, are calculated with the variance of time. Furthermore, the temperature gradient influence to the transmission of optical window, the variation trend of transmission as well as optical window radiation with time are studied based on temperature distribution analysis. The simulations results show that: When the incident light is perpendicular to the optical window, image shift is mainly caused by its thermal deformation, and the value of image shift is very small. Image shift is determined only by the angle of the incident light. With a certain incident angle, image shift is not affected by the gradient refractive index change. The optical window transmission is mainly affected by temperature gradient and thus not neglectable to image quality. Therefore, the selection of window cooling methods, needs not only consider the window temperature but try to eliminate the temperature gradient. When calculating the thermal radiation, the optical window should be regarded as volume radiation source instead of surface radiator. The results provide the basis for the optical window design, material selection and the later image processing.

  6. Optimising a parallel conjugate gradient solver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, M.R. [O`Reilly Institute, Dublin (Ireland)


    This work arises from the introduction of a parallel iterative solver to a large structural analysis finite element code. The code is called FEX and it was developed at Hitachi`s Mechanical Engineering Laboratory. The FEX package can deal with a large range of structural analysis problems using a large number of finite element techniques. FEX can solve either stress or thermal analysis problems of a range of different types from plane stress to a full three-dimensional model. These problems can consist of a number of different materials which can be modelled by a range of material models. The structure being modelled can have the load applied at either a point or a surface, or by a pressure, a centrifugal force or just gravity. Alternatively a thermal load can be applied with a given initial temperature. The displacement of the structure can be constrained by having a fixed boundary or by prescribing the displacement at a boundary.

  7. Alfvén eigenmode stability and critical gradient energetic particle transport using the Trapped-Gyro-Landau-Fluid model (United States)

    Sheng, He; Waltz, R. E.; Staebler, G. M.


    The Trapped-Gyro-Landau-Fluid (TGLF) transport model is a physically realistic and comprehensive theory based on a local quasilinear transport model fitted to linear and nonlinear GYRO gyrokinetic simulations [Staebler et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 55909 (2007)]. This work presents the first use of the TGLF model to treat low-n Alfvén eigenmode (AE) stability and energetic particle (EP) transport. TGLF accurately recovers the local GYRO toroidicity-induced AE (TAE) and energetic particle mode (EPM) linear growth and frequency rates for a fusion alpha case. With a very high grid resolution, TGLF can quickly find the critical EP pressure gradient profile for stiff EP transport based on an AE linear threshold given the background thermal plasma profiles in DIII-D. The TGLF critical gradient profile using the recipe γAE = 0, that is the linear AE growth rate without additional driving rates from the background plasma gradients, matches the more expensive linear GYRO results with a single worst toroidal mode number n. TGLF can easily find the minimum critical gradient profile with testing multiple ns. From a database of runs using a newly developed TGLFEP code, a rough but insightful parametric "power law" scaling for critical EP beta is demonstrated. An important toroidal stabilization condition on the EP pressure gradient pEP/LpEP drive is isolated: R /LpEP>CR ˜ 3 , where LpEP is the EP pressure gradient length and R is the tokamak major radius. This paper also demonstrates that relaxation of the fixed slowing down EP profile shape approximation often used to find the critical EP density profile has little effect on the resulting EP transport. The single EP species critical gradient model is generalized to handle two EP species.

  8. Eigen-Gradients for Traffic Sign Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Esmeralda Gonzalez-Reyna


    Full Text Available Traffic sign detection and recognition systems include a variety of applications like autonomous driving, road sign inventory, and driver support systems. Machine learning algorithms provide useful tools for traffic sign identification tasks. However, classification algorithms depend on the preprocessing stage to obtain high accuracy rates. This paper proposes a road sign characterization method based on oriented gradient maps and the Karhunen-Loeve transform in order to improve classification performance. Dimensionality reduction may be important for portable applications on resource constrained devices like FPGAs; therefore, our approach focuses on achieving a good classification accuracy by using a reduced amount of attributes compared to some state-of-the-art methods. The proposed method was tested using German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmark, reaching a dimensionality reduction of 99.3% and a classification accuracy of 95.9% with a Multi-Layer Perceptron.

  9. Dynamic pulsed-field-gradient NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Sørland, Geir Humborstad


    Dealing with the basics, theory and applications of dynamic pulsed-field-gradient NMR NMR (PFG NMR), this book describes the essential theory behind diffusion in heterogeneous media that can be combined with NMR measurements to extract important information of the system being investigated. This information could be the surface to volume ratio, droplet size distribution in emulsions, brine profiles, fat content in food stuff, permeability/connectivity in porous materials and medical applications currently being developed. Besides theory and applications it will provide the readers with background knowledge on the experimental set-ups, and most important, deal with the pitfalls that are numerously present in work with PFG-NMR. How to analyze the NMR data and some important basic knowledge on the hardware will be explained, too.

  10. A fast, preconditioned conjugate gradient Toeplitz solver (United States)

    Pan, Victor; Schrieber, Robert


    A simple factorization is given of an arbitrary hermitian, positive definite matrix in which the factors are well-conditioned, hermitian, and positive definite. In fact, given knowledge of the extreme eigenvalues of the original matrix A, an optimal improvement can be achieved, making the condition numbers of each of the two factors equal to the square root of the condition number of A. This technique is to applied to the solution of hermitian, positive definite Toeplitz systems. Large linear systems with hermitian, positive definite Toeplitz matrices arise in some signal processing applications. A stable fast algorithm is given for solving these systems that is based on the preconditioned conjugate gradient method. The algorithm exploits Toeplitz structure to reduce the cost of an iteration to O(n log n) by applying the fast Fourier Transform to compute matrix-vector products. Matrix factorization is used as a preconditioner.

  11. Error analysis of stochastic gradient descent ranking. (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Tang, Yi; Li, Luoqing; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Xuelong; Tang, Yuanyan


    Ranking is always an important task in machine learning and information retrieval, e.g., collaborative filtering, recommender systems, drug discovery, etc. A kernel-based stochastic gradient descent algorithm with the least squares loss is proposed for ranking in this paper. The implementation of this algorithm is simple, and an expression of the solution is derived via a sampling operator and an integral operator. An explicit convergence rate for leaning a ranking function is given in terms of the suitable choices of the step size and the regularization parameter. The analysis technique used here is capacity independent and is novel in error analysis of ranking learning. Experimental results on real-world data have shown the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in ranking tasks, which verifies the theoretical analysis in ranking error.

  12. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Ocean thermal energy conversion, or OTEC is a technology that extracts power from the ocean's natural thermal gradient. This technology is being pursued by researchers from many nations; in the United States, OTEC research is funded by the US Department of Energy's Ocean Energy Technology program. The program's goal is to develop the technology so that industry can make a competent assessment of its potential -- either as an alternative or as a supplement to conventional energy sources. Federally funded research in components and systems will help OTEC to the threshold of commercialization. This publication provides an overview of the OTEC technology. 47 refs., 25 figs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WANG,L.; JIA,L.X.


    A liquid helium target for the high-energy physics was built and installed in the proton beam line at the Alternate Gradient Synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2001. The target flask has a liquid volume of 8.25 liters and is made of thin Mylar film. A G-M/J-T cryocooler of five-watts at 4.2K was used to produce liquid helium and refrigerate the target. A thermosyphon circuit for the target was connected to the J-T circuit by a liquid/gas separator. Because of the large heat load to the target and its long transfer lines, thermal oscillations were observed during the system tests. To eliminate the oscillation, a series of tests and analyses were carried out. This paper describes the phenomena and provides the understanding of the thermal oscillations in the target system.

  14. Seismic Velocity Gradients Across the Transition Zone (United States)

    Escalante, C.; Cammarano, F.; de Koker, N.; Piazzoni, A.; Wang, Y.; Marone, F.; Dalton, C.; Romanowicz, B.


    One-D elastic velocity models derived from mineral physics do a notoriously poor job at predicting the velocity gradients in the upper mantle transition zone, as well as some other features of models derived from seismological data. During the 2006 CIDER summer program, we computed Vs and Vp velocity profiles in the upper mantle based on three different mineral physics approaches: two approaches based on the minimization of Gibbs Free Energy (Stixrude and Lithgow-Bertelloni, 2005; Piazzoni et al., 2006) and one obtained by using experimentally determined phase diagrams (Weidner and Wang, 1998). The profiles were compared by assuming a vertical temperature profile and two end-member compositional models, the pyrolite model of Ringwood (1979) and the piclogite model of Anderson and Bass (1984). The predicted seismic profiles, which are significantly different from each other, primarily due to different choices of properties of single minerals and their extrapolation with temperature, are tested against a global dataset of P and S travel times and spheroidal and toroidal normal mode eigenfrequencies. All the models derived using a potential temperature of 1600K predict seismic velocities that are too slow in the upper mantle, suggesting the need to use a colder geotherm. The velocity gradient in the transition zone is somewhat better for piclogite than for pyrolite, possibly indicating the need to increase Ca content. The presence of stagnant slabs in the transition zone is a possible explanation for the need for 1) colder temperature and 2) increased Ca content. Future improvements in seismic profiles obtained from mineral physics will arise from better knowledge of elastic properties of upper mantle constituents and aggregates at high temperature and pressure, a better understanding of differences between thermodynamic models, and possibly the effect of water through and on Q. High resolution seismic constraints on velocity jumps at 400 and 660 km also need to be

  15. Modified conjugate gradient method for diagonalizing large matrices. (United States)

    Jie, Quanlin; Liu, Dunhuan


    We present an iterative method to diagonalize large matrices. The basic idea is the same as the conjugate gradient (CG) method, i.e, minimizing the Rayleigh quotient via its gradient and avoiding reintroducing errors to the directions of previous gradients. Each iteration step is to find lowest eigenvector of the matrix in a subspace spanned by the current trial vector and the corresponding gradient of the Rayleigh quotient, as well as some previous trial vectors. The gradient, together with the previous trial vectors, play a similar role as the conjugate gradient of the original CG algorithm. Our numeric tests indicate that this method converges significantly faster than the original CG method. And the computational cost of one iteration step is about the same as the original CG method. It is suitable for first principle calculations.

  16. Thermoacoustic mixture separation with an axial temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Drew W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swift, Gregory A [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The theory of thermoacoustic mixture separation is extended to include the effect of a nonzero axial temperature gradient. The analysis yields a new term in the second-order mole flux that is proportional to the temperature gradient and to the square of the volumetric velocity and is independent of the phasing of the wave. Because of this new term, thermoacoustic separation stops at a critical temperature gradient and changes direction above that gradient. For a traveling wave, this gradient is somewhat higher than that predicted by a simple four-step model. An experiment tests the theory for temperature gradients from 0 to 416 K/m in 50-50 He-Ar mixtures.

  17. Micromorphic approach for gradient-extended thermo-elastic-plastic solids in the logarithmic strain space (United States)

    Aldakheel, Fadi


    The coupled thermo-mechanical strain gradient plasticity theory that accounts for microstructure-based size effects is outlined within this work. It extends the recent work of Miehe et al. (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 268:704-734, 2014) to account for thermal effects at finite strains. From the computational viewpoint, the finite element design of the coupled problem is not straightforward and requires additional strategies due to the difficulties near the elastic-plastic boundaries. To simplify the finite element formulation, we extend it toward the micromorphic approach to gradient thermo-plasticity model in the logarithmic strain space. The key point is the introduction of dual local-global field variables via a penalty method, where only the global fields are restricted by boundary conditions. Hence, the problem of restricting the gradient variable to the plastic domain is relaxed, which makes the formulation very attractive for finite element implementation as discussed in Forest (J Eng Mech 135:117-131, 2009) and Miehe et al. (Philos Trans R Soc A Math Phys Eng Sci 374:20150170, 2016).

  18. Solar Thermal Energy Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Pitsenbarger, J. [eds.


    Solar Thermal Energy Technology (PST) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required for the advancement of solar thermal systems as a significant energy resource.

  19. Ouellette Thermal Test Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Test Facility is a joint Army/Navy state-of-the-art facility (8,100 ft2) that was designed to:Evaluate and characterize the effect of flame and thermal...

  20. Droplet motion in one-component fluids on solid substrates with wettability gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng


    Droplet motion on solid substrates has been widely studied not only because of its importance in fundamental research but also because of its promising potentials in droplet-based devices developed for various applications in chemistry, biology, and industry. In this paper, we investigate the motion of an evaporating droplet in one-component fluids on a solid substrate with a wettability gradient. As is well known, there are two major difficulties in the continuum description of fluid flows and heat fluxes near the contact line of droplets on solid substrates, namely, the hydrodynamic (stress) singularity and thermal singularity. To model the droplet motion, we use the dynamic van der Waals theory [Phys. Rev. E 75, 036304 (2007)] for the hydrodynamic equations in the bulk region, supplemented with the boundary conditions at the fluid-solid interface. In this continuum hydrodynamic model, various physical processes involved in the droplet motion can be taken into account simultaneously, e.g., phase transitions (evaporation or condensation), capillary flows, fluid velocity slip, and substrate cooling or heating. Due to the use of the phase field method (diffuse interface method), the hydrodynamic and thermal singularities are resolved automatically. Furthermore, in the dynamic van der Waals theory, the evaporation or condensation rate at the liquid-gas interface is an outcome of the calculation rather than a prerequisite as in most of the other models proposed for evaporating droplets. Numerical results show that the droplet migrates in the direction of increasing wettability on the solid substrates. The migration velocity of the droplet is found to be proportional to the wettability gradients as predicted by Brochard [Langmuir 5, 432 (1989)]. The proportionality coefficient is found to be linearly dependent on the ratio of slip length to initial droplet radius. These results indicate that the steady migration of the droplets results from the balance between the

  1. Quantitative imaging of morphogen gradients in Drosophila imaginal discs.


    Kicheva Anna; Holtzer Laurent; Wartlick Ortrud; Schmidt Thomas; González-Gaitán Marcos


    Cells at different positions in a developing tissue receive different concentrations of signaling molecules called morphogens and this influences their cell fate. Morphogen concentration gradients have been proposed to control patterning as well as growth in many developing tissues. Some outstanding questions about tissue patterning by morphogen gradients are the following: What are the mechanisms that regulate gradient formation and shape? Is the positional information encoded in the gradien...

  2. Comparison of genetic algorithms with conjugate gradient methods (United States)

    Bosworth, J. L.; Foo, N. Y.; Zeigler, B. P.


    Genetic algorithms for mathematical function optimization are modeled on search strategies employed in natural adaptation. Comparisons of genetic algorithms with conjugate gradient methods, which were made on an IBM 1800 digital computer, show that genetic algorithms display superior performance over gradient methods for functions which are poorly behaved mathematically, for multimodal functions, and for functions obscured by additive random noise. Genetic methods offer performance comparable to gradient methods for many of the standard functions.

  3. Minimizing inner product data dependencies in conjugate gradient iteration (United States)

    Vanrosendale, J.


    The amount of concurrency available in conjugate gradient iteration is limited by the summations required in the inner product computations. The inner product of two vectors of length N requires time c log(N), if N or more processors are available. This paper describes an algebraic restructuring of the conjugate gradient algorithm which minimizes data dependencies due to inner product calculations. After an initial start up, the new algorithm can perform a conjugate gradient iteration in time c*log(log(N)).

  4. Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Methods with Wolfe Type Line Search


    Yuan-Yuan Chen; Shou-Qiang Du


    Nonlinear conjugate gradient method is one of the useful methods for unconstrained optimization problems. In this paper, we consider three kinds of nonlinear conjugate gradient methods with Wolfe type line search for unstrained optimization problems. Under some mild assumptions, the global convergence results of the given methods are proposed. The numerical results show that the nonlinear conjugate gradient methods with Wolfe type line search are efficient for some unconstrain...

  5. Visualization of mold filling stages in thermal nanoimprint by using pressure gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schift, H.; Bellini, S.; Mikkelsen, Morten Bo Lindholm


    A method for the visualization of mold filling during a thermoplastic imprint at a microscopic level was developed, which is based on superposition of images of a series of different states of imprint. The animated movie sequence gives an insight into the complex flow of polymer and shows how voids...

  6. Analysis of moisture transport between connected enclosures under a forced thermal gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staliulionis, Zygimantas; Joshy, Salil; Ambat, Rajan


    Nowadays, many electronic products are exposed to harsh climatic conditions, and hence the protection of these devices is a crucial factor in design of systems. Therefore, the modelling tools have become very useful in the electronics design which supports the search of optimal electronics design...... and humidity control solutions. While high fidelity CFD codes are too time consuming due to computational effort/time, the well-known Resistor-Capacitor (RC) approach has much lower calculation time and is more efficient to use in enclosures without too complex geometry in their interior. Thus, the objective...... in this study) through the tube from the warm to the cold region....

  7. Generation of tunable and pulsatile concentration gradients via microfluidic network

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu


    We demonstrate a compact Polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic chip which can quickly generate ten different chemical concentrations simultaneously. The concentration magnitude of each branch can be flexibly regulated based on the flow rate ratios of the two injecting streams. The temporal/pulsatile concentration gradients are achieved by integrating on-chip pneumatic actuated valves controlled by the external signals. The temporal concentration gradients can also be tuned precisely by varying applied frequency and duty cycle of the trigger signal. It is believed that such microdevice will be potentially used for some application areas of producing stable chemical gradients as well as allowing fast, pulsatile gradient transformation in seconds.

  8. Adaptive Regularization of Neural Networks Using Conjugate Gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan


    Andersen et al. (1997) and Larsen et al. (1996, 1997) suggested a regularization scheme which iteratively adapts regularization parameters by minimizing validation error using simple gradient descent. In this contribution we present an improved algorithm based on the conjugate gradient technique........ Numerical experiments with feedforward neural networks successfully demonstrate improved generalization ability and lower computational cost......Andersen et al. (1997) and Larsen et al. (1996, 1997) suggested a regularization scheme which iteratively adapts regularization parameters by minimizing validation error using simple gradient descent. In this contribution we present an improved algorithm based on the conjugate gradient technique...

  9. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  10. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, G.


    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  11. Geothermal gradient map of Brazilian sedimentary basins; Gradiente geotermico das bacias sedimentares brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zembruscki, Sylvio G.; Chang, Hung K. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas


    Studies in 21 Brazilian sedimentary basins applying temperature data obtained from oil well logging and drill stem tests are presented. The results permitted an characterization of geothermal gradient according the rocks formation and could be used as geothermal energy sources. The three main basins (Middle Amazonas, Barreirinhas and Parnaiba) had more complete studies and permit an evaluation of the geothermal temperature variation in function of the rocks formation on different geological periods (Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins). 10 figs., 1 tab., 34 refs

  12. Effect of composition gradient on magnetothermal instability modified by shear and rotation (United States)

    Gupta, Himanshu; Chaudhuri, Anya; Sadhukhan, Shubhadeep; Chakraborty, Sagar


    We model the intracluster medium as a weakly collisional plasma that is a binary mixture of the hydrogen and the helium ions, along with free electrons. When, owing to the helium sedimentation, the gradient of the mean-molecular weight (or equivalently, composition or helium ions' concentration) of the plasma is not negligible, it can have appreciable influence on the stability criteria of the thermal convective instabilities, e.g. the heat-flux-buoyancy instability and the magnetothermal instability (MTI). These instabilities are consequences of the anisotropic heat conduction occurring preferentially along the magnetic field lines. In this paper, without ignoring the magnetic tension, we first present the mathematical criterion for the onset of composition gradient modified MTI. Subsequently, we relax the commonly adopted equilibrium state in which the plasma is at rest, and assume that the plasma is in a sheared state which may be due to differential rotation. We discuss how the concentration gradient affects the coupling between the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and the MTI in rendering the plasma unstable or stable. We derive exact stability criterion by working with the sharp boundary case in which the physical variables - temperature, mean-molecular weight, density and magnetic field - change discontinuously from one constant value to another on crossing the boundary. Finally, we perform the linear stability analysis for the case of the differentially rotating plasma that is thermally and compositionally stratified as well. By assuming axisymmetric perturbations, we find the corresponding dispersion relation and the explicit mathematical expression determining the onset of the modified MTI.

  13. Correlation between seismicity and the distribution of thermal and carbonate water in southern and Baja California, United States and Mexico (United States)

    Gastil, Gordon; Bertine, Kathe


    A comparison of the distribution of thermal and thermal-related springs and wells in southern California, United States, and Baja California, Mexico, with the abundance of earthquakes of magnitude 4 or greater shows as close a relationship between thermal waters and the distribution of seismicity as to the distribution of active faults. It appears that the distribution of thermal water variations in the geothermal gradient in turn influences the stress accumulation capability of the rocks at depth. Thus, areas with abundant thermal waters (and hence steep geothermal gradients) release stress by frequent moderate earthquakes; areas lacking thermal waters, such as the central Transverse Ranges, accumulate stresses that are released by infrequent large earthquakes.

  14. Modeling chemical gradients in sediments under losing and gaining flow conditions: The GRADIENT code (United States)

    Boano, Fulvio; De Falco, Natalie; Arnon, Shai


    Interfaces between sediments and water bodies often represent biochemical hotspots for nutrient reactions and are characterized by steep concentration gradients of different reactive solutes. Vertical profiles of these concentrations are routinely collected to obtain information on nutrient dynamics, and simple codes have been developed to analyze these profiles and determine the magnitude and distribution of reaction rates within sediments. However, existing publicly available codes do not consider the potential contribution of water flow in the sediments to nutrient transport, and their applications to field sites with significant water-borne nutrient fluxes may lead to large errors in the estimated reaction rates. To fill this gap, the present work presents GRADIENT, a novel algorithm to evaluate distributions of reaction rates from observed concentration profiles. GRADIENT is a Matlab code that extends a previously published framework to include the role of nutrient advection, and provides robust estimates of reaction rates in sediments with significant water flow. This work discusses the theoretical basis of the method and shows its performance by comparing the results to a series of synthetic data and to laboratory experiments. The results clearly show that in systems with losing or gaining fluxes, the inclusion of such fluxes is critical for estimating local and overall reaction rates in sediments.

  15. Human tracking with thermal omnidirectional vision (United States)

    Tang, Y.; Li, Y. F.; Chen, H.


    In this paper, we explore a new tracking system for human tracking in thermal catadioptric omnidirectional vision. Due to very limited features can be adopted in thermal image except for contour information, we proposed to use Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) feature to represent the contour information and employ Support Vector Machine (SVM) to classify the foreground and background. In this paper, there are three novel points. First, the classification posterior probability of SVM will be adopted to relate the observation likelihood of particle filter to guide the particles for tracking purpose instead of neglect in previous tracking method. Second, due to no existing thermal catadioptric omnidirectional vision database available in public, a thermal catadioptric omnidirectional video database and extracted human samples have been established for academic studies. Third, tracking window distribution of particle filter has been adjusted to fit the characteristic of catadioptric omnidirectional vision on account of the size of target in image is varying when the distance between target and omni-sensor changed in world coordinate. In addition, the catadioptric omnidirectional imaging is different with traditional imaging for inherent distortion, so the polar coordinate will be used. The experimental results show that the proposed tracking approach has a stable performance.

  16. Preparation and properties of gradient Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foam by centrifugal slip casting method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qiang


    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to provide a novel technique for preparing gradient Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foams. This technique used epispastic polystyrene spheres to array templates and centrifugal slip casting to obtain cell struts with gradient distribution of Al2O3 and ZrO2 particles and high packing density. Aqueous Al2O3-20vol.% ZrO2 slurries with 20vol.% solid contents were prepared and the dispersion and rheological characteristics of the slurries were investigated. The settling velocity and mass segregation of Al2O3 and ZrO2 particles at different centrifugal accelerations were calculated and studied. The drying behavior, macrostructure, microstructure, compressive property and resistance to thermal shock of the sintered products were also investigated. The results show that the difference of settling velocity of Al2O3 and ZrO2 particles increases and mass segregation becomes acute with an increase in centrifugal acceleration. The cell struts prepared at a centrifugal acceleration of 1,690 g have high sintered density (99.0% TD and continuous gradient distribution of Al2O3 and ZrO2 particles. When sintered at 1,550 oC for 2 h, the cell size of gradient Al2O3-ZrO2 foam is approximately uniform, about 1.1 mm. With the porosity of gradient Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foams increasing from 75.3% to 83.0%, the compressive strength decreases from 4.4 to 2.4 MPa, and the ceramic foams can resist 8-11 repeated thermal shock from 1,100 oC to room temperature.

  17. Biogeochemical gradients above a coal tar DNAPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherr, Kerstin E., E-mail: [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Department IFA-Tulln, Institute for Environmental Biotechnology, Konrad Lorenz Strasse 20, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Backes, Diana [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Department IFA-Tulln, Institute for Environmental Biotechnology, Konrad Lorenz Strasse 20, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Scarlett, Alan G. [University of Plymouth, Petroleum and Environmental Geochemistry Group, Biogeochemistry Research Centre, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Lantschbauer, Wolfgang [Government of Upper Austria, Directorate for Environment and Water Management, Division for Environmental Protection, Kärntner Strasse 10-12, 4021 Linz (Austria); Nahold, Manfred [GUT Gruppe Umwelt und Technik GmbH, Ingenieurbüro für Technischen Umweltschutz, Plesching 15, 4040 Linz (Austria)


    Naturally occurring distribution and attenuation processes can keep hydrocarbon emissions from dense non aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) into the adjacent groundwater at a minimum. In a historically coal tar DNAPL-impacted site, the de facto absence of a plume sparked investigations regarding the character of natural attenuation and DNAPL resolubilization processes at the site. Steep vertical gradients of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, microbial community composition, secondary water quality and redox-parameters were found to occur between the DNAPL-proximal and shallow waters. While methanogenic and mixed-electron acceptor conditions prevailed close to the DNAPL, aerobic conditions and very low dissolved contaminant concentrations were identified in three meters vertical distance from the phase. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC × GC–MS) proved to be an efficient tool to characterize the behavior of the present complex contaminant mixture. Medium to low bioavailability of ferric iron and manganese oxides of aquifer samples was detected via incubation with Shewanella alga and evidence for iron and manganese reduction was collected. In contrast, 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis revealed the absence of common iron reducing bacteria. Aerobic hydrocarbon degraders were abundant in shallow horizons, while nitrate reducers were dominating in deeper aquifer regions, in addition to a low relative abundance of methanogenic archaea. Partial Least Squares – Canonical Correspondence Analysis (PLS-CCA) suggested that nitrate and oxygen concentrations had the greatest impact on aquifer community structure in on- and offsite wells, which had a similarly high biodiversity (H’ and Chao1). Overall, slow hydrocarbon dissolution from the DNAPL appears to dominate natural attenuation processes. This site may serve as a model for developing legal and technical strategies for the treatment of DNAPL-impacted sites where contaminant plumes are

  18. Thermal modelling of a torpedo-car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdeja-Gonzalez, L. F.; Barbes-Fernandez, M. F.; Gonzalez-Ojeda, R.; Castillo, G. A.; Colas, R.


    A two-dimensional finite element model for computing the temperature distribution in a torpedo-car holding pig iron is described in this work. The model determines the temperature gradients in steady and transient conditions whiting the different parts that constitute the systems, which are considered to be the steel casing, refractory lining, liquid iron, slag and air. Heat transfer within the main fluid phases (iron and air) is computed assuming an apparent thermal conductivity term incorporating the contribution from convention and radiation, and it is affected by the dimensions of the vessel. Thermal gradients within the constituents of the torpedo-car are used to calculate heat losses during operation. It was found that the model required the incorporate of a region within the iron-refractory interface to reproduce thermographic data recorded during operation; the heat transfer coefficient of this interface was found to be equal to 30 Wm''-2K''-1. (Author) 11 refs.

  19. Analysis of thermally loaded transmissive optical elements (United States)

    Michels, Gregory J.; Genberg, Victor L.


    The performance metrics of many optical systems are affected by temperature changes in the system through different physical phenomena. Temperature changes cause materials to expand and contract causing deformations of optical components. The resulting stress states in transmissive optics can cause refractive changes that can affect optical performance. In addition, the temperature changes themselves can cause changes in the refractive properties of transmissive optics. Complex distributions of refractive indices that relate to the thermal profile, the thermo-optic refractive index profile, within the optical media can be predicted by the finite element method. One current technique for representing such refractive index profiles is through the generation of optical path difference (OPD) maps by integration along integration paths. While computationally efficient, this method has limitations in its ability to represent the effect of the index changes for rays associated with multiple field points and multiple wavelengths. A more complete representation of the thermo-optic refractive index profile may be passed to the optical analysis software through the use of a user defined gradient index material. The interface consists of a dynamic link library (DLL) which supplies indices of refraction to a user defined gradient index lens as ray tracing calculations are being performed. The DLL obtains its refractive index description from a database derived from the thermal analysis of the optics. This process allows optical analysis software to perform accurate ray tracing for an arbitrary refractive index profile induced by changes in temperature.

  20. Interaction strength between different grazers and macroalgae mediated by ocean acidification over warming gradients. (United States)

    Sampaio, E; Rodil, I F; Vaz-Pinto, F; Fernández, A; Arenas, F


    Since the past century, rising CO 2 levels have led to global changes (ocean warming and acidification) with subsequent effects on marine ecosystems and organisms. Macroalgae-herbivore interactions have a main role in the regulation of marine community structure (top-down control). Gradients of warming prompt complex non-linear effects on organism metabolism, cascading into altered trophic interactions and community dynamics. However, not much is known on how will acidification and grazer assemblage composition shape these effects. Within this context, we aimed to assess the combined effects of warming gradients and acidification on macroalgae-herbivore interactions, using three cosmopolitan species, abundant in the Iberian Peninsula and closely associated in nature: the amphipod Melita palmata, the gastropod Gibbula umbilicalis, and the green macroalga Ulva rigida. Under two CO 2 treatments (ΔCO 2 ≃ 450 μatm) across a temperature gradient (13.5, 16.6, 19.9 and 22.1 °C), two mesocosm experiments were performed to assess grazer consumption rates and macroalgae-herbivore interaction, respectively. Warming (Experiment I and II) and acidification (Experiment II) prompted negative effects in grazer's survival and species-specific differences in consumption rates. M. palmata was shown to be the stronger grazer per biomass (but not per capita), and also the most affected by climate stressors. Macroalgae-herbivore interaction strength was markedly shaped by the temperature gradient, while simultaneous acidification lowered thermal optimal threshold. In the near future, warming and acidification are likely to strengthen top-down control, but further increases in disturbances may lead to bottom-up regulated communities. Finally, our results suggest that grazer assemblage composition may modulate future macroalgae-herbivore interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Refractive index-based detection of gradient elution liquid chromatography using chip-integrated microring resonator arrays. (United States)

    Wade, James H; Bailey, Ryan C


    Refractive index-based sensors offer attractive characteristics as nondestructive and universal detectors for liquid chromatographic separations, but a small dynamic range and sensitivity to minor thermal perturbations limit the utility of commercial RI detectors for many potential applications, especially those requiring the use of gradient elutions. As such, RI detectors find use almost exclusively in sample abundant, isocratic separations when interfaced with high-performance liquid chromatography. Silicon photonic microring resonators are refractive index-sensitive optical devices that feature good sensitivity and tremendous dynamic range. The large dynamic range of microring resonators allows the sensors to function across a wide spectrum of refractive indices, such as that encountered when moving from an aqueous to organic mobile phase during a gradient elution, a key analytical advantage not supported in commercial RI detectors. Microrings are easily configured into sensor arrays, and chip-integrated control microrings enable real-time corrections of thermal drift. Thermal controls allow for analyses at any temperature and, in the absence of rigorous temperature control, obviates extended detector equilibration wait times. Herein, proof of concept isocratic and gradient elution separations were performed using well-characterized model analytes (e.g., caffeine, ibuprofen) in both neat buffer and more complex sample matrices. These experiments demonstrate the ability of microring arrays to perform isocratic and gradient elutions under ambient conditions, avoiding two major limitations of commercial RI-based detectors and maintaining comparable bulk RI sensitivity. Further benefit may be realized in the future through selective surface functionalization to impart degrees of postcolumn (bio)molecular specificity at the detection phase of a separation. The chip-based and microscale nature of microring resonators also make it an attractive potential detection

  2. Near-field coupling of gold plasmonic antennas for sub-100 nm magneto-thermal microscopy (United States)

    Karsch, Jonathan C.; Bartell, Jason M.; Fuchs, Gregory D.


    The development of spintronic technology with increasingly dense, high-speed, and complex devices will be accelerated by accessible microscopy techniques capable of probing magnetic phenomena on picosecond time scales and at deeply sub-micron length scales. A recently developed time-resolved magneto-thermal microscope provides a path towards this goal if it is augmented with a picosecond, nanoscale heat source. We theoretically study adiabatic nanofocusing and near-field heat induction using conical gold plasmonic antennas to generate sub-100 nm thermal gradients for time-resolved magneto-thermal imaging. Finite element calculations of antenna-sample interactions reveal focused electromagnetic loss profiles that are either peaked directly under the antenna or are annular, depending on the sample's conductivity, the antenna's apex radius, and the tip-sample separation. We find that the thermal gradient is confined to 40 nm to 60 nm full width at half maximum for realistic ranges of sample conductivity and apex radius. To mitigate this variation, which is undesirable for microscopy, we investigate the use of a platinum capping layer on top of the sample as a thermal transduction layer to produce heat uniformly across different sample materials. After determining the optimal capping layer thickness, we simulate the evolution of the thermal gradient in the underlying sample layer and find that the temporal width is below 10 ps. These results lay a theoretical foundation for nanoscale, time-resolved magneto-thermal imaging.

  3. Thermally driven electrokinetic energy conversion with liquid water microjets (United States)

    Lam, Royce K.; Gamlieli, Zach; Harris, Stephen J.; Saykally, Richard J.


    A goal of current energy research is to design systems and devices that can efficiently exploit waste heat and utilize solar or geothermal heat energy for electrical power generation. We demonstrate a novel technique exploiting water's large coefficient of thermal expansion, wherein modest thermal gradients produce the requisite high pressure for driving fast-flowing liquid water microjets, which can effect the direct conversion of the kinetic energy into electricity and gaseous hydrogen. Waste heat in thermoelectric generating plants and combustion engines, as well as solar and geothermal energy could be used to drive these systems.

  4. Thermal stresses in composite tubes using complementary virtual work (United States)

    Hyer, M. W.; Cooper, D. E.


    This paper addresses the computation of thermally induced stresses in layered, fiber-reinforced composite tubes subjected to a circumferential gradient. The paper focuses on using the principle of complementary virtual work, in conjunction with a Ritz approximation to the stress field, to study the influence on the predicted stresses of including temperature-dependent material properties. Results indicate that the computed values of stress are sensitive to the temperature dependence of the matrix-direction compliance and matrix-direction thermal expansion in the plane of the lamina. There is less sensitivity to the temperature dependence of the other material properties.

  5. Modeling and analysis of AGS thermal shock experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Kim, S.H.; Haines, J.R.


    An overview is provided on modeling and analysis of thermal shock experiments conducted with high-energy, short-pulse energy deposition in a mercury filled container in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The simulation framework utilized along with results of simulations for pressure and strain profiles are presented. While the magnitude of peak strain predictions versus data are in reasonable agreement, the temporal variations were found to differ significantly in selected cases, indicating lack of modeling of certain physical phenomena or due to uncertainties in the experimental data gathering techniques. Key thermal-shock related issues and uncertainties are highlighted.

  6. Numerical conversion efficiency of thermally isolated Seebeck nanoantennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Briones


    Full Text Available In this letter, we evaluate the conversion efficiency of thermally isolated Seebeck nanoantennas by numerical simulations and discuss their uses and scope for energy harvesting applications. This analysis includes the simple case of titanium-nickel dipoles suspended in air above the substrate by a 200 nm silicon dioxide membrane to isolate the heat dissipation. Results show that substantially thermal gradients are induced along the devices leading to a harvesting efficiency around 10-4 %, 400 % higher than the previously reported Seebeck nanoantennas. In the light of these results, different optimizing strategies should be considered in order to make the Seebeck nanoantennas useful for harvesting applications.

  7. The Development of Erosion and Impact Resistant Turbine Airfoil Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.


    Thermal barrier coatings are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments and extend component lifetimes. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Advanced erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the doped thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion and impact damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be discussed.

  8. Performance Evaluation and Modeling of Erosion Resistant Turbine Engine Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Miller, Robert A.; Zhu, Dongming; Kuczmarski, Maria


    The erosion resistant turbine thermal barrier coating system is critical to the rotorcraft engine performance and durability. The objective of this work was to determine erosion resistance of advanced thermal barrier coating systems under simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments, thus validating a new thermal barrier coating turbine blade technology for future rotorcraft applications. A high velocity burner rig based erosion test approach was established and a new series of rare earth oxide- and TiO2/Ta2O5- alloyed, ZrO2-based low conductivity thermal barrier coatings were designed and processed. The low conductivity thermal barrier coating systems demonstrated significant improvements in the erosion resistance. A comprehensive model based on accumulated strain damage low cycle fatigue is formulated for blade erosion life prediction. The work is currently aiming at the simulated engine erosion testing of advanced thermal barrier coated turbine blades to establish and validate the coating life prediction models.

  9. The dynamics of the thermal memory of C. elegans (United States)

    Ryu, William; Palanski, Konstantine; Bartumeus, Frederic; Nemenman, Ilya


    C. elegans has the capacity to learn associatively. For example, C. elegans associates temperature with food and performs thermotaxis towards this temperature when placed on a spatial thermal gradient. However, very little is understood how C. elegans acquires this thermal memory. We have developed a novel droplet-based microfluidic assay to measure the dynamics of the thermal memory of C. elegans. Individual animals are placed in an array of microdroplets on a slide, and a linear temperature gradient of 0.5 deg/cm is applied to the array. By measuring the swimming motions of C. elegans in the droplets, we show that they can perform thermotaxis. By calculating an index of this taxis behavior over time, we quantify the worm's thermal memory and measure its dynamics when the animals are exposed to different conditions of feeding and starvation. Over a time scale of hours, we find that the thermal preference of wild-type worms decays and will actually become inverted and that mutations in the insulin signaling pathway perturb the dynamics. This biphasic conditional association can be explained with a reinforcement learning model with independent reinforcement and avoidance pathways with distinct time scales. Human Frontier Science Program.

  10. Thermal characterization and modeling of ultra-thin silicon chips (United States)

    Alshahed, Muhammad; Yu, Zili; Rempp, Horst; Richter, Harald; Harendt, Christine; Burghartz, Joachim N.


    Manufacturing ultra-thin chip is an emerging field in semiconductor technology that is driven by 3-D integrated circuits and flexible electronics. Unlike bulk silicon (Si) chips with thickness greater than 400 μm, the thermal management of ultra-thin Si chips with thickness smaller than 20 μm is challenging due to the increased lateral thermal resistance implying stringent cooling requirements. Therefore, a reasonable prediction of temperature gradients in such chips is necessary. In this work, a thermal chip is implemented in an ultra-thin 0.5 μm CMOS technology to be employed in surface steady-state and transient temperature measurement. Test chips are either packaged in a Pin Grid Array (PGA) ceramic package or attached to a flexible polyimide substrate. The experimental results show an on-chip temperature gradient of ∼15 °C for a dissipated power of 0.4 W in the case of the PGA package and ∼30 °C for the polyimide substrate. The time constants are ∼50 s and ∼1 s for the PGA and the polyimide packages respectively. The measurements are complemented by FEM simulations using ANSYS 14.5 workbench and spice simulations using an equivalent lumped-component thermal circuit model. The lumped-element thermal circuit model is then used for the surface temperature prediction, which is compared to measurement results.

  11. Thermal Management and Thermal Protection Systems (United States)

    Hasnain, Aqib


    During my internship in the Thermal Design Branch (ES3), I contributed to two main projects: i) novel passive thermal management system for future human exploration, ii) AVCOAT undercut thermal analysis. i) As NASA prepares to further expand human and robotic presence in space, it is well known that spacecraft architectures will be challenged with unprecedented thermal environments. Future exploration activities will have the need of thermal management systems that can provide higher reliability, mass and power reduction and increased performance. In an effort to start addressing the current technical gaps the NASA Johnson Space Center Passive Thermal Discipline has engaged in technology development activities. One of these activities was done through an in-house Passive Thermal Management System (PTMS) design for a lunar lander. The proposed PTMS, functional in both microgravity and gravity environments, consists of three main components: a heat spreader, a novel hybrid wick Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP), and a radiator. The aim of this PTMS is to keep electronics on a vehicle within their temperature limits (0 and 50 C for the current design) during all mission phases including multiple lunar day/night cycles. The VCHP was tested to verify its thermal performance. I created a thermal math model using Thermal Desktop (TD) and analyzed it to predict the PTMS performance. After testing, the test data provided a means to correlate the thermal math model. This correlation took into account conduction and convection heat transfer, representing the actual benchtop test. Since this PTMS is proposed for space missions, a vacuum test will be taking place to provide confidence that the system is functional in space environments. Therefore, the model was modified to include a vacuum chamber with a liquid nitrogen shroud while taking into account conduction and radiation heat transfer. Infrared Lamps were modelled and introduced into the model to simulate the sun

  12. Quantum Thermal Transistor. (United States)

    Joulain, Karl; Drevillon, Jérémie; Ezzahri, Younès; Ordonez-Miranda, Jose


    We demonstrate that a thermal transistor can be made up with a quantum system of three interacting subsystems, coupled to a thermal reservoir each. This thermal transistor is analogous to an electronic bipolar one with the ability to control the thermal currents at the collector and at the emitter with the imposed thermal current at the base. This is achieved by determining the heat fluxes by means of the strong-coupling formalism. For the case of three interacting spins, in which one of them is coupled to the other two, that are not directly coupled, it is shown that high amplification can be obtained in a wide range of energy parameters and temperatures. The proposed quantum transistor could, in principle, be used to develop devices such as a thermal modulator and a thermal amplifier in nanosystems.

  13. Radiation emitted by transverse-gradient undulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Bernhard


    Full Text Available Conventional undulators are used in synchrotron light sources to produce radiation with a narrow relative spectral width as compared to bending magnets or wigglers. The spectral width of the radiation produced by conventional undulators is determined by the number of undulator periods and by the energy spread and emittance of the electron beam. In more compact electron sources like for instance laser plasma accelerators the energy spread becomes the dominating factor. Due to this effect these electron sources cannot in general be used for high-gain free electron lasers (FELs. In order to overcome this limitation, modified undulator schemes, so-called transverse gradient undulators (TGUs, were proposed and a first superconducting TGU was built at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany. In this paper simulations of the expected synchrotron radiation spectral distribution are presented. An experimental test with that device is under preparation at the laser wakefield accelerator at the JETI laser at the University of Jena, Germany.

  14. Evaluation of the Field Gradient Lattice Detector

    CERN Document Server


    A novel Micro Pattern Gas Detector, named the Field Gradient Lattice Detector, has been implemented using technologies available to CERN’s Printed Circuit Workshop. Numerous prototypes based on various materials were constructed in different geometries and their gain performance has been studied using 55Fe and 109Cd X-ray sources in Argon-CO2 gas mixtures. Two axis (2D) prototype structures have been shown to provide stable gains of around 1000 while a 3D design, based on the same polyimide foils used in other MPGD elements, holds a gain of 5000 for 8.9 keV X-rays even at high rates of 22 kHz/mm2. At a gain of 3100, the device has been tested up to 1 MHz/mm2 and shows no signs of degradation in performance. The energy resolution of the 3D-in-polyimide is modest, around 40% for 5.9 keV X-rays and 30% if the source is collimated indicating a variation in gain over the 3x3 cm2 active area. Having the most promise for future applications, the 3D-in-polyimide design has been selected for testing with a custom-bu...

  15. Gradient Flow Analysis on MILC HISQ Ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Bazavov, A; Brown, N; DeTar, C; Foley, J; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U M; Hetrick, J E; Komijani, J; Laiho, J; Levkova, L; Oktay, M; Sugar, R L; Toussaint, D; Van de Water, R S; Zhou, R


    We report on a preliminary scale determination with gradient-flow techniques on the $N_f = 2 + 1 + 1$ HISQ ensembles generated by the MILC collaboration. The ensembles include four lattice spacings, ranging from 0.15 to 0.06 fm, and both physical and unphysical values of the quark masses. The scales $\\sqrt{t_0}/a$ and $w_0/a$ are computed using Symanzik flow and the cloverleaf definition of $\\langle E \\rangle$ on each ensemble. Then both scales and the meson masses $aM_\\pi$ and $aM_K$ are adjusted for mistunings in the charm mass. Using a combination of continuum chiral perturbation theory and a Taylor series ansatz in the lattice spacing, the results are simultaneously extrapolated to the continuum and interpolated to physical quark masses. Our preliminary results are $\\sqrt{t_0} = 0.1422(7)$fm and $w_0 = 0.1732(10)$fm. We also find the continuum mass-dependence of $w_0$.

  16. Status of a high gradient CH - cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almomani, Ali; Ratzinger, Ulrich [IAP, Frankfurt Universitaet (Germany)


    This pulsed linac activity aims on compact designs and on a considerable increase of the voltage gain per meter. A high gradient CH-cavity operated at 325 MHz was developed at IAP-Frankfurt. The mean effective accelerating field for this cavity is expected well above 10 MV/m at β=0.164. This cavity is developed within a funded project. The results might influence the rebuilt of the UNILAC - Alvarez section, aiming to achieve the beam intensities specified for the GSI-FAIR project (15 mA U{sup 28+}). Another motivation is the development of an efficient pulsed ion accelerator for significantly higher energies like 60 AMeV. The new GSI 3 MW Thales klystron test stand will be used for the cavity RF power tests. Detailed studies on two different types of copper plating are performed with this cavity. Additionally, operating of normal conducting cavities at cryogenic temperatures are discussed for the case of very short RF pulses. The first measurement results for this cavity are presented.

  17. Gradient Flow Analysis on MILC HISQ Ensembles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nathan [Washington U., St. Louis; Bazavov, Alexei [Brookhaven; Bernard, Claude [Washington U., St. Louis; DeTar, Carleton [Utah U.; Foley, Justin [Utah U.; Gottlieb, Steven [Indiana U.; Heller, Urs M. [APS, New York; Hetrick, J. E. [U. Pacific, Stockton; Komijani, Javad [Washington U., St. Louis; Laiho, Jack [Syracuse U.; Levkova, Ludmila [Utah U.; Oktay, M. B. [Utah U.; Sugar, Robert [UC, Santa Barbara; Toussaint, Doug [Arizona U.; Van de Water, Ruth S. [Fermilab; Zhou, Ran [Fermilab


    We report on a preliminary scale determination with gradient-flow techniques on the $N_f = 2 + 1 + 1$ HISQ ensembles generated by the MILC collaboration. The ensembles include four lattice spacings, ranging from 0.15 to 0.06 fm, and both physical and unphysical values of the quark masses. The scales $\\sqrt{t_0}/a$ and $w_0/a$ are computed using Symanzik flow and the cloverleaf definition of $\\langle E \\rangle$ on each ensemble. Then both scales and the meson masses $aM_\\pi$ and $aM_K$ are adjusted for mistunings in the charm mass. Using a combination of continuum chiral perturbation theory and a Taylor series ansatz in the lattice spacing, the results are simultaneously extrapolated to the continuum and interpolated to physical quark masses. Our preliminary results are $\\sqrt{t_0} = 0.1422(7)$fm and $w_0 = 0.1732(10)$fm. We also find the continuum mass-dependence of $w_0$.

  18. Agricultural Terrace Pattern along Climatic Gradient (United States)

    Ackermann, Oren; Svoay, Tal; Zhevelev, Helena M.


    Agricultural terraces are a well-distributed agrotechnical method for planting in various places in the world, from ancient time and until today. The aim of the current poster is to demonstrate the spatial distribution of agricultural terraces along a climatic gradient of sub-humid Mediterranean, semi-arid and arid climate zones. In the Judean Mountains (central Israel), a region under sub-humid Mediterranean conditions, agricultural terraces are characterized by terrace coverage on slopes and in valleys. Annual rainfall average in this region is 800 mm, allowing for vast rain-fed agriculture based on direct rain. In the Judean Shephelah (central Israel), a region under semi-arid conditions, agriculture terraces are located in small spots on the slopes, and in terrace fields in the valleys. Annual average rainfall in this region is between 300 and 400 mm. Rain-fed agriculture was sustained by direct rain and additional runoff generated on rock outcrops. In the Negev Highlands, (southern Israel), a region under arid climate conditions with annual rainfall average of 100 mm, runoff farm terraces are located in valleys, and agriculture sustenance was based on water harvesting from the slopes. In conclusion, climate has a dominant effect on agricultural terrace distribution, and ancient farmers knew how to adapt to different climate conditions.

  19. Metallicity gradients in early-type galaxies (United States)

    Schombert, James M.; Hanlan, Patricia C.; Barsony, Mary; Rakos, Karl D.


    A study of medium-to-bright early-type galaxies in six bandpasses from 3500 A to 2.2 microns is presented in order to quantify their colors and color gradients and relate these to metallicity and properties of the underlying stellar population. The Stromgren filter system chosen makes it possible to introduce a new calibration to the Mg(2) system from the present narrow-band v - y indices. A comparison is presented of narrow-band colors centered on particular spectral features vs a color dominated by the mean temperature of the giant branch (i.e., J - K) to test the effects of light vs heavy element abundances on knowledge of the total system metallicity, Z, and the effects of reddening. A good correlation is found between v - y and Mg(2); it provides a connection between one light element metallicity indicator (v - y centers on the CN blend) and another, Mg. The color-magnitude relations for all five optical and near-IR colors are shown. The strongest correlation exists for the metallicity colors, v - y and J - K.

  20. Thermal properties of three sub-states of quasi-single helicity states on RFX-mod (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Auriemma, F.; Fassina, A.; Lorenzini, R.; Terranova, D.; Momo, B.; Martines, E.


    Quasi-single helicity (QSH) state has been widely observed in reversed field pinch devices to sustain thermal structures, enclosed by steep temperature gradients interpreted as electron internal transport barriers (eITB). Within the evolution of a QSH cycle, three sub-states can be identified in the RFX-mod experiment, named DAx, SHAx n and SHAx w , where the subscript n and w indicate narrow and wide thermal structures, respectively. Such sub-states feature different magnetic topologies as well as different width of the thermal structures. This paper presents a characterization of the three QSH sub-states mainly devoted to describe the properties of the eITB temperature gradients. The analyses show a decreasing trend of the absolute value of the thermal gradient as the dominant mode increases. Further study on the thermal diffusivity confirms that these behaviors are essentially due to the local change of the heat transport. Besides, the thermal gradient in DAx and SHAx n groups shows an increasing trend with the decrease of secondary modes. Such behavior has been studied and it can be explained by stochastic transport in agreement with what found for SHAX w (Lorenzini et al 2012 Nucl. Fusion 52 062004). As for SHAx w group, the thermal gradient suddenly decreases with respect to DAx and SHAx n values. This behavior can still be explained in the framework of stochastic transport considering the structure of magnetic perturbations at the location of thermal gradients (Lorenzini et al 2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 185002). The total energy confinement time {τ }E has also been evaluated, adopting a more appropriate method. The result shows that the energy confinement time increases up to 40% from DAx to SHAx w .

  1. Behaviour and Physiology: The Thermal Strategy of Leatherback Turtles


    Bostrom, Brian L.; Todd Jones, T.; Mervin Hastings; Jones, David R.


    BACKGROUND: Adult leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) exhibit thermal gradients between their bodies and the environment of ≥8°C in sub-polar waters and ≤4°C in the tropics. There has been no direct evidence for thermoregulation in leatherbacks although modelling and morphological studies have given an indication of how thermoregulation may be achieved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show for the first time that leatherbacks are indeed capable of thermoregulation from studies on ju...

  2. Development and propagation of a pollution gradient in the marine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Depth of the pollution gradient was found to be about 800 m. A numerical model was used to simulate the development of this gradient and its propagation over the ocean. Results show that its formation and structure are significantly influenced by the diurnal cycle of coastal sea-land breeze circulations along India's west ...

  3. Development and propagation of a pollution gradient in the marine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Depth of the pollution gradient was found to be about 800m. A numerical model was used to simulate the development of this gradient and its propagation over the ocean. Results show that its formation and structure are significantly influenced by the diurnal cycle of coastal sea-land breeze circulations along India's.

  4. Accurate Measurement of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Gradient Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu


    Full Text Available Recently, gradient performance and fidelity has become of increasing interest, as the fidelity of the magnetic resonance (MR image is somewhat dependent on the fidelity of the gradient system. In particular, for high fidelity non-Cartesian imaging, due to non-fidelity of the gradient system, it becomes necessary to know the actual k-space trajectory as opposed to the requested trajectory. In this work we show that, by considering the gradient system as a linear time-invariant system, the gradient impulse response function (GIRF can be reliably measured to a relatively high degree of accuracy with a simple setup, using a small phantom and a series of simple experiments. It is shown experimentally that the resulting GIRF is able to predict actual gradient performance with a high degree of accuracy. The method captures not only the frequency response but also gradient timing errors and artifacts due to mechanical vibrations of the gradient system. Some discussion is provided comparing the method presented here with other analogous methods, along with limitations of these methods.

  5. Generation of Surface-bound Multicomponent Protein Gradients


    Zhang, Kechun; Sugawara, Ayae; Tirrell, David A.


    Spatial control of bioactive ligands is achieved by integrating microfluidics and protein engineering. The proteins of interest are mixed in a gradient generator and immobilized on artificial polypeptide scaffolds through the strong association of heterodimeric ZE/ZR leucine zipper pairs. Protein densities and gradient shapes are easily controlled and varied in this method.

  6. Photodetachment of H− ion in crossed gradient electric and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the photodetachment of H − ion in crossed gradient electric and magnetic fields and put forward an analytical formula for calculating the photodetachment cross-section. Compared to the photodetachmentof H − ion in a gradient electric field, the Hamiltonian of the detached electron has three degrees of freedom, ...

  7. Kerosene wick lamp flame deformation in gradient magnetic fields (United States)

    Saeedi, A.; Moghiman, M.


    The behavior of a kerosene wick lamp flame in the presence of non-uniform DC magnetic fields has been investigated and the results of this experimental study are presented. It has long been recognized that magnetic fields can influence the behavior of diffusion flames as a result of the paramagnetic and diamagnetic properties of the constituent gases. Using an electromagnet consisting of two coils and cores to generate a horizontal magnetic field, a non-uniform upward increasing and decreasing magnetic field was applied to a kerosene wick lamp flame. The experimental results show that the influence of DC gradient magnetic field on diffusion flame structure deformation depends on the flame position in the increasing or decreasing magnetic field, the flame situation relative to the maximum of the absolute value of the gradient and the quantity of the gradient magnetic field. It was also observed that both flame front area and flame height decrease in the positive and negative gradient field below the maximum of the absolute value of the gradient. Also, increasing the absolute of the gradient of the square magnetic induction in the positive and negative gradient field above the maximum of the absolute value of the gradient cause to elongate the flame and increase in the flame front area and then the flame height and front area decrease.

  8. Diffusion pore imaging with generalized temporal gradient profiles. (United States)

    Laun, Frederik B; Kuder, Tristan A


    In porous material research, one main interest of nuclear magnetic resonance diffusion (NMR) experiments is the determination of the shape of pores. While it has been a longstanding question if this is in principle achievable, it has been shown recently that it is indeed possible to perform NMR-based diffusion pore imaging. In this work we present a generalization of these previous results. We show that the specific temporal gradient profiles that were used so far are not unique as more general temporal diffusion gradient profiles may be used. These temporal gradient profiles may consist of any number of "short" gradient pulses, which fulfil the short-gradient approximation. Additionally, "long" gradient pulses of small amplitude may be present, which can be used to fulfil the rephasing condition for the complete profile. Some exceptions exist. For example, classical q-space gradients consisting of two short gradient pulses of opposite sign cannot be used as the phase information is lost due to the temporal antisymmetry of this profile. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Substrate-Bound Protein Gradients to Study Haptotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien G. Ricoult


    Full Text Available Cells navigate in response to inhomogeneous distributions of extracellular guidance cues. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying migration in response to gradients of chemical cues have been investigated for over a century. Following the introduction of micropipettes and more recently microfluidics for gradient generation, much attention and effort was devoted to study cellular chemotaxis, which is defined as guidance by gradients of chemical cues in solution. Haptotaxis, directional migration in response to gradients of substrate-bound cues, has received comparatively less attention; however it is increasingly clear that in vivo many physiologically relevant guidance proteins – including many secreted cues – are bound to cellular surfaces or incorporated into extracellular matrix and likely function via a haptotactic mechanism. Here, we review the history of haptotaxis. We examine the importance of the reference surface, the surface in contact with the cell that is not covered by the cue, which forms a gradient opposing the gradient of the protein cue and must be considered in experimental designs and interpretation of results. We review and compare microfluidics, contact-printing, light patterning and 3D fabrication to pattern substrate-bound protein gradients in vitro, and focus on their application to study axon guidance. The range of methods to create substrate-bound gradients discussed herein make possible systematic analyses of haptotactic mechanisms. Furthermore, understanding the fundamental mechanisms underlying cell motility will inform bioengineering approaches to program cell navigation and recover lost function.

  10. Microstructural gradients in thin hard coatings -- tailor-made

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Oettel, Heinrich


    ) alternating sputtering with and without substrate voltage and (c) pulsed bias voltage. On the basis of X-ray diffraction measurements, it is demonstrated that residual stress gradients and texture gradients can be designed tailor-made. Furthermore, results of microhardness measurements and scratch tests...

  11. Hybridization of the probability perturbation method with gradient information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kent; Caers, J.; Suzuki, S.


    of the algorithm. It is the purpose of this paper to introduce a method that integrates qualitative gradient information into the probability perturbation method to improve convergence. The potential of the proposed method is demonstrated on a synthetic history-matching example. The results indicate that inclusion...... of qualitative gradient information improves the performance of the probability perturbation method....

  12. Generating substrate bound functional chemokine gradients in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Hansen, Morten; Larsen, Niels Bent


    Microcontact printing (mCP) is employed to generate discontinuous microscale gradients of active fractalkine, a chemokine expressed by endothelial cells near sites of inflammation where it is believed to form concentration gradients descending away from the inflamed area. In vivo, fractalkine...

  13. Variability in estuarine water temperature gradients and influence on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variability in estuarine water temperature gradients and influence on the distribution of zooplankton: a biogeographical perspective. TH Wooldridge, SHP Deyzel. Abstract. Structure and variability of water temperature gradients and potential influence on distribution of two tropical zooplankters (the mysid Mesopodopsis ...

  14. Wing coloration and pigment gradients in scales of pierid butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldo, Marco A.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    Depending on the species, the individual scales of butterfly wings have a longitudinal gradient in structure and reflectance properties, as shown by scanning electron microscopy and microspectrophotometry. White scales of the male Small White, Pieris rapae crucivora, show a strong gradient in both

  15. A degradation gradient for the assessment of rangeland condition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As computer equipment can limit the use of the degradation gradient, easier alternative methods were investigated, and the accuracy of these methods was tested against the degradation gradient. The advantage of this technique lies in its simplicity and ease of use. Another advantage is that only the most important ...

  16. Color Gradient in the King Type Globular Cluster NGC 7089

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jong Sohn


    Full Text Available We use BV CCD images to investigate the reality of the color gradient within a King type globular cluster NGC 7089. Surface photometry shows that there is a strong radial color gradient in the central region of the cluster in the sense of bluer center with the amplitude of -0.39 +/- 0.07 mag/arcsec2 in (B - V. In the outer region of the cluster, however, the radial color gradient shows a reverse case, i.e., redder toward the center. (B - V color profile which was derived from resolved stars in VGC 7089 field also shows a significant color gradient in the central region of the clusters, indicating that lights from the combination of red giant stars and blue horizontal branch stars cause the radial color gradient. Color gradient of the outer region of NGC 7089 may be due to the unresolved background of the cluster. Similar color gradients in the central area of clusters have been previously observed exserved exclusively in highly concentrated systems classified as post core collapse clusters. We caution, however, to confirm the reality of the color gradient from resolved stars, we need more accurate imaging data of the cluster with exceptional seeing condition because the effect of completeness correlates with local density of stars.

  17. Scattering-angle based filtering of the waveform inversion gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach to maneuver the complex non-linearity associated with the problem of velocity update. In anisotropic media, the non-linearity becomes far more complex with the potential trade-off between the multiparameter description of the model. A gradient filter helps us in accessing the parts of the gradient that are suitable to combat the potential non-linearity and parameter trade-off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which the low scattering angle of the gradient update is initially muted out in the FWI implementation, in what we may refer to as a scattering angle continuation process. The result is a low wavelength update dominated by the transmission part of the update gradient. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce vertically near-zero wavenumber updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Relaxing the filtering at a later stage in the FWI implementation allows for smaller scattering angles to contribute higher-resolution information to the model. The benefits of the extended domain based filtering of the gradient is not only it\\'s ability in providing low wavenumber gradients guided by the scattering angle, but also in its potential to provide gradients free of unphysical energy that may correspond to unrealistic scattering angles.

  18. Near-surface temperature gradient in a coastal upwelling regime (United States)

    Maske, H.; Ochoa, J.; Almeda-Jauregui, C. O.; Ruiz-de la Torre, M. C.; Cruz-López, R.; Villegas-Mendoza, J. R.


    In oceanography, a near homogeneous mixed layer extending from the surface to a seasonal thermocline is a common conceptual basis in physics, chemistry, and biology. In a coastal upwelling region 3 km off the coast in the Mexican Pacific, we measured vertical density gradients with a free-rising CTD and temperature gradients with thermographs at 1, 3, and 5 m depths logging every 5 min during more than a year. No significant salinity gradient was observed down to 10 m depth, and the CTD temperature and density gradients showed no pronounced discontinuity that would suggest a near-surface mixed layer. Thermographs generally logged decreasing temperature with depth with gradients higher than 0.2 K m-1 more than half of the time in the summer between 1 and 3 m, 3 and 5 m and in the winter between 1 and 3 m. Some negative temperature gradients were present and gradients were generally highly variable in time with high peaks lasting fractions of hours to hours. These temporal changes were too rapid to be explained by local heating or cooling. The pattern of positive and negative peaks might be explained by vertical stacks of water layers of different temperatures and different horizontal drift vectors. The observed near-surface gradient has implications for turbulent wind energy transfer, vertical exchange of dissolved and particulate water constituents, the interpretation of remotely sensed SST, and horizontal wind-induced transport.

  19. Effects of lithology on geothermal gradient on the southeast Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the effects of lithologic formations on geothermal gradients is carried out in the south-east Niger Delta, Nigeria, using continuous temperature and lithologic log data from closely-spaced petroleum wells. The gradient profiles obtained for the deep wells, logged to depths between 6500 ft (1981m) and 8500ft ...

  20. Advances in high-gradient magnetic fishing for bioprocessing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goncalves Gomes, Claudia Sofia


    “High-gradient magnetic fishing” (HGMF) er en metode til processering af fødestrømme med biologiske molekyler. HGMF integrerer brugen af superparamagnetiske adsorbenter med separation og processering med høj-gradient magnetisk separation (HGMS) i et magnetisk filter. Adsorbenterne er uporøse og m...

  1. Thermal conductivity anisotropy in holey silicon nanostructures and its impact on thermoelectric cooling (United States)

    Ren, Zongqing; Lee, Jaeho


    Artificial nanostructures have improved prospects of thermoelectric systems by enabling selective scattering of phonons and demonstrating significant thermal conductivity reductions. While the low thermal conductivity provides necessary temperature gradients for thermoelectric conversion, the heat generation is detrimental to electronic systems where high thermal conductivity are preferred. The contrasting needs of thermal conductivity are evident in thermoelectric cooling systems, which call for a fundamental breakthrough. Here we show a silicon nanostructure with vertically etched holes, or holey silicon, uniquely combines the low thermal conductivity in the in-plane direction and the high thermal conductivity in the cross-plane direction, and that the anisotropy is ideal for lateral thermoelectric cooling. The low in-plane thermal conductivity due to substantial phonon boundary scattering in small necks sustains large temperature gradients for lateral Peltier junctions. The high cross-plane thermal conductivity due to persistent long-wavelength phonons effectively dissipates heat from a hot spot to the on-chip cooling system. Our scaling analysis based on spectral phonon properties captures the anisotropic size effects in holey silicon and predicts the thermal conductivity anisotropy ratio up to 20. Our numerical simulations demonstrate the thermoelectric cooling effectiveness of holey silicon is at least 30% greater than that of high-thermal-conductivity bulk silicon and 400% greater than that of low-thermal-conductivity chalcogenides; these results contrast with the conventional perception preferring either high or low thermal conductivity materials. The thermal conductivity anisotropy is even more favorable in laterally confined systems and will provide effective thermal management solutions for advanced electronics.

  2. Thermal conductivity anisotropy in holey silicon nanostructures and its impact on thermoelectric cooling. (United States)

    Ren, Zongqing; Lee, Jaeho


    Artificial nanostructures have improved prospects of thermoelectric systems by enabling selective scattering of phonons and demonstrating significant thermal conductivity reductions. While the low thermal conductivity provides necessary temperature gradients for thermoelectric conversion, the heat generation is detrimental to electronic systems where high thermal conductivity are preferred. The contrasting needs of thermal conductivity are evident in thermoelectric cooling systems, which call for a fundamental breakthrough. Here we show a silicon nanostructure with vertically etched holes, or holey silicon, uniquely combines the low thermal conductivity in the in-plane direction and the high thermal conductivity in the cross-plane direction, and that the anisotropy is ideal for lateral thermoelectric cooling. The low in-plane thermal conductivity due to substantial phonon boundary scattering in small necks sustains large temperature gradients for lateral Peltier junctions. The high cross-plane thermal conductivity due to persistent long-wavelength phonons effectively dissipates heat from a hot spot to the on-chip cooling system. Our scaling analysis based on spectral phonon properties captures the anisotropic size effects in holey silicon and predicts the thermal conductivity anisotropy ratio up to 20. Our numerical simulations demonstrate the thermoelectric cooling effectiveness of holey silicon is at least 30% greater than that of high-thermal-conductivity bulk silicon and 400% greater than that of low-thermal-conductivity chalcogenides; these results contrast with the conventional perception preferring either high or low thermal conductivity materials. The thermal conductivity anisotropy is even more favorable in laterally confined systems and will provide effective thermal management solutions for advanced electronics.

  3. Role of Polarized G Protein Signaling in Tracking Pheromone Gradients. (United States)

    McClure, Allison W; Minakova, Maria; Dyer, Jayme M; Zyla, Trevin R; Elston, Timothy C; Lew, Daniel J


    Yeast cells track gradients of pheromones to locate mating partners. Intuition suggests that uniform distribution of pheromone receptors over the cell surface would yield optimal gradient sensing. However, yeast cells display polarized receptors. The benefit of such polarization was unknown. During gradient tracking, cell growth is directed by a patch of polarity regulators that wanders around the cortex. Patch movement is sensitive to pheromone dose, with wandering reduced on the up-gradient side of the cell, resulting in net growth in that direction. Mathematical modeling suggests that active receptors and associated G proteins lag behind the polarity patch and act as an effective drag on patch movement. In vivo, the polarity patch is trailed by a G protein-rich domain, and this polarized distribution of G proteins is required to constrain patch wandering. Our findings explain why G protein polarization is beneficial and illuminate a novel mechanism for gradient tracking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gradient-Based Cuckoo Search for Global Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seif-Eddeen K. Fateen


    Full Text Available One of the major advantages of stochastic global optimization methods is the lack of the need of the gradient of the objective function. However, in some cases, this gradient is readily available and can be used to improve the numerical performance of stochastic optimization methods specially the quality and precision of global optimal solution. In this study, we proposed a gradient-based modification to the cuckoo search algorithm, which is a nature-inspired swarm-based stochastic global optimization method. We introduced the gradient-based cuckoo search (GBCS and evaluated its performance vis-à-vis the original algorithm in solving twenty-four benchmark functions. The use of GBCS improved reliability and effectiveness of the algorithm in all but four of the tested benchmark problems. GBCS proved to be a strong candidate for solving difficult optimization problems, for which the gradient of the objective function is readily available.

  5. HG2006 Workshop on High-Gradient Radio Frequency

    CERN Multimedia


    Meeting to be held at CERN on 25-27 September 2006 in Room 40/S2-B01 (Building 40). The objective of the workshop is to bring the high-gradient RF community together to present and discuss recent theoretical and experimental developments. Significant progress has recently been made in understanding the basic physics of rf breakdown and developing techniques for achieving higher gradients. This workshop should contribute to maintaining these efforts and to promoting contacts and collaboration. The scientific programme will be organized in half day sessions dedicated to: High-gradient rf experimental results Theory and computation High-gradient technology, materials and processing Specialized experiments on related high-gradient or high-power phenomenon like dc discharge and pulsed surface heating Reports from collaborations and projects. Each session will consist of selected presentations followed by a dedicated discussion. Information about the meeting and participant registration is available at http...

  6. A Fully Gradient Model for Euler-Bernoulli Nanobeams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Barretta


    Full Text Available A fully gradient elasticity model for bending of nanobeams is proposed by using a nonlocal thermodynamic approach. As a basic theoretical novelty, the proposed constitutive law is assumed to depend on the axial strain gradient, while existing gradient elasticity formulations for nanobeams contemplate only the derivative of the axial strain with respect to the axis of the structure. Variational equations governing the elastic equilibrium problem of bending of a fully gradient nanobeam and the corresponding differential and boundary conditions are thus provided. Analytical solutions for a nanocantilever are given and the results are compared with those predicted by other theories. As a relevant implication of applicative interest in the research field of nanobeams used in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS, it is shown that displacements obtained by the present model are quite different from those predicted by the known gradient elasticity treatments.

  7. Discrete gradient methods for solving variational image regularisation models (United States)

    Grimm, V.; McLachlan, Robert I.; McLaren, David I.; Quispel, G. R. W.; Schönlieb, C.-B.


    Discrete gradient methods are well-known methods of geometric numerical integration, which preserve the dissipation of gradient systems. In this paper we show that this property of discrete gradient methods can be interesting in the context of variational models for image processing, that is where the processed image is computed as a minimiser of an energy functional. Numerical schemes for computing minimisers of such energies are desired to inherit the dissipative property of the gradient system associated to the energy and consequently guarantee a monotonic decrease of the energy along iterations, avoiding situations in which more computational work might lead to less optimal solutions. Under appropriate smoothness assumptions on the energy functional we prove that discrete gradient methods guarantee a monotonic decrease of the energy towards stationary states, and we promote their use in image processing by exhibiting experiments with convex and non-convex variational models for image deblurring, denoising, and inpainting.

  8. Base Layer Influence on Protonated Aminosilane Gradient Wettability. (United States)

    Ashraf, Kayesh M; Wang, Chenyu; Nair, Sithara S; Wynne, Kenneth J; Higgins, Daniel A; Collinson, Maryanne M


    Protonated amine gradients have been prepared on silicon wafers via programmed controlled rate infusion (CRI) with varying degrees of hydrophobicity and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and static and Wilhelmy plate dynamic contact angle measurements. Initially, base layers were spin coated from sols containing tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and either phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMOS), dimethyldimethoxysilane (DMDMOS), or octyltrimethoxysilane (OTMOS, C8). Amine gradients were then prepared from 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTEOS) via CRI. Gradients were exposed to concentrated HCl vapor for amine protonation. XPS showed that NH2 functional groups were distributed in a gradient fashion as a result of CRI controlling the time of exposure to APTEOS. Interestingly, the overall extent of N modification depended on the type of base layer used for gradient formation. The C8-derived base layer had about half the amount of nitrogen on the surface as compared to those prepared from TMOS, which was attributed to a reduction in the number and accessibility of surface silanol groups. The wettability and contact angle (CA) hysteresis were also dependent on the base layer and varied along the length of the gradient. The greatest CA change across the length of the gradient was observed on the gradient formed on the C8-derived base layer. Likewise, the CA hysteresis was approximately 2 times larger on the C8-modified surfaces, indicative of greater chemical inhomogeneity. In contrast to uniformly modified substrates, Wilhelmy plate CA analysis that involves the immersion of samples gave a unique S-shaped CA distance curve for the gradients. The three curve segments correspond to hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and a middle connecting region. Importantly, these curves give precise CAs along the gradient that reflect the surface chemistry and coverage defined by programmed CRI processing.

  9. Efficient and robust gradient enhanced Kriging emulators.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalbey, Keith R.


    %E2%80%9CNaive%E2%80%9D or straight-forward Kriging implementations can often perform poorly in practice. The relevant features of the robustly accurate and efficient Kriging and Gradient Enhanced Kriging (GEK) implementations in the DAKOTA software package are detailed herein. The principal contribution is a novel, effective, and efficient approach to handle ill-conditioning of GEK's %E2%80%9Ccorrelation%E2%80%9D matrix, RN%CC%83, based on a pivoted Cholesky factorization of Kriging's (not GEK's) correlation matrix, R, which is a small sub-matrix within GEK's RN%CC%83 matrix. The approach discards sample points/equations that contribute the least %E2%80%9Cnew%E2%80%9D information to RN%CC%83. Since these points contain the least new information, they are the ones which when discarded are both the easiest to predict and provide maximum improvement of RN%CC%83's conditioning. Prior to this work, handling ill-conditioned correlation matrices was a major, perhaps the principal, unsolved challenge necessary for robust and efficient GEK emulators. Numerical results demonstrate that GEK predictions can be significantly more accurate when GEK is allowed to discard points by the presented method. Numerical results also indicate that GEK can be used to break the curse of dimensionality by exploiting inexpensive derivatives (such as those provided by automatic differentiation or adjoint techniques), smoothness in the response being modeled, and adaptive sampling. Development of a suitable adaptive sampling algorithm was beyond the scope of this work; instead adaptive sampling was approximated by omitting the cost of samples discarded by the presented pivoted Cholesky approach.

  10. Cardiovascular Responses of Snakes to Gravitational Gradients (United States)

    Hsieh, Shi-Tong T.; Lillywhite, H. B.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)


    Snakes are useful vertebrates for studies of gravitational adaptation, owing to their elongate body and behavioral diversification. Scansorial species have evolved specializations for regulating hemodynamics during exposure to gravitational stress, whereas, such adaptations are less well developed in aquatic and non-climbing species. We examined responses of the amphibious snake,\\italicize (Nerodia rhombifera), to increments of Gz (head-to-tail) acceleration force on both a short- and long-arm centrifuge (1.5 vs. 3.7 m radius, from the hub to tail end of snake). We recorded heart rate, dorsal aortic pressure, and carotid arterial blood flow during stepwise 0.25 G increments of Gz force (referenced at the tail) in conscious animals. The Benz tolerance of a snake was determined as the Gz level at which carotid blood flow ceased and was found to be significantly greater at the short- than long-arm centrifuge radius (1.57 Gz vs. 2.0 Gz, respectively; P=0.016). A similar pattern of response was demonstrated in semi-arboreal rat snakes,\\italicize{Elaphe obsoleta}, which are generally more tolerant of Gz force (2.6 Gz at 1.5m radius) than are water snakes. The tolerance differences of the two species reflected cardiovascular responses, which differed quantitatively but not qualitatively: heart rates increased while arterial pressure and blood flow decreased in response to increasing levels of Gz. Thus, in both species of snakes, a reduced gradient of Gz force (associated with greater centrifuge radius) significantly decreases the Gz level that can be tolerated.

  11. Thermal carrying capacity for a thermally-sensitive species at the warmest edge of its range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ayllón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic environmental change is causing unprecedented rates of population extirpation and altering the setting of range limits for many species. Significant population declines may occur however before any reduction in range is observed. Determining and modelling the factors driving population size and trends is consequently critical to predict trajectories of change and future extinction risk. We tracked during 12 years 51 populations of a cold-water fish species (brown trout Salmo trutta living along a temperature gradient at the warmest thermal edge of its range. We developed a carrying capacity model in which maximum population size is limited by physical habitat conditions and regulated through territoriality. We first tested whether population numbers were driven by carrying capacity dynamics and then targeted on establishing (1 the temperature thresholds beyond which population numbers switch from being physical habitat- to temperature-limited; and (2 the rate at which carrying capacity declines with temperature within limiting thermal ranges. Carrying capacity along with emergent density-dependent responses explained up to 76% of spatio-temporal density variability of juveniles and adults but only 50% of young-of-the-year's. By contrast, young-of-the-year trout were highly sensitive to thermal conditions, their performance declining with temperature at a higher rate than older life stages, and disruptions being triggered at lower temperature thresholds. Results suggest that limiting temperature effects were progressively stronger with increasing anthropogenic disturbance. There was however a critical threshold, matching the incipient thermal limit for survival, beyond which realized density was always below potential numbers irrespective of disturbance intensity. We additionally found a lower threshold, matching the thermal limit for feeding, beyond which even unaltered populations declined. We predict that most of our study

  12. Transvalvular pressure gradients for different methods of mitral valve repair: only neochordoplasty achieves native valve gradients. (United States)

    Jahren, Silje Ekroll; Hurni, Samuel; Heinisch, Paul Philipp; Winkler, Bernhard; Obrist, Dominik; Carrel, Thierry; Weber, Alberto


    Many surgical and interventional methods are available to restore patency for patients with degenerative severe mitral valve regurgitation. Leaflet resection and neochordoplasty, which both include ring annuloplasty, are the most frequently performed techniques for the repair of posterior mitral leaflet flail. It is unclear which technique results in the best haemodynamics. In this study, we investigated the effect of different mitral valve reconstruction techniques on mitral valve haemodynamics and diastolic transvalvular pressure gradient in an ex vivo porcine model. Eight porcine mitral valves were tested under pulsatile flow conditions in an in vitro pulsatile flow loop for haemodynamic quantification. Severe acute posterior mitral leaflet flail was created by resecting the posterior marginal chorda. The acute mitral valve regurgitation was corrected using 4 different repair techniques, in each valve, in a strictly successive order: (i) neochordoplasty with polytetrafluoroethylene sutures alone and (ii) with ring annuloplasty, (iii) edge-to-edge repair and (iv) triangular leaflet resection, both with ring annuloplasty. Valve haemodynamics were measured and quantified for all valve configurations (native, rupture and each surgical reconstruction). The results were analysed using a validated statistical linear mixed model, and the P-values were calculated using a 2-sided Wald test. All surgical reconstruction techniques were able to sufficiently correct the acute mitral valve regurgitation. Neochordoplasty without ring annuloplasty was the only reconstruction technique that resulted in haemodynamic properties similar to the native mitral valve (P-values from 0.071 to 0.901). The diastolic transvalvular gradient remained within the physiological range for all reconstructions but was significantly higher than in the native valve for neochordoplasty with ring annuloplasty (P < 0.000), edge-to-edge repair (P < 0.000) and leaflet resection (P < 0

  13. Thermal tunability of photonic bandgaps in liquid crystal infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard


    We demonstrate the photonic bandgap effect and the thermal tunability of bandgaps in microstructured polymer optical fibers infiltrated with liquid crystal. Two liquid crystals with opposite sign of the temperature gradient of the ordinary refractive index (E7 and MDA-00- 1444) are used...... to demonstrate that both signs of the thermal tunability of the bandgaps are possible. The useful bandgaps are ultimately bounded to the visible range by the transparency window of the polymer....

  14. The thermal impact of subsurface building structures on urban groundwater resources - A paradigmatic example. (United States)

    Epting, Jannis; Scheidler, Stefan; Affolter, Annette; Borer, Paul; Mueller, Matthias H; Egli, Lukas; García-Gil, Alejandro; Huggenberger, Peter


    Shallow subsurface thermal regimes in urban areas are increasingly impacted by anthropogenic activities, which include infrastructure development like underground traffic lines as well as industrial and residential subsurface buildings. In combination with the progressive use of shallow geothermal energy systems, this results in the so-called subsurface urban heat island effect. This article emphasizes the importance of considering the thermal impact of subsurface structures, which commonly is underestimated due to missing information and of reliable subsurface temperature data. Based on synthetic heat-transport models different settings of the urban environment were investigated, including: (1) hydraulic gradients and conductivities, which result in different groundwater flow velocities; (2) aquifer properties like groundwater thickness to aquitard and depth to water table; and (3) constructional features, such as building depths and thermal properties of building structures. Our results demonstrate that with rising groundwater flow velocities, the heat-load from building structures increase, whereas down-gradient groundwater temperatures decrease. Thermal impacts on subsurface resources therefore have to be related to the permeability of aquifers and hydraulic boundary conditions. In regard to the urban settings of Basel, Switzerland, flow velocities of around 1 md-1 delineate a marker where either down-gradient temperature deviations or heat-loads into the subsurface are more relevant. Furthermore, no direct thermal influence on groundwater resources should be expected for aquifers with groundwater thicknesses larger 10m and when the distance of the building structure to the groundwater table is higher than around 10m. We demonstrate that measuring temperature changes down-gradient of subsurface structures is insufficient overall to assess thermal impacts, particularly in urban areas. Moreover, in areas which are densely urbanized, and where groundwater flow

  15. Thermal Imaging in Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Štumper


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the use of thermal imaging in aviation. In the never ending pursuit of lower costs, the Thermal Imaging offers shorter inspection times thanks to its application in aircraft inspections and can reduce the number of costly goarounds using the Enhanced Vision System, which also increases safety in one of the most dangerous parts of flight. Thermal Imaging also offers solutions for Airport Perimeter Security and it can be used for construction of ground surveillance system.

  16. Thermal waveguide OPO. (United States)

    Lin, S T; Lin, Y Y; Wang, T D; Huang, Y C


    We report a mid-infrared, CW singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with a thermally induced waveguide in its gain crystal. We measured a numerical aperture of 0.0062 for the waveguide at 80-W intracavity power at 3.2 microm. This thermal-guiding effect benefits to the stable operation of an OPO and improves the parametric conversion efficiency by more than a factor of two when compared with that without thermal guiding.

  17. Thermal Hyperbolic Metamaterials


    Guo, Yu; Jacob, Zubin


    We explore the near-field radiative thermal energy transfer properties of hyperbolic metamaterials. The presence of unique electromagnetic states in a broad bandwidth leads to super-planckian thermal energy transfer between metamaterials separated by a nano-gap. We consider practical phonon-polaritonic metamaterials for thermal engineering in the mid-infrared range and show that the effect exists in spite of the losses, absorption and finite unit cell size. For thermophotovoltaic energy conve...

  18. Ecosystem variability along the estuarine salinity gradient: Examples from long-term study of San Francisco Bay (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Jassby, Alan D.; Schraga, Tara; Kress, Erica S.; Martin, Charles A.


    The salinity gradient of estuaries plays a unique and fundamental role in structuring spatial patterns of physical properties, biota, and biogeochemical processes. We use variability along the salinity gradient of San Francisco Bay to illustrate some lessons about the diversity of spatial structures in estuaries and their variability over time. Spatial patterns of dissolved constituents (e.g., silicate) can be linear or nonlinear, depending on the relative importance of river-ocean mixing and internal sinks (diatom uptake). Particles have different spatial patterns because they accumulate in estuarine turbidity maxima formed by the combination of sinking and estuarine circulation. Some constituents have weak or no mean spatial structure along the salinity gradient, reflecting spatially distributed sources along the estuary (nitrate) or atmospheric exchanges that buffer spatial variability of ecosystem metabolism (dissolved oxygen). The density difference between freshwater and seawater establishes stratification in estuaries stronger than the thermal stratification of lakes and oceans. Stratification is strongest around the center of the salinity gradient and when river discharge is high. Spatial distributions of motile organisms are shaped by species-specific adaptations to different salinity ranges (shrimp) and by behavioral responses to environmental variability (northern anchovy). Estuarine spatial patterns change over time scales of events (intrusions of upwelled ocean water), seasons (river inflow), years (annual weather anomalies), and between eras separated by ecosystem disturbances (a species introduction). Each of these lessons is a piece in the puzzle of how estuarine ecosystems are structured and how they differ from the river and ocean ecosystems they bridge.

  19. Building Thermal Models (United States)

    Peabody, Hume L.


    This presentation is meant to be an overview of the model building process It is based on typical techniques (Monte Carlo Ray Tracing for radiation exchange, Lumped Parameter, Finite Difference for thermal solution) used by the aerospace industry This is not intended to be a "How to Use ThermalDesktop" course. It is intended to be a "How to Build Thermal Models" course and the techniques will be demonstrated using the capabilities of ThermalDesktop (TD). Other codes may or may not have similar capabilities. The General Model Building Process can be broken into four top level steps: 1. Build Model; 2. Check Model; 3. Execute Model; 4. Verify Results.

  20. Thermal microactuator dimension analysis (United States)

    Azman, N. D.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.


    The focus of this study was to analyse the stress and thermal flow of thermal microactuator with different type of materials and parameter using COMSOL Multiphysics software. Simulations were conducted on the existing thermal actuator and integrated it to be more efficient, low cost and low power consumption. In this simulation, the U-shaped actuator was designed and five different materials of the microactuator were studied. The result showed that Si Polycrystalline was the most suitable material used to produce thermal actuator for commercialization.